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Sample records for stenocereus queretaroensis cactaceae

  1. Fenología reproductiva y tolerancia a temperaturas altas en Stenocereus queretaroensis

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    Whaleeha Gudiño

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerosas especies de cactáceas presentan frutos comestibles, por lo que han adquirido un papel importante dentro de la agricultura de zonas áridas y semiáridas, tanto para el comercio regional como para el internacional. Las pitayas son el tercer cultivo más importante dentro de las cactáceas después del nopal y la pitahaya. La fenología reproductiva deStenocereus queretaroensisrequiere condiciones específcas de temperatura y precipitación, así como también de la existencia de los polinizadores para asegurar la producción de frutos. Se cuantificó la producción de botones, flores abiertas y frutos de 2010 a 2012. Y se evaluó el efecto de temperaturas altas en la integridad celular de tejidos florales. Se midió la producción de néctar y la concentración de solutos a través del tiempo durante la antesis. La temperatura letal (LT50 para el ovario en promedio fue de 34.5 ± 0.4°C no varió para los botones y las flores. Por su parte los pétalos de los botones presentan una LT50 21.5 ± 1.6°C y que para el caso de las flores en antesis fue 33% mayor. El desarrollo reproductivo frecuentemente requiere de la acumulación de cierta cantidad de estas unidades de frío. El tejido de estructuras jóvenes tolera más el aumento de la temperatura, que sus contrapartes maduras.

  2. Seed germination of Stenocereus thurberi (Cactaceae) under different solar irradiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolasco, H.; Vega-Villasante, F.; Diaz-Rondero, A.

    1997-01-01

    Germination of Stenocereus thurberi seeds was evaluated under different conditions of solar irradiation and humidity. Seed germination increased under higher humidity and low solar irradiation which provided cooler temperatures and higher water availability. Seedlings were also greener and more turgid under these conditions. Increased solar irradiation reduced seed germination and decreased seedling size and water content. The results of this study support the importance of natural shelter systems in the arid zones in providing better conditions for S. thurberi seeds germination and seedling establishment, particularly in the desert of Baja California. (author)

  3. Species delimitation in the Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae) species complex reveals a new species, S. huastecorum.

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    Alvarado-Sizzo, Hernán; Casas, Alejandro; Parra, Fabiola; Arreola-Nava, Hilda Julieta; Terrazas, Teresa; Sánchez, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC) has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S. pruinosus from central Mexico, S. laevigatus from southern Mexico, and S. griseus from northern South America. A fourth species, previously considered to be S. griseus and commonly misidentified as S. pruinosus in northern Mexico showed significant genetic, ecological, and morphological differentiation suggesting that it should be considered a new species, S. huastecorum, which we describe here. We show that population genetic analyses, ecological niche modeling, and morphological studies are complementary approaches for delimiting species in taxonomically challenging plant groups such as the SGSC.

  4. Species delimitation in the Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae species complex reveals a new species, S. huastecorum.

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    Hernán Alvarado-Sizzo

    Full Text Available The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S. pruinosus from central Mexico, S. laevigatus from southern Mexico, and S. griseus from northern South America. A fourth species, previously considered to be S. griseus and commonly misidentified as S. pruinosus in northern Mexico showed significant genetic, ecological, and morphological differentiation suggesting that it should be considered a new species, S. huastecorum, which we describe here. We show that population genetic analyses, ecological niche modeling, and morphological studies are complementary approaches for delimiting species in taxonomically challenging plant groups such as the SGSC.

  5. Evolution under domestication: ongoing artificial selection and divergence of wild and managed Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) populations in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico

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    Parra, Fabiola; Casas, Alejandro; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Cortés-Palomec, Aurea C.; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor; González-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The Tehuacán Valley in Mexico is a principal area of plant domestication in Mesoamerica. There, artificial selection is currently practised on nearly 120 native plant species with coexisting wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations, providing an excellent setting for studying ongoing mechanisms of evolution under domestication. One of these species is the columnar cactus Stenocereus pruinosus, in which we studied how artificial selection is operating through traditional management and whether it has determined morphological and genetic divergence between wild and managed populations. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 83 households of three villages to investigate motives and mechanisms of artificial selection. Management effects were studied by comparing variation patterns of 14 morphological characters and population genetics (four microsatellite loci) of 264 plants from nine wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations. Key Results Variation in fruit characters was recognized by most people, and was the principal target of artificial selection directed to favour larger and sweeter fruits with thinner or thicker peel, fewer spines and pulp colours others than red. Artificial selection operates in agroforestry systems favouring abundance (through not felling plants and planting branches) of the preferred phenotypes, and acts more intensely in household gardens. Significant morphological divergence between wild and managed populations was observed in fruit characters and plant vigour. On average, genetic diversity in silvicultural populations (HE = 0·743) was higher than in wild (HE = 0·726) and cultivated (HE = 0·700) populations. Most of the genetic variation (90·58 %) occurred within populations. High gene flow (NmFST > 2) was identified among almost all populations studied, but was slightly limited by mountains among wild populations, and by artificial selection among wild and managed populations. Conclusions

  6. Evolution under domestication: ongoing artificial selection and divergence of wild and managed Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) populations in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico.

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    Parra, Fabiola; Casas, Alejandro; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Cortés-Palomec, Aurea C; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor; González-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    The Tehuacán Valley in Mexico is a principal area of plant domestication in Mesoamerica. There, artificial selection is currently practised on nearly 120 native plant species with coexisting wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations, providing an excellent setting for studying ongoing mechanisms of evolution under domestication. One of these species is the columnar cactus Stenocereus pruinosus, in which we studied how artificial selection is operating through traditional management and whether it has determined morphological and genetic divergence between wild and managed populations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 83 households of three villages to investigate motives and mechanisms of artificial selection. Management effects were studied by comparing variation patterns of 14 morphological characters and population genetics (four microsatellite loci) of 264 plants from nine wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations. Variation in fruit characters was recognized by most people, and was the principal target of artificial selection directed to favour larger and sweeter fruits with thinner or thicker peel, fewer spines and pulp colours other than red. Artificial selection operates in agroforestry systems favouring abundance (through not felling plants and planting branches) of the preferred phenotypes, and acts more intensely in household gardens. Significant morphological divergence between wild and managed populations was observed in fruit characters and plant vigour. On average, genetic diversity in silvicultural populations (H(E) = 0.743) was higher than in wild (H(E) = 0.726) and cultivated (H(E) = 0.700) populations. Most of the genetic variation (90.58 %) occurred within populations. High gene flow (Nm(FST) > 2) was identified among almost all populations studied, but was slightly limited by mountains among wild populations, and by artificial selection among wild and managed populations. Traditional management of S. pruinosus involves

  7. Landscape management and domestication of Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) in the Tehuacán Valley: human guided selection and gene flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of plant resources and ecosystems practiced by indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica commonly involves domestication of plant populations and landscapes. Our study analyzed interactions of coexisting wild and managed populations of the pitaya Stenocereus pruinosus, a columnar cactus used for its edible fruit occurring in natural forests, silviculturally managed in milpa agroforestry systems, and agriculturally managed in homegardens of the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico. We aimed at analyzing criteria of artificial selection and their consequences on phenotypic diversity and differentiation, as well as documenting management of propagules at landscape level and their possible contribution to gene flow among populations. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted to 83 households of the region to document perception of variation, criteria of artificial selection, and patterns of moving propagules among wild and managed populations. Morphological variation of trees from nine wild, silviculturally and agriculturally managed populations was analyzed for 37 characters through univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In addition, indexes of morphological diversity (MD) per population and phenotypic differentiation (PD) among populations were calculated using character states and frequencies. Results People recognized 15 pitaya varieties based on their pulp color, fruit size, form, flavor, and thorniness. On average, in wild populations we recorded one variety per population, in silviculturally managed populations 1.58 ± 0.77 varieties per parcel, and in agriculturally managed populations 2.19 ± 1.12 varieties per homegarden. Farmers select in favor of sweet flavor (71% of households interviewed) and pulp color (46%) mainly red, orange and yellow. Artificial selection is practiced in homegardens and 65% of people interviewed also do it in agroforestry systems. People obtain fruit and branches from different population types and move

  8. Landscape management and domestication of Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) in the Tehuacán Valley: human guided selection and gene flow.

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    Parra, Fabiola; Blancas, José Juan; Casas, Alejandro

    2012-08-14

    Use of plant resources and ecosystems practiced by indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica commonly involves domestication of plant populations and landscapes. Our study analyzed interactions of coexisting wild and managed populations of the pitaya Stenocereus pruinosus, a columnar cactus used for its edible fruit occurring in natural forests, silviculturally managed in milpa agroforestry systems, and agriculturally managed in homegardens of the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico. We aimed at analyzing criteria of artificial selection and their consequences on phenotypic diversity and differentiation, as well as documenting management of propagules at landscape level and their possible contribution to gene flow among populations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to 83 households of the region to document perception of variation, criteria of artificial selection, and patterns of moving propagules among wild and managed populations. Morphological variation of trees from nine wild, silviculturally and agriculturally managed populations was analyzed for 37 characters through univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In addition, indexes of morphological diversity (MD) per population and phenotypic differentiation (PD) among populations were calculated using character states and frequencies. People recognized 15 pitaya varieties based on their pulp color, fruit size, form, flavor, and thorniness. On average, in wild populations we recorded one variety per population, in silviculturally managed populations 1.58 ± 0.77 varieties per parcel, and in agriculturally managed populations 2.19 ± 1.12 varieties per homegarden. Farmers select in favor of sweet flavor (71% of households interviewed) and pulp color (46%) mainly red, orange and yellow. Artificial selection is practiced in homegardens and 65% of people interviewed also do it in agroforestry systems. People obtain fruit and branches from different population types and move propagules from one another. Multivariate

  9. CULTIVO in vitro DE PITAYO (Stenocereus stellatus [Pfeiffer] Riccobono

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    Ylvi María Martínez Villegas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El pitayo (Stenocereus stellatus es una cactacea nativa de Mexico, apreciada por sus frutos, los cuales tienen caracteristicas organolepticas unicas. Su propagacion es por esquejes tomados de plantas adultas, generalmente silvestres, causando deforestacion de zonas naturales. El objetivo fue definir el tipo y la dosis de citocininas asi como la concentracion de sacarosa que permita obtener mayor numero de plantas de pitayo in vitro. Se usaron semillas de frutos maduros de las cuales se obtuvieron plantulas para iniciar el incremento de plantas. Para la multiplicacion de brotes se utilizaron plantulas de 2 a 3 cm de altura divididas en secciones de 1 cm, el medio fue MS con 3 % de sacarosa; se evaluaron tres citocininas (kinetina, 6-benciladenina, y 2-isopentiladenina en cinco concentraciones (2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 17.6 y 35.2 ¿ÊM. Para el crecimiento de brotes se uso medio MS con sacarosa (1, 2, 3, 4 y 5 %. En la aclimatacion se evaluo el efecto de la concentracion de sacarosa usada para el crecimiento de los brotes in vitro. Se observo que la concentracion de 17.6 ¿ÊM de 6-benciladenina ocasiono formacion de brotes en todos los explantes, los cuales tuvieron ocho brotes por explante. Los brotes desarrollaron la mayor altura cuando fueron cultivados en 3 y 4 % de sacarosa. En aclimatacion sobrevivieron mas del 92 % de las plantas trasplantadas a sustrato.

  10. A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera:Reduviidaefrom Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceaein the semiarid region of Guatemala

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    Ricardo Marroquín M

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,Subfamily Cereoideae was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas diseasein a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T.ryckmani .In comparison with other areas of Guatemala,T.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3.The insects were mainly found (52.4%in the dead portions of S.eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (X² =26.0,PEn Guatemala,en una hectárea de la región semiárida,se encontraron 216 cactus de Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,44 de ellos tenían alguna parte del tallo en condiciones secas.103 Triatoma ryckmani fueron halladas en 24 de esos 44 S.eichlamii .Una comparación de los índices entomológicos con otros vectores domiciliares de la enfermedad de Chagas en Guatemala,da la idea que T. ryckmani está bien establecida en el ecosistema semiárido (índice de infestación de 54.5,índice de densidad de 2.3 e índice de hacinamiento de 4.3.Los triatominos fueron hallados preferentemente en las partes muertas de S.eichlamii entre 2.0 a 3.2 m sobre el nivel del suelo (52.4%de triatominos colectados,X ²=26.0,p<0.00001,el siguiente entre 3.2 a 5.0 m (35.9%y finalmente 0.2 a 2.0 m (11.6%. El 75.7 %estaba en condiciones de ayuno y 24.3 %estaban llenas de sangre.Para determinar la presencia de flagelados,43 T.ryckmani fueron disectadas, (primera evaluación de parasitemia en esta especie.Ningún flagelado fue hallado en estos triatominos.Este es el primer reporte de la dinámica poblacional de T.ryckmani en su hábitat silvestre.

  11. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

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    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  12. Determinate primary root growth as an adaptation to aridity in Cactaceae: towards an understanding of the evolution and genetic control of the trait.

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    Shishkova, Svetlana; Las Peñas, María Laura; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Matvienko, Marta; Kozik, Alex; Montiel, Jesús; Patiño, Anallely; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2013-07-01

    Species of Cactaceae are well adapted to arid habitats. Determinate growth of the primary root, which involves early and complete root apical meristem (RAM) exhaustion and differentiation of cells at the root tip, has been reported for some Cactoideae species as a root adaptation to aridity. In this study, the primary root growth patterns of Cactaceae taxa from diverse habitats are classified as being determinate or indeterminate, and the molecular mechanisms underlying RAM maintenance in Cactaceae are explored. Genes that were induced in the primary root of Stenocereus gummosus before RAM exhaustion are identified. Primary root growth was analysed in Cactaceae seedlings cultivated in vertically oriented Petri dishes. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified after reverse northern blots of clones from a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library. All species analysed from six tribes of the Cactoideae subfamily that inhabit arid and semi-arid regions exhibited determinate primary root growth. However, species from the Hylocereeae tribe, which inhabit mesic regions, exhibited mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Preliminary results suggest that seedlings of members of the Opuntioideae subfamily have mostly determinate primary root growth, whereas those of the Maihuenioideae and Pereskioideae subfamilies have mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Seven selected transcripts encoding homologues of heat stress transcription factor B4, histone deacetylase, fibrillarin, phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase, cytochrome P450 and gibberellin-regulated protein were upregulated in S. gummosus root tips during the initial growth phase. Primary root growth in Cactoideae species matches their environment. The data imply that determinate growth of the primary root became fixed after separation of the Cactiodeae/Opuntioideae and Maihuenioideae/Pereskioideae lineages, and that the genetic regulation of RAM maintenance and its loss in Cactaceae is

  13. Cactaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Stemsucculents, branched or unbranched, columnar, globose or with thick flattened stems or internodes, usually with very small scale-like and awl-shaped, rarely foliaceous leaves; stems and internodes often with warts or ribs, bearing areoles in the axils of the often absent leaves. Areoles mostly

  14. Cactaceae do Vale do Rio Jequitinhonha (Minas Gerais Cactaceae of Jequitinhonha river valley (Minas Gerais

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    Nigel P Taylor

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante as primeiras coletas relacionadas ao Projeto "Cactaceae no Brasil Oriental", ficou provada a grande diversidade de espércies dessa família na região do vale médio do Rio Jequitinhonha, tendo sido visitadas as localidades de Itinga, Itaobim e Pedra Azul. Foram coletadas 21 espécies distribuídas entre os gêneros Pereskia, Opuntia, Tacinga, Pseudoacanthocereus, Arrojadoa, Brasilicereus, Cereus, Coleocephalocereus, Melocactus, Pilosocereus e Selenicereus, representando as três subfamílias de Cactaceae, cujas afinidades taxonômicas e padrões de distribuição geográfica são discutidos a seguir.During an initial visit to collect material for the projected "Cacti of Eastern Brazil", a remarkable great diversity of species of Cactaceae in the region of middle drainage of the Rio Jequitinhonha (mainly in the localities of Itinga, Itaobim and Pedra Azul was noted. Twenty one species in the genera Pereskia, Opuntia, Tacinga, Pseudocanthocereus, Arrojadoa, Brasilicereus, Cereus, Coloecephalocereus, Melocactus, Pilosocereus e Selenicereus representing all three subfamilies of Cactaceae were recorted. The phytogeographic affinities of the Cactaceae from this region are discussed.

  15. Further naturalised Cactaceae in northeastern Iberian Peninsula

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    Dana Sánchez, Elías D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available During the floristic work carried out in 2004 in the Baix Camp region of Tarragona (NE Spain we found four new species of alien naturalised Cactaceae. Of these, three are reported for the second time from Europe and the other is new to Catalonia region. Southern Catalonia, with eleven species of Cactaceae, harbours the highest diversity of the family in Europe. Our results demonstrate that this diversity is even higher than previously believed. The introduction of these exotic taxa is, once again, due to the development of gardening based exclusively on foreign elements, to the unscrupulous and uncontrolled dumping of their remains in the natural environment, and to the existence of a favourable climate.Durante la campaña de prospección florística llevada a cabo en 2004 por la comarca del Baix Camp (Tarragona, NE de España hemos encontrado cuatro especies de cactáceas alóctonas naturalizadas. De ellas, tres se citan por segunda vez de Europa y la otra es nueva para Cataluña. Nuestros resultados aumentan aún más la diversidad de cactáceas del sur de Cataluña que, con once especies, es la mayor de toda Europa. La introducción de estos táxones exóticos que ahora damos a conocer se debe, una vez más, al desarrollo de una jardinería basada casi exclusivamente en elementos foráneos, en el vertido desaprensivo e incontrolado de sus restos en el medio natural y en la existencia de una climatología muy favorable.

  16. Seed morphology and variation in the genus Pachycereus (Cactaceae).

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    Arias, Salvador; Terrazas, Teresa

    2004-08-01

    Seeds of 13 Pachycereus species and two Stenocereus species that have been suggested as closely related were examined with the scanning electron microscope. Quantitative features were evaluated using multivariate analysis in order to identify characters that distinguish them. Several species groups were recognized on the basis of 16 qualitative characters. All species studied are keeled. Stenocereus aragonii and S. eichlamii share with most Pachycereus species large size, glossy appearance, and a flat relief on periclinal cells in the lateral region. Pachycereus gatesii and P. schottii are unique in having the smallest seeds and a deeply impressed hilum-micropylar region. P. hollianus does not exhibit micro-relief on periclinal walls in the lateral region, and P. fulviceps has no expanded testa border. Multivariate analysis showed that four characters, length, breadth, hilum-micropylar region length, and angle, made the greatest contribution to distinguishing among species groups. More than 80% of P. fulviceps, P. hollianus, P. tepamo, P. weberi, and S. eichlamii seeds could be classified correctly using four seed features and the percentage was even higher using just two or three features for P. gatesii, P. grandis, P. militaris, P. pringlei, and P. schottii. Testa appearance, testa cell-pattern, and position relative to the rim of the hilum-micropylar region were found to be potentially informative and should be combined with other sources of data in future phylogenetic analyses.

  17. Use and knowledge of Cactaceae in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Lucena, Camilla Marques de; Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva de; Costa, Gabriela Maciel; Carvalho, Thamires Kelly Nunes; Costa, Gyslaynne Gomes da Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Pereira, Daniel Duarte; Ribeiro, João Everthon da Silva; Alves, Carlos Antônio Belarmino; Quirino, Zelma Glebya Maciel; Nunes, Ernane Nogueira

    2013-08-28

    This study aimed to record the use, and knowledge that residents from São Francisco community (Paraiba, Brazil) have regarding the Cactaceae. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 118 informants; 50 men and 68 women. The cacti cited in this study were organised into use categories and use values were calculated. Differences in the values applied to species and use categories by men and women were compared via a G test (Williams). The nine species identified were: Cereus jamacaru DC., Melocactus bahiensis (Brtitton & Rose) Luetzelb., Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck., Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill, Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Pilosocereus gounellei (F.A.C. Weber) Byles & Rowley, Pilosocereus pachycladus F. Ritter, Tacinga inamoena (K. Schum) N.P. Taylor & Stuppy, Tacinga palmadora (Britton & Rose) N.P. Taylor & Stuppy. In total, 1,129 use citations were recorded, divided into 11 categories. The use value categories with the highest scores were forage (0.42), food (0.30) and construction (building) (0.25). P. pachycladus showed the greatest use value, versatility and number of plant parts used. The survey showed that the Cactaceae is extremely important for several uses and categories attributed to different species. Apart from contributing to the ethnobotanical knowledge of the Cactaceae, another important focus of this study was to reinforce the necessity for further studies that record the traditional knowledge about this plant family, which has been lost in younger generations.

  18. Uso, manejo y conservación de Stenocereus griseus (Haworth Buxb. en la Alta Guajira colombiana

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    Soraya Villalobos Hernández

    2006-07-01

    categorías de daño, de las cuales las más importantes son las ocasionadas por corte con machete (tipo I, insectos (Tipo II y cabras (Tipo III. El uso actual de Stenocereus griseus se restringe a la colecta de la madera seca (“yotojoro” para construcción de viviendas tradicionales en la cultura Wayuu; la colecta de frutos en temporada de cosecha y la cosecha de tallos jóvenes para alimento de cabras y cercas vivas. La demanda anual de “yotojoro” está sujeta a la necesidad de construcción de los habitantes del área, que es definida como ocasional. El método actual de cosecha y extracción del mismo no está generando desequilibrio local en el mantenimiento de la especie. La demanda de cardones para cercas vivas y pastoreo es constante durante todo el año y generan el mayor impacto de daño. Finalmente, se discuten los principales problemas de conservación de la especie, y se recomienda establecer alternativas de manejo para las actividades de pastoreo, dado que con el ritmo actual de extracción, la población de cactus está expuesta a una inminente disminución local.

  19. Effect of habitat disturbance on pollination biology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus quevedonis at landscape-level in central Mexico.

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    Rodríguez-Oseguera, A G; Casas, A; Herrerías-Diego, Y; Pérez-Negrón, E

    2013-05-01

    Stenocereus quevedonis ('pitire') is a columnar cactus endemic to central Mexico, grown for its edible fruit. Phenology, pollination biology and behaviour of flower visitors of this species were compared in six conserved and disturbed sites, hypothesising that: (i) pitire pollination is self-incompatible, requiring animal vectors; (ii) higher incidence of radiation on plants in cleared forest may lead to a higher number of flowers per pitire plant and longer blooming season, and disturbing and differential spatial availability of flower resources may determine differential attraction of pollinators to conserved and disturbed areas; (iii) if pitire pollination system is specialised, reproductive success would decrease with pollinator scarcity, or other species may substitute for main pollinators. In all sites, pitire reproduction started in January, flowering peak occurring in April, anthesis duration was 15 h and predominantly nocturnal (9 h), pollen was released at 23:00 h, nectar was produced throughout anthesis, and breeding system was self-incompatible. Flower production per plant was similar in disturbed and conserved sites, but flower availability was higher (because of higher tree density) and longer in disturbed sites. Pollination is nocturnal, the most frequent legitimate pollinator being the bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae; diurnal pollination is rare but possible, carried out by bee species. Fruit and seed set in control and nocturnal pollination treatments at disturbed sites were higher than in conserved sites. Frequency of L. yerbabuenae visits was similar among site types, but more visits of complementary nocturnal and diurnal pollinators were recorded in disturbed sites, which could explain differences in reproductive success. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in Pereskia species (Cactaceae).

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    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2009-01-01

    Calcium oxalate druses were isolated from the stems and leaves of six Pereskioideae family members and investigated by infrared spectroscopy, showing that in all samples the biomineral was present in the form of whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O. As Pereskia is thought to represent the "ancestral" condition of the leafless stem-succulent cacti, these results suggest that the biomineralization of calcium oxalate in Cactaceae represents a primitive characteristic of the group and also support a close genetic relationship between Pereskia and Opuntia.

  1. Cytotoxic components of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Sri Nurestri Abdul; Shin, Sim Kae; Wahab, Norhanom Abdul; Yaacob, Hashim

    2009-05-06

    Dihydroactinidiolide (1) and a mixture of sterols [campesterol (2), stigmasterol (3) and beta-sitosterol (4)], together with the previously isolated individual compounds beta-sitosterol (4), 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (5), alpha-tocopherol (6), phytol (7) were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) leaves. Cytotoxic activities of the above mentioned compounds against five human carcinoma cell lines, namely the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell line (KB), human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi), human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT 116), human hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF7) and human lung carcinoma cell line (A549); and non-cancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) were investigated. Compound 5 possessed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC(50 )value of 0.81microg/mL. This is the first report on the cytotoxic activities of the compounds isolated from Pereskia bleo.

  2. A novel method of genomic DNA extraction for Cactaceae1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlberg, Shannon D.; Allen, Jessica M.; Church, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Genetic studies of Cactaceae can at times be impeded by difficult sampling logistics and/or high mucilage content in tissues. Simplifying sampling and DNA isolation through the use of cactus spines has not previously been investigated. • Methods and Results: Several protocols for extracting DNA from spines were tested and modified to maximize yield, amplification, and sequencing. Sampling of and extraction from spines resulted in a simplified protocol overall and complete avoidance of mucilage as compared to typical tissue extractions. Sequences from one nuclear and three plastid regions were obtained across eight genera and 20 species of cacti using DNA extracted from spines. • Conclusions: Genomic DNA useful for amplification and sequencing can be obtained from cactus spines. The protocols described here are valuable for any cactus species, but are particularly useful for investigators interested in sampling living collections, extensive field sampling, and/or conservation genetic studies. PMID:25202521

  3. Level of environmental threat posed by horticultural trade in Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U

    2017-10-01

    Ornamental horticulture has been identified as an important threat to plant biodiversity and is a major pathway for plant invasions worldwide. In this context, the family Cactaceae is particularly challenging because it is considered the fifth most threatened large taxonomic group in the world; several species are among the most widespread and damaging invasive species; and Cactaceae is one of the most popular horticultural plant groups. Based on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna and the 11 largest online auction sites selling cacti, we documented the international cactus trade. To provide an in-depth look at the dynamics of the industry, we surveyed the businesses involved in the cactus trade in South Africa (a hotspot of cactus trade and invasions). We purchased seeds of every available species and used DNA barcoding to identify species to the genus level. Although <20% of this trade involved threatened species and <3% involved known invasive species, many species were identified by a common name. However, only 0.02% of the globally traded cacti were collected from wild populations. Despite a large commercial network, all South African imports (of which 15% and 1.5% were of species listed as threatened and invasive, respectively) came from the same source. With DNA barcoding, we identified 24% of the species to genus level. Based on our results, we believe that if trade restrictions are placed on the small proportion of cacti that are invasive and there is no major increase in harvesting of native populations, then the commercial trade in cactus poses a negligible environmental threat. However, there are currently no effective methods for easily identifying which cacti are traded, and both the illicit harvesting of cacti from the wild and the informal trade in invasive taxa pose on-going conservation challenges. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. The polymorphic weddellite crystals in three species of Cephalocereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcenas-Argüello, María-Luisa; Gutiérrez-Castorena, Ma C-del-Carmen; Terrazas, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Mineral inclusions in plant cells are genetically regulated, have an ecological function and are used as taxonomic characters. In Cactaceae, crystals in epidermal and cortical tissues have been reported; however, few studies have conducted chemical and morphological analyses on these crystals, and even fewer have reported non-mineral calcium to determine its systematic value. Cephalocereus apicicephalium, C. totolapensis and C. nizandensis are Cactaceae species endemic to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico with abundant epidermal prismatic crystals. In the present study, we characterize the mineral cell inclusions, including their chemical composition and their morphology, for three species of Cephalocereus. Crystals of healthy branches of the three species were isolated and studied. The crystals were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), their morphology was described using a petrographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and their elemental composition was measured with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDXAR). The three species synthesized weddellite with different degrees of hydration depending on the species. The optical properties of calcium oxalate crystals were different from the core, which was calcium carbonate. We observed a large diversity of predominantly spherical forms with SEM. EDXAR analysis detected different concentrations of Ca and significant amounts of elements, such as Si, Mg, Na, K, Cl, and Fe, which may be related to the edaphic environment of these cacti. The occurrence of weddellite is novel for the genus according to previous reports. The morphological diversity of the crystals may be related to their elemental composition and may be a source of phylogenetic characters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-copy nuclear primers and ycf1 primers in Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Alan R; Cochrane, Bruce J; Garey, James R

    2012-10-01

    To increase the number of variable regions available for phylogenetic study in the Cactaceae, primers were developed for a portion of the plastid ycf1 gene and intron-spanning regions of two low-copy nuclear genes (isi1, nhx1). • Primers were tested on several families within Caryophyllales, focusing on the Cactaceae. Gel electrophoresis indicated positive amplification in most samples. Sequences of these three regions (isi1, nhx1, ycf1) from Harrisia exhibited variation similar to or greater than two plastid regions (atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer and rpl16 intron). • The isi, nhx, and ycf1 primers amplify phylogenetically useful information applicable to the Cactaceae and other families in the Caryophyllales.

  6. Gynogenesis in the vine cacti Hylocereus and Selenicereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Reinerio Benega; Cisneros, Aroldo; Schneider, Bert; Tel-Zur, Noemi

    2009-05-01

    Gynogenesis was investigated on the allotetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus and the diploid Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus vine cactus species. Unpollinated ovules from developing flower buds containing microspores at middle uninucleate developmental stage were cultured on MS basal medium containing 2,4-D/TDZ with different sucrose concentrations. Ovule size increased under dark culture conditions in all the three species and the level of response was species and sucrose concentration dependent. The best responses were achieved in the two S. megalanthus accessions, E-123 and J-80, at 0.18 and 0.26 M sucrose. Only ovule enlargement was obtained in H. undatus and both ovule enlargement and callus were obtained in H. polyrhizus. Development in both species ceased and embryoids were not formed. Plant regeneration was directly and indirectly obtained in both S. megalanthus accessions. Ploidy level was determined for a total of 29 S. megalanthus gynogenic plants using flow cytometry: 15 were found to be dihaploid (plants with the gametophytic chromosome number) and the other 14 were found to have higher ploidy levels. This is the first report of successful gynogenesis in Cactaceae. The dihaploids of S. megalanthus successfully produced by ovule culture techniques opens new perspectives in vine cacti breeding.

  7. Non-concerted ITS evolution in Mammillaria (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpke, Doerte; Peterson, Angela

    2006-12-01

    Molecular studies of 21 species of the large Cactaceae genus Mammillaria representing a variety of intrageneric taxonomic levels revealed a high degree of intra-individual polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2). Only a few of these ITS copies belong to apparently functional genes, whereas most are probably non-functional (pseudogenes). As a multiple gene family, the ITS region is subjected to concerted evolution. However, the high degree of intra-individual polymorphism of up to 36% in ITS1 and up to 35% in ITS2 suggests a non-concerted evolution of these loci in Mammillaria. Conserved angiosperm motifs of ITS1 and ITS2 were compared between genomic and cDNA ITS clones of Mammillaria. Some of these motifs (e.g., ITS1 motif 1, 'TGGT' within ITS2) in combination with the determination of GC-content, length comparisons of the spacers and ITS2 secondary structure (helices II and III) are helpful in the identification of pseudogene rDNA regions.

  8. Cytotoxic Components of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae Leaves

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    Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dihydroactinidiolide (1 and a mixture of sterols [campesterol (2, stigmasterol (3 and β-sitosterol (4], together with the previously isolated individual compounds β-sitosterol (4, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (5, α-tocopherol (6, phytol (7 were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae leaves. Cytotoxic activities of the above mentioned compounds against five human carcinoma cell lines, namely the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell line (KB, human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi, human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT 116, human hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF7 and human lung carcinoma cell line (A549; and non-cancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5 were investigated. Compound 5 possessed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC50 value of 0.81µg/mL. This is the first report on the cytotoxic activities of the compounds isolated from Pereskia bleo.

  9. Characterization of a methionine-rich protein from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru Mill. (Cactaceae

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    T.C.F.R. Aragão

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae, to which we gave the trivial name of cactin. This protein has a molecular mass of 11.3 kDa and is formed by a light chain (3.67 kDa and a heavy chain (7.63 kDa. This protein was isolated using a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of cactin was determined and found to resemble that of the 2S seed reserve protein from the Brazil nut, a protein remarkable for its high methionine content. The usefulness of cactin as a molecular marker in the taxonomy of the Cactaceae is discussed.

  10. Isolation and Characterisation of a Reserve Protein from the Seeds of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae

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    Itayguara Ribeiro da Costa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterisation of a major reserve protein from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru. (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 5319 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of the protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The usefulness of this protein as a molecular marker in the Cactaceae is also discussed.A proteína de reserva mais abundante das sementes de Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae foi isolada e caracterizada. Esta proteína tem uma massa molecular de 5319 kDa e foi isolada através de uma combinação de técnicas de filtração em gel e HPLC de fase reversa. A composição de aminoácidos da proteína foi determinada e possui similaridade com a composição de aminoácidos de diversas proteínas de reserva de sementes que pertencem à família das albuminas. A utilidade desta proteína como um marcador molecular para as cactáceas é também discutida.

  11. Cancer preventive and curative attributes of plants of the Cactaceae family: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlev, Eli; Nevo, Eviatar; Solowey, Elaine; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-06-01

    The ever-increasing occurrence of cancer and the severe side effects and limited efficacy of current cancer chemotherapy based on chemical drugs shift the attention toward drugs of plant origin. The Cactaceae family comprises more than 1500 species, but until recently only a few of them have been tested for their chemopreventive and anticancer attributes, leaving a wide unexplored area still waiting for researchers to investigate. Considering this fact, and also the promising results obtained with the relatively few plants of this family already tested, it should justly be expected that some plants of the Cactaceae family yet unexplored might possess outstanding anticancer attributes, exceeding those displayed by the plants already tested. This review presents in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence on cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of bioactive phytoconstituents and extracts derived from cactus plants. It also examines the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of plants of the Cactaceae family. Current limitation and future directions of research towards effective use of cacti to develop efficient and side effect-free future cancer-preventive and anticancer drugs are also discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Waddell, Emanuel A; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components.

  13. Zoochoric and hydrochoric maritime dispersal of the Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae

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    Angelo Martins Fraga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary adaptations in the morphology and physiology of cactus species have been associated to their mechanisms of dispersal and colonization. The dispersal mechanisms and modes of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae were characterized in two beaches in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. A marsupial from the genus Didelphis (Mammalia: Didelphidae was the only frugivorous and, thus, disperser of fruits, presenting specific eating places. The maritime hydrochory was due to the overwash on restinga vegetation, it is characterized by the dispersal of cladodes and fruits at various times of the year. It is here firstly described the sea action as a potential disperser for a cactus species.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae

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    Uchoa A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg.

  15. The biological activities and chemical composition of Pereskia species (Cactaceae)--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Scio, Elita

    2014-09-01

    The exploration of nature as a source of sustainable, novel bioactive substances continues to grow as natural products play a significant role in the search for new therapeutic and agricultural agents. In this context, plants of the genus Pereskia (Cactaceae) have been studied for their biological activities, and are evolving as an interesting subject in the search for new, bioactive compounds. These species are commonly used as human foodstuffs and in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. This review focuses on the bioactivity and chemical composition of the genus Pereskia, and aims to stimulate further studies on the chemistry and biological potential of the genus.

  16. Wide-band tracheids are present in almost all species of Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauseth, James D

    2004-02-01

    Wide-band tracheids (WBTs) have been found in seedlings of most species of cacti that have fibrous wood in their adult bodies. Consequently, this cell type is now known to be present in almost all cacti. Earlier studies of adult plants revealed WBTs to be present only in cacti with globose or short, broad bodies, whereas all species with large columnar or long slender bodies had fibrous wood without WBTs. However, even these species produce WBTs during the first several months after germination. In species with fibrous wood in their adult bodies (species with large or slender bodies), seedlings undergo a phase transition in wood morphogenesis after a few months and stop producing the juvenile (WBT) wood and begin producing adult (fibrous) wood. If adult plants have an intermediate size, the phase transition is delayed and the plant produces WBT wood for several years. Species with globose bodies repress the phase transition completely and never switch to producing adult (fibrous) wood. Because WBTs are so widespread, they probably originated only once in Cactaceae, not multiple times as suggested earlier, or there may have been just a single origin in the Cactaceae/Portulacaceae clade.

  17. Karyotypes, heterochromatin, and physical mapping of 18S-26S rDNA in Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Peñas, M L; Urdampilleta, J D; Bernardello, G; Forni-Martins, E R

    2009-01-01

    Karyotype analyses in members of the four Cactaceae subfamilies were performed. Numbers and karyotype formula obtained were: Pereskioideae = Pereskiaaculeata(2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm), Maihuenioideae = Maihuenia patagonica (2n = 22, 9 m + 2 sm; 2n = 44, 18 m + 4 sm), Opuntioideae = Cumulopuntia recurvata(2n = 44; 20 m + 2 sm), Cactoideae = Acanthocalycium spiniflorum (2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm),Echinopsis tubiflora (2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm), Trichocereus candicans (2n = 22, 22 m). Chromosomes were small, the average chromosome length was 2.3 mum. Diploid species and the tetraploid C. recurvata had one terminal satellite, whereas the remaining tetraploid species showed four satellited chromosomes. Karyotypes were symmetrical. No CMA(-)/DAPI(+) bands were detected, but CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands associated with NOR were always found. Pericentromeric heterochromatin was found in C. recurvata, A. spiniflorum, and the tetraploid cytotype of M. patagonica. The locations of the 18S-26S rDNA sites in all species coincided with CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands; the same occurred with the sizes and numbers of signals for each species. This technique was applied for the first time in metaphase chromosomes in cacti. NOR-bearing pair no.1 may be homeologous in all species examined. In Cactaceae, the 18S-26S loci seem to be highly conserved. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Hui Meng; Cheng, En-Hsiang; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2007-09-25

    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (pCactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Alberto, Maria Rosa; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria del Pilar Caramantin; Theoduloz, Cristina; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Isla, Maria Ines; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-06-01

    Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) is an endemic species occurring in northern Chile. The edible fruits of this plant are valued for its acidic and refreshing taste. Phenolic-enriched extracts from copao fruit pulp and epicarp, collected in the Elqui and Limari river valleys, were assessed by its in vitro ability to inhibit the pro-inflammatory enzymes lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). At 100 μg/mL, pulp extracts showed better effect towards LOX than epicarp extract, while COX-2 inhibition was observed for both epicarp and pulp samples. In general, the extracts were inactive towards COX-1. A positive correlation was observed between the anti-inflammatory activity and the main phenolic compounds found in this fruit. Copao fruits from the Limari valley, a main place of collection and commercialization, showed major activity, adding evidence on the possible health-beneficial effects of this native Chilean fruit.

  20. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae) extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K. S.; Nurestri, A. M. Sri; Norhanom, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), commonly known as “Jarum Tujuh Bilah” in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of P. grandifolia crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) have been investigated, employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power assay and β-carotene method. The total phenolic content of the P. grandifolia extracts was also assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau’s method. The ethyl acetate extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging ability and antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay while the hexane extract possessed significantly strongest reducing power. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of P. grandifolia. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of P. grandifolia. PMID:20931088

  1. Cylindropuntia rosea (DC. Backeb, (Cactaceae: a new generic alien record in the flora of Saudi Arabia

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    Sami Asir Al-Robai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cylindropuntia rosea (DC. Backeb. (Cactaceae is a cactus and invasive species native to Mexico. This is the first record of the genus in Saudi Arabia. The alien species was found near Jebel Hizna, Baljurashi region, southwestern Saudi Arabia. Information about the species' habitat, distribution, and morphological description and its illustration are presented. The presence of Cylindropuntia rosea increased the probability of finding other species belonging to the genus Cylindropuntia in the country. However, if this species gets established in different areas of the Kingdom, it could become a serious invasive plant that has negative impacts on livestock and human. Therefore, tracking and controlling the invasion of this species is recommended.

  2. Expression of the KNOTTED HOMEOBOX Genes in the Cactaceae Cambial Zone Suggests Their Involvement in Wood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Rodríguez-Alonso, Gustavo; Petrone, Emilio; Vasco, Alejandra; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Shishkova, Svetlana; Terrazas, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem that produces secondary xylem (i.e., wood) and phloem. Different Cactaceae species develop different types of secondary xylem; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying wood formation in the Cactaceae. The KNOTTED HOMEOBOX (KNOX) gene family encodes transcription factors that regulate plant development. The role of class I KNOX genes in the regulation of the shoot apical meristem, inflorescence architecture, and secondary growth is established in a few model species, while the functions of class II KNOX genes are less well understood, although the Arabidopsis thaliana class II KNOX protein KNAT7 is known to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis. To explore the involvement of the KNOX genes in the enormous variability of wood in Cactaceae, we identified orthologous genes expressed in species with fibrous ( Pereskia lychnidiflora and Pilosocereus alensis ), non-fibrous ( Ariocarpus retusus ), and dimorphic ( Ferocactus pilosus ) wood. Both class I and class II KNOX genes were expressed in the cactus cambial zone, including one or two class I paralogs of KNAT1 , as well as one or two class II paralogs of KNAT3 - KNAT4 - KNAT5 . While the KNOX gene SHOOTMERISTEMLESS ( STM) and its ortholog ARK1 are expressed during secondary growth in the Arabidopsis and Populus stem, respectively, we did not find STM orthologs in the Cactaceae cambial zone, which suggests possible differences in the vascular cambium genetic regulatory network in these species. Importantly, while two class II KNOX paralogs from the KNAT7 clade were expressed in the cambial zone of A. retusus and F. pilosus , we did not detect KNAT7 ortholog expression in the cambial zone of P. lychnidiflora . Differences in the transcriptional repressor activity of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by the KNAT7 orthologs could therefore explain the differences in wood development in the cactus species.

  3. Variation in chromosome number and breeding systems: implications for diversification in Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae

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    Carina Gutiérrez-Flores

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy, the possession of more than two sets of chromosomes, is a major biological process affecting plant evolution and diversification. In the Cactaceae, genome doubling has also been associated with reproductive isolation, changes in breeding systems, colonization ability, and speciation. Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson, 1885 Britton & Rose, 1909, is a columnar cactus that has long drawn the attention of ecologists, geneticists, and systematists due to its wide distribution range and remarkable assortment of breeding systems in the Mexican Sonoran Desert and the Baja California Peninsula (BCP. However, several important evolutionary questions, such as the distribution of chromosome numbers and whether the diploid condition is dominant over a potential polyploid condition driving the evolution and diversity in floral morphology and breeding systems in this cactus, are still unclear. In this study, we determined chromosome numbers in 11 localities encompassing virtually the entire geographic range of distribution of P. pringlei. Our data revealed the first diploid (2n = 22 count in this species restricted to the hermaphroditic populations of Catalana (ICA and Cerralvo (ICE Islands, whereas the tetraploid (2n = 44 condition is consistently distributed throughout the BCP and mainland Sonora populations distinguished by a non-hermaphroditic breeding system. These results validate a wider distribution of polyploid relative to diploid individuals and a shift in breeding systems coupled with polyploidisation. Considering that the diploid base number and hermaphroditism are the proposed ancestral conditions in Cactaceae, we suggest that ICE and ICA populations represent the relicts of a southern diploid ancestor from which both polyploidy and unisexuality evolved in mainland BCP, facilitating the northward expansion of this species. This cytogeographic distribution in conjunction with differences in floral attributes suggests the distinction of

  4. Wood Chemical Composition in Species of Cactaceae: The Relationship between Lignification and Stem Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level. PMID:25880223

  5. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  6. Variation in chromosome number and breeding systems: implications for diversification in Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae).

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    Gutiérrez-Flores, Carina; la Luz, José L León-de; León, Francisco J García-De; Cota-Sánchez, J Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Polyploidy, the possession of more than two sets of chromosomes, is a major biological process affecting plant evolution and diversification. In the Cactaceae, genome doubling has also been associated with reproductive isolation, changes in breeding systems, colonization ability, and speciation. Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson, 1885) Britton & Rose, 1909, is a columnar cactus that has long drawn the attention of ecologists, geneticists, and systematists due to its wide distribution range and remarkable assortment of breeding systems in the Mexican Sonoran Desert and the Baja California Peninsula (BCP). However, several important evolutionary questions, such as the distribution of chromosome numbers and whether the diploid condition is dominant over a potential polyploid condition driving the evolution and diversity in floral morphology and breeding systems in this cactus, are still unclear. In this study, we determined chromosome numbers in 11 localities encompassing virtually the entire geographic range of distribution of P. pringlei . Our data revealed the first diploid (2n = 22) count in this species restricted to the hermaphroditic populations of Catalana (ICA) and Cerralvo (ICE) Islands, whereas the tetraploid (2n = 44) condition is consistently distributed throughout the BCP and mainland Sonora populations distinguished by a non-hermaphroditic breeding system. These results validate a wider distribution of polyploid relative to diploid individuals and a shift in breeding systems coupled with polyploidisation. Considering that the diploid base number and hermaphroditism are the proposed ancestral conditions in Cactaceae, we suggest that ICE and ICA populations represent the relicts of a southern diploid ancestor from which both polyploidy and unisexuality evolved in mainland BCP, facilitating the northward expansion of this species. This cytogeographic distribution in conjunction with differences in floral attributes suggests the distinction of the diploid

  7. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

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    Jorge Reyes-Rivera

    Full Text Available In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35% of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  8. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

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    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Terrazas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  9. DNA barcodes for Mexican Cactaceae, plants under pressure from wild collecting.

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    Yesson, Chris; Bárcenas, Rolando T; Hernández, Héctor M; Ruiz-Maqueda, María de la Luz; Prado, Alberto; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Hawkins, Julie A

    2011-09-01

    DNA barcodes could be a useful tool for plant conservation. Of particular importance is the ability to identify unknown plant material, such as from customs seizures of illegally collected specimens. Mexican cacti are an example of a threatened group, under pressure because of wild collection for the xeriscaping trade and private collectors. Mexican cacti also provide a taxonomically and geographically coherent group with which to test DNA barcodes. Here, we sample the matK barcode for 528 species of Cactaceae including approximately 75% of Mexican species and test the utility of the matK region for species-level identification. We find that the matK DNA barcode can be used to identify uniquely 77% of species sampled, and 79-87% of species of particular conservation importance. However, this is far below the desired rate of 95% and there are significant issues for PCR amplification because of the variability of primer sites. Additionally, we test the nuclear ITS regions for the cactus subfamily Opuntioideae and for the genus Ariocarpus (subfamily Cactoideae). We observed higher rates of variation for ITS (86% unique for Opuntioideae sampled) but a much lower PCR success, encountering significant intra-individual polymorphism in Ariocarpus precluding the use of this marker in this taxon. We conclude that the matK region should provide useful information as a DNA barcode for Cactaceae if the problems with primers can be addressed, but matK alone is not sufficiently variable to achieve species-level identification. Additional complementary regions should be investigated as ITS is shown to be unsuitable. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of growth form in Cactaceae (Caryophyllales, Eudicotyledoneae).

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    Hernández-Hernández, Tania; Hernández, Héctor M; De-Nova, J Arturo; Puente, Raul; Eguiarte, Luis E; Magallón, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Cactaceae is one of the most charismatic plant families because of the extreme succulence and outstanding diversity of growth forms of its members. Although cacti are conspicuous elements of arid ecosystems in the New World and are model systems for ecological and anatomical studies, the high morphological convergence and scarcity of phenotypic synapomorphies make the evolutionary relationships and trends among lineages difficult to understand. We performed phylogenetic analyses implementing parsimony ratchet and likelihood methods, using a concatenated matrix with 6148 bp of plastid and nuclear markers (trnK/matK, matK, trnL-trnF, rpl16, and ppc). We included 224 species representing approximately 85% of the family's genera. Likelihood methods were used to perform an ancestral character reconstruction within Cactoideae, the richest subfamily in terms of morphological diversity and species number, to evaluate possible growth form evolutionary trends. Our phylogenetic results support previous studies showing the paraphyly of subfamily Pereskioideae and the monophyly of subfamilies Opuntioideae and Cactoideae. After the early divergence of Blossfeldia, Cactoideae splits into two clades: Cacteae, including North American globose and barrel-shaped members, and core Cactoideae, including the largest diversity of growth forms distributed throughout the American continent. Para- or polyphyly is persistent in different parts of the phylogeny. Main Cactoideae clades were found to have different ancestral growth forms, and convergence toward globose, arborescent, or columnar forms occurred in different lineages. Our study enabled us to provide a detailed hypothesis of relationships among cacti lineages and represents the most complete general phylogenetic framework available to understand evolutionary trends within Cactaceae.

  11. Spatial variation in the community of insects associated with the flowers of Pachycereus weberi (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae).

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    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce María; Valverde, Pedro Luis; Vite, Fernando; Carrillo-Ruiz, Hortensia

    2014-08-01

    The positive relationship between productivity and species diversity is well-known. Insect communities associated with the flowers of Cactaceae species represent an interesting system to explore the productivity-diversity relationship because branches facing the equator receive more photosynthetically active radiation and have higher productivity. Thus, flowers with contrasting orientations within an individual, and even within a single branch, might differ in productivity. Therefore, higher abundance, species richness, and diversity are expected for the insect communities associated with south-facing flowers. This hypothesis was tested in Pachycereus weberi (J.M. Coulter) Backeberg (Cactaceae). Insects within flowers with contrasting orientations were collected and its abundance, richness, and diversity were estimated. We also asked if insects prefer big flowers. Thus, flower volume was estimated and regression analyses were conducted to test if there is a positive relationship between flower size and insect abundance. Flower orientation did not affect species richness. However, species abundance and diversity were different in flowers with contrasting orientations. In general, species abundance was higher in flowers facing southwards than in north-facing flowers. On the contrary, species diversity was higher in north-facing flowers. Abundance of Coleoptera was explained by flower volume in south-facing flowers. Contrary to our hypothesis, total diversity was greater in the less productive oriented flowers. Three possible explanations are discussed to explain the low diversity found in the highly productive, south-facing flowers. Our study provides evidence for the effects of productivity on the structure of insect communities at a very small-scale.

  12. Transcriptomics insights into the genetic regulation of root apical meristem exhaustion and determinate primary root growth in Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alonso, Gustavo; Matvienko, Marta; López-Valle, Mayra L; Lázaro-Mixteco, Pedro E; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Shishkova, Svetlana

    2018-06-04

    Many Cactaceae species exhibit determinate growth of the primary root as a consequence of root apical meristem (RAM) exhaustion. The genetic regulation of this growth pattern is unknown. Here, we de novo assembled and annotated the root apex transcriptome of the Pachycereus pringlei primary root at three developmental stages, with active or exhausted RAM. The assembled transcriptome is robust and comprehensive, and was used to infer a transcriptional regulatory network of the primary root apex. Putative orthologues of Arabidopsis regulators of RAM maintenance, as well as putative lineage-specific transcripts were identified. The transcriptome revealed putative orthologues of most proteins involved in housekeeping processes, hormone signalling, and metabolic pathways. Our results suggest that specific transcriptional programs operate in the root apex at specific developmental time points. Moreover, the transcriptional state of the P. pringlei root apex as the RAM becomes exhausted is comparable to the transcriptional state of cells from the meristematic, elongation, and differentiation zones of Arabidopsis roots along the root axis. We suggest that the transcriptional program underlying the drought stress response is induced during Cactaceae root development, and that lineage-specific transcripts could contribute to RAM exhaustion in Cactaceae.

  13. Primer reporte del empleo de marcadores ISTR en Cactaceae (Pilosocereus sp

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    Grecia Montalvo Fernández

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: First report of the employment of ISTR markers in Cactaceae (Pilosocereus sp Resumen Pilosocereus sp es una especie en peligro crítico de extinción, la única población conocida se encuentra en una mina de mármol verde, hoy abandonada, en la que su explotación produjo la disminución del 80% de la población en 3 años; en la actualidad quedan 28 ejemplares, de ellos unos pocos son adultos, de los cuales solo dos producen frutos. Una de las etapas necesaria para su recuperación es la producción de plántulas para realizar el reforzamiento de la población natural. Como las plantas obtenidas serán plantadas en condiciones naturales, donde se enfrentarán a diversas situaciones ambientales, es conveniente realizar un estudio de diversidad genética. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la variabilidad genética de plántulas de Pilosocereus sp empleando la técnica Inverse Sequence Tagged Repeat (ISTR. Se realizó la germinación in vitro de semillas y se determinó la variabilidad genética de las plántulas obtenidas. Con el análisis molecular se detectaron un total de 97 bandas, de ellas el 62,8% fueron polimórficas. El mayor porcentaje de bandas polimórficas (85,7% se obtuvo con la combinación de oligonucleótidos F6/B6. Con las combinaciones de oligonucleótidos empleados se detectaron de 4 a 6 patrones de banda diferentes. La heterocigosidad media esperada fue de 0,39. Palabras clave: Cactaceae; variabilidad; extinción; polimorfismo. Abstract Pilosocereus sp is a species in critical extinction danger, the only known population is in a mine of green marble, abandoned today, but it exploitation produced the decrease of the population's 80% in 3 years, at the present time they are 28 individuals, of them some few ones are mature, of those which alone two produce fruits. One of the necessary stages for their recovery is the seedlings production to carry out the natural population's reinforcement. As the

  14. Stem and root anatomy of two species of Echinopsis (Trichocereeae: Cactaceae Anatomía de la raíz y del tallo de dos especies de Echinopsis (Trichocereeae: Cactaceae

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    Joelma dos Santos Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes and compares the stem and root anatomy of Echinopsis calochlora and E. rhodotricha (Cactaceae occurring in the Central-Western Region of Brazil, in Mato Grosso do Sul State. Three individuals of each species were collected, fixed, stored and prepared following usual anatomy techniques, for subsequent observation in light and scanning electronic microscopy. Echinopsis calochlora revealed uniseriated epidermis, while E. rhodotricha had patches of bisseriated epidermis; all species showed thick cuticle, parallelocytic stomata at the epidermis level, and a well-developed hypodermis. Cortical and medullary bundles are present in the studied species, as well as mucilage cells in the cortex region. The secondary phloem is composed by sieve tube elements, companion cells, axial and radial parenchyma. Sclereids were found at the outer regions of phloem in the roots. The secondary xylem is non fibrous in the stems of E. calochlora, and fibrous in the stems of E. rhodotricha and in the roots of both species. Many of these characteristics are commonly found in Cactaceae, and represent important adaptations for survival in xeric environments.Este estudio está enfocado a caracterizar y comparar la anatomía de tallos y raíces de Echinopsis calochlora y E. rhodotricha (Cactaceae que habitan en la región centro-oeste de Brasil, en el Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Se recolectaron 3 individuos de cada especie, los cuales fueron fijados, almacenados y preparados siguiendo las técnicas comunes de anatomía, para observarlos en microscopía de luz y electrónica de barrido. Echinopsis calochlora mostró epidermis uniseriada, mientras que la de E. rhodotricha fue biseriada; todas las especies presentaron cutícula gruesa, estomas paralelocíticos a nivel de la epidermis y una hipodermis bien desarrollada. Se presentaron haces vasculares corticales y medulares en las especies estudiadas, así como células mucilaginosas en la regi

  15. Lineage-specific evolutionary rate in plants: Contributions of a screening for Cereus (Cactaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro-Brito, Monique; Moraes, Evandro M.; Taylor, Nigel P.; Zappi, Daniela C.; Franco, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Predictable chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences have been listed for the shallowest taxonomic studies in plants. We investigated whether plastid regions that vary between closely allied species could be applied for intraspecific studies and compared the variation of these plastid segments with two nuclear regions. Methods: We screened 16 plastid and two nuclear intronic regions for species of the genus Cereus (Cactaceae) at three hierarchical levels (species from different clades, species of the same clade, and allopatric populations). Results: Ten plastid regions presented interspecific variation, and six of them showed variation at the intraspecific level. The two nuclear regions showed both inter- and intraspecific variation, and in general they showed higher levels of variability in almost all hierarchical levels than the plastid segments. Discussion: Our data suggest no correspondence between variation of plastid regions at the interspecific and intraspecific level, probably due to lineage-specific variation in cpDNA, which appears to have less effect in nuclear data. Despite the heterogeneity in evolutionary rates of cpDNA, we highlight three plastid segments that may be considered in initial screenings in plant phylogeographic studies. PMID:26819857

  16. Phylogenetic relationships in Peniocereus (Cactaceae) inferred from plastid DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Salvador; Terrazas, Teresa; Arreola-Nava, Hilda J; Vázquez-Sánchez, Monserrat; Cameron, Kenneth M

    2005-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Peniocereus (Cactaceae) species were studied using parsimony analyses of DNA sequence data. The plastid rpl16 and trnL-F regions were sequenced for 98 taxa including 17 species of Peniocereus, representatives from all genera of tribe Pachycereeae, four genera of tribe Hylocereeae, as well as from three additional outgroup genera of tribes Calymmantheae, Notocacteae, and Trichocereeae. Phylogenetic analyses support neither the monophyly of Peniocereus as currently circumscribed, nor the monophyly of tribe Pachycereeae since species of Peniocereus subgenus Pseudoacanthocereus are embedded within tribe Hylocereeae. Furthermore, these results show that the eight species of Peniocereus subgenus Peniocereus (Peniocereus sensu stricto) form a well-supported clade within subtribe Pachycereinae; P. serpentinus is also a member of this subtribe, but is sister to Bergerocactus. Moreover, Nyctocereus should be resurrected as a monotypic genus. Species of Peniocereus subgenus Pseudoacanthocereus are positioned among species of Acanthocereus within tribe Hylocereeae, indicating that they may be better classified within that genus. A number of morphological and anatomical characters, especially related to the presence or absence of dimorphic branches, are discussed to support these relationships.

  17. Lineage-specific evolutionary rate in plants: Contributions of a screening for Cereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro-Brito, Monique; Moraes, Evandro M; Taylor, Nigel P; Zappi, Daniela C; Franco, Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    Predictable chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences have been listed for the shallowest taxonomic studies in plants. We investigated whether plastid regions that vary between closely allied species could be applied for intraspecific studies and compared the variation of these plastid segments with two nuclear regions. We screened 16 plastid and two nuclear intronic regions for species of the genus Cereus (Cactaceae) at three hierarchical levels (species from different clades, species of the same clade, and allopatric populations). Ten plastid regions presented interspecific variation, and six of them showed variation at the intraspecific level. The two nuclear regions showed both inter- and intraspecific variation, and in general they showed higher levels of variability in almost all hierarchical levels than the plastid segments. Our data suggest no correspondence between variation of plastid regions at the interspecific and intraspecific level, probably due to lineage-specific variation in cpDNA, which appears to have less effect in nuclear data. Despite the heterogeneity in evolutionary rates of cpDNA, we highlight three plastid segments that may be considered in initial screenings in plant phylogeographic studies.

  18. Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity of Pereskia aculeata, a Highly Nutritious Cactaceae Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Debora O; Seifert, Mauricio; Nora, Fabiana R; Bobrowski, Vera L; Freitag, Rogerio A; Kucera, Heidi R; Nora, Leonardo; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2017-04-01

    Pereskia aculeata is a Cactaceae plant with valuable nutritional properties, including terrific amounts of protein, minerals, vitamins, and fiber. However, P. aculeata is reported to contain antinutrients and alkaloids in its leaves. In addition, in a study on growth and development, Wistar rats fed with P. aculeata and casein as protein source grew less than the control group (fed with casein only). Therefore, in this study, we evaluated, for the first time, the oral acute toxicity of P. aculeata in rats and also the cytotoxicity behavior of the plant on lettuce seeds. The acute toxicity research was carried out using dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract, in three different doses, administered by gavage to 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were then examined for signs of toxicity, food intake, body weight, and fecal excretion fluctuations, as well as histopathological alterations, using eight different body tissues. The acute toxicity study did not show any difference among the groups in either clinical evaluation or histopathological analyses. For the cytotoxicity study, dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract was applied on lettuce seeds in five different concentrations. These seeds were evaluated for germination, root and shoot length, and mitotic index. The results show that P. aculeata extract affects lettuce root and shoot growth, but not germination or mitotic index. In conclusion, the acute toxicity on rats and the cytogenotoxicity on lettuce of P. aculeata are neglectable, validating the potential of this plant to be used as a functional food.

  19. Ants interacting with fruits of Melocactus conoideus Buining & Brederoo (Cactaceae in southwestern Bahia, Brazil

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    Katielle Silva Brito-Kateivas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n3p153   Formigas que interagem com frutos de Melocactus conoideus Buining & Brederoo (Cactaceae no sudoeste da Bahia, Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar quais espécies de formigas interagem com os frutos de Melocactus conoideus e se existe remoção. O estudo foi realizado no Parque Municipal Serra do Periperi, município de Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, área de ocorrência da espécie. Frutos de 30 indivíduos foram marcados e observados durante o dia para identificação do comportamento das formigas. Sete espécies de cinco subfamílias de formigas foram observadas interagindo com os frutos e os gêneros mais envolvidos em interações foram Camponotus e Pheidole. Três eventos de remoção foram observados e realizados apenas pela espécie Pheidole sp. 2. Apesar de M. conoideus não ser uma espécie mirmecocórica, formigas foram registradas como dispersoras oportunistas, atividade que pode ter importantes consequências para a dinâmica populacional da espécie.

  20. Classical macroautophagy in Lobivia rauschii (Cactaceae) and possible plastidial autophagy in Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) tapetum cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Alessio; Mosti, Stefano; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2014-05-01

    The tapetum in anthers is a tissue that undergoes programmed cell death (PCD) during the production of pollen. We observed two types of autophagy prior to cell death. In Lobivia rauschii (Cactaceae), tapetum cells showed plant-type autophagosomes-autolysosomes, which have been found previously exclusively in root meristem cells. The autophagic structures were formed by a network of tubules which apparently merged laterally, thereby sequestering a portion of the cytoplasm. The organelles observed in the sequestered material included multilamellar bodies, which have not been reported earlier in these organelles. By contrast, Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) tapetum cells contained no such organelles but showed plastids that might possibly carry out autophagy, as they contained portions of the cytoplasm similar to the phenomenon reported earlier in Phaseolus and Dendrobium. However, the ultrastructure of the T. albida plastids was different from that in the previous reports. It is concluded that in L. rauschii classical plant macroautophagy was involved in degradation of the cytoplasm, while in T. albida such classical macroautophagy was not observed. Instead, the data in T. albida suggested the hypothesis that plastids are able to carry out degradation of the cytoplasm.

  1. Molecular phylogeny and character evolution in terete-stemmed Andean opuntias (Cactaceae-Opuntioideae).

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    Ritz, C M; Reiker, J; Charles, G; Hoxey, P; Hunt, D; Lowry, M; Stuppy, W; Taylor, N

    2012-11-01

    The cacti of tribe Tephrocacteae (Cactaceae-Opuntioideae) are adapted to diverse climatic conditions over a wide area of the southern Andes and adjacent lowlands. They exhibit a range of life forms from geophytes and cushion-plants to dwarf shrubs, shrubs or small trees. To confirm or challenge previous morphology-based classifications and molecular phylogenies, we sampled DNA sequences from the chloroplast trnK/matK region and the nuclear low copy gene phyC and compared the resulting phylogenies with previous data gathered from nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. The here presented chloroplast and nuclear low copy gene phylogenies were mutually congruent and broadly coincident with the classification based on gross morphology and seed micro-morphology and anatomy. Reconstruction of hypothetical ancestral character states suggested that geophytes and cushion-forming species probably evolved several times from dwarf shrubby precursors. We also traced an increase of embryo size at the expense of the nucellus-derived storage tissue during the evolution of the Tephrocacteae, which is thought to be an evolutionary advantage because nutrients are then more rapidly accessible for the germinating embryo. In contrast to these highly concordant phylogenies, nuclear ribosomal DNA data sampled by a previous study yielded conflicting phylogenetic signals. Secondary structure predictions of ribosomal transcribed spacers suggested that this phylogeny is strongly influenced by the inclusion of paralogous sequence probably arisen by genome duplication during the evolution of this plant group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on betaxanthin profiles of vegetables and fruits from the Chenopodiaceae and Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Florian; Graneis, Stephan; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2007-01-01

    The present study provides an update on the betaxanthin (bx) compositions of red and yellow beetroots, yellow-coloured Swiss chard petioles, and yellow-orange cactus pear. Applying RP-HPLC coupled with positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry and by comparison with UV-vis and mass spectrometric characteristics as well as retention times of semi-synthesized reference compounds, 24 betaxanthins were identified in red and yellow beetroot hypocotyls. Twenty-five and thirteen betaxanthins were present in yellow Swiss chard petioles and the cactus pear cultivar 'Gialla', respectively. Ethanolamine-bx and threonine-bx were found to be novel betaxanthins in Chenopodiaceae representatives, which to the best of our knowledge have not been reported as genuine pigments so far. Furthermore, aspartic acid-bx (miraxanthin II), lysine-bx, and methionine-bx, hitherto found in other families, were identified in the Chenopodiaceae for the first time. Additionally, tyrosine-bx (portulacaxanthin II) and tryptophan-bx have not been earlier reported to occur in the Cactaceae. These findings provide valuable phytochemical information and may be useful for a better understanding of the functional properties of betaxanthins in plants.

  3. Direct anthelmintic effects of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae) on trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep: in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Kandu-Lelo, C; Ademola, I O; Eloff, J N

    2011-08-25

    Following claims of anthelmintic activity of Cereus jamacaru DC (Cactaceae) by a commercial farmer, in vivo studies were conducted to determine the possible direct anthelmintic effects of the plant on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. Eighteen sheep were infected with 4000 Haemonchus contortus and 6000 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae given in three divided doses over a period of three days. Once the infections were patent, the sheep were allocated to three groups and were drenched once a week for six weeks with fresh blended C. jamacaru plant material at a single (32.3g/sheep) or double dose (64.6g/sheep) or they remained as undrenched controls. Faeces were collected from individual animals on the day of treatment and three days thereafter on a weekly basis for seven weeks for faecal egg count. While there were no statistically significant differences in the egg counts between the groups, a double dose of C. jamacaru was effective in reducing the egg counts in the sheep by 18-65% over the 49 days of the experiment. Given that all animals remained in good health throughout the course of the experiment, with no adverse events occurring during the study, further experiments using higher doses or administering the plant material for a longer period of time than in the present study would be warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlated evolution of stem and leaf hydraulic traits in Pereskia (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erika J

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated significant correlations between stem and leaf hydraulic properties when comparing across species within ecological communities. This implies that these traits are co-evolving, but there have been few studies addressing plant water relations within an explicitly evolutionary framework. This study tests for correlated evolution among a suite of plant water-use traits and environmental parameters in seven species of Pereskia (Cactaceae), using phylogenetically independent contrasts. There were significant evolutionary correlations between leaf-specific xylem hydraulic conductivity, Huber Value, leaf stomatal pore index, leaf venation density and leaf size, but none of these traits appeared to be correlated with environmental water availability; only two water relations traits - mid-day leaf water potentials and photosynthetic water use efficiency - correlated with estimates of moisture regime. In Pereskia, it appears that many stem and leaf hydraulic properties thought to be critical to whole-plant water use have not evolved in response to habitat shifts in water availability. This may be because of the extremely conservative stomatal behavior and particular rooting strategy demonstrated by all Pereskia species investigated. These results highlight the need for a lineage-based approach to understand the relative roles of functional traits in ecological adaptation.

  5. Geographic distribution and taxonomic circumscription of populations within Coryphantha section Robustispina (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marc A; Butterworth, Charles A

    2013-05-01

    Taxonomic circumscription of subspecific taxa within Coryphantha robustispina was evaluated with morphological data and microsatellites. This study was the first to compare adequately sampled morphological and DNA analyses at the population level in the Cactaceae. This comparison was important to test reliability of both methods and to gain a better understanding of phytogeography, evolution, and systematics of the species, knowledge that could prove useful for other taxa as well. Populations of C. robustispina subsp. robustispina are listed as endangered by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our primary goal was to explore correlations among geographical distribution, morphology, and genetics of selected populations throughout the range of the species and the outgroup, C. poselgeriana. • Stem characters were measured for 638 individuals among 16 populations. Flower characters were measured for 180 individuals among 12 populations. Ten microsatellite DNA loci were isolated and characterized for 204 individuals among 13 populations. Data were analyzed using various multivariate analyses. • Our results indicated that, within Coryphantha robustispina, there were three morphologically, genetically, and geographically coherent groups represented by the names C. robustispina subsp. robustispina, C. robustispina subsp. uncinata, and C. robustispina subsp. scheeri. For most analyses, distinctions among the three groups were primarily not as great as those between any one of them and the outgroup. • Results suggested that the three subspecific taxa within Coryphantha robustispina are good subspecies but should not be elevated to species rank. The closely aligned results between morphology and microsatellite data support the design and utility of both methods.

  6. [Triatominae and Cactaceae: a risk for the transmission of the American trypanosomiasis in the peridomicilary space (Northeast Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emperaire, L; Romaña, C A

    2006-06-01

    Field observations carried in semi-arid Brazil Northeast point out the frequent association, in the peridomiciliary space, between a cactus, Cereus jamacaru, the occurrence of nests in its branches and the occurrence of two species of insects vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, pathogenic agent of Chagas disease: Rhodnius neglectus and Triatoma pseudomaculata. The analysis of the architectural variables of this Cactaceae shows that the presence of nests, and thus of insects, depends on the traditional practices of management of this cactus. This study underlines the relevance of an integrated approach of the ecology of Triatominae for the identification of factors of risk.

  7. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  8. Patterns of growth and mortality in the endangered Nichol's Turk's Head Cactus (Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii L. Benson; Cactaceae) in Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. McIntosh; L. A. McDade; A. E. Boyd; P. D. Jenkins

    2007-01-01

    Nichol’s Turk’s Head Cactus (Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii L. Benson; Cactaceae) occurs in a few isolated populations in the Sonoran desert of southcentral Arizona (Pima and Pinal counties). The populations of this variety are disjunct from the more widespread variety that occurs in the Chihuahuan desert of Texas and...

  9. Is in vitro micrografting a possible valid alternative to traditional micropropagation in Cactaceae? Pelecyphora aselliformis as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, Ornella; Carra, Angela; Oddo, Elisabetta; Carimi, Francesco; Sajeva, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Several taxa of Cactaceae are endangered by overcollection for commercial purposes, and most of the family is included in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES). Micropropagation may play a key role to keep the pressure off wild populations and contribute to ex situ conservation of endangered taxa. One of the limits of micropropagation is the species-specific requirement of plant regulators for each taxon and sometimes even for different genotypes. With the micrografting technique the rootstock directly provides the scion with the necessary hormonal requirements. In this paper we present data on in vitro grafting of Pelecyphora aselliformis Ehrenberg, an Appendix I CITES listed species critically endangered and sought after by the horticultural trade, on micropropagated Opuntia ficus-indica Miller. Apical and sub-apical scions of P. aselliformis were used to perform micrografting with a successful rate of 97 and 81 % respectively. Survival rate after ex vivo transfer was 85 %. We hypothesize that this method could be applied to other endangered, slow growing taxa of Cactaceae thus contributing to the conservation of this endangered family.

  10. Involvement of arginine-vasopressin in the diuretic and hypotensive effects of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Caroline Calixto; Uchida, Denise Thiemi; Canzi, Karina Natally; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; Gasparotto, Arquimedes; Laverde, Antonio

    2012-10-31

    Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), popularly known as "ora-pro-nobis" is well recognized in Brazilian traditional medicine as a diuretic agent, although no scientific data have been published to support this effect. The aim of this work is to evaluate the diuretic and hypotensive activities of the infusion (INFPG) and the ethanol extract (HEPG) of Pereskia grandifolia and possible mechanism of action. The infusions (2.5-10%) and the HEPG (3-100 mg/kg) were orally administered in a single dose or daily (for seven days) to rats. The urine excretion rate, pH, density, conductivity and content of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. In collected serum samples the concentration of electrolytes, urea, creatinine, aldosterone, vasopressin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity were evaluated. The involvement of V(2) vasopressin receptor in the diuretic activity and the hypotensive effect of HEPG were also determined. Water excretion rate was significantly increased by HEPG, while the urinary K(+) and Cl(-) excretion was significantly reduced in acute and prolonged treatment. The oral administration of the HEPG (30mg/kg) significantly reduced serum levels of vasopressin and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in normotensive rats. All other evaluated parameters have not been affected by any treatment. The results showed that HEPG could present compound(s) responsible for aquaretic activities with no signs of toxicity, and this effect could involve a reduction in the arginine-vasopressin release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-nociceptive activity of Pereskia bleo Kunth. (Cactaceae) leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Guilhon, Carolina Carvalho; Fernandes, Patricia Dias; Boylan, Fabio

    2012-12-18

    Local communities in Malaysia consume Pereskia bleo Kunth. (Cactaceae) leaves as raw vegetables or as a concoction and drink as a tea to treat diabetes, hypertension, rheumatism, cancer-related diseases, inflammation, gastric pain, ulcers, and for revitalizing the body. To evaluate anti-nociceptive activity of the extracts and vitexin, isolated for the first time in this species, in two analgesic models; formalin-induced licking and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. Three and a half kilos of P. bleo leaves were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with ethanol for 72 h. The crude ethanol extract was treated with activated charcoal overnight and subjected to a liquid-liquid partition yielding hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts. All extracts, including the crude ethanol and vitexin isolated from the ethyl acetate partition were tested for peripheral anti-nociceptive activity using formalin test and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, besides having their acute toxicity assays performed. The phytochemical analyses resulted in the isolation of vitexin (1), β-sitosterol glucoside (2) and β-sitosterol (3) isolated from the ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane extracts, respectively. This is the first time vitexin and β-sitosterol glucoside are isolated from this species. The anti-nociceptive activities for all extracts were only moderate. Vitexin, which was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract did not show any activity in all models tested when used alone at the same concentration as it appears in the extract. This study showed that all the extracts possess moderate anti-nociceptive activity. Vitexin is not the compound responsible for the anti-nociceptive effect in the ethyl acetate extract. Further investigations are needed to identify the compound(s) that might be responsible for the anti-nociceptive activity in this plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spine micromorphology of normal and hyperhydric Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peharec, P; Posilović, H; Balen, B; Krsnik-Rasol, M

    2010-07-01

    Artificial conditions of tissue culture affect growth and physiology of crassulacean acid metabolism plants which often results in formation of hyperhydric shoots. In in vitro conditions Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) growth switches from organized to unorganized way, producing a habituated organogenic callus which simultaneously regenerates morphologically normal as well as altered hyperhydric shoots. In this study, influence of tissue culture conditions on morphology of cactus spines of normal and hyperhydric shoots was investigated. Spines of pot-grown Mammillaria plants and of in vitro regenerated shoots were examined with stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope. The pot-grown plants had 16-17 spines per areole. In vitro grown normal shoots, even though they kept typical shoot morphology, had lower number of spines (11-12) and altered spine morphology. This difference was even more pronounced in spine number (six to seven) and morphology of the hyperhydric shoots. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed remarkable differences in micromorphology of spine surface between pot-grown and in vitro grown shoots. Spines of in vitro grown normal shoots showed numerous long trichomes, which were more elongated on spines of the hyperhydric shoots; the corresponding structures on spine surface of pot-grown plants were noticed only as small protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy morphometric studies showed that the spines of pot-grown plants were significantly longer compared to the spines of shoots grown in tissue culture. Moreover, transverse section shape varies from elliptical in pot-grown plants to circular in normal and hyperhydric shoots grown in vitro. Cluster and correspondence analyses performed on the scanning electron microscope obtained results suggest great variability among spines of pot-grown plants. Spines of in vitro grown normal and hyperhydric shoots showed low level of morphological variation among themselves despite the

  13. Estudo anatômico de folha e caule de Pereskia aculeata Mill. (Cactaceae

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    M.R. Duarte

    Full Text Available Pereskia aculeata Mill. (Cactaceae é uma trepadeira arbustiva conhecida comumente como ora-pro-nobis. Apresenta elevado teor de mucilagem e proteína, sendo empregada na indústria alimentícia e farmacêutica. Na medicina popular, é utilizada externamente como emoliente. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a anatomia foliar e caulinar da planta, a fim de fornecer informações complementares à sua identificação e aplicáveis ao seu controle de qualidade. Folhas adultas e fragmentos de caules foram fixados, seccionados à mão livre e corados com azul de astra e fucsina básica ou com azul de toluidina. Testes histoquímicos e análise ultra-estrutural de superfície foram realizados. A folha é simples e elíptica. Possui epiderme uniestratificada, estômatos paracíticos em ambas as faces, mesofilo que tende a ser dorsiventral, contendo numerosas drusas de oxalato de cálcio e células isodiamétricas grandes com conteúdo mucilaginoso. A nervura central é percorrida por um feixe vascular colateral em arco aberto. O pecíolo tem secção plano-convexa e um feixe colateral em formato de arco fechado. O caule, em estrutura secundária incipiente, possui epiderme unisseriada, colênquima angular, parênquima cortical com muitos amiloplastos, calotas de fibras perivasculares e organização vascular colateral. No córtex e na medula, são observadas numerosas cavidades com conteúdo mucilaginoso e drusas de oxalato de cálcio, estas também presentes no floema.

  14. How and why does the areole meristem move in Echinocereus (Cactaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Daniel; Grego-Valencia, Dalia; Terrazas, Teresa; Arias, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, the areole is the organ that forms the leaves, spines and buds. Apparently, the genus Echinocereus develops enclosed buds that break through the epidermis of the stem adjacent to the areole; this trait most likely represents a synapomorphy of Echinocereus. The development of the areole is investigated here in order to understand the anatomical modifications that lead to internal bud development and to supplement anatomical knowledge of plants that do not behave according to classical shoot theory. The external morphology of the areole was documented and the anatomy was studied using tissue clearing, scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy for 50 species that represent the recognized clades and sections of the traditional classification of the genus, including Morangaya pensilis (Echinocereus pensilis). In Echinocereus, the areole is sealed by the periderm, and the areole meristem is moved and enclosed by the differential growth of the epidermis and surrounding cortex. The enclosed areole meristem is differentiated in a vegetative or floral bud, which develops internally and breaks through the epidermis of the stem. In Morangaya pensilis, the areole is not sealed by the periderm and the areole meristem is not enclosed. The enclosed areole meristem and internal bud development are understood to be an adaptation to protect the meristem and the bud from low temperatures. The anatomical evidence supports the hypothesis that the enclosed bud represents one synapomorphy for Echinocereus and also supports the exclusion of Morangaya from Echinocereus. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Vivipary and offspring survival in the epiphytic cactus Epiphyllum phyllanthus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota-Sánchez, J Hugo; Abreu, Deusa D

    2007-01-01

    Vivipary, the germination of seeds before they are shed from the parent plant, is a rare event in angiosperms involving complex ecophysiological processes. Pseudovivipary and cryptovivipary occur in approximately 30 (2%) species of the cactus family. A remarkable case of vivipary in Epiphyllum phyllanthus is described here. Information is provided regarding the biology of viviparous fruits, morphology, mortality, survival rates of viviparous offspring, and some eco-evolutionary implications of this reproductive strategy in the Cactaceae. This epiphytic cactus has no host-specific relationship. A low proportion (33.3%) of individuals produced viviparous fruits. Seed number/fruit varied from 197 to 230 with percentage of viviparous germination from 97.5% to 99%. The viviparous seedlings exhibited normal development and were no different from non-viviparous offspring. Transplanting experiments showed that the first week is critical for seedling establishment, and high mortality occurred in the three treatments used: 69% on the phorophyte surface, 58.6% on the ground, and 44.8% under controlled conditions. The number of survivors gradually stabilized, and the contribution to establishment was comparable in each of the treatments after the acclimation phase. It is suggested that vivipary is associated with thermoregulation, parental care, conspecific nursing, and rapid seedling establishment. Germination is not a limiting factor in the perpetuation of this viviparous species, but seedling establishment is. In viviparous individuals of E. phyllanthus, seedling mortality during establishment rather than failure to germinate within the fruit is a limiting factor affecting local population density. Overall, viviparity is an intrinsic, genetic event involving high metabolic costs favouring germination and dispersal of the fittest offspring regardless of substrate and environmental conditions.

  16. Morphological, cytological and metabolic consequences of autopolyploidization in Hylocereus (Cactaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagai; Fait, Aaron; Tel-Zur, Noemi

    2013-11-04

    Genome doubling may have multi-level effects on the morphology, viability and physiology of polyploids compared to diploids. We studied the changes associated with autopolyploidization in two systems of somatic newly induced polyploids, diploid-autotetraploid and triploid-autohexaploid, belonging to the genus Hylocereus (Cactaceae). Stomata, fruits, seeds, embryos, and pollen were studied. Fruit pulp and seeds were subjected to metabolite profiling using established gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) Q-TOF-MS/MS (time of flight)-protocols. Autopolyploid lines produced lower numbers of tetrads, larger pollen grains with lower viability, larger stomata with lower density, and smaller fruits with lower seed numbers and decreased seed viability. The abundance of sugars was lower in the fruits and seeds of the two duplicated lines than in their donor lines, accompanied by increased contents of amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, organic acids and flavonoids. Betacyanins, the major fruit pigments in diploid and triploid donors, decreased following genome doubling. Both autopolyploid Hylocereus lines thus exhibited unfavorable changes, with the outcome being more dramatic in the autohexaploid than in the autotetraploid line. Induced autotetraploid and autohexaploid lines exhibited morphological and cytological characteristics that differed from those of their donor plants and that were accompanied by significant metabolic alterations. It is suggested that a developmental arrest occurs in the fruits of the autohexaploid line, since their pericarp shows a greater abundance of acids and of reduced sugars. We conclude that genome doubling does not necessarily confer a fitness advantage and that the extent of alterations induced by autopolyploidization depends on the genetic background of the donor genotype.

  17. A proposed national strategic framework for the management of Cactaceae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haylee Kaplan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a long history of managing biological invasions. The rapid increase in the scale and complexity of problems associated with invasions calls for new, more strategic management approaches. This paper explores strategic management approaches for cactus invasions in South Africa. Cacti (Cactaceae have had a long history of socio-economic benefits, considerable negative environmental and socio-economic impacts, and a wide range of management interventions in South Africa. Objectives: To guide the future management of cactus invasions, a national strategic framework was developed by the South African Cactus Working Group. The overarching aim of this framework is to reduce the negative impacts of cacti to a point where their benefits significantly outweigh the losses. Method: Four strategic objectives were proposed: (1 all invasive and potentially invasive cactus species should be prevented from entering the country, (2 new incursions of cactus species must be rapidly detected and eradicated, (3 the impacts of invasive cacti must be reduced and contained and (4 socio-economically useful cacti (both invasive and non-invasive species must be utilised sustainably to minimise the risk of further negative impacts. Results: There are currently 35 listed invasive cactus species in the country; 10 species are targeted for eradication and 12 are under partial or complete biological control. We discuss approaches for the management of cactus species, their introduction and spread pathways and spatial prioritisation of control efforts. Conclusion: A thorough understanding of context-specific invasion processes and stakeholder support is needed when implementing strategies for a group of invasive species.

  18. Thermal buffering capacity of the germination phenotype across the environmental envelope of the Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Charlotte E; Daws, Matthew I; Flores, Joel; Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Galíndez, Guadalupe; León-Lobos, Pedro; Sandoval, Ana; Ceroni Stuva, Aldo; Ramírez Bullón, Natali; Dávila-Aranda, Patricia; Ordoñez-Salanueva, Cesar A; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Ulian, Tiziana; Amosso, Cecilia; Zubani, Lino; Torres Bilbao, Alberto; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2017-12-01

    Recruitment from seeds is among the most vulnerable stage for plants as global temperatures change. While germination is the means by which the vast majority of the world's flora regenerate naturally, a framework for accurately predicting which species are at greatest risk of germination failure during environmental perturbation is lacking. Taking a physiological approach, we assess how one family, the Cactaceae, may respond to global temperature change based on the thermal buffering capacity of the germination phenotype. We selected 55 cactus species from the Americas, all geo-referenced seed collections, reflecting the broad environmental envelope of the family across 70° of latitude and 3700 m of altitude. We then generated empirical data of the thermal germination response from which we estimated the minimum (T b ), optimum (T o ) and ceiling (T c ) temperature for germination and the thermal time (θ 50 ) for each species based on the linearity of germination rate with temperature. Species with the highest T b and lowest T c germinated fastest, and the interspecific sensitivity of the germination rate to temperature, as assessed through θ 50 , varied tenfold. A left-skewed asymmetry in the germination rate with temperature was relatively common but the unimodal pattern typical of crop species failed for nearly half of the species due to insensitivity to temperature change at T o . For 32 fully characterized species, seed thermal parameters correlated strongly with the mean temperature of the wettest quarter of the seed collection sites. By projecting the mean temperature of the wettest quarter under two climate change scenarios, we predict under the least conservative scenario (+3.7°C) that 25% of cactus species will have reduced germination performance, whilst the remainder will have an efficiency gain, by the end of the 21st century. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  20. Novel seed coat lignins in the Cactaceae: structure, distribution and implications for the evolution of lignin diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Jackson, Lisa; Nakashima, Jin; Ralph, John; Dixon, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    We have recently described a hitherto unsuspected catechyl lignin polymer (C-lignin) in the seed coats of Vanilla orchid and in cacti of one genus, Melocactus (Chen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2012, 109, 1772-1777.). We have now determined the lignin types in the seed coats of 130 different cactus species. Lignin in the vegetative tissues of cacti is of the normal guaiacyl/syringyl (G/S) type, but members of most genera within the subfamily Cactoidae possess seed coat lignin of the novel C-type only, which we show is a homopolymer formed by endwise β-O-4-coupling of caffeyl alcohol monomers onto the growing polymer resulting in benzodioxane units. However, the species examined within the genera Coryphantha, Cumarinia, Escobaria and Mammillaria (Cactoideae) mostly had normal G/S lignin in their seeds, as did all six species in the subfamily Opuntioidae that were examined. Seed coat lignin composition is still evolving in the Cactaceae, as seeds of one Mammillaria species (M. lasiacantha) possess only C-lignin, three Escobaria species (E. dasyacantha, E. lloydii and E. zilziana) contain an unusual lignin composed of 5-hydroxyguaiacyl units, the first report of such a polymer that occurs naturally in plants, and seeds of some species contain no lignin at all. We discuss the implications of these findings for the mechanisms that underlie the biosynthesis of these newly discovered lignin types. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Seed vigor and germination of facheiro plants (Pilosocereus catingicola (Gurke Byles & Rowley Subsp. Salvadorensis (Werderm. Zappi (Cactaceae at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Luis Silva de Medeiros

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several species of endemic Cactaceae are found in northeastern Brazil, which are important plants to the local fauna and flora; nevertheless, there are only a few studies assessing the germination of this plant genus. Understanding the germination of species native to the Caatinga is essential to subsidize conservation actions for such ecosystem. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of three localities and different temperatures on the vigor and germination of facheiro seeds. The experiment was conducted by evaluating seed vigor and germination in three distinct areas (Arara, Bananeiras, and Boa Vista at different temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 20-30 ºC. Quantitative data were submitted to polynomial regression analysis at 5% significance with four replicates of 50 seeds. In Arara, germination rates at 20 and 25 ºC reached 96% and, at 30 ºC, 86%. The temperatures of 25 and 30 ºC presented the best germination speed index. For the three studied areas, the highest germination rates were recorded at a constant temperature of 25 ºC and at the alternating temperature (20-30 ºC. Yet the highest germination speed was reached at 30 ºC. Based on its sexual propagation, the taxon in question is able to survive in environments with temperatures ranging from 20 to 30 ºC, as seen in the studied habitats.

  2. New Alcamide and Anti-oxidant Activity of Pilosocereus gounellei A. Weber ex K. Schum. Bly. ex Rowl. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Jéssica K S; Chaves, Otemberg S; Brito Filho, Severino G; Teles, Yanna C F; Fernandes, Marianne G; Assis, Temilce S; Fernandes, Pedro Dantas; de Andrade, Alberício Pereira; Felix, Leonardo P; Silva, Tania M S; Ramos, Nathalia S M; Silva, Girliane R; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei

    2015-12-22

    The Cactaceae family is composed by 124 genera and about 1438 species. Pilosocereus gounellei, popularly known in Brazil as xique-xique, is used in folk medicine to treat prostate inflammation, gastrointestinal and urinary diseases. The pioneering phytochemical study of P. gounellei was performed using column chromatography and HPLC, resulting in the isolation of 10 substances: pinostrobin (1), β-sitosterol (2), a mixture of sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside/stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3a/3b), 13²-hydroxyphaeophytin a (4), phaeophytin a (5), a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (6a/6b), kaempferol (7), quercetin (8), 7'-ethoxy-trans-feruloyltyramine (mariannein, 9) and trans-feruloyl tyramine (10). Compound 9 is reported for the first time in the literature. The structural characterization of the compounds was performed by analyses of 1-D and 2-D NMR data. In addition, a phenolic and flavonol total content assay was carried out, and the anti-oxidant potential of P. gounellei was demonstrated.

  3. New Alcamide and Anti-oxidant Activity of Pilosocereus gounellei A. Weber ex K. Schum. Bly. ex Rowl. (Cactaceae

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    Jéssica K. S. Maciel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cactaceae family is composed by 124 genera and about 1438 species. Pilosocereus gounellei, popularly known in Brazil as xique-xique, is used in folk medicine to treat prostate inflammation, gastrointestinal and urinary diseases. The pioneering phytochemical study of P. gounellei was performed using column chromatography and HPLC, resulting in the isolation of 10 substances: pinostrobin (1, β-sitosterol (2, a mixture of sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside/stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3a/3b, 132-hydroxyphaeophytin a (4, phaeophytin a (5, a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (6a/6b, kaempferol (7, quercetin (8, 7′-ethoxy-trans-feruloyltyramine (mariannein, 9 and trans-feruloyl tyramine (10. Compound 9 is reported for the first time in the literature. The structural characterization of the compounds was performed by analyses of 1-D and 2-D NMR data. In addition, a phenolic and flavonol total content assay was carried out, and the anti-oxidant potential of P. gounellei was demonstrated.

  4. Seed reserve composition and mobilization during germination and early seedling establishment of Cereus jamacaru D.C. ssp. jamacaru (Cactaceae).

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    Alencar, Nara L M; Innecco, Renato; Gomes-Filho, Enéas; Gallão, Maria Izabel; Alvarez-Pizarro, Juan C; Prisco, José T; Oliveira, Alexandre B De

    2012-09-01

    Cereus jamacaru, a Cactaceae found throughout northeast Brazil, is widely used as cattle food and as an ornamental and medicinal plant. However, there has been little information about the physiological and biochemical aspects involved in its germination. The aim of this study was to investigate its reserve mobilization during germination and early seedling growth. For this, C. jamacaru seeds were germinated in a growth chamber and collected at 0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 12 days after imbibition for morphological and biochemical analyses. Dry seeds had wrinkled seed coats and large, curved embryos. Lipids were the most abundant reserve, comprising approximately 55% and 65% of the dry mass for cotyledons and the hypocotylradicle axis, respectively. Soluble sugars and starch were the minor reserves, corresponding to approximately 2.2% of the cotyledons' dry mass, although their levels showed significant changes during germination. Soluble proteins corresponded to 40% of the cotyledons' dry mass, which was reduced by 81% at the final period of germination compared to dry seeds. C. jamacaru seed can be classified as an oil seed due to its high lipid content. Moreover, lipids were the main reserve mobilized during germination because their levels were strongly reduced after seed germination, while proteins were the second most utilized reserve in this process.

  5. Molecular phylogenetics of Echinopsis (Cactaceae): Polyphyly at all levels and convergent evolution of pollination modes and growth forms.

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    Schlumpberger, Boris O; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-08-01

    In its current circumscription, Echinopsis with 100-150 species is one of the largest and morphologically most diverse genera of Cactaceae. This diversity and an absence of correlated characters have resulted in numerous attempts to subdivide Echinopsis into more homogeneous subgroups. To infer natural species groups in this alliance, we here provide a plastid phylogeny and use it to infer changes in growth form, pollination mode, and ploidy level. We sequenced 3800 nucleotides of chloroplast DNA from 162 plants representing 144 species and subspecies. The sample includes the type species of all genera close to, or included in, Echinopsis as well as a dense sample of other genera of the Trichocereeae and further outgroups. New and published chromosome counts were compiled and traced on the phylogeny, as were pollination modes and growth habits. A maximum likelihood phylogeny confirms that Echinopsis s.l. is not monophyletic nor are any of the previously recognized genera that have more than one species. Pollination mode and, to a lesser extent, growth habit are evolutionarily labile, and diploidy is the rule in Echinopsis s.l., with the few polyploids clustered in just a few clades. The use of evolutionary labile floral traits and growth habit has led to nonnatural classifications. Taxonomic realignments are required, but further study of less evolutionary labile traits suitable for circumscribing genera are needed. Surprisingly, polyploidy seems infrequent in the Echinopsis alliance and hybridization may thus be of minor relevance in the evolution of this clade.

  6. Populational characterization of Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose Luetzelburg (Cactaceae present in an inselberg of the Paraiban Caatinga

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    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inselbergs are rocky outcrops that are characterized by the fact that they form isolated ecosystems with a high degree of endemism. However, these environments remain little studied. The present work aimed to characterize a population of Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose Luetzelburg (Cactaceae occurring on an inselberg in the municipal district of Pocinhos, PB. Over the whole extension of the inselberg, 50 plots of 1m² were allocated. The sampled individuals were classified according to ontogenetic stadium, evaluating the number of individuals, the height, the diameter in the central section, and the number of dead. To evaluate the pattern of space distribution of the species, the Index of Dispersion of Morisita (Id was calculated, and to verify the influence of one ontogenetic stadium on another, the coefficient of linear correlation was applied (ρ. A total of 869 individuals were sampled, of which 635 were young and 234 were adults. The value of Id was 1.28, indicating that the population distribution was clumped. The value of ρ = -0.3872 demonstrated a negative linear correlation among the ontogenetic stadiums. The accumulation of rocky sediment on some points of the inselberg certainly favored the distribution of the species on it. The population demonstrated stability, with a great number of stock individuals.

  7. New mescaline concentrations from 14 taxa/cultivars of Echinopsis spp. (Cactaceae) ("San Pedro") and their relevance to shamanic practice.

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    Ogunbodede, Olabode; McCombs, Douglas; Trout, Keeper; Daley, Paul; Terry, Martin

    2010-09-15

    The aim of the present study is to determine in a procedurally uniform manner the mescaline concentrations in stem tissue of 14 taxa/cultivars of the subgenus Trichocereus of the genus Echinopsis (Cactaceae) and to evaluate the relationship (if any) between mescaline concentration and actual shamanic use of these plants. Columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis, some of which are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes by South American shamans in traditional medicine, were selected for analysis because they were vegetative clones of plants of documented geographic origin and/or because they were known to be used by practitioners of shamanism. Mescaline content of the cortical stem chlorenchyma of each cactus was determined by Soxhlet extraction with methanol, followed by acid-base extraction with water and dichloromethane, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). By virtue of the consistent analytical procedures used, comparable alkaloid concentrations were obtained that facilitated the ranking of the various selected species and cultivars of Echinopsis, all of which exhibited positive mescaline contents. The range of mescaline concentrations across the 14 taxa/cultivars spanned two orders of magnitude, from 0.053% to 4.7% by dry weight. The mescaline concentrations reported here largely support the hypothesis that plants with the highest mescaline concentrations - particularly E. pachanoi from Peru - are most associated with documented shamanic use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A survey for potential biological control agents of Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae) in Brazil reveals two new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

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    Pikart, Tiago G; Costa, Valmir A; Hansson, Christer; Cristo, Sandra C DE; Vitorino, Marcelo D

    2017-05-30

    This paper deals with the description of two new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Brazil, parasitoids of larvae of Adetus analis (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Both species are similar to Horismenus steirastomae (Girault), a species that also parasitizes cerambycids. Adetus analis is a pest of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae), a minor crop in Brazil, Argentina and U.S.A., but also feeds in stems of Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae), an ornamental plant that has become a problematic weed species in Africa, where it was introduced. The two new Horismenus species are described, diagnosed, and compared to H. steirastomae.

  9. Reproductive biology of a highly endemic species: Cipocereus laniflorus N.P. Taylor & Zappi (Cactaceae Biologia reprodutiva de uma espécie altamente endêmica: Cipocereus laniflorus Taylor & Zappi (Cactaceae

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    Juliana Ordones Rego

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cipocereus laniflorus N.P. Taylor & Zappi is an endemic species from the Serra do Caraça, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to propose conservation strategies for this species, its reproductive strategies were investigated, including reproductive phenology, floral biology, floral visitors and breeding system. The flowering and fruiting period extends from May to October. Few flowers per plant open each night, producing up to 0.4 ml nectar, but 30% of them are nectarless. Probably pollen is also offered as a resource. Fruiting efficiency of C. laniflorus (47% is close to that found in other Cactaceae species. Pollen of this species was detected in Anoura geoffroy, Soricina glossophaga and Pygoderma bilabiatum bats. Amongst the characteristics related to bat-pollination syndrome found in C. laniflorus, the cream-white colouring of the internal part of the flower, the numerous stamens and the nocturnal anthesis of short duration can be highlighted. Flowers of C. laniflorus are also visited by Nitidulidae beetles, Trigona fulviventris bees and hummingbirds, however bats are the main pollinators of this species. Finally, as a self-sterile species, C. laniflorus needs a pollinator and is more susceptible to the risk of extinction if local disturbances affect its pollination system.Cipocereus laniflorus N.P. Taylor & Zappi é uma espécie endêmica da Serra do Caraça, Minas Gerais, Brasil. A fim de se propor estratégias de conservação para esta espécie, estudos sobre sua biologia reprodutiva foram realizados, incluindo fenologia reprodutiva, biologia floral, visitantes florais e o sistema reprodutivo. O período de floração e frutificação ocorre de maio a outubro. Poucas flores abrem-se por planta a cada noite, podendo produzir até 0.4 ml de néctar, poré 30% destas não apresentam néctar. Cipocereus laniflorus provavelmente oferece também pólen como recurso. A eficiência de frutificação sob condições naturais de poliniza

  10. Pollination and seed dispersal of Melocactus ernestii Vaupel subsp. ernestii (Cactaceae) by lizards: an example of double mutualism.

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    Gomes, V G N; Quirino, Z G M; Machado, I C

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies show that the mutualistic role of lizards as pollinators and seed dispersers has been underestimated, with several ecological factors promoting such plant-animal interactions, especially on oceanic islands. Our aim is to provide a quantitative assessment of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms with lizards in continental xeric habitats. We carried out focal observations of natural populations of Melocactus ernestii (Cactaceae) in the Caatinga, a Brazilian semiarid ecosystem, in order to record the frequency of visits, kind of resource searched and behaviour of visiting animals towards flowers and/or fruits. We made a new record of the lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus foraging on flowers and fruits of M. ernestii. During the search for nectar, T. semitaeniatus contacted the reproductive structures of the flowers and transported pollen attached to its snout. Nectar production started at 14:00 h, with an average volume of 24.4 μl and an average concentration of solutes of 33%. Approximately 80% of the seeds of M. ernestii found in the faeces of T. semitaeniatus germinated under natural conditions. The roles of T. semitaeniatus as pollinator and seed disperser for M. ernestii show a clear relationship of double mutualism between two endemic species, which may result from the environmental conditions to which both species are subject. Seasonality, low water availability and arthropod supply in the environment, high local lizard densities, continuous nectar production by the flower and fruits with juicy pulp may be influencing the visits and, consequently, pollination and seed dispersal by lizards in this cactus. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Influence of Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles on the genetic structure of the mistletoe cactus Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae) in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Rodríguez-Gómez, Flor

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographical work on cloud forest-adapted species provides inconsistent evidence on cloud forest dynamics during glacial cycles. A study of Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae), a bird-dispersed epiphytic mistletoe cactus, was conducted to investigate genetic variation at sequence data from nuclear [internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 677 bp] and chloroplast (rpl32-trnL, 1092bp) DNA for 154 individuals across the species range in Mesoamerica to determine if such patterns are consistent with the expansion/contraction model of cloud forest during glacial cycles. We conducted population and spatial genetic analyses as well as gene flow and divergence time estimates between 24 populations comprising the distribution of R. baccifera in Mexico and Guatemala to gain insight of the evolutionary history of these populations, and a complementary species distribution modeling approach to frame information derived from the genetic analyses into an explicit paleoecological context. The results revealed a phylogeographical break at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and high levels of genetic diversity among populations and cloud forest areas. Despite the genetic differentiation of some R. baccifera populations, the widespread ITS ribotypes suggest effective nuclear gene flow via pollen and population differentiation shown by the rpl32-trnL suggests more restricted seed flow. Predictions of species distribution models under past last glacial maximum (LGM) climatic conditions and a significant signal of demographic expansion suggest that R. baccifera populations experienced a range expansion tracking the conditions of the cloud forest distribution and shifted to the lowlands with population connectivity during the LGM. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Insect growth regulatory effects of some extracts and sterols from Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor.

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    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, J Rodrigo; Martínez, Mariano; Aranda, Eduardo

    2005-10-01

    A methanol extract from the roots and aerial parts of Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) yielded peniocerol 1, macdougallin 2, and chichipegenin 3. The natural products 1, 2 their mixtures, MeOH and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts showed insecticidal and insect growth regulatory activity against fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)], an important insect pest of corn, and [Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera)], a pest of stored grains in Mexico. The most active compounds were 1, 2, and a mixture (M(2)) of 1 and 2 (6:4). All these extracts, compounds and the mixture had insect growth regulating (IGR) activity between 5.0 and 50.0 ppm and insecticidal effects between 50 and 300 ppm in diets. The extracts were insecticidal to larvae, with lethal doses between 100 and 200 ppm. These compounds appear to have selective effects on the pre-emergence metabolism of Coleoptera, because in all treatments of the larvae of T. molitor, pupation were shortened and this process show precociousness in relation to controls. In contrast to S. frugiperda larvae, onset of pupation was noticeably delayed. Emergence in both cases was drastically diminished. In both pupae and in the few adults that were able to emerge, many deformations were observed. The results of these assays indicated that the compounds were more active than other known natural insect growth inhibitors such as gedunin and methanol extracts of Cedrela salvadorensis and Yucca periculosa. Peniocerol, macdougallin and chichipegenin, as well as mixtures of these substances, may be useful as natural insecticidal agents.

  13. O gênero Rhipsalis Gärtner (Cactaceae, no Estado de São Paulo I: espécies com ramos cilíndricos ou subcilíndricos The genus Rhipsalis Gärtner (Cactaceae in the State of São Paulo-I: species with cylindrical or subcilindrical joints

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    Julio Antonio Lombardi

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhipsalis Gärtner é um gênero de Cactaceae de hábito epífita ou rupícola, de ampla distribuição nas Américas do Sul e Central, atingindo inclusive a África tropical e ilhas do Oceano Índico. Este trabalho procurou caracterizar morfologicamente as espécies do gênero Rhipsalis que ocorrem no Estado de São Paulo, possibilitando deste modo o reconhecimento das espécies. Entre as espécies do gênero que possuem artículos cilíndricos e subcilíndricos foram reconhecidas 16 espécies ocorrentes no Estado de São Paulo, incluindo uma espécie nova, R. spinescens Lombardi, além de uma espécie de determinação incerta.Rhipsalis Gärtner is a genus of epiphytic or rupicolous Cactaceae, with a wide distribution in South and Central America. It also occurs in tropical Africa and the islands of the Indie Ocean. This study describes the morphology of the species ocurring in São Paulo state (Brazil. A total of 16 species with cylindrical and subcylindrical joints were recognized for São Paulo state, including an new species R. spinescens Lombardi, and another of uncertain affinity.

  14. What does it take to resolve relationships and to identify species with molecular markers? An example from the epiphytic Rhipsalideae (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Nadja; Borsch, Thomas; Quandt, Dietmar; Taylor, Nigel P; Müller, Kai F; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-09-01

    The Cactaceae are a major New World plant family and popular in horticulture. Still, taxonomic units and species limits have been difficult to define, and molecular phylogenetic studies so far have yielded largely unresolved trees, so relationships within Cactaceae remain insufficiently understood. This study focuses on the predominantly epiphytic tribe Rhipsalideae and evaluates the utility of a spectrum of plastid genomic regions. • We present a phylogenetic study including 52 of the 53 Rhipsalideae species and all the infraspecific taxa. Seven regions (trnK intron, matK, rbcL, rps3-rpl16, rpl16 intron, psbA-trnH, trnQ-rps16), ca. 5600 nucleotides (nt) were sequenced per sample. The regions used were evaluated for their phylogenetic performance and performance in DNA-based species recognition based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) defined beforehand. • The Rhipsalideae are monophyletic and contain five clades that correspond to the genera Rhipsalis, Lepismium, Schlumbergera, Hatiora, and Rhipsalidopsis. The species-level tree was well resolved and supported; the rpl16 and trnK introns yielded the best phylogenetic signal. Although the psbA-trnH and trnQ-rps16 spacers were the most successful individual regions for OTU identification, their success rate did not significantly exceed 70%. The highest OTU identification rate of 97% was found using the combination of psbA-trnH, rps3-rpl16, trnK intron, and trnQ-rps16 as a minimum possible marker length (ca. 1660 nt). • The phylogenetic performance of a marker is not determined by the level of sequence variability, and species discrimination power does not necessarily correlate with phylogenetic utility.

  15. Dispersão zoocórica e hidrocórica marítima de Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae

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    Maurício Lenzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n1p47 Adaptações evolutivas na morfologia e fisiologia das cactáceas têm sido associadas aos seus mecanismos de dispersão e colonização. Os mecanismos e modos de dispersão de Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae foram caracterizados em duas praias de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. Um marsupial do gênero Didelphis (Mammalia: Didelphidae foi o único frugívoro e, portanto, dispersor de frutos, apresentando locais específicos para alimentação. A hidrocoria marítima ocorreu após a invasão marinha sobre a vegetação de restinga, caracterizando-se pela dispersão de cladódios e frutos em várias épocas do ano. Descreve-se pela primeira vez a ação do mar como potencial dispersor para uma espécie de cactos.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of Gymnocalycium (Cactaceae): assessment of alternative infrageneric systems, a new subgenus, and trends in the evolution of the genus.

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    Demaio, Pablo H; Barfuss, Michael H J; Kiesling, Roberto; Till, Walter; Chiapella, Jorge O

    2011-11-01

    The South American genus Gymnocalycium (Cactoideae-Trichocereae) demonstrates how the sole use of morphological data in Cactaceae results in conflicts in assessing phylogeny, constructing a taxonomic system, and analyzing trends in the evolution of the genus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed using parsimony and Bayesian methods on a 6195-bp data matrix of plastid DNA sequences (atpI-atpH, petL-psbE, trnK-matK, trnT-trnL-trnF) of 78 samples, including 52 species and infraspecific taxa representing all the subgenera of Gymnocalycium. We assessed morphological character evolution using likelihood methods to optimize characters on a Bayesian tree and to reconstruct possible ancestral states. The results of the phylogenetic study confirm the monophyly of the genus, while supporting overall the available infrageneric classification based on seed morphology. Analysis showed the subgenera Microsemineum and Macrosemineum to be polyphyletic and paraphyletic. Analysis of morphological characters showed a tendency toward reduction of stem size, reduction in quantity and hardiness of spines, increment of seed size, development of napiform roots, and change from juicy and colorful fruits to dry and green fruits. Gymnocalycium saglionis is the only species of Microsemineum and a new name is required to identify the clade including the remaining species of Microsemineum; we propose the name Scabrosemineum in agreement with seed morphology. Identifying morphological trends and environmental features allows for a better understanding of the events that might have influenced the diversification of the genus.

  17. Distinguishing suitable biotypes of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) for biological control of Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) in South Africa.

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    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Zimmermann, H G; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C

    2009-12-01

    Cylindropuntia fulgida (Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. fulgida (Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Cff) (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) is native to Mexico and Arizona and was introduced into South Africa for ornamental purposes. It subsequently became highly invasive, necessitating control. The cochineal insect, Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae), was selected as a potential biological control agent based on its restricted host range among Cylindropuntia species and previous success in controlling C. imbricata (DC.) F. Knuth (Ci). Eight D. tomentosus provenances (Cholla, Cholla E, Fulgida, Mamillata, Imbricata, Tunicata U, Tunicata V and Rosea) from Cylindropuntia species in their native ranges were reared on Cff, whilst Cholla and Imbricata were also reared on Ci. Large differences were found in the development and survival of crawlers, and in the reproductive capacity of females. Three subjective categories of provenance interaction with host plants were identified based on a fitness index (FI) calculated from data relating to crawler survival, female development time and fecundity: (i) thriving (FI > or = 1) - insects had shorter developmental times, high crawler survival and highly fecund females (Cholla); (ii) surviving (FI0) - insects had extended development times, low crawler survival and low fecundity (Imbricata, Fulgida and Mamillata); and (iii) dying (FI = 0) - insects died before or at the second instar (Rosea, Tunicata U and Tunicata V). Cholla, therefore, is highly suitable for biological control of Cff in South Africa. In addition, Cholla thrived on Cff but only survived on Ci whilst, in contrast, Imbricata thrived on Ci but only survived on Cff. This differential ability of provenances to thrive or survive on different host plants demonstrated that host adapted biotypes of D. tomentosus exist; therefore, biotypes should be taken into account when considering this species as a biological control agent of cactus weeds.

  18. Allozyme diversity and morphometrics of Melocactus paucispinus (Cactaceae) and evidence for hybridization with M. concinnus in the Chapada Diamantina, North-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sabrina Mota; Borba, Eduardo Leite; Machado, Marlon Câmara; Da Silva Andrade, Sónia Cristina

    2006-03-01

    Melocacatus paucispinus (Cactaceae) is endemic to the state of Bahia, Brazil, and due to its rarity and desirability to collectors it has been considered threatened with extinction. This species is usually sympatric and inter-fertile with M. concinnus, and morphological evidence for hybridization between them is present in some populations. Levels of genetic and morphological variation and sub-structuring in populations of these species were assessed and an attempt was made to verify the occurrence of natural hybridization between them. Genetic variability was surveyed using allozymes (12 loci) and morphological variability using multivariate morphometric analyses (17 vegetative characters) in ten populations of M. paucispinus and three of M. concinnus occurring in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia. Genetic variability was low in both species (P = 0.0-33.3, A = 1.0-1.6, H(e) = 0.000-0.123 in M. paucispinus; P = 0.0-25.0, A = 1.0-1.4, H(e) = 0.000-0.104 in M. concinnus). Deficit of heterozygotes within the populations was detected in both species, with high values of F(IS) (0.732 and 0.901 in M. paucispinus and M. concinnus, respectively). Evidence of hybridization was detected by the relative allele frequency in the two diaphorase loci. High levels of genetic (F(ST) = 0.504 in M. paucispinus and 0.349 in M. concinnus) and morphological (A = 0.20 in M. paucispinus and 0.17 in M. concinnus) structuring among populations were found. The Melocactus spp. displayed levels of genetic variability lower than the values reported for other cactus species. The evidence indicates the occurrence of introgression in both species at two sites. The high F(ST) values cannot be explained by geographical substructuring, but are consistent with hybridization. Conversely, morphological differentiation in M. paucispinus, but not in M. concinnus, is probably due to isolation by distance.

  19. Triatominae et Cactaceae : un risque pour la transmission de la Trypanosomose américaine dans le péridomicile (nord-est du Brésil

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    Emperaire L.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Les observations de terrain réalisées dans le nord-est du Brésil ont montré la fréquente association, dans l’espace péridomiciliaire, entre un cactus, le Cereus jamacaru, la présence de nids dans ses branches et celle de Rhodnius neglectus et de Triatoma pseudomaculata, espèces vectrices du parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, agent de la maladie de Chagas. L’analyse des variables architecturales de cette Cactaceae montre que la présence de nids, et donc d’insectes, est inféodée aux pratiques traditionnelles de gestion de ce cactus. Cette étude souligne l’intérêt d’une approche intégrée de l’écologie des Triatominae pour l’identification des variables indicatrices de risque.

  20. Anatomy of Brazilian Cereeae (subfamily Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger and Brasilicereus Backeberg Anatomia de espécies brasileiras pertencentes à tribo Cereeae (subfamília Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger and Brasilicereus Backeberg

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    Patricia Soffiatti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Anatomy of Brazilian Cereeae (subfamily Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger wâBrasilicereus Backeberg. Arrojadoa, Stephanocereus and Brasilicereus are endemic Brazilian Cereeae, occurring along the Espinhaço Range, in the campos rupestres, cerrados and caatingas, from northern Minas Gerais to southern Bahia. The genera are columnar, erect to semi-erect cacti, except for one species, A bahiensis, which is globose. This study describes the anatomy of dermal, fundamental and vascular systems, aiming to find diagnostic characters for the genera and species. Basal portions of stems were sectioned transversely and longitudinally, and stained with Astrablue and Safranin. The species share a uniseriate epidermis, with thick cuticle; well developed collenchymatic hypodermis, containing prismatic crystals; cortex with numerous mucilage cells, druses and vascular bundles; outside cortex as a palisade parenchyma; periderm composed of lignified cork cells alternating with suberized cells; pheloderm consisting of a few layers of thin-walled cells; phloem composed of solitary or multiple of two to three sieve tube elements, companion cells, axial and radial parenchyma; secondary xylem with solitary to multiple vessels, with simple perforation plates and alternate bordered to semi-bordered pits; axial parenchyma scanty vasicentric to incomplete; libriform septate fibres; large rays. Unlignified parenchyma is seen in the secondary xylem, varying from a few cells to bands among axial and radial elements. The following are considered diagnostic characters: the shape of lignified phellem cells, cubic to radially elongate, which individualizes S. leucostele; an underdeveloped hypodermis and the occurrence of sclereids in the cortex are exclusive to Brasilicereus markgrqfii.(Anatomia de espécies brasileiras pertencentes à tribo Cereeae (subfamília Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger and

  1. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Becerra, Ezequiel; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Del Real, Alicia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rodríguez-García, Mario; Rubio, Efraín; Quintero-García, Michelle; Rojas-Molina, Isela

    2017-02-04

    Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively) and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively) for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet). The failure load of femurs was significantly lower ( p ≤ 0.05) in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.05) than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  2. CO{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of Agaves and Cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Terminal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net CO{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  3. CO{sub 2} exchange environmental productivity indices, and productivity of agaves and cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net C0{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  4. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Hernández-Becerra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet. The failure load of femurs was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05 than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  5. Atividade antibacteriana de Cereus jamacaru DC, Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Davet

    Full Text Available A procura por novos agentes antimicrobianos a partir de plantas vem sendo intensificada e não existem estudos direcionados à avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de C. jamacaru frente a microrganismos prejudiciais ao homem. Em vista disso, avaliou-se o efeito antimicrobiano do extrato bruto etanólico do lenho (EBLE e do córtex (EBCO desta espécie frente a colônias puras de oito microrganismos patogênicos. Neste estudo foram utilizados os métodos difusão em ágar (meio sólido e CIM (concentração inibitória mínima. Os resultados obtidos neste ensaio preliminar mostraram que EBCO apresentou atividade antimicrobiana mais pronunciada que EBCE e que os microrganismos cujo crescimento foi mais influenciado por EBCO foram Streptococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli.

  6. Triterpenoid saponins from Echinopsis macrogona (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sachie; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Ito, Satoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Yuasa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Triterpene saponins, pachanosides C1, E1, F1 and G1 (1-4), and bridgesides A1, C1, C2, D1, D2, E1 and E2 (5-11) were isolated from Echinopsis macrogona. Compounds 1-4 were saponins with pachanane type triterpene saponins, while the others (5-11) were oleanane type triterpene saponins. While the aglycones of 2-4 and 8-11 were hitherto unknown, the structure of pachanol C was revised in this paper. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing local scale impacts of Opuntia stricta (Cactaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... assemblages were significantly different from uninvaded control sites. This study suggests that the current density of O. stricta does not significantly affect spider species richness, density or assemblages but that beetle assemblages are significantly affected. Key words: Araneae, arthropods, Coleoptera, invasion impacts, ...

  8. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  9. Taxonomic revalidation and potential distribution of Armatocereus brevispinus Madsen (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R. Loaiza S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the first confirmed record for northern Peru of Armatocereus brevispinus Madsen, a species of cactus regarded as endemic to the province of Loja, in the southern region of Ecuador. The record corresponds to a locality placed near the km 18 of the route to Ayabaca (04º42’21.0”S and 79º48’51.0”W, in the district of Ayabaca, within the province of Ayabaca, in the Department of Piura. This records represents an extension of the distributional range known for this species in Ecuador. We analyze its taxonomy and the distribution and conservation status and comments on its biogeography in the Andean region.

  10. How specialised is bird pollination in the Cactaceae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiague, P; Ortega-Baes, P

    2016-01-01

    Many cactus species produce 'bird' flowers; however, the reproductive biology of the majority of these species has not been studied. Here, we report on a study of the pollination of two species from the Cleistocactus genus, cited as an ornithophilous genus, in the context of the different ways in which they are specialised to bird pollination. In addition, we re-evaluate the level of specialisation of previous studies of cacti with bird pollination and evaluate how common phenotypic specialisation to birds is in this family. Both Cleistocactus species exhibited ornithophilous floral traits. Cleistocactus baumannii was pollinated by hummingbirds, whereas Cleistocactus smaragdiflorus was pollinated by hummingbirds and bees. Pollination by birds has been recorded in 27 cactus species, many of which exhibit ornithophilous traits; however, they show generalised pollination systems with bees, bats or moths in addition to birds being their floral visitors. Of all cactus species, 27% have reddish flowers. This trait is associated with diurnal anthesis and a tubular shape. Phenotypic specialisation to bird pollination is recognised in many cactus species; however, it is not predictive of functional and ecological specialisation in this family. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Population viability of Pediocactus bradyi (Cactaceae) in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shryock, Daniel F; Esque, Todd C; Hughes, Lee

    2014-11-01

    A key question concerns the vulnerability of desert species adapted to harsh, variable climates to future climate change. Evaluating this requires coupling long-term demographic models with information on past and projected future climates. We investigated climatic drivers of population growth using a 22-yr demographic model for Pediocactus bradyi, an endangered cactus in northern Arizona. We used a matrix model to calculate stochastic population growth rates (λs) and the relative influences of life-cycle transitions on population growth. Regression models linked population growth with climatic variability, while stochastic simulations were used to (1) understand how predicted increases in drought frequency and extreme precipitation would affect λs, and (2) quantify variability in λs based on temporal replication of data. Overall λs was below unity (0.961). Population growth was equally influenced by fecundity and survival and significantly correlated with increased annual precipitation and higher winter temperatures. Stochastic simulations increasing the probability of drought and extreme precipitation reduced λs, but less than simulations increasing the probability of drought alone. Simulations varying the temporal replication of data suggested 14 yr were required for accurate λs estimates. Pediocactus bradyi may be vulnerable to increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events, particularly drought. Biotic interactions resulting in low survival during drought years outweighed increased seedling establishment following heavy precipitation. Climatic extremes beyond historical ranges of variability may threaten rare desert species with low population growth rates and therefore high susceptibility to stochastic events. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  12. Population viability of Pediocactus brady (Cactaceae) in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shryock, Daniel F.; Esque, Todd C.; Huges, Lee

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A key question concerns the vulnerability of desert species adapted to harsh, variable climates to future climate change. Evaluating this requires coupling long-term demographic models with information on past and projected future climates. We investigated climatic drivers of population growth using a 22-yr demographic model for Pediocactus bradyi, an endangered cactus in northern Arizona.

  13. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-03

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  14. Structure–Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

  15. Structure-function relationships in highly modified shoots of cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauseth, James D

    2006-11-01

    Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus 'flower' is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels.

  16. Rhipsalis grandiflora Haw. (Cactaceae propagation by setem cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancato Giulio Cesare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhipsalis is being cultivated as a potted plant since the view of the pendant branches with coloured flowers and fruit is very appreciated. Considering that there is no information about the production of rooted propagules of these species, the goal of this work was to evaluate the development of stem cuttings, stimulated by the application of plant growth regulators. The indolebutyric acid (IBA was tested at 0; 4.07; 5.81, and 11.63 mmol L-1 and the naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA at 0; 4.53; 6.47, and 12.94 mmol L-1 for their activity in promoting roots on apical stem segments of Rhipsalis grandiflora Raw. The base of stem cuttings was dipped into auxin solutions mixed with talc and each one was partially embedded in fir bark (Pinus sp and fern fiber (1:1 in polystyrene propagation flats, placed throughout the rooting period in a greenhouse (50% shading, at 60-90% of relative humidity and temperatures from 20 to 25ºC. The experimental design was a completely randomised with eight treatments (twelve replicates, with samplings at 0; 20; 50; 80, and 150 days. The results indicate no differences between IBA and NAA regarding the dry mass of roots, but an increase in for concentrations of 0 and 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 0 and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, in relation to treatments with auxins. Stem cuttings treated with 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, had greater dry mass of shoot bud differentiation in relation to those treated with 0 mmol L-1.

  17. Compatibilidad sexual entre dos tipos de Hylocerus (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Castillo M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Dos de los tipos de pitahaya mas cultivados en la Península de Yucatán, México, difieren principalmente por el color de su cáscara, el primero es de color rojo (Uqroo1, perteneciente a Hylocereus undatus, mientras que en el segundo es color amarillo claro (Uqroo2, hasta el momento también identificado como H. undatus; este último es mas dulce. En ambos tipos de pitahayas, se realizaron autopolinizaciones y polinizaciones cruzadas directas y recíprocas, con el propósito de evaluar el efecto en la cantidad de frutos que lograron su desarrollo. Se midieron algunas variables para detectar la influencia del progenitor paterno en algunas características del fruto. Los testigos se obtuvieron de flores polinizadas libremente. El diseño experimental utilizado fue completamente al azar, con 15 repeticiones por tratamiento. Se encontró que Uqroo1 es autocompatible, mientras que Uqroo2 es autoincompatible. Los testigos de ambos tipos alcanzaron el mismo peso, y los frutos de Uqroo2 logrados por polinización cruzada tuvieron un peso similar al de los testigos o fueron significativamente mas pesados. Algunas variables resultaron positivamente correlacionados; el coeficiente entre el número de semillas y el peso total del fruto fue de r = 0.84. La correlación mas alta (r = 0.97 resultó entre el peso total y el peso de la pulpa. En los frutos obtenidos por polinización cruzada prevalecieron las características del progenitor materno. Se recomienda cultivar la Pitahaya blanca con otro tipo de pitahaya, además de Uqroo1There are two types of pitahaya that are cultivated in Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. They differ mainly in the skin color of the fruit, one of them has a red skin (Uqroo1, while the other has a light yellow skin (Uqroo2 both belong to Hylocereus undatus (Haworth Britt. & Rose. The yellow skin pitahaya is the sweetest. The studies were conducted using the methods of self pollination and cross pollination, with direct crosses and reciprocal pollination in order to evaluate the effect related to the quantity of fruits that accomplish their growing process. Some characteristic parameters of fruits, thus obtained, were used to detect the possible xenic effect. The control samples were collected from naturally pollinated flowers. The experimental design used was completely random and the experiment was repeated fifteen times. The results revealed that the Uqroo1 turned out to be self-compatible, and their fruits reached one hundred percent of development. On the other hand, Uqroo2 was self-incompatible, that is, it did not accept self pollen. The control samples of both types reached the same weight, and the fruits of the Uqroo2 produced by cross pollination had the same or more weight than the control samples. Several parameters were positively correlated. The coefficient between the number of seeds and the fruit weight was r= 0.84. The highest correlation that was found (r = 0.97 in the fruit weight and the pulp weight within both types. The fruits obtained by cross-pollination maintained the characteristic of the female progenitor. It is suggest intercalate the yellow pitahaya plants with another types or species of pitahaya, other than the Uqroo1

  18. [Sexual compatibility between two types of Hylocerus (Cactaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Roberta; Livera, Manuel; Brechú, Alicia E; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith

    2003-01-01

    There are two types of pitahaya that are cultivated in Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. They differ mainly in the skin color of the fruit, one of them has a red skin (Uqroo1), while the other has a light yellow skin (Uqroo2) both belong to Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britt. & Rose. The yellow skin pitahaya is the sweetest. The studies were conducted using the methods of self pollination and cross pollination, with direct crosses and reciprocal pollination in order to evaluate the effect related to the quantity of fruits that accomplish their growing process. Some characteristic parameters of fruits, thus obtained, were used to detect the possible xenic effect. The control samples were collected from naturally pollinated flowers. The experimental design used was completely random and the experiment was repeated fifteen times. The results revealed that the Uqroo1 turned out to be self-compatible, and their fruits reached one hundred percent of development. On the other hand, Uqroo2 was self-incompatible, that is, it did not accept self pollen. The control samples of both types reached the same weight, and the fruits of the Uqroo2 produced by cross pollination had the same or more weight than the control samples. Several parameters were positively correlated. The coefficient between the number of seeds and the fruit weight was r = 0.84. The highest correlation that was found (r = 0.97) in the fruit weight and the pulp weight within both types. The fruits obtained by cross-pollination maintained the characteristic of the female progenitor. It is suggest intercalate the yellow pitahaya plants with another types or species of pitahaya, other than the Uqroo1.

  19. Micro-morphology and anatomy of Turbinicarpus (Cactaceae spines Micromorfología y anatomía de las espinas de Turbinicarpus (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mosco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Spines are a striking feature of cacti and display wide variation in size, number, shape, and texture. This study showed that Turbinicarpus species exhibit not only a high variability in the gross morphology of the spines, but also in their micro-morphology. Their surface can be smooth or ornamented with projections that can be low, conical, pinnate, or long trichomes. The epidermis can be continuous, broken up into single cell elements or transversely fissured, the fissures extending deeply into the underlying sclerenchyma. The mechanical properties of the spines are related to their anatomy, here documented for the first time. The woody rigid spines being made up of fibers with thick walls (> 3 µm, while papery or corky spines have a sclerenchyma made up of fibers with thin walls (Las espinas son una de las características más distintivas de las cactáceas y se distinguen por su variación en tamaño, número, forma y textura. Este estudio muestra que las especies de Turbinicarpus no sólo tienen variación en la morfología de sus espinas, sino también en su micro-morfología. Su superficie puede ser lisa u ornamentada con proyecciones bajas, cónicas, pinadas o bien con tricomas largos. En las espinas, la epidermis se mantiene continua, separada en sus células o transversalmente fisurada. Las fisuras de la epidermis pueden prolongarse hasta el esclerénquima más interno. Las propiedades mecánicas de las espinas están relacionadas con su anatomía, aquí documentada por primera vez. Las espinas rígidas están constituidas de fibras con paredes gruesas (> 3 µm, mientras que las espinas suaves o corchosas, también denominadas cerdas tienen esclerénquima de fibras con paredes delgadas (< 2 µm. Además, algunas espinas en su madurez tienen 2 tipos de fibras, las pobremente lignificadas en la parte externa y en la interna las de paredes gruesas y lignificadas. La taxonomía de Turbinicarpus se basa principalmente en las espinas y los datos aquí generados contribuyen a un mejor entendimiento de sus relaciones interespecíficas. El conocimiento de las características epidermales como los tricomas largos, la carencia de ornamentación o las modificaciones anatómicas de las espinas corchosas pueden interpretarse como caracteres apomórficos en el género.

  20. La Historia de una especie del patrimonio holguinero: Escobaria cubensis (Cactaceae "el cactus enano". Primera parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Reyes Fornet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenta una investigación sobre la historia taxonómica y estudios sobre la ecología del "cactus enano de Holguín", Escobaria cubensis (Britton & Rose Hunt, 1978 desde 1909 hasta 1990, elementos importantes, para la conservación y como contribución al conocimiento de la historia del patrimonio natural holguinero, con datos históricos sobre visitas de personalidades del mundo y Holguín. Se estudiaron 37 materiales correspondientes a notas de viajes, cartas y publicaciones. Se señala la posibilidad de que el colector, J. Shafer estuvo en dos zonas de distribución. Las contribuciones al conocimiento de su ecología hasta 1990 se basaron en la observación y descripción.

  1. Anatomical and morphological features of seedlings of some Cactoideae Eaton (Cactaceae Juss. species

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    Halyna Kalashnyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-month-old seedlings of 11 species of the subfamily Cactoideae (Melocactus bahiensis, Melocactus curvispinus, Echinopsis eyriesii, E. mirablis, E. peruviana, Oreocereus celsianus, Rebutia flavistyla, Rebutia minuscula, Astrophytum myriostigma, Mamillaria columbiana, and M. prolifera have been studied. These plants exhibit a uniseriate epidermis, covered by a thin cuticle. Except for E. peruviana and A. myriostigma, no hypodermis could be detected. The shoots of all studied specimens consist mainly of cortex parenchyma with large thin-walled cells. The pith parenchyma is composed of much smaller cells. Due to the fact that the cortex parenchyma comprises the largest portion of the cross-sectional area, it can be concluded that it is the main water-storing tissue. The extent of vascular tissue development varies. Collateral vascular bundles are present in the stele. The studied seedlings contain various ergastic substances, in particular inclusions of calcium oxalate (all studied species, starch (Mammillaria prolifera, E. mirabilis, and the genus Melocactus, inulin-like inclusions, and occasionally lipid drops (some Echinopsis species. Thus, it was found that all studied plants have a highly specialized anatomical and morphological structure. At the same time, the epidermis and hypodermis are poorly developed. Accordingly, the adaptation to arid conditions of the examined seedlings involves an increased growth of the water-storing tissue and the production of ergastic substances.

  2. Diurnal and Nocturnal Pollination of Marginatocereus marginatus (Pachycereeae: Cactaceae) in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAR, SALEEM; ARIZMENDI, Ma. del CORO; VALIENTE-BANUET, ALFONSO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Chiropterophillous and ornithophillous characteristics can form part of a single reproductive strategy in plants that have flowers with diurnal and nocturnal anthesis. This broader pollination strategy can ensure seed set when pollinators are scarce or unpredictable. This appears to be true of hummingbirds, which presumably pollinate Marginatocereus marginatus, a columnar cactus with red nocturnal and diurnal flowers growing as part of dense bat-pollinated columnar cacti forests in arid regions of central Mexico. The aim of this study was to study the floral biology of M. marginatus, and evaluate the effectiveness of nocturnal vs. diurnal pollinators and the contribution of each pollinator group to overall plant fitness. • Methods Individual flower buds were marked and followed to evaluate flower phenology and anthesis time. Flowers and nectar production were measured. An exclusion experiment was conducted to measure the relative contribution of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators to seed set. • Key Results Marginatocereus marginatus has red hermaphroditic flowers with nocturnal and diurnal anthesis. The plant cannot produce seeds by selfing and was pollinated during the day by hummingbirds and during the night by bats, demonstrating that both pollinator groups were important for plant reproduction. Strong pollen limitation was found in the absence of one of the pollinator guilds. • Conclusions Marginatocereus marginatus has an open pollination system in which both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators are needed to set seeds. This represents a fail-safe pollination system that can ensure both pollination, in a situation of low abundance of one of the pollinator groups (hummingbirds), and high competition for nocturnal pollinators with other columnar cacti that bloom synchronously with M. marginatus in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico. PMID:16394025

  3. Dynamic Analysis of the Evolution of Cereus peruvianus (Cactaceae Areas Attacked by Phoma sp.

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    Gyorgy FESZT

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereus Peruvianus (night blooming Cereus, or peruvian apple is one of the sensitive species to Phoma attack. Photographic images can intercept a certain phytopathology, at a certain moment. The computerized analysis of such an image turns into a value the spread which the phytopathological process has at that moment. The purpose of this study is to assimilate the technique of achieving successions of digital photos of Cereus peruvianus f. monstruosa attacked by Phoma sp. Parallely with recording the images, with the help of Rhythm digital temperature humidity controller, were recorded data about the green house microclimate (air humidity-minimum and maximum, temperature-minimum and maximum. In the first stage of the study, the attack presents small fluctuations, reaching a high level in days with low temperatures. So, the most significant growths were recorded in the periods: 10. 02. 2005-20. 02. 2005 with an affected area of 10.97-8.82 = 2.15 and 11. 03. 2005-22. 04. 2005 with growth differences of 14.67-13.32 = 1.35. Generally, the affected areas grow in days with low minimum temperatures. The great advantage of this technique is represented by the possibility of using in situ in home areas of species or crop plants in fields. Repeated images, achieved in time, then overlapped, can provide important data on the evolution of affected areas.

  4. Development and Characterization of 10 Microsatellite Loci in the Giant Cardon Cactus, Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae

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    Carina Gutiérrez Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the cardon, a giant columnar cactus (Pachycereus pringlei of the Sonoran Desert, to investigate intraspecific genetic patterns of diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Using 454 GS-FLX technology and bioinformatics tools, microsatellite primers were successfully identified on 282 reads, including di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotides. A set of 10 primers were characterized on 80 individuals collected in two areas of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. All 10 loci were polymorphic, with a mean of 6.3 alleles per locus and overall levels of observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.41 to 0.59 and from 0.40 to 0.57, respectively. Alleles per individual plant ranged from one to four, suggesting a polyploidal genome. Conclusions: These loci should be useful for future investigations of population structure, genetic diversity, and gene flow in the cardon cactus.

  5. Generative period in development of Mammillaria Haw. (Cactaceae Juss. plants in greenhouse conditions

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    Kateryna Baglay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic composition of the collection of the genus Mammillariain O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden, as well as the peculiarities of blooming and seed germination have been considered. The list of the plants from the genus Mammillariain this collection which are included into IUCN Red List have been represented. The optimal conditions of seed conservation have been determined.

  6. Notes on the Cactaceae of Curaçao, Aruba, Bonaire and North Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar Hummelinck, P.

    1938-01-01

    La flora de cactos de las islas situadas entre Trinidad y la península de La Goajira comprende trece especies silvestres, aparte del género Melocactus: Pereskia Guamacho, Opuntia caribaea, O. curassavica, O. Wentiana, O. elatior, Rhipsalis cassutha, Hylocereus Lemairei, Acanthocereus pentagonus,

  7. THE GENERATIVE REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF RED DRAGON FRUIT (Hylocereus.polyrhizus (Web. Britton & Rose, CACTACEAE

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    Eniek Kriswiyanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the generative reproductive characteristics of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Web. Britton & Rose, that is the characteristics and the development of male and female reproductive system and the embryo. The flowering morphology was observed through the gametogenesis process and the process of embryogenesis was observed using the methods of squash, cytolysis, and embedding of flower before anthesis, during and after anthesis. The results showed that the flower funnelled form with many calyxes, stamens and crowns. The pollen was circular, sulcus, trilate, reticulate, and spheroid. The development of microgametophyte was at the 2nd stages with three nucleuses and the pistil developed after anthesis.  Anthesis was taken place at night time, fertilization and pollen developed before anthesis and has not germinating. A single pistil, the head of pistil with many branches, the style longer than the stamen, open type.  Seeds anathrophus, endosperm and embryo with the globular shaped, developed 5 days after anthesis, the embryo torpedo likes and the differentiation of primer tissues seen in the seeds 7 days after anthesis, and arilus generated from development of megasporangium. Keywords: embedding, self incompatibility, sferoidal, anatrophus, arillus.

  8. Agrobiodiversity of cactus pear (Opuntia, Cactaceae in the Meridional Highlands Plateau of Mexico

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    Juan Antonio Reyes-Agüero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is characterized by a remarkable richness of Opuntia, mostly at the Meridional Highlands Plateau; it is also here where the greatest richness of Opuntia variants occurs. Most of these variants have been maintained in homegardens; however, the gathering process which originated these homegardens has been disrupted over the past decades, as a result of social change and the destruction of large wild nopaleras. If the variants still surviving in homegardens are lost, these will be hard to recover, that is, the millenary cultural heritage from the human groups that populated the Mexican Meridional Highland Plateau will be lost forever. This situation motivated the preparation of a catalogue that records the diversity of wild and cultivated Opuntia variants living in the meridional Highlands Plateau. To this end, 379 samples were obtained in 29 localities, between 1998 and 2003. The information was processed through Twinspan. All specimens were identified and preserved in herbaria. Botanical keys and descriptions were elaborated. The catalogue includes information on 126 variants comprising 18 species. There were species with only one variant (Opuntia atropes, O. cochinera, O. jaliscana, O. leucotricha, O. rzedowskii and O. velutina, two (O. durangensis, O. lindheimeri, O. phaeacantha and O. robusta, five (O. joconostle and O. lasiacantha, seven (O. chavena, 12 (O. hyptiacantha and O. streptacantha, 15 (O. ficus-indica, 22 (O. albicarpa, and up to 34 (O. megacantha. Additionally, 267 common cactus pear names were related to those variants.

  9. Invasion of Opuntia humifusa and O. phaeacantha (Cactaceae into plant communities of the Karadag Nature Reserve

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    Valentina V. Fateryga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of Opuntia humifusa and O. phaeacantha naturalised in the Karadag Nature Reserve (southeastern part of the Crimean Peninsula are presented. There, the largest coenopopulations of Opuntia plants are confined to the «biostation» territory (bordering with the park, administrative buildings and housing estate. Twelve localities were described in the Karadag Reserve. These differ by phytocoenotic characteristics, area and floristic composition. Seven localities include only O. humifusa plants; four ones include only O. phaeacantha individuals; and both the species are present on the twelfth locality. The total number of individuals of each species and ontogenetic structure of the population were studied in each locality. The total number of O. humifusa individuals in the Karadag Reserve is more than 600 plants within the «biostation» territory, while the total number of O. phaeacantha plants is about 400 individuals. Studying of the plant communities has been carried out according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Opuntia plants form derivate communities within degraded steppes, phryganoid-steppes, and semi-desert badland phytocoenoses almost at all studied localities. A significant number of synanthropic species (including alien plants was found within these communities. Opuntia plants are able to self-reproduce predominantly vegetatively. Self-seeding reproduction occurs less frequently. Both species can be considered as invasive plants because they have a high adaptive capacity.

  10. [Bacillus isolates from rhizosphere of cacti improve germination and bloom in Mammillaria spp. (Cactaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Ambriz, Lluvia A; Hernández-Morales, Alejandro; Cabrera-Luna, José A; Luna-Martínez, Laura; Pacheco-Aguilar, Juan R

    Cacti are the most representative vegetation of arid zones in Mexico where rainfall is scarce, evapotranspiration is high and soil fertility is low. Plants have developed physiological strategies such as the association with microorganisms in the rhizosphere zone to increase nutrient uptake. In the present work, four bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Mammillaria magnimamma and Coryphantha radians were obtained and named as QAP3, QAP19, QAP22 and QAP24, and were genetically identified as belonging to the genus Bacillus, exhibiting in vitro biochemical properties such as phosphate solubilization, indoleacetic acid production and ACC deaminase activity related to plant growth promotion, which was tested by inoculating M. magnimamma seeds. It was found that all isolates increased germination from 17 to 34.3% with respect to the uninoculated control seeds, being QAP24 the one having the greatest effect, accomplishing the germination of viable seeds (84.7%) three days before the control seeds. Subsequently, the inoculation of Mammillari zeilmanniana plants with this isolate showed a positive effect on bloom, registering during two months from a one year period, an increase of up to 31.0% in the number of flowering plants compared to control plants. The characterized Bacillus spp. isolates have potential to be used in conservation programs of plant species from arid zones. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Rhipsalideae (Cactaceae) and taxonomic implications for Schlumbergera and Hatiora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvente, Alice; Zappi, Daniela C; Forest, Félix; Lohmann, Lúcia G

    2011-03-01

    Tribe Rhipsalideae is composed of unusual epiphytic or lithophytic cacti that inhabit humid tropical and subtropical forests. Members of this tribe present a reduced vegetative body, a specialized adventitious root system, usually spineless areoles and flowers and fruits reduced in size. Despite the debate surrounding the classification of Rhipsalideae, no studies have ever attempted to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among its members or to test the monophyly of its genera using DNA sequence data; all classifications formerly proposed for this tribe have only employed morphological data. In this study, we reconstruct the phylogeny of Rhipsalideae using plastid (trnQ-rps16, rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH) and nuclear (ITS) markers to evaluate the classifications previously proposed for the group. We also examine morphological features traditionally used to delimit genera within Rhipsalideae in light of the resulting phylogenetic trees. In total new sequences for 35 species of Rhipsalideae were produced (out of 55; 63%). The molecular phylogeny obtained comprises four main clades supporting the recognition of genera Lepismium, Rhipsalis, Hatiora and Schlumbergera. The evidence gathered indicate that a broader genus Schlumbergera, including Hatiora subg. Rhipsalidopsis, should be recognized. Consistent morphological characters rather than homoplastic features are used in order to establish a more coherent and practical classification for the group. Nomenclatural changes and a key for the identification of the genera currently included in Rhipsalideae are provided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Implications of seed size for seedling survival in Carnegiea gigantea and Ferocactus wislizeni (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.; Pierson, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Larger seeds have been shown to convey benefits for seedling survival but the mechanisms of this process are not well understood. In this study, seed size and seedling survival were compared for 2 sympatric cactus species, Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose and Ferocactus wislizeni (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose, in laboratory and field experiments in the northern Sonoran Desert. Both species have small seeds, but Ferocactus seeds are nearly twice as long and 3 times as heavy as those of Carnegiea. The difference in size is perpetuated after germination: new Ferocactus seedlings have 4 times the estimated volume of new Carnegiea seedlings. In an outdoor experiment, annual survivorship of both species was low but was 6 times higher for Ferocactus (6 seedlings, 8.1%) than Carnegiea (1 seedling, 1.4%). The pattern of seedling mortality in relation to temperature and rain suggests that, after the initial flush of seed and seedling predation, drought and heat took a greater toll on Carnegiea than Ferocactus seedlings, probably because the larger seedling volume of Ferocactus conferred greater drought tolerance. In addition, F. wislizeni could become established without benefit of nurse plants whereas C. gigantea could not; this might reflect differential tolerance to high soil temperatures.

  13. Physical characterization of Rhipsalis (Cactaceae fruits and seeds germination in different temperatures and light regimes

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    A. B. Lone

    Full Text Available Abstract The germination characteristics of the native cactus species are poorly known, being the temperature and the light the factors that the most interferes in that process. Thus, the objective of the present work was to characterize the fruits and evaluate the influence of the temperature and the light in the seed germination of Rhipsalis floccosa, Rhipsalis pilocarpa and Rhipsalis teres. The tested constant temperatures were 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the alternate of 20-30 °C and 25-35 °C in a photoperiod of 10 hours, and with determination of the most appropriate temperature, the germination was tested in light absence. The germination percentage, the index of germination speed and medium time of germination were evaluated. For R. floccosa, the highest germination percentage was at 20 °C. For R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the highest germination percentages occurred in 15 °C and 20 °C. There was correlation to germination percentage between the three species, indicating that they had similar germination behavior. Total absence of germination was verified for the three species in condition of light absence. In conclusion, the temperature of 20 °C is the most suitable for the seed germination of R. floccosa. For the species R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the temperatures of 15 and 20 °C are the most suitable.

  14. Genomic relations among 31 species of Mammillaria haworth (Cactaceae) using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattagajasingh, Ilwola; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Das, Premananda

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-one species of Mammillaria were selected to study the molecular phylogeny using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. High amount of mucilage (gelling polysaccharides) present in Mammillaria was a major obstacle in isolating good quality genomic DNA. The CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) method was modified to obtain good quality genomic DNA. Twenty-two random decamer primers resulted in 621 bands, all of which were polymorphic. The similarity matrix value varied from 0.109 to 0.622 indicating wide variability among the studied species. The dendrogram obtained from the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis revealed that some of the species did not follow the conventional classification. The present work shows the usefulness of RAPD markers for genetic characterization to establish phylogenetic relations among Mammillaria species.

  15. Isolation, characterization, and cross-species amplification of polymorphic microsatellite markers for Pilosocereus machrisii (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manolo F; Téo, Mariana F; Zappi, Daniela C; Taylor, Nigel P; Moraes, Evandro M

    2011-08-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in Pilosocereus machrisii, a columnar cactus with a patchy distribution in eastern tropical South America, to assess its genetic diversity and population structure. Eleven microsatellite markers were developed, of which one was monomorphic among 51 individuals from two populations. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from two to eight, and the total number of alleles was 57. From the 11 isolated loci, nine were successfully amplified in the other four Pilosocereus species. The results showed that these markers will be useful for studies of genetic diversity, patterns of gene flow, and population genetic structure in P. machrisii, as well as across other congeneric species.

  16. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means of transitions to the smallest stage (mostly due to reproduction) and growth differed considerably from their long-term elasticities. It is important to be aware of this difference when using models to predict the effect of manipulating plant vital rates within the time frame of typical plant demographic studies.

  17. Directional orientation of reproductive tissue of Eulychnia breviflora (Cactaceae) in the hyperarid Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Warren; Lorgio E. Aguilera; Scott Baggett

    2016-01-01

    Our explanation of the phenomenon differs from other researchers. Inasmuch as reproductive tissue contains little or no chlorophyll, we suggest that the flowers emerge from areas of the stems that receive abundant PAR, not because the reproductive tissue itself requires exposure to PAR. Because the translocation of photosynthates in cacti is difficult and...

  18. Genetic Relationships among Hylocereus and Selenicereus Vine Cacti (Cactaceae): Evidence from Hybridization and Cytological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEL-ZUR, NOEMI; ABBO, SHAHAL; BAR-ZVI, DUDY; MIZRAHI, YOSEF

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Hylocereus and Selenicereus are native to tropical and sub-tropical America. Based on its taxonomic status and crossability relations it was postulated that H. megalanthus (syn. S. megalanthus) is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 44) derived from natural hybridization between two closely related diploid taxa. The present work aimed at elucidating the genetic relationships between species of the two genera. • Methods Crosses were performed and the putative hybrids were analysed by chromosome counts and morphological traits. The ploidy level of hybrids was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of rDNA sites. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used in an attempt to identify the putative diploid genome donors of H. megalanthus and an artificial interploid hybrid. • Key Results Reciprocal crosses among four diploid Hylocereus species (H. costaricensis, H. monacanthus (syn. H. polyrhizus), H. undatus and Hylocereus sp.) yielded viable diploid hybrids, with regular chromosome pairing. Reciprocal crosses between these Hylocereus spp. and H. megalanthus yielded viable triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid and aneuploid hybrids. Morphological and phenological traits confirm the hybrid origin. In situ detection of rDNA sites was in accord with the ploidy status of the species and hybrid studied. GISH results indicated that overall sequence composition of H. megalanthus is similar to that of H. ocamponis and S. grandiflorus. High sequence similarity was also found between the parental genomes of H. monacanthus and H. megalanthus in one triploid hybrid. • Conclusions The ease of obtaining partially fertile F1 hybrids and the relative sequence similarity (in GISH study) suggest close genetic relationships among the taxa analysed. PMID:15329334

  19. Development of microsatellite markers using next-generation sequencing for the columnar cactus Echinopsis chiloensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Carmen G; Larridon, Isabel; Peralta, Gioconda; Asselman, Pieter; Pérez, Fernanda

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop microsatellite markers as a tool to study population structure, genetic diversity and effective population size of Echinopsis chiloensis, an endemic cactus from arid and semiarid regions of Central Chile. We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for E. chiloensis using next-generation sequencing and tested them in 60 individuals from six sites, covering all the latitudinal range of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 8, while the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity ranged from 0.0 to 0.80 and from 0.10 to 0.76, respectively. We also detected significant differences between sites, with F ST values ranging from 0.05 to 0.29. Microsatellite markers will enable us to estimate genetic diversity and population structure of E. chiloensis in future ecological and phylogeographic studies.

  20. Using Next Generation RAD Sequencing to Isolate Multispecies Microsatellites for Pilosocereus (Cactaceae.

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    Isabel A S Bonatelli

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers (also known as SSRs, Simple Sequence Repeats are widely used in plant science and are among the most informative molecular markers for population genetic investigations, but the development of such markers presents substantial challenges. In this report, we discuss how next generation sequencing can replace the cloning, Sanger sequencing, identification of polymorphic loci, and testing cross-amplification that were previously required to develop microsatellites. We report the development of a large set of microsatellite markers for five species of the Neotropical cactus genus Pilosocereus using a restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq on a Roche 454 platform. We identified an average of 165 microsatellites per individual, with the absolute numbers across individuals proportional to the sequence reads obtained per individual. Frequency distribution of the repeat units was similar in the five species, with shorter motifs such as di- and trinucleotide being the most abundant repeats. In addition, we provide 72 microsatellites that could be potentially amplified in the sampled species and 22 polymorphic microsatellites validated in two populations of the species Pilosocereus machrisii. Although low coverage sequencing among individuals was observed for most of the loci, which we suggest to be more related to the nature of the microsatellite markers and the possible bias inserted by the restriction enzymes than to the genome size, our work demonstrates that an NGS approach is an efficient method to isolate multispecies microsatellites even in non-model organisms.

  1. Nonlinear models applied to seed germination of Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw (Cactaceae

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    Terezinha Aparecida Guedes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this analysis was to fit germination data of Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw seeds to the Weibull model with three parameters using Frequentist and Bayesian methods. Five parameterizations were compared using the Bayesian analysis to fit a prior distribution. The parameter estimates from the Frequentist method were similar to the Bayesian responses considering the following non-informative a priori distribution for the parameter vectors: gamma (10³, 10³ in the model M1, normal (0, 106 in the model M2, uniform (0, Lsup in the model M3, exp (μ in the model M4 and Lnormal (μ, 106 in the model M5. However, to achieve the convergence in the models M4 and M5, we applied the μ from the estimates of the Frequentist approach. The best models fitted by the Bayesian method were the M1 and M3. The adequacy of these models was based on the advantages over the Frequentist method such as the reduced computational efforts and the possibility of comparison.

  2. Physical characterization of Rhipsalis (Cactaceae) fruits and seeds germination in different temperatures and light regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, A B; Colombo, R C; Andrade, B L G; Takahashi, L S A; Faria, R T

    2016-06-01

    The germination characteristics of the native cactus species are poorly known, being the temperature and the light the factors that the most interferes in that process. Thus, the objective of the present work was to characterize the fruits and evaluate the influence of the temperature and the light in the seed germination of Rhipsalis floccosa, Rhipsalis pilocarpa and Rhipsalis teres. The tested constant temperatures were 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the alternate of 20-30 °C and 25-35 °C in a photoperiod of 10 hours, and with determination of the most appropriate temperature, the germination was tested in light absence. The germination percentage, the index of germination speed and medium time of germination were evaluated. For R. floccosa, the highest germination percentage was at 20 °C. For R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the highest germination percentages occurred in 15 °C and 20 °C. There was correlation to germination percentage between the three species, indicating that they had similar germination behavior. Total absence of germination was verified for the three species in condition of light absence. In conclusion, the temperature of 20 °C is the most suitable for the seed germination of R. floccosa. For the species R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the temperatures of 15 and 20 °C are the most suitable.

  3. Gamma ray induced effects in in vitro mammillaria san angelensis (CACTACEAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, I.; Rubluo, A.; De la Cruz, E.; Gonzalez, J.

    2001-01-01

    The nearly extinct Mammillaria san angelensis has been recovered in vitro and large quantities of individuals are growing successfully in the greenhouse, however due to its axillary shoot proliferation origin the genetic make-up of this species is extremely narrow. For this reason is urgently required to increase its genetic variability. The induction of point mutations through irradiation of in vitro plantlets can favour the survival of this plant. Radiosensibility experiments using gamma rays were performed in order to determine the primary effects of radiation in in vitro plantlets of this species as a necessary preliminary for the use of the mutation induction strategy

  4. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in some (non-Cactaceae) succulent plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2010-01-01

    The water-accumulating leaves of crassulacean acid metabolism plants belonging to five different families were investigated for the presence of biominerals by infrared spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. Spectroscopic results revealed that the mineral present in succulent species of Agavaceae, Aizoaceae, and Asphodelaceae was calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O). Crystals were predominantly found as raphides or solitary crystals of various morphologies. However, representative Crassulaceae members and a succulent species of Asteraceae did not show the presence of biominerals. Overall, these results suggest no correlation between calcium oxalate generation and crassulacean acid metabolism in succulent plants.

  5. Factors affecting establishment success of the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2012-06-01

    Early plant stages may be the most vulnerable within the life cycle of plants especially in arid ecosystems. Interference from exotic species may exacerbate this condition. We evaluated germination, seedling survival and growth in the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis, as a function of sunlight exposure (i.e., growing under open and shaded areas), different shade providers (i.e., growing under two native shrubs and one exotic grass species), two levels of predation (i.e., exclusion and non-exclusion) and variable microenvironmental conditions (i.e., temperature, PAR, humidity). Field experiments demonstrated that suitable conditions for germination and establishment of H. portoricensis seedling are optimal in shaded areas beneath the canopy of established species, but experiments also demonstrated that the identity of the shade provider can have a significant influence on the outcome of these processes. Harrisia portoricensis seedlings had higher probabilities of survival and grew better (i.e., larger diameters) when they were transplanted beneath the canopy of native shrubs, than beneath the exotic grass species, where temperature and solar radiation values were on average much higher than those obtained under the canopies of native shrubs. We also detected that exclusion from potential predators did not increase seedling survival. Our combined results for H. portoricensis suggested that the modification of microenvironmental conditions by the exotic grass may lower the probability of recruitment and establishment of this endangered cactus species.

  6. An open door for illegal trade: online sale of Strombocactus disciformis (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania R. Olmos-Lau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Online trade of CITES listed species has become a persistent threat which is difficult to measure and control. The use of online markets is growing day by the day as technology becomes more available and familiar to people of all ages and interests. Species trade can now be propagated remotely hardly without any real human interaction. We develop a quick-easy method to assess the online availability of the genus Strombocactus, a highly collectible cactus, to understand the real magnitude of this new form of threat and the possible menace it could be for these Mexican cacti. We used the Google.com site to do an online search in four languages (Spanish, English, French and German for the offer of adult plants or seeds. We found specimens and seeds available in major online markets like ebay, amazon, cactusplaza.com and mercado libre. Plant price range from €10.00 to €30.00 plus shipping and handling. The plants were also offered in local online stores in countries like the USA, France, Germany, Australia, Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, and others; some sellers claim they have no obstacles for “shipping across countries” and others openly declare the natural localities where seeds were extracted. Only a minority of these online stores openly stated that the cacti were obtained from CITES registered nurseries or that the cacti were grown through propagules or seeds. Our method is easily transferable to estimate the illegal market for any species. There is an active online trade of Strombocactus species and other species listed in CITES without the necessary documentation. Compliance or other regulation mechanisms are needed in order to promote species conservation.

  7. Distribution and habitat in Mexico of Dactylopius Costa (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) and their cacti hosts (Cactaceae: Opuntioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Moreno, C K; Tecante, A; Casas, A; Claps, L E

    2011-01-01

    The distribution pattern of species of the genus Dactylopius Costa in Mexico was analyzed in relation to the distribution of their host plants (subfamily Opuntioideae) to evaluate the specificity of the insect-host association. The distribution of Dactylopius currently recognized is narrower than that of its hosts and probably is not representative. Therefore, a broader distribution of the Dactylopius species in correspondence with those of their hosts was hypothesized. Insects and their hosts were collected and georeferenced in 14 states of Mexico from 2005 to 2007. The distribution areas, maps, and habitat characteristics of Dactylopius, Opuntia sensu stricto, Nopalea and Cylindropuntia were determined on the basis of field collections and examination of museum collections. This information was complemented with information from the exhaustive examination of microscope slides from a local insect collection, plants from local herbaria, and literature reviews. The current distribution of the genus Dactylopius and its hosts included 22 and 25 states of Mexico, respectively, and Dactylopius had a continuous distribution according to its hosts, broader than recognized hitherto. The new georeferenced records of the five Mexican Dactylopius species are reported. Insects with morphological characteristics of D. confusus combined with those of D. salmianus were identified, as well as insects with characteristics of D. opuntiae combined with those of D. salmianus. These records suggest that the number of local Dactylopius species could be higher than previously thought or that possible new processes of hybridization between native and introduced species may be occurring.

  8. Reproductive biology and mating system estimates of two Andean melocacti, Melocactus schatzlii and M. andinus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Jafet M; Ramírez, Nelson; Lampo, Margarita; González, José Antonio; Casado, Roberto; Nava, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The genus Melocactus comprises 36 species of globose cacti with the most derived traits in the Cereeae tribe. It is the proper study system to examine what are the most derived reproductive strategies within that tribe. This study aims to characterize the reproductive biology and to estimate the mating system parameters of two Andean melocacti, Melocactus schatzlii and M. andinus. The reproductive attributes of the two species were described, including floral morphology, anthesis patterns, floral rewards, floral visitors and visitation patterns. Levels of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were estimated by hand-pollination experiments. Mating system estimates were obtained by conducting progeny array analyses using isozymes. The flowers of the two species present the typical hummingbird-pollination syndrome. Despite their morphological resemblance, the two species differ in flower size, pollen and ovule production and anthesis pattern. Their main pollinator agents are hummingbirds, four species in M. schatzlii and one species in M. andinus. Both cacti are self-compatible and capable of self-pollination without the aid of pollen vectors. Population-level outcrossing rate was higher for M. schatzlii (t(m)=0.9) than for M. andinus (t(m)=0.4). At the family level, outcrossing rates for most mothers of M. schatzlii were higher (t(m)>0.8) than for M. andinus (t(m)<0.5). Although the two cacti are capable of selfing, M. schatzlii is a predominantly outcrossing species, while M. andinus behaves as a mixed-mating cactus. Hummingbirds are the only pollinators responsible for outcrossing and gene flow events in these species. In their absence, both melocacti set seeds by selfing. Based on its low population size, restricted distribution in Venezuela, low rates of floral visits, and high levels of inbreeding, M. andinus is considered to be an endangered species deserving further study to define its conservation status.

  9. Ecological longevity of Polaskia chende (Cactaceae) seeds in the soil seed bank, seedling emergence and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Salanueva, C A; Orozco-Segovia, A; Canales-Martínez, M; Seal, C E; Pritchard, H W; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2017-11-01

    Soil seed banks are essential elements of plant population dynamics, enabling species to maintain genetic variability, withstand periods of adversity and persist over time, including for cactus species. However knowledge of the soil seed bank in cacti is scanty. In this study, over a 5-year period we studied the seed bank dynamics, seedling emergence and nurse plant facilitation of Polaskia chende, an endemic columnar cactus of central Mexico. P. chende seeds were collected for a wild population in Puebla, Mexico. Freshly collected seeds were sown at 25 °C and 12-h photoperiod under white light, far-red light and darkness. The collected seeds were divided in two lots, the first was stored in the laboratory and the second was use to bury seeds in open areas and beneath a shrub canopy. Seeds were exhumed periodically over 5 years. At the same time seeds were sown in open areas and beneath shrub canopies; seedling emergence and survival were recorded over different periods of time for 5 years. The species forms long-term persistent soil seed banks. The timing of seedling emergence via germination in the field was regulated by interaction between light, temperature and soil moisture. Seeds entered secondary dormancy at specific times according to the expression of environmental factors, demonstrating irregular dormancy cycling. Seedling survival of P. chende was improved under Acacia constricta nurse plants. Finally, plant facilitation affected the soil seed bank dynamics as it promoted the formation of a soil seed bank, but not its persistence. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Survival dynamics of Melocactus conoideus Buining & Brederoo (Cactaceae, a threatened species endemic to northeastern Brazil

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    Hévila Prates Luz-Freire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the survival of species are essential to understanding their biology and to developing effective conservation and management plans. This study aimed to determine the best model to explain the survival of the species Melocactus conoideus on the basis of time, density, age structure and habitat location, as well as to describe the interactions among those factors. The study was conducted in three M. conoideus habitat patches in the municipality of Vitória da Conquista, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, only one of which was within a "conservation unit" (protected area. In each patch, we selected 120 specimens of M. conoideus, which were marked with identification plates and classified by developmental stage and density. The survival of those individuals was monitored for a period of one year. The overall survival of M. conoideus was 87.5% and was found to correlate with the month, as well as with the interaction between the factors Patch and Density. Our results show that the survival of M. conoideus individuals is related to the intrinsic characteristics of each habitat patch and suggest that more areas should be set aside for the conservation of this species.

  11. Reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii (Cactaceae): the role of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Baes, P; Saravia, M; Sühring, S; Godínez-Alvarez, H; Zamar, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii, a species endemic to northwest Argentina that has nocturnal flowers. We expected that this species had a generalised pollination system, with moths and diurnal visitors as the primary pollinators. To test this, we studied the floral biology, breeding system and floral visitors of this species and the effectiveness of nocturnal and diurnal visitors. Floral biology was defined based on floral morphology, floral cycle and nectar production of the flowers. The breeding system and relative contributions of diurnal and nocturnal visitors to fruit and seed set were analysed through field experiments. E. terscheckii flowers opened at sunset and closed the following day. The peak of nectar production occurred at midnight. Flowers were determined to be self-incompatible. Moths, bees and birds were identified as floral visitors. Moths were the most frequent visitors at night, whereas bees were the most frequent visitors during the day. Fruit production by diurnal pollinators was less than that by nocturnal pollinators; among all floral visitors, moths were the most effective pollinators. We have demonstrated for the first time that moths are the primary pollinators of columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis. Our results suggest that moths might be important pollinators of columnar cactus species with nocturnal flowers in the extra-tropical deserts of South America. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Does Ferocactus wislizeni (Cactaceae) have a between-year seed bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.

    2000-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments at Tumamoc Hill, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A., demonstrated that Ferocactus wislizeni, a common perennial cactus in the northern Sonoran Desert, has a between-year seed bank. In laboratory studies, F. wislizeni seeds lost dormancy during storage at room temperature and had a light requirement for germination. Field experiments suggested that as much as 2% of the annual seed crop might escape post-dispersal predation even when unprotected; where suitable safe sites exist, a higher percentage might escape. Germination of seed recovered monthly from above- and below-ground components of an artificial seed bank showed that seeds can survive at least 18 months in and on the soil. Seed banks enable F. wislizeni to take advantage of favorable rains and temperatures throughout the growing season, thus increasing the number of opportunities for germination. Moreover, seed banks enable F. wislizeni to respond hugely when the climate seems especially favorable, thus producing the large cohorts necessary to compensate for high seedling mortality. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Using Next Generation RAD Sequencing to Isolate Multispecies Microsatellites for Pilosocereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatelli, Isabel A S; Carstens, Bryan C; Moraes, Evandro M

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite markers (also known as SSRs, Simple Sequence Repeats) are widely used in plant science and are among the most informative molecular markers for population genetic investigations, but the development of such markers presents substantial challenges. In this report, we discuss how next generation sequencing can replace the cloning, Sanger sequencing, identification of polymorphic loci, and testing cross-amplification that were previously required to develop microsatellites. We report the development of a large set of microsatellite markers for five species of the Neotropical cactus genus Pilosocereus using a restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) on a Roche 454 platform. We identified an average of 165 microsatellites per individual, with the absolute numbers across individuals proportional to the sequence reads obtained per individual. Frequency distribution of the repeat units was similar in the five species, with shorter motifs such as di- and trinucleotide being the most abundant repeats. In addition, we provide 72 microsatellites that could be potentially amplified in the sampled species and 22 polymorphic microsatellites validated in two populations of the species Pilosocereus machrisii. Although low coverage sequencing among individuals was observed for most of the loci, which we suggest to be more related to the nature of the microsatellite markers and the possible bias inserted by the restriction enzymes than to the genome size, our work demonstrates that an NGS approach is an efficient method to isolate multispecies microsatellites even in non-model organisms.

  14. Seed size and photoblastism in species belonging to tribe Cacteae (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana; Mandujano, María C; Golubov, Jordan K

    2013-05-01

    The response of seed germination towards light and the relationship to seed traits has been studied particularly well in tropical forests. Several authors have shown a clear adaptive response of seed size and photoblastism, however, the evolutionary significance of this relationship for species inhabiting arid environments has not been fully understood and only some studies have considered the response in a phylogenetic context. We collected seeds from 54 cacti species spread throughout the tribe Cacteae to test whether there was correlated evolution of photoblastism, seed traits and germination using a reconstructed phylogeny of the tribe. For each species we determined the photoblastic response under controlled conditions, and seed traits, and analyzed the results using phylogenetically independent contrasts. All studied species were positive photoblastic contrasting with the basal Pereskia suggesting an early evolution of this trait. Seeds from basal species were mostly medium-sized, diverging into two groups. Seeds tend to get smaller and lighter suggesting an evolution to smaller sizes. No evidence exists of a relationship between seed size and photoblastic response suggesting that the photoblastic response within members of this tribe is not adaptive though it is phylogenetically fixed and that is coupled with environmental cues that fine tune the germination response.

  15. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the rare and endangered cactus Uebelmannia pectinifera (Cactaceae) and its congeneric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, E M; Cidade, F W; Silva, G A R; Machado, M C

    2014-12-04

    The cactus genus Uebelmannia includes 3 narrow endemic species associated with rocky savanna habitats in eastern South America. Because of their rarity and illegal over-collection, all of these species are endangered. Taxonomic uncertainties resulting from dramatic local variation in morphology within Uebelmannia species preclude effective conservation efforts, such as the reintroduction or translocation of plants, to restore declining populations. In this study, we developed and characterized 18 perfect, dinucleotide simple-sequence repeat markers for U. pectinifera, the most widely distributed species in the genus, and tested the cross-amplification of these markers in the remaining congeneric species and subspecies. All markers were polymorphic in a sample from 2 U. pectinifera populations. The effective number of alleles ranged from 1.6 to 8.7, with an average per population of 3.3 (SE ± 0.30) and 4.5 (SE ± 0.50). Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.375 to 0.847 and 8-10 loci showed departures from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium in the analyzed populations. Based on the observed polymorphism level of each marker, as well as the analysis of null allele presence and evidence of amplification of duplicate loci, a subset of 12 loci can be used as reliable markers to investigate the genetic structure, diversity, and species limits of the Uebelmannia genus.

  16. Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-García, Felipe; García-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vázquez-Santana, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of functionally dioecious species.

  17. Stability of some Cactaceae proteins based on fluorescence, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, S; Zemser, M; Vargas-Albores, F; Ochoa, J L; Paredes-Lopez, O; Scheler, C; Aksu, S; Salnikow, J

    1999-02-01

    Characterization of three cactus proteins (native and denatured) from Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria), Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo), and Cholla opuntia (Cholla), was based on electrophoretic, fluorescence, CD (circular dichroism), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements. The obtained results of intrinsic fluorescence, DSC, and CD were dissimilar for the three species of cactus, providing evidence of differences in secondary and tertiary structures. Cactus proteins may be situated in the following order corresponding to their relative stability: Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria) > Cholla opuntia (Cholla) > Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo). Thermodynamic properties of proteins and their changes upon denaturation (temperature of denaturation, enthalphy, and the number of ruptured hydrogen bonds) were correlated with the secondary structure of proteins and disappearance of alpha-helix.

  18. Características físicas, químicas e organolépticas de quipá (Tacinga inamoena, Cactaceae Physical chemical and chemicalcharacteristics of 'quipá' (Tacinga inamoena, Cactaceae

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    Andréa Carla Mendonça de Souza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A Opuntia ficus-indica tem-se destacado como principal produtora de frutos e forragens, motivo pelo qual tem sido bastante pesquisada. Além desta espécie, no semi-árido do Nordeste é encontrada a Tacinga inamoena, planta nativa, cujo fruto, embora também utilizado pelo agricultor como alternativa alimentar, não foi objeto de nenhuma pesquisa até o momento, justificando este trabalho para avaliar seu potencial nutricional e industrial, por meio das características organolépticas, químicas e físicas, conteúdo nutricional e composição mineral. O quipá apresenta características organolépticas similares às de frutos de mesmo gênero, com rendimento da porção comestível, polpa e pericarpo carnoso de 62,87% do peso total do fruto. No que diz respeito à composição química, a polpa difere significativamente do pericarpo carnoso, com superioridade deste último, que apresenta maior teor de minerais, destacando-se dentre estes o cálcio, o magnésio e o potássio que apresentaram valores de 587,04mg, 257,02mg e 318,01mg, respectivamente. Os resultados evidenciam que o quipá é adequado para consumo in natura e apresenta potencial para aproveitamento industrial.Provided that the Opuntia fícus-indica is the main producer of fruit and forages, it has been the object of extensive research. Besides, another species Tacinga inamoena, native plant, which its fruit has been used as an alternative food source can also be found in the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil. However, this native plant had not been the object of any research yet. The aim of this work is to evaluate its industrial and nutritional potential through the organoleptic, physical, chemical characteristics, nutritional content and mineral composition. The Quípa shows organoleptic characteristics similar to other fruit of the same gender. Its edible portion, pulp and fleshy pericarp, corresponds to 62, 8% of the total fruit weight. As regard to chemical composition, the pulp differs significantly from the fleshy pericarp, the latter showing higher content of minerals among them calcium, magnesium and potassium with values of 587,04mg, 257,02mg and 318,01mg, respectively. The results showed that Quípa is appropriate for consumption in natura and shows industrial potential.

  19. Caracterização citogenética em Schlumbergera truncata (Haworth Moran e Schlumbergera × buckleyi (T. Moore Tjaden (Cactaceae Cytogenetic characterization of Schlumbergera truncata (Haworth Moran and Schlumbergera × buckleyi (T. Moore Tjaden (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Aparecida Ortolani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O número cromossômico diplóide de Schlumbergera truncata e Schlumbergera x buckleyi, de indivíduos com diferentes tipos de coloração de pétalas, foi determinado usando-se pontas de raízes. A utilização de 8-hidroxiquinoleína 0,003 M à 36 °C por 3 horas possibilitou melhor separação cromossômica. Técnica de bandeamento C e de coloração Giemsa permitiram o estudo cariológico dessas espécies. O híbrido Schlumbergera × buckleyi (rósea apresenta 2n = 22 cromossomos com fórmula cariotípica 16 M + 6 SM. Schlumbergera truncata, apresentando pétalas nas cores vermelha, branca e pink, possui 2n = 22 cromossomos, formulação cariotípica idêntica à de Schlumbergera × buckleyi, enquanto a planta com flores de coloração amarelada mostrou 2n = 34 cromossomos. A classificação cromossômica foi baseada no índice centromérico. Nas plantas que apresentam coloração vermelha, branca, pink e rósea nas pétalas, o melhor período de obtenção de metáfases corresponde ao período de florescimento. Schlumbergera truncata com flores amareladas apresenta dois picos anuais de divisão mitótica. Esses resultados dão suporte à um melhor entendimento da biologia no gênero Schlumbergera e auxiliam na classificação taxonômica nos casos onde apenas as características fenotípicas não são suficientemente confiáveis para a classificação das plantas no mesmo táxon.The diploid chromosome number of Schlumbergera truncata and Schlumbergera × buckleyi, in individuals with different types of petal color, was determined using root tips. The use of 8-hydroxyquinolein 0.003 M at 36 ºC provided better chromosome separation. C-banding technique and Giemsa coloration allowed the karyological study of these species. Schlumbergera × buckleyi hybrid (light pink species has 2n = 22 chromosomes with karyotype formula 16M + 6SM. Schlumbergera truncata with red, white, and pink petals and 2n = 22 chromosomes has karyotype formula identical to Schlumbergera × buckleyi, while the plant with yellowish flowers has 2n = 34 chromosomes. Chromosome classification was based on the centromeric index. In plants with white, red, pink and light pink petal color, the best time to obtain metaphases is during flowering. Schlumbergera truncata with yellowish flowers has two annual peaks of mitotic division. These results give us a better understanding of the biology of the genus Schlumbergera and aid in taxonomic classification where phenotypic characteristics alone are not reliable enough to classify plants of the same taxon.

  20. Una especie nueva de Strombocactus (Cactaceae del río Moctezuma, Querétaro, México A new species of Strombocactus (Cactaceae from Moctezuma River, Querétaro, Mexico

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    Salvador Arias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Strombocactus corregidorae S. Arias et E. Sánchez, nueva especie del cañón del Infiernillo, en el río Moctezuma, en los límites del estado de Querétaro con Hidalgo. Difiere de S. disciformis por presentar cuerpos más prominentes, con espinas de mayor tamaño, rígidas, gruesas, persistentes y de color negro grisáceo, flores amarillas, así como semillas con células de paredes periclinales planas, microrrelieve finamente reticulado y la región hilo-micropilar no está cubierta por un estrofíolo. Se incluye una clave taxonómica para la identificación de las especies de Strombocactus , con base en caracteres del tallo, flor y la semilla.Strombocactus corregidorae S. Arias et E. Sanchez, from the Infiernillo Canyon, in the Moctezuma River, at the border between the Mexican states of Querétaro and Hidalgo, is described and illustrated. It differs from S. disciformis by its massive body, larger, strong, thick, persistent, black-gray spines, yellow flower, seeds with flat periclinal wall cells, finely reticulate micro-relief, and hilum-micropylar region not covered by a strophiole. An identification key to Strombocactus species, based on stem, flower, and seed characters is included.

  1. ESTRUCTURA DE LA VEGETACIÓN DEL CANÓN DEL RÍO CHICAMOCHA, 500-1200 M; SANTANDERCOLOMBIA: UNA HERRAMIENTA PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBESIANO SOFÍA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la vegetación de la cuenca media del cañón del río Chicamocha entre los 500y los 1170 m de altitud, en los municipios de Cepitá y Piedecuesta (Inspección dePolicía de Pescadero, en Santander-Colombia, el tipo fisionómico dominante es elmatorral, aunque se encuentran algunos tipos de vegetación boscosa cerca de loscursos de agua. La distribución en clases de frecuencia de los parámetros altura,cobertura y diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP, muestra que la mayoría de losindividuos se agrupan en las clases inferiores. La mayor parte de los elementos delestrato herbáceo miden entre 60 cm y 1 m y los del estrato arbustivo entre 1,9 y2,1 m. La mayoría de los individuos del estrato arbustivo cubre entre 0,3 y 1,44m2. Son muy escasos los elementos con DAP superior a 8 cm. Las especies másimportantes en la vegetación regional según el Índice de Valor de Importancia (IVIson: Stenocereus griseus (79, Lippia origanoides (76 y Prosopis juliflora (75. Lariqueza florística del área está representada por 69 familias de plantas vasculares, con173 géneros y 220 especies. Las familias con mayor número de géneros y especiesson: Asteraceae (15 géneros/16 especies, Euphorbiaceae (9/16, Fabaceae (11/12,Poaceae (11/12 y Cactaceae (6/7. Entre el periodo de 1960-1990 se presentaroncambios en la cobertura vegetal debido principalmente al sobrepastoreo extensivoe incontrolado de ganado caprino y en menor proporción, a la extracción de leñay/o a la construcción de obras civiles como vías de comunicación y viviendas. ElÍndice de Deforestación durante los últimos 30 años en la cuenca media de la regiónsemiárida del cañón del río Chicamocha es del 7%.

  2. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  3. Richness of endophytic fungi isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (Cactaceae) and preliminary screening for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J D P; Santos, M G S; Svedese, V M; Lima, D M M; Fernandes, M J S; Paiva, L M; Souza-Motta, C M

    2012-05-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production of enzymes with different potentialities. The objective of this study was to describe the richness of endophytic fungi from O. ficus-indica and to detect the capacity of these species to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Forty-four endophytic fungi species were isolated. Among them, the most commonly found were Cladosporium cladosporioides (20.43%) and C. sphaerospermum (15.99%). Acremonium terricola, Monodictys castaneae, Penicillium glandicola, Phoma tropica and Tetraploa aristata are being reported for the first time as endophytic fungi for Brazil. The majority of isolated fungi exhibited enzymatic potential. Aspergillus japonicus and P. glandicola presented pectinolytic activity. Xylaria sp. was the most important among the other 14 species with positive cellulase activity. All 24 isolates analysed were xylanase-positive. Protease was best produced by isolate PF103. The results indicate that there is a significant richness of endophytic fungi in O. ficus-indica, and that these isolates indicate promising potential for deployment in biotechnological processes involving production of pectinases, cellulases, xylanases and proteases.

  4. Diversidade de fungos endofíticos de mandacaru (Cereus jamacaru DC., Cactaceae) em áreas sucessionais de Caatinga

    OpenAIRE

    BEZERRA, Jadson Diogo Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Fungos endofíticos vivem dentro dos tecidos sadios de plantas e podem promover tolerância das espécies hospedeiras para diferentes estresses ambientais. No entanto, a maioria dos estudos tem sido de plantas em ambientes úmidos e são poucos os relatos dos benefícios de tais associações com plantas de ambientes extremos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a diversidade de fungos endofíticos de Cereus jamacaru em três diferentes áreas de sucessão ecológica da floresta tropical seca brasileir...

  5. Apoptosis induction in MV4-11 and K562 human leukemic cells by Pereskia sacharosa (Cactaceae) leaf crude extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmaa, Mat Jusoh Siti; Al-Jamal, Hamid Ali Nagi; Ang, Cheng Yong; Asan, Jamaruddin Mat; Seeni, Azman; Johan, Muhammad Farid

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia sacharosa is a genus of cacti widely used in folk medicine for cancer-related treatment. Anti-proliferative effects have been studied in recent years against colon, breast, cervical and lung cancer cell lines, with promising results. We here extended study of anti-proliferative effects to a blood malignancy, leukemia. Two leukemic cell lines, MV4-11 (acute myeloid leukemia) and K562 (chronic myeloid leukemia), were studied. IC50 concentrations were determined and apoptosis and cell cycle regulation were studied by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of apoptosis and cell-cycle related regulatory proteins was assessed by Western blotting. P sacharosa inhibited growth of MV4-11 and K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mode of cell death was via induction of intrinsic apoptotic pathways and cell cycle arrest. There was profound up-regulation of cytochrome c, caspases, p21 and p53 expression and repression of Akt and Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. These results suggest that P sacharosa induces leukemic cell death via apoptosis induction and changes in cell cycle checkpoint, thus deserves further study for anti-leukemic potential.

  6. Improvement of physiological parameters of rats subjected to hypercaloric diet, with the use of Pereskia grandifolia (Cactaceae) leaf flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Martha Elisa Ferreira; Simão, Anderson Assaid; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Barros Fernandes, Regiane Victória

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Pereskia grandifolia leaf flour on rats fed a hypercaloric diet. After a hypercaloric diet for 10 weeks, 21 animals were divided into the following groups and were fed the following diets for 4 weeks: control (CH), hypercaloric diet with P. grandifolia flour (PGF) 5%, and hypercaloric diet with PGF 10%. Several measurements were performed including body weight, food consumption, body mass index, Lee index, liver weight, liver and body moisture content, and body and hepatic lipid level. Data were analyzed by Tukey's test at 5% probability. Rats fed PGF diet had decreased food consumption and body weight and showed lower body mass and Lee indices compared to control group. At week 2, weight of the PGF 10% group was statistically lower than the control group (CH). At week 4, the PGF 10% group demonstrated the highest body weight loss compared to the other two groups. There were no significant difference in total lipids and moisture level between the groups; however, rats fed PGF diet had lower hepatic lipids levels than control group and reduced liver weight. This suggests that PGF induced weight loss and decreased hepatic lipid level and may be effective in treating obesity and related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. GIS and path analysis: examining associations between the birds, the bees, and plant sex in Echinocereus coccineus (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summer Scobell; Stewart Schultz

    2005-01-01

    We tested hypotheses of how pollinators and water resource gradients influence the evolution of dioecy using Echinocereus coccineus, a cactus with both hermaphroditic and dioecious populations growing over wide climatic and biotic gradients in the Madrean Archipelago. A GIS database was compiled from herbarium specimens, rainfall data, and...

  8. Alternative glacial-interglacial refugia demographic hypotheses tested on Cephalocereus columna-trajani (Cactaceae) in the intertropical Mexican drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Romero, Amelia; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos Fabián; Aguilar-Martínez, Gustavo F; Medina-Sánchez, Javier; Rendón-Aguilar, Beatriz; Valverde, Pedro Luis; Zavala-Hurtado, Jose Alejandro; Serrato, Alejandra; Rivas-Arancibia, Sombra; Pérez-Hernández, Marco Aurelio; López-Ortega, Gerardo; Jiménez-Sierra, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Historic demography changes of plant species adapted to New World arid environments could be consistent with either the Glacial Refugium Hypothesis (GRH), which posits that populations contracted to refuges during the cold-dry glacial and expanded in warm-humid interglacial periods, or with the Interglacial Refugium Hypothesis (IRH), which suggests that populations contracted during interglacials and expanded in glacial times. These contrasting hypotheses are developed in the present study for the giant columnar cactus Cephalocereus columna-trajani in the intertropical Mexican drylands where the effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes on phylogeography of cacti remain largely unknown. In order to determine if the historic demography and phylogeographic structure of the species are consistent with either hypothesis, sequences of the chloroplast regions psbA-trnH and trnT-trnL from 110 individuals from 10 populations comprising the full distribution range of this species were analysed. Standard estimators of genetic diversity and structure were calculated. The historic demography was analysed using a Bayesian approach and the palaeodistribution was derived from ecological niche modelling to determine if, in the arid environments of south-central Mexico, glacial-interglacial cycles drove the genetic divergence and diversification of this species. Results reveal low but statistically significant population differentiation (FST = 0.124, P < 0.001), although very clear geographic clusters are not formed. Genetic diversity, haplotype network and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) demographic analyses suggest a population expansion estimated to have taken place in the Last Interglacial (123.04 kya, 95% CI 115.3-130.03). The species palaeodistribution is consistent with the ABC analyses and indicates that the potential area of palaedistribution and climatic suitability were larger during the Last Interglacial and Holocene than in the Last Glacial Maximum. Overall, these results suggest that C. columna-trajani experienced an expansion following the warm conditions of interglacials, in accordance with the GRH.

  9. Germination response of Hylocereus setaceus (Salm-Dyck ex DC: ) Ralf Bauer (Cactaceae) seeds to temperature and reduced water potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, E; Takaki, M; Cardoso, V J M

    2010-02-01

    The germination response of Hylocereus setaceus seeds to isothermic incubation at different water potentials was analysed by using the thermal time and hydrotime models, aiming to describe some germination parameters of the population and to test the validity of the models to describe the response of the seeds to temperature and water potential. Hylocereus setaceus seeds germinated relatively well in a wide range of temperatures and the germination was rate limited from 11 to 20 degrees C interval and beyond 30 degrees C until 40 degrees C, in which the germination rate respectively shifts positively and negatively with temperature. The minimum or base temperature (T(b)) for the germination of H. setaceus was 7 degrees C, and the ceiling temperature varied nearly from 43.5 to 59 degrees C depending on the percent fraction, with median set on 49.8 degrees C. The number of degrees day necessary for 50% of the seeds to germinate in the infra-optimum temperature range was 39.3 degrees C day, whereas at the supra-optimum interval the value of theta = 77 was assumed to be constant throughout. Germination was sensitive to decreasing values of psi in the medium, and both the germinability and the germination rate shift negatively with the reduction of psi, but the rate of reduction changed with temperature. The values of base water potential (psi(b)) shift to zero with increasing temperatures and such variation reflects in the relatively greater effect of low psi on germination in supra optimum range of T. In general, the model described better the germination time courses at lower than at higher water potentials. The analysis also suggest that Tb may not be independent of psi and that psi(b(g)) may change as a function of temperature at the infra-otimum temperature range.

  10. Frugivory and seed dispersal by birds in Cereus jamacaru DC. ssp. jamacaru (Cactaceae) in the Caatinga of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, V G N; Quirino, Z G M; Araujo, H F P

    2014-02-01

    Studies of the dispersal modes of plants aid our understanding of the dynamics of resource and its availability for dispersal agents. The present work sought to characterize the fruiting patterns of the native Caatinga (dryland) cactus Cereus jamacaru, identify its principal dispersers, and evaluate the effects of seed passage through digestive tract of dispersers on its germination. Cereus jamacaru present an annual fruiting pattern and fruiting peaks occurred during June/2009 and February/2010. A total of 135 visits by nine species of resident Caatinga bird species were recorded. The most frequent visiting bird species were Paroaria dominicana and Euphonia chlorotica. Length of bird visits varied from 15 seconds to 4 minutes and seeds removed by birds travelled 10.6 ± 11.2 m until dispersers make the first landing perch, in some cases more than 40 meters away. Germination tests show birds had a high quantity of viable seeds of C. jamacaru in its feces. Seeds that passed through the digestive tract of birds showed a similar germinability of the seeds of the control group. However, the seeds dispersed by birds showed lowest mean germination time related to the control group seeds. This study highlights the potential role of birds as seed dispersers of C. jamacaru, swallowing the whole seeds and defecating intact seeds, accelerating the germination process and transporting seeds away from the mother plant.

  11. Collection of plants of the genus Melocactus (Tourn. Link et Otto (Cactaceae Juss. and peculiarities of their reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Baglay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic composition of Melocactus collection at O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden, as well as peculiarities of their reproduction under the conditions of introduction has been considered. Rare and threatened Melocactus species in the collection were identified.

  12. Genetic variation and evolution of Polaskia chichipe (Cactaceae) under domestication in the Tehuacán Valley, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Casas, Alejandro; Hamrick, James L; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer

    2005-05-01

    Polaskia chichipe is a columnar cactus under artificial selection in central Mexico because of its edible fruits. Our study explored the effect of human manipulation on levels and distribution of genetic variation in wild, silviculturally managed and cultivated sympatric populations. Total genetic variation, estimated in nine populations with five microsatellite loci, was H(T) = 0.658 +/- 0.026 SE, which was mainly distributed within populations (H(S) = 0.646) with low differentiation among them (F(ST) = 0.015). Fixation index (F(IS)) in all populations was positive, indicating a deficit of heterozygous individuals with respect to Hardy-Weinberg expectations. When populations were pooled by management type, the highest expected heterozygosity (H(E) = 0.631 +/- 0.031 SE) and the lowest fixation index (F(IS) = 0.07) were observed in wild populations, followed by cultivated populations (H(E) = 0.56 +/- 0.03 SE, F(IS) = 0.14), whereas the lowest variation was found in silviculturally managed populations (H(E) = 0.51 +/- 0.05 SE, F(IS) = 0.17). Low differentiation among populations under different management types (F(ST) 0.005, P < 0.04) was observed. A pattern of migration among neighbouring populations, suggested from isolation by distance (r2 = 0.314, P < 0.01), may have contributed to homogenizing populations and counteracting the effects of artificial selection. P. chichipe, used and managed for at least 700 generations, shows morphological differentiation, changes in breeding system and seed germination patterns associated with human management, with only slight genetic differences detected by neutral markers.

  13. An integrated management plan for the control of Opuntia stricta (Cactaceae in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Lotter

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia stricta is the most problematic alien plant species in the Kruger National Park (KNP where 30000 ha around Skukuza have been invaded by the weed. Control of 0. stricta is expensive and time consuming and there are insufficient resources available for the task at present. Biological control using the moth Cactoblastis cactorum has only been partially successful and herbicidal control remains the main method for tackling the problem. In order to optimise the control operation against 0. stricta, a management plan has been developed for the KNP. The infested region of the park has been divided into 18 management units, each of which will be treated in turn. During the first three years the control operations will clear 0. stricta from the peripheral units, to prevent the spread of the weed into other areas of the KNP, after which the central units will be tackled. The objective is to destroy all mature fruiting plants and those nearing maturity to curb long-range (seed dispersal of the weed. The small juvenile plants, which are difficult to detect, will be suppressed by C. cactorum. After five years the problem should be contained to the extent that an ongoing 'holding' programme will be sufficient to keep the weed in check. The success of the plan will depend on increased resources being committed to alien plant control in the Kruger National Park.

  14. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  15. Primary characterization and evaluation of anti ulcerogenic activity of an aqueous extract from callus culture of Cereus peruvianus Mill. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayme, Milena O; Ames, Franciele Q; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Machado, Maria de Fatima P S; Mangolin, Claudete A; Goncalves, Regina A C; de Oliveira, Arildo J B

    2015-01-01

    In the current study we reported cultivation, extraction procedure, analysis and preliminary characterization of the aqueous extract from Cereus peruvianus callus culture and evaluated its anti ulcerogenic activity in vivo models of experimental ulcers in Wistar rats. The obtained aqueous extract from callus (AC) was dialyzed and subjected to freeze-thaw process, providing a possible polysaccharide. The carbohydrate and protein contents of the aqueous extract were estimated at 53.4% and 0.66%, respectively, composed primarily of galactose, arabinose and galacturonic acid, with minor amounts of glucose. This appeared heterogeneous when analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography and a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS). The AC was found to be significantly effective against ethanol-induced lesions but was ineffective against indomethacin-induced lesions. The callus culture of C. peruvianus is an alternative source for the synthesis of substances originally produced by plants. The calluses grown indefinitely in vitro under controlled conditions are stable tissues, and the aqueous extract from calluses may be used instead of fully developed plants using the protocols described in this study.

  16. Occurrence and characterisation of calcium oxalate crystals in stems and fruits of Hylocereus costaricensis and Selenicereus megalanthus (Cactaceae: Hylocereeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, María; Jiménez, Víctor M

    2016-10-01

    Detailed description about occurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals in the edible vine cactus species Hylocereus costaricensis and Selenicereus megalanthus is scarce. Therefore, we evaluated and characterized the presence, morphology and composition of CaOx crystals in both species. Crystals were isolated from greenhouse and in vitro vegetative stems, and from ripe fruit peels and pulp by enzymatic digestion and density centrifugation and quantified with a haemocytometer. Morphologies were studied using scanning electron microscopy, elemental composition with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and salt composition with X-ray powder diffraction. Analyses conducted confirmed that isolated crystals were exclusively composed by CaOx, both mono- and dihydrated. Highest crystal contents were measured in greenhouse stems, followed by the fruit peels. While very few crystals were quantified in in vitro plants, they were not detected in the fruit pulp at all, which is of advantage for its human consumption and could be linked to mechanisms of seed dispersal through animals. Different crystal morphologies were observed, sometimes varying between genotypes and tissues analysed. This is the first work known to the authors with a detailed characterization of CaOx crystals in vine cacti. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 7 CFR 318.13-16 - Regulated articles allowed interstate movement subject to specified conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...)(i) Puerto Rico Cactus Cactaceae Whole plant (b)(2)(iv), (b)(3)(ii) Okra Abelmoschus escuelentus.... Virgin Islands Cactus Cactaceae Whole plant (b)(2)(iv), (b)(3)(ii) Okra Abelmoschus escuelentus Fruit (b...

  18. Class III Survey and Testing of Cultural Resources in Proposed Flood Control System Right-of-Way, Southeastern El Paso, El Paso County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    snakeweed). Flotation results suggest that Amaronthus (pigweed), Cactaceae (probably pricklypear), Cleome (beeweed), Phacelia (scorpionweed...pigweed 1 ’ Cactaceae , cf. Opuntia IN.% pricklypear 11 Cleome beeweed Phacelia scorpionweed 1 Portulaca purslane 15 3 Suaeda seepweed 16 Unknown 1

  19. Vegetation Resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    SUCCULENTS Opuntia polyacantha Plains Prickly Pear Cactaceae Table 4 .(cont’d.) Scientific Name Common Name Family Name Yucca glauca Spanish Bayonet Agavaceae...Lycium halimitolium Matrim~ony Bush Solanceae Salix exigua Coyote Willow Salicaceae CACTI AND SUCCULENTS Coryphantha vivipara Ball Cactus Cactaceae ...Qpuntia compressa Prickly Pear Cactus Cactaceae Opuntia polyacantha Plains Prickly Pear Cactaceae Yucca glauca Spanish Bayonet Agavaceae cq Nl Nl Co~ V c0

  20. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume II, Part II. Biological Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    members of the family Cactaceae : Coryphantha vivipara, Sclerocactus pubispinus, Opuntia spp., and Echinocereus engelmannii. The individuals were widely...Sclerocactus pubispinus (family Cactaceae ) was found on Sites 2/16, 3/6, 3/12, and 3/14. Coryphantha vivipara (family cactaceae ), a taxon Currently Under...family Cactaceae : Echinocereus engelmanii, Echinocereus sp., Opuntia erinacea, Opuntia sp., Sclerocactus pubispinus, Sclerocactus sp., and Coryphantha

  1. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 343 NA NA Ancistrocactus tobuschii Tobusch fishhook cactus U.S.A. (TX) Cactaceae E 80 NA NA Apios... ......do E 647 NA NA Astrophytum asterias Star cactus U.S.A. (TX), Mexico Cactaceae E 521 NA NA Atriplex...) Cactaceae E 208 NA NA Chamaecrista glandulosa var. mirabilis None U.S.A. (PR) Fabaceae E 379 NA NA...

  2. Predation of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae by Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in a sand bank area of Santa Catarina island, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Opuntia is worldwide known for its ecological, ornamental and agronomic importance. Some species became pests in the countries in which they where introduced, and as biological control, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae, originary from Argentina, were used. However, the effect of the attack of this piralid on native cactus has yet not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to detect and to quantify the predation of C. cactorum on Opuntia monacantha. The study was carried out from September to November of 2004, along pre-defined tracks, on a sand bank vegetation area, between the Mole and Galheta beaches in the Santa Catarina island (27º35’83.1’’S e 48º25’70.6’’W. All the studied plants (n = 20 presented some damage caused by C. cactorum. The proportion of unpredated cladodes (68% and fruits (85% was higher than the predated ones. Terminal cladodes were highly predated structures and presented the highest number of larvae inside. Seed loss in the predated fruits was high. The remaining areole of the predated cladodes and fruits differentiated into sprouts and routs and formed new plants. O. monacantha, despite of being predated by C. cactorum larvae, apparently possess defense mechanisms which assure the maintenance of its populations.

  3. The effect of temperature on the germination of Melocactus violaceus Pfeiff. (Cactaceae, a threatened species in restinga sandy coastal plain of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ R. ZAMITH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Melocactus violaceus is an endangered species due to habitat destruction and the overcollection of this species for ornamental use. The aim of this study was to test the effect of different temperatures on the germination of M. violaceus. Three treatments were conducted: a constant temperature of 25ºC, a 20-35ºC alternating temperature, both inside germination chamber, and an alternating temperature under room temperature (mean temperature ranged from 25-37ºC. The final seed germination rates at the alternating temperature treatments were not significantly different (65% in the seed germinator and 62.5% at room condition. However, both treatments with alternating temperatures had significantly higher germination rates compared to the treatment kept at the constant temperature (8%. Our study showed that alternating temperatures between 20 and 37ºC provides satisfactory conditions to induce a high percentage of seed germination of M. violaceus, without the passage of seeds through the digestive tract of its natural disperser, the lizard Tropidurus torquatus. This condition contributes to efficiently producing seedlings that can be reintroduced into conservation areas or used as ornamentals that may help reduce the overcollection of the remaining native populations.

  4. Landscape genetics reveals inbreeding and genetic bottlenecks in the extremely rare short-globose cacti Mammillaria pectinifera (Cactaceae as a result of habitat fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Maya-García

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mammillaria pectinifera is an endemic, short-globose cactus species, included in the IUCN list as a threatened species with only 18 remaining populations in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley in central Mexico. We evaluated the population genetic diversity and structure, connectivity, recent bottlenecks and population size, using nuclear microsatellites. M. pectinifera showed high genetic diversity but some evidence of heterozygote deficiency (FIS, recent bottlenecks in some populations and reductions in population size. Also, we found low population genetic differentiation and high values of connectivity for M. pectinifera, as the result of historical events of gene flow through pollen and seed dispersal. M. pectinifera occurs in sites with some degree of disturbance leading to the isolation of its populations and decreasing the levels of gene flow among them. Excessive deforestation also changes the original vegetation damaging the natural habitats. This species will become extinct if it is not properly preserved. Furthermore, this species has some ecological features that make them more vulnerable to disturbance such as a very low growth rates and long life cycles. We suggest in situ conservation to prevent the decrease of population sizes and loss of genetic diversity in the natural protected areas such as the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve. In addition, a long-term ex situ conservation program is need to construct seed banks, and optimize seed germination and plant establishment protocols that restore disturbed habitats. Furthermore, creating a supply of living plants for trade is critical to avoid further extraction of plants from nature.

  5. Estudio comparativo in vitro de estrategias adaptativas en especies de Hylocereus, Cactaceae, con distribución ecológica contrastada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Moreira-Palacios

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hylocereus ocamponis e Hylocereus triangularis son dos especies de cactáceas estrechamente relacionadas filogenéticamente pero que muestran hábitos de crecimiento completamente contrastados. La primera abunda en ecosistemas secos y la segunda en bosque tropical lluvioso, en bosques secos occidentales y la región amazónica del Ecuador, respectivamente. En el presente trabajo se empleó el cultivo in vitro como plataforma para el estudio de adaptaciones en ambas especies. El cultivo in vitro ofrece la posibilidad de estudiar de forma comparada la respuesta de explantes a reguladores del crecimiento en condiciones altamente controladas. Se evaluaron combinaciones de reguladores de crecimiento thidiazuron (TDZ, bencil amino purina (BAP, ácido naftalenacético (NAA, ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D y Kinetina (KIN en diferentes tipos de explantes para estudiar sus respuestas morfogenéticas y hacer una relación con la tolerancia al estrés y capacidad adaptativa (plasticidad fenotípica en H. ocamponis y H. triangularis. Los explantes de H. triangularis mostraron un mayor rango dinámico de respuesta a los tratamientos, especialmente durante la formación de cladodios y callos; la mejor formación de brotes (1,5 por explante y callos (0,75 por explante fue al aplicar 0,5 µl de TDZ con 0,5 µl de NAA. Los explantes de H. ocamponis mostraron casi siempre una inhibición ante los tratamientos y la mejor respuesta fue a la formación de raíces (1,43 por explante con 5 µl de BAP lo que puede estar directamente relacionado con su hábitat de procedencia. El cultivo in vitro resultó ser una metodología útil para el estudio de adaptaciones en especies con distribución ecológica contrastada y reveló una gran plasticidad en H. triangularis lo que concuerda con su capacidad de expansión de hábitat.

  6. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A total of 108 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the gen...

  7. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Carvalho, Camila R; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-06-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A hundred-eight endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the genera Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Biscogniauxia, Cladosporium, Cryptococcus, Curvularia, Diaporthe, Epicoccum, Paraconiothyrium, Pestalotiopsis and Phoma. The most frequent species associated with O. humifusa were Alternaria sp. 3, Aureobasidium pullulans and Diaporthe sp. The fungal community of O. humifusa had a high richness and diversity; additionally, the species richness obtained indicates that the sample effort was enough to recover the diversity pattern obtained. Six extracts of endophytes showed antifungal properties and (1)H NMR analyses of the extracts of Alternaria sp. 5 Ohu 8B2, Alternaria sp. 3 Ohu 30A, Cladosporium funiculosum Ohu 17C1 and Paraconiothyrium sp. Ohu 17A indicated the presence of functional groups associated with unsaturated fatty-acid olefinic protons and fatty acid methylene and methyl protons. GC-FID analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of a mixture of different fatty acids. The (1)H NMR analyses of Biscogniauxia mediterranea Ohu 19B extracts showed the presence of aromatic compounds. From the extract of B. mediterranea we isolated the compound 5-methylmellein that displayed moderate antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Phomopsis obscurans. Our results suggest that native medicinal cacti of the United States can live symbiotically with rich and diverse endophytic communities and may be a source of bioactive molecules, including those able to inhibit or control plant disease pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Dispersal of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae, a biological control agent of Opuntia stricta (Haworth. Haworth. (Cactaceae in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Foxcroft

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control efforts, the introduction of Cactoblastis cactorum and attempted releases of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell into the expanding infestation of Opuntia stricta in the Skukuza region of the Kruger National Park (KNP have had limited suc- cess in preventing the spread and densification of 0. stricta. To boost the biological control component, a new strain of D. opuntiae was introduced into KNP during 1997. The new strain established readily and has destroyed large clumps of plants in the vicin- ity of the release site. A large-scale redistribution programme with D. opuntiae is now needed to exploit this biological control agent to the full. In order to match the frequency of manual releases with the natural rates of spread of the insects, surveys were conducted under field conditions to determine the dispersal abilities ofD. opuntiae, with regard to rate and direction of movement. Dispersal of D. opuntiae was found to be slow and restricted and that the insects need to be redistributed by placing them onto plants at approximately 10 m intervals to ensure that they become quickly and evenly distributed on the weed. This information will be crucial in the revision of the integrated management plan for 0. stricta in the KNP, in integrating the cochineal and other control mechanisms.

  9. Reproductive biology of Ferocactus recurvus (Mill.) Borg subsp. recurvus (Cactaceae) in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Acosta, E; Zavala-Hurtado, J A; Golubov, J; Casas, A

    2017-09-01

    Mexico has one of the highest diversities of barrel cacti species worldwide; however, all are threatened and require conservation policies. Information on their reproductive biology is crucial, but few studies are available. Ferocactus recurvus subsp. recurvus is a barrel cactus endemic to the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley. Our research aimed to characterise its floral and pollination biology. We hypothesised bee pollination, as suggested by its floral morphology and behaviour, and self-incompatibility, like most barrel cacti studied. Three study sites were selected in the semiarid Zapotitlán Valley, Mexico. We examined 190 flowers from 180 plants to determine: morphometry and behaviour of flowers, flower visitors and probable pollinators, and breeding system. Flowers showed diurnal anthesis, lasting 2-5 days, the stigma being receptive on day 2 or 3 after the start of anthesis. Flowers produced scarce/no nectar and main visitors were bees (Apidae), followed by flies (Muscidae), ants (Formicidae), thrips (Thripidae) and hummingbirds (Throchilidae); however, only native bees and occasionally wasps contacted the stigma and anthers. Pollination experiments revealed that this species is self-incompatible and xenogamous. In natural conditions, fruit set was 60% and cross-pollination fruit set was 100%. Percentage seed germination resulting from cross-pollination was higher than in the control treatment. Our results provide ecological information for conservation programmes to ensure a high probability of breeding and seed production in natural populations of F. recurvus. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. An integrative approach to understanding the evolution and diversity of Copiapoa (Cactaceae), a threatened endemic Chilean genus from the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larridon, Isabel; Walter, Helmut E; Guerrero, Pablo C; Duarte, Milén; Cisternas, Mauricio A; Hernández, Carol Peña; Bauters, Kenneth; Asselman, Pieter; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2015-09-01

    Species of the endemic Chilean cactus genus Copiapoa have cylindrical or (sub)globose stems that are solitary or form (large) clusters and typically yellow flowers. Many species are threatened with extinction. Despite being icons of the Atacama Desert and well loved by cactus enthusiasts, the evolution and diversity of Copiapoa has not yet been studied using a molecular approach. Sequence data of three plastid DNA markers (rpl32-trnL, trnH-psbA, ycf1) of 39 Copiapoa taxa were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference approaches. Species distributions were modeled based on geo-referenced localities and climatic data. Evolution of character states of four characters (root morphology, stem branching, stem shape, and stem diameter) as well as ancestral areas were reconstructed using a Bayesian and maximum likelihood framework, respectively. Clades of species are revealed. Though 32 morphologically defined species can be recognized, genetic diversity between some species and infraspecific taxa is too low to delimit their boundaries using plastid DNA markers. Recovered relationships are often supported by morphological and biogeographical patterns. The origin of Copiapoa likely lies between southern Peru and the extreme north of Chile. The Copiapó Valley limited colonization between two biogeographical areas. Copiapoa is here defined to include 32 species and five heterotypic subspecies. Thirty species are classified into four sections and two subsections, while two species remain unplaced. A better understanding of evolution and diversity of Copiapoa will allow allocating conservation resources to the most threatened lineages and focusing conservation action on real biodiversity. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  11. The effect of temperature on the germination of Melocactus violaceus Pfeiff. (Cactaceae), a threatened species in restinga sandy coastal plain of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamith, Luiz R; Cruz, Denise D; Richers, Bárbara T T

    2013-01-01

    Melocactus violaceus is an endangered species due to habitat destruction and the overcollection of this species for ornamental use. The aim of this study was to test the effect of different temperatures on the germination of M. violaceus. Three treatments were conducted: a constant temperature of 25ºC, a 20-35ºC alternating temperature, both inside germination chamber, and an alternating temperature under room temperature (mean temperature ranged from 25-37ºC). The final seed germination rates at the alternating temperature treatments were not significantly different (65% in the seed germinator and 62.5% at room condition). However, both treatments with alternating temperatures had significantly higher germination rates compared to the treatment kept at the constant temperature (8%). Our study showed that alternating temperatures between 20 and 37ºC provides satisfactory conditions to induce a high percentage of seed germination of M. violaceus, without the passage of seeds through the digestive tract of its natural disperser, the lizard Tropidurus torquatus. This condition contributes to efficiently producing seedlings that can be reintroduced into conservation areas or used as ornamentals that may help reduce the overcollection of the remaining native populations.

  12. Extensive 5.8S nrDNA polymorphism in Mammillaria (Cactaceae) with special reference to the identification of pseudogenic internal transcribed spacer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpke, Doerte; Peterson, Angela

    2008-05-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2) represents the most widely applied nuclear marker in eukaryotic phylogenetics. Although this region has been assumed to evolve in concert, the number of investigations revealing high degrees of intra-individual polymorphism connected with the presence of pseudogenes has risen. The 5.8S rDNA is the most important diagnostic marker for functionality of the ITS region. In Mammillaria, intra-individual 5.8S rDNA polymorphisms of up to 36% and up to nine different types have been found. Twenty-eight of 30 cloned genomic Mammillaria sequences were identified as putative pseudogenes. For the identification of pseudogenic ITS regions, in addition to formal tests based on substitution rates, we attempted to focus on functional features of the 5.8S rDNA (5.8S motif, secondary structure). The importance of functional data for the identification of pseudogenes is outlined and discussed. The identification of pseudogenes is essential, because they may cause erroneous phylogenies and taxonomic problems.

  13. Further elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of E. sneedii var. sneedii were found to occur in greater abundance within the Guadalupe Mountains than was previously recorded. No additional populations morphologically intermediate between E. guadalupensis and E. sneedii were found. Taxonomic affiliation and geographic...

  14. Genetic structure of Pilosocereus gounellei (Cactaceae) as revealed by AFLP marker to guide proposals for improvement and restoration of degraded areas in Caatinga biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, E R; Strioto, D K; Meirelles, A C S; Mangolin, C A; Machado, M F P S

    2015-12-15

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to evaluate DNA polymorphism in Pilosocereus gounellei with the aim of differentiating samples grown in different Brazilian semiarid regions. Seven primer pairs were used to amplify 703 AFLP markers, of which 700 (99.21%) markers were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic markers ranged from 95.3% for the primer combination E-AAG/M-CTT to 100% for E-ACC/M-CAT, E-ACC/M-CAA, E-AGC/M-CAG, E-ACT/M-CTA, and E-AGG/M-CTG. The largest number of informative markers (126) was detected using the primer combination E-AAC/M-CTA. Polymorphism of the amplified DNA fragments ranged from 72.55% (in sample from Piauí State) to 82.79% (in samples from Rio Grande Norte State), with an average of 75.39%. Despite the high genetic diversity of AFLP markers in xiquexique, analysis using the STRUCTURE software identified relatively homogeneous clusters of xiquexique from the same location, indicating a differentiation at the molecular level, among the plant samples from different regions of the Caatinga biome. The AFLP methodology identified genetically homogeneous and contrasting plants, as well as plants from different regions with common DNA markers. Seeds from such plants can be used for further propagation of plants for establishment of biodiversity conservation units and restoration of degraded areas of the Caatinga biome.

  15. Cross-species amplification of microsatellites reveals incongruence in the molecular variation and taxonomic limits of the Pilosocereus aurisetus group (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Evandro M; Perez, Manolo F; Téo, Mariana F; Zappi, Daniela C; Taylor, Nigel P; Machado, Marlon C

    2012-09-01

    The Pilosocereus aurisetus group contains eight cactus species restricted to xeric habitats in eastern and central Brazil that have an archipelago-like distribution. In this study, 5-11 microsatellite markers previously designed for Pilosocereus machrisii were evaluated for cross-amplification and polymorphisms in ten populations from six species of the P. aurisetus group. The genotypic information was subsequently used to investigate the genetic relationships between the individuals, populations, and species analyzed. Only the Pmac101 locus failed to amplify in all of the six analyzed species, resulting in an 88 % success rate. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 12, and the most successfully amplified loci showed at least one population with a larger number of alleles than were reported in the source species. The population relationships revealed clear genetic clustering in a neighbor-joining tree that was partially incongruent with the taxonomic limits between the P. aurisetus and P. machrisii species, a fact which parallels the problematic taxonomy of the P. aurisetus group. A Bayesian clustering analysis of the individual genotypes confirmed the observed taxonomic incongruence. These microsatellite markers provide a valuable resource for facilitating large-scale genetic studies on population structures, systematics and evolutionary history in this group.

  16. MX Siting Investigation. DTN/OBTS Field Surveys. Volume III. Biological Resources Nevada and Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    Tumble mustard F MYCW Lepidium fremontii Desert pepperweed F CW,W CACTACEAE Echinocereus engelmannii Hedgehog cactus S MY Ferocactus acant’,jodes...Lepidium sp. Pepperweed F MS Sisymbrium altissimum Tumble mustard F Js Sisymbrium sp. Tumble mustard F BS CACTACEAE Echinocereus engelmannii Engelmannii...Streptanthella F BS,W lorostris StetnhlaTwist flower F PJ cordatus CACTACEAE Echinocereus Hedgehog cactus S BIS triglochidiatus Opuntia erinacea Prickly pear S PJ

  17. Distribution and Status of Sclerocactus polyancistrus on the Naval Weapons Center-A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Doma ntered) NWC TP 6403 PREFACE Sclerocactus polyancistrus, an attractive member of the Cactaceae family, has been reported to be decreasing in...N.L. & J.N. Rose. 1922. Cactaceae 3: 213-215. SYNONYMS: Echinocactus polyancistrus (Engelmann & Bigelow) Engelmann, G. 1856. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 272...COMMON NAMES: Mojave Fishhook Cactus Hermit Cactus Pineapple Cactus Devil’s Claw Mojave Bisnaga FAMILY: Cactaceae (Cactus) DESCRIPTION: (Non-technical

  18. Germinação in vitro e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de plântulas de Pilosocereus aurisetus (Werderm. Byles & G.D. Rowley (Cactaceae In vitro germination and post-seminal development of plantlets of Pilosocereus aurisetus (Werderm. Byles & G.D. Rowley (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Valquíria dos Reis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pilosocereus aurisetus é uma espécie de cactos de importância econômica e ambiental que se encontra em risco de extinção. A propagação em áreas naturais ocorre, principalmente, de forma sexuada; entretanto, não há registro da germinação e viabilidade de sementes e morfologia pós-seminal de plântulas dessa espécie. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a germinação de sementes e descrever a morfologia do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de plântulas de P. aurisetus. Para isso, sementes, armazenadas em condições ambientais por 19 meses, foram submetidas aos tratamentos: embebição em água por 24 horas; pré-resfriamento; imersão em solução de giberelina, nas concentrações de 250 mg L-1 e 500 mg L-1; e um tratamento controle. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em meio de cultura MS, por 30 dias, quando se avaliou a percentagem de germinação. O delineamento estatístico foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo dispostas 25 sementes por parcela. A caracterização pós-seminal foi realizada por um período de 60 dias, utilizando-se microscópio binocular, com base nas Regras para Análise de Sementes. Maior percentagem da germinação de sementes ocorreu no controle, ou quando embebidas por 24 horas, sendo observados 90% e 83%, respectivamente. A morfologia do desenvolvimento pós-seminal indicou que a germinação é do tipo epígea, com hipocótilo de reserva; suas plântulas sofrem modificações na região do colo, para a emissão de raízes, e apresentam cerdas no ápice caulinar, mesmo na fase inicial da expansão cotiledonar. A diferenciação e início da formação das costelas iniciam-se aos 60 dias após a germinação, com o desenvolvimento do epicótilo.Pilosocereus aurisetus is a species of cactus of economic and environmental importance, but the predatory exploitation led the species to be listed as threatened with extinction. P. aurisetus propagation occurs mainly in natural environment by sexual reproduction, though there is no record of germination, viability and morphology of post-seminal seeds of this species. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the germination and describe the morphology of post-seminal development of seeds of P. aurisetus. For this purpose, seeds stored at ambient conditions for 19 months were treated as follows: soaking in water for 24 hours, pre-cooling, soaking in solution of gibberellin in concentrations of 250 mg L-1 and 500 mg L-1 and a control. The seeds were germinated on MS medium for 30 days, when the germination percentage was evaluated. The statistical design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replications with 25 seeds per plot. The post-seminal characterization was performed for a period of 60 days using a stereomicroscope based on the International Rules for Testing Seeds. A higher percentage of germination was observed in the control or when soaked for 24 hours, with 90% and 83% respectively. The morphology of the post-seminal seeds indicated that the P. aurisetus germination is epigeous with reservation hypocotyl, seedlings changes lap region to emit roots and bristles present in shoot apex even in early stages of cotyledon expansion. The early differentiation and the formation of the ribs begin 60 days after germination with the development of the epicotyl.

  19. Morphology and anatomy of Rhipsalis cereuscula, Rhipsalis floccosa subsp. hohenauensis and Lepismium cruciforme (Cactaceae seedlings Morfología y anatomía de las plántulas de Rhipsalis cereuscula, Rhipsalis floccosa subsp. hohenauensis y Lepismium cruciforme (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C. Secorun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw., Rhipsalis floccosa subsp. hohenauensis (F. Ritter Barthlott et N. P. Taylor and Lepismium cruciforme (Vellozo Miquel are obligatory epiphytes that occur frequently on tree trunks of remnant forests in Maringa, Paraná state, Brazil. Morphological and anatomical analyses regarding the seedlings were carried out. The seedlings were prepared according to techniques of resin inclusions and histochemical tests. Seedlings were phanerocotyledonar and originated from seeds with operculum. The root was diarch and the hypocotyl presented transition root-stem structure. The cotyledons were sessile, reduced, with homogeneous mesophyll. The epicotyl (phylloclade presented a lot of parenchyma and reduced vascular cylinder. The 3 studied species showed anatomical characteristics similar to those described for species of Lepismium and Rhipsalis as well as other cacti.Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw., Rhipsalis floccosa subsp. hohenauensis (F. Ritter Barthlott et N. P. Taylor y Lepismium cruciforme (Vellozo Miquel son epífitos obligatorios que frecuentemente habitan en los troncos del árbol de matorrales secundarios de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. Se analizaron la morfología y anatomía de las plántulas de estas especies. Las plántulas fueron procesadas según las técnicas de inclusión en resina y pruebas histoquímicas. Las plántulas se clasificaron como fanerocotiledonares y se originaron de semillas con opérculo. La raíz era diarca y el hipocótilo presentó estructura de transición raíz-tallo. Los cotiledones fueron sésiles, reducidos, con el mesófilo homogéneo. El epicótilo (filocladio presentó mucho parénquima y el cilindro vascular reducido. Las 3 especies presentaron características anatómicas similares a las descritas para especies de Lepismium y Rhipsalis, así como otras cactáceas.

  20. Morfo-anatomia do fruto (hipanto, pericarpo e semente em desenvolvimento de Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2046 Morphology and anatomy of the fruit (hypanthium, pericarp and seed development of Pereskia aculeate Miller (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maciel da Rosa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do fruto (hipanto, pericarpo e semente de Pereskia aculeata Miller é analisado desde a flor em antese até a maturidade. A flor é perígina e apresenta no hipanto bractéolas verdes e acúleos. O fruto é pomáceo, tipo cactídio e caracteriza-se por apresentar hipanto carnoso, pericarpo e massa gelatinosa, formada pela destruição parcial do pericarpo e columela, onde estão imersas as sementes. A semente é exotestal e origina-se do óvulo anfítropo, bitegumentado e crassinucelado. A semente apresenta reserva perispérmica e resíduos de endosperma. O embrião é curvo e tem eixo hipocótilo-radicular longo, dois cotilédones com mesofilo homogêneo e plúmula indiferenciadaThe development of Pereskia aculeate Miller fruit (hypanthium, pericarp and seed was analyzed. The flower is perigynous and presents a hypanthium with bracteoles and aculeus. The fruit is pomaceous, type cactídio, with succulent hypanthium, pericarp, and seeds immersed in a gelatinous mass. This gelatinous mass originates from the pericarp and the columella. The seed is exotestal and develops from an amphitropous, bitegmic and crassinucelate ovule. It has perisperm and an endosperm residue. The embryo is curved and is composed of elongated hypocotyl-radicle axis, two cotyledons with uniform mesophyll, and undifferentiated plumule

  1. In situ Morphological Characterization of Hylocereus spp. (Fam.: Cactaceae Genotypes from Antioquia and Córdoba (Colombia / Caracterización Morfológica in situ de Genotipos de Hylocereus spp. (Fam.: Cactaceae de Antioquia y Córdoba (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía Henry Andrés

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hylocereus includes many importantspecies for human and animal nutrition, including those known as dragon fruits. Although Colombia produces yellow pitaya on a commercial scale, there have been no advances for the red pitahaya crop. This study aimed to do an in situ evaluation of genetic material of wild red pitahaya (Hylocereus spp. from three populations located in Antioquia and Córdoba; with special interest for the fruits, taking into account the desired characteristics by the market. To achieve this, 23 descriptors of stems and fruits, measurable in the field, were chosen; and 35 individuals where located, using GPS, and described. The populations were compared using mean comparison and the similarity was evaluated with cluster analysis. The stem descriptors differed in spine number, contour and margin hardness, areole distance and stem color; the first three are important for species distinction.According to the fruit descriptors, populations 1 and 2 presented similar fruits that were different from those of population 3, for almost all variables except total soluble solids content. The fruits of population 1 and 2 only differed for pulp weight. Individual 3 of population 1 presented fruits with the best characteristics for the market / El género Hylocereus presenta varias especies importantes en la alimentación humana y animal, incluyendo aquellas conocidas como pitayas rojas. Aunque Colombia produce comercialmente pitaya amarilla, no ha avanzado en el cultivo de pitaya roja. Este trabajo se propuso caracterizar in situ materiales genéticos silvestres de pitaya roja (Hylocereus spp. provenientes de tres poblaciones de Antioquia y Córdoba, especialmente de sus frutos, según las características deseables para el mercado. Para ello,se eligieron 23 descriptores de tallos y frutos, medibles en campo; se ubicaron y georeferenciaron 35 individuos y se describieron. Las poblaciones fueron comparadas en cada uno de los descriptores usando una comparación de medias, además se evaluó la similitud entre poblaciones con un análisis de agrupamiento. Según los descriptores de tallos, hubo diferencias en: número de espinas, contorno y dureza de las márgenes, distancia entre areolas, altura yespesor de la arista, longitud y color del cladodio; las tres primeras características son importantes para diferenciar especies. Según los descriptores de fruto, las poblaciones 1 y 2 presentaron frutos más similares entre sí y diferentes de los de la población 3, en casi todas las variables excepto en el contenido de sólidos solubles totales. Los frutos de la población 1 y 2 sólo difirieron en el peso de la pulpa. El individuo 3 de la población 1 presentó frutos con mejorescaracterísticas para el mercado.

  2. Dispersão de sementes de Melocactus glaucescens e M. paucispinus (Cactaceae, no Município de Morro do Chapéu, Chapada Diamantina - BA Dispersion of Melocactus glaucescens and M. paucispinus (Cactaceae in the municipality of Morro do Chapéu, Chapada Diamantina - BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosineide Braz Santos Fonseca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar os dispersores de duas espécies de Melocactus, verificar o padrão de liberação dos frutos, correlacionando-o com a remoção por frugívoros e variação térmica do cefálio, bem como caracterizar a distribuição espacial. Para tanto, foram realizadas observações focais, testes de germinação, registros da emergência, extrusão e remoção de frutos, da temperatura do cefálio, de interações formigas-diásporos e distribuição espacial. Lagartos (2 espécies e formigas (3 espécies foram os dispersores das espécies estudadas. A dormência das sementes não foi quebrada pela passagem pelo trato digestivo dos lagartos. As maiores taxas de remoção dos frutos pelos lagartos ocorreram nas horas centrais do dia, coincidindo ou sendo posterior aos picos de extrusão. As taxas de emergência e extrusão foram mais intensas pela manhã, o que aumentou as chances de remoção dos frutos no dia da liberação, evitando dissecação e predação. Não houve correlação entre a liberação dos frutos e a variação térmica do cefálio. O desenvolvimento do fruto gera tensão nas fibras do cefálio que promove sua emergência ou expulsão. A expulsão de frutos emergidos pode ser auxiliada pela dilatação das fibras em resposta ao aquecimento, tensão da união das fibras na base e saída de outros frutos. A distribuição espacial dos indivíduos parece ser influenciada pelo comportamento dos dispersores.Objectives: identify the dispersers of two species of Melocactus; verify their patterns of fruit offering and correlate this with removal by frugivores and with temperature variations of the cephalium; and analyze the relationship between the spatial distribution of the Melocactus species and the behavior of their dispersers. Focal observations were made of fruit emergence, extrusion and removal, cephalium temperature, ant-diaspore interactions, and plant spatial distribution. Germination tests were also made. Two lizard and three ant species were dispersers of the two species of Melocactus. Seed dormancy was not broken in the digestive tracts of the lizards. The greatest rates of fruit removal by the lizards occurred during the mid hours of the day, coinciding with or following the extrusion peak. Fruit emergence and extrusion rates were highest in the morning, increasing their chances of being taken on the same day, thus avoiding desiccation and predation. No correlation was observed between fruit liberation and thermal variations of the cephalium. Fruit development generates tension within the fiber mass of the cephalium that provokes fruit emergence/expulsion. The expulsion of the fruits may also be aided by the dilation of the cephalium fibers as they warm, tension generated at the cephalium base where the fibers unite, and by the expulsion of other fruits. The spatial distribution of these cacti is influenced by disperser behavior.

  3. MX Siting Investigation. Preliminary Biological and Cultural Resources Inventory and Environmental Evaluation of the Proposed Operational Base Sites in Coyote Spring Valley and the Milford-Beryl Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-20

    Stanleya pinriata (desert prince- plume) Stanleya sp. X CACTACEAE Echinocereus engelmannii (Engel- X X X X X X mann echinocereus) Ferocactus acanthodes...TABLE 3-3 (Cont.) Site Number Species 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CACTACEAE (Cont.) Ferocactus sp X X X X *Neolloydia sp. X *-Opuntia basilaris (beavertail X X

  4. Archaeological Investigations of Three Sites within the Wipp Core Area, Eddy County, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    leaves are eaten as food (Castetter 1935:33). Cactaceae c macroMeris Texas devilshead Echinocereaus pi s Caespitose hedgehog E. fendleri Fendler hedgehog...Ountia ad.isii Davis cholla . kleiniae Klein cholla 0. ept is Christmas cactus 0. phaeacantha Prickly pear Fruits of most cactaceae are edible. The

  5. Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. I. root colonization and weathering of igneous rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Puente; Y. Bashan; C.Y. Li; V.K. Lebsky

    2004-01-01

    Dense layers of bacteria and fungi in the rhizoplane of three species of cactus (Pachycereus pringlei, Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia cholla) and a wild fig tree (Ficus palmeri) growing in rocks devoid of soil were revealed by bright-field and fluorescence microscopy and field emission...

  6. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volumes II-I and II-II. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada and Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah. Supplement. Spring Survey of the IOC Valleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    pinnata X K CACTACEAE Coryphantha vivipara x Opuntia echinocarpa K 0 x K K K 5putaerinacea K Op’untia sp. x X -12- TABLE 3-1 (Cont.) Shelter site...pilosus x Lepidium montanun X CACTACEAE Opuntia echinocarpa x x Opuntia erinacea X X X CHENOPODIACEAE Atriplex canescens X X X Ceratoides lanata X X X X...Stanleya pinnata X CACTACEAE Coryphantha vivipara var. rosea X Echinocereus engelmannii X opuntia echinocarpa X X X X X X X X Opuntia erinacea XX X X X X x

  7. Germinação in vitro e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de plântulas de Pilosocereus aurisetus (Werderm. Byles & G.D. Rowley (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Valquíria dos Reis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pilosocereus aurisetus é uma espécie de cactos de importância econômica e ambiental que se encontra em risco de extinção. A propagação em áreas naturais ocorre, principalmente, de forma sexuada; entretanto, não há registro da germinação e viabilidade de sementes e morfologia pós-seminal de plântulas dessa espécie. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a germinação de sementes e descrever a morfologia do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de plântulas de P. aurisetus. Para isso, sementes, armazenadas em condições ambientais por 19 meses, foram submetidas aos tratamentos: embebição em água por 24 horas; pré-resfriamento; imersão em solução de giberelina, nas concentrações de 250 mg L-1 e 500 mg L-1; e um tratamento controle. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em meio de cultura MS, por 30 dias, quando se avaliou a percentagem de germinação. O delineamento estatístico foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo dispostas 25 sementes por parcela. A caracterização pós-seminal foi realizada por um período de 60 dias, utilizando-se microscópio binocular, com base nas Regras para Análise de Sementes. Maior percentagem da germinação de sementes ocorreu no controle, ou quando embebidas por 24 horas, sendo observados 90% e 83%, respectivamente. A morfologia do desenvolvimento pós-seminal indicou que a germinação é do tipo epígea, com hipocótilo de reserva; suas plântulas sofrem modificações na região do colo, para a emissão de raízes, e apresentam cerdas no ápice caulinar, mesmo na fase inicial da expansão cotiledonar. A diferenciação e início da formação das costelas iniciam-se aos 60 dias após a germinação, com o desenvolvimento do epicótilo.

  8. Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cactaceae) invasion on beetle and spider diversity in Kruger National Park, South Africa Abstract · Vol 43, No 2 (2008) - Articles Micro-scale heterogeneity of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa: A comparative survey ...

  10. Cereus peruvianus (Koubo) new cactus fruit for the world

    OpenAIRE

    Mizrahi, Yosef

    2014-01-01

    Several different species of the columnar cacti of the genera Stenocereus and Pachycereus, were introduced into different semi-arid ecozones in Israel and most of these efforts were of disappointing outcomes, the only exception being the Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller,which bore plenty of fruits, some of them of good taste. The original seeds of this plant were obtained from the late Mr. Amram (Ron) Kodish, who collected seeds from various private gardens in Southern California which bore frui...

  11. Utilização de frutos de cactos (Cactaceae como recurso alimentar por vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae em uma área de caatinga (Ipirá, Bahia, Brasil The use of cactus fruit food resources by social wasp (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in an area of Caatinga (lpirá, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto M. M. Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo identificar as espécies utilizadas como recurso alimentar e descrever os padrões locais de utilização de frutos de cactos como recurso alimentar por vespas sociais em uma área de Caatinga. Novecentos e oito indivíduos de nove espécies de vespas foram capturados visitando seis espécies de cactáceas. Cereus jamacaru DC. e Pilosocereus catingicola (Gurke Byles & G.D foram as cactáceas mais utilizadas por vespas sociais, tanto em número de espécies quanto de indivíduos. Polybia paulista von Ihering, 1896, Polybia ignobilis (Haliday, 1836, Polistes versicolor (Olivier, 1791, Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951, Polistes billardieri Fabricius, 1804, Polistes canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758, Polybia occidentalis (Olivier, 1791 e Polybia sericea (Olivier, 1705 apresentaram as maiores amplitudes de nicho trófico. As maiores sobreposições no nicho trófico foram observadas entre Mischocyttarus lanei Zikán, 1949 e Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951 (0,83. Os altos níveis de sobreposição de nichos observados são explicados em função do comportamento generalista das vespas sociais, bem como da exploração intensiva de poucas espécies de cactáceas.This study aims to identify food resource plants used by social wasp species in a Caatinga area, as well as describe the local patterns of cactus fruit resources used by wasps. Nine hundreds and eight foraging wasps, belonging to nine species, were captured while visiting six cactus species. Cereus jamacaru DC. and Pilosocereus catingicola (Gurke Byles & G.D. were the most frequently visited plants. Several wasp species and a great number of individuals visited them. Polybia paulista von Ihering, 1896, Polybia ignobilis (Haliday, 1836, Polistes versicolor (Olivier, 1791, Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951, Polistes billardieri Fabricius, 1804, Polistes canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758, Polybia occidentalis (Olivier, 1791 and Polybia sericea (Olivier, 1705 had the larger trophic niche breadth. The highest trophic niche overlap was between Mischocyttarus lanei Zikán, 1949 and Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951 (0.83. The high niche overlap among social wasps seems to be resulting of the generalist behavior of the social wasp, as well as of the intensive exploration of few cactus species.

  12. A preliminary floristic inventory in the Sierra de Mazatan, Municipios of Ures and Mazatan, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Jesus Sanchez-Escalante; Manuel Espericueta-Betancourt; Reyna Amanda Castillo-Gamez

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the flora of the Sierra de Mazatán contains 357 species of vascular plants distributed in 248 genera and 80 families. The families with the most species are Asteraceae (48), Fabaceae (45), Poaceae (28), Euphorbiaceae (18), and Acanthaceae, Cactaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Solanaceae (11 each). The results show that the flora of the Sierra de Mazat...

  13. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  14. Field host range of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a potential biocontrol agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was successfully used for biological control of Opuntia spp. (Cactaceae) in Australia and South Africa, where no native cacti occur. Since 1989, this South American moth has been invading the southeastern United States, threatening the unique ca...

  15. Reproductive biology, hybridization, and flower visitors of rare Sclerocactus taxa in Utah's Uintah Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mating system and flower visitors of two threatened species of Sclerocactus (Cactaceae) were studied in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, an area undergoing rapid energy development. We found that both S. wetlandicus and S. brevispinus, as well as a third presumptive taxon (undescribed) which w...

  16. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from nopal stems and water and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopal is a native cactus specie [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) MILL (Cactaceae)] of appreciable economic importance in Mexico. This plant or its by-products are typically ingested fresh as a salad or processed into juice or yogurt, but it can also be used as a dietary supplement or be formulated into co...

  17. New species of Ashmeadiella Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new species of bees from Mexico are described and illustrated here: Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) danuncia n. sp. and A. (A.) mandibularis n. sp. These species are most frequently found visiting flowers of Cactaceae, although they have also been collected on flowers of Acacia, Prosopis, Lopezia, D...

  18. Beyond aridification: multiple explanations for the elevated diversification of cacti in the New World Succulent Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Tania; Brown, Joseph W; Schlumpberger, Boris O; Eguiarte, Luis E; Magallón, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Succulent plants are widely distributed, reaching their highest diversity in arid and semi-arid regions. Their origin and diversification is thought to be associated with a global expansion of aridity. We test this hypothesis by investigating the tempo and pattern of Cactaceae diversification. Our results contribute to the understanding of the evolution of New World Succulent Biomes. We use the most taxonomically complete dataset currently available for Cactaceae. We estimate divergence times and utilize Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods that account for nonrandom taxonomic sampling, possible extinction scenarios and phylogenetic uncertainty to analyze diversification rates, and evolution of growth form and pollination syndrome. Cactaceae originated shortly after the Eocene-Oligocene global drop in CO2 , and radiation of its richest genera coincided with the expansion of aridity in North America during the late Miocene. A significant correlation between growth form and pollination syndrome was found, as well as a clear state dependence between diversification rate, and pollination and growth-form evolution. This study suggests a complex picture underlying the diversification of Cactaceae. It not only responded to the availability of new niches resulting from aridification, but also to the correlated evolution of novel growth forms and reproductive strategies. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Characterization of Salmonella spp. from nopal leaves and associated soil and water samples in Morelos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Nopal is a native cactus specie [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) MILL (Cactaceae)] of great economic importance in Mexico. It is grown in open fields and subsequently ingested fresh as a salad or processed as a juice or yogurt, but it may also be used as a dietary supplement and/or for cosme...

  20. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.

    1972-01-01

    This book is an exploration into the field of Plant Morphology. It deals with the placentation of the ovules in ten families of Centrospermae — including the Cactaceae — and in the Primulaceae. The core is formed by a very close observation and a complete documentation of the histogenesis of the

  1. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  2. Composición florística de las plantas suculentas del Parque Histórico Guayaquil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina-Moreira, Martha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The floristic composition of the succulent plants collection of the Guayaquil Historical Park was determined, through an exploratory and descriptive study. Also, an inventory, dasometric measurements, density and relative coverage estimations were made, a catalog was elaborated and guidelines were proposed to resume the initial idea of recreating a coastal ecosystem. Thirthy four species, 24 genders, 12 families and nine orders were identified. The absolute density was 401 individuals, with 24% of the population dominated by the Cactaceae family, and Armatocereus cartwrightianus as the most abundant species, with 32.7% in relative coverage. Twenty five plants of ornamental value were identified, 12 medicinal plants, seven edible species, one endemic specie of Ecuador with Endangered (EN category (Jatropha nudicaulis, eight species of the Cactaceae family with controlled trade, and eight harmful or irritating plants. Not all identified species were part of the coastal ecosystem, so it was proposed to relocated them, responding to their botanical characteristics.

  3. Cereus peruvianus (Koubo new cactus fruit for the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Mizrahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several different species of the columnar cacti of the genera Stenocereus and Pachycereus, were introduced into different semi-arid ecozones in Israel and most of these efforts were of disappointing outcomes, the only exception being the Cereus peruvianus (L. Miller,which bore plenty of fruits, some of them of good taste. The original seeds of this plant were obtained from the late Mr. Amram (Ron Kodish, who collected seeds from various private gardens in Southern California which bore fruits of reasonable qualities. The initial success of this species led us to initiate an intensive research study, and today it is already fruit-crop, marketed mainly in Israel under the name " Koubo" . This paper will describe our work of domestication of this new cactus fruit crop in Israel.

  4. Lignans from Opuntia ficus-indica seeds protect rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided isolation of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) seeds against ethanol-treated primary rat hepatocytes yielded six lignan compounds. Among the isolates, furofuran lignans 4-6, significantly protected rat hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, preserving antioxidative defense enzyme activities, and maintaining the glutathione content. Moreover, 4 dose-dependently induced the heme oxygenase-1 expression in HepG2 cells.

  5. New distribution record of Cybocephalus kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Curbelo-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New distribution record of Cybocephalus Kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico. A new record of Cybocephalus kathrynae T.R. Smith (Cybocephalidae is reported for Puerto Rico. Adults were collected from the flowers of Mammillaria nivosa (Cactaceae on Mona Island Reserve. Prior to this study, this beetle species was only reported for Monroe and Miami-Dade Counties, Florida, USA.

  6. 6-Hydroxymethyl-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (Opuntiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Athar Abbasi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H8O4, isolated from Opuntia dillenii Haw (Cactaceae, is almost planar [maximum deviation of 0.027 (2 Å] except for the H atoms of the methylene and methyl groups. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...O and O—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds, resulting in the formation of a three-dimensional network.

  7. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D’Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Objectives: Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Material and Methods: Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid ...

  8. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Karym El-Mostafa; Youssef El Kharrassi; Asmaa Badreddine; Pierre Andreoletti; Joseph Vamecq; M'Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj; Norbert Latruffe; Gérard Lizard; Boubker Nasser; Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vit...

  9. Estimation of the transfer of vascular epiphytes, as a conservation strategy in the municipality of Aguazul, Casanare, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Orozco Ávila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes are plants that grow mainly attached to trunks, branches of trees and shrubs.  This research was conducted in the municipality of Aguazul, Casanare, Colombia, in order to evaluate conservation strategies through the transfer and recovery of vascular epiphytes. The selected population was 119 individuals. The variables were number of leaves, number of flowers, number of fruits, mortality rate, herbivory and associated entomofauna. The information collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. As a result, it was found that the Bromeliaceae Family had the highest leaf development in the three monitorings. Bromeliaceae and Cactaceae Families did not present flowering and Orchidaceae presented low flowering. Fruiting had a similar behavior for these three families. Cactaceae Family did not present mortality, Orchidaceae recorded 2.02% and Bromeliaceae Family recorded 5.56% of mortality. As for herbivory, the orchid family filed a percentage of 0.06%; the Bromeliaceae  Family reported 0.11%, while the cactus family did not record any kind. The entomofauna was  found mainly in the Formicidae group for the three families, being the Cactaceae Family the one with a greater association, with 100%. According to the results, it is possible to move the vascular epiphytic species to new habitats, which makes it a viable alternative for revegetation of the affected area with conservation purposes.

  10. Flora cactológica y especies asociadas en el área natural protegida Sierra Corral de los Bandidos, Nuevo León, México Cactus list and asociated plants of the protected natural area Sierra Corral de Los Bandidos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Carmona-Lara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El área natural protegida (ANP Sierra Corral de los Bandidos ubicada en la sierra Madre Oriental, al noroeste de Monterrey, sufre el impacto de actividades antropológicas asociadas al matorral submontano (ganadería, agricultura, colecta y urbanismo, disminuyendo sus recursos naturales y amenazando sus especies endémicas, principalmente cactáceas. El propósito del estudio fue conocer la diversidad de cactáceas y especies asociadas en zonas de amortiguamiento y núcleo. Para ello se determinaron índices de riqueza y similitud utilizando un muestreo estratificado con cuadrantes a lo largo de transectos orientados por gradientes altitudinales según su zonificación. En total se registraron 112 taxa (30 cactáceas, 87 (24 cactáceas en zona de amortiguamiento y 80 (19 cactáceas en zona núcleo. Por su densidad, frecuencia y abundancia sobresalieron Echinocereus stramineus (Engelm. Engelm. ex F. Seitz, Cylindropuntia leptocaulis F. M. Knuth in Backeb et F. M. Knuth, Mammillaria melanocentra Poselg., Neolloydia conoidea (DC Britton et Rose, (Cactaceae; Erioneuron avenaceum (H. B et K. Tateoka, (Poaceae; Viguiera stenoloba S. F. Blake; Zexmenia hispida (Kunth A. Gray, (Asteraceae y Agave lechuguilla Torr, (Agavaceae. Existe diferencia significativa entre las poblaciones de cactus de las zonas del ANP, según Jacquard (13%, Sörensen (38% y Morisita (0.44. Ocho cactáceas (7 endémicas están registradas en algún estatus de la NOM-ECOL-059, 2001.The Sierra Corral de los Bandidos is a natural protected area located in the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range northwest of Monterrey city. This preserve suffers the impact of human activities in the form of cattle ranching, agriculture, harvest of wild plants, and urbanism, diminishing its natural resources and threatening its endemic species, especially from the cactaceae family. The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the diversity of cacti and associated species in the buffer and

  11. Морфологические и генетические особенности видов рода Rebutia K. Schum. семейства cactaceae JUSS. и их гибридных растений F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Сергеевна Чичканова

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Выявлены параметры – диаметр и высота побегов, длина корня, количество колючек у Rebutia senilis, Rebutia marsoneri и ♀ Rebutia senilis × ♂ Rebutia  marsoneri в F1, которые возможно применять при дифференциации в онтогенезе. Установлена возможность применения ISSR маркеров для генетической характеристики родительских форм R. senilis, R. marsoneri, их гибридных сеянцев

  12. Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares del enclave seco interandino de la tatacoa (huila, colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    FIGUEROA-C., YISELA; GALEANO, GLORIA

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta el inventario florístico del enclave seco interandino de La Tatacoa (vallede la parte alta del río Magdalena, Huila, Colombia). Se encontraron 223 especies,distribuidas en 170 géneros y 60 familias. A nivel florístico, la familia Leguminosaees la más diversificada con 36 especies y 28 géneros, seguida por Poaceae (20/15),Euphorbiaceae (13/6), Asteraceae (10/10) y Cactaceae (8/7). El hábito de crecimientopredominante en términos de riqueza de especies fue el de las hierbas, seguido...

  13. RESEARCH CONCERNING THE CHEMICAL CONTROL AGAINST PSEUDOCOCCUS ADONIDUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ECOBICI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudococcus adonidum is a polyphag pest, which attacks different species of plants belonging to many genus and families, as: Citrus, Ficus, Cactaceae, Cycas, Dracena, Phoenix, Mimoza, Asparagus, Camellia etc. It is localized in large colonies on leaves, stems, branches, offshoots, and roots. The experiments were performed in solarium conditions during 2001-2002. Testing the efficiency of an insecticide sort was the aim of our experiment. During 2 experimental years, 9 products were tested: Confidor 200 SL, Calypso 400 SC; Pyrinex 25 EC, Vydate 10 G, Fastac 10 CE – RV, Sumithion 50 EC, Mospilan 20 SP, Decis 2,5 EC, Actellic 50 EC.

  14. CATÁLOGO COMENTADO DE LA FLORA VASCULAR DE LA FRANJA TROPICAL (500-1200m DEL CAÑÓN DEL RÍO CHICAMOCHA (BOYACÁ-SANTANDER, COLOMBIA. PRIMERA PARTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBESIANO SOFÍA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La flora vascular de la región semiárida del cañón del río Chicamocha se encuentrarepresentada por 76 familias, 297 géneros y 429 especies, siendo las familias másdiversas: Poaceae (21géneros/34especies, Asteraceae (28/30, Fabaceae (19/29,Malvaceae (11/24, Euphorbiaceae (11/23 y Cactaceae (13/20. Los géneros másricos en especies son: Sida con 10, Lantana (6, Euphorbia y Solanum (5; noobstante, el 87,2% de los géneros presenta sólo 1-2 especies. El biotipo dominanteson las hierbas (176 spp., 41%, seguido de los arbustos (106, 25% y subarbustos(46, 11%. Un grupo importante son las plantas suculentas (54 spp., 12,9%, en sumayoría pertencientes a la familia Cactaceae (20 y Euphorbiaceae (8. Se incluyetambién información sobre las especies más características de los diferentes tipos dehábitat respresentados en la región y sobre las novedades taxonómicas y corológicasque resultaron del estudio de esta flora.

  15. Dieta de murciélagos nectarívoros del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Arias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el Perú se reporta la presencia de 18 especies de murciélagos nectarívoros, sin embargo se cuenta con poca información sobre la dieta de estas especies. En este estudio se reporta por primera vez la dieta de los nectarívoros Glossophaga soricina, Lonchophylla hesperia y Anoura geoffroyi en el bosque seco ecuatorial y del bosque tropical del Pacífico del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes. Analizamos 21 contenidos gastrointestinales e identificamos ocho morfotipos de polen pertenecientes a las familias Bombacaceae, Cactaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae, Malvaceae y Rosaceae. Encontramos evidencia del síndrome de quiropterofilia en Bombacaceae, Cactaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae y Rubiaceae. Observamos que A. geoffroyi consume polen de Ceiba trichistandra, Solanaceae y Rubiacea; G. soricina consume de Abutilon reflexum, Armathocereus cartwrightianus, C. trichistandra y Rubiaceae; y L. hesperia de A. cartwrightianus, Eriobotrya japonica, Fabaceae y Psidium sp.; sugiriendo una dieta generalista en estas especies. Los murciélagos G. soricina y A. geoffroyi comparten el consumo del ceibo C. trichistandra y de la Rubiaceae, mientras que G. soricina comparte con L. hesperia el consumo del cactus A. cartwrightianus. Los otros morfotipos de polen no fueron compartidos entre murciélagos. Se encuentra además que el ceibo C. trichistandra fue la especie más consumida, especialmente por G. soricina.

  16. Patterns of species richness and abundance among cactus communities receiving different rainfall levels in the semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Monteiro Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study examines the variation in cacti species richness and abundance among sites with different average rainfall and soil types. We assessed a total of 3,660 individuals of six species of Cactaceae: Cereus jamacaru, Melocactus zehntneri, Pilosocereus gounellei, Pilosocereus pachycladus, Tacinga inamoena, and Tacinga palmadora. The greatest species richness and abundance of cacti were at locations with low rainfall and more clayey soils. The species studied differed in multidimensional representation, with some species being more positively related to soils with a higher proportion of fine particles (M. zehntneri and P. gounellei, while others were negatively related to soils with a higher proportion of coarser particles (T. inamoena or positively related to areas with higher rainfall and vegetation cover (C. jamacaru and P. pachycladus. The differential responses of the species of Cactaceae studied in relation to the gradients analyzed demonstrates the need for more research into the relationship between cacti and environmental variables in semiarid ecosystems with high environmental heterogeneity.

  17. Environmental traditional knowledge in a natural protected area as the basis for management and conservation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pío-León, Juan Fernando; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; León-de-la-Luz, José Luís; Vega-Aviña, Rito; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    Ethnobotany is an adequate tool to identify the most import wild edible plants used by local people and to develop strategies for its sustainable use and policy making. This research records the wild edible plants used by the inhabitants of the Sierra la Laguna Biosphere Reserve, in Mexico, and identified priority species for sustainable development. The employed quantitative approach included the application of a food-oriented index named Food Significance Index (FSI), which integrated cultural, agricultural and food parameters; moreover, it used multivariate analysis to identify priority edible species for use and/or conservation. Fifty taxa were identified as the most important wild edible plants in the reserve, integrated into five priority groups. Foods in priority group 1 had the highest culinary diversity by grouping three fruits (Ficus petiolaris, Stenocereus thurberi, and Cyrtocarpa edulis), one almond-like seed (Cnidoscolus maculatus), one vegetable (Matelea cordifolia), and one condiment (Capsicum annuum). Priority groups 2-5 were selective for one or two types of food, such as fruits, teas, or seeds. Since group 1 was the most diverse, the FSI and the employed strategy permitted to identify the priority wild edible plant species with the highest potential for food security. The selected six species should be included in the future management program of the reserve as the priority wild edible plants to develop strategies for conservation, sustainable use, and improvement of the local population income. General policies to manage the selected six species are outlined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant and antitopoisomerase activities in plant extracts of some Colombian flora from La Marcada Natural Regional Park

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    Jaime Niño

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have been used to treat some diseases and infections since time immemorial, and this potential has been exploited by the pharmaceutical industry in the search of new analgesic, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial agents, among other active agents. in order to contribute with bioprospection studies on the Colombian flora, 35 extracts from 13 plant species belonging to seven families (Apocynaceae, Cactaceae, Costaceae, Eremolepidaceae, Passifloraceae, Solanaceae and Urticaceae were collected from La Marcada Natural Regional Park (LMNRP, Colombia. Dichloromethane, n-hexane and aqueous-methanol crude extracts were prepared and evaluated for their activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS322N, R52Y and RS321 strains in the yeast mutant assay and their antioxidant capacity through the DPPH test. The dichloromethane extract from Myriocarpa stipitata (Urticaceae showed moderate inhibitory activity against the three S. cerevisiae strains tested. The capacity of the dichloromethane extract from M. stipitata to inhibit the enzyme topoisomerase I and to cause DNA damage was inferred from these results. In the DPPH assay, the n-hexane crude extract from Costus sp. (Costaceae showed good antioxidant activity (48%; in addition, the crude dichloromethane and aqueous-methanol extracts from Rhipsalis micrantha (Cactaceae showed moderate antioxidant activity with percentage of 29 and 21%, respectively. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1089-1097. Epub 2011 September 01.Desde tiempos inmemoriales, muchas plantas han sido usadas para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades e infecciones, este potencial ha sido explotado por la industria farmacéutica en la búsqueda de nuevos agentes analgésicos, anticancerígenos y antimicrobianos, entre otros. Consientes con esto, se evaluó la actividad de 35 extractos de 13 especies de plantas recolectadas en el Parque Regional Natural La Marcada (PRNLM, Colombia contra las cepas mutadas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS322N, R

  19. Complex Biochemistry and Biotechnological Production of Betalains

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    Marijana Krsnik-Rasol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for natural food colourants is increasing because of public awareness of their health benefits. Betalains are nitrogen-containing plant pigments whose colours range from red-violet betacyanins to yellow betaxanthins. They are used for colouring dairy products, meat and frozen desserts. Betalains have attracted additional interest because of their antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. The main source of commercially produced betalains is red beet root, but alternative sources are found in plants from the Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae families. Another alternative source is plant cell culture in bioreactors, although optimization of pigment production seems necessary. In this paper we synthesize the results of recent studies on betalain biosynthesis, chemical properties, sources, biotechnology and applications.

  20. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-09-17

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  1. Biology, Flowering and Fruiting of the Cactus Opuntia spp.: A Review and Some Observations on Three Varieties in Morocco

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    Mohamed Arba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cactus is a succulent plant resistant to droughts. According to the recently reviewed classification, cacti belong to the family of Opuntiaceae Desv. (synon. Cactaceae Juss. with Opuntia Mill. as the typical genus. This genus is economically the most important in the family, as it includes a group of cactus pear plants which play an important role in the agricultural systems of arid and semi-arid regions. Flowering of the cactus pear fruit is an important determinant of the fruit harvesting period. The goal of this paper is to present the physiology of the cactus pear and to explain in detail the biology of its flowering and fruiting processes. This study is also enriched by our observations on the flowering and fruiting of three varieties of cactus pear that we followed for two successive years in southern Morocco.

  2. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller as a source of bioactivity compounds for health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, M; Lauriano, E R; Pergolizzi, S; Faggio, C

    2017-08-14

    Plants with beneficial properties are known in traditional medicine. Nowadays, in spite of widespread availability of synthetic compounds, the search goes towards natural compounds to lower cost and few side effects. The increasing interest in preventive medicine encourages use of nutraceuticals, bioactive compounds of vegetable origin with important nutritional values. Among the medicinal plants, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Family Cactaceae, subfamily Opuntiodeae, Genus Opuntia, subgenus Platyopuntia, species Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller) is widely known for its beneficial properties. The aim of the present review is to stress the major classes of Opuntia components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefits and therapeutic impacts on fish and mammals.

  3. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karym El-Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  4. Use of plant biotechnology for the propagation of threaten cataceas.

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    Elisa Quiala

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The quick readiness of postures for the restoration of the vegetable cover in a degraded ecosystem constitutes one of the main factors in the ecological restoration programs. The in vitro tissue culture techniques are attractive for the propagation of threatened species, due to the discharges multiplication rates that are gotten in a relatively short time and to the reduced required departure material and from this point of view it is considered to the cactaceae like the family more worked. Cuba has a wide vascular flora, in which stand out diverse cactuses goods, but the same as other countries of the tropic have a great destruction of their habitat due to the man’s devastating action, so that the development of alternative techniques as tissue culture can help to counteract the loss of the biodiversity in the Cuban flora. Key word: micropropagation, extinction danger, biodiversity conservation, in vitro tissue culture

  5. Identificação dos princípios ativos presentes no extrato etanólico de cereus jamacaru e avaliação em ratos dos possíveis efeitos tóxicos e/ou comportamentais da exposição prolongada

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Iris Ucella de

    2011-01-01

    O cacto Cereus jamacaru Mill. (Cactaceae) é uma espécie típica da vegetação da caatinga. Sabe-se que os seus cladódios contém os alcalóides tiramina e 2- hidroxifeniletilamina, compostos ativos que podem atuar no sistema nervoso central, mimetizando a ação da dopamina. Como essa espécie vegetal é bastante utilizada na medicina popular, e não há na literatura científica nenhuma informação sobre os seus efeitos em espécies animais, maiores estudos são relevantes e necessários....

  6. Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the epiphyte Tillandsia xerographica (Bromeliaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Ricardo; Monroy, Carlota; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2004-05-01

    For the first time, the reduviid bug Triatoma ryckmani Zeledón and Ponce (Hemiptera; Reduviidae) was recorded to inhabit the epiphyte Tillandsia xerographica Rohweder (Bromeliaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala. These bromeliads grow mainly in drought-resistant trees with rough bark such as Pereskia lychnidiflora (Cactaceae). In our study site, we investigated 30 T. xerographica, and 53 specimens of T. ryckmani were found. Most T. ryckmani (68.5%) were unfed. Ants (Formicidae) were the predominant (92.2%) insect taxon in T. xerographica. Other insects such as Blattidae (3.0%), Reduviidae (T. ryckmani: 2.5%), Blaberidae (2.2%), Gryllidae (0.1%), and Acrididae (0.1%) were recorded in the bromeliads. T. xerographica is illegally commercialized without previous inspection. This may cause accidental introduction of T. ryckmani to houses and to other countries.

  7. Ranking Tool Created for Medicinal Plants at Risk of Being Overharvested in the Wild

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    Lisa Marie Castle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed an adaptable, transparent tool that can be used to quantify and compare vulnerability to overharvest for wild collected medicinal plants. Subsequently, we are creating a list of the most threatened medicinal plants in temperate North America. The new tool scores species according to their life history, the effects of harvest, their abundance and range, habitat, and demand. The resulting rankings, based on explicit criteria rather than expert opinion, will make it easier to discuss areas of vulnerability and set conservation priorities. Here we present scores for 40 species assessed using the At-Risk Tool and discuss the traits that led to different scores for six example species: echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia DC. Asteraceae, peyote (Lophophora williamsii (Lem. ex Salm-Dyck J.M. Coult. Cactaceae, sandalwood (Santalum spp. L. Santalaceae, stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae, American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L. Araliaceae and mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum L. Berberidaceae.

  8. ANGIOSPERMAS DE LOS ARBUSTALES XERÓFILOS UBICADOS EN LOS ALREDEDORES DEL COMPLEJO LAGUNAR BOCARIPO-CHACOPATA, PENÍNSULA DE ARAYA, ESTADO SUCRE, VENEZUELA | ANGIOSPERMAE OF A XEROPHYTIC SHRUBLAND LOCATED AROUND BOCARIPO-CHACOPATA LAGOON COMPLEX, ARAYA PENINSULA, SUCRE STATE, VENEZUELA

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    Jesús Bello Pulido

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the floristic knowledge of xeric zones of the country, a list of angiospermae species is presented that are found forming part of a xerophytic shrubland, located around the Bocaripo-Chacopata lagoon complex, in Araya Peninsula, Sucre state. A total of 56 families was identified which comprised 142 genus, 180 species and 3 intraspecific taxa. The most dominant families regarding to the species number were: Fabaceae (24 spp., Poaceae (15 spp., Cactaceae (10 spp., Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae (9 spp. c/u, Malvaceae (8 spp., Convolvulaceae (7 spp., Cyperaceae, Amaranthaceae (6 spp. c/u, Portulacaceae and Bromeliaceae (5 spp. c/u. Among the most important genera, were: Senna (4 spp., Capparis, Cyperus, Opuntia, Sida and Tillandsia (3 spp. c/u. The more common biotype was herbaceous vegetation, followed by shrubs, trees, climber, epiphytes and hemiparasites. The list includes two endemic species and 8 other included in the Red Book of the Flora of Venezuela.

  9. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure-function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies.

  10. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure–function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies. PMID:23212376

  11. Cactus (Opuntia dillenii Grahm) stem: a new source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, V.K. (Dept. of Applied Physics, V.R.C.E., Nagpur (India)); Joshi, A.M. (Dept. of Applied Physics, V.R.C.E., Nagpur (India))

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has been fabricated using cactus stem as an electrolyte. The electrolyte was a stem (phylloclade) of Opuntia dillenii from the family Cactaceae. A thin slice (1 x 1 x 0.5 cm) of the stem was cut and sandwiched between copper and zinc electrodes. A study of the discharge characteristics reveals that, at a current drain of 100 [mu]A, the cell gives an optimum energy density of 175 mWh kg[sup -1]. The power generated by these cells is sufficient to run piezoelectric buzzer and a LCD calculator for a few hours. This work opens up a new interdisciplinary area for physicists, botanists and electrochemists. (orig.)

  12. ANGIOSPERM FLAG SPECIES FOR MANGROVE CONSERVATION IN San AndrÉs Island (colombia ARE HIGHLY VULNERABLE AND locally rare

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    Gloria Andrea Murcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de especies bandera ha sido empleado en proyectos de conservación por 50 años. Se proponen aquí cinco especies nativas de la Isla de San Andrés como especies bandera para la conservación de los pocos remanentes de manglar en esta Isla: Bontia daphnoides (Myoporaceae, Canella winterana (Canellaceae, Eustoma exaltatum (Gentianaceae, Rhabdadenia biflora (Apocynaceae y Selenicereus grandiflorus (Cactaceae. Cuatro de estas especies son documentadas aquí por primera vez para el Archipiélago, y tres representan los primeros reportes para la Flora de Colombia, dos de ellos (Canellaceae y Myoporaceae a nivel de familia.

  13. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from two Pereskia species grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucéia Fatima; De Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Pereskia aculeata Mill. and P. grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS. In all, 37 compounds were identified, 30 for P. aculeata and 15 for P. grandifolia. Oxygenated diterpenes are the main constituents, both in the oil ofP. grandifolia (55.5%) and in that ofP. aculeata (29.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The essential oil of P. grandifolia, at all doses tested, significantly inhibited the radicle elongation of R. sativus. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oils showed weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens.

  14. Propagação por sementes de Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (flor-de-maio em diferentes substratos = Propagation by seeds of Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (florde- maio in different substrates

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    José Renato Soares Nunes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (Cactaceae, conhecida como flor-demaio, é uma espécie herbácea epífita, nativa no Brasil, muito apreciada como planta ornamental pela beleza de suas flores. Esta espécie multiplica-se por sementes, mas comercialmente é propagada por estacas e enxertia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de quatro variedades de cores desta espécie (rosa, vermelha, branca e amarela em cinco substratos (vermiculita de granulometria média, xaxim desfibrado, areia, substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras e mistura de 50% do substrato comercial Rendmax®Floreiras + 50% xaxim desfibrado. Os resultados mostraram que a espécie pode ser reproduzida com facilidade por sementes. O substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras proporcionou os melhores resultados.Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (Cactaceae, known as “flor-de-maio”, is a Brazilian endogenous herbaceous epiphytic species, muchappreciated as ornamental for the beauty of its flowers. This species is multiplied by seeds, but commercially it is propagated by cuttings and grafting. The aim of this research was to evaluate the germination of four varieties of colors of this species (pink, red, white and yellow in five substrates (vermiculite, de-fibered tree ferns, sand, commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras and a mixture of 50% of the commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras + 50% tree ferns. The results showed that this species can be easily reproduced by seeds. The commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras provided the best germination result.

  15. Propagação por sementes de Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (flor-de-maio em diferentes substratos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.480 Propagation by seeds of Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (florde- maio in different substrates - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.480

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Biondi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (Cactaceae, conhecida como flor-demaio, é uma espécie herbácea epífita, nativa no Brasil, muito apreciada como planta ornamental pela beleza de suas flores. Esta espécie multiplica-se por sementes, mas comercialmente é propagada por estacas e enxertia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de quatro variedades de cores desta espécie (rosa, vermelha, branca e amarela em cinco substratos (vermiculita de granulometria média, xaxim desfibrado, areia, substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras e mistura de 50% do substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras + 50% xaxim desfibrado. Os resultados mostraram que a espécie pode ser reproduzida com facilidade por sementes. O substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras proporcionou os melhores resultados.Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (Cactaceae, known as “flor-de-maio”, is a Brazilian endogenous herbaceous epiphytic species, much appreciated as ornamental for the beauty of its flowers. This species is multiplied by seeds, but commercially it is propagated by cuttings and grafting. The aim of this research was to evaluate the germination of four varieties of colors of this species (pink, red, white and yellow in five substrates (vermiculite, de-fibered tree ferns, sand, commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras and a mixture of 50% of the commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras + 50% tree ferns. The results showed that this species can be easily reproduced by seeds. The commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras provided the best germination result.

  16. Bleogens: Cactus-Derived Anti-Candida Cysteine-Rich Peptides with Three Different Precursor Arrangements

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    Shining Loo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs play important host-defense roles in plants. However, information concerning CRPs in the Cactaceae (cactus family is limited, with only a single cactus-derived CRP described to date. Here, we report the identification of 15 novel CRPs with three different precursor architectures, bleogens pB1-15 from Pereskia bleo of the Cactaceae family. By combining proteomic and transcriptomic methods, we showed that the prototype, bleogen pB1, contained 36 amino acid residues, a six-cysteine motif typical of the six-cysteine-hevein-like peptide (6C-HLP family, and a type I two-domain precursor consisting of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER and a mature domain. In contrast, the precursors of the other 14 bleogens contained a type II three-domain architecture with a propeptide domain inserted between the ER and the mature bleogen domain. Four of these 14 bleogens display a third type of architecture with a tandemly repeating bleogen domain. A search of the Onekp database revealed that <1% plant species possess three different precursor architectures for the biosynthesis of 6C-HLPs, including Lophophora williamsii, Pereskia aculeate, Portulaca cryptopetala, Portulaca oleracea, Portulaca suffruticosa, and Talinum sp. NMR analysis confirmed that bleogen pB1 has cystine-knot disulfide connectivity as well as a two-beta-sheet and a four-loop structural fold that is similar to other 6C-HLPs. Sequence analysis, structural studies, and in silico modeling revealed that bleogen pB1 has a cation-polar-cation motif, a signature heparin-binding motif that was confirmed by heparin affinity chromatography. Cell-based assays showed that bleogen pB1 is non-toxic to mammalian cells but functions as an anti-Candida peptide. Taken together, our findings provide insight into the occurrence, functions and precursor architectures of CRPs in the cactus family.

  17. Is geographical rarity frequent among the cacti of the Chihuahuan Desert? ¿Es la rareza geográfica frecuente entre las cactáceas del Desierto Chihuahuense?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor M. Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of assessing the extent of geographical rarity of Mexican Cactaceae, we calculated the distribution size (area of occupancy of 142 species from the Chihuahuan Desert. In addition, using 2 variables (number of localities and range size, we preliminarily assessed their conservation status using the current IUCN Red List criteria. The results showed enormous variation in the areas of occupancy, although from the biogeographic and conservation perspective the most exceptional group comprises the extremely narrow endemics (42 species, whose range is restricted to areas smaller than 10 km2. Our results reinforce the reputation of this plant family as exceptionally rare geographically. We suggest that geographical rarity of Cactaceae in the Chihuahuan Desert is a natural phenomenon; however, we propose that the range of several species has been influenced by human activities. Regarding the conservation status of the species, 75 of them are categorized as Least concern. The remaining 67 species (47.2% fall in 1 of the 3 categories of threat (27 Vulnerable, 11 Endangered, and 29 Critically endangered. These figures confirm the critical conservation status of Mexican Cactaceae.Se calculó el tamaño de la distribución (área de ocupación de 142 especies de cactáceas del Desierto Chihuahuense, con el objeto de evaluar su grado de rareza geográfica. Además, mediante el uso de 2 variables (número de localidades y tamaño de distribución, se estimó de manera preliminar su estado de conservación usando los criterios actuales de la Lista Roja de la UICN. Los resultados mostraron gran variación en las áreas de ocupación. Sin embargo, desde una perspectiva biogeográfica y de la conservación, el grupo de especies más excepcional corresponde a las endémicas restringidas (42 spp., cuyas áreas de distribución son menores de 10 km². Los resultados fortalecen la reputación de las cactáceas de ser una familia de plantas excepcionalmente

  18. Changes in sugars, acids, and volatiles during ripening of koubo [Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller] fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninio, Racheli; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Mizrahi, Yosef; Sitrit, Yaron

    2003-01-29

    The columnar cactus Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller, Cactaceae (koubo), is grown commercially in Israel. The unripe fruits are green, and the color changes to violet and then to red when the fruit is fully ripe. The content of soluble sugars was found to increase 5-fold during ripening. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars accumulated in the fruit pulp, and each increased from 0.5 to 5.5 g/100 g fresh weight during ripening. The polysaccharides content decreased during ripening from 1.4 to 0.4 g/100 g fresh weight. The titratable acidity decreased and the pH increased during ripening. The major organic acid found in the fruit was malic acid, which decreased from 0.75 g/100 g fresh weight at the mature green stage to 0.355 g/100 g fresh weight in ripe fruits. Citric, succinic, and oxalic acids were found in concentrations lower than 0.07 g/100 g fresh weight. Prominent accumulation of aroma volatiles occurred toward the end of the ripening process. The main volatile found in the ripe fruit was linalool, reaching concentrations of 1.5-3.5 microg/g fresh weight.

  19. FLORÍSTICA E FITOSSOCIOLOGIA DE QUATRO REMANESCENTES VEGETACIONAIS EM ÁREAS DE SERRA NO CARIRI PARAIBANO

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    PEDRO THIAGO BARBOSA DE OLIVEIRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It was studied vegetal remainders into four mountain areas: Serra de Bodopitá (Area1, Serra de Bodocongó (Area 2, Serra do Monte (Area 3 and Serra do Canoió (Area 4 located in paraiban Cariri. The study aimed at determines the phytossociolical parameters and for this was used the program Mata Nativa 2. It was also calculated the indexes of Shannon, Pielou equability, diversity of species and families. From the 2972 sampled individuals, 633 belonged to Area 1, 602 to Area 2, 908 to Area 3 and 829 to Area 4. All of them were distributed in 54 species belonged to 25 botanic families. It was observed that the families Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae had the largest number of species and individuals and after them Cactaceae, Anacardiaceae and Apocynaceae. The Shannon indexes values in Areas 1, 2, 3 and 4 were respectively 2.65; 2.93; 2.35 e 2.59 nats.esp.-1 . The founded densities were 3165 individuals.ha-1 in Area 1, 3010 individuals.ha-1 in Area 2, 4540 individuals.ha-1 in Area 3 and 4145 individuals.ha-1 in Area 4. The four areas had the same species with the most importance values being them: Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Bauhinia cheilantha, Piptadenia stipulacea.

  20. LISTA COMENTADA DE LAS PLANTAS VASCULARES DEL ENCLAVE SECO INTERANDINO DE LA TATACOA (HUILA, COLOMBIA

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    FIGUEROA-C. YISELA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el inventario florístico del enclave seco interandino de La Tatacoa (vallede la parte alta del río Magdalena, Huila, Colombia. Se encontraron 223 especies,distribuidas en 170 géneros y 60 familias. A nivel florístico, la familia Leguminosaees la más diversificada con 36 especies y 28 géneros, seguida por Poaceae (20/15,Euphorbiaceae (13/6, Asteraceae (10/10 y Cactaceae (8/7. El hábito de crecimientopredominante en términos de riqueza de especies fue el de las hierbas, seguido porlos hábitos leñosos (árboles, arbustos y sufrútices, y el mayor número de especiesse encontró en las zonas de áreas abiertas y en las riberas de quebradas. Se registrancuatro hallazgos corológicos interesantes, incluyendo el primer registro de Sennauniflora para Colombia.

  1. FLORÚLA, CLAVE Y ESTRUCTURA COMUNITARIA DE LAS ANGIOSPERMAS DE ISLA LARGA, PARQUE NACIONAL MOCHIMA, ESTADO SUCRE, VENEZUELA I FLORULA, IDENTIFICATION KEY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF THE ANGIOSPERMS PRESENTS IN ISLA LARGA, MOCHIMA NATIONAL PARK, SUCRE STATE, VENEZUELA

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    Roger Velásquez Arenas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mochima National Park comprises a group of islands, as well as a mountainous area that has been well documented from the floristic point of view, registering1124 species of angiosperms. However, the limited knowledge of the vascular flora of the island area, was proposed as the objective of describing the flora and community structure of Isla Larga. A set of 28 quadrats of 100 m 2 was established, and all individuals within them were measured, identified and quantified, and ecological indices were determined. A total of 2.225 individuals were registered, distributed in 59 species of angiosperms, including 54 genera belonging to 33 families. The best represented families were Euphorbiaceae (9 spp., Cactaceae (5 spp., Poaceae (5 spp. and Mimosaceae (4 spp. which accounted for 38.98% of the total number of species in the area. The diversity was 2.84 bits/inds; however, evenness was low 0.59 reflecting an inequitable distribution of species in the area. The highest value of importance value index (IVI, was for Rhizophora mangle (262,78, Croton pungens (172,82, Caesalpinia coriaria (139.36 and Opuntia caracassana (125.45. The dominance of these species may be related to the morpho-anatomical changes developed in these species to survive in the environmental conditions of the area, which allowed them to adapt more effectively than other species. Furthermore, they are species characteristic of the types of vegetation present in the area (tropophyle and mangrove forests

  2. Ecological aspects of the casque-headed frog Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae in a Restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil

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    Daniel Oliveira Mesquita

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe some aspects of the ecology of Aparasphenodon brunoi, a species associated with bromeliads. We comment on the relationships of this species with bromeliad size, microhabitat use, diet and sexual dimorphism. This study was conducted on a Restinga habitat near Presidente Kennedy, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern coast of Brazil. When the animals were found inside the bromeliads, we measure bromeliad and head size of frogs. We analyzed stomach contents and determined the sex and reproductive condition. We found 17 individuals (58.6% in bromeliad leafs, six (20.7% in Cactaceae, three (10.3% in liana and three (10.3% on trunks. The correlation between head measurements and bromeliad size were high, indicating that animals apparently use bromeliads based on their size, which could be related to the minimization of water loss. The most common prey items were beetles, ants, and insect larvae, suggesting that the species is relatively generalist in prey consumption. Aparasphenodon brunoi showed significant sexual size and shape dimorphism with females having larger bodies than males (size and females having tibia, eye diameter and SVL larger than males (shape, but larger sample size and more detailed ecological and life history data are needed to elucidate the factors that have led to sexual size dimorphism.

  3. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5’-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5’-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage. PMID:16865772

  4. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

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    Anouar ben Saad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days. Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect.

  5. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Anouar Ben; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE) against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days). Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect.

  6. Thermoluminescence characterization of the irradiated minerals extracted from nopal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C.; Kitis, G.; Gomez, B. T.; Polymeris, G. S.; Tsirliganis, N.; Loukou, Z.

    2006-05-01

    The mineral fraction from dehydrated nopal leaves (Opuntia ficus indica ) belonging to the Cactaceae family was extracted and selected by sizes of 10 and 74 mu m and exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation at different doses in the range 70 Gy-20 kGy. The glow-curves from these polyminerals show a thermoluminescence (TL) band with one very intense peak at a temperature around 150 degrees C and a second one emerging in the high temperature region, moving in a large zone of temperature values according to the preparation used and the level of irradiation. The XRD analysis shows a composition of both biominerals as whewellite and weddellite and a mineral fraction as anorthoclase and quartz. The main TL characteristics of the polymineral content of the nopal was analyzed, i.e . the TL response at different doses and fading during storage at room temperature. The activation energy of the traps responsible for the TL emission was also investigated and a possible continuous distribution of traps is discussed. A review of the scientific literature shows that this is the first time that a TL study on nopal ionized by irradiation has been carried out.

  7. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Targeting Aging with Functional Food: Pasta with Opuntia Single-Arm Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Candore, Giuseppina; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Aldo; Gambino, Caterina Maria; Ruisi, Paolo; Caruso, Calogero; Vasto, Sonya; Accardi, Giulia

    2018-06-01

    Interventions to extend life span represent the new perspective in aging investigation. Healthy dietary habits are important modifiable factors that can favor a healthy aging phenotype. Many studies have demonstrated benefits for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus resulting from the traditional Mediterranean foods. Opuntia Ficus Indica (OFI), widespread in the Mediterranean basin, belongs to the Cactaceae family. It is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, products containing extracts from OFI fruits or cladodes have been used to control obesity and other metabolic parameters, such as glycemia and lipid profile. The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of pasta with 3% of OFI cladode extracts added to show its beneficial effect in human health. We performed a single arm longitudinal intervention study in 42 healthy volunteers, administrating 500 g/week of this functional pasta for 30 days. Our pasta had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties with putative effect on the aging process and related metabolic diseases. We also demonstrated a hypoglycemic effect. The results are preliminary, but it is possible to speculate that our pasta could be considered an effective food for the prevention of age-related metabolic disorders.

  9. The n-butanolic extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten enhances long-term memory in the passive avoidance task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Park, Dong Hyun; Jung, Seo Yun; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Yong Sup; Jin, Changbae; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2010-08-16

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino (Cactaceae) is used to treat burns, edema, dyspepsia, and asthma in traditional medicine. The present study investigated the beneficial effects of the n-butanolic extract of O. ficus-indica var. saboten (BOF) on memory performance in mice and attempts to uncover the mechanisms underlying its action. Memory performance was assessed with the passive avoidance task, and western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to measure changes in protein expression and cell survival. After the oral administration of BOF for 7 days, the latency time in the passive avoidance task was significantly increased relative to vehicle-treated controls (P<0.05). Western blotting revealed that the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response element binding-protein (pCREB), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) 1/2 were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue after 7 days of BOF administration (P<0.05). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining also revealed that BOF significantly enhanced the survival of immature neurons, but did not affect neuronal cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the subchronic administration of BOF enhances long-term memory, and that this effect is partially mediated by ERK-CREB-BDNF signaling and the survival of immature neurons. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wound healing properties and mucilage content of Pereskia aculeata from different substrates

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    Eber Goulart Carvalho

    Full Text Available Physiologic growth parameters Wound healing Pereskia aculeata Mill., Cactaceae, is a cactus with high mucilage production, well-known for its nutritional properties. Folk use consists on skin injuries, and mucilage is probably involved in the wound healing activity. This work studied some aspects of its cultivation, specifically regarding soil (substrate, to correlate the effects of nutritional content to mucilage production and to the wound-healing property. Plants were grown under five different soil treatment (sand, crude soil, sand and soil, sand and cattle manure, soil and cattle manure, and after eight months extracts were prepared by turbo-extraction to obtain a crude hydroethanolic extract. We evaluated the effects of these extracts on swelling index, cytotoxicity, and in vitro wound healing property. The results show that the substrate used in cultivation may interfere with mucilage production, but not with cytotoxicity and wound healing, this shows the safety of its use, despite the soil treatment received along the various biomes where P. aculeata is cultivated. Furthermore, morphological studies demonstrated the beneficial effect of the mucilage-containing extract on the fibroblast cell culture, corroborating its folk use for wound healing.

  11. Inventario taxonómico, fitogreográfico y etnobotánico de frutales nativos del norte del Perú

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    José Mostacero León

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La megafitodiversidad del Perú presenta especies nativas de toda índole; entre ellas frutales, los que a pesar de ser consumidos desde hace cientos de años, aún no han sido atendidos por la investigación para validar su uso, con la seguridad de que estamos consumiendo recursos que pueden superar en cantidad y calidad de vitaminas, sales minerales y pigmentos antociánicos. Así, el objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar un Inventario Taxonómico, Fitogeográfico y Etnobotánico de los frutales nativos del Norte del Perú. Se realizaron colectas a través de exploraciones botánicas programadas a varias localidades del Norte del Perú. Luego se llevó a cabo una revisión crítica de la bibliografía especializada y reforzando esta información con la obtenida por la experiencia personal tanto de los investigadores como de los pobladores locales y regionales. Se reportan 45 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias; donde destacan por su número las: Ericaceae (7, Myrtaceae (6, Cactaceae (4, Solanaceae (4, Caricaceae (3, Passifloraceae (3 y Rosaceae (3. Así mismo 29 especies (64% son consumidas en estado fresco y/o natural, mientras que 16 especies (36% tanto al estado fresco como procesadas (jaleas, mermeladas, helados, vinos, jugos, natilla, mazamorra, etc..

  12. CABO FRIO - AN ENCLAVE IN SEMI ARID COASTAL MOIST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE: INFLUENCES OF CLIMATE AND PRESENT PAST VEGETATION

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    Heloisa Helena Gomes Coe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Localizada na costa NE do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, a região de Cabo Frio tem sido considerada um “enclave” fitogeográfico, com um clima mais seco que o restante do litoral fluminense, reduto de vegetação semelhante à caatinga, dominada por florestas xeromórficas, Cactaceae e Bromeliaceae. Objetivando contribuir para esta discussão de modo singular, este trabalho faz análises multivariadas de similaridade de variáveis do clima atual, comparando Cabo Frio com seu entorno mais úmido e com a caatinga do Nordeste brasileiro, e estuda possíveis variações da paleovegetação na região, utilizando como indicadores os fitólitos. Conclui-se que o clima de Cabo Frio se assemelha mais à caatinga que ao seu entorno, e que a vegetação, desde 13.000 anos cal AP, foi sempre de tipo pouco arbórea.

  13. Central Antinociceptive and Mechanism of Action of Pereskia bleo Kunth Leaves Crude Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds

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    Carolina Carvalho Guilhon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae is a plant commonly used in popular medicine in Malaysia. In this work, we evaluate the antinociceptive effect of P. bleo leaf extracts and isolated compounds in central antinociceptive model. Ethanol extract (E, hexane (H, ethyl acetate (EA, or butanol (B fractions (30, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o., sitosterol (from hexane and vitexin (from ethyl acetate, were administered to mice. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate and capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking models. Morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. was used as reference drug. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p., atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p., and L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.p. were administered 30 min earlier (100 mg/kg, p.o. in order to evaluate the mechanism of the antinociceptive action. Higher dose of B developed an effect significantly superior to morphine-treated group. Naloxone prevented the antinociceptive effect of all fractions. L-NAME demonstrated effect against E, EA, and B. In all fractions, sitosterol and vitexin reduced the licking time after capsaicin injection. Glutamate-induced licking response was blocked by H, EA, and B. Our results indicate that Pereskia bleo fractions, sitosterol and vitexin, possessed a central antinociceptive effect. Part of this effect is mediated by opioid receptors and nitrergic pathway.

  14. Ampliando o conhecimento sobre a flora fanerogâmica do Ceará

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    Iracema Bezerra Loiola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo geral conhecer, descrever e atualizar a distribuição geográfica dos representantes de Cactaceae, Capparaceae, Combretaceae e Erythroxylaceae ocorrentes no estado do Ceará. Para a coleta de amostras botânicas foram realizadas, no período de 2011 a 2013, quatro expedições de campo em 24 municípios pré-selecionados. Cada expedição teve duração de cinco dias e a participação de cinco componentes. As coleções foram depositadas no herbário EAC e duplicatas distribuídas a herbários nacionais. Os principais resultados obtidos foram: ampliação do número de coleções georreferenciadas e identificadas corretamente; produção de artigos sobre a flora cearense e descrição de uma nova espécie de Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae.

  15. Resolving a Prickly Situation: Involving Stakeholders in Invasive Cactus Management in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Kaplan, Haylee; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2016-05-01

    The regulation and management of alien species can be contentious, particularly when the stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who suffer the costs. We propose a consultative process involving relevant stakeholders in invasive species management decisions. The process involves (1) the identification of relevant stakeholders, (2) assessing their perceptions, (3) enhancing interaction between stakeholders, (4) assessing changes in stakeholders' perceptions following interactions with other stakeholders, and (5) developing management recommendations in collaboration with stakeholders. We demonstrate the application of the process using the family Cactaceae ('cacti') in South Africa. Many species of cacti have been introduced to the country over the past two centuries, mostly for horticulture, food and fodder, and hundreds of other species have been introduced in the past few decades (or are likely to be introduced soon) for horticulture. Using the proposed process enabled the negotiation and participation of all stakeholders in decision making and helped minimize contentious situations by clarifying stakeholder's beliefs and exploring consensus solutions. Consequently, management objectives were broadly supported by all stakeholders. These results will be included in a national cactus management strategy for South Africa.

  16. COMPOSIÇÃO FLORÍSTICA DE UM INSELBERGUE NO AGRESTE PARAIBANO, MUNICÍPIO DE ESPERANÇA, NORDESTE DO BRASIL

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    Paulinea Andreazza Ferreira Porto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the floristic check-list of a inselberg at the Fazenda Timbaúba (35o52'50.3", 7o1'0.8", municipality of Esperança/PB, Agreste da Borborema Microregion, were realized the present study. The inselberg flora comprise 127 species, 101 genera and 53 families of wich the Leguminosae family with 17 species showed the higher richness, followed by the Asteraceae (9 spp., Poaceae (7 spp., Euphorbiaceae and Orchidaceae (6 spp. families. Bromeliaceae and Cactaceae, despite of not be the higher richness, are covering extents areas, suggesting a higher importance for those families in inselbergs colonization. Comparing the families with other inselberg floras, 29 of them also were raising in Quixadá/CE, 28 in Pão de Açúcar and 24 in Serra do Mar/RJ inselbergs. The majority of species showed xenomorphic adaptations due hydric stress observed in the Southern and Northeastern Brazilian inselbergs. The differences in the floristic composition, especially at genus and species level seem to result of different speciation pressure what aid the taxa with better adaptation at these environments.

  17. Production of oil palm empty fruit bunch compost for ornamental plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Mhardela, P.; Husaini, T.; Irvan; Daimon, H.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to produce the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) compost for ornamental plant cultivation. EFB compost was produced by chopping fresh EFB into 1-3 cm pieces, inserting the pieces into basket composter (33 cm W × 28 cm L × 40 cm H), and adding activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) until moisture content (MC) in the range of 55-65%. During composting, the compost pile was turned every 3 days and the MC was maintained at 55-65% range by adding the ALOF. The compost processed was then mixed with sand and rice husk with a ratio of 1:1:1; 1:3:1; 1:0:1 and was used as a potting medium for planting some valuable ornamental plants i.e. cactus (cactaceae), sansevieria, and anthurium. Composting was carried out for 40 days and the compost characteristic were pH 9.0; MC 52.59%; WHC 76%; CN ratio 12.15; N 1.96%; P 0.58%; and K 0.95%. The compost-sand-husk rice mixture can be used as a growing medium where the best ratio for cactus, sansevieria, and anthurium was 1:3:1; 1:1:1; and 1:0:1, respectively.

  18. Effects of cooking methods on phenolic compounds in xoconostle (Opuntia joconostle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-García, Rosa María; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Zepeda-Vallejo, Luis Gerardo; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2015-03-01

    Xoconostle, the acidic cactus pear fruit of Opuntia joconostle of the Cactaceae family, is the source of several phytochemicals, such as betalain pigments and numerous phenolic compounds. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of four cooking procedures (i.e., boiling, grilling, steaming and microwaving) on the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (measured by ABTS, DPPH, reducing power, and BCBA) of xoconostle. In addition, HPLC-DAD analyses were performed to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. After microwaving and steaming xoconostle, the TPC remained the same that in fresh samples, whereas both grilling and boiling produced a significant, 20% reduction (p ≤ 0.05). Total flavonoids remained unchanged in boiled and grilled xoconostle, but steaming and microwaving increased the flavonoid content by 13 and 20%, respectively. Steaming and microwaving did not produce significant changes in the antioxidant activity of xoconostle, whereas boiling and grilling result in significant decreases. The phenolic acids identified in xoconostle fruits were gallic, vanillic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids; the flavonoids identified were epicatechin, catechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol. Based on the results, steaming and microwaving are the most suitable methods for retaining the highest level of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in xoconostle.

  19. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SELENICEREUS MEGALANTHUS (K. SCHUM EX VAUPEL MORAN

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    M. Sorace

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Selenicereus megalanthus (K. Schumer Vaupel Moran is known as yellow Pitaya because of yellow peel color. Originated from Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia, it belongs to the family Cactaceae and has climbing habit, besides being edible and currently grown. In Brazil the production of yellow pitaya is incipient. Pitaya propagates through cuttings, seed or grafting. Its seeds have sarcotesta mucilaginous, which may be a deterrent factor or decrease germination. This study aimed to study biometric aspects and germination of seeds with and without mucilage removal. The removal of mucilage was made by immersion in 25% sucrose solution and were evaluated biometric aspects of fruit and seed quality through tests of germination and tetrazolium, rate of germination speed and imbibition curve. Through biometrics establishes the relationship between the size of the fruit and seed number, where the number of seeds per unit mass is greater in smaller fruits. The continuous production of mucilage prevented the establishment of imbibition curve. The result obtained in the tetrazolium test was not consistent with the germination. Seeds with mucilage removal by pretreatment with sucrose solution showed better germination and IVG, producing stronger plants.

  20. Influência do substrato e do enraizamento na aclimatização de Melocactus glaucescens Buining & Brederoo propagados in vitro

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    Sheila Vitória Resende

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Melocactus glaucescens (Cactaceae é espécie endêmica da Bahia e está incluída na lista da IUCN e MMA como ameaçada de extinção. A transferência da condição in vitro para o ambiente ex vitro é uma etapa crítica, podendo ser um fator limitante para a produção das mudas micropropagadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o efeito de diferentes substratos e do enraizamento na aclimatização de Melocactus glaucescens. As plantas propagadas in vitro foram mantidas sob 100% de luminosidade, com regas diárias por 75 dias. Os resultados demonstraram que o substrato adequado para a aclimatização deve conter 50% de terra vegetal e 50% de areia lavada; o tamanho mínimo do diâmetro e do comprimento da parte aérea para transferência para as condições ex vitro é de 5 mm e que as etapas de enraizamento in vitro e rustificação podem ser eliminadas da micropropagação de M. glaucescens. Estudos para demonstrar tempos de dessecação dos brotos acima de 5 mm são necessários, para se eliminar completamente a etapa do enraizamento in vitro para esta espécie.

  1. Phytochemical study of Pilosocereus pachycladus and antibiotic-resistance modifying activity of syringaldehyde

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    Severino Gonçalves de Brito-Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pilosocereus pachycladus F. Ritter, Cactaceae, popularly known as "facheiro", is used as food and traditional medicine in Brazilian caatinga ecoregion. The plant is used to treat prostate inflammation and urinary infection. The present work reports the first secondary metabolites isolated from P. pachycladus. Therefore, the isolated compound 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde (syringaldehyde was evaluated as modulator of Staphylococcus aureus pump efflux-mediated antibiotic resistance. The isolation of compounds was performed using chromatographic techniques and the structural elucidation was carried out by spectroscopic methods. In order to evaluate syringaldehyde ability to modulate S. aureus antibiotic resistance, its minimum inhibitory concentrations (µg/ml was first determinate, then, the tested antibiotics minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined in the presence of the syringaldehyde in a sub-inhibitory concentration. The chromatographic procedures led to isolation of twelve compounds from P. pachycladus including fatty acids, steroids, chlorophyll derivatives, phenolics and a lignan. The syringaldehyde did not show any antibacterial activity at 256 µg/ml against S. aureus. On the other hand the compound was able to reduce the antibiotic concentration (tetracycline, norfloxacin, ethidium bromide required to inhibit the growth of drug-resistant bacteria, showing the ability of syringaldehyde of inhibiting the efflux pump on these bacteria.

  2. Effects of plant growth regulators on seed germination and callus induction of hylocereus costaricensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, W.K.

    2016-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricensis) belongs to the family Cactaceae and are climbing vines which have received worldwide attention in recent years. However, there are still lack of information on the protocols for the establishment of In vitro culture system. In the present study, seed germination percentage were determined by culturing seeds on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 1 ppm 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) together with either 0, 0.5 or 0.8 ppm of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Germination percentage was the highest by using plant growth regulators (PGRs) combination of 1 ppm BAP and 0 ppm IBA (93.33%). Subsequently, the cotyledons from seedlings of the germinated seeds were used for subsequent callus induction. Small pieces of cotyledons were excised and cultured on MS medium fortified with 0.45, 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, 3.6, and 4.5 ppm of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) together with either 0, 0.9 or 1.8 ppm of BAP. Callus induction percentage was highest using the plant growth regulators (PGRs) combination of 3.6 ppm 2,4-D and 1.8 ppm BAP (75%). Hence, 3.6 ppm of 2,4-D and 1.8 ppm BAP was the best combination for callus induction of Hylocereus costaricensis. (author)

  3. Innovations from the “ivory tower”: Wilhelm Barthlott and the paradigm shift in surface science

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    Christoph Neinhuis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly about borders that have tremendous influence on our daily life, although many of them exist and act mostly unrecognized. In this article the first objective will be to address more generally the relation between university and society or industry, borders within universities, borders in thinking and the huge amount of misunderstandings and losses resulting from these obvious or hidden borders. In the second part and in more detail, the article will highlight the impact of the research conducted by Wilhelm Barthlott throughout his scientific career during which not only one border was removed, shifted or became more penetrable. Among the various fields of interest not mentioned here (e.g., systematics of Cactaceae, diversity and evolution of epiphytes, the unique natural history of isolated rocky outcrops called inselbergs, or the global distribution of biodiversity, plant surfaces and especially the tremendous diversity of minute structures on leaves, fruits, seeds and other parts of plants represent a common thread through 40 years of scientific career of Wilhelm Barthlott. Based on research that was regarded already old-fashioned in the 1970s and 1980s, systematic botany, results and knowledge were accumulated that, some 20 years later, initiated a fundamental turnover in how surfaces were recognized not only in biology, but even more evident in materials science.

  4. Carotenoids profile and total polyphenols in fruits of Pereskia aculeata Miller

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    Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia aculeata Mill. (Ora-pro-nóbis is a native cactaceae from tropical America, whose leaves have high protein content. In Brazil it is found in all territorial extension between the states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. Most studies have focused on chemical characterization of the leaves of this specie. The objective was to assess the carotenoids profile and the total polyphenols present in the fruits of P. aculeate. Carotenoids were determined by HPLC-PAD (high performance liquid chromatography - photodiode array detector, total polyphenols were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin methods. Trans-β-carotene was the main carotenoid, followed by α-carotene, lutein and other minor carotenoids. It was found 64.9 ± 1.1 mg.100g-1 of gallic acid equivalent, 14.8 ± 0.2 mg.100g-1 of catechin equivalent. Carotenoid identification of P. aculeate fruits are presented here by the first time and indicate that these fruits can be researched as source of bioactive substances, especially antioxidant and provitamin A carotenoids.

  5. Investigating the Potential of Using the Spatial and Spectral Information of Multispectral LiDAR for Object Classification

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    Wei Gong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The abilities of multispectral LiDAR (MSL as a new high-potential active instrument for remote sensing have not been fully revealed. This study demonstrates the potential of using the spectral and spatial features derived from a novel MSL to discriminate surface objects. Data acquired with the MSL include distance information and the intensities of four wavelengths at 556, 670, 700, and 780 nm channels. A support vector machine was used to classify diverse objects in the experimental scene into seven types: wall, ceramic pots, Cactaceae, carton, plastic foam block, and healthy and dead leaves of E. aureum. Different features were used during classification to compare the performance of different detection systems. The spectral backscattered reflectance of one wavelength and distance represented the features from an equivalent single-wavelength LiDAR system; reflectance of the four wavelengths represented the features from an equivalent multispectral image with four bands. Results showed that the overall accuracy of using MSL data was as high as 88.7%, this value was 9.8%–39.2% higher than those obtained using a single-wavelength LiDAR, and 4.2% higher than for multispectral image.

  6. Análise morfométrica dos elementos traqueais em quatro espécies de Portulaca (Portulacaceae Morphometric analysis of tracheary elements in four Portulaca species

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    José Hernandes-Lopes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda aspectos da caracterização morfológica dos elementos traqueais dos órgãos vegetativos de quatro espécies de Portulacaceae (Portulaca hirsutissima Camb., P. halimoides L., P. werdermannii Poelln., e de P. mucronata Link. ocorrentes na região Sudeste e Nordeste do Brasil. Os elementos de vaso observados são todos pequenos (This paper deals with the morphological features of the tracheary elements of the vegetative organs in four Portulaca species (Portulaca hirsutissima Camb., P. halimoides L., P. wedermannii Poelln. and P. mucronata Link. occurring in Southeast and Northeast Brazil. The vessel elements are small (< 25 μm and with simple perforation plate. The pattern of wall thickening varied from bordered pitting (in roots to scalariform and helicoidal (stem and leaves. Statistical methods show variation in vessel-element diameter in different vegetative organs; wider elements were observed in roots. Tracheids occurring in leaves of P. hirsutissima and P.wedermannii, have morphological features that are similar to terminal tracheids or tracheoid idiolasts frequently associated with xerophytes. The paedomorphic features (juvenlism observed here may be related, in part, to aspects of water transport and storage as described in Cactaceae.

  7. The influence of baboon predation and time in water on germination and early establishment of Opuntia stricta (Australian pest pear in the Kruger National Park

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    W.D. Lotter

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alien invader weed, Opuntia stricta Haw (family Cactaceae, is seriously threatening biodiversity in veld habitats of the Kruger National Park. Basic biological and ecological information on the establishment, growth and reproduction of the species is necessary for the development of effective strategies for its control. The rapid spread of the plant is apparently mainly due to seed dispersal by baboon (Papio ursinus. Sixty percent of seed taken from baboon faeces resulted in seedlings that established. Although palatability criteria for ripe fruit were more favourable than for unripe or medium-ripe fruit, seed from fruit at all three degrees of ripeness germinated equally well, and seedling establishment was similar. Despite their lower acidity, as well as higher total soluble sugar content and pH, cladodes are not subject to herbivory to near the extent that ripe fruit are. Freshly collected seed kept in Sabie River water showed significantly better germination/emergence after seven days submersion (83 than at 14 or 28 days (52 and 66 , respectively. Results suggest that seed dispersal of the species by animals, principally baboon, is an important cause of rapidly expanding infestations, and that dissipation in water will intensify the problem. Current findings should contribute toward the development of long-term weed management strategies aimed at con- tainment/eradication of the weed.

  8. Tandem mass spectrometry: analysis of complex mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Applications of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the analysis of complex mixtures results in increased specificity and selectivity by using a variety of reagent gases in both negative and positive ion modes. Natural isotopic abundance ratios were examined in both simple and complex mixtures using parent, daughter and neutral loss scans. MS/MS was also used to discover new compounds. Daughter scans were used to identify seven new alkaloids in a cactus species. Three of these alkaloids were novel compounds, and included the first simple, fully aromatic isoquinoline alkaloids reported in Cactaceae. MS/MS was used to characterize the chemical reaction products of coal in studies designed to probe its macromolecular structure. Negative ion chemical ionization was utilized to study reaction products resulting from the oxidation of coal. Possible structural units in the precursor coal were predicted based on the reaction products identified, aliphatic and aromatic acids and their anhydrides. The MS/MS method was also used to characterize reaction products resulting from coal liquefaction and/or extraction. These studies illustrate the types of problems for which MS/MS is useful. Emphasis has been placed on characterization of complex mixtures by selecting experimental parameters which enhance the information obtained. The value of using MS/MS in conjunction with other analytical techniques as well as the chemical pretreatment is demonstrated

  9. Protein and Glycoprotein Patterns Related to Morphogenesis in Mammillaria gracillis Pfeiff. Tissue Culture

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    Biljana Balen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM, cacti are highly affected by artificial environmental conditions in tissue culture. Plants of Mammillaria gracillis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae propagated in vitro produced callus spontaneously. This habituated callus regenerated normal and hyperhydric shoots without the addition of growth regulators. In order to compare habituated callus with the tumorous one, cactus cells were transformed with two strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens: the wild strain B6S3 (tumour line TW and the rooty mutant GV3101 (tumour line TR. Gene expression in cactus plants, habituated callus, regenerated shoots and two tumour lines was analysed at the level of cellular and extracellular protein and glycoprotein profiles. Proteins were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 2-D PAGE electrophoresis and silver stained. Concavalin A-peroxidase staining detected glycoproteins with D-manose in their glycan component on protein blots. Developmentally specific protein patterns of Mammillaria gracillis tissue lines were detected. The 2-D PAGE electrophoresis revealed some tissue specific protein groups. The cellular glycoprotein of 42 kDa detected by ConA was highly expressed in undifferentiated tissues (habituated callus, TW and TR tumours and in hyperhydric regenerants. Tumours produced extracellular proteins of 33, 23 and 22 kDa. The N glycosylation of cellular and extracellular proteins was related to specific developmental stage of cactus tissue.

  10. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  11. FLORA VASCULAR DE UMA ÁREA DE CAATINGA NO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA - NORDESTE DO BRASIL

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    ANTÔNIO CÁSSIO JUSTINO DOS SANTOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The caatinga biome covers around 70% of the North-Eastern territory and nevertheless the studies carried out about its natural riches are still insufficient especially tackling the floristics diversity of the biome as a whole, particularly in the state of Paraiba. For this reason the current study aimed to carry out the floristics survey of an area of caatinga in the municipality of Boqueirão, Paraiba State. In the area of study, it was registered 47 species distributed in 39 genera and 20 families of flowering plants. The families that stood out in number of species were: Fabaceae, with 12 species; Cactaceae, with five; Euphorbiaceae and Malvaceae, with four species each one and Convolvulaceae with three species, while the other families (15 showed one to two species each one. The woody component dominated over the shrubby, herbaceous, subshrubby and the woody vines components of the area studied. Based on the data obtained in this study, it was possible to correlate the taxa shown with the flora of different areas of caatinga, especially in the Northeast region, showing up the priority of carrying out floristics studies including other areas of the caatinga of Paraiba as well as of different states of the Brazilian Northeastern.

  12. The importance of pollinator generalization and abundance for the reproductive success of a generalist plant.

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    María Belén Maldonado

    Full Text Available Previous studies have examined separately how pollinator generalization and abundance influence plant reproductive success, but none so far has evaluated simultaneously the relative importance of these pollinator attributes. Here we evaluated the extent to which pollinator generalization and abundance influence plant reproductive success per visit and at the population level on a generalist plant, Opuntia sulphurea (Cactaceae. We used field experiments and path analysis to evaluate whether the per-visit effect is determined by the pollinator's degree of generalization, and whether the population level effect (pollinator impact is determined by the pollinator's degree of generalization and abundance. Based on the models we tested, we concluded that the per-visit effect of a pollinator on plant reproduction was not determined by the pollinators' degree of generalization, while the population-level impact of a pollinator on plant reproduction was mainly determined by the pollinators' degree of generalization. Thus, generalist pollinators have the greatest species impact on pollination and reproductive success of O. sulphurea. According to our analysis this greatest impact of generalist pollinators may be partly explained by pollinator abundance. However, as abundance does not suffice as an explanation of pollinator impact, we suggest that vagility, need for resource consumption, and energetic efficiency of generalist pollinators may also contribute to determine a pollinator's impact on plant reproduction.

  13. Composición florística de la cuenca del río Ilo-Moquegua y Lomas de Ilo, Moquegua, Perú

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    Mónica Arakaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de la composición y riqueza de la flora vascular en la cuenca del Río Ilo- Moquegua y las Lomas de Ilo, a lo largo de una gradiente altitudinal que va desde los 0 hasta 4600 m, basado en colectas intensivas, revisión de ejemplares de herbario y consulta bibliográfica. De acuerdo al presente estudio, la flora vascular de la cuenca del río Ilo-Moquegua y las Lomas de Ilo está integrada por 63 familias, 233 géneros y 394 especies. Las Magnoliopsida representan el 83% de las especies y las Liliopsida el 15%. Las familias con mayor número de géneros y especies son Asteraceae (41 géneros y 60 especies, Poaceae (28 y 44, Solanaceae (11 y 32, Fabaceae (17 y 26, Malvaceae (11 y 21, Brassicaceae (10 y 15, Boraginaceae (9 y 15 y Cactaceae (10 y 14. Las formas biológicas dominantes son las hierbas (72%, seguidas por los arbustos (21%, plantas que pueden ser hierbas o arbustos (5%, árboles (2% y plantas parásitas (menos del 1%. De las 55 especies endémicas del Perú reportadas en el presente estudio, 10 están restringidas al departamento de Moquegua. Se presenta un total de 176 nuevas adiciones a la flora del departamento.

  14. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncib, Sana

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE) against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days). Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect. PMID:29376078

  15. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-07-21

    To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5'-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5'-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage.

  16. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression in activated microglia and peroxynitrite scavenging activity by Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming Hong; Kim, Jae Yeon; Yoon, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Tae Hee; Jin, Changbae; Kwak, Wie-Jong; Han, Chang-Kyun; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2006-09-01

    Activated microglia by neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation overproduce nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion, resulting in neurodegenerative diseases. The toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), the reaction product of NO and superoxide anion further contributes to oxidative neurotoxicity. A butanol fraction obtained from 50% ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten (Cactaceae) stem (SK OFB901) and its hydrolysis product (SK OFB901H) inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated microglia in a dose dependent manner (IC50 15.9, 4.2 microg/mL, respectively). They also suppressed the expression of protein and mRNA of iNOS in LPS-activated microglial cells at higher than 30 microg/mL as observed by western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiment. They also inhibited the degradation of I-kappaB-alpha in activated microglia. Moreover, they showed strong activity of peroxynitrite scavenging in a cell free bioassay system. These results imply that Opuntia ficus indica may have neuroprotective activity through the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells and peroxynitrite scavenging activity. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Análisis del comportamiento de mercado de la pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus en Costa Rica

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    Olman Quirós Madrigal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus es una planta que pertenece a la familia de las cactaceae, que se puede consumir como fruta fresca o procesada como pulpa; sin embargo, en Costa Rica su uso no está muy difundido, por lo que el mercado meta es la población de origen nicaragüense residente en el país, quienes catalogan el producto como de consumo tradicional o masivo.Es por esto que resulta importante retomar el estudio de los componentes del mercado, en donde se destaca no sólo por ser una fruta con componentes nutricionales que aportan beneficios a la salud humana, sino tambien porque suple una demanda latente y su cultivo puede ser una actividad alternativa para productores de zonas con condiciones agroecológicas adversas. En relación con el abastecimiento del producto en el mercado nacional, se enfatiza que su procedencia es nacional pero principalmente se importa como fruta fresca y pulpa de Nicaragua y, en menor grado, de Colombia.El precio de la pitahaya en el mercado nacional está estrechamente relacionado con los precios de importación, ya que la oferta principal proviene del producto importado, por lo que ha tenido un comportamiento creciente al pasar, de US$0,574 en el año 2003, a US$1,18 por kg en el 2007.

  18. Composição florística e estrutura da comunidade de epífitas vasculares em uma área de ecótono em Campo Mourão, PR, Brasil Floristic composition and structure of the vascular epiphyte community in a transition area at Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil

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    Henrique Cesar Lopes Geraldino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em uma área de ecótono de aproximadamente 30 hectares entre Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Mista, localizada na Capela do Calvário, município de Campo Mourão, PR. Para a análise fitossociológica foram selecionados 80 forófitos. No levantamento total foram encontradas 61 espécies, 39 gêneros e 13 famílias de epífitas (10 de Pteridófitas e 51 de Magnoliófitas. As famílias mais ricas foram: Orchidaceae (38%, Bromeliaceae e Polypodiaceae (13%, Cactaceae (11% e Piperaceae (8%, que juntas compõem 83% das espécies amostradas. Os gêneros Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae e Peperomia (Piperaceae foram os mais ricos, com cinco espécies. A anemocoria foi constatada em 67% das espécies e 86% foram classificadas como holoepífitas verdadeiras. Das 61 espécies inventariadas, 43 ocorreram nas áreas de amostragem, sendo cinco em maior freqüência: Microgramma squamulosa, Pleopeltis angusta, Tillandsia loliacea, Tillandsia recurvata e Pecluma sicca. O índice de Shannon (H’ registrado para a área foi de 3,175 e a equabilidade (J 0,863. Foram encontradas nove espécies epifíticas restritas a apenas um forófito. Microgramma squamulosa foi a espécie mais importante em toda área amostral. O trecho de vegetação em área de interflúvio, por apresentar estágio avançado de desenvolvimento, teve riqueza superior à área de vegetação ribeirinha.This study was conducted in a transition area of approximately 30 hectares between Semideciduous Forest and Araucaria Forest located in the Capela do Calvário, at Campo Mourão, Paraná. For the phytosociological analysis 80 phorophytes were selected. The survey found 61 species, 39 genera and 13 families of epiphytes (10 pteridophytes and 51 magnoliophytes. The richest families were: Orchidaceae (38%, Bromeliaceae and Polypodiaceae (13%, Cactaceae (11% and Piperaceae (8%, which together make up 83% of the sampled species. Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae

  19. Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de Mammillaria pectinifera, cactácea endémica de la región de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Assessment of extinction risk of Mammillaria pectinifera, an endemic cactus of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán region

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    Pedro Luis Valverde

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammillaria pectinifera (Cactaceae es una especie endémica de la Región de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán en los estados de Puebla y Oaxaca. Aunque en la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-ECOL-2001 está considerada como amenazada y está incluida en el Apéndice I de la CITES, la información derivada de los escasos estudios ecológicos sobre esta especie revela serios riesgos de extinción de sus poblaciones. En el presente estudio se registra una evaluación del riesgo de extinción de M. pectinifera, para la que se empleó el protocolo del Método de Evaluación del Riesgo de Extinción de las Especies Silvestres en México (MER del Anexo I de la NOM-059-ECOL-2001, el cual se basa en 4 criterios para evaluar cualitativamente el riesgo de extinción de cualquier especie silvestre en el territorio nacional. Dicha evaluación se apoya en datos de campo de 7 poblaciones e información procedente de diversas fuentes. De acuerdo con los 12 puntos obtenidos del MER, se propone que M. pectinifera se considere en la categoría de especie en peligro de extinción (P en la NOM-059-ECOL-2001 y sea incluida de nuevo en la Lista Roja de la UICN. Finalmente se plantea una propuesta para mejorar la valoración del Criterio D del MER.Mammillaria pectinifera (Cactaceae is an endemic species from the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán region at the Mexican States of Puebla and Oaxaca. Although it is considered as a threatened species under Mexican law NOM-059-ECOL-2001, and it is already included in the CITES Appendix I, ecological studies reveal serious vulnerability to extinction of its populations. In this study, we conducted an extinction risk assessment for M. pectinifera based on the protocol of the Method for Evaluation of Risk of Extinction for Mexican Wild Species (MER from Appendix I of NOM-059-ECOL-2001, which is based on a qualitative assessment of 4 criteria for evaluating extinction risk of any wild species in the Mexican territory. The present assessment relies on data

  20. Uso e diversidade de plantas medicinais da Caatinga na comunidade rural de Laginhas, município de Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (Nordeste do Brasil Use and diversity of medicinal plants from Caatinga in the rural community of Laginhas, Caicó Municipality, Rio Grande do Norte State (Northeast of Brazil

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    A.A Roque

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar as formas de uso de plantas medicinais nativas do bioma Caatinga, em comunidade rural no município de Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (Nordeste do Brasil. Utilizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas e estruturadas buscando informações, junto a especialistas locais, sobre o uso das plantas. São descritos os usos medicinais de 62 espécies, reportadas por 12 informantes (mateiros, rezadeiras, raizeiros, agricultores e donas-de-casa com idade superior a 35 anos. As famílias com maior representatividade na consulta foram Fabaceae (13 spp., Euphorbiaceae (6 spp. Cactaceae (3 spp. e Lamiaceae (3 spp.. Para revelar as espécies mais importantes foi considerado o grau de consenso entre as respostas dos informantes. A aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão e o cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemão A. C. Sm. destacaram-se como as espécies com o maior número de citações, sendo estas também as que obtiveram o maior número de indicações de usos terapêuticos. As cascas e as raízes foram as partes predominantemente consumidas. Os dados levantados por esta pesquisa evidenciaram uma diversidade de espécies da flora seridoense com potencial medicinal e reforçam a importância que a biodiversidade tem sobre as comunidades rurais, viabilizando o início do estudo de manejo da vegetação local.The present study aimed to identify the different uses of medicinal plants native to Caatinga biome in a rural community from Caicó Municipality, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Semi-structured and structured interviews with local specialists were used to collect information about the use of such plants. The medicinal uses of 62 species were described by 12 informants (woodsmen, faith healers, herb doctors, farmers and housewives older than 35 years. The most representative families reported in the survey were Fabaceae (13 spp, Euphorbiaceae (6 spp., Cactaceae (3 spp., and Lamiaceae (3 spp.. The degree of

  1. Avifauna de la Reserva de la Biosfera Barranca de Metztitlán, Hidalgo, México Birds of the Biosphere Reserve Barranca de Metztitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico

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    Raúl Ortiz-Pulido

    2010-08-01

    types were: submontane shrubland with 113 species, tropical deciduous forest with 97, Juniperus forest with 96, and crasicaule shrubland with Stenocereus dumortieri dominance with 91. The best represented gremials were: insectivorous (235 species, frugivorous (88, and granivorous (85. We found 17 species under some risk category according with the Mexican law, and 32 species possesses some endemic degree. In the reserve inhabit near of the 60% of the birds of the Hidalgo state and 27% of the Mexican birds. This region should be considered as an Important Bird Area in Mexico.

  2. Ethnobotanical study of useful vegetal species in two rural communities in the semi-arid region of Paraíba state (Northeastern Brazil.

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    Cleilton Marques Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trying to understand the relationship between man/natural resources, from ethonobotanical studies, this study aimed to estimate the use value of vegetal species in two Caatinga areas in the Cariri of Paraíba state, besides knowing the multiple uses of plants by the residents of rural communities of Brito (Queimadas - PB and Lagoa Salgada (Montadas, Areial, Pocinhos - PB. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local specialists and the community. It was used by the specialists the technique “snow ball” and the technique “guided tour”. It was identified 77 species, being 40 in Brito community and 37 in Lagoa Salgada community, all of them distributed into use categories, since food up to technological uses. Seven species had the higher use value: 1: Croton blanchetianus, Mimosa caesalpinefolia, Prosopis julifora, Mimosa tenuiflora, Opuntia ficus-indica, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodruon urundeuva. The used categories were equal between the two communities and among the general informants and local specialists, which show great resemblance of use and their preference for certain species. The lowest cited species were those for food and domestic building purposes, and the most used were those ones for medicinal use. The most cited species are Cactaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae. Regarding the species, the most valued in both communities were Croton blanchetianus, Pilosocereus gounellei, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis julifora.  Although the current communities have a great dependence of the local flora for surviving, the extraction and the lack of conservation of species are notorious in both communities.

  3. Water Relations, Diurnal Acidity Changes, and Productivity of a Cultivated Cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Edmundo; Badilla, Ignacio; Nobel, Park S.

    1983-01-01

    Physiological responses of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) were studied on a commercial plantation in central Chile. Young cladodes (flattened stems) and flower buds exhibited daytime stomatal opening, whereas mature cladodes and fruit exhibited the nocturnal stomatal opening characteristic of CAM plants. Severe water stress suppressed the nocturnal stomatal opening by mature cladodes, but their high water vapor conductance occurring near dawn was not affected. Nocturnal acidity increases were not as sensitive to water stress as was the nocturnal stomatal opening. The magnitude of the nocturnal acidity increases depended on the total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), being 90% PAR-saturated at 27 moles per square meter per day for a mean nighttime air temperature of 5°C and at 20 moles per square meter per day for 18°C. Inasmuch as the PAR received on unshaded vertical surfaces averaged about 21 moles per square meter per day, nocturnal acidity increases by the cladodes were on the verge of being PAR-limited in the field. The net assimilation rate, which was positive throughout the year, annually averaged 3.4 grams per square meter per day for 1.0- and 2.0-year-old plants. Plants that were 5.4 years old had 7.2 square meters of cladode surface area (both sides) and an annual dry weight productivity of 13 megagrams (metric tons) per hectare per year when their ground cover was 32%. This substantial productivity for a CAM plant was accompanied by the highest nocturnal acidity increase so far observed in the field, 0.78 mole H+ per square meter. PMID:16663084

  4. The Cacti microbiome: interplay between habitat-filtering and host specificity

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    Citlali eFonseca-Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cactaceae represents one of the most species-rich families of succulent plants native to arid and semi-arid ecosystems, yet the associations Cacti establish with microorganisms and the rules governing microbial community assembly remain poorly understood. We analyzed the composition, diversity and factors influencing above- and below-ground bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities associated with two native and sympatric Cacti species: Myrtillocactus geometrizans and Opuntia robusta. Phylogenetic profiling showed that the composition and assembly of microbial communities associated with Cacti were primarily influenced by the plant compartment; plant species, site and season played only a minor role. Remarkably, bacterial and archaeal diversity was higher in the phyllosphere than in the rhizosphere of Cacti, while the opposite was true for fungi. Semi-arid soils exhibited the highest levels of microbial diversity whereas the stem endosphere the lowest. Despite their taxonomic distance, M. geometrizans and O. robusta shared most microbial taxa in all analyzed compartments. Influence of the plant host did only play a larger role in the fungal communities of the stem endosphere. These results suggest that fungi establish specific interactions with their host plant inside the stem, whereas microbial communities in the other plant compartments may play similar functional roles in these two species.Biochemical and molecular characterization of seed-borne bacteria of Cacti supports the idea that these microbial symbionts may be vertically inherited and could promote plant growth and drought tolerance for the fitness of the Cacti holobiont. We envision this knowledge will help improve and sustain agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions of the world.

  5. Biolistic-mediated transient gene expression in shoot apical meristems of the prickly-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica

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    Romulo Marino Llamoca-Zárate

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the transient expression of the GUS gene in cells of the meristematic apical dome of Opuntia ficus-indica. DNA delivery into the cells was achieved using a biolistic PDS-1000He instrument from Bio-Rad Laboratories. The transforming DNA was coated in tungsten particles with diameter of 1.3 m m and the distance between the flying disk and the target tissue was 7.5cm and the shooting pressure was adjusted to 1200 psi. This is the first demonstration that the biolistic transformation system can be used to express a transgene in a member of the Cactaceae.Nós demonstramos a expressão transiente do gene GUS nas células do meristema apical de Opuntia ficus-indica. A introdução do DNA nas células foi realizada através de um sistema de biolística PDS-1000He da Bio-Rad Laboratories. Para transformação, partículas de tungstenio com diâmetro de 1,3 µm foram cobertas com DNA e a distância entre o disco das partículas e o tecido alvo foi de 7,5cm, a pressão de tiro foi 1200 psi. Esta é a primeira demonstração que o sistema de biolística de transformação pode ser usado para a expressão de transgenes nas cactáceas.

  6. Identification of functional groups of Opuntia ficus-indica involved in coagulation process after its active part extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaouine, Omar; Bourven, Isabelle; Khalil, Fouad; Baudu, Michel

    2018-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica that belongs to the Cactaceae family and is a member of Opuntia kind has received increasing research interest for wastewater treatment by flocculation. The objectives of this study were (i) to provide more information regarding the active constituents of Opuntia spp. and (ii) to improve the extracting and using conditions of the flocculant molecules for water treatment. A classic approach by jar test experiments was used with raw and extracted material by solubilization and precipitation. The surface properties of solid material were characterized by FTIR, SEM, zeta potential measurement, and surface titration. The splitting based on the solubility of the material with pH and the titration of functional groups completed the method. The optimal pH value for a coagulation-flocculation process using cactus solid material (CSM) was 10.0 and a processing rate of 35 mg L -1 . The alkaline pH of flocculation suggests an adsorption mechanism with bridging effect between particles by water-soluble extracted molecules. To validate this mechanism, an extraction water was carried out at pH = 10 (optimum of flocculation) and the solution was acidified (pH = 7) to allow precipitation of so considered active flocculant molecules. The strong flocculant property of this extract was verified, and titration of this solution showed at least one specific pKa of 9.0 ± 0.6. This pKa corresponds to phenol groups, which could be assigned to lignin and tannin.

  7. Effects of red pitaya juice supplementation on cardiovascular and hepatic changes in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Brown, Lindsay; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-06-12

    The fruit of Hylocereus polyrhizus, also known as red pitaya, and buah naga in Malay, is one of the tropical fruits of the cactus family, Cactaceae. Red pitaya has been shown to protect aorta from oxidative damage and improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic rats probably due to phytochemicals content including phenolics and flavonoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in cardiac stiffness, hepatic and renal function in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced obese rats following supplementation of red pitaya juice. Total 48 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: corn-starch group (CS), corn-starch+red pitaya juice group (CRP), high-carbohydrate, high fat group (HCHF) and high-carbohydrate, high fat+red pitaya juice (HRP). The intervention with 5% red pitaya juice was started for 8 weeks after 8 weeks initiation of the diet. Heart function was determined ex vivo with Langendorff hearts while plasma liver enzymes, uric acid and urea were measured using commercial kits. Total fat mass was determined with Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Glucose uptake was measured with Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Liver and cardiac structures were defined by histology. Supplementation of red pitaya juice for 8 weeks increased energy intake and abdominal circumference but no change in body fat and lean mass respectively. Also, there were a trend of uric acid and glucose normalization for HRP as compared to H-fed rats. Red pitaya juice treatment reduced ALP and ALT but caused significant increment in AST. Diastolic stiffness of the heart was reduced after supplementation of red pitaya juice in corn starch fed rats. However, the reduction was not significant in HRP rats in comparison with H rats. The present study concluded that red pitaya juice may serve as a complimentary therapy for attenuating some signs of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Tissue culture of ornamental cacti

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    Eugenio Pérez-Molphe-Balch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cacti species are plants that are well adapted to growing in arid and semiarid regions where the main problem is water availability. Cacti have developed a series of adaptations to cope with water scarcity, such as reduced leaf surface via morphological modifications including spines, cereous cuticles, extended root systems and stem tissue modifications to increase water storage, and crassulacean acid metabolism to reduce transpiration and water loss. Furthermore, seeds of these plants very often exhibit dormancy, a phenomenon that helps to prevent germination when the availability of water is reduced. In general, cactus species exhibit a low growth rate that makes their rapid propagation difficult. Cacti are much appreciated as ornamental plants due to their great variety and diversity of forms and their beautiful short-life flowers; however, due to difficulties in propagating them rapidly to meet market demand, they are very often over-collected in their natural habitats, which leads to numerous species being threatened, endangered or becoming extinct. Therefore, plant tissue culture techniques may facilitate their propagation over a shorter time period than conventional techniques used for commercial purposes; or may help to recover populations of endangered or threatened species for their re-introduction in the wild; or may also be of value to the preservation and conservation of the genetic resources of this important family. Herein we present the state-of-the-art of tissue culture techniques used for ornamental cacti and selected suggestions for solving a number of the problems faced by members of the Cactaceae family.

  9. The ethnobotany of psychoactive plant use: a phylogenetic perspective

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    Nashmiah Aid Alrashedy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives. The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful. A phylogeny of culturally diverse psychoactive plant taxa was constructed with their psychotropic effects and affected neurotransmitter systems mapped on the phylogeny. The phylogenetic distribution shows multiple evolutionary origins of psychoactive families. The plant families Myristicaceae (e.g., nutmeg, Papaveraceae (opium poppy, Cactaceae (peyote, Convolvulaceae (morning glory, Solanaceae (tobacco, Lamiaceae (mints, Apocynaceae (dogbane have a disproportionate number of psychoactive genera with various indigenous groups using geographically disparate members of these plant families for the same psychoactive effect, an example of cultural convergence. Pharmacological traits related to hallucinogenic and sedative potential are phylogenetically conserved within families. Unrelated families that exert similar psychoactive effects also modulate similar neurotransmitter systems (i.e., mechanistic convergence. However, pharmacological mechanisms for stimulant effects were varied even within families suggesting that stimulant chemicals may be more evolutionarily labile than those associated with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. Chemically similar psychoactive chemicals may also exist in phylogenetically unrelated lineages, suggesting convergent evolution or differential gene regulation of a common metabolic pathway. Our study has shown that phylogenetic analysis of traditionally used psychoactive plants

  10. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

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    Alejandra Hernández-Ceruelos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS. The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP, in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg, a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg, and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE. The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment.

  11. Baseline study of morphometric traits of wild Capsicum annuum growing near two biosphere reserves in the Peninsula of Baja California for future conservation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-05-10

    Despite the ecological and socioeconomic importance of wild Capsicum annuum L., few investigations have been carried out to study basic characteristics. The peninsula of Baja California has a unique characteristic that it provides a high degree of isolation for the development of unique highly diverse endemic populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate for the first time the growth type, associated vegetation, morphometric traits in plants, in fruits and mineral content of roots, stems and leaves of three wild populations of Capsicum in Baja California, Mexico, near biosphere reserves. The results showed that the majority of plants of wild Capsicum annuum have a shrub growth type and were associated with communities consisting of 43 species of 20 families the most representative being Fabaceae, Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Significant differences between populations were found in plant height, main stem diameter, beginning of canopy, leaf area, leaf average and maximum width, stems and roots dry weights. Coverage, leaf length and dry weight did not show differences. Potassium, sodium and zinc showed significant differences between populations in their roots, stems and leaves, while magnesium and manganese showed significant differences only in roots and stems, iron in stems and leaves, calcium in roots and leaves and phosphorus did not show differences. Average fruit weight, length, 100 fruits dry weight, 100 fruits pulp dry weight and pulp/seeds ratio showed significant differences between populations, while fruit number, average fruit fresh weight, peduncle length, fruit width, seeds per fruit and seed dry weight, did not show differences. We concluded that this study of traits of wild Capsicum, provides useful information of morphometric variation between wild populations that will be of value for future decision processes involved in the management and preservation of germplasm and genetic resources.

  12. Recursos florísticos de la cuenca baja del río mayo, Sonora

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    Julio César Duarte Ruiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En México se presentan prácticamente todos los grandes tipos de vegetación que existen en el mundo y su distribución a menudo es compleja. El objetivo del trabajo consistió en realizar un listado de la flora silvestre ribereña del Río Mayo, localizado en el sur del estado de Sonora, para conocer su composición. La recolección de especímenes se realizó mediante la técnica de intercepción o línea de Canfield (1941, en 15 sitios con dos repeticiones sumando 30 transectos. Se encontraron un total de 40 familias, 79 géneros y 99 especies. Las familias mejor representadas fueron: Leguminoseae, Cactaceae, Gramineae, Compositae, Chenopodiaceae, Salicaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae y Asteraceae. La dominante fue Leguminoseae con vegetación de bosque espinoso compuesta por Acacia cymbispina, Acacia farnesiana, Parkinsonia aculeata y Prosopis juliflora. Resulta perceptible la pérdida de flora debido al cambio de uso de suelo. Especies representativas de la zona riparia como Populus fremontii y Salix bonplandiana están desapareciendo por alteración del ecosistema. Poblaciones de mangle como Rhizophora mangle y Conocarpus erectus están disminuidas. El área estudiada es rica en especies a pesar de la perturbación. La diversidad varía de acuerdo al gradiente altitudinal y el número de especies guarda relación con los géneros y familias recolectadas. La agricultura, acuicultura, ganadería, la industria pesquera y la urbanización, son los giros que causan mayor afectación en los ecosistemas

  13. Differences in Tolerance to Host Cactus Alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Ignacio M.; Carreira, Valeria P.; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M.; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

  14. Hierarchical (0 0 1) facet anatase/rutile TiO2 heterojunction photoanode with enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hongyi; Zhao, Guohua; Zhang, Ya-nan; Wang, Yanbin; Cao, Tongcheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (0 0 1) facet TiO 2 photoanode with large surface area is reported for the first time. ► Ordered heterojunction further improves light absorption in (0 0 1) facet TiO 2 system. ► (0 0 1) facet TiO 2 photoanode possesses promoted photoelectrocatalytic performance. ► Photoelectrical enhancement mechanism is clarified by electrochemical methods. ► Photogenerated carrier and lifetime are remarkably enhanced by ingenious design. -- Abstract: A hierarchical heterojunction TiO 2 photoanode with large surface/body ratio is reported to exhibit high oxidation activity due to the constructing of anatase TiO 2 with exposed (0 0 1) facets. The mixed-phase photoanode is fabricated through surfactant-assisted anchoring ultrathin anatase nanosheets on vertically ordered rutile nanorod arrays. This cactaceae-like TiO 2 possesses high-exposed (0 0 1) facets outer layer, large specific surface area (375 m 2 g −1 ), efficient photo-to-current conversion (8.2%) and excellent photocatalytic ability to degrade bisphenol A. The greatly promoted photoelectric and photocatalytic performance results from the synergetic effects of the architecture design of high-active (0 0 1) facets and hierarchical heterojunctions. The mechanism analysis reveals that the remarkable increase of photogenerated carrier concentration (2.40 × 10 22 cm −3 ) improves photocatalytic activity, by virtue of constructing staggered energy levels, suppressing the recombination of electrons and holes, and extending the electron lifetime (133 ms)

  15. Extreme variation in floral characters and its consequences for pollinator attraction among populations of an Andean cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumpberger, Boris O.; Cocucci, Andrea A.; Moré, Marcela; Sérsic, Alicia N.; Raguso, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims A South American cactus species, Echinopsis ancistrophora (Cactaceae), with dramatic among-population variation in floral traits is presented. Methods Eleven populations of E. ancistrophora were studied in their habitats in northern Argentina, and comparisons were made of relevant floral traits such as depth, stigma position, nectar volume and sugar concentration, and anthesis time. Diurnal and nocturnal pollinator assemblages were evaluated for populations with different floral trait combinations. Key Results Remarkable geographical variations in floral traits were recorded among the 11 populations throughout the distribution range of E. ancistrophora, with flower lengths ranging from 4·5 to 24·1 cm. Other floral traits associated with pollinator attraction also varied in a population-specific manner, in concert with floral depth. Populations with the shortest flowers showed morning anthesis and those with the longest flowers opened at dusk, whereas those with flowers of intermediate length opened at unusual times (2300–0600 h). Nectar production varied non-linearly with floral length; it was absent to low (population means up to 15 µL) in short- to intermediate-length flowers, but was high (population means up to 170 µL) in the longest tubed flowers. Evidence from light-trapping of moths, pollen carriage on their bodies and moth scale deposition on stigmas suggests that sphingid pollination is prevalent only in the four populations with the longest flowers, in which floral morphological traits and nectar volumes match the classic expectations for the hawkmoth pollination syndrome. All other populations, with flowers 4·5–15 cm long, were pollinated exclusively by solitary bees. Conclusions The results suggest incipient differentiation at the population level and local adaptation to either bee or hawkmoth (potentially plus bee) pollination. PMID:19342397

  16. Vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment in Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Telma Elyta Vilhalba Azeredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a floristic and phytosociological survey, as well as analyze the spatial distribution of the vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment belonging to the submontane dense ombrophilous forest in the town of Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil. In addition, information on the ecological groups of epiphytic species and the strategies for pollination and dispersal were also presented. One sampled 60 trees as phorophytes with DBH ≥ 10 cm, through the point-centered quarter method, and the expeditious walking method was used for recording the epiphytic species which weren’t sampled in the phorophytes through the phytosociological method. The frequency was evaluated having the occurrence of epiphytes in the phorophytes and the segments on the bole and crown as a basis. One recorded the presence of epiphytes in the phorophytes in the segments on the bole and crown. One found 65 species distributed into 39 genera and 14 families, out of which 49 were sampled in the phytosociological survey and the remaining ones in the walking survey. Bromeliaceae showed the highest richness, followed by Orchidaceae, and Cactaceae. Tillandsia recurvata (L. L. was firstly mentioned in the southern state. The specific diversity was estimated as H’ = 3.33 and evenness (E was equal to 0.86. The ecological group of holoepiphytes was the most representative one in the area under study. Entomophily and anemochory were the prevailing strategies for pollination and dispersal, respectively. In the phytosociological survey, the number of epiphytic species in the phorophytes ranged from 0 to 21. The highest importance values were those related to Rhipsalis teres (Vell. Steud. and Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch. Copel.

  17. Ecophysiological and Anatomical Mechanisms behind the Nurse Effect: Which Are More Important? A Multivariate Approach for Cactus Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Flores, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background Cacti establish mostly occurs under the canopy of nurse plants which provide a less stressful micro-environment, although mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. The impact of the combination of light and watering treatments on Opuntia streptacantha (Cactaceae) seedlings was examined. Methods/Principal Findings Ecophysiological [titratable acidity, osmotic potential (‘solute potential’, Ψs), relative growth rate (RGR) and their components (NAR, SLA, and LWR)], anatomical (chloroplast density, chloroplast frequency, and cell area), and environmental [photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and air temperature] sets of variables were analyzed, assessing relationships between them and measuring the intensity of the relationships. Three harvests were carried out at days 15, 30, and 45. Ψs and acidity content were the most important responses for seedling establishment. The main anatomical and environmental variables were chloroplast density and water availability, respectively. Opuntia streptacantha seedlings establish better in the shade-watering treatment, due to higher Ψs and acidity, unaffected chloroplasts, and lower PPFD. In addition, the chloroplasts of cells under high-light and non-watering treatment were clumped closer to the center of the cytosol than those under shade-drought, to avoid photoinhibition and/or to better distribute or utilize the penetrating light in the green plant tissue. Conclusions Opuntia seedlings grow better under the shade, although they can tolerate drought in open spaces by increasing and moving chloroplasts and avoiding drastic decreases in their Ψs. This tolerance could have important implications for predicting the impact of climate change on natural desert regeneration, as well as for planning reforestation-afforestation practices, and rural land uses. PMID:24312310

  18. Synthesis of Some O-Substituted Derivatives of Natural 6-hydroxymethyl-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (opuntiol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzadi, T.; Akhtar, M.; Rehman, A.; Riaz, T.; Ashraf, M.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript reports the synthesis of a series of new O-substituted derivatives of opuntiol (1) which is a naturally occurring compound isolated from a plant Opuntia dillenii Haw belonging to family Cactaceae. These derivatives 3a-t, were characterized by FAB-MS, IR, and 1H-NMR and then screened against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase and H-chymotrypsin enzymes. The screening results revealed that 6-(acetyloxy) methyl- 4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (3b) and N-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-((4-methoxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl) methoxy)acetamide (3p) were found to be the inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase while 6-(acetyloxy) methyl- 4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (3b), 6-(ethoxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (3c), 4-methoxy-6-((phenylmethoxy)methyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (3g), 6-((2-bromoethyloxy)methyl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (3j), N-(5-chloro-2-ethoxyphenyl)-2-((4-methoxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)methoxy) acetamide (3r), N-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)-2-((4-methoxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)methoxy)acetamide (3s) N-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-((4-methoxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)methoxy)acetamide (3t) were found to be active against H-chymotrypsin and among these 3s was the good inhibitor of this enzyme having IC50 value of 142.71 +- 0.22 micro moles/L. (author)

  19. Digestibility and performance of juvenile Nile tilapia fed with diets containing forage palm

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    Hannah Bandeira Thame Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplying the nutritional needs of animals in an economical way is essential to the success of any type of production. The forage palm is a cactaceae well-adapted to semiarid regions and commonly used in the feeding of ruminants. However, studies assessing its use in fishes are scarce. We aimed to evaluate the digestibility of bran from five different forage palm cultivars (Opuntia fícus in juvenile Nile tilapia and the development of juveniles when receiving increasing levels of the cultivar with the best apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein (ADCCP (75.2%. We used 90 masculinized juvenile Nile tilapia (with an average weight of 6.02 ± 0.65 g in the digestibility experiment to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (ADCDM, crude energy (ADCCP, and crude protein of the cultivars (Orelha de onça, Miúda, Gigante, Comum, and IPA 20. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD with five treatments and three repetitions. In the development experiment, 300 masculinized juvenile Nile tilapia (with average weight of 1.39 ± 0.12 g received feed with different inclusion levels (0, 72, 144, and 216 g Kg-1 of IPA 20 palm bran in a CRD with four treatments and five repetitions. We observed significant differences (P < 0.05 for ADCDM and ADCCP between the treatments. The cultivars that presented the highest ADCDM were IPA 20 (41.75%, Orelha de onça (36.41%, and Gigante (32.59%. For ADCCP, the best cultivar was IPA 20 with 75.2%, followed by Orelha de onça (61.5%, and Miúda (56.1%. As for the performance, the inclusion of IPA 20 palm bran at a rate of 113 g/kg-1 provided the best values in terms of weight gain and final weight in juvenile Nile tilapia.

  20. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D'Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-10-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antispasmodic effect of OFI cladodes was assessed in isolated rabbit smooth muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out with preparations of rabbit jejunum and uterus with the spontaneous contractile activity, to evaluate the effect of cumulative concentrations of the extract on basal tone, amplitude, and frequency of contractions. Catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and chlorogenic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid were identified. α-, β-, and γ-tocopherols have been highlighted and α-tocopherol is the major component. OFI cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50%. OFI cladodes caused a light inhibition of amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and a marked decrease in muscle basal tone of rabbit jejunum preparations. On spontaneously contracting uterus preparations, the addition of increasing concentrations of cladode extract caused uterine muscle relaxation. The contraction of smooth muscle preparations depends on an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration, which activates the contractile elements. The flavonoids may suppress the contractility of smooth myocytes, by an inhibition of availability of Ca 2+ for muscle contraction. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50

  1. Molecular phylogenetics, historical biogeography, and chromosome number evolution of Portulaca (Portulacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Gilberto; Columbus, J Travis

    2012-04-01

    Portulaca is the only genus in Portulacaceae and has ca. 100 species distributed worldwide, mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Molecular data place the genus as one of the closest relatives of Cactaceae, but phylogenetic relationships within Portulaca are barely known. This study samples 59 species of Portulaca, 10 infraspecific taxa, and three cultivars, including multiple samples of widespread species. The sampled taxa represent all subgenera in the classifications of von Poellnitz (1934), Legrand (1958), and Geesink (1969) and come from around the world. Nuclear ITS and chloroplast ndhF, trnT-psbD intergenic spacer, and ndhA intron DNA sequences were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to produce a hypothesis of relationships within Portulaca. Divergence times were estimated using Hawaiian endemics for calibration, and biogeographical patterns were examined using a Bayes-DIVA approach. In addition, the evolution of chromosome numbers in the genus was investigated using probabilistic models. The analyses strongly support the monophyly of Portulaca, with an age of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of 23 Myr. Within Portulaca are two major lineages: the OL clade (comprising opposite-leaved species) distributed in Africa, Asia, and Australia, and the AL clade (comprising alternate to subopposite-leaved species), which is more widespread and originated in the New World. Sedopsis, a genus sometimes recognized as distinct from Portulaca based on a long corolla tube, is nested within the OL clade and does not merit taxonomic recognition. Samples of Portulaca grandiflora, Portulaca halimoides, and Portulaca oleracea were found to be non-monophyletic. It is hypothesized that the ancestral distribution area of Portulaca included southern hemisphere continents and Asia. The OL clade remained restricted to the Old World (except Portulaca quadrifida, a pantropical weed), while the AL clade, with a South American origin, was able to disperse multiple

  2. Separation of polar betalain pigments from cacti fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Stalica, Paweł; Jerz, Gerold; Klose, Bettina; Gebers, Nadine; Winterhalter, Peter; Spórna, Aneta; Szaleniec, Maciej; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2009-10-09

    Polar betacyanin pigments together with betaxanthins from ripe cactus fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus (Cactaceae) were fractionated by means of preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography (IP-HSCCC) also using the elution-extrusion (EE) approach for a complete pigment recovery. HSCCC separations were operated in the classical 'head-to-tail' mode with an aqueous mobile phase. Different CCC solvent systems were evaluated in respect of influence and effectiveness of fractionation capabilities to separate the occurring pigment profile of H. polyrhizus. For that reason, the additions of two different volatile ion-pair forming perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCA) were investigated. For a direct comparison, five samples of Hylocereus pigment extract were run on preparative scale (900 mg) in 1-butanol-acetonitrile-aqueous TFA 0.7% (5:1:6, v/v/v) and the modified systems tert.-butyl methyl ether-1-butanol-acetonitrile-aqueous PFCA (2:2:1:5, v/v/v/v) using 0.7% and 1.0% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) or heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) in the aqueous phase, respectively. The chemical affinity to the organic stationary CCC solvent phases and in consequence the retention of these highly polar betalain pigments was significantly increased by the use of the more lipophilic fluorinated ion-pair reagent HFBA instead of TFA. The HFBA additions separated more effectively the typical cacti pigments phyllocactin and hylocerenin from betanin as well as their iso-forms. Unfortunately, similar K(D) ratios and selectivity factors alpha around 1.0-1.1 in all tested solvent systems proved that the corresponding diastereomers, 15S-type pigments cannot be resolved from the 15R-epimers (iso-forms). Surprisingly, additions of the stronger ion-pair reagent (HFBA) resulted in a partial separation of hylocerenin from phyllocactin which were not resolved in the other solvent systems. The pigments were detected by means of HPLC-DAD and HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS using also

  3. Red pitaya juice supplementation ameliorates energy balance homeostasis by modulating obesity-related genes in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-07-26

    Red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) or known as buah naga merah in Malay belongs to the cactus family, Cactaceae. Red pitaya has been shown to give protection against liver damage and may reduce the stiffness of the heart. Besides, the beneficial effects of red pitaya against obesity have been reported; however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated the red pitaya-targeted genes in obesity using high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rat model. A total of four groups were tested: corn-starch (CS), corn-starch + red pitaya juice (CRP), high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat + red pitaya juice (HRP). The intervention with 5 % red pitaya juice was continued for 8 weeks after 8 weeks initiation of the diet. Retroperitoneal, epididymal and omental fat pads were collected and weighed. Plasma concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured using commercial kits. Gene expression analysis was conducted using RNA extracted from liver samples. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. The rats fed HCHF-diet for 16 weeks increased body weight, developed excess abdominal fat deposition and down-regulated the expression level of IL-1α, IL-1r1, and Cntfr as compared to the control group. Supplementation of red pitaya juice for 8 weeks increased omental and epididymal fat but no change in retroperitoneal fat was observed. Red pitaya juice reversed the changes in energy balance homeostasis in liver tissues by regulation of the expression levels of Pomc and Insr. The increased protein expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in HCHF group and red pitaya treated rats confirmed the results of gene expression. Collectively, this study revealed the usefulness of this diet-induced rat model and the beneficial effects of red pitaya on energy balance homeostasis by modulating the anorectic, orexigenic and energy expenditure related

  4. Componente epifítico vascular de um fragmento florestal urbano, município de Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Vanilde Citadini-Zanette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p33   Este estudo teve por objetivo realizar um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico, bem como analisar a distribuição espacial do componente epifítico vascular em um fragmento florestal em área urbana pertencente à floresta ombrófila densa submontana no município de Criciúma-SC. Adicionalmente, informações sobre os grupos ecológicos das espécies epifíticas e as estratégias de polinização e de dispersão também foram apresentadas. Foram amostradas 60 árvores como forófitos com DAP ≥ 10 cm, pelo método de pontos quadrantes centrados, e foi utilizado o método expedito por caminhamento para registrar as espécies epifíticas não amostradas nos forófitos pelo método fitossociológico. A frequência foi avaliada com base na ocorrência dos epífitos nos forófitos e nos segmentos fuste e copa. Foi registrada a presença dos epífitos nos forófitos nos segmentos fuste e copa. Foram encontradas 65 espécies distribuídas em 39 gêneros e em 14 famílias, das quais 49 foram amostradas no levantamento fitossociológico e as demais no levantamento por caminhamento. Bromeliaceae apresentou a maior riqueza, seguida de Orchidaceae e Cactaceae. Tillandsia recurvata (L. L. foi citada pela primeira vez no sul do estado. A diversidade específica foi estimada em H’ = 3,33 e a equabilidade (E foi igual a 0,86. O grupo ecológico dos holoepífitos foi o mais representativo na área de estudo. Entomofilia e anemocoria foram as estratégias predominantes para polinização e dispersão, respectivamente. No levantamento fitossociológico, o número de espécies epifíticas nos forófitos variou de 0 a 21. Os maiores valores de importância foram os relativos à Rhipsalis teres (Vell. Steud. e Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch. Copel.

  5. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D’Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Objectives: Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Material and Methods: Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antispasmodic effect of OFI cladodes was assessed in isolated rabbit smooth muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out with preparations of rabbit jejunum and uterus with the spontaneous contractile activity, to evaluate the effect of cumulative concentrations of the extract on basal tone, amplitude, and frequency of contractions. Results: Catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and chlorogenic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid were identified. α-, β-, and γ-tocopherols have been highlighted and α-tocopherol is the major component. OFI cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50%. OFI cladodes caused a light inhibition of amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and a marked decrease in muscle basal tone of rabbit jejunum preparations. On spontaneously contracting uterus preparations, the addition of increasing concentrations of cladode extract caused uterine muscle relaxation. Conclusion: The contraction of smooth muscle preparations depends on an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration, which activates the contractile elements. The flavonoids may suppress the contractility of smooth myocytes, by an inhibition of availability of Ca2+ for muscle contraction. SUMMARY Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical

  6. Guía ilustrada de la flora del “Desierto de la Tatacoa ”, Huila, Colombia

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    Yisela Figueroa Cardozo

    2004-07-01

    promedio de 28º C y una precipitación promedio anual cercana a 1.000 mm. Históricamente,la región ha sufrido un fuerte proceso de sabanización y desertificación, por lo cual la cobertura vegetal actual se encuentra representada principalmente por matorrales bajos, rastrojos y pastizales. En este estudio se presenta el inventario florístico preliminar de la región del “desierto” de la Tatacoa; además, se caracteriza la vegetación de la región de una forma general y se presenta una guía ilustrada con descripciones botánicas para 100 de las especies más representativas de la región. Se encontraron 227 especies, distribuidas en cerca de 170 géneros y 60 familias. La gran mayoría de las especies son dicotiledóneas (85%, mientras que las monocotiledóneas se encuentran representadas solo por el 14% de las especies, y un mínimo porcentaje (menos del 1% por helechos y afines. A nivel florístico, la familia Fabaceae (s.l. es la más destacada con 35 especies y 27 géneros, representando el 15,5% del total de las especies, discriminada en las subfamilias Faboideae con 18/16, Mimosoideae con 9/7 y Caesalpinioideae con 8/4. Otras de las familias que sobresalen por su riqueza son Poaceae con 20 especies y 15 géneros, Euphorbiaceae (13/7, Asteraceae (10/10, Malvaceae (9/4, Cactaceae (8/7, Asclepiadaceae (8/7 y Convolvulaceae (8/3. Como hallazgos importantes se presenta el primer registro para el país de Senna uniflora (Caesalpiniodeae y el reencuentro de Amoreuxia palmatifida (Cochlospermaceae, especie que era conocida para Colombia por un solo espécimen coleccionado antes de 1858 en cercanías al municipio del Espinal (Tolima. La guía ilustrada incluye para cada especie una descripción corta e información sobre su distribución, usos y nombres comunes (cuando los hay. Además, la mayoría de las especies están ilustradas con fotografías de su hábito y detalles de flores y/o frutos.

  7. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

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    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  8. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Robertson, Mark P.; Wilson, John R.U.; Richardson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion—in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  9. Florística y fisonomía de un matorral xerófilo espinoso intervenido en Punta de Piedras, Municipio Miranda, Estado Zulia, Venezuela

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    Antonio Vera

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los aspectos florísticos y fisonómicos de un matorral xerófilo espinoso intervenido de Punta de Piedras, municipio Miranda, estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se realizaron dieciséis muestreos quincenales, entre noviembre 2005 y junio 2006, para la recolecta, identificación y conteo de las especies tanto en el periodo lluvioso como en el seco. Los muestreos se llevaron a cabo en 10 manchones de vegetación con un área promedio de 718 ± 706.24 m², en una formación graminiforme en la que se emplearon tres parcelas de 20 x 20 (400 m², dividiéndose cada una de éstas en cuatro subparcelas de 20 x 5 (100 m² y a su vez, dentro de ellas, se delimitaron 12 subparcelas de 1 x 1. (1 m², y también se realizaron recorridos para el reconocimiento de otras especies de la zona. El matorral xerófilo espinoso mostró evidencias de intervención antropogénica como quemas periódicas, deposición de desechos sólidos, caminerías para el tránsito de las personas y asentamientos poblacionales en las zonas circunvecinas; y presentó una vegetación semiárida de espinar costero característica y comparable a la señalada para otras regiones del país. Se identificaron 45 especies agrupadas en 22 familias, entre las cuales destacaron: las Poaceae (6, Mimosaceae (4, Boraginaceae (3, Cactaceae (3 Caesalpinaceae (3, Euphorbiaceae (3 y Fabaceae (3. La intervención antropogénica parece generar la aparición de manchones de vegetación arbustiva y arbórea y de una formación graminiforme o pastizal. En esta última, Aristida venesuelae, Aristida pittieri y Portulaca pilosa presentaron los mayores valores de abundancia y frecuencia relativa cuya sumatoria corresponde a 49.38% y 46.86%, respectivamente; mientras que en los manchones se destacaron dos estratos: uno herbáceo menor a 1 m, y otro estrato arbustivo-arbóreo de bajo porte (2.63 ± 1.37 m de altura media, conformado principalmente por Opuntia wentiana, Piptadenia flava y Jatropha

  10. Composição florísitica e fitossociologia de uma área de caatinga em Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia, microrregião homogênea da Chapada Diamantina Floristic and fitosociological survey of a caatinga area at "Contendas do Sincorá", Bahia State, a homogeneous microregion of the Chapada Diamantina

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    Paulo César Fernandes Lima

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se levantar a cobertura vegetal de 11.034ha da Fazenda Extrema-Lapinha, 295 a 380m de altitude (13º46' a 14ºS e 41º3' a 41º10'W, Contendas do Sincorá, BA, na Chapada Diamantina. O clima é do tipo BSwh', estépico, semi-árido quente, com precipitação anual de 500-700mm, período chuvoso de novembro a janeiro, temperatura média de 23ºC e umidade relativa de 60-80%. Predominam os solos Podzólicos Vermelho-Amarelo Equivalente Eutrófico e solos Litólicos Eutróficos, em relevo levemente ondulado. Foram distribuídas aleatoriamente 100 parcelas de 20x5m, sendo inventariadas as plantas com DAP > a 5cm. Foram encontrados 2.897 indivíduos abrangendo 71 espécies, 51 gêneros e 23 famílias botânicas, não sendo identificados 3,59% dos mesmos. As famílias Euphorbiaceae (15,67%, Mimosaceae (13,80%, Bignoniaceae (12,35%, Caesalpiniaceae (7,14%, Boraginaceae (6,63%, Polygonaceae (6,63%, Anacardiaceae (6,04%, Burseraceae (4,93%, Apocynaceae (4,59% e Combretaceae (4,28% correspondem a 82,09% dos indivíduos inventariados. Para as classes de diâmetro inventariadas, as Cactaceae corresponderam a 0,48%, sugerindo ser esta vegetação de caatinga de caráter xerófilo pouco acentuado. As 10 espécies mais importantes, determinadas pelo índice de valor de importância, foram Commiphora leptophloeos (22,28, Croton zehntneri (19,39, Mimosa sp. (17,24, Tabebuia spongiosa (16,99, Myracrodruon urundeuva (15,38, Anadenanthera tnacrocarpa (14,25, Coccoloba termiflora (11,73, Caesalpinia sp. (11,17, Cordia sp. (10,79 e Tabebuia sp. (10,20.The aim of this work was to conduct a floristic and phytosociological survey on 11,034 hectares of the Extrema Lapinha Farm (13º46' to 14º S and 41º03' to 41º10' W, altitude from 295 to 380m, in the town of "Contendas do Sincorá", in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State. The climate is of the BSwh' type, hot semi-arid, with an annual rainfall of 500-700mm, the rainy season being from November to January, with

  11. Tissue localization of betacyanins in cactus stems Localización de betacianinas en tejido del tallo de cactus

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    Alessandro Mosco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Betalains are soluble pigments found only in the suborder Chenopodiniae, while in all other Angiospermae they are replaced by anthocyanins. The convergent evolution of the presence of anthocyanins and betalains in vegetative tissues supports the hypothesis of a similar function, based on the absorption properties of these pigments. The screening effect of anthocyanins results in the reduction of the amount of photoinhibition. betalains, being the anthocyanin counterpart in most families of Caryophyllales, were also suggested to have a screening role. This study is aimed at identifying in which Cactaceae stem tissues betacyanins, reddish to violet betalain pigments, accumulate. Stem accumulation of betacyanins was observed in cacti both in their natural habitat and in cultivation. The localization of betacyanins was assessed by light microscope studies on tubercle transverse sections. During 2 field trips in distinct years to the Mexican plateau in March, many cactus species, belonging to different genera, were observed displaying a reddish stem. Light microscope studies on cultivated plants showed that betacyanins accumulate in the hypodermis and in the outer layers of the chlorenchyma, where they may act as a screen, thus protecting the photosystems present in the underlying chlorenchyma, and have a possible antioxidant function in the cortex.Las betalaínas son pigmentos solubles que se encuentran sólo en el suborden Chenopodiniae, mientras que en el resto de Angiospermae, lo que existe son antocianinas. La evolución convergente de la presencia de antocianinas y betalaínas en tejidos vegetativos apoya la hipótesis de una función similar, que se basa en las propiedades de absorción de estos pigmentos. El efecto pantalla de las antocianinas resulta en la reducción de fotoinhibición. Siendo las betalaínas la contraparte antocianítica en la mayoría de las familias de Caryophyllales, se sugirió también un papel de pantalla de estos

  12. Biomass equations for Brazilian semiarid caatinga plants Equações para estimar a biomassa de plantas da caatinga do semi-árido brasileiro

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    Everardo V.S.B. Sampaio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Allometric equations to estimate total aboveground alive biomass (B or crown projection area (C of ten caatinga species based on plant height (H and/or stem diameter at ground level (DGL or at breast height (DBH were developed. Thirty plants of each species, covering the common range of stem diameters (3 to 50 cm, were measured (C, H, DGL, DBH, cut at the base, separated into parts, weighted and subsampled to determine dry biomass. Wood density (p of the stem and the largest branches was determined. B, C, H and p ranged from 1 to 500 kg, 0.2 to 112 m², 1.3 to 11.8 m, and 0.45 to 1.03 g cm-3. Biomass of all 10 species, separately or together (excluding one cactus species, could be estimated with high coefficients of determination (R² using the power equation (B = aDGLb and DGL, DBH, H or combinations of diameter, height and density. Improvement by multiplying H and/or p to DGL or DBH was small. The mixed-species equation based only on DBH (valid up to 30 cm had a = 0.173 and b = 2.295, similar to averages of these parameters found in the literature but slightly lower than most of those for humid tropical vegetation. Crown area was significantly related to diameter, height and biomass.Equações alométricas foram desenvolvidas para estimar a biomassa aérea viva (B e a área de projeção da copa (C de dez espécies da caatinga, com base na altura da planta (H e/ou do diâmetro do caule ao nível do solo (DNS ou à altura do peito (DAP. Trinta plantas de cada espécie, cobrindo a faixa usual de diâmetros (3 a 50 cm, foram medidas (C, H, DNS, DAP, cortadas na base, separadas em partes, pesadas e subamostradas para determinação da biomassa seca. A densidade (p da madeira dos caules e galhos maiores foi determinada. B, C, H e p variaram de 1 a 500 kg, 0,2 a 112 m², 1,3 a 11,8 m e 0,45 a 1,03 g cm-3. A biomassa das 10 espécies, separadamente ou em conjunto (exceto pela espécie de Cactaceae, foi estimada com alto coeficiente de determina

  13. Propagation in Schlumbergera truncata (Haw: alternatives to the use of xaxim = Propagação de Schlumbergera truncata (Haw: alternativas ao uso do xaxim

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    Rafael Fonseca Zanotti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental cactus, Schlumbergera truncata, is propagated by cuttings, with xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana being one of the substrates used. However, xaxim is endangered, and it has become necessary to evaluate alternative substrates. The use of suitable substrates and of substances that promote organogenesis, such as auxins, aid in the process of plant propagation. The aim of this study therefore, was to evaluate the development of cuttings of S. truncata in different substrates, and the effect of IBA on organogenesis. Six treatments were carried out, consisting of a combination of three substrates (powdered xaxim, powdered coconut and a commercial substrate, and two rates of IBA (0 and 600 mg L-1. Twenty cuttings were used per treatment, distributed over five replications of four cuttings, in a completely randomised design and a 3 x 2 factorial (substrates x AIB. There was no significant interaction between the factors, which were evaluated separately. For the powdered xaxim substrate, the commercial substrate and the powdered coconut, the cuttings displayed 3.0, 3.7 and 1.3 shoots per plant respectively. After exposure to a solution of IBA of 0 or 600 mg L-1, the cuttings presented 2.2 and 3.1 shoots per plant respectively. The substrate of powdered xaxim and the commercial substrate are both effective in the propagation of S. truncata. As the xaxim, found in the Atlantic Forest, is an endangered species, the use of a commercial substrate is recommended, with IBA as a growth regulator to promote an increase in budding. = A Schlumbergera truncata é uma cactaceae ornamental, propagada por estacas, e o xaxim é um dos substratos utilizados. Devido à ameaça de extinção do xaxim, torna-se necessário avaliar substratos alternativos. A utilização de substratos adequados e o uso de substâncias promotoras de organogênese, como as auxinas, auxiliam no processo de propagação vegetativa. Dessa maneira, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o

  14. Notas sobre la flora de Colombia y países vecinos, II

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    Dugand Armando

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es el segundo de una serie iniciada hace dos años en Phytologia (Vol. 13, No 6: 379-400. Sept. 1966, relativa en su mayor parte a la flora xerófila y subxerófila de la llanura costera del Caribe en Colombia y regiones vecinas, particularmente el norte de Venezuela. En él se hacen observaciones taxonómicas, morfológicas, distribucionales y otras varias acerca de las siguientes plantas: A.   - Especies que se señalan por primer a vez en la flora de Colombia: Aizoaceae.                           Sesuvium. edmonstonei Hook. f.                                                Sesuvium microphyllum Willd. Amaranthaceae.                 Froelichia interrupta (L. Moq. Cactaceae.                           Borzicactus sepium. (Kth. Britt. & Rose. Chenopodiaceae.               Atriplex pentandra (Jacq. Standl.                                                Heterostachys ritteriana (Moq. Ung.-Sternb. Compositae.                        Oxycarpha suedifolia Blake. Cruciferae.                           Cakile lanceolata (Willd. Schulz. Cyperaceae.                        Cyperus uncinulatus Schrad. Euphorbiaceae.                   *Chamaesyce bahiensis (Kl. & Gke. Dugand & Burch.                                                            ∆Chamaesyce dioica (Kth. Millsp. Leguminosae-Faboideae. Aeschynomene viscidula Michx.                                                Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. DC.                                                Crotalaria pumila Gómez-Ortega.                            

  15. Climate-vegetation relationship: adaptations of jarillal community to the semiarid climate. Lihué Calel National Park, province of La Pampa, Argentina

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    Valeria Soledad Duval

    2015-12-01

    Thornthwaite’s criteria, the area is a semiarid climate type. With the analysis of other bioclimatic indices, more information is obtained: Lang´s index value is 25.7 (arid, Emberger’s index is 41.8 (semiarid, De Martonne’s index is 15.9 (that refers to a semi-arid climate and, at last, Currey’s index certified the existence of a continental climate because the result was 1.16. Vegetation was surveyed and the result was quite interesting: 1 508 individuals that belong to 33 species. The percentage is: shrubs 57.6%, grasses 36.4% and trees 6.1%. Most of them were evergreen and only some deciduous. The distribution of vegetation in Lihué Calel responds to the semi-arid conditions. Some adaptations were observed like the development of the deep root system with an horizontal pattern in order to absorb the water from the soil, the loss of leafs in the unfavorable season, the replacement of leaves by thorns, small resinous leaves, leaf tilting and extensive roots, among others. The dominant plant of the jarillal is Larrea divaricate and it is considered as a xerofite plant. The process indicates that when stomata are open, transpiration rates increase; when they are closed, transpiration rates decrease. The Cactaceae family is represented by two species: Opuntia puelchana and Cereus aethiop. They are considered succulent plants that keep humidity inside. During rainy periods they absorb large amounts of water that they then use during the dry periods. These types of studies are relevant to understand how plants adapt to different environmental events, whether they are natural and/or anthropogenic. As a reference, in 2003, major fires occurred inside the National Park and they affected 7 000 hectares. The resinous leaves of the jarilla helped to propagate the fire all around the place. The next phase of the investigation process will be related to the physiological and morphological properties, through chemical analysis, so the adaptation of vegetation can be tested. With