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Sample records for stenella frontalis cuvier

  1. Mercury bio magnification in the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) food chain, using nitrogen stable isotope as an ecological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrig, Helena A; Baptista, Gilberto; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M; Almeida, Marcelo G; Rezende, Carlos E; Siciliano, Salvatore; De Moura, Jailson F; Moreira, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    An assessment of mercury (Hg) concentrations and nitrogen stable isotope (δ"1"5N) was conducted in the food chain of the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), including phytoplankton, zooplankton, planktivorous fish and its major prey (predatory fish and a single species of cephalopod), that compose a tropical trophic chain of the Brazilian southeastern coast. Tissue concentrations of Hg in a voracious predator fish, the largehead hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus), one of the dolphin's prey, were 9.8 times lower than median concentrations found in dolphin tissues. δ"1"5N values in predatory fish were found to be lower to those of its predator the spotted dolphin. Isotopic data suggested significant differences for ? 15N along the trophic chain, with the top predator (dolphin) exhibiting heavier value, followed by the voracious predator fish and the benthonic carnivorous fish, the whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri). Phytoplankton displayed the lightest δ"1"5N, followed by zooplankton and the planktophagous fish, the lebranche mullet (Mugil liza). This fish species and the cephalopod showed the lowest median Hg concentration. All links of the entire trophic chain presented trophic transfer of Hg with a biomagnification factor higher than 1. A significant relationship was found between the log Hg concentration and trophic level (TL) of all evaluated species, with a positive slope (β= 0.87). The calculated trophic magnification factor (TMF7.44) indicates that Hg concentration increased per TL, and also that the entire coastal food chain from the South Atlantic Ocean presented a biomagnification power of Hg within a range previously reported for tropical coastal ecosystems. Key words: Marine mammal, coastal aquatic biota, toxic element, biotransference, ecological tracer

  2. A Review of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann Systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony I. Cognato

    2011-01-01

    The systematic history of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is reviewed. Morphological, biological, karyological, and molecular data clearly define and diagnose the species limits of D. frontalis. More complete phylogenetic analysis and characterization of population genetic variation will further clarify the evolutionary history of the D....

  3. Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris off south-west Mauritius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris longirostris off the south-west coast of Mauritius are subject to ongoing anthropogenic disturbance in the form of daily dolphin tourism, which has intensified since 1998. Abundance of this species was estimated using photo-identification data and mark-recapture analysis. Between April ...

  4. First confirmed records of Clymene dolphin, Stenella clymene (Gray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clymene dolphins, Stenella clymene, are endemic to the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean, where their occurrence is documented from fewer than 200 records. The species is particularly poorly known in the eastern Atlantic off the coast of Africa where only 12 verified records exist, predominantly comprising dead ...

  5. Bioaccumulation of platinum group metals in dolphins, Stenella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Platinum group metals (PGMs) concentrations were measured in the tissues= of dolphins (Stenella sp.) caught along the Ghanaian coastline. Tissues from specimens caught by fishermen from Dixcove, western Ghana, were analysed in 2006 for palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh) using the Neutron Activation ...

  6. Anatomy and histology of the frontalis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Bryan R; Plesec, Thomas P; Sakolsatayadorn, Natta; Rubinstein, Tal J; McBride, Jennifer M; Perry, Julian D

    2015-01-01

    To determine the gross and histologic configurations of the medial and lateral frontalis muscle. After making a midcoronal incision and bluntly dissecting to the orbital rim, the frontalis muscle was marked and measured. A protractor was used to measure the frontalis-orbicularis angle (FOA) and, when present, the angle of central bifurcation (AOB). Three strips of full-thickness forehead soft tissue measuring 0.5 cm × 8 cm were excised 3, 4.5, and 6 cm above the supraorbital notch and analyzed histologically for the presence of skeletal muscle fibers. Data were analyzed using 2-sample t tests, paired t tests, Pearson correlations, and mixed effect models. A p value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sixty-four hemifaces of 32 cadavers (16 males) were dissected. All specimens were Caucasian. The average age was 78.2 years (range, 56-102 years). The average FOA was 88.7° (13.0°), and the average AOB was 90.0° (26.4°). A visible midline bifurcation occurred in 28 of 32 subjects (88%) at an average height of 4.7 cm (range, 2.4-7.2 cm) superior to the supraorbital notch. Continuous skeletal muscle fibers were present within the midline bifurcation histologically in 89%, 75%, and 11% of specimens 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5 cm above the supraorbital notch, respectively. In 46% of individuals, skeletal muscle fibers were continuously present microscopically within the gross bifurcation. While a medial frontalis muscle bifurcation occurs grossly in most senescent Caucasians, muscle fibers exist microscopically within this zone in nearly half of individuals.

  7. Draft genome of the gayal, Bos frontalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Shan; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Xiao; Nie, Wen-Hui; Wang, Jin-Huan; Su, Wei-Ting; Xiong, Zi-Jun; Wang, Sheng; Qu, Kai-Xing; Yan, Shou-Qing; Yang, Min-Min; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gayal (Bos frontalis), also known as mithan or mithun, is a large endangered semi-domesticated bovine that has a limited geographical distribution in the hill-forests of China, Northeast India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Bhutan. Many questions about the gayal such as its origin, population history, and genetic basis of local adaptation remain largely unresolved. De novo sequencing and assembly of the whole gayal genome provides an opportunity to address these issues. We report a high-depth sequencing, de novo assembly, and annotation of a female Chinese gayal genome. Based on the Illumina genomic sequencing platform, we have generated 350.38 Gb of raw data from 16 different insert-size libraries. A total of 276.86 Gb of clean data is retained after quality control. The assembled genome is about 2.85 Gb with scaffold and contig N50 sizes of 2.74 Mb and 14.41 kb, respectively. Repetitive elements account for 48.13% of the genome. Gene annotation has yielded 26 667 protein-coding genes, of which 97.18% have been functionally annotated. BUSCO assessment shows that our assembly captures 93% (3183 of 4104) of the core eukaryotic genes and 83.1% of vertebrate universal single-copy orthologs. We provide the first comprehensive de novo genome of the gayal. This genetic resource is integral for investigating the origin of the gayal and performing comparative genomic studies to improve understanding of the speciation and divergence of bovine species. The assembled genome could be used as reference in future population genetic studies of gayal. PMID:29048483

  8. Cephalopods in the diets of four shark species ( galeocerdo Cuvier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cephalopod components of the diets of four species of shark, tiger Galeocerdo cuvier, smooth hammerhead Sphyrna zygaena, scalloped hammerhead S. lewini and great hammerhead S. mokarran, were examined to reveal patterns of prey choice. Although these sharks were caught in the inshore gillnets used in ...

  9. Latitudinal variation in Atlantic Salpa fusiformis Cuvier, 1804 (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1972-01-01

    The existence of clinal variation in some morphological characters of Atlantic Salpa fusiformis Cuvier, 1804, is reported. The number of muscle fibres of both aggregate and solitary individuals is subjected to a decrease from higher to lower latitudes. Size and reproduction also seem to vary

  10. Food and Feeding Habits of Catfish (Synodontis nigrita Cuvier And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT:The food and feeding habits of Synodontis nigrita (Cuvier and Valenciennes) from. River Rima were ... (2005) studied the food habits of. Synodontis ... Phytoplankton families, Chlorophyceae and ... with r values of almost 1 in all the regression equations. ... often influences gut length (Smith, 1980). Perhaps the ...

  11. Los taxones como tipos: Buffon, Cuvier y Lamarck Taxa as types: Buffon, Cuvier and Lamarck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caponi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Darwinianamente, los grupos taxonómicos son entendidos como entidades históricas que surgen en un momento de la evolución y que siempre pueden desaparecer. Pero esos grupos también fueron entendidos por muchos naturalistas como clases naturales; es decir, como tipos permanentes, a-históricos. Es mi interés señalar algunas de las formas que ese pensamiento tipológico de hecho ha tomado, subrayando que la adopción de esa perspectiva tipológica, además de no responder a compromisos teológicos, tampoco tiene porqué obedecer a la adopción de una ontología que pueda estar en conflicto con la ciencia natural. Analizaré así el modo en el que Buffon entendió las especies y el modo en los que Cuvier y Lamarck entendieron los órdenes taxonómicos superiores.From a Darwinian point of view, taxonomic groups are understood as historical entities that arise at an evolutionary moment and that can always disappear. But these groups were also understood by many naturalists as natural kinds; in other words, as permanent, ahistorical types. I will explore some of the forms that this typological thought took, showing that this typological perspective neither depends on theological beliefs, nor obeys the adoption of an ontology that might contradict natural science. Thus I shall analyze Buffon's understanding of species and the ways in which Cuvier and Lamarck understood the higher taxonomic orders.

  12. Biochemical evidence that Dendroctonus frontalis consists of two sibling species in Belize and Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Alicia Nino; Benjamin Moreno; Cavell Brownie; Jorge Macias-Samano; Stephen R. Clarke; Lawrence R. Kirkendall; Gerardo. and Zuniga

    2012-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a major economic pest of pines in the United States, Mexico, and Central America. We report biochemical investigations relevant to the taxonomic status and semiochemistry of two distinct morphotypes of D. frontalis recently detected in the Central American...

  13. Electrocardiogram of Clinically Healthy Mithun (Bos frontalis): Variation among Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Sagar; Das, Pradip Kumar; Ghosh, Probal Ranjan; Das, Kinsuk; Vupru, Kezha V.; Rajkhowa, Chandan; Mondal, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the normal electrocardiogram in four different genetic strains of mithun (Bos frontalis). Electrocardiography, cardiac electrical axis, heart rate, rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded in a total of 32 adult male mithun of four strains (n = 8 each). It was found that the respiration and heart rates were higher (P electrocardiogram of mithun revealed that the amplitude and duration of P wave, QRS complex and T wave were different among four different genetic strains of mithun and the electrical axis of QRS complex for Nagamese and Mizoram mithuns are dissimilar to bovine species. PMID:20886013

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Yu, Junqi; Zhang, Saile; Ding, Wenyong; Xiang, Dan

    2014-12-01

    The tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier is the only member of the genus Galeocerdo. The complete mitochondrial genome of G. cuvier is presented for the first time in this study. The gene composition and arrangement in the mitogenome of G. cuvier is identical to most animal mitogenome. There are 22 bp short noncoding sequences and 44 bp overlaps in the mitogenome. The overall base composition is 31.8% A, 23.9% C, 13.0% G and 31.3% T. The dihydrouridine arm of tRNA-Ser2 was replaced by a simple loop and the other tRNAs could be folded into the typical cloverleaf structure.

  15. Diet and trophic ecology of the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier from South African waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Dicken

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the diet and trophic ecology of apex predators is key for the implementation of effective ecosystem as well as species-based management initiatives. Using a combination of stomach content data and stable isotope analysis (δ15N and δ13C the current study provides information on size-based and sex-specific variations in diet, trophic position (TP and foraging habitat of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier caught in the KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board bather protection program. This study presents the longest time-series and most detailed analysis of stomach content data for G. cuvier worldwide. Prey identified from 628 non-empty stomachs revealed a size-based shift in diet. Reptiles, birds, mysticetes, and large shark species increased in dietary importance with G. cuvier size, concomitant with a decrease in smaller prey such as batoids and teleosts. Seasonal and decadal shifts in diet driven primarily by changes in the importance of elasmobranchs and mammal (cetacean prey were recorded for medium sized (150-220 cm G. cuvier. Both stomach content and stable isotope analysis indicated that G. cuvier is a generalist feeder at the population level. Size-based δ13C profiles indicated a movement to offshore foraging habitats by larger G. cuvier. Calculated TP varied by method ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 (TPSCA for stomach contents and from 3.6 to 4.5 (TPscaled and TPadditive for δ15N. Large (> 220 cm G. cuvier did not feed at discrete trophic levels, but rather throughout the food web. These data provide key information on the ecological role of G. cuvier to improve the accuracy of regional food web modelling. This will enable a better understanding of the ecological impacts related to changes in the abundance of this predator.

  16. Trace elements in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean: A 10-years perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Goffman, Oz; Harlavan, Yehudit; Kress, Nurit; Morick, Danny; Roditi-Elasar, Mia; Shefer, Edna; Kerem, Dan

    2016-08-15

    Concentrations of Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and As, in kidney, liver, muscle and blubber from 7 specimens of Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast (IMC) from 2006 to 2011 (2011-series) were determined and compared to previous data on S. coeruleoalba from the IMC (2001-series). No differences were observed in essential and toxic elements concentrations, between the two series, except for hepatic Mn which was higher in the latter. Hg/Se molar ratios in blubber, kidney and liver increased linearly with log Hg concentrations, while muscle was more heterogenic in this respect. Means (±SD) of hepatic Hg concentrations (134±89 and 181±200mgkg(-1), from the 2011 and 2001 series, respectively) were similar to that found in 2007-2009 specimens from Spain, possibly reflecting the relatively high natural background levels of mercury in the Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Headache in a patient with Klinefelter’s syndrome and hyperostosis frontalis interna

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchandren, Sindhu; Liebeskind, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) has been reported in older women, but reports in men are rare. We present a novel case of migraine headache in a gentleman with Klinefelter’s syndrome and HFI, along with a discussion of possible pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying both the headache and the HFI.

  18. Two species within Dedroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): evidence from morphological, karyological, molecular, and crossing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Armendariz-Toledano; Alicia Nino; Brian Sullivan; Jorge Macias-Samano; Javier Victor; Stephen R. Clarke; Gerardo Zuniga

    2014-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann is considered one of the most important economic and ecological forest pests in the United States, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, two apparent morphological variants of this species were discovered occurring syntopically in Central America and southern Mexico. Morphotype A beetles lack a series of Þne parallel ridges on the...

  19. Characterizing the Lateral Border of the Frontalis for Safe and Effective Injection of Botulinum Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, You-Jin; Won, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Jae-Gi; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Sung-Taek; Tansatit, Tanvaa; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2016-03-01

    The forehead is a common site for injection of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) to treat hyperactive facial muscles. Unexpected side effects of BoNT-A injection may occur because the anatomy of the forehead musculature is not fully characterized. The authors described the lateral border of the frontalis in terms of facial landmarks and reference lines to determine the safest and most effective forehead injection sites for BoNT-A. The hemifaces of 49 embalmed adult Korean cadavers were dissected in a morphometric analysis of the frontalis. L2 was defined in terms of FT (the most protruding point of the frontotemporal region), L0 (the line connecting the infraorbital margin with the tragus), and L1 (the line parallel to L0 and passing through FT) such that L2 was positioned 45° from L1 and passed through FT. The distance from FT to the superior margin of the orbicularis oculi was 12.3 ± 3.3 mm. The frontalis extended more than 5 cm along L2 in 49 of 49 cases (100%), more than 6 cm in 47 cases (95.9%), more than 7 cm in 34 cases (69.4%), more than 8 cm in 11 cases (22.4%), and more than 9 cm in 3 cases (6.1%). The lateral border of the frontalis ran parallel to and within 1 cm of the medial side of L2. Surface anatomy mapping can assist with predicting the lateral border of the frontalis to minimize the side effects and maximize the efficiency of BoNT-A injections into the forehead. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Frontalis Sling Operation using Silicone Rod Compared with Autogenous Fascia Lata for Simple Congenital Ptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Rajkarnikar Sthapit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To evaluate the cosmetic results and recurrence of unilateral frontalis sling surgery using a silicone rod compared with autogenous fascia lata in cases of simple congenital ptosis. Methods: This is a retrospective comparative study of 59 patients who underwent a frontalis sling operation for congenital ptosis. Patients were divided into two groups according to the sling material used; an autogeneous fascia lata (fl group (n = 24 and a silicone rod group (sl (n = 35. Cosmetic results and recurrence rates were compared between these 2 groups. The cosmetic results of the frontalis sling operation were assessed as good, fair, or poor based on the difference between the Margin Reflex Distance of both eyelids and graded as good if the difference in two eyes was ≤1mm and poor if it was 2mm or more. Recurrence was defined as the conversion of the cosmetic result from good or fair to poor category. Results: At postoperative day seven and 30, MRD of both the groups were good but on three months follow-up MRD of silicon rod group dropped, however it was not statistically significant .Lid contour was good in both the groups, however, lid symmetry was poor in two cases of fascia lata at three months follow-up. Repeat surgery for poor outcome was done in 8.6% of cases in silicon rod and 8.3% of fascia lata group. Conclusions: The frontalis sling operation using either a silicone rod or autogenous fascia lata showed equally good cosmetic results and lower recurrence rate at three months follow up. Keywords: congenital ptosis; fascia lata; frontalis sling surgery; margin reflex distance; silicone rod.

  1. Post-epizootic chronic dolphin morbillivirus infection in Mediterranean striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sara; Alba, Ana; Ganges, Llilianne; Vidal, Enric; Raga, Juan Antonio; Alegre, Ferrán; González, Beatriz; Medina, Pascual; Zorrilla, Irene; Martínez, Jorge; Marco, Alberto; Pérez, Mónica; Pérez, Blanca; Pérez de Vargas Mesas, Ana; Martínez Valverde, Rosa; Domingo, Mariano

    2011-10-06

    Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused 2 epizootics with high mortality rates on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, in 1990 and 2006-07, mainly affecting striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba. Following the first epizootic unusual DMV infections affecting only the central nervous system of striped dolphins were found, with histological features similar to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and old dog encephalitis, the chronic latent localised infections caused by defective forms of measles virus and canine distemper virus, respectively. Between 2008 and 2010, monitoring by microscopic and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies of 118 striped dolphins stranded along Catalonia, the Valencia Region and Andalusia showed similar localised DMV nervous system infections in 25.0, 28.6 and 27.4% of cases, respectively, with no significant differences among regions or sex. The body length of DMV-infected dolphins was statistically greater than that of non-infected dolphins (196.5 vs. 160.5 cm; p dolphins with positive IHC-DMV had positive PCR results. All 6 cases were positive with the 78 bp RT-PCR. These findings contraindicate the use of the 429 bp RT-PCR protocol based on the P gene to detect this specific form of DMV. DMV localised nervous infection constitutes the most relevant single cause of stranding and death in Mediterranean striped dolphins in the years following a DMV epizootic, and it might even overwhelm the effects of the epizootic itself, at least in 2007.

  2. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  3. Effects of Enrichment Presentation and Other Factors on Behavioral Welfare of Pantropical Spotted Dolphin (Stenella attenuata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Barbara C; Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Foltz, Amanda R; Dorey, Nicole R

    2018-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a crucial element of promoting welfare for animals in captivity. However, enrichment programs are not always formally evaluated for their efficacy. Furthermore, there is little empirical evidence of enrichment evaluation for species of small cetaceans in zoological settings. A wide range of variables may potentially influence enrichment efficacy and how it in turn affects behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine the most preferred environmental enrichment, and method of presentation, for a species that has not been well studied in captivity, the pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). In order to determine which enrichment items and method of presentation were most effective at eliciting enrichment interaction, we systematically examined how several variables of enrichment influenced enrichment interaction. The results suggested that presenting enrichment after training sessions influenced interaction with the enrichment. The results also indicated preference for enrichment type and a specific enrichment device. Finally, factors that influenced interaction were also found to influence aberrant behavior. The results support the premise that enrichment be "redefined" for each species and each individual.

  4. Role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata: a reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Simpkin, Andrew

    2014-02-04

    Evaluating the effect of parasites on population size is essential for designing management and conservation plans of wild animal populations. Although knowledge in this area is scarce in cetaceans, current evidence suggests that species of the nematode genus Crassicauda may play an important regulatory role in some populations. In the present study, a semiparametric regression technique was applied to a previously published dataset to re-examine the role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata. The resulting model indicated parasite-induced mortality at ages between 6.5 and 9 yr and at roughly 12 yr. The maximum mortality estimates obtained could represent 2 to 4% of natural mortality in dolphins 6 to 8 yr old. This estimate is substantially smaller than previously published values, but in contrast with previous research, our model provides clear statistical evidence for parasite-induced mortality because the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of the estimated mortality rates excluded the 0 value. We also evaluated, through simulations, how potential sampling biases of infected dolphins could overestimate parasite-induced mortality. Small differences in sampling selectivity between infected and uninfected animals could substantially reduce the mortality estimates. However, the simulated models also supported the notion of statistically significant mortality in juvenile dolphins. Given that dolphins older than 16 yr were poorly represented in the dataset, further research is needed to establish whether Crassicauda sp. causes meaningful mortality for population dynamics among adult individuals.

  5. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects.

  6. Biometric observations of newborn Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807 obtained in captivity in, Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Pérez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, length and weigth measurements of 20 newborn Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807 hached in a pilot farm-bred of the aquaculture center La Tuna Carranza, Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes, Peru, in 2001 are presented. The information is compared with similar reports from others places.

  7. Responses by Dendroctonus frontalis and Dendroctonus mesoamericanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Ssemiochemical lures in Chiapas, Mexico: possible roles of pheromones during joint host attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia Nino-Dominguez; Brian T. Sullivan; Jose H. Lopez-Urbina; Jorge E. Macias-Samano

    2016-01-01

    In southern Mexico and Central America, the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) commonly colonizes host trees simultaneously with Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armend

  8. The occurrence and position of the ”connecting sac” in the nasal tract complex of small odontocetes (Mammalia, Cetacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkkan, E.J.

    1971-01-01

    The aspects of the “connecting sac” are studied in Lagenorhynchus albirostris, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, Lagenorhynchus acutus, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis, Phocoena phocoena, Sotalia guianensis, Stenella coeruleoalba and Stenella frontalis. Comparing the development of the connecting

  9. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Tyne

    Full Text Available Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68. Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761 spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  10. Understanding the functional anatomy of the frontalis and glabellar complex for optimal aesthetic botulinum toxin type A therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Z Paul; Smith, Stacy; Nestor, Mark; Nelson, Diane; Moradi, Amir

    2013-10-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) is approved for the treatment of glabellar lines and also is commonly injected in an off-label fashion in the frontalis (i.e., frontalis epicranius) muscle to improve the appearance of horizontal forehead lines. This study aimed to review and discuss both the anatomy and physiology of the frontalis muscle and its relationship with antagonist muscles in the upper face and to provide a guide for the use of BoNTA to treat forehead rhytides while minimizing the occurrence of complications such as brow ptosis. A PubMed search was conducted to identify practitioner opinion and clinical publications on the efficacy and safety of BoNTA for aesthetic treatment of the upper face. The use of BoNTA produces durable improvement in the appearance of moderate to severe horizontal forehead lines. Dose and injection technique must be adjusted and individualized based on the variable anatomy and function/mass of muscles in the forehead and upper face as well as on patient goals. Optimal aesthetic outcomes can be achieved by skillfully balancing the opposing effects of the frontalis muscle and its intricate interactions with the procerus, corrugator supercilii, depressor supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles. The use of BoNTA to improve the aesthetic appearance of horizontal forehead lines is optimized when clinicians take into account variations in frontalis muscle function and position, anatomy of the brow, and proper injection technique when they devise individualized treatment regimens.

  11. Structure and phylogeography of two tropical predators, spinner (Stenella longirostris) and pantropical spotted (S. attenuata) dolphins, from SNP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Phillip A.

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about global patterns of genetic connectivity in pelagic dolphins, including how circumtropical pelagic dolphins spread globally following the rapid and recent radiation of the subfamily delphininae. In this study, we tested phylogeographic hypotheses for two circumtropical species, the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) and the pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), using more than 3000 nuclear DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each species. Analyses for population structure indicated significant genetic differentiation between almost all subspecies and populations in both species. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses of spinner dolphins showed deep divergence between Indo-Pacific, Atlantic and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP) lineages. Despite high morphological variation, our results show very close relationships between endemic ETP spinner subspecies in relation to global diversity. The dwarf spinner dolphin is a monophyletic subspecies nested within a major clade of pantropical spinner dolphins from the Indian and western Pacific Ocean populations. Population-level division among the dwarf spinner dolphins was detected—with the northern Australia population being very different from that in Indonesia. In contrast to spinner dolphins, the major boundary for spotted dolphins is between offshore and coastal habitats in the ETP, supporting the current subspecies-level taxonomy. Comparing these species underscores the different scale at which population structure can arise, even in species that are similar in habitat (i.e. pelagic) and distribution. PMID:29765639

  12. Population structure and connectivity of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) across the Indo-Pacific Ocean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bonnie J; Williams, Samuel M; Otway, Nicholas M; Nielsen, Einar E; Maher, Safia L; Bennett, Mike B; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2017-07-01

    Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark ( Galeocerdo cuvier ) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring ( F ST  > 0.14, p  Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population. A lack of differentiation between tiger sharks sampled in Hawaii and other Indo-Pacific locations identified herein is in contrast to an earlier global tiger shark nDNA study. The results of our power analysis provide evidence to suggest that the larger sample sizes used here negated any weak population subdivision observed previously. These results further highlight the need for cross-jurisdictional efforts to manage the sustainable exploitation of large migratory sharks like G. cuvier .

  13. Necrophagy of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier)

    OpenAIRE

    Rada, Danilo P; Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil; Burgess, George H; Florida Museum of Natural History University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.; Rosa, Ricardo S; Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil.; Gadig, Otto F; Laboratório de Pesquisa em Elasmobrânquios e Nécton Marinho, UNESP, São Vicente, São Paulo, Brazil.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report a scavenging event, involving the consumption of a nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, by tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, at Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brazil. Recreational divers found and photographed a bitten nurse shark carcass, just after sighting two tiger sharks near of the site. We estimated the sharks total lengths and discussed aspects of this feeding interaction using of images of forensic analysis. A straight cut on the nurse shark caudal...

  14. Population Parameters of Blainville’s and Cuvier’s Beaked Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    waters, they are usually difficult to study. El Hierro (Canary Islands) holds resident populations of Blainville’s and Cuvier’s beaked whales in...surveys off El Hierro , according to plan. Four of these cruises took place since the last report in September 2013, summing 38 days of fieldwork performed...marks as to be individually recognizable. 3 Publication of results of the ONR funded cetacean research in El Hierro in 2014 Peer reviewed

  15. Hyperostosis frontalis interna, a genetic disease?: Two medieval cases from Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glab, H; Szostek, K; Kaczanowski, K

    2006-01-01

    Two cases of thickening of the internal tables of the frontal bones (hyperostosis frontalis interna, (HFI)) have been examined. These were two female skeletons from the 16th century Dominican Church in Raciborz (Southwest Poland). The similarity of their morphological and metrical traits indicates that they could be related, and suggests that HFI is likely to have a genetic base. These two skeletons are the subject of an analysis which may possibly throw some new light on the controversial and continually disputed nature of this illness.

  16. CHIS - Information concerning the health insurance of frontalier workers who are family members of a CHIS main member

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We recently informed you that the Organization was still in discussions with the Host State authorities to clarify the situation regarding the health insurance of frontalier workers who are family members (as defined in the Staff Rules and Regulations) of a CHIS main member, and that we were hoping to arrive at a solution soon.   After extensive exchanges, we finally obtained a response a few days ago from the Swiss authorities, with which we are fully satisfied and which we can summarise as follows: 1) Frontalier workers who are currently using the CHIS as their basic health insurance can continue to do so. 2) Family members who become frontalier workers, or those who have not yet exercised their “right to choose” (droit d’option) can opt to use the CHIS as their basic health insurance. To this end, they must complete the form regarding the health insurance of frontaliers, ticking the LAMal box and submitting their certificate of CHIS membership (available from U...

  17. Electrical stimulation to the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle induces involuntary reflex contraction of the frontalis muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Osada, Yoshiro; Ban, Ryokuya

    2013-02-01

    The levator and frontalis muscles lack interior muscle spindles, despite consisting of slow-twitch fibres that involuntarily sustain eyelid-opening and eyebrow-raising against gravity. To compensate for this anatomical defect, this study hypothetically proposes that initial voluntary contraction of the levator fast-twitch muscle fibres stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle and evokes proprioception, which continuously induces reflex contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the levator and frontalis muscles. This study sought to determine whether unilateral transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle could induce electromyographic responses in the frontalis muscles, with monitoring responses in the orbicularis oculi muscles. The study population included 27 normal subjects and 23 subjects with aponeurotic blepharoptosis, who displayed persistently raised eyebrows on primary gaze and light eyelid closure. The stimulation induced a short-latency response in the ipsilateral frontalis muscle of all subjects and long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles of normal subjects. However, it did not induce long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles of subjects with aponeurotic blepharoptosis. The orbicularis oculi muscles showed R1 and/or R2 responses. The stimulation might reach not only the proprioceptive fibres, but also other sensory fibres related to the blink or corneal reflex. The experimental system can provoke a monosynaptic short-latency response in the ipsilateral frontalis muscle, probably through the mesencephalic trigeminal proprioceptive neuron and the frontalis motor neuron, and polysynaptic long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles through an unknown pathway. The latter neural circuit appeared to be engaged by the circumstances of aponeurotic blepharoptosis.

  18. Bos frontalis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAMEEULLAH MEMON

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... In rat, mouse, rabbit and pig, there was a single gene of the DQ genes, whereas in ... 1997). Hence, the polymorphisms as well as the duplication of DQ gene ... constructed using the commercial RevertAid First Strand. cDNA synthesis kit .... icance of maintaining their molecular conformation and function to ...

  19. Definite records of Sperm Whale Physeter catodon (Linnaeus, Spinner Dolphin Stenella longirostris (Gray and Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Montagu (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla in the Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Definite records of five Sperm Whales Physeter catodon (Liinaeus, 58 Spinner Dolphins Stenella longirostris (Gray and 12 Bottlenose Dolphins Tursiops truncatus (Montagu in the Arabian Sea, encountered during Ela Foundation’s Pelagic Birds Survey and ornithological expedition to Lakshadweep Archipelago from 12 to 16 March 2006, are presented along with notes on behaviour, key identification features, four photographs and the conservation status of each species.

  20. Comparison of sensory modes of biofeedback in relaxation training of frontalis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of various sensory modes of EMG biofeedback to relaxation training of the frontalis muscle. 19 male and 29 female subjects were randomly selected from a pool of college volunteers. They were then randomly assigned 12 each to audiofeedback, visual feedback, audiovisual feedback, and no feedback groups. There were 11 20-min. sessions per subject. Subjects in the biofeedback groups were trained to reduce muscle tension voluntarily by utilizing Cyborg J33 EMG portable trainers. The subjects in the three feedback groups exhibited significantly lower muscle tension than did the subjects in the no-feedback control group. There were no significant differences in relaxation among the three feedback groups.

  1. Population dynamics of the yellowstripe scad (Selaroides leptolepis Cuvier, 1833) and Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta Cuvier, 1816) in the Wondama Bay Water, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, R.; Bawole, R.; Runtuboi, F.; Mudjirahayu; Wopi, I. A.; Budisetiawan, J.; Irwanto

    2018-03-01

    The Wondama Bay water is located within the Cendrawasih Bay National Park and is potential for fishery resources, including pelagic fish such as yellowstripe scad (Selaroides leptolepis Cuvier, 1833) and Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta Cuvier, 1816). Yet, information about the population dynamics of these species in the region is unknown until today. Meanwhile, the fishing activities have been quite intensive and include the dominant catches over the last ten years by traditional fishermen fishing using liftnets. Therefore, this study aims to determine some of specific characteristics of the population dynamics and fish utilization status of scad and mackerel in the waters of the Wondama Bay. Data used in this study were taken from direct observation of catch of liftnet fishery. The data then were analysed by using FISAT II to estimate the growth parameters, mortality rates, and yield per recruitment. The results showed that yellowstripe scad has the positive allometric growth, while Indian mackerel followed isometric growth. Models of fish growth were L(t) = 22 (1-e-3.0(t-0.05)) for yellowstripe scad and L(t) = 27.8 (1-e-4.0(t-0.04)) for Indian mackerel. The natural mortality (M) of 4.19 year-1, fishing mortality (F) of 5.01 year-1, and total mortality (Z) of 9.20 year-1 were for yellowstripe scad, and M of 4.74 year-1, F of 2.52 year-1 and Z of 7.26 year-1 were for Indian mackerel. Based on the mortality rates, estimated exploitation rate for the yellowatripe scad was 54 % and the Indian mackerel was 35 %. To increase the production of catch without increasing fishing effort (fishing mortality) can be done by increasing the size of fish caught or the Lc/L∞ should be greater than 0.5.

  2. Frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianju Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to report our successful use of frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children. METHODS: This retrospective study included 61 early age children (41 boys, 20 girls with an average age of 6 years (range, 3-10 years with congenital blepharoptosis who received surgery during the period from March 2007 to January 2011. There were 39 cases of unilateral blepharoptosis and 22 cases of bilateral blepharoptosis, thus a total of 83 eyes were affected. If patient had bilateral blepharoptosis, both eyes were operated on in the same surgery. Patients were followed for 3 months to 5 years. The procedure was performed without complications in all cases. RESULTS: The postoperative healing grade was good in 81 eyes (97.6%; the correction of blepharoptosis was satisfactory, the double eyelid folds were natural and aesthetic, the eyelid position and the curvature were ideal, and the eyes were bilaterally symmetrical. The postoperative healing grade was fair in 2 eyes (2.4%; blepharoptosis was improved compared with that before surgery. At discharge, lagophthalmos was noted in 10 eyes of which 4 cases resolved by the last follow-up. The remaining 6 cases were mild. Eleven eyes received reoperation for residual ptosis after the first surgery. The curvature of the palpebral margin was not natural in 4 eyes. These unnatural curvature possibly was caused by an excessively low lateral fixation point or postoperative avulsion. CONCLUSION: Frontalis muscle flap suspension under general anesthesia for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children can achieve good surgical results.

  3. Extracting DNA from 'jaws': High yield and quality from archived tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) skeletal material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Morgan, J. A T; Maher, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). Protocols were compared for DNA yield and quality using a qPCR approach. For jaw swarf, all methods provided relatively high DNA yield and quality, while large differences in yield between protocols were observed for vertebrae. Similar results were obtained from samples...... observed, likely reflecting different preparation and storage methods for the trophies. Trial sequencing of DNA capture genomic libraries using 20 000 baits revealed that a significant proportion of captured sequences were derived from tiger sharks. This study demonstrates that archived shark jaws...

  4. Hystological analysis of ovarian development of the characiform Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier, 1829 in a Brazilizn Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N Santos

    Full Text Available A histological analysis was performed of the ovarian development of Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier, 1829, a medium-sized carnivorous Characiform species in the Lajes reservoir, Brazil. A total of 125 fishes, collected monthly between April 2001 and June 2002 were examined by routine macroscopic and histological techniques. Eight phases of the oocyte development were described, and 4 stages and 4 sub-stages of gonadal development were proposed. Spawning in reservoirs, similarly to that in rivers, is in batches, which favors juvenile survival and suggests that the impoundment of this area did not influence the reproductive strategy of this very successful species in a dammed environment.

  5. Studies on the enzymology of cellulose degradation by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum and the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, K.M.; Gow, L.A.; Wilson, C.A.; Wood, T.W. (Rowett Research Inst., Aberdeen (UK))

    1990-01-01

    The extracellular cellulases from the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum and the anaerobic rumen fungus Neocallimastix frontalis are very active on crystalline cellulose. In both cases the activity resides in a high molecular weight complex. The complex from C. thermocellum (termed the cellulosome) was found to be readily dissociated at pH 5.0 and at room temperature by a mixture of SDS, EDTA and DTT. Virtually all the activity of the unfractionated cellulosome was recovered when the dissociated enzyme components were reassociated by dialysis. Thus, the route is now established for the first time for a meaningful study of the mechanism of cellulase action of this commercially important enzyme system. Nearly all of the activity to crystalline cellulose shown by the cellulase of N. frontalis was associated with a fraction which comprised only 2% of the extracellular protein, 3% of the endoglucanase and 3% of the {beta}-glucosidase. This fraction, which could be isolated by affinity chromatography on cellulose, was produced in greater quantity when the fungus was grown in co-culture with the methanogen, Methanobrevibacter smithii. The specific activity of the partially purified enzyme for degradation of crystalline cellulose was several-fold greater than that produced by the aerobic fungus T. reesei, which is being developed world-wide for its commercial potential for converting cellulose to fermentable soluble sugars. The cellulase of N. frontalis clearly has great commercial potential. 39 refs., 19 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. [Occurrence and behavioral patterns of the spotted coastal dolphin Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: delphinidae) in the Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Collado, Laura; Ramírez, Alvaro Morales

    2005-01-01

    Dolphins are characterized by a significant behavioral versatility, which allows them to respond to environmental seasonality. Seasonal variation in dolphin behavior in tropical waters is not well known. Stenella attenuata graffmani is a resident dolphin in the clearly defined seasonal Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica, and we studied if dolphin group size, occurrence and behavioral patterns were associated with season and time of day in the gulf. Using strip transects we surveyed two locations for three consecutive years. School size ranged from 1 to 50 individuals, mean group size was 10.16 (SD = 9.61) individuals. Overall, foraging activities were the most frequent, followed by social interactions and travel. From 6:00 AM to 9:00 AM we mostly observed social interactions, followed by feeding-socializing (9:00 AM-12:00 PM) and feeding exclusively (12:00 PM-3:00 PM). Social activities intensified afterwards (3:00 PM-6:00 PM). Behavior and gulf seasonality were associated (chi2 = 90.52, gl = 6, psocializing was more frequent in the early rainy season (May-July). Larger groups (mean 12 dolphins) forage actively; smaller groups (mean 6 dolphins 6.51 +/- 5.12) foraged more passively. Seasonal variation in dolphin activities are likely to be associated with food availability, as observed in the high number of groups involved in foraging behaviors, and a high investment in foraging activities during the dry season.

  7. Organohalogen compounds in blubber of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) from Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwevura, Haji, E-mail: mwevura@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Amir, Omar A., E-mail: omar.amir@zoologi.su.s [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, P O Box 668, Zanzibar (Tanzania, United Republic of); Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kishimba, Michael, E-mail: kishimba@chem.udsm.ac.t [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Berggren, Per, E-mail: per.berggren@zoologi.su.s [Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Kylin, Henrik, E-mail: henrik.kylin@vatten.slu.s [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P O Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Norwegian Institute of Air Research, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway)

    2010-06-15

    Blubber samples of Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins from Zanzibar, East Africa, were analyzed for a wide range of organohalogen compounds. Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs), presumably biogenic, were found at higher concentrations than anthropogenic organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Only traces of industrial pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, were detected. The OCP levels found off Zanzibar were lower than those reported from other regions while MeO-BDE levels were higher. The relative composition of the OCPs indicated recent use of lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) and aged residues of DDT and technical HCH. Placental transfer was estimated to 2.5% and 0.5% of the total burden of OCPs and MeO-BDEs, respectively. Overall transfer from mother to calf in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was estimated to 72% and 85% for the OCPs and MeO-BDEs burdens, respectively. Health effects of MeO-BDEs are not known, but structural similarities with well-known environmental toxins are cause for concern. - Biogenic brominated organic compounds were found at higher concentrations than anthropogenic organochlorine pesticides in dolphins off Zanzibar.

  8. Organohalogen compounds in blubber of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) from Zanzibar, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwevura, Haji; Amir, Omar A.; Kishimba, Michael; Berggren, Per; Kylin, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Blubber samples of Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins from Zanzibar, East Africa, were analyzed for a wide range of organohalogen compounds. Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs), presumably biogenic, were found at higher concentrations than anthropogenic organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Only traces of industrial pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, were detected. The OCP levels found off Zanzibar were lower than those reported from other regions while MeO-BDE levels were higher. The relative composition of the OCPs indicated recent use of lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) and aged residues of DDT and technical HCH. Placental transfer was estimated to 2.5% and 0.5% of the total burden of OCPs and MeO-BDEs, respectively. Overall transfer from mother to calf in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was estimated to 72% and 85% for the OCPs and MeO-BDEs burdens, respectively. Health effects of MeO-BDEs are not known, but structural similarities with well-known environmental toxins are cause for concern. - Biogenic brominated organic compounds were found at higher concentrations than anthropogenic organochlorine pesticides in dolphins off Zanzibar.

  9. Zooarqueologia dos mamíferos aquáticos e semi-aquáticos da Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Volkmer de Castilho

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the use of aquatic mammals by prehistoric societies of Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil. Samples from two archaeological sites were examined: Rio do Meio (RM and Porto do Rio Vermelho (SCPRV. Nine aquatic mammal species were found: a pinnipeds: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmerman, 1783 and A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872, and b cetaceans: Eubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822, Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, 1758, Stenella frontalis (Cuvier, 1829, Steno bredanensis (Lesson, 1828, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1844 and a non-identified rorqual from the genus Balaenoptera Lacépède, 1804. Three especies of semi-aquatic mammals were also recorded: Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1758, Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers,1818. Both sites presented similar species diversity, although abundance was greater at the most recent site (RM. There were more samples from axial skeletons, but in genera the anatomical regions were homogeneously distributed among the identified taxa.

  10. Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8 months of age, 152 ± 12.6 kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180 days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180 days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p ecology, nutrient utilization and thus better performance under stall fed system. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Population structure and connectivity of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) across the Indo-Pacific Ocean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Bonnie J.; Williams, Samuel M.; Otway, Nicholas M.

    2017-01-01

    Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring (FST > 0.14, p....001) between all Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population. A lack of differentiation between tiger sharks sampled in Hawaii and other...... Indo-Pacific locations identified herein is in contrast to an earlier global tiger shark nDNA study. The results of our power analysis provide evidence to suggest that the larger sample sizes used here negated any weak population subdivision observed previously. These results further highlight the need...

  12. Aspectos biológicos de Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) (Teleostei, Gerreidae) na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Biological aspects of Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) (Teleostei, Gerreidae) at Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Chaves; Gislaine Otto

    1998-01-01

    Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier, 1829) is one of the most common Gerreidae species in the estuarine region at the Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazil. Based on studies developed between July, 1993 and January, 1997, it was observed that its presence in the mangrove area is not regular: the smallest individuais are more abundam during late summer and in autumn, and the largest ones during spring and early summer. Its diet comprises plant material and invertebrates, specially polychaets. The morphologica...

  13. Notas sobre la reproducción en cautiverio de Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807 en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Pérez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Durante los años 2001 y 2002 se realizaron observaciones sobre la reproducción de Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807 en el Centro de Acuicultura La Tuna Carranza, localizado en Puerto Pizarro, departamento de Tumbes. El tamaño mínimo de una hembra anidando fue de 2,30 m. El porcentaje de viabilidad y natalidad fue de 61,71% y 93,15% respectivamente.

  14. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Catches of Tiger Sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, in the Pelagic Longline Fishery Around the Hawaiian Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Lau, Boulderson B.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-five tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, have been reported caught in pelagic longline gearfrom 25 to 265 n.mi. off the Hawaiian Archipelago during December 1990-May 1993. Fifteen sharks were caught farther than 50 n.mi. offshore, indicating that tiger sharks do occur well offshore and removed from benthic topography. About 89% of the sharks were caught during October-March, while only 56% of the fishing effort occurred during that period.

  15. Comportamento reprodutivo do acará bandeira, Pterophyllum scalare Cuvier & Valenciennes (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae Reproductive behaviour of Pterophyllum scalare Cuvier & Valenciennes (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro R.F Cacho

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Acará bandeira, Pterophyllum scalare Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1831 is a Neotropical cichlid fish, which has not been studied under a scientific approach. The objective of this work was to identify and describe the reproductive behaviour involved in the various phases of its reproductive cycle, such as territorial disputes and its establishment, substrate selection for spawning, courtship and mating, selection of mate and parental care. Twenty males and ten females of the study species were observed in the laboratory, over a period of six consecutive months. Behaviour descriptions resulting from these observations were analysed and the results show that the reproductive males are very agressive in the initial phase of reproduction. Agressiveness is a constant variable in encounters between territorial fishes, and possession of territory is of fundamental importance for reproduction of this species. Males with established territories were those which very successful in atracting the females during courtship. The selection of the females were influenced by the possession of territory, the type of substrate available for spawning and the body size. The fish preferred aquatic plants with broad leaves as an adequate substrate for spawning. It was observed that there was a short-term biparental care, before the eggs hatched, during which period the males played an important role in protecting them. After the eggs hatched, the male continued to protect the hatchling in his mouth, but played a lesser role, possibly to seek other females for mating so as to increase his reproductive output. Selection of a good mate by the female and the high degree of parental care were the factors which influence the reproductive success of the study species.

  16. Clinical observation of modified frontalis tendon flap suspension in the treatment of severe congenital blepharoptosis in children

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    Yan Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the long-term clinical effect of modified frontalis tendon flap suspension in the treatment of severe blepharoptosis in children. METHODS: A total of 83 cases(114 eyesof modified frontalis tendon flap suspension for children severe blepharoptosis correction were analyzed between January 2009 to December 2011 for the efficacy and complications of this surgery. Follow-up observation for 5a.RESULTS: In the fifth year after operation, there were 84 eyes(73.7%with correction and satisfactory correction, 30 eyes(26.3%were corrected, and the operation was satisfactory. Postoperative complications included 4 eyes(3.5%of inverted eyelashes, of which 3 eyes were given suture traction at 1/3 interior of the gray line, 1wk later inverted eyelashes disappeared, 1 eye of secondary surgery. Conjunctival prolapse was in 2 eyes(1.8%, the application of corticosteroids eye drops, pressure bandage were used for 1wk and conjunctival prolapse disappeared. There was no recurrence of keratitis, eyelid ectropion, septum separation, eyelid angular deformity, hematoma formation, infection and other complications. Postoperative retrograde retrogression and lateral eyelid folds disappear were the most common problems of long-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: The study shows that this surgical technique is a satisfied method to treat severe blepharoptosis and predictable with few complications.

  17. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba skin biopsies

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    Casini Silvia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Odontocete cetaceans occupy the top position of the marine food-web and are particularly sensitive to the bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants. The effects of environmental pollution on these species are highly debated and various ecotoxicological studies have addressed the impact of xenobiotic compounds on marine mammals, raising conservational concerns. Despite its sensitivity, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR has never been used to quantify gene induction caused by exposure of cetaceans to contaminants. A limitation for the application of qRT-PCR is the need for appropriate reference genes which allow the correct quantification of gene expression. A systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in cetacean skin biopsies is presented, in order to validate future qRT-PCR studies aiming at using the expression of selected genes as non-lethal biomarkers. Results Ten commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs were partially sequenced in the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba and, for each gene, PCR primer pairs were specifically designed and tested in qRT-PCR assays. The expression of these potential control genes was examined in 30 striped dolphin skin biopsy samples, obtained from specimens sampled in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The stability of selected control genes was determined using three different specific VBA applets (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper which produce highly comparable results. Glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAZ always rank as the two most stably expressed HKGs according to the analysis with geNorm and Normfinder, and are defined as optimal control genes by BestKepeer. Ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4 and S18 (RPS18 also exhibit a remarkable stability of their expression levels. On the other hand, transferrin receptor (TFRC, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1, hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase (HPRT1 and β-2-microglobin (B2M show variable expression

  18. Attraction of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, to pheromone components of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in an allopatric zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa S. Pureswaran; Richard W. Hofstetter; Brian T. Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Subtle differences in pheromone components of sympatric species should be attractive only to the producing species and unattractive or repellent to the nonproducing species, and thereby maintain reproductive isolation and reduce competition between species. Bark beetles Dendroctonus brevicomis and D. frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are known to...

  19. scsB, a cDNA encoding the hydrogenosomal beta subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondijk, THC; Durand, R; vanderGiezen, M; Gottschal, JC; Prins, RA; Fevre, M

    1996-01-01

    A clone containing a Neocallimastix frontalis cDNA assumed to encode the beta subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCSB) was identified by sequence homology with prokaryotic and eukaryotic counterparts. An open reading frame of 1311 bp was found. The deduced 437 amino acid sequence showed a high

  20. Age and growth of the fish, Gerres filamentosus (Cuvier, 1829 from Hurghada Red Sea, Egypt

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    Taher Mohamed Ahmed Abu El-Nasr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 669, Gerres filamentosus (Cuvier, 1829 were collected from Hurghada area in the Egyptian Red Sea coast (January – December 2010. The author investigated the age and growth by two different methods through scale-annuli reading (Direct method and Length-frequency distribution (Indirect method which showed new record of lengths for the species. The equations of the length-weight relationship was W = 0.0143∗ L2.9564 (Males, W = 0.0146∗ L2.9543 (Females and W = 0.0144∗ L2.9597 (combined sexes. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was calculated by three different mathematical methods. It was concluded that it would be economical to protect this species from capture until at least their 5th year, after the fish has reached about 32.71 cm in total length and about 439.15 grams in weight. Keywords: Mojarra, Whipfin, Silver-biddy, Length-weight, Age groups, Frequency distribution

  1. Vertical movement patterns and ontogenetic niche expansion in the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2015-01-01

    Sharks are top predators in many marine ecosystems and can impact community dynamics, yet many shark populations are undergoing severe declines primarily due to overfishing. Obtaining species-specific knowledge on shark spatial ecology is important to implement adequate management strategies for the effective conservation of these taxa. This is particularly relevant concerning highly-mobile species that use wide home ranges comprising coastal and oceanic habitats, such as tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier. We deployed satellite tags in 20 juvenile tiger sharks off northeastern Brazil to assess the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on depth and temperature usage. Sharks were tracked for a total of 1184 d and used waters up to 1112 m in depth. The minimum temperature recorded equaled 4°C. All sharks had a clear preference for surface (sharks used mostly shallow (sharks spending considerably more time in surface (shark habitat was observed, with generalized linear models estimating a ~4-fold increase in maximum diving depth from 150- to 300-cm size-classes. The time spent in the upper 5 m of the water column did not vary ontogenetically but shark size was the most important factor explaining the utilization of deeper water layers. Young-of-the-year tiger sharks seem to associate with shallow, neritic habitats but they progressively move into deeper oceanic habitats as they grow larger. Such an early plasticity in habitat use could endow tiger sharks with access to previously unavailable prey, thus contributing to a wider ecological niche.

  2. Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) in the Mediterranean Sea: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; Catanese, Gaetano; Procaccini, Gabriele; Fiorito, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean. We also used a DNA barcoding approach by COI gene fragment to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the specimens here investigated and the ones whose sequences are available in literature. Our results reveal high levels of allelic richness and moderate heterozygosity in all samples investigated, and a pronounced differentiation of the Atlantic and Sicilian specimens. This latter aspect seems to support the isolation of the biota within the Strait of Messina. A certain degree of differentiation was detected among the other geographic samples within the Mediterranean Sea, which is more compatible with an island model than isolation by distance. The occurrence of null alleles affected more genetic diversity indices than population structure estimations. This study provides new insights about the genetic diversity and structure of O. vulgaris in the area of interest, which can be used as guidelines for a fisheries management perspective.

  3. Testicular maturation of Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii, Characidae in a brazilian tropical reservoir

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    R. N. Santos

    Full Text Available Six reproductive classes of male Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier, 1829, a medium-sized carnivorous Characiform species, are described based on macroscopic and histological techniques. A total of 175 individuals were caught monthly between April 2001 and June 2002 in the Lajes Reservoir, Brazil, one of the largest impoundment areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The reproductive classes were based upon changes in the testicular morphology and stages of germinative cells, i.e., resting, early maturing, late maturing, mature, partially spent and totally spent. Fish in the resting class showed testes with spermatogonia and spermatocytes along the wall of seminal lobules, while spermatids were present in the lumina of the lobules. During early maturing, active spermatogenesis occurs throughout the testis; in the late maturing and mature classes, the lobules are swollen with sperm that are typical of fish in breeding condition. Spent testes presented seminal lobules with residual spermatozoa, coinciding with decreasing GSI and greatly reduced sperm production. Overall, the testicular morphology and class of maturity development of O. hepsetus in the Lajes reservoir did not differ significantly from those of closely related species in other lentic environments. Lower GSI values in the oligotrophic Lajes reservoir than in other eutrophic natural lakes suggest that this species may be modifying this aspect of its reproductive strategy in response to the artificial environment.

  4. The Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean marine mammals: Marine Protected Area (MPA) or marine polluted area? The case study of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Panti, Cristina; Marsili, Letizia; Maltese, Silvia; Spinsanti, Giacomo; Casini, Silvia; Caliani, Ilaria; Gaspari, Stefania; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; Jimenez, Begoña; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2013-05-15

    The concurrence of man-made pressures on cetaceans in the Mediterranean Sea is potentially affecting population stability and marine biodiversity. This needs to be proven for the only pelagic marine protected area in the Mediterranean Sea: the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals. Here we applied a multidisciplinary tool, using diagnostic markers elaborated in a statistical model to rank toxicological stress in Mediterranean cetaceans. As a case study we analyzed persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals combined with a wide range of diagnostic markers of exposure to anthropogenic contaminants and genetic variation as marker of genetic erosion in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) skin biopsies. Finally, a statistical model was applied to obtain a complete toxicological profile of the striped dolphin in the Pelagos Sanctuary and other Mediterranean areas (Ionian Sea and Strait of Gibraltar). Here we provide the first complete evidence of the toxicological stress in cetaceans living in Pelagos Sanctuary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Haematological characteristics of Brazilian Teleosts: III. Parameters of the hybrid tambacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg x Colossoma macropomum Cuvier (Osteichthyes, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifty six specimens of the hybrid "tambacu" (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 male x Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 female were collected from fishfarm of Guariba, São Paulo, to evaluate their haematology. Fishes presented 400.0 to 3,100.0 g total weight and 20.0 to 52.0 cm total length. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular haemoglobin content (MCHC and percentage of defense blood cells including leucocytes and thrombocytes, were studied. Statistical analysis showed positive correlation (P<0.01 between haematocrit, MCHC and haemoglobin rate. Nevertheless, thrombocytes and lymphocytes showed negative correlation (P<0.01.

  6. Studi Aspek Reproduksi Ikan Baung (Mystus nemurus Cuvier Vallenciennes) Di Sungai Bingai Kota Binjai Provinsi Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Vindy Rilani

    2014-01-01

    VINDY RILANI MANURUNG: The Studied of Fish Reproduction Baung (Mystus nemurus Cuvier Vallenciennes) in Bigai’s River Binjai City North Sumatera Province. Under direction of YUNASFI and DESRITA. The researcher was conducted in the Bingai’s river at Binjai North Sumatera which was held in March to May 2013 at the three different locations points and using sensus metode. The total of baung’s fish (Mystus nemurus C.V) obtained was 29 tails consist of 26 females and 3 males with unbalanced sex ...

  7. Avistamientos del delfín manchado, Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: Delphinidae en Bahía Culebra, Costa Rica, 1999-2000

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    Karina Rodríguez Sáenz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Paralelo a un estudio de zooplancton (1999-2000, se hicieron observaciones a bordo de un bote inflable, sobre la presencia o ausencia de delfines a lo largo de un transecto (~8 km long en la parte central de Bahía Culebra (24 km² , Golfo de Papagayo. Se realizaron 34 muestreos en total y hubo avistamientos de delfines en 20 de ellos. La única especie de cetáceo observado en la Bahía fue el delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata. Estos avistamientos fueron más frecuentes durante la época lluviosa, en particular durante el mes de mayo de ambos años. La presencia de S. attenuata en Bahía Culebra podría estar asociada a la abundancia de presas potenciales como peces y moluscos (calamares, como se evidencia por las estadísticas pesqueras disponibles para la zona Pacífica de Costa RicaParallel to a zooplankton study (1999-2000 observations were made (from an inflatable boat, on the presence of dolphins along a transect (~8 km long on the axis of Culebra Bay (24 km² , Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Dolphins were found during 20 of the 31 boat surveys conducted. The only species of cetacean found in the bay was Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin. These sightings were more frequent during the rainy season, particularly during the month of May of both years. The presence of S. attenuata in Culebra Bay might be associated to the abundances of fish and mollusks (their presumed prey: for example, squids, as evidenced by fishery statistics available for this zone of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

  8. Growth and maximum size of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carl G; O'Malley, Joseph M; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Dale, Jonathan J; Hutchinson, Melanie R; Anderson, James M; Royer, Mark A; Holland, Kim N

    2014-01-01

    Tiger sharks (Galecerdo cuvier) are apex predators characterized by their broad diet, large size and rapid growth. Tiger shark maximum size is typically between 380 & 450 cm Total Length (TL), with a few individuals reaching 550 cm TL, but the maximum size of tiger sharks in Hawaii waters remains uncertain. A previous study suggested tiger sharks grow rather slowly in Hawaii compared to other regions, but this may have been an artifact of the method used to estimate growth (unvalidated vertebral ring counts) compounded by small sample size and narrow size range. Since 1993, the University of Hawaii has conducted a research program aimed at elucidating tiger shark biology, and to date 420 tiger sharks have been tagged and 50 recaptured. All recaptures were from Hawaii except a single shark recaptured off Isla Jacques Cousteau (24°13'17″N 109°52'14″W), in the southern Gulf of California (minimum distance between tag and recapture sites  =  approximately 5,000 km), after 366 days at liberty (DAL). We used these empirical mark-recapture data to estimate growth rates and maximum size for tiger sharks in Hawaii. We found that tiger sharks in Hawaii grow twice as fast as previously thought, on average reaching 340 cm TL by age 5, and attaining a maximum size of 403 cm TL. Our model indicates the fastest growing individuals attain 400 cm TL by age 5, and the largest reach a maximum size of 444 cm TL. The largest shark captured during our study was 464 cm TL but individuals >450 cm TL were extremely rare (0.005% of sharks captured). We conclude that tiger shark growth rates and maximum sizes in Hawaii are generally consistent with those in other regions, and hypothesize that a broad diet may help them to achieve this rapid growth by maximizing prey consumption rates.

  9. Reef-fidelity and migration of tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the coral sea

    KAUST Repository

    Werry, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-08

    Knowledge of the habitat use and migration patterns of large sharks is important for assessing the effectiveness of large predator Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), vulnerability to fisheries and environmental influences, and management of shark-human interactions. Here we compare movement, reef-fidelity, and ocean migration for tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the Coral Sea, with an emphasis on New Caledonia. Thirty-three tiger sharks (1.54 to 3.9 m total length) were tagged with passive acoustic transmitters and their localised movements monitored on receiver arrays in New Caledonia, the Chesterfield and Lord Howe Islands in the Coral Sea, and the east coast of Queensland, Australia. Satellite tags were also used to determine habitat use and movements among habitats across the Coral Sea. Sub-adults and one male adult tiger shark displayed year-round residency in the Chesterfields with two females tagged in the Chesterfields and detected on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, after 591 and 842 days respectively. In coastal barrier reefs, tiger sharks were transient at acoustic arrays and each individual demonstrated a unique pattern of occurrence. From 2009 to 2013, fourteen sharks with satellite and acoustic tags undertook wide-ranging movements up to 1114 km across the Coral Sea with eight detected back on acoustic arrays up to 405 days after being tagged. Tiger sharks dove 1136 m and utilised three-dimensional activity spaces averaged at 2360 km3. The Chesterfield Islands appear to be important habitat for sub-adults and adult male tiger sharks. Management strategies need to consider the wide-ranging movements of large (sub-adult and adult) male and female tiger sharks at the individual level, whereas fidelity to specific coastal reefs may be consistent across groups of individuals. Coastal barrier reef MPAs, however, only afford brief protection for large tiger sharks, therefore determining the importance of other oceanic Coral Sea reefs should be a

  10. Residency and movement patterns of an apex predatory shark (Galeocerdo cuvier at the Galapagos Marine Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Acuña-Marrero

    Full Text Available The potential effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs as a conservation tool for large sharks has been questioned due to the limited spatial extent of most MPAs in contrast to the complex life history and high mobility of many sharks. Here we evaluated the movement dynamics of a highly migratory apex predatory shark (tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier at the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR. Using data from satellite tracking passive acoustic telemetry, and stereo baited remote underwater video, we estimated residency, activity spaces, site fidelity, distributional abundances and migration patterns from the GMR and in relation to nesting beaches of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, a seasonally abundant and predictable prey source for large tiger sharks. Tiger sharks exhibited a high degree of philopatry, with 93% of the total satellite-tracked time across all individuals occurring within the GMR. Large sharks (> 200 cm TL concentrated their movements in front of the two most important green sea turtle-nesting beaches in the GMR, visiting them on a daily basis during nocturnal hours. In contrast, small sharks (< 200 cm TL rarely visited turtle-nesting areas and displayed diurnal presence at a third location where only immature sharks were found. Small and some large individuals remained in the three study areas even outside of the turtle-nesting season. Only two sharks were satellite-tracked outside of the GMR, and following long-distance migrations, both individuals returned to turtle-nesting beaches at the subsequent turtle-nesting season. The spatial patterns of residency and site fidelity of tiger sharks suggest that the presence of a predictable source of prey and suitable habitats might reduce the spatial extent of this large shark that is highly migratory in other parts of its range. This highly philopatric behaviour enhances the potential effectiveness of the GMR for their protection.

  11. Reef-fidelity and migration of tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the coral sea

    KAUST Repository

    Werry, Jonathan M.; Planes, Serge; Berumen, Michael L.; Lee, Kate A.; Braun, Camrin D.; Clua, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the habitat use and migration patterns of large sharks is important for assessing the effectiveness of large predator Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), vulnerability to fisheries and environmental influences, and management of shark-human interactions. Here we compare movement, reef-fidelity, and ocean migration for tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the Coral Sea, with an emphasis on New Caledonia. Thirty-three tiger sharks (1.54 to 3.9 m total length) were tagged with passive acoustic transmitters and their localised movements monitored on receiver arrays in New Caledonia, the Chesterfield and Lord Howe Islands in the Coral Sea, and the east coast of Queensland, Australia. Satellite tags were also used to determine habitat use and movements among habitats across the Coral Sea. Sub-adults and one male adult tiger shark displayed year-round residency in the Chesterfields with two females tagged in the Chesterfields and detected on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, after 591 and 842 days respectively. In coastal barrier reefs, tiger sharks were transient at acoustic arrays and each individual demonstrated a unique pattern of occurrence. From 2009 to 2013, fourteen sharks with satellite and acoustic tags undertook wide-ranging movements up to 1114 km across the Coral Sea with eight detected back on acoustic arrays up to 405 days after being tagged. Tiger sharks dove 1136 m and utilised three-dimensional activity spaces averaged at 2360 km3. The Chesterfield Islands appear to be important habitat for sub-adults and adult male tiger sharks. Management strategies need to consider the wide-ranging movements of large (sub-adult and adult) male and female tiger sharks at the individual level, whereas fidelity to specific coastal reefs may be consistent across groups of individuals. Coastal barrier reef MPAs, however, only afford brief protection for large tiger sharks, therefore determining the importance of other oceanic Coral Sea reefs should be a

  12. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier's Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Moreno

    Full Text Available Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive population of Cuvier's gazelle managed under a European Endangered Species Programme since 1975. Previous results in this population have shown that highly inbred mothers tend to produce more daughters, and this fact was used in 2006 to reach a more appropriate sex-ratio in this polygynous species by changing the pairing strategy (i.e., pairing some inbred females instead of keeping them as surplus individuals in the population. Here, by using studbook data we explore whether purging has occurred in the population by investigating whether after the change in pairing strategy a inbreeding and homozygosity increased at the population level, b fitness (survival increased, and c the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, was positive. Consistent with the existence of purging, we found an increase in inbreeding coefficients, homozygosity and juvenile survival. In addition, we showed that in the course of the breeding programme the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival was not uniform but rather changed over time: it was negative in the early years, flat in the middle years and positive after the change in pairing strategy. We highlight that by allowing inbred individuals to mate in captive stocks we may favour sex-ratio bias towards females, a desirable managing strategy to reduce the surplus of males that force most zoos to use ethical culling and euthanizing management tools. We discuss these possibilities but also acknowledge that many

  13. Intraspecific variation in vertical habitat use by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in the western North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudo, Jeremy J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Harvey, Guy; Nemeth, Richard S; Aming, Choy; Burnie, Neil; Howey-Jordan, Lucy A; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2014-05-01

    Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are a wide ranging, potentially keystone predator species that display a variety of horizontal movement patterns, making use of coastal and pelagic waters. Far less, however, is known about their vertical movements and use of the water column. We used pop-up satellite archival tags with two data sampling rates (high rate and standard rate tags) to investigate the vertical habitat use and diving behavior of tiger sharks tagged on the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands platform and off Bermuda between 2008 and 2009. Useable data were received from nine of 14 sharks tagged, tracked over a total of 529 days. Sharks spent the majority of their time making yo-yo dives within the upper 50 m of the water column and considerable time within the upper 5 m of the water column. As a result, sharks typically occupied a narrow daily temperature range (∼2°C). Dives to greater than 200 m were common, and all sharks made dives to at least 250 m, with one shark reaching a depth of 828 m. Despite some similarities among individuals, a great deal of intraspecific variability in vertical habit use was observed. Four distinct depth distributions that were not related to tagging location, horizontal movements, sex, or size were detected. In addition, similar depth distributions did not necessitate similar dive patterns among sharks. Recognition of intraspecific variability in habitat use of top predators can be crucial for effective management of these species and for understanding their influence on ecosystem dynamics.

  14. Intraspecific variation in vertical habitat use by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudo, Jeremy J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Harvey, Guy; Nemeth, Richard S; Aming, Choy; Burnie, Neil; Howey-Jordan, Lucy A; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2014-01-01

    Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are a wide ranging, potentially keystone predator species that display a variety of horizontal movement patterns, making use of coastal and pelagic waters. Far less, however, is known about their vertical movements and use of the water column. We used pop-up satellite archival tags with two data sampling rates (high rate and standard rate tags) to investigate the vertical habitat use and diving behavior of tiger sharks tagged on the Puerto Rico–Virgin Islands platform and off Bermuda between 2008 and 2009. Useable data were received from nine of 14 sharks tagged, tracked over a total of 529 days. Sharks spent the majority of their time making yo-yo dives within the upper 50 m of the water column and considerable time within the upper 5 m of the water column. As a result, sharks typically occupied a narrow daily temperature range (∼2°C). Dives to greater than 200 m were common, and all sharks made dives to at least 250 m, with one shark reaching a depth of 828 m. Despite some similarities among individuals, a great deal of intraspecific variability in vertical habit use was observed. Four distinct depth distributions that were not related to tagging location, horizontal movements, sex, or size were detected. In addition, similar depth distributions did not necessitate similar dive patterns among sharks. Recognition of intraspecific variability in habitat use of top predators can be crucial for effective management of these species and for understanding their influence on ecosystem dynamics. PMID:24963376

  15. Reef-fidelity and migration of tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the Coral Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werry, Jonathan M; Planes, Serge; Berumen, Michael L; Lee, Kate A; Braun, Camrin D; Clua, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the habitat use and migration patterns of large sharks is important for assessing the effectiveness of large predator Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), vulnerability to fisheries and environmental influences, and management of shark-human interactions. Here we compare movement, reef-fidelity, and ocean migration for tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the Coral Sea, with an emphasis on New Caledonia. Thirty-three tiger sharks (1.54 to 3.9 m total length) were tagged with passive acoustic transmitters and their localised movements monitored on receiver arrays in New Caledonia, the Chesterfield and Lord Howe Islands in the Coral Sea, and the east coast of Queensland, Australia. Satellite tags were also used to determine habitat use and movements among habitats across the Coral Sea. Sub-adults and one male adult tiger shark displayed year-round residency in the Chesterfields with two females tagged in the Chesterfields and detected on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, after 591 and 842 days respectively. In coastal barrier reefs, tiger sharks were transient at acoustic arrays and each individual demonstrated a unique pattern of occurrence. From 2009 to 2013, fourteen sharks with satellite and acoustic tags undertook wide-ranging movements up to 1114 km across the Coral Sea with eight detected back on acoustic arrays up to 405 days after being tagged. Tiger sharks dove 1136 m and utilised three-dimensional activity spaces averaged at 2360 km³. The Chesterfield Islands appear to be important habitat for sub-adults and adult male tiger sharks. Management strategies need to consider the wide-ranging movements of large (sub-adult and adult) male and female tiger sharks at the individual level, whereas fidelity to specific coastal reefs may be consistent across groups of individuals. Coastal barrier reef MPAs, however, only afford brief protection for large tiger sharks, therefore determining the importance of other oceanic Coral Sea reefs should be a

  16. Presencia y patrones de comportamiento del delfín manchado costero, Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: Delphinidae en el Golfo de Papagayo, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura May-Collado

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Los delfines se caracterizan por una increíble versatilidad, la cual les ha permitido responder a los cambios estacionales de su ambiente. Dicha variación estacional en los patrones de comportamiento se considera poco conocida en delfines que habitan aguas tropicales. El delfín manchado (forma costera Stenella attenuata graffmani, parece ser la única especie de cetáceo residente en el Golfo de Papagayo, área que se caracteriza por una estacionalidad muy bien definida. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar si esta estacionalidad influencia el tamaño del grupo, la presencia y patrones de comportamiento de esta especie de delfín en el golfo. Usando transectos en banda se recorrieron dos localidades del Golfo de Papagayo. El tamaño del grupo varío de uno a 50 individuos, con una media de 10.16 (DS =9.61. Las actividades alimentarias fueron más intensas que las interacciones sociales y de desplazamiento, las cuales siguieron un ordenamiento diario y estacional. Se describieron dos técnicas principales de forrajeo las cuales parecen estar asociadas con el tamaño del grupo y localidad dentro del golfo. La variación diaria en los patrones de comportamiento parecen estar relacionados con la disponibilidad, distribución, y arreglo espacial de las presas. De igual manera, la variación estacional de estas actividades probablemente esta asociada por la disponibilidad de alimento, tal como ha sido observado en un mayor número de grupos y una mayor inversión de tiempo en actividades de alimentación durante la época seca y finales de las lluviasOccurrence and behavioral patterns of the spotted coastal dolphin Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: Delphinidae in the Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica. Dolphins are characterized by a significant behavioral versatility, which allows them to respond to environmental seasonality. Seasonal variation in dolphin behavior in tropical waters is not well known. Stenella attenuata graffmani is a resident dolphin

  17. Aspectos biológicos de Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Gerreidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Biological aspects of Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Gerreidae at Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Chaves

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier, 1829 is one of the most common Gerreidae species in the estuarine region at the Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazil. Based on studies developed between July, 1993 and January, 1997, it was observed that its presence in the mangrove area is not regular: the smallest individuais are more abundam during late summer and in autumn, and the largest ones during spring and early summer. Its diet comprises plant material and invertebrates, specially polychaets. The morphological aspects of the gonads, the monthly changes on the Condition Factor, and lhe monthly distribution of the individual size groups, suggest that this population spawns during the spring, out the estuarine region. The smaller individuais use the mangrove area of Guaratuba Bay to a growth phase, and the adulls to make somatic reserves to the spawning period.

  18. Cross-sectional anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head of common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Farré, J M; Gonzalo-Orden, M; Barreiro-Vázquez, J D; Barreiro-Lois, A; André, M; Morell, M; Llarena-Reino, M; Monreal-Pawlowsky, T; Degollada, E

    2015-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to scan seven by-caught dolphin cadavers, belonging to two species: four common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and three striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). CT and MRI were obtained with the animals in ventral recumbency. After the imaging procedures, six dolphins were frozen at -20°C and sliced in the same position they were examined. Not only CT and MRI scans, but also cross sections of the heads were obtained in three body planes: transverse (slices of 1 cm thickness) in three dolphins, sagittal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins and dorsal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins. Relevant anatomical structures were identified and labelled on each cross section, obtaining a comprehensive bi-dimensional topographical anatomy guide of the main features of the common and the striped dolphin head. Furthermore, the anatomical cross sections were compared with their corresponding CT and MRI images, allowing an imaging identification of most of the anatomical features. CT scans produced an excellent definition of the bony and air-filled structures, while MRI allowed us to successfully identify most of the soft tissue structures in the dolphin's head. This paper provides a detailed anatomical description of the head structures of common and striped dolphins and compares anatomical cross sections with CT and MRI scans, becoming a reference guide for the interpretation of imaging studies. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Development and Application of a Sensitive, Second Antibody Format Enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for Estimation of Plasma FSH in Mithun (Bos frontalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Mohan; Baruah, Kishore Kumar; Prakash, B S

    2016-01-01

    Mithun (Bos frontalis) is a semi-wild rare ruminant species. A simple sensitive enzymeimmunoassay suitable for assaying FSH in the blood plasma of mithun is not available which thereby limits our ability to understand this species reproductive processes. Therefore, the aim of this article was to develop a simple and sensitive enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for estimation of FSH in mithun plasma and apply the assay to understand the estrous cycle and superovulatory process in this species. To accomplish this goal, biotinylated FSH was bridged between streptavidin-peroxidase and immobilized antiserum in a competitive assay. Forty microlitre mithun plasma was used directly in the EIA. The FSH standards were prepared in hormone free plasma and ranged from 5-1280 pg/well/40 μL. The sensitivity of EIA was 5 pg/well FSH, which corresponds to 0.125 ng/mL plasma and the 50% relative binding sensitivity was 90 pg/well/40 μL. Although the shape of the standard curve was not influenced by different plasma volumes viz. 40 and 80 μL, a slight drop in the OD450 was observed with the increasing volume of plasma. Parallelism tests conducted between the endogenous mithun FSH and bovine FSH standards showed good homology between them. Plasma FSH estimated using the developed EIA and commercially available FSH EIA kit in the same samples were correlated (r = 0.98) and showed linearity. Both the Intra- and inter-assay CV were below 6%. Recovery of known concentrations of added FSH showed linearity (r = 0.99). The developed EIA was further validated biologically by estimating FSH in cyclic cows for the entire estrous cycle, in mithun heifers administered with GnRH analogues and in mithun cows during superovulatory treatment with FSH. In conclusion, the EIA developed for FSH determination in mithun blood plasma is simple and highly sensitive for estimation of mithun FSH in all physiological conditions.

  20. [Distribution and environmental conditions related to the behavior in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) (Cetacea: Delphinidae) in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Pardo, Priscilla

    2007-06-01

    Habitat characteristics influencing behavior in animal species vary locally. The influence that a particular environmental characteristic can have on a species depends not only on other variables, but on morphological, physiological and social conditions of that species. In this study, developed from June 1996 to July 1997, I studied whether specific behaviors are related to particular distribution areas and environmental factors in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The study area was covered along oblicuous linear transects, and the behavior of single groups was observed from 15 min to 5 h. Environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity and distance from shore, among others, were considered. For the bottlenose dolphin, foraging/feeding activities showed exclusive coincidence with river mouths, coral reef and mangrove areas, while social and milling activities where seen close to feeding areas. Traveling occurred along different points parallel to the coast, with a low percentage of cases across the gulf (16.56 %), suggesting that the bottlenose rarely crosses from one side to the other. In the spotted dolphin, several behaviors were observed simultaneously in the schools and it was not possible to associate areas with particular behaviors. The lack of significant relationships among activities and particular environmental variables (ANOVA tests) is attributed to three aspects: (a) transitions among activities generally occurred into a low variable area, (b) dolphins often traveled along large areas without changing activities and (c) environmental conditions in Golfo Dulce are homogeneous. In the two species the highest average in the number of individuals per group corresponded to the category of active socializing, followed by traveling, passive socializing and feeding. In the case of the bottlenose dolphin, the smallest group size was associated with feeding activities (ANOVA, F= 2.624, p=0.037, n=156

  1. Alimentação de Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier (Perciformes, Sciaenidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Feeding of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier (Perciformes, Sciaenidae at the Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Vendel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation of food items of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier, 1830 classified by size was analysed based on monthly samples between september/1993 and september/1996 at the Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazil. The stomach contents of a hundred eighty-two fishes were analysed by the Occunence Frequency Method and Point Count for a Lot Method. The individuais were divided in two groups, smaller and longer than 140mm, and a comparative study of digestive tract and branchial are was performed for these groups. For fishes smaller than 140mm the following sequence of items was obtained matching both methods by using the Preponderance índices: decapods (subdivided in Brachyura, Caridea and Penaeidea, polychaets, isopods, fishes, unidentified material, copepods, amphipods, molluscs and plant material. For fishes longer than or equal to 140mm the sequence was decapods, polychaets, fishes, copepods, amphipods, isopods, molluscs and plant material, in this order. These results suggest that Bairdiella ronchus at the Guaratuba Bay is a carnivorous species using mainly decapod crustaceans as food throughout the year.

  2. Using Genome-Wide SNPs to Detect Structure in High-Diversity and Low-Divergence Populations of Severely Impacted Eastern Tropical Pacific Spinner (Stenella longirostris And Pantropical Spotted Dolphins (S. attenuata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Steven Leslie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of spinner (Stenella longirostris and pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata died since the 1960’s as bycatch in tuna nets in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite three decades of protection, they show little-to-no sign of recovery (although recent fisheries-independent abundance estimates are not available. In efforts to establish biologically meaningful management boundaries for recovery, endemic subspecies and multiple stocks have been proposed. However, genetic differentiation among most of these units has been difficult to identify, possibly due to low statistical power stemming from large historical abundances, ongoing gene flow, and recent divergence. We tested for genetic structure at multiple hierarchical levels by analyzing the largest dataset to date brought to bear on these questions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were collected from nuclear DNA regions associated with the restriction enzyme site PstI from 72 spinner dolphins and 58 pantropical spotted dolphins using genotype-by-sequencing (GBS. Our results support the current subspecies for both species and indicate stock-level separation for Tres Marias spinner dolphins and the two offshore pantropical spotted dolphin stocks in this area. Although bycatch has been reduced a small fraction of pre-protection levels, incidental mortality continues to impact these populations. Our results are important for the ongoing management and recovery of these highly-impacted pelagic dolphins in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.

  3. Trophic Ecology and Movement Patters of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo Cuvier) off the Western North Atlantic Coastal and Continental Shelf Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, G.; Edman, R.; Frazier, B.; Bubley, W.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the trophic dynamics and habitat utilization of apex predators is central to inferring their influence on different marine landscapes and to help design effective management plans for these animals. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are abundant in shelf and offshore Gulf Stream waters of the western North Atlantic Ocean, and based on movements from individuals captured in Florida and Bahamas, seem to avoid coastal and shelf waters off South Carolina and Georgia. This contradicts reports of tiger sharks regularly being caught nearshore by anglers in these states, indicating that separate sub-populations may exist in the western North Atlantic. In the present study we captured Tiger Sharks in coastal waters off South Carolina in 2014 and 2015 in order to describe their movement patterns through acoustic and satellite tagging, and trophic dynamics through stable isotope analyses. Movement data show that these tiger sharks repeatedly visit particular inshore areas and mainly travel over the continental shelf, but rarely venture offshore beyond the continental shelf edge. Ongoing C and N stable isotope analyses of muscle, blood and skin tissues from adult and juvenile tiger sharks, as well as from potential prey species and primary producers, will help determine if their diets are based on inshore, shelf or offshore based food webs. Tiger sharks exploiting nearshore environments and shelf waters have much higher probabilities of interacting with humans than individuals occupying far offshore Gulf Stream habitats.

  4. Ontogenic events and swimming behavior of larvae of the characid fish Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier (Characiformes, Characidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enemir dos Santos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The larval ontogeny and swimming behavior of the characid fish Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 were studied under experimental laboratory conditions, from hatching to yolk absorption. At day 1, the larvae were transparent, with sparse dendrite chromatophores and a well-developed adhesive organ on the head. The retinal epithelial cells were initiating pigmentation. The branchial arches were at the initial phase of differentiation. The larvae were able to perform only vertical displacements and, when resting on the tank bottom, remained in lateral decumbency, in groups of 3 to 15 larvae. On day 2, the mouth was open, with conical teeth, and the digestive tube presented lumen and folded mucosa. The gaseous bladder and pectoral fins also were in differentiation. The larvae performed vertical and horizontal movements, adhered to the water surface by means of the adhesive organ or formed groups of three to six on the tank bottom. On day 3, the adhesive organ turned dorsal, the retina was pigmented, the digestive tube mucosa showed goblet cells, and the yolk sac exhausted. The larvae were now scattering in the water column forming no groups on the bottom.

  5. Health insurance for "frontaliers"

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The French government has decided that, with effect from 1 June 2014, persons resident in France but working in Switzerland (hereinafter referred to as “frontaliers”) will no longer be entitled to opt for private French health insurance provision as their sole and principal health insurance.   The right of choice, which was granted by the Bilateral Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons between Switzerland and the European Union and which came into force on 1 June 2002, exempts “frontaliers” from the obligation to become a member of Switzerland’s compulsory health insurance scheme (LAMal) if they can prove that they have equivalent coverage in France, provided by either the French social security system (CMU) or a private French insurance provider. As the latter option of private health insurance as an alternative to membership of LAMal will be revoked under the new French legislation that will come into force on 1 June 2014, current “...

  6. Ontogeny of head and caudal fin shape of an apex marine predator: The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Amy L; Hammerschlag, Neil; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Irschick, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    How morphology changes with size can have profound effects on the life history and ecology of an animal. For apex predators that can impact higher level ecosystem processes, such changes may have consequences for other species. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are an apex predator in tropical seas, and, as adults, are highly migratory. However, little is known about ontogenetic changes in their body form, especially in relation to two aspects of shape that influence locomotion (caudal fin) and feeding (head shape). We captured digital images of the heads and caudal fins of live tiger sharks from Southern Florida and the Bahamas ranging in body size (hence age), and quantified shape of each using elliptical Fourier analysis. This revealed changes in the shape of the head and caudal fin of tiger sharks across ontogeny. Smaller juvenile tiger sharks show an asymmetrical tail with the dorsal (upper) lobe being substantially larger than the ventral (lower) lobe, and transition to more symmetrical tail in larger adults, although the upper lobe remains relatively larger in adults. The heads of juvenile tiger sharks are more conical, which transition to relatively broader heads over ontogeny. We interpret these changes as a result of two ecological transitions. First, adult tiger sharks can undertake extensive migrations and a more symmetrical tail could be more efficient for swimming longer distances, although we did not test this possibility. Second, adult tiger sharks expand their diet to consume larger and more diverse prey with age (turtles, mammals, and elasmobranchs), which requires substantially greater bite area and force to process. In contrast, juvenile tiger sharks consume smaller prey, such as fishes, crustaceans, and invertebrates. Our data reveal significant morphological shifts in an apex predator, which could have effects for other species that tiger sharks consume and interact with. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Morphofunctional description of mucous cells in the gills of the Arapaimidae Arapaima gigas (Cuvier) during its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, C A; da Costa, O T F; Duncan, W L P; Fernandes, M N

    2018-05-07

    The gill structure of the Amazonian fish Arapaima gigas (Cuvier 1829) shows ontogenetic changes during development, particularly due the transition from the aquatic to the obligatory air breathing mode of respiration. However, three main cell types can be found in the gills: mitochondrial rich cells, pavement cells and mucous cells (MCs). The MCs are involved in the secretory pathway. The functions of the secreted molecules include mechanical protection of epithelia, protection against parasites and bacterial infection, and role on ion regulation. In this study, we analysed mucous cell location and mucous cell type, based on pH, during the development of A. gigas. Using samples obtained from the environment, gills were collected and fixed in buffered solution. Histological techniques for the identification of MCs were performed Alcian Blue (AB) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS+ and AB+ cells in the whole filament in all examined fish. In animals less than 50 g, few MCs were present, and no differences were observed in AB+ and PAS+ cells. In animals weighing close to 500 g, more PAS+ cells than AB+ cells were observed, and in animals that weighed more than 1,000 g, more AB+ cells than PAS+ cells were observed. These observations may be a result of the ontogenetic changes in the gill epithelia, which can change the osmorespiratory compromise in ion regulation functions as well the glycosaminoglycans secreted by PAS cells, which in large animals can play a role in the protection against parasites and bacterial infection. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Les temporalités frontalières et urbaines du port de Strasbourg. Analyse géohistorique d’une relation fluviale ville-port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Beyer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L’éclairage géohistorique de la relation ville-port à Strasbourg implique un croisement de deux chronologies, l’une géopolitique, liée à une position frontalière évolutive, l’autre économique et générale, articulée à l’histoire portuaire dans une perspective plus résolument urbaine de la déconnexion-reconnexion des deux espaces fonctionnels. Dans cette logique, l’analyse suivie envisagera alternativement l’évolution de la fonction portuaire de Strasbourg dans une situation d’instabilité frontalière, pour considérer ensuite la manière dont l’espace portuaire participe au projet urbain. Ces deux approches permettront par ailleurs d’envisager l’analyse à deux échelles géographiques, celle de l’espace régional et celle de l’aménagement urbain.The geo-historical approach to the relation port-city in the case of Strasbourg (France implies to consider at the same time two chronologies. On the one hand, the geopolitical dimension with a city leaned on the french-german border. On the other hand, the more common economic development with the connection and the de-connection phases of the two functional spaces involved, i.e. port and urban spaces. In such a perspective, the paper will develop alternatively the way the port grew in a political unstable context, and replace its developement in the shaping of the global urbanization. Those two topics will in return differenciate two geographical scales, the regional environment and the more local urban planning strategies.

  9. Suspensão ao músculo frontal com politetrafluoretileno para o tratamento da blefaroptose Frontalis suspension with polytetrafluorethylene for the treatment of blepharoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silvério

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência com o uso do fio de politetrafluoretileno nas cirurgias de suspensão ao músculo frontal para correção de blefaroptose. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados todos os casos de blefaroptose grave submetidos à cirurgia pela técnica de suspensão ao músculo frontal como fio de politetrafluoretileno, no período de fevereiro de 2003 a abril de 2007. Foram realizadas 36 cirurgias em 23 pacientes, a média de seguimento foi de 15,8 meses (variando de 3 a 36 meses. A técnica cirúrgica utilizada foi a descrita por Fox. RESULTADOS: Entre as causas de blefaroptose foram encontradas: congênita em 20 (86,95% pacientes, blefarofimose em 2 (8,69% pacientes e traumática em 1 (4,35% paciente. Na primeira semana de pós-operatório, 6 (26,08% pacientes referiram assimetria palpebral, 4 (17,39% notaram edema local, 3 (13,04% pacientes apresentaram granuloma no local do fio e 1 (4,35% paciente apresentou celulite facial na região frontal unilateral. Após 3 meses de seguimento, 3 (13,04% pacientes referiram assimetria palpebral, e em 1 (4,35% paciente persistia o granuloma. CONCLUSÃO: O politetrafluoretileno - Modelo CV3, 6.0 (Gore-Tex®; W.L. Gore & Associates Inc, Flagstaff, AZ, EUA é um material adequado com bons resultados funcionais (86,9%, baixos índices de complicação (4,35% e insatisfação (13,4%, podendo ser uma alternativa em relação à fáscia lata, na cirurgia de suspensão ao frontal para tratamento de ptose palpebral grave.PURPOSE: To evaluate the functional results and complications of the use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene in frontalis suspension surgery for the treatment of blepharoptosis. METHODS: Frontalis suspension procedure with polytetrafluoroethylene was performed between 2003 and 2007 on 23 patients (36 eyes with blepharoptosis. An average follow-up time was 15.8 months (range, 3 to 36. Surgical technique used was described by Fox. RESULTS: The causes of blepharoptosis found were: congenital in

  10. Host specificity of Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere) (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on the marlin sucker Remora osteochir (Cuvier) in the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ju-shey; Collete, Bruce B; Madinabeitia, Ione

    2006-10-01

    Three species of remoras--Remora brachyptera (Lowe), Remora osteochir (Cuvier), and Remora remora (Linnaeus)--were collected from 4 species of billfishes--Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw), Makaira nigricans Lacepéde, Tetrapturus albidus Poey, and Tetrapturus pfluegeri Robins and de Sylva--on board a Japanese long-liner Shoyo Maru during her cruise in 2002 across the Atlantic. However, only the marlin sucker (R. osteochir) was found to carry a parasitic copepod, Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere, 1936). Although 12 species of parasitic copepods have been reported from billfishes around the world ocean, none of them is L. crassus. Thus, L. crassus is considered a parasite specific to the marlin sucker.

  11. The first finding of Asian black bear (Carnivora, Ursidae, Ursus (Euarctos) thibetanus G. Cuvier, 1823) in the Late Pleistocene of northern Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosintsev, P A; Tiunov, M P; Gimranov, D O; Panov, V S

    2016-11-01

    An M1 tooth of Asian black bear (Ursus (Euarctos) thibetanus G. Cuvier, 1823) was found in deposits of the Tetyukhinskaya cave (Middle Sikhote-Alin, 44°35'N, 135°36'E). This finding is the first reliable evidence of Asian black bear's presence in Pleistocene of Primorye. Its morphological and morphometric descriptions are given. The period of inhabitation of U. (E.) thibetanus determined based on the radiocarbon date obtained during the study of the tooth, is 39 874 ± 133 BP (NSK-850, UGAMS-21786), which corresponds to the middle of Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) of Late Pleistocene. The composition of ancient theriofauna indicates the existence of wide variety of landscapes in Primorye in the middle of Late Pleistocene. A refugium of forest fauna, in which species of taiga, nemoral, and Central Asian mountain-forest theriocomplexes were present, was located in southern Primorye in Late Pleistocene.

  12. The problems with the preparation and evaluation of teleradiographs of the skull in the Norma frontalis with special consideration of the angular teleradiographic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.

    1982-01-01

    With the help of the angular teleradiographic unit the possibility of simultaneous preparation of teleradiographs in the Norma frontalis and the Norma lateralis is studied. It was shown that the problem of scattered radiation, even with improved X-radiation techniques, cannot to desirable extents be mastered. The soft skull coverings have a deciding influence on the extent of the scattered radiation. By the use of the angular teleradiographic unit whose two radiation sources stand at right angles to another with a FFA of 150 cm each, the interval between frontal and lateral teleradiographs could be shortened. The individual movements of the patient could thereby be diminished and projection distortions between the two exposures reduced. A further advantage of the angular teleradiographic unit is that lateral and posterior-anterior exposures can be produced without changing the head positioning. The prerequisite is a stable cephalostat. For the evaluation of the posterior-anterior teleradiographic exposures of the facial bones a method is recommended, which is simple and comprehensive and satisfies the requirements of clinical diagnostic. Finally, a method for the clear representation of the sixth year molars is suggested in which the clinical crown is covered with a radiographically contrasting foil (tin foil). (orig.) [de

  13. Isolation, identification and retrospective study of foot-and-mouth disease virus from affected Mithun (Bos frontalis) in north-eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, B; Deka, P; Sharma, K; Baro, S; Hazarika, A K; Das, C; Garam, G B; Boro, P; Ltu, K

    2018-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes substantial and perpetual economic loss. Apart from the contagious nature of the disease, the FMD virus can establish in a "carrier state" among all cloven-hoofed animals. The Mithun (Bos frontalis), popularly called the "Cattle of Mountain," is found in the geographically isolated, hilly region of north-east India: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. Despite the geographical inaccessibility, infection by FMD virus has emerged as the single most devastating disease among Mithun after the eradication of rinderpest from this region. Samples from outbreaks of FMD in Mithun were analysed by sandwich ELISA, multiplex RT-PCR (MRT-PCR) and liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and isolated in the BHK-21 cell line. The results indicate the presence of FMDV serotype "O." The sequencing and molecular phylogenies have revealed close relationships in the lineage of type "O" isolates from Bangladesh. The findings will provide useful information for further research and development of a sustainable programme for the progressive control of FMD in the Mithun population. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Modelación de la conectividad de las subpoblaciones de la langosta de Juan Fernández (Jasus frontalis, a través de un modelo biofísico Modeling the connectivity of Juan Fernández rock lobster (Jasus frontalis, subpopulations through a biophysical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Porobic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El archipiélago de Juan Fernández y el de las islas Desventuradas, corresponden a dos pequenos grupos de islas oceánicas, separadas entre sí 460 mn y ubicadas aproximadamente a 360 mn frente a la costa chilena. La economía local de estas islas se basa casi exclusivamente en la extracción y comercialización de recursos marinos, focalizados principalmente en la explotación de la langosta (Jasusfrontalis. Esta especie endémica se encuentra distribuída en ambos archipiélagos conformando una metapoblación, donde su dinámica y estructura poblacional sería modulada por forzantes oceanográficos, especialmente durante su prolongada fase larval planctónica. Se evaluó la estructura poblacional y el grado de conectividad-retención dentro y entre las diferentes islas mediante el uso de modelos biofísicos acoplados (modelos hidrodinámicos provenientes del modelo OFES y un modelo individuo basado de J. frontalis. El análisis de los resultados del modelo hidrodinámico indica la presencia de estructuras de mesoescala asociadas al sistema de islas. Índices provenientes del modelo biofísico muestran niveles importantes de conectividad-retención dentro y entre los sistemas de islas y una fuerte variación interanual de estos. Los resultados de la modelación biofísica indican que la varibilidad en el reclutamiento asociado al archipiélago de Juan Fernández depende mayoritariamente de larvas originadas en este mismo sistema, con un aporte importante de reclutas hacia el archipiélago de las Desventuradas. Se realizaron estudios de sensibilidad del modelo biofísico para identificar forzantes potenciales de las variables dependientes del modelo (e.g. índices de conectividad-retención, resultando en que los patrones temporales y espaciales reproductivos, la duración del estadio larval y la temporada (ano son altamente significativos. Finalmente, se propone que J. frontalis presenta una estructura metapoblacional con un alto nivel de

  15. The protective efficacy and safety of bandage contact lenses in children aged 5 to 11 after frontalis muscle flap suspension for congenital blepharoptosis: A single-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Pi, Lianhong; Ke, Ning; Chen, Xinke; Liu, Qing

    2017-09-01

    Postoperative complications, lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy sometimes occur after surgery for congenital blepharoptosis. Bandage contact lenses (BCL) can help prevent some ocular surface disorders. The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BCL for protection of the ocular surface in children aged 5 to 11 years after frontalis muscle flap suspension for congenital blepharoptosis. We conducted a prospective randomized clinical study of 30 eyes of 30 patients with congenital blepharoptosis consecutively enrolled at the Ophthalmology Ward of the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, China from September 1, 2016, to February 30, 2017. After frontalis muscle flap suspension surgery, patients were randomly assigned to undergo BCL application (BCL group, 15 eyes) or no BCL application (control group, 15 eyes). All patients were treated with bramycin 0.3% and polyvinyl alcohol drops after surgery. The primary outcomes were dry eye assessed by tear film break time (TFBUT), fluoresce in corneal staining (FCS) on slit-lamp on days 1, 3, and 15 postoperatively, and lower tear meniscus height (LTMH) on optical coherence tomography on days 1 and 15 postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were pairwise correlation of TFBUT, FCS and LTMH. In the BCL group, abnormal TFBUT and FCS were only found in 2 patients (13.33%) on postoperative day 15. In the control group, the incidence of dry eye assessed by TFBUT was 67.00% (10/15 eyes) on day 1, 73.33% (11/15 eyes) on day 3, and 53.33% (8/15 eyes) on day 15 (P days 1 and 15 post-operation. For LTMH and FCSS (R = -0.815, P day 1, but not correlated on day 15. Silicone hydrogel BCL were safe and efficacious for protective use in children after frontalis muscle flap suspension for congenital blepharoptosis.

  16. Respuesta kairomonal de coleópteros asociados a Dendroctonus frontalis y dos especies de Ips (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en bosques de Chiapas, México Kairomonal response of coleopterans associated with Dendroctonus frontalis and two Ips species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in forest of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Domínguez-Sánchez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la diversidad de escarabajos descortezadores y la respuesta diferencial de sus coleópteros asociados a feromonas comerciales de agregación, en bosques de pino del estado de Chiapas, México. Durante los meses de junio a octubre del 2006, se colocaron 40 trampas multiembudo tipo Lindgren cebadas con las feromonas racémicas frontalina, ipsenol e ipsdienol y un testigo (sin feromona. La captura fue más abundante para los escarabajos descortezadores Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann con frontalina, y de Ips spp. con ipsenol e ipsdienol. Se registró respuesta kairomonal específica de los depredadores Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr y Elacatis sp. hacia las feromonas de agregación. Tanto para descortezadores como para depredadores, las mayores abundancias fueron registradas durante el verano y a comienzos del otoño. Temmnochila chlorodia exhibió una atracción diferencial hacia los semioquímicos evaluados, mientras que E. ablusus, Elacatis sp. y Leptostylus sp. fueron atraídos principalmente por las feromonas ipsenol e ipsdienol. Además, por primera vez para México se determinó la respuesta kairomonal del fitófago Leptostylus sp. (Cerambycidae. Estos resultados indican que hay una comunicación intra e inter específica entre los escarabajos descortezadores y sus especies asociadas que promueven interacciones de competencia y depredación.We assessed the bark beetle diversity and the response of associated predators to aggregation pheromones in pine forests in Chiapas, Mexico. From June to October 2006, 40 Lindgren funnel traps were established with different baits that included frontalin, ipsenol and ipsdienol pheromones and a control (without pheromone. We registered the attractiveness of frontalin to the bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann, and ipsenol and ipsdienol to Ips spp. Kairomonal specific response of the predators Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr and

  17. Isolation and characterization of eight microsatellite loci from Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger shark and cross-amplification in Carcharhinus leucas, Carcharhinus brevipinna, Carcharhinus plumbeus and Sphyrna lewini

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    Agathe Pirog

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier (Carcharhinidae is a large elasmobranch suspected to have, as other apex predators, a keystone function in marine ecosystems and is currently considered Near Threatened (Red list IUCN. Knowledge on its ecology, which is crucial to design proper conservation and management plans, is very scarce. Here we describe the isolation of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of enriched DNA libraries. Their characteristics were tested on a population of tiger shark (n = 101 from Reunion Island (South-Western Indian Ocean. All loci were polymorphic with a number of alleles ranging from two to eight. No null alleles were detected and no linkage disequilibrium was detected after Bonferroni correction. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.03 to 0.76 and from 0.03 to 0.77, respectively. No locus deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the global FIS of the population was of 0.04NS. Some of the eight loci developed here successfully cross-amplified in the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (one locus, the spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna (four loci, the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus (five loci and the scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini (two loci. We also designed primers to amplify and sequence a mitochondrial marker, the control region. We sequenced 862 bp and found a low genetic diversity, with four polymorphic sites, a haplotype diversity of 0.15 and a nucleotide diversity of 2 × 10−4.

  18. Distribución y condiciones ambientales asociadas al comportamiento del delfín bufeo (Tursiops truncatus y el delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: Delphinidae en el Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica

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    Priscilla Cubero-Pardo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Las características del hábitat que influyen en las especies animales varían de un lugar a otro. Al mismo tiempo, toda especie es rodeada por una serie de factores ambientales que interactúan entre sí, pero la influencia que una característica ambiental particular pueda ejercer sobre una especie depende no sólo de las demás variables, sino de las condiciones morfológicas, fisiológicas y sociales de esa especie. En este estudio, desarrollado de junio 1996 a julio 1997, la pregunta fue enfocada a determinar si comportamientos específicos en el delfín bufeo (Tursiops truncatus y el delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata están relacionados con áreas de distribución y factores ambientales particulares. El área de estudio fue cubierta siguiendo transectos lineares oblicuos predeterminados y cada grupo fue observado de 15 min a 5 h. Las variables ambientales fueron medidas al inicio y al final de cada avistamiento junto con la determinación de la posición geográfica y el comportamiento llevado a cabo por los delfines. Para el bufeo, las actividades de forrajeo/ alimentación mostraron coincidencia exclusiva con bocas de ríos y áreas de coral y manglar, y las actividades sociales y de merodeo, se asociaron a áreas cercanas a los sitios de forrajeo. El desplazamiento ocurrió a lo largo de diferentes puntos paralelos a la costa, con un bajo porcentaje de casos a través del golfo (16.56 %, lo cual sugiere que el bufeo rara vez cruza el golfo. En el caso del manchado, no fue posible asociar zonas comportamientos particulares, pues todo el grupo se mueve junto; sin embargo, si fue observada la presencia de distintos comportamientos en un mismo momento, llevados a cabo por grupos específicos dentro de la manada. Se consideraron factores ambientales tales como la profundidad, la temperatura, la salinidad y la distancia respecto a la costa, entre otros. El ANDEVA de bloques no reveló una relación marcada entre actividades y zonas

  19. Le faune et la sirène : la situation de Cuvier dans l’économie de The Marble Faun, de Nathaniel Hawthorne

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    Antoine Traisnel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Marble Faun ends with one character’s polite refusal to satisfy the narrator’s curiosity concerning young Donatello’s possible animality. When asked if Donatello’s ears are as pointy as those of the book’s titular figure, the Faun of Praxiteles, Kenyon smiles inscrutably and responds: “On that point, at all events, there shall be no word of explanation.” On that “point” – that of Donatello’s ears—the author remains obstinately tight-lipped, having “hoped to mystify this anomalous creature between the Real and the Fantastic […] without impelling him to ask how Cuvier would have classified poor Donatello.” The disclosure of a small anatomical detail threatens to shatter the whole edifice of Hawthorne’s fiction. The point in question here, however, is not just the extremity that makes measurement possible but also the ungraspable limit (the punctum that undoes the logic of Cuvierian classification. Analyzing the metrics of The Marble Faun, my paper will query how the romance envisions the vanishing point of the human/animal relation.The Marble Faun s’achève sur le refus poli d’un personnage qui renâcle à satisfaire la curiosité du narrateur. Quand celui-ci lui demande si les oreilles du jeune Donatello sont aussi pointues que celles du Faune de Praxitèle, Kenyon sourit mystérieusement et répond : « On that point, at all events, there shall be no word of explanation. » Sur ce point, ou plutôt sur la pointe des oreilles de Donatello, l’« auteur » reste muet dans l’espoir, écrit-il, de situer cette créature aberrante « entre le réel et le fantastique » sans avoir à spécifier la place qu’elle occupe au sein de la taxonomie établie par Cuvier. La divulgation d’un petit détail anatomique menace de faire imploser l’édifice de la fiction hawthornienne. Le point en question, cependant, n’est pas simplement l’extrémité à partir de laquelle l

  20. Variabilidad de las comunidades de parásitos metazoos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae en Chile Variability of metazoan parasite communities in the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae off Chile

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    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La comparación de las variaciones en el tiempo cronológico y en el espacio es uno de los aspectos menos estudiados en la ecología de las comunidades de parásitos. Por eso, en este estudio se compara la abundancia total, riqueza y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae, entre muestras tomadas en Chile centro-sur en tres localidades geográficas (Talcahuano, Puerto Montt y Punta Arenas, y en dos momentos del tiempo en cada una de ellas. En el conjunto de las 126 infracomunidades examinadas se encontraron 18 taxa de parásitos. La abundancia total y la composición de las infracomunidades se modificaban con la ontogenia del hospedador. Sin embargo, se encontró que la variación entre años en una localidad es de similar magnitud a la que hay entre lugares geográficos, luego de corregir por el efecto de la ontogenia del hospedador. Estos resultados resaltan la necesidad de implementar diseños de muestreo más rigurosos al momento de usar a los parásitos como marcadores biológicos de las poblaciones de hospedadores. Se propone que futuros estudios en las fuentes de variación de las comunidades de parásitos mejoren la descripción de estas variaciones con diseños de muestreo con medidas replicadas en el tiempo y el espacio.Comparison of variations in both chronological time and space is one of the least studied subjects in the ecology of parasite communities. Thus, we compared the abundance, richness and composition of parasite infracommunities in the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenncienes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae, between three widely separated localities along south-central Chile (Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Punta Arenas, which were sampled in two different years each. Eighteen parasite taxa were taxonomically determined in the 126 hosts examined. Total abundance and infracommunity composition changed along host ontogeny

  1. Les villes frontalières thaïlandaises dans la régionalisation Thai Bordertowns in the Regionalization Process: Spatial Planing and Production of New Urban Forms

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    Elsa Lainé

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La ville frontalière apparaît comme un type urbain particulier, tant en raison de sa localisation que de ses fonctions. Cet article propose d’étudier les villes frontalières thaïlandaises, et plus précisément celles situées sur les corridors de développement mis en place dans le cadre de la coopération régionale. Si ces villes sont longtemps apparues comme des espaces périphériques, peu intégrés au territoire national, deux dynamiques contemporaines modifient cet état de fait : le mouvement de déconcentration initié par le gouvernement thaïlandais dès le milieu des années 1970 d’une part, et surtout la coopération régionale marquant le tournant des années 1990 d’autre part. Les villes frontalières thaïlandaises sont devenues depuis une vingtaine d’années des objets spécifiques de la planification gouvernementale. D’espaces périphériques, elles ont été promues gateways, pôles de croissance économiques et soutien au commerce avec les pays limitrophes. Même si leur place dans le tissu urbain national diverge encore largement, des projets d’infrastructures leur permet d’acquérir une nouvelle envergure. L’étude de cas de trois villes sélectionnées montrent que si elles diffèrent au regard de critères démographiques, économiques ou en termes d’équipements, ces villes ont toutes connu au cours des dernières années et sous l’effet combiné de la régionalisation et de la planification une modification de leur organisation spatiale. De nouveaux centres apparaissent, et la diversité des acteurs impliqués ainsi que les dynamiques en cours sont à même de modifier de manière variable les relations entretenues avec les centres urbains situés de l’autre côté de la frontière d’une part, et la place de ces villes frontalières thaïlandaises dans le tissu urbain national et régional d’autre part.This paper will focus on Thai bordertowns located on ADB economic corridors. The

  2. Distribuição espacial e temporal de Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii, Engraulidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Spatial and temporal distribution of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii-Engraulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Araújo Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are members of the Engraulidae family, characterized to present coastal pelagic habits, concentrating in large schoolings distributed among the continental shelf and semi-closed environment, like bays, where they are target of heavy fisheries. The present study aims to describe spatial and temporal distribution of Cetengraulis edentulous (Cuvier, 1828 in the Sepetiba bay (22º54'-23º04'S, 43º34'-44º10'W and to assess influences of environmental variables on fish occurrence. A monthly sampling programme was carried out between October 1998 and September 1999, to take both, fish and environmental information on temperature, salinity and depth. Three bay zones were established based on spatial gradient of salinity and depth. Adults C. edentulus were more abundant in the inner bay zone; seasonally, larger size groups (total length > 16 cm occurred in spring/summer. Significant negative correlations were found between fish abundance and salinity and depth. The close relationship of this species to innermost areas in bays, and the absence of juveniles in sandy beaches, suggest that young-of-the-year use mangrove areas as recruitment sites.

  3. Uso da fáscia temporal na suspensão frontal: descrição da técnica cirúrgica - Relato de caso Use of temporal fascia in frontalis suspension: description of the surgical technique - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Pereira Nunes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Familiarizar o oftalmologista com a anatomia da região temporal, descrever a técnica cirúrgica da retirada da fáscia temporal e da suspensão frontal e analisar as vantagens e desvantagens da fáscia temporal na suspensão frontal. MÉTODOS: Revisão do prontuário de uma paciente com blefaroptose grave que foi submetida à suspensão frontal com fáscia temporal. Revisão da anatomia da fossa temporal e das técnicas cirúrgicas. RESULTADOS: Bom resultado estético e funcional foi conseguido no caso descrito. CONCLUSÃO: A fáscia temporal é boa opção na suspensão frontal com algumas vantagens: é um tecido autógeno, de fácil obtenção e mínima morbidade no pós-operatório.PURPOSE: To familiarize the ophthalmologist with the anatomy of the temporal region, to describe the surgical technique of temporal fascia harvest and frontalis suspension and to demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of temporal fascia in frontalis suspension. METHODS: Review of the clinical and surgical data of one case with severe blepharoptosis who underwent frontalis suspension using temporal fascia. Review of the anatomy of the temporal fossa and the surgical techniques. RESULTS: Good esthetic and functional results were obtained in this case. CONCLUSION: Temporal fascia is a good choice for frontalis suspension with some advantages: it is autogenous, it is easily harvested and it yields minimal post-operative morbidity.

  4. Dinâmica populacional, biologia reprodutiva e o ictioplâncton de Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier (Pisces, Clupeiformes, Engraulidae na enseada do Saco dos Limões, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Population dynamics, reproductive biology and the ichthyoplankton of Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier (Pisces, Clupeiformes, Engraulidae in the Saco dos Limões cove, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    José M. Souza-Conceição

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os dados utilizados neste estudo são originários de um monitoramento ambiental realizado na enseada do Saco dos Limões, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Neste monitoramento foram coletadas amostras da ictiofauna, sendo separados para análise um total de 3820 exemplares de Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1828, capturados em 17 coletas, no período compreendido entre julho de 1999 e abril de 2001. A análise dos dados permitiu estimar parâmetros populacionais e reprodutivos importantes como o comprimento de primeira maturação (118 mm para sexos grupados, 112 e 118 mm para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente, as distribuições de freqüências de comprimento, a relação peso-comprimento (Pt = 0,0000003 x Ct 3,67º8, a proporção sexual ao longo do tempo, a variação sazonal dos estádios de maturação gonadal, o índice gonadossomático, o fator de condição e o fator de condição somático, o ciclo reprodutivo e o período de desova, sendo também determinada a participação da espécie no ictioplâncton. Foram determinadas as correlações entre os parâmetros biológicos e os ambientais de temperatura e salinidade da água, superficial e de fundo. Constatou-se que a espécie utiliza o ambiente de estudo ao longo de todo seu ciclo de vida, tanto para reprodução quanto para a alimentação e o crescimento, e está estrategicamente adaptada às condições ambientais e biológicas da área de estudo.Data used in this study are from a monitoring program conducted in the Saco dos Limões cove, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this program, fish fauna were collected in 17 surveys from July 1999 to April 2001. For this study, 3820 individuals of Centengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1828 were examined regarding population and reproductive parameters, such as, length at sexual maturity (118 mm for the combined sexes, 112 mm for males and 118 mm for females, frequency distributions for total length, length-weight relationship (Wt

  5. Audiogram of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Hagedoorn, M.; Au, W.W.L.; Haan, de D.

    2003-01-01

    The underwater hearing sensitivity of a striped dolphin was measured in a pool using standard psycho-acoustic techniques. The go/no-go response paradigm and up¿down staircase psychometric method were used. Auditory sensitivity was measured by using 12 narrow-band frequency-modulated signals having

  6. Mode d'exploitation et durabilité de la pêche de Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 et Gymnarchus niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 dans le lac de barrage du Sourou (Burkina Faso

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    Dialla, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mode of Operation and Sustainability of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 and Gymnarchus niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 Fisheries in the Sourou Dam Lake (Burkina Faso. This research on fishery exploitation in the Sourou dam raises the issue of sustainable management of common property. The central hypothesis is that the effectiveness of co-management for sustainable fishing practices is related to the level of ownership of that management and actors' games by fishing communities. In analysing co-management induced effects on fishing practices and exploitation of C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and G. niloticus species, related to its implementation in Sourou fishery, a research methodology that combines qualitative and quantitative methods is used. Socio-economic surveys were conducted with 30 fishermen in three villages bordering the fishery. Biological surveys were also conducted with catches of C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and G. niloticus of these fishermen,. The results indicate a weak ownership of the co-management model by fishermen and the strategies of actors that consist to minimize the costs of the sustainable management of fisheries resources at individual level. Indeed, even when informed of fisheries regulations, fishermen use prohibited fishing equipment (54.1% of the catches of studied species, and fishi illegally (43.3% of the fishermen. Furthermore, significant proportions of each studied species are captured before their first maturity sizes (52.2% of C. gariepinus, 15.8% of G. niloticus and 14.3% of O. niloticus. So, the central hypothesis is verified because the weak ownership of co-management by fishing communities and the actors' strategies do not encourage them to develop a responsible behavior for sustainable fishing.

  7. (obese) gene of mithun (Bos frontalis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nishant-3

    2Division of Animal Genetics, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly-243 122, India. 3Department of Animal ... closely associated with social, cultural, religious and livelihood of the tribes .... Southeast Asia (Gupta et al., 1999).

  8. Valka-Valga: recomposition d’une agglomération frontalière entre Lettonie et Estonie ? Valka-Valga: the recomposition of a cross-border urban agglomeration between Latvia and Estonia?

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    Pascal Orcier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Valka (Lettonie et Valga (Estonie forment un continuum urbain transfrontalier de 20 000 habitants. L’article propose d’envisager dans un premier temps la singularité de la configuration frontalière locale, dans le contexte de restauration nationale qui a caractérisé les Etats baltes depuis 1991, puis de leur intégration communautaire. La frontière est désormais complètement ouverte, mais fait partie de l’identité et du quotidien de la ville. Toutefois, le tissu urbain ne semble pour l’instant guère affecté par ce changement de statut, et des obstacles persistent à l’existence d’une vie transfrontalière plus marquée. Il existe pourtant des stratégies économiques visant à recoudre la trame urbaine, avec l’aide des fonds européens. L’exploitation de la frontière peut-elle jouer comme élément de reconversion d’une économie locale fragilisée par le déclin des activités industrielles et agricoles ? Le déclin économique et démographique est réel, longtemps accentué par le handicap que représentait la proximité de la frontière et une situation en périphérie des territoires nationaux. La ville réunifiée est-elle en mesure de redevenir un pôle régional à part entière, comme elle l’avait été pendant les siècles précédents ?Valka (Latvia and Valga (Estonia form a cross-border urban continuum of 20 000 inhabitants. The article first proposes to examine the singularity of the local cross-border configuration, within the context of national restoration, which has characterized Baltic States since 1991, and then their integration to the EU. The border is nowadays completely open, but is still part of the identity and everyday life of the city. To date the urban fabric has hardly been affected by this change of status, and obstacles still prevent the development of a more intense cross-border activity. However, economic strategies do exist to mend the urban fabric, with the help of EU funds

  9. Heart Development in the Spotted Dolphin (Stenella attenuata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Míšek, Ivan; Sedmera, D.; Klíma, M.; Thompson, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2003), s. 687-699 ISSN 0003-276X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7039901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : cardiac morphogenesis * compact myocardium * coronary vasculogenesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2002

  10. Hepatic lesions in cetaceans stranded in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, J R; Pérez, J; Arbelo, M; Andrada, M; Hidalgo, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Van Den Ingh, T; Fernández, A

    2004-03-01

    This article describes the gross, histopathologic, and ultrastructural findings of the livers of cetaceans stranded on the coast of the Canary Islands between 1992 and 2000. A total of 135 cetaceans were included in the study, among which 25 were common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), 23 Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), 19 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), and 15 other species of dolphins and whales. The most common lesion observed in these animals was a nonspecific chronic reactive hepatitis (47/135), followed by hyaline intracytoplasmic inclusions in hepatocytes (33/135). Parasitic cholangitis was detected in 8/135 animals, whereas hepatic lipidosis was presented in 7/135 animals. The ultrastructure of hyaline hepatocytic cytoplasmic inclusions is described, and possible causes of these inclusions are discussed.

  11. Culture-independent analysis of microflora in Gayals (Bos frontalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... they are at the edge of extinction in small numbers. Gayal has a very .... To minimize animal to animal variations, the aliquots of feces from the five animals .... absorption of host and was the reason why Gayals attained greater ...

  12. Culture-independent analysis of microflora in Gayals ( Bos frontalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chi, H Zun-xi, W Chang-fei, X Bo, W Xiao-yan. Abstract. Comparative DNA sequence analysis of 16S/18S rRNA genes (rDNA) were undertaken to further our understanding of the make-up of micro-organisms communities in the feces of Gayals ...

  13. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

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    Tatiana Lemos Bisi

    Full Text Available To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13C and δ(15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13C values. The highest δ(15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13C values, but similar δ(15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area.

  14. Notes on the diet of Pterogymnus laniarius (Cuvier)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dentatus, Octopus sp. and Chlamys tincta are associated with reefs, it is clear that the most important prey are found on soft substrates. These include Macoma sp., Goneplax angulata; Mursia cristimanus and Dictenophiura anoidea. In a study of the diet of P. laniarius taken by trawlers in the. Eastern Cape, Hecht (1976) also ...

  15. Life history of the steentjie Spondyliosoma emarginatum (Cuvier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric measurements and fin spine and ray counts, external colouration, macroscopic gonad stage and diet were recorded for steentjie Spondyliosoma emarginatum (Pisces: Sparidae) collected from Langebaan Lagoon between August 2004 and September 2005. Sagittal otoliths were removed, and age estimates ...

  16. Population Parameters of Blainvilles and Cuviers Beaked Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    cetacean populations. Long-term monitoring of beaked whale populations in El Hierro , a nearly pristine habitat far from areas of sonar testing or...marine industry, enables valuable studies of demographic trends and life history dictated mainly by natural parameters. El Hierro is in process of...functioning (expected in 2018-2019), it is essential to continue monitoring the populations in El Hierro to obtain an uninterrupted long-term dataset of

  17. Reproductive biology of common octopus Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Reproductive biology of common octopus Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Although common octopus catches are increasing globally, lack of information on the species reproductive biology has been a major concern in its management particularly in Kenya. The present study aimed at investigating the reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris from Shimoni and Vanga in the Kenyan South ...

  19. Aspects Of The Biology Of Heterotis niloticus Cuvier 1829 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on some aspects of the biology of Heterots nilotcus in Anambra river were carried out for 22 months. Analysis of the stomach content of 546 species of H. niloticus in Anambra river established the preponderance o plantivorous crustacean, copepods and cladocera throughout the four maturation stages examined.

  20. Pulmonary and systemic fungal infections in an Atlantic spotted dolphin and a Bryde's whale, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, Kátia R; Díaz-Delgado, Josué; Sacristán, Carlos; Oliveira, Denyiélim E; Souza, Gabriela; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica M; Costa-Silva, Samira; Marigo, Juliana; Castilho, Pedro V; Cremer, Marta J; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline; Esperón, Fernando; Catão-Dias, José L

    2018-03-22

    We report the gross and microscopic findings and molecular identification of 2 cases of hyphate fungal infection in cetaceans from Brazil. The first case involved an adult male Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis with localized pulmonary disease characterized by pyogranulomatous and necrotizing bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae. The second case involved an adult male Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni with orchitis, periorchitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae. PCR analysis from the dolphin's lung yielded Aspergillus fumigatus, and the fungus from the whale's mesenteric lymph node showed the greatest identity to Nanniziopsis obscura and Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum These cases represent the first reports of pulmonary aspergillosis by A. fumigatus in an Atlantic spotted dolphin and systemic mycosis by a possibly novel Onygenales in marine mammals.

  1. Dental pathology in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from the southern coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Carolina; Grando, Liliane J; Kieser, Jules A; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C

    2011-05-09

    Pathological processes observed in the stomatognathic systems of mammalian species are a useful source of information about the habits, evolution and general health of such animals. Studies of pathological conditions on teeth are common in humans and other primates, but rare in wild animals in general and marine mammals in particular. For cetaceans, previous studies provided scanty records of dental anomalies in a few species. This is the first broad and systematic inventory of dental pathology in dolphins. Specimens stored at scientific collections from the southern coast of Brazil were visually inspected under a stereoscopic microscope using a dental explorer. Diagnosis of lesions and anomalies followed literature descriptions. Abnormalities such as caries-like lesions, mineralized calculus deposits, dental erosion, enamel anomalies (hypoplasia and exogenous pigmentation), root resorption, germination and other shape anomalies, were diagnosed in the delphinids Sotalia guianensis, Delphinus capensis, Stenella frontalis, Stenella coeruleoalba, Lagenodelphis hosei, Pseudorca crassidens, Orcinus orca, Steno bredanensis and Tursiops truncatus. Endogenous causes may be related to the occurrence of certain conditions, but the aetiology of caries-like lesions and calculus accumulation is still unknown for cetaceans. The diagnosis of alveolar anomalies and other bone lesions in specimens with dental pathology lead us to believe these lesions modify the integrity of the periodontal ligament and bony tissues, adding to the burden of morbidity of affected animals.

  2. Approaches to studying environmental effects on resistance of Pinus taeda L. to Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Lorio

    1996-01-01

    There are a number of ways to approach the problem of assessing the effects of environmental conditions, such as water regime, on tree physiological responses and resistance to bark beetle attack.It helps to keep in mind that environmental factors operate throught physiological processes (Fig. 1, and Kramer 1986), and that there are concepts, such as plant growth-...

  3. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, D.de; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  4. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour popoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, de D.; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  5. Geographic variations in the whistles of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) of the Main Hawai‵ian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazúa-Durán, Carmen; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2004-12-01

    Geographic variations in the whistles of Hawai‵ian spinner dolphins are discussed by comparing 27 spinner dolphin pods recorded in waters off the Islands of Kaua‵i, O‵ahu, Lana‵i, and Hawai‵i. Three different behavioral states, the number of dolphins observed in each pod, and ten parameters extracted from each whistle contour were considered by using clustering and discriminant function analyses. The results suggest that spinner dolphin pods in the Main Hawai‵ian Islands share characteristics in approximately 48% of their whistles. Spinner dolphin pods had similar whistle parameters regardless of the island, location, and date when they were sampled and the dolphins' behavioral state and pod size. The term ‵‵whistle-specific subgroup'' (WSS) was used to designate whistle groups with similar whistles parameters (which could have been produced in part by the same dolphins). The emission rate of whistles was higher when spinner dolphins were socializing than when they were traveling or resting, suggesting that whistles are mainly used during close-range interactions. Spinner dolphins also seem to vary whistle duration according to their general behavioral state. Whistle duration and the number of turns and steps of a whistle may be more important in delivering information at the individual level than whistle frequency parameters. .

  6. A new species of iguana Brachylophus Cuvier 1829 (Sauria: Iguania: Iguanidae) from Gau Island, Fiji Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S

    2017-06-06

    The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji.  Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species.  One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province.  Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations.  We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.

  7. A new species of iguana Brachylophus Cuvier 1829 (Sauria: Iguania: Iguanidae) from Gau Island, Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N.; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S.

    2017-01-01

    The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji.  Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species.  One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province.  Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations.  We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.

  8. Distribution and size of the mojarra Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii, Gerreidae in a Southeastern Brazilian bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Rodrigues da Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diapterus rhombeus is one of the most abundant fish species in the Sepetiba bay, which is a 520 km² semi-closed coastal area in Southeastern Brazil. The size and distribution of this species have been described in order to assess the use of the area as a rearing ground in both spatial and temporal (seasonal dimensions. A fish sampling program was conducted monthly by using an otter trawl between October 1998 and September 1999, in three bay zones (outer, middle and inner, defined according to depth and salinity gradient. Highly significant differences were found for CPUEs (number and biomass among seasons and zones. Size ranged from 50 to 230 mm TL, and three size-groups were defined according to a maturation scale (n = 1435: 1 - immature ( 100 mm TL. Immature and L50 individuals were more abundant (number and biomass during Autumn in the inner zone, while adults (L100 predominated during Summer in the outer zone. Evidences of movements of young-of-the-year (50-90 mm TL individuals from the inner to the outer zone were detected as they reach larger sizes (180 mm TL in the second year of life. Condition (k was higher in larger sized individuals in the outer zone during Spring, when they are apt to start the reproductive process. Two cohorts were detected according to modal progression: the first (smaller size showing faster growth than the second, evidencing a slower growth rate as they reach larger size. Distinct size classes occupying different bay zones suggest that the age-groups optimize their coexistence by partitioning the available resources, avoiding intra-specific competition.Diapterus rhombeus é uma das espécies de peixes mais abundantes na Baia de Sepetiba, ambiente costeiro de 520 km² de área semifechada no sudoeste do Brasil. O tamanho e distribuição dos indivíduos desta espécie foram descritos com o objetivo de determinar o uso das áreas de criação numa dimensão espacial e temporal (sazonal. Um programa de amostragem de arrasto de fundo foi conduzido mensalmente entre outubro 1998 a setembro 1999, em três zonas da baía (externa, central, interna, definidas através de gradientes de profundidade e salinidade. Diferenças altamente significativas foram encontradas para CPUEs (número e biomassa entre estações do ano e zonas. O comprimento variou de 50 a 230 mm CT. Três grupos de tamanhos foram definidos de acordo com uma escala de maturação gonadal (n = 1435: 1 - imaturo ( 100 mm CT. Imaturos e indivíduos L50 foram abundantes (número e biomassa durante o outono na zona interna, enquanto adultos (L100 predominaram durante o verão na zona externa. Evidências de movimento de indivíduos jovens (50-90 mm CT da zona interna para zona externa foram detectadas conforme os animais foram atingindo maiores tamanhos (180 mm CT, no segundo ano de vida. A condição (k aumentou em indivíduos maiores na zona externa durante a primavera, quando estes se tornam aptos a iniciar o processo reprodutivo. Duas coortes foram detectadas de acordo com a progressão modal: a primeira (menores tamanhos mostrando crescimento mais rápido do que a segunda, evidenciando uma taxa menor de crescimento a medida que atingem maiores tamanhos. Diferentes classes de comprimento ocupando diferentes zonas da baía sugerem que grupos de idades otimizam sua coexistência compartilhando os recursos disponíveis e evitando competição intra-especifica.

  9. Distribution and size of the mojarra Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) (Actinopterygii, Gerreidae) in a Southeastern Brazilian bay

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Marcus Rodrigues da; Albieri,Rafael Jardim; Neves,Leonardo Mitrano; Santos,Alex Braz Lacone; Araujo,Francisco Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Diapterus rhombeus is one of the most abundant fish species in the Sepetiba bay, which is a 520 km² semi-closed coastal area in Southeastern Brazil. The size and distribution of this species have been described in order to assess the use of the area as a rearing ground in both spatial and temporal (seasonal) dimensions. A fish sampling program was conducted monthly by using an otter trawl between October 1998 and September 1999, in three bay zones (outer, middle and inner), defined according ...

  10. Genetic and morphological variations in the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier 1817) from the Goa region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Naik, S.; Martins, M.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Indian_Acad_Sci_(Anim_Sci)_99_457.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Indian_Acad_Sci_(Anim_Sci)_99_457.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  11. Den ecology of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, on soft sediment: availability and types of shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available To avoid predation, octopuses select and actively modify shelters (also called dens in the substratum, where they remain most of the time, especially during daylight hours. The main questions that this study deals with are: Is den availability a significant constraint for the distribution of Octopus vulgaris on soft sediment? What kind of dens does O. vulgaris use on soft sediment and what factors affect the selection of one type instead of another? With population density measurements by SCUBA diving and enrichment experiments with artificial dens, we concluded that the availability of solid materials necessary for den construction is a limiting factor for the distribution of O. vulgaris on soft sediment. O. vulgaris used four different types of den on soft sediment: well (a vertical hole in the sediment, rock/stone (the octopus uses a rock or a large stone to dig a cavity under it, shell (an empty shell is used, human origin (a solid material of human origin is used. The relative proportion of the four types of den in the areas studied was: 38.7% human origin, 29.7% well, 21.5% rock/stone, 2.9% shell. Also, 7.3% of the octopuses were found outside their den. The main types of den were found in different relative proportions in relation to the depth, the distance from shore, the octopus size and the granulometry of the sediment.

  12. Worldwide Population Structure in Cuvier’s Beaked Whales: Identification of Units for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Kitchener, Royal Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK; V. Martin, Sociedad para el Estudio de los Cetaceos en el Archipelago Canario (SECAC), Lanzarote, Canary...some delays in setting up the UNSW School of BEES Ancient DNA Laboratory (part of the Molecular Ecology and Evolution Facility; MEEF). These...Flores, University of Valparaiso, Chile; C. Olavarria, Fundación Centro de Estudios del Cuaternario Fuego-Patagonia y Antártica (INACH), Chile; J. L

  13. Morphologic characterisation and elemental distribution of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 vestigial shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoleao, P.; Reis, C. Sousa; Alves, L.C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2005-01-01

    The elemental composition of mineral structures in marine organisms can provide useful information to reconstruct environmental histories of individuals and distinguish populations or stocks. In cephalopods, as Octopus vulgaris, morpho-physiological description of vestigial shells may contribute to a better understanding of the physiology, of the process involved in the increment growth and may eventually provide important and useful tools for the validation of age determination methods. Nuclear microprobe analysis was used to map chemical elements in O. vulgaris vestigial shell. The maps contain elemental and morphological information, and enabled especially through Cl and Ca distributions to classify bands of concentric rings. The levels of P, Ca and Sr decrease from central region to external rings, while those of S and Cl showed an inverse tendency. Enhanced concentrations of Fe, Cu and Zn were found in external rings, and no significant variations were detected in the K and Br contents. The results indicate that three regions can be established on the basis of the elemental contents distributions. Specially, the P and Ca variability can distinguish rings from central and external regions. The differential incorporation of elements in the vestigial shell observed may reflect environmental and physiological factors that are affecting the life cycle of this species

  14. Functional integrity of Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1816 sperm cryopreserved with enriched extender solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raycon Roberto Freitas Garcia

    Full Text Available Cryoprotectant solutions are used to protect the sperm from alterations caused by the low temperature in the cryopreservation process. We evaluated the quality of Colossoma macropomum semen after freezing, using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as a cryoprotectant, combined with two extender solutions (T1 - Solution 1: Glucose 90.0 g/L, Sodium Citrate 6.0 g/L, EDTA 1.5 g/L, Sodium Bicarbonate 1.5 g/L, Potassium Chloride 0.8 g/L, Gentamycin Sulphate 0.2 g/L, and T2 - Solution 2: Glucose 90.0 g/L, ACP(r-104 10.0 g/L. Motility rate and motility time did not differ between T1 and T2 and were lower than fresh semen. The number of normal sperm was significantly different in treatments T1 (15.1% and T2 (21.9%, and both showed a reduction in the percentage of normal sperm compared to fresh semen (57.4%. The values found for the rates of fertilization and hatching, mitochondrial functionality and sperm DNA, did not differ between the treatments (T1 and T2. Regarding membrane integrity, there was a higher percentage of spermatozoa with intact membranes in T1 (53.4% than T2 (43.7%. The extender solutions, combined with 10% DMSO, maintained the sperm DNA intact in almost all the C. macropomum sperm cells, however there was a loss in their functionality.

  15. DINAMIKA EKOLOGI LAUT SULAWESI (WPP 716 SEBAGAI DAYA DUKUNG TERHADAP PERIKANAN MALALUGIS (Decapterus macarellus Cuvier, 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Rahmadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ikan Malalugis adalah ikan pelagis kecil yang merupakan hasil tangkapan utama nelayan di perairan Laut Sulawesi. Pada tahun 2012 dilaporkan bahwa perikanan pelagis kecil menjadi salah satu hasil perikanan yang penting, dan hasil tangkapan yang dominan dari perikanan pelagis kecil tersebut adalah ikan malalugis biru (Decapterus macarellus. Jenis ikan malalugis memiliki sifat bermigrasi dan membentuk gerombolan kecil yang mana sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi lingkungannya. Tipe arus pasut di Teluk Manado (Laut Sulawesi merupakan arus pasut bolak balik (reversing current. Banyaknya arus yang begitu aktif merupakan salah satu faktor yang mendukung habitat ikan malalugis. Diduga kekhasan sifat distribusi arus di daerah laut Sulawesi ini yang membuat kelimpahan ikan malalugis relatif tinggi di perairan Sulawesi Utara dibandingkan dengan daerah perairan lainnya di Indonesia. Kelimpahan ikan malalugis yang tinggi mendorong ikan ini menjadi komoditas penting dalam sektor perikanan di Laut Sulawesi. Meski demikian pada tahun 2012 dilaporkan bahwa tingkat produksi ikan malalugis mengalami penurunan. Hal ini diduga karena terlalu tingginya tingkat eksploitasi atau diakibatkan oleh adanya perubahan dalam kondisi ekosistem ikan tersebut di Laut Sulawesi. Oleh karena itu studi ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji tingkat daya dukung lingkungan terhadap keberlangsungan sumberdaya perikanan malalugis di wilayah perairan Laut Sulawesi. Malalugis fish is a small pelagic fish that constitute the main catch of fishermen in the waters of North Celebes Sea. In 2012 it was reported that small pelagic fishery became one of the important fishery products and it was dominated by the species of Malalugis (Decapterus macarellus. This species has a typical behavior which was highly mobility and forming fish schooling and strongly influenced by environmental conditions. The type of tidal current in North Sulawesi coast is reversing current. This kind of current could make a very active current in the water which is suitable for the habitat of Malalugis. This distinctiveness of current was considered as a trigger for relatively high abundance of Malalugis in this area compared to its abundance in other water body of Indonesian territory. In 2012, total catch of this species has been reported to be decreased; thismay caused by either high level of exploitation nor changing on its habitat or even both. This study was conducted to investigate the capability of ecosystem and habitat of Malalugis to support its sustainability.

  16. Reproductive biology of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829, the major fishery resource in Guanabara Bay, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Sampaio Franco

    Full Text Available Cetengraulis edentulus is a broadely distributed engraulid in Southwest Atlantic, currently accounting for the main fish species commercially exploited at Guanabara Bay, Brazil. This study aimed to extend the knowledge on reproduction of C. edentulus at Guanabara Bay and to test whether some descriptors of reproductive activity, especially the gonadosomatic index (GSI, and the index of reproductive activity (IRA changed among seasons. A total of 978 C. edentulus specimens were retrieved from purse seine commercial landings at Conservas Rubi S.A. company, in São Gonçalo city, RJ. Subsamples of 90-120 individuals were collected from bimonthly yields between July 2010 (winter and June 2011 (autumn. Most fish were adults (120-170 mm TL, in response to the high selectivity of commercial fisheries. All descriptors indicated a broad spawning period (late winter to spring, peaking in November, suggesting this is the critical period to protect C. edentulus stocks from overfishing at Guanabara Bay. Fecundity averaged 12,720 oocytes and was positively related to fish size, GSI and fullness index, indicating that preserving larger individuals (TL > 160 mm could contribute significantly to the reproductive success of C. edentulus, since they produce more oocytes. Cetengraulis edentulus é um engraulídeo amplamente distribuído no Atlântico Sudoeste, sendo um importante recurso comercialmente explorado na baía de Guanabara, Brasil. O presente estudo teve como objetivo ampliar o conhecimento sobre a reprodução de C. edentulus na baía de Guanabara e testar quais descritores da atividade reprodutiva, especialmente o índice gonadossomático (IGS e o índice de atividade reprodutiva (IAR se modificaram ao longo das estações do ano. Um total de 978 indivíduos de C. edentulus foram capturados pelo método de rede de cerco da frota comercial no cais da empresa Conservas Rubi S.A., na cidade de São Gonçalo, RJ. Subamostras de 90-120 indivíduos de C. edentulus foram coletados bimestralmente durante o período de julho de 2010 (inverno e junho de 2011 (outono. A maioria dos indivíduos foram adultos (120-170 mm CT, em resposta a alta seletividade das capturas comerciais. Todos os índices indicaram um amplo período reprodutivo (final do inverno e primavera, com pico em novembro, sugerindo que este seria um período crítico para preservar os estoques de C. edentulusda sobrepesca na baía de Guanabara. A fecundidade média foi de 12720 ovócitos e foi positivamente relacionada com tamanho do peixe, IGS e índice de repleção, indicando que preservar maiores indivíduos (CT > 160 mm poderia contribuir significativamente para o sucesso reprodutivo de C. edentulusna área, visto que esses indivíduos produzem um maior número de ovócitos.

  17. Morphological study of the pineal gland of (crab eater raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Procyon cancrivorus is a wild carnivore that is widely distributed and relatively common, but it remains little studied, and few works report on the biology of this species. The aim of this work was to characterize morphologically the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus through macro, microscopic and radiographic studies, and to compare them with those from other animals. In this work, four adult animals of both sexes were used, originating from the Scientific Herd of CECRIMPAS IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76. Macroscopically, the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus was located between the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, cranially to the vermis cerebelar. It was positioned rostrally to the rostral colliculus and caudally to the habenular comissure. Microscopically, the gland was covered externally by a capsule deriving from the meningeal pia mater. The presence of three types of cells was noted in the glandular parenchyma: pinealocytes, glial cells and mast cells. No calcareous concretions in the pineal gland were found in the radiographic and microscopic studies.

  18. Paleoclimate determines diversification patterns in the fossorial snake family Uropeltidae Cuvier, 1829.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyriac, Vivek Philip; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa

    2017-11-01

    Understanding how and why diversification rates vary across evolutionary time is central to understanding how biodiversity is generated and maintained. Recent mathematical models that allow estimation of diversification rates across time from reconstructed phylogenies have enabled us to make inferences on how biodiversity copes with environmental change. Here, we explore patterns of temporal diversification in Uropeltidae, a diverse fossorial snake family. We generate a time-calibrated phylogenetic hypothesis for Uropeltidae and show a significant correlation between diversification rate and paleotemperature during the Cenozoic. We show that the temporal diversification pattern of this group is punctuated by one rate shift event with a decrease in diversification and turnover rate between ca. 11Ma to present, but there is no strong support for mass extinction events. The analysis indicates higher turnover during periods of drastic climatic fluctuations and reduced diversification rates associated with contraction and fragmentation of forest habitats during the late Miocene. Our study highlights the influence of environmental fluctuations on diversification rates in fossorial taxa such as uropeltids, and raises conservation concerns related to present rate of climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stratégie de Reproduction du Carangidae Trachinotus teraia Cuvier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    La reproduction de Trachinotus teraia a été étudiée dans la lagune Ebrié au cours de campagnes mensuelles pendant deux années consécutives (février 2004 à janvier 2006). Cette étude se situe dans le cadre d'acquisition de connaissances sur la biologie de Trachinotus teraia en vue d'évaluer son potentiel aquacole.

  20. A Population Consequence of Acoustic Disturbance Model for Cuviers beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    two sources. The energetics model that will underpin both PCoD models for Md and Zc has also been published (New et al 2013). The full PCoD model...to Zc on SCORE. We will also be able to use the simplified PCoD model for beaked whales currently being developed under the ONR-funded project...34Using an interim PCoD protocol to assess the effects of disturbance associated with US Navy exercises on marine mammal populations”. This project will

  1. The first description of oarfish Regalecus glesne (Regalecus russellii Cuvier 1816) ageing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midway, S.R.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a large, conspicuous teleost with a worldwide tropical and temperate distribution, the giant oarfish Regalecus spp. remain very rare fish species in terms of scientific sampling. Subsequently, very little biological information is known about Regalecus spp. and almost nothing has been concluded in the field of age and growth (Roberts, 2012). No studies of otoliths or temporal (annual) markings on any hard structures have been reported, and to our knowledge otoliths have never been recovered from any specimens (Tyson Roberts, personal communication),although a few texts do provide illustrations of Regalecus sp. otoliths (Lin and Chang, 2012; Nolf, 2013). Further inferential difficulty comes from the fact that age and growth studies of any Lampridiforme species are rare. Lampris guttatus is perhaps the only Lampridiforme species for which any biological information has been reported(Francis et al., 2004), which stems from the species commercial value. In order to begin understanding any species (for later purposes of management, conservation, etc.), basic biological information is needed. In the present study, we examine not only the first Regalecus russellii otolith, but provide suggestions toward future work that should direct data collection that can be used to generate basic biological information for this species.

  2. Regional movements of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, off Northeastern Brazil: inferences regarding shark attack hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, Fábio H V; Afonso, André S; De Castilho, Pedro C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Rocha, Bruno C L M

    2013-09-01

    An abnormally high shark attack rate verified off Recife could be related to migratory behavior of tiger sharks. This situation started after the construction of the Suape port to the south of Recife. A previous study suggested that attacking sharks could be following northward currents and that they were being attracted shoreward by approaching vessels. In this scenario, such northward movement pattern could imply a higher probability of sharks accessing the littoral area of Recife after leaving Suape. Pop-up satellite archival tags were deployed on five tiger sharks caught off Recife to assess their movement patterns off northeastern Brazil. All tags transmitted from northward latitudes after 7-74 days of freedom. The shorter, soak distance between deployment and pop-up locations ranged between 33-209 km and implied minimum average speeds of 0.02-0.98 km.h-1. Both pop-up locations and depth data suggest that tiger shark movements were conducted mostly over the continental shelf. The smaller sharks moved to deeper waters within 24 hours after releasing, but they assumed a shallower (shark movements in the South Atlantic, this study also adds new information for the reasoning of the high shark attack rate verified in this region.

  3. Recognizing cephalopod boreholes in shells and the northward spread of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 (Cephalopoda, Octopodoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Auke-Florian

    2015-01-01

    Octopuses prey on molluscs by boring through their shell. Among the regular naticid borings, traces of cephalopod predation should be found soon on Dutch beaches. Bottom trawling has declined, and by the effects of global warming Octopus will find its way back to the North Sea where it lived before.

  4. Morphologic characterisation and elemental distribution of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 vestigial shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoleao, P. [Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande 1749-016, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, C. Sousa [Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande 1749-016, Lisbon (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [Laboratotio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional no. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem, Lisbon (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz 1700, Lisbon (Portugal); Pinheiro, T. [Laboratotio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional no. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem, Lisbon (Portugal) and Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz 1700, Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: murmur@itn.mces.pt

    2005-04-01

    The elemental composition of mineral structures in marine organisms can provide useful information to reconstruct environmental histories of individuals and distinguish populations or stocks. In cephalopods, as Octopus vulgaris, morpho-physiological description of vestigial shells may contribute to a better understanding of the physiology, of the process involved in the increment growth and may eventually provide important and useful tools for the validation of age determination methods. Nuclear microprobe analysis was used to map chemical elements in O. vulgaris vestigial shell. The maps contain elemental and morphological information, and enabled especially through Cl and Ca distributions to classify bands of concentric rings. The levels of P, Ca and Sr decrease from central region to external rings, while those of S and Cl showed an inverse tendency. Enhanced concentrations of Fe, Cu and Zn were found in external rings, and no significant variations were detected in the K and Br contents. The results indicate that three regions can be established on the basis of the elemental contents distributions. Specially, the P and Ca variability can distinguish rings from central and external regions. The differential incorporation of elements in the vestigial shell observed may reflect environmental and physiological factors that are affecting the life cycle of this species.

  5. Estrutura morfológica do fígado de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever macro e microscopicamente o fígado do Tambaqui Colossoma macropomum, Teleósteo de água doce da Família Characidae, de grande interesse econômico da bacia Amazônica. Foram utilizados seis (6 exemplares jovens com idade entre seis meses e um ano, oriundos da Chácara Esteio, Alta Floresta, MT, que desenvolve principalmente a prática da piscicultura. O órgão foi fotodocumentado in situ e descrito macroscopicamente, em seguida procedeu-se a retirada de fragmentos deste, que foram processados pelas técnicas histológicas rotineiras para inclusão em parafina e coloração de HE. O fígado localizou-se ventral à bexiga natatória e craniodorsalmente ao estômago, apresentou coloração amarronzada a vermelho, constituído por três lobos hepáticos, o lobo lateral direito, o lobo lateral esquerdo e o lobo ventral. Microscopicamente, o parênquima era constituído por hepatócitos com formato que variou do arredondado irregular hexagonal ao redondo com núcleo grande e central, arranjados em cordões lineares limitados por sinusóides que irradiam para veias centrais, e com ausência de lóbulos hepáticos. As veias centrais estavam distribuídas pelo parênquima, enquanto que o espaço porta, na maioria das vezes, era constituído apenas por uma veia hepática e o ducto biliar, em outros locais foi observado, uma artéria e um ducto. Não foi observada a formação de tríades portais. Foram frequentemente observados melano macrófagos centrais dispersos pelo parênquima. O estudo morfofuncional do Aparelho Digestório de peixes da bacia Amazônica, se faz pertinente com vistas ao conhecimento do aproveitamento de ganho de peso e produção em alta escala para consumo humano e preservação da espécie, além da importância de estarem sendo utilizados como bioindicadores atualmente.

  6. Crecimiento en cautiverio de Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807 en Tumbes, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Pérez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el crecimiento en peso y longitud en 40 individuos del Cocodrilo de Tumbes en el Centro de Acuicultura La Tuna Carranza, localizado en Puerto Pizarro, Departamento de Tumbes. No se observó una diferencia en el incremento en longitud por clases de edad, mientras que en peso si presentaron diferencias siendo mayor en adultos. El crecimiento promedio de longitud y peso fue de 1,44% y 0,18% en crías, 1,30% y 0,10% en reclutas, 1,24 y 0,22% en juveniles, 1,24 y 0,48% en subadultos, y 1,01 y 0,75% en adultos. En general las hembras presentan un mayor crecimiento que los machos.

  7. Anatomy of the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1817 (Pisces, Characidae, Salmininae

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    Eliane Menin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis, an ichthyophagous species of fresh water, is anatomically adapted to predation. The wide buccal rift, the oral-aboral enlargement of the buccal cavity and the reduced thickness of the pharyngeal mastigatory apparatus favor the capture and deglutition of larger prey. In function of the oral and pharyngeal dentition type, pre-digestive food preparation does not occur. The pointed and curved teeth, together with the tongue which is relatively mobile, prevent the prey’s escape from the buccopharyngeal cavity. The passage of the food is facilitated by the absence of pronounced folds in the mucous membrane of this cavity and by the disposition of the oral and pharyngeal teeth. The characteristics of flat and thin lips, developed oral dentition, relatively mobile tongue, mucous membrane without folds, pharynx with denticules disposed in dentigerous areas and plates, and short and sharp gill-rackers are anatomical adaptations which are shared by S. brasiliensis and other ichthyophagous Characiformes species such as Salminus maxillosus, Salminus hilarii, Hoplias malabaricus, Hoplias lacerdae, Acestrorhynchus lacustris and Acestrorhynchus britskii. However, different to the mentioned species, except other Salmininae, S. brasiliensis possesses oral teeth of an unique type, present only in the jawbones and distributed in two series.

  8. Feeds and feeding strategies for Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1818) : fish growth as related to dietary protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Colossoma macropomum is an indigenous fish species from the Amazon region. The amino acid profile of its body protein proved to be similar to that of other fish species. Soya meal and fish meal have, based on their amino acid profiles, a comparable protein quality. This

  9. Comparative study on octopus vulgaris (cuvier, 1797) from the mediterranean and red sea coasts of egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Riad, R.; Gabr, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Specimens from common octopus, Octopus vulgaris captured from the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea showed significant differences in four of seven morphometric measurements .These differences are sufficient to recognize the populations of this species in the two habitats. The computed length-Wight relationship and condition factor for common octopus in both areas showed that representatives of this species from the Red Sea are heavier than those captured from the Mediterranean Sea for the same l...

  10. Morphological and biometric comparison of the scales of the barbels (Barbus cuvier) of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R; Escala, M

    2000-09-01

    The scales of 386 specimens of the eight species of the genus Barbus present in Spain (B. bocagei, B. comiza, B. graellsii, B. guiraonis, B. haasi, B. meridionalis, B. microcephalus, and B. sclateri) were studied. Six scales were extracted from each specimen, measurements taken, and the number of radii noted. Indices were obtained from these data. Statistical analysis allowed two groups to be established: 1) B. meridionalis and B. haasi, living in the upper stretches of rivers and distributed in the north of Spain; and 2) the remaining species. Within both groups a latitudinal gradation in the elongation of the scales and in the proportion of radii of the lateral fields was observed. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Glycoconjugates in the branchial mucous cells of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 (Pisces: Sciaenidae

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    Alcira O. Diaz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the mucous cells from the gills of the stripped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa. The glycoconjugates (GCs were identified with: (1 oxidizable vicinal diols; (2 sialic acids and some of their chain variants, C7, C8 or C9; (3 sialic acid residues with O-acyl substitution at C7, C8 or C9; (4 carboxyl groups and (5 sulphate groups. The presence of sugar residues in the oligosaccharide side chain of glycoconjugates was investigated by means of a battery of seven biotinylated lectins. One type of mucous cell was identified in the primary and secondary lamellae, the secretory content of which evidenced neutral, sulphated and sialylated glycoconjugates. The distribution pattern of the mucus was identical in the primary and secondary lamellae. PNA had the most staining in the mucous cell content, while UEA-I had the least, as it was completely negative. Con-A showed weak to no staining and WGA showed weak to moderate staining. The reactions to DBA, SBA and RCA-I were moderate. This work clearly demonstrates the heterogeneity of the mucous cell glycoconjugates, which could be involved in various functions, such as lubrication, protection, inhibition of microorganisms and a role in ion regulation and diffusion.

  12. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela G Domiciano

    Full Text Available Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1% of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7% animals and most (30 or 65.2% were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30 and trauma (2/30. The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16, emaciation (3/16, septicemia (1/16, neonatal pathology (1/16 and choking via food obstruction (1/16. Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience.

  13. Cetacean diversity and distribution in the coast of Gipuzkoa and adjacent waters, southeastern Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS, E., SALAZAR, J.M., STHEPANIS, R. de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2003, se ha realizado un seguimiento continuo a las poblaciones de cetáceos de la costa guipuzcoana, siguiendo los protocolos de muestreo de cetáceos en mar de la Sociedad Española de Cetáceos. Se ha estudiado la diversidad, la densidad, la distribución espacial y temporal de estas especies. Los resultados indican la presencia de 12 especies de cetáceos en el área, y la importancia de la misma para cinco de ellas, especialmente para el delfín mular (Tursiops truncatus. El delfín común (Delphinus delphis, el calderon de aleta larga (Globicephala melas, el delfín listado (Stenella coeruleoalba y el cifio de cuvier (Ziphius cavirostris son especies altamente representadas en el área. Se han definido las principales áreas de distribución de estas especies con el fin de dar los primeros pasos para la creación de un Área Marina Protegida en el área.

  14. Temperature alters the relative abundance and population growth rates of species within the Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Evans; Richard Hoffstetter; Matthew Ayres; Kier Klepzig

    2011-01-01

    Temperature has strong effects on metabolic processes ofindividuals and demographics of populations, but effects on ecological communities are not well known. Many economically and ecologically important pest species have obligate associations with other organisms; therefore, effects of temperature on these species might be mediated by strong interactions. The southern...

  15. Science, technologie et stratégie sécuritaire frontalière au Burkina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'infrastructure du transport burkinabé, particulièrement du secteur routier, assure la grande ... flux qui s'inspire de la loi de gravité de Newton. En ce qui ... présente méthodologie de mise en œuvre du SIG déclinée en trois phases : - la phase ...

  16. Blue-stain Fungi Associated with Roots of Southern Pine Trees Attacked by the Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Otrosina; Nolan J. Hess; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Thelma J. Perry; John P. Jones

    1997-01-01

    Forty paired plots were established from eastern Texas to Alabama to study root-infecting, blue-stain fungi in southern pine stands undergoing southern pine beetle (SPB) attack. Woody roots were sampled in plots undergoing recent or current attack by the SPB. Comparisons were made between occurrence of Lcptogrqhiumspp. and related fungi and data on various...

  17. Morphology of the hyoid apparatus of some species of odontocetes from southern Brazil.

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    Dan Jacobs Pretto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The hyoid apparatus of odontocetes serves as a major attachment point for the muscles and ligaments that subserve breathing, sound production and swallowing. However, most of the literature on anatomy does not consider the bones of this region, presenting general osteological descriptions without considering the comparative aspects. This study sought to determine the intra and interspecific variations of the ossified hyoid apparatus elements from six species of odontocetus. We studied 96 hyoid apparatuses from the following species: Phocoena spinipinnis (n = 1, Pontoporia blainvillei (n = 20, Sotalia guianensis (n = 37, Stenella frontalis (n = 13, Steno bredanensis (n = 6 and Tursiops truncatus (n = 19. Among the six species analyzed, P. spinipinnis, P. blainvillei and S. guianenses presented a diagnostic feature of this apparatus, while the others were best described morphometrically when considering all the hyoid apparatus bones. Intraspecific variation was registered with greater amplitude in T. truncatus, while S. guianensis showed sexual dimorphism. The morphology of the hyoid apparatus proved to be important in the differentiation and characterization of all studied species.

  18. .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jacobs Pretto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphology of the hyoid apparatus of some species of odontocetes from southern Brazil. The hyoid apparatus of odontocetes serves as a major attachment point for the muscles and ligaments that subserve breathing, sound production and swallowing. However, most of the literature on anatomy does not consider the bones of this region, presenting general osteological descriptions without considering the comparative aspects. This study sought to determine the intra and interspecific variations of the ossified hyoid apparatus elements from six species of odontocetus. We studied 96 hyoid apparatuses from the following species: Phocoena spinipinnis (n = 1, Pontoporia blainvillei (n = 20, Sotalia guianensis (n = 37, Stenella frontalis (n = 13, Steno bredanensis (n = 6 and Tursiops truncatus (n = 19. Among the six species analyzed, P. spinipinnis, P. blainvillei and S. guianenses presented a diagnostic feature of this apparatus, while the others were best described morphometrically when considering all the hyoid apparatus bones. Intraspecific variation was registered with greater amplitude in T. truncatus, while S. guianensis showed sexual dimorphism. The morphology of the hyoid apparatus proved to be important in the differentiation and characterization of all studied species.

  19. Lobomycosis-like disease in common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from Belize and Mexico: bridging the gap between the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eric A; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma N; Garcia, Jazmin; Rojas Arias, Jorge; Foley, James R; Audley, Katherina; Van Waerebeek, Koen; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise

    2018-03-22

    Lobomycosis and lobomycosis-like diseases (LLD) (also: paracoccidioidomycosis) are chronic cutaneous infections that affect Delphinidae in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In the Americas, these diseases have been relatively well-described, but gaps still exist in our understanding of their distribution across the continent. Here we report on LLD affecting inshore bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the Caribbean waters of Belize and from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off the southwestern coast of Mexico. Photo-identification and catalog data gathered between 1992 and 2017 for 371 and 41 individuals, respectively from Belize and Mexico, were examined for the presence of LLD. In Belize, 5 free-ranging and 1 stranded dolphin were found positive in at least 3 communities with the highest prevalence in the south. In Guerrero, Mexico, 4 inshore bottlenose dolphins sighted in 2014-2017 were affected by LLD. These data highlight the need for histological and molecular studies to confirm the etiological agent. Additionally, we document a single case of LLD in an adult Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis in southern Belize, the first report in this species. The role of environmental and anthropogenic factors in the occurrence, severity, and epidemiology of LLD in South and Central America requires further investigation.

  20. A comparison of pectoral fin contact between two different wild dolphin populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, K.M.; Gregg, J.D.; Ribic, C.A.; Kuczaj, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Contact behaviour involving the pectoral fin has been documented in a number of dolphin species, and various explanations about its function have been offered. Pectoral fin contact can take a variety of forms, and involves a number of body parts and movements, likely differing depending upon social or ecological context. For this study, we compare the pectoral fin contact behaviour of two species of wild dolphins: Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from around Mikura Island, Japan, and Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) from The Bahamas. The two study populations exhibit surprising similarity in the ways in which pectoral fin contacts are used, despite differences in species and environmental conditions at the two sites. Differences in contact rates for calves between the two sites suggest that calf-focused aggression from adult dolphins is more prevalent at Mikura than in The Bahamas. Our results suggest that pectoral fin contact behaviour seems to be driven primarily by social pressures, and may be similar in function to allogrooming described in primates. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Helminths from the digestive tract of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the western Mediterranean: infection patterns within a long-term scale

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu Puncel, Paula

    2015-01-01

    0.1. INTRODUCCIÓN GENERAL 0.1.1. DIVERSIDAD Los cetáceos albergan una fauna específica de parásitos de transmisión trófica que incluye digeneos, cestodos, nematodos y acantocéfalos (Aznar et al., 2001; Raga et al., 2009). Dentro de los digeneos se han citado unas 40 especies pertenecientes a cuatro familias (Heterophyidae, Brauninidae, Notocotylidae y Brachycladiidae), la mayoría encontradas en el tracto digestivo de cetáceos, aunque algunas especies también parasitan los...

  2. Dieta e sobreposição de nichos de duas espécies de gerreídeos, Eugerres brasilianus (Cuvier, 1830) e Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier, 1829) capturadas no canal de Santa Cruz, Itamaracá, Pernambuco.

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Tavares Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram avaliados os perfis sazonais das dietas de Eugerres brasilianus e Diapterus rhombeus, e, a sobreposição alimentar entre estas espécies capturadas no canal de Santa Cruz, localizado no litoral norte do estado de Pernambuco, no período de junho de 2010 a maio de 2011. Teve como objetivo fornecer subsídios que sirvam de base para estudos voltados para o cultivo e uso sustentável destas espécies. Para entender seus hábitos alimentares, foram analisados 837 indivíduos das duas...

  3. Indicios indirectos de la presencia del oso andino (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 en el noroeste de Argentina Indirect evidence on the presence of the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 in northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fernando Del Moral

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de osos andinos (Tremarctos ornatus en Argentina ha sido muy discutida debido a la ausencia de evidencia confirmativa. Muchos expertos en el oso dudan actualmente de su presencia en el país. No obstante, la Selva Tucumano-Boliviana o de Yungas es un ecosistema típico donde se puede encontrar esta especie; particularmente en el área estudiada, el hábitat parece ser de alta calidad para los osos. Entre los años 2001 y 2006, se recopilaron 23 casos de evidencia sobre la presencia de osos andinos en las provincias de Salta y Jujuy. Se registraron huellas, restos alimenticios y heces. Adicionalmente, se entrevistó a nativos, agricultores y cazadores para colectar otros datos sobre la especie. Se concluye que las selvas de Yungas del extremo noroeste de Argentina, deben ser consideradas un área con alta probabilidad de mantener una población residente de osos andinos. Aunque posiblemente esta sea una población aislada y pequeña, la presencia permanente de osos andinos en el noroeste de Argentina no debería ser puesta en duda.The presence of Andean bears (Tremarctos ornatus in Argentina has been disputed due to the absence of confirming evidence. Many Andean bear experts currently doubt on their presence in this country. Nevertheless, the Tucuman-Bolivian Forest or Yungas is a typical ecosystem where this species can be found, particularly in the studied area, in which the habitat appears to be of high quality for bears. Between 2001 and 2006, 23 cases of evidence on the presence of Andean bears in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy were recorded. Footprints, food remains and scats were found. In addition, natives, farmers, and hunters where interviewed to collect new data of this species. The conclusion is that the Yungas Forest of northwestern Argentina must be considered an area with high probability of maintaining a resident population of Andean bears. Although this is probably a small and perhaps isolated population, the permanent presence of Andean bears in northwestern Argentina might not longer be doubted.

  4. Efeito sazonal sobre os ácidos graxos e colesterol do polvo Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797 Seasonal effects on fatty acids and cholesterol contents in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797

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    Margarida Maria Monteiro Vasconcelos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos e colesterol na manta de polvo comum, Octopus vulgaris, capturado na praia de Camocim - CE, no decorrer dos meses de abril a outubro em coletas bimensais. Apesar do ácido oleico (C18: 1n9 apresentar comportamento uniforme ao longo do tempo de coleta, a maioria dos demais ácidos graxos foi afetada (p = 1% pela época de coleta. Os níveis dos ácidos araquidônico (C20:4n6, oleico (C18:1n9, esteárico (C18:0 e linoleico (C18:2n6 foram superiores àqueles reportados na literatura. O somatório de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e monoinsaturados revelou que o óleo de polvo apresenta um teor significativo de ácidos graxos insaturados. Foi observado um aumento gradativo de colesterol ao longo do tempo estudado e um comportamento inverso para a relação de ácidos graxos n3/n6.The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acids and cholesterol profile in the mantle of common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, collected twice a month in in coastal waters of Camocim/CE beach over the period from April to October. Although the Oleic acid (C18:n9 did not show significant changes over the months, the majority of fatty acids varied during this period of time. The Arachidonic (C20:4n6, oleic (C18:n9, stearic (C18:0, and linoleic (C18:2n6 acids were found in higher levels than those reported in the literature. Polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids accounted for most of the octopus fatty acids. During the time of analysis, it was observed a gradual increase in the cholesterol and the fatty acids n3/ n6 ratio presented the opposite result, i.e., a gradual decrease.

  5. Morfologia e crescimento do músculo estriado esquelético no pirarucu Arapaima gigas Cuvier, 1817 (Teleostei, Arapaimidae = Morphology and skeletal muscle growth in pirarucu Arapaima gigas Cuvier, 1817 (Teleostei, Arapaimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Regina Carani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características morfológicas e de crescimento do músculo estriado esquelético no pirarucu (Arapaima gigas. Foram utilizados animais em duas fases de crescimento: alevinos, com 50 dias de idade, e juvenis, com umano de idade. Após eutanásia dos animais, fragmentos musculares das regiões dorsal, lateral cranial e lateral caudal foram coletados e congelados em nitrogênio líquido. Cortes histológicos (10 mm foram submetidos às colorações HE e Tricrômico de Gomori, para a análise morfológica, e NADH-TR, para a análise do metabolismo oxidativo das fibras musculares. Foi calculado o menor diâmetro das fibras musculares brancas nas regiões dorsal e lateral cranial. A musculatura dorsal branca mostrou-se mais desenvolvida e, namusculatura lateral, observaram-se compartimentos distintos: superficial vermelho e profundo branco. Nos alevinos, o crescimento muscular ocorreu predominantemente por hiperplasia das fibras e, nos juvenis, predominou o crescimento muscular por hipertrofia.The aim of this work was to evaluate the morphological and growth characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue in pirarucu (Arapaimagigas using alevins (50 days old and juveniles (1 year old. Muscle samples were collected from dorsal, lateral cranial and lateral caudal regions, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. Histological frozen sections (10μm were stained with HE and Gomori Trichrome formorphological analysis, and NADH-TR to evaluate muscle fiber oxidative metabolism. Morphometric analysis samples were obtained from dorsal and lateral cranial regions, and the smallest-diameter white fibers were measured. White dorsal muscle was thicker, andtwo muscle fiber compartments were identified in the lateral cranial region: red (superficial and white (deep muscle. Hyperplasia muscle growth predominated in alevins and hypertrophy in juveniles.

  6. Trackline and Point Detection Probabilities for Acoustic Surveys of Cuvier’s and Blainville’s Beaked Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    of sperm whales. Although the methods developed in those papers demonstrate feasibility, they are not applicable to a)Author to whom correspondence...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...location clicks (Marques et al., 2009) instead of detecting individual animals or groups of animals; these cue- counting methods will not be specifically

  7. An outbreak of myxozoan parasites in farmed freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characidae, Serrasalminae in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Videira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum is a native fish species that is farmed most frequently and in the largest quantities throughout Brazil. The high production of this species from fish farms has contributed to the occurrence of emerging parasites, which may compromise fish health and productivity. In a batch of 2500 tambaqui fry acquired for experimental farming procedures in Brazil, a mortality rate of 80% was observed, with the fish swimming erratically and gasping for air at the water surface. From among the specimens that were still alive, 60 individuals were selected at random. Organs or fragments of organs containing lesions and/or cysts were examined under an optical microscope to investigate for the presence of parasitic spores. Of the 60 specimens of tambaqui analyzed, 83.3% were found to be infected in different organs, such as the gills, liver, and gallbladder with myxosporidian species belonging to four genera, namely, Myxobolus, Ellipsomyxa, Henneguya and Thelohanellus. The parasite with the greatest prevalence was Myxobolus sp., located in the gills (70%, followed by Henneguya sp. in the gills region (68.3%, Myxobolus sp. in the liver (63.3%, Thelohanellus sp. in the liver (58.3%, and Ellipsomyxa in the gallbladder (50%. This is the first report of parasitic infection caused by the genera Ellipsomyxa and Thelohanellus in C. macropomum. The present study reported the second incidence of the occurrence of the genus Thelohanellus in South America. This study suggested that the mortality among C. macropomum specimens was caused by the outbreak of myxosporidians. Keywords: Amazon, Tambaqui, Parasite, Myxozoa, Myxosporidians

  8. Population analysis of Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier, 1829 (Perciformes, Scombridae from the Northern and Northeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL. Santa Brígida

    Full Text Available Scomberomorus cavalla is a pelagic fish species widely distributed on the Atlantic west coast, and a noticeable decrease in its capture level in the USA and Gulf of Mexico is occurring, compared to the levels reached by the species in the past. Likewise, in some areas of Brazil, there has been indication of over-harvesting. However, there are no molecular studies focusing on the management of such an important item. Thus, in the present study, 380 nucleotide base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA D-Loop region of samples from Macapá, Bragança, and Fortaleza were sequenced. Phylogenetic and population analyses revealed that there is only one panmitic population, and low levels of genetic variability were verified. These results, as well as the noticed over-harvesting of S. cavalla, represent very important data to determine the management of such stock in order to prevent a collapse or the risk of future extinction.

  9. Fatal tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier attack in New Caledonia erroneously ascribed to great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirard, Philippe; Maillaud, Claude; Borsa, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    To understand the causes and patterns of shark attacks on humans, accurate identification of the shark species involved is necessary. Often, the only reliable evidence for this comes from the characteristics of the wounds exhibited by the victim. The present case report is intended as a reappraisal of the Luengoni, 2007 case (International Shark Attack File no. 4299) where a single shark bite provoked the death of a swimmer by haemorrhagic shock. Our examination of the wounds on the body of the victim, here documented by so-far unpublished photographic evidence, determined that the shark possessed large and homodontous jaws. This demonstrates that the attacker was a tiger shark, not a great white shark as previously published. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Advantages of recovery from pre-slaughter stress in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1816) agroindustry in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    MENDES,Joana Maia; DAIRIKI,Jony Koji; INOUE,Luis Antonio Kioshi Aoki; JESUS,Rogério Souza de

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tambaqui is the main fish species farmed in the Amazon. It is produced on industrial scale, slaughtered in the field, primarily by post-harvest asphyxia. This procedure, however, is stressful because it depletes energy reserves that should be used in postmortem metabolism, which may compromise fish meat freshness and quality. The present study compared the quality of tambaquis slaughtered by asphyxia, the conventional industrial method, and hypothermia. Tambaquis weighing around 1.6 ...

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  12. Advantages of recovery from pre-slaughter stress in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1816 agroindustry in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Maia MENDES

    Full Text Available Abstract Tambaqui is the main fish species farmed in the Amazon. It is produced on industrial scale, slaughtered in the field, primarily by post-harvest asphyxia. This procedure, however, is stressful because it depletes energy reserves that should be used in postmortem metabolism, which may compromise fish meat freshness and quality. The present study compared the quality of tambaquis slaughtered by asphyxia, the conventional industrial method, and hypothermia. Tambaquis weighing around 1.6 kg were harvested from dugout ponds, transported to experimental tanks and allowed to recover from transport stress for 48h. Biological parameters of fish were evaluated alive post- harvest (Harv, transport (Tr and recovery (Rc, and postmortem analysis was performed in fish slaughtered by asphyxia (Asph or hypothermia (Hyp after transport and recovery. Initial observations showed that the content of total volatile nitrogen bases (TVB-N and pH were higher in fish killed by asphyxia. Sensory analysis indicated that the quality of fish slaughtered immediately after transport was lower than in fish allowed to recover from pre-slaughter stress. The results suggest that recovery from pre-slaughter stress contributes to preserving meat freshness and quality in tambaquis slaughtered on an industrial scale, but other studies are required to determine the feasibility of this recommendation.

  13. Viviparous Monogenea on grey bichir, Polypterus senegalus Cuvier in the National park Niokolo Koba (Senegal, West Africa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikrylová, I.; Matějusová, I.; Reichard, Martin; Gelnar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 49, Suppl. 2 (2007), s. 98 ISSN 0048-2951. [International Symposium on Fish Parasites /7./. 24.09.2007-28.09.2007, Viterbo] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Senegal * parasites Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. Temporal Assessment of Natural Radionuclide Bioaccumulation by the Cubera Snapper Fish (Lutjanus Cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828) from the Brazilian Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W. S. [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Mineiros (UTM), Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG and Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Marinha, Instituto de Biologia, Depto. de Biologia Marinha, Universidade Federal Fluminense UFF, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Kelecom, A. [Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Marinha, Instituto de Biologia, Depto. de Biologia Marinha, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), and Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Py, Jr., D. A. [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Mineiros (UTM), Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    The present study aims to assess the seasonal variation in the accumulation of the isotopes {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 228}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in the cubera snapper fish from the coast of the state of Ceara (Brazil). The fish was caught in January (six specimens), June (eight) and September (seven). The uranium and thorium were analysed by electrodeposition, followed by alpha spectrometry. The isotopes of radium and lead were selectively co-precipitated and measured by gross alpha radiometry for {sup 226}Ra and gross beta radiometry for {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb. No seasonal variations could be observed neither for the uranium and thorium isotopes nor for the {sup 226}Ra isotope. For {sup 228}Ra, the activity concentration in February was equal to that of September, and both were higher than in June. For {sup 210}Pb, the situation was different: the month of February showed a lower activity concentration than in June, which in turn was lower than in September. (author)

  15. Production and quality assessment of fish burger from the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1844

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjurul Haq

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish burger was produced from grass carp (Ctenophygodon idella to assess the feasibility of value addition to this low priced fish in Bangladesh. Different food additives (25% mashed potato, 2% NaCl, 2% soybean oil, 2% spices and 0.6% sugar were used to enhance the consumer’s acceptance of the fishery product. Consumers' acceptance of the fish burger was determined by sensory evaluation based on its color, flavor, softness or firmness (S/F, chewy/ rubbery (C/R using 10 point scoring system by a group of 10 untrained judges (20-50 years old. The results were found as follows: color (7.25±1.15, flavor (6.67±1.17, S/F (8.47±1.20 and C/R (7.83±1.23. Evaluation of proximate composition showed that the moisture and protein contents in grass carp mince were 79.15 ± 1.16 % and 18.01±0.44 % respectively which were higher than that of fish burger, 69.46 ± 0.89 % and 16.42 ± 0.57 %, respectively. Lipid (6.64±0.15 % and ash (2.98±0.09 % contents in fish burger were also higher than fish mince. The pH of fish mince and fish burger was 6.8±0.11 and 6.6±0.05 respectively. Therefore, from simple cost-profit analysis, it can be assumed that business of fish burger in Bangladesh has a very good prospect and it would be profitable.

  16. Re-description and Reassignment of the Damselfish Abudefduf luridus (Cuvier, 1830) Using Both Traditional and Geometric Morphometric Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W. James [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Albertson, R Craig [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Jacob, Rick E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westneat, Mark W. [Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Here we present a re-description of Abudefduf luridus and reassign it to the genus Similiparma. We supplement traditional diagnoses and descriptions of this species with quantitative anatomical data collected from a family-wide geometric morphometric analysis of head morphology (44 species representing all 30 damselfish genera) and data from cranial micro-CT scans of fishes in the genus Similiparma. The use of geometric morphometric analyses (and other methods of shape analysis) permits detailed comparisons between the morphology of specific taxa and the anatomical diversity that has arisen in an entire lineage. This provides a particularly useful supplement to traditional description methods and we recommend the use of such techniques by systematists. Similiparma and its close relatives constitute a branch of the damselfish phylogenetic tree that predominantly inhabits rocky reefs in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific, as opposed to the more commonly studied damselfishes that constitute a large portion of the ichthyofauna on all coral-reef communities.

  17. Experimental infection of octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) with Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida. Immunohistochemical tracking of antigen and tissue responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulos, Vasileios; White, Daniella; Valsamidis, Michail-Aggelos; Vasilaki, Feli

    2017-03-01

    Adult common octopus individuals were intramuscularly infected with Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida in order to investigate if this species is sensitive to this common and important fish pathogen. The fate of the bacterial antigens and the tissue responses of Octopus vulgaris were studied employing immunohistochemical techniques. Strong reaction at the site of injection was evident from day 2 post-infection that continued until day 14. Great numbers of hemocytes that were attracted at the site of infection were involved in phagocytosis of bacteria. Very early in the infection, a transition of cells to fibroblasts and an effort to isolate the infection was observed. During the course of the study, very large necrotic cells were seen at the site of infection, whereas during the later stages hemocytes with phagocytosed bacteria were observed in well-defined pockets inside the muscle tissue. None of the internal organs tested for the presence of the bacterium were positive with the exception of the digestive gland where antigen staining was observed which was not associated with hemocyte infiltration. The high doses of bacterial cells used in this experimental infection and the lack of disease signs from Octopus vulgaris suggest that, under normal conditions, octopus is resistant to Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A new artificial reef design for octopus (Octopus vulgaris cuvier, 1797 in the Aegean sea and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Gulf of 0zmir in the Aegean Sea between June 2006 and November 2008. The purpose was the creation of a new concept of the artificial reef for Octopus vulgaris, with a view to establishing new artificial reef sites to be used in the fisheries management of this species (MPA, NTZ or fishing areas. First, the main characteristics of natural octopus nests were recorded (entrance width, length, etc. by divers. These characteristics were used in the construction of new octahedral artificial reef blocks. The blocks were made of reinforced concrete, in a shape like that of an inverted pyramid, with an upper surface of 100x100x25 cm³ and a lower one of 60x60 cm². Four cylindrical holes each with two ellipsoidal openings were placed in one face and in the lateral edge of the octo-block, to serve as the entrances to the artificial nest. Each nest has a volume of 5000 cm³. Eighty octo-blocks were deployed as artificial reefs at 10 m from each other at 15 different depths at two sites by divers with the help of the winch of the R/V EGESUF. These artificial octo-reefs were censused by direct observation. Twenty-eight octopuses were sampled at the end of 25 dives. Minimum mantle length of the octopuses was 75 mm and the maximum 249 mm, with an average of 152.71 mm. The average total length was calculated to be 918.57 mm. The weight of the specimens was between 244 g and 7140 g with an average of 2335.43 g. The results showed that both sites were inhabited by octopuses coming from the artificial reefs, which used them as nests. These nests seem to have constituted special places for fisheries management and will permit the assessment of reserve areas or marine protection areas (MPA, thus opening up a new perspective for Turkish fisheries.Este estudo foi realizado no golfo de 0zmir, no Mar Egeu, entre junho de 2006 e novembro de 2008. O objetivo foi uma nova concepção de recife artificial para Octopus vulgaris, visando o estabelecimento de novos locais a serem utilizados na gestão da pesca dessa espécie (MPA, NTZ ou zonas de pesca. Primeiramente foram consideradas as principais características dos ninhos naturais do polvo (largura da entrada, comprimento, etc.. A seguir essas características foram utilizadas na construção de novos blocos octaédricos de recifes artificiais. Os blocos foram feitos de concreto armado, assemelhando-se a uma pirâmide invertida, nas dimensões de 100x100x25 cm³ na face superior e 60x60 cm² na face inferior. Quatro furos cilíndricos, com duas aberturas elipsoidais, foram dispostos em uma só face e na borda lateral do octo-bloco, correspondendo às entradas do ninho artificial. Cada ninho tem um volume de 5000 cm³. Foram implantados 80 octo-blocos para servirem como recifes artificiais, guardando a distância de 10 m entre si, em 15 profundidades e em dois locais diferentes, com auxílio de mergulhadores e guincho do R/ V EGESUF. Esses recifes foram recenseados, utilizando-se o método de observação direta. Vinte e oito polvos foram amostrados ao final de 25 mergulhos. O comprimento mínimo do manto do polvo foi de 75 mm e o máximo de 249 mm, com média de 152,71 mm. O comprimento médio total foi determinado em 918,57 mm. O peso dos espécimes ficou entre 244 e 7140 g, com média de 2335,43 g. Os resultados mostram que ambos os locais foram sustentados pelos polvos provenientes dos recifes artificiais, que os utilizaram como ninhos. Esses ninhos parecem constituir locais especiais para manejo da pesca, e permitirão a avaliação de áreas de reserva ou áreas marinhas de proteção (MPA, abrindo, desta forma, novas perspectivas para a pesca turca.

  19. Behavioral Responses of Nave Cuvier’s Beaked Whales in the Ligurian Sea to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    University of St Andrews St Andrews , Fife, KY16 8LB, UK phone: (+44) 01334 462630 fax: (+44) 01334 463443 email: plt@st-andrews.ac.uk...exercises and where the whales seldom hear sonar. APPROACH The University of St Andrews was the prime grantee for this project. The PI, Peter Tyack...was ultimately responsible for the project. Leigh Hickmott, also supported through the University of St Andrews , acted as the cruise science lead

  20. Fatal tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier attack in New Caledonia erroneously ascribed to great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias

    OpenAIRE

    Tirard, P.; Maillaud, C.; Borsa, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    International audience; To understand the causes and patterns of shark attacks on humans, accurate identification of the shark species involved is necessary. Often, the only reliable evidence for this comes from the characteristics of the wounds exhibited by the victim. The present case report is intended as a reappraisal of the Luengoni, 2007 case (International Shark Attack File no. 4299) where a single shark bite provoked the death of a swimmer by haemorrhagic shock. Our examination of the...

  1. Pacu fish (Cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Characidae landed in Porto Velho (Rondônia fish market from 1985 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Leite Lima

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated various aspects of the profile of pacu (Mylossoma spp., Myleus spp., Metynnis spp. fish marketed on the Cai N’água floating platform of Porto Velho (RO from 1985 to 2004. Inter- and intra-annual variations in yield, variation in fish length and general characteristics of the fishing are reported. The annual pacu yield ranged from 33,000kg to 146,000kg (average = 86,585kg, representing from 6.6% to 20.45% of the total landings in the studied period. These variations followed the hydrologic cycle, and the greatest yields were recorded in the years following the highest water levels. The monthly production ranged from 0 to 42,366kg (average = 5,772kg and it was related to reproductive migration. The pacu presented variations in standard length from 14 to 20cm (18.72cm ± 3.69, mean ± sd. The fishing was based on the use of seines and gill nets and the main environments of capture were tributaries of the low Madeira River (Jamari, Oropiara, Machado and Novo Aripuanã. The CPUE calculated for 2003 to 2005 was 15kg*fisherman 1day-1 (sd = ±21. The results show that the category constituted during this period an important resource for local commercial exploitations, as verified in other regions of the Amazon.

  2. Barracudia australiensis n. g., n. sp (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the obtuse barracuda Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) off eastern Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Shamsi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2017), s. 627-634 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : yamaguti * fishes * coast Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  3. Comparative studies of bile salts. A new type of bile salt from Arapaima gigas (Cuvier) (family Osteoglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslewood, G A; Tökés, L

    1972-03-01

    1. Arapaima gigas bile salts were hydrolysed by alkali or cleaved with dioxan-trichloroacetic acid to give cholic acid, arapaimic acid, arapaimol-A and arapaimol-B. 2. I.r., n.m.r. and mass spectroscopy and [alpha](D) measurements indicated that arapaimic acid and arapaimol-A and -B are respectively 2alpha,3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxy-5beta,25in-cholestan-26-oic acid, 5beta,25R-cholestane-2beta,3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,26-pentol and 5beta-cholestane-2beta,3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,26,27-hexol. 3. Partial synthesis of 2beta,3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxy-5alpha- and -5beta-cholan-24-oic acid and their spectral examination fully confirmed these conclusions. 4. A. gigas bile salts show primitive features in that they comprise alcohol sulphates and a C(27) acid; they are also specialized in showing 2beta-hydroxylation.

  4. Lobocapillaria austropacifica n. g., n. sp (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the obtuse barracuda Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier (Sphyraenidae, Perciformes) off eastern Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Beveridge, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 5 (2017), s. 547-556 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : intestinal parasite * new-caledonia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  5. Diurnal observations on the behavioral ecology of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) and Muraena miliaris (Kaup) on a Caribbean coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, R. W.; Abrams, M. D.; Schein, M. W.

    1983-09-01

    Activities of muraenids, primarily Gymnothorax moringa and Muraena miliaris, were observed on a Caribbean coral reef with a view to further understanding their role in the reef ecosystem. Other muraenid species included in the total of 198 sightings were Echidna catenata, Enchelycore nigricans, and an unidentified brown moray. The five species were unequally distributed among three basic habitats (sand, coral head, reef rock) available on the reef. Nine particular holes accounted for 52.5% of the total sightings, although hundreds of other seemingly appropriate sites were available. The eels (except M. miliaris) were transient with respect to given holes and particular sections of the reef. While some G. moringa were sighted in the same holes for several consecutive days, M. miliaris individuals remained in the same coral heads throughout the 6-week study period. Muraenids observed in this study showed high tolerances for and were tolerated by other fishes (including other morays) and invertebrates on the reef. They appeared to be opportunistic, roving predators and were not strictly nocturnal. Distinct behavioral interactions and displays between muraenids and reef fish were observed.

  6. Concentration and subcellular distribution of trace elements in liver of small cetaceans incidentally caught along the Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunito, Takashi; Nakamura, Shinji; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Anan, Yasumi; Kubota, Reiji; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Rosas, Fernando C.W.; Fillmann, Gilberto; Readman, James W

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, T-Hg, Org-Hg, Tl and Pb) were determined in liver samples of estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis; n=20), Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei; n=23), Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis; n=2), common dolphin (Delphinus capensis; n=1) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba; n=1) incidentally caught along the coast of Sao Paulo State and Parana State, Brazil, from 1997 to 1999. The hepatic concentrations of trace elements in the Brazilian cetaceans were comparable to the data available in literature on marine mammals from Northern Hemisphere. Concentrations of V, Se, Mo, Cd, T-Hg and Org-Hg increased with increasing age in liver of both estuarine and Franciscana dolphins. Very high concentrations of Cu (range, 262-1970 {mu}g/g dry wt.) and Zn (range, 242-369 {mu}g/g dry wt.) were observed in liver of sucklings of estuarine dolphin. Hepatic concentrations of V, Se, T-Hg, Org-Hg and Pb were significantly higher in estuarine dolphin, whereas Franciscana dolphin showed higher concentrations of Mn, Co, As and Rb. Ratio of Org-Hg to T-Hg in liver was significantly higher in Franciscana dolphin than estuarine dolphin, suggesting that demethylation ability of methyl Hg might be lower in liver of Franciscana than estuarine dolphins. High hepatic concentrations of Ag were found in some specimens of Franciscana dolphin (maximum, 20 {mu}g/g dry wt.), and 17% of Franciscana showed higher concentrations of Ag than Hg. These samples with high Ag concentration also exhibited elevated hepatic Se concentration, implying that Ag might be detoxified by Se in the liver. Higher correlation coefficient between (Hg + 0.5 Ag) and Se than between Hg and Se and the large distribution of Ag in non-soluble fraction in nuclear and mitochondrial fraction of the liver also suggests that Ag might be detoxified by Se via formation of Ag{sub 2}Se in the liver of Franciscana

  7. Concentration and subcellular distribution of trace elements in liver of small cetaceans incidentally caught along the Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunito, Takashi; Nakamura, Shinji; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Anan, Yasumi; Kubota, Reiji; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Rosas, Fernando C.W.; Fillmann, Gilberto; Readman, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, T-Hg, Org-Hg, Tl and Pb) were determined in liver samples of estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis; n=20), Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei; n=23), Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis; n=2), common dolphin (Delphinus capensis; n=1) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba; n=1) incidentally caught along the coast of Sao Paulo State and Parana State, Brazil, from 1997 to 1999. The hepatic concentrations of trace elements in the Brazilian cetaceans were comparable to the data available in literature on marine mammals from Northern Hemisphere. Concentrations of V, Se, Mo, Cd, T-Hg and Org-Hg increased with increasing age in liver of both estuarine and Franciscana dolphins. Very high concentrations of Cu (range, 262-1970 μg/g dry wt.) and Zn (range, 242-369 μg/g dry wt.) were observed in liver of sucklings of estuarine dolphin. Hepatic concentrations of V, Se, T-Hg, Org-Hg and Pb were significantly higher in estuarine dolphin, whereas Franciscana dolphin showed higher concentrations of Mn, Co, As and Rb. Ratio of Org-Hg to T-Hg in liver was significantly higher in Franciscana dolphin than estuarine dolphin, suggesting that demethylation ability of methyl Hg might be lower in liver of Franciscana than estuarine dolphins. High hepatic concentrations of Ag were found in some specimens of Franciscana dolphin (maximum, 20 μg/g dry wt.), and 17% of Franciscana showed higher concentrations of Ag than Hg. These samples with high Ag concentration also exhibited elevated hepatic Se concentration, implying that Ag might be detoxified by Se in the liver. Higher correlation coefficient between (Hg + 0.5 Ag) and Se than between Hg and Se and the large distribution of Ag in non-soluble fraction in nuclear and mitochondrial fraction of the liver also suggests that Ag might be detoxified by Se via formation of Ag 2 Se in the liver of Franciscana dolphin

  8. Cetacean records along São Paulo state coast, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos César de Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The São Paulo state (SP coast (23º18'S, 44º42'W; 25º14'S, 48º01'W is of approximately 600 km in length, bordering the Western Atlantic Ocean, in southeastern Brazil. Cetacean sightings and strandings have long been observed throughout this area. Scattered data from scientific publications, skeletal remains in museums, photographs and articles from newspaper files, universities and aquaria have been organised and updated since 1993. Field investigations on strandings and sightings have also been conducted. A total of 29 cetacean species have been recorded, including 7 baleen whales (Mysticeti and 22 toothed whales (Odontoceti, as follows: Balaenoptera physalus, B. borealis, B. edeni, B. acutorostrata, B. bonaerensis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Eubalaena australis, Physeter macrocephalus, Kogia breviceps, K. sima, Berardius arnuxii, Mesoplodon europaeus, M. mirus, Ziphius cavirostris, Orcinus orca, Feresa attenuata, Globicephala melas, G. macrorhynchus, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus capensis, Lagenodelphis hosei, Steno bredanensis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella frontalis, S. longirostris, S. coeruleoalba, Lissodelphis peronii, Sotalia guianensis and Pontoporia blainvillei. Several species have been observed only once and include strays from their areas of common distribution, as well as species with known preferences for offshore distribution. Others, such as P. blainvillei and S. guianensis, are common coastal dwellers year-round. Z. cavirostris, P. crassidens and L. hosei are reported for the first time on the SP coast.A costa do Estado de São Paulo (SP (23º18'S, 44º42'O; 25º14'S, 48º01'O apresenta aproximadamente 600 km de extensão voltada para o Oceano Atlântico Ocidental no sudeste do Brasil. Registros de encalhes e de avistamentos de cetáceos vêm sendo realizados ao longo desse litoral. Desde 1993, dados obtidos em literatura científica, material osteológico encontrado em museus, fotografias e artigos de arquivos de jornais

  9. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B. R.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  10. Molecular assessment of mating strategies in a population of Atlantic spotted dolphins.

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    Michelle L Green

    Full Text Available Similar to other small cetacean species, Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis have been the object of concentrated behavioral study. Although mating and courtship behaviors occur often and the social structure of the population is well-studied, the genetic mating system of the species is unknown. To assess the genetic mating system, we genotyped females and their progeny at ten microsatellite loci. Genotype analysis provided estimates of the minimum number of male sires necessary to account for the allelic diversity observed among the progeny. Using the estimates of male sires, we determined whether females mated with the same or different males during independent estrus events. Using Gerud2.0, a minimum of two males was necessary to account for the genetic variation seen among progeny arrays of all tested females. ML-Relate assigned the most likely relationship between offspring pairs; half or full sibling. Relationship analysis supported the conservative male estimates of Gerud2.0 but in some cases, half or full sibling relationships between offspring could not be fully resolved. Integrating the results from Gerud2.0, ML-Relate with previous observational and paternity data, we constructed two-, three-, and four-male pedigree models for each genotyped female. Because increased genetic diversity of offspring may explain multi-male mating, we assessed the internal genetic relatedness of each offspring's genotype to determine whether parent pairs of offspring were closely related. We found varying levels of internal relatedness ranging from unrelated to closely related (range -0.136-0.321. Because there are several hypothesized explanations for multi-male mating, we assessed our data to determine the most plausible explanation for multi-male mating in our study system. Our study indicated females may benefit from mating with multiple males by passing genes for long-term viability to their young.

  11. Prevalence of external injuries in small cetaceans in Aruban waters, southern Caribbean.

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    Jolanda A Luksenburg

    Full Text Available Aruba, located close to the coasts of Colombia and Venezuela, is one of the most densely populated islands in the Caribbean and supports a wide range of marine-related socio-economic activities. However, little is known about the impacts of human activities on the marine environment. Injuries in marine mammals can be used to examine interactions with human activities and identify potential threats to the survival of populations. The prevalence of external injuries and tooth rake marks were examined in Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis (n = 179, bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus (n = 76 and false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens (n = 71 in Aruban waters using photo identification techniques. Eleven injury categories were defined and linked to either human-related activities or natural causes. All injury categories were observed. In total, 18.7% of all individuals had at least one injury. Almost half (41.7% of the injuries could be attributed to human interactions, of which fishing gear was the most common cause (53.3% followed by propeller hits (13.3%. Major disfigurements were observed in all three species and could be attributed to interactions with fishing gear. The results of this study indicate that fishing gear and propeller hits may pose threats to small and medium-sized cetaceans in Aruban waters. Thus, long-term monitoring of population trends is warranted. Shark-inflicted bite wounds were observed in Atlantic spotted dolphin and bottlenose dolphin. Bite wounds of cookie cutter sharks (Isistius sp. were recorded in all three species, and include the first documented record of a cookie cutter shark bite in Atlantic spotted dolphin. This is one of the few studies which investigates the prevalence of injuries in cetaceans in the Caribbean. Further study is necessary to determine to which extent the injuries observed in Aruba affect the health and survival of local populations.

  12. Explotación de peces asociada a la pesquería artesanal de langosta de Juan Fernández (Jasus frontalis

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    Mauricio Ahumada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Para contribuir al conocimiento de la explotación de peces asociada a la pesquería de langosta de Juan Fernández, se monitorearon 157 salidas de pesca durante la temporada 2010-2011. Se capturaron 10.462 ejemplares correspondientes a 19 especies de peces, tres de las cuales concentraron el 94% de la captura en número: jurel de Juan Fernández (Pseudocaranx chilensis (45%, breca (Nemadactylus gayi (41% y anguila morena (Gymnothoraxporphyreus (8%. Las capturas totales estimadas fueron 40, 24 y 13 ton de breca, jurel de Juan Fernández y anguila morena, respectivamente. El 97% de los ejemplares de peces capturados fueron utilizados como carnada de peces o langosta.

  13. Notes on Gobioid fishes : 6. On the synonymy of some species from the Indo-Australian Archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans, F.P.

    1935-01-01

    Bathygobius fuscus (Rüpp.) Gobius fuscus Rüppell, Atl. Reise N. Afr. Fische 1828, p. 137. Gobius punctillatus Rüppell, l.c., p. 138. Gobius soporator Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poissons XII. 1837, p. 56. Gobius albopunctatus Cuvier & Valenciennes, l.c., p. 57. Gobius nebulopunctatus Cuvier &

  14. Sharks caught in the KwaZulu-Natal bather protection programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study provides long-term catch rate and biological data for tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier caught in the KwaZulu-Natal bather protection programme. Between 1978 and 2014, 1 760 G. cuvier were caught in nets and between 2007 and 2014, 108 G. cuvier were caught on drumlines. Standardised catch rates ...

  15. 78 FR 17639 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17941

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... commercial or educational photography on bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris... dolphin cognition and intelligence. Dolphin researchers familiar to each filming location are working as...

  16. Calcium and phosphorus determination in bones of low value fishes, Sardinella longiceps (Valenciennes and Trichiurus savala (Cuvier, from Parangipettai, Southeast Coast of India

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    Logesh AR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate calcium and phosphorus levels in the bones of low value fishes Sardinella longiceps (oil sardine and Trichiurus savala (ribbon fish. Methods: Bones and skeletal remains were subjected to alkaline-alcohol treatment for specified period of time and were then dried and pulverized. Calcium and phosphorus levels were determined by both volumetric and instrumental methods using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: Volumetric analysis of calcium and phosphorus were 28.98% and 14.2% in oil sardine; 24.2% and 11.6% in ribbon fish respectively. Atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis of calcium and phosphorus were 32.73% and 17.2% for oil sardine and 27.17% and 10.83% for ribbon fish respectively. Protein level was 4.82% in oil sardine and 3.97% in ribbon fishes. Conclusions: The findings of the present study revealed that sardine bones are rich in calcium and will be utilized for the production of calcium powder to treat osteoporosis.

  17. 3D Reconstruction of the Digestive System in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 Embryos and Paralarvae during the First Month of Life

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    Raquel Fernández-Gago

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Octopus vulgaris aquaculture is limited due to poor biological knowledge of the paralarval stages (e.g., digestive system functionality, their nutritional requirements (e.g., adequate live diet and standardization of rearing techniques. These factors are important in explaining the high mortality rate observed in this developmental stage under culture conditions. For a better understanding of nutrition biology of this species, we investigated the 3D microanatomy of the digestive tract of the embryo and paralarvae during the first month of life. O. vulgaris paralarvae digestive system is similar to that in the adult. The “descending branch” has a dorsal position and is formed by the buccal mass, oesophagus and crop. Ventrally, the “ascending branch” is formed by the intestine and the anus. The digestive gland, the posterior salivary glands and the inner yolk sac (in the case of the embryo and hatched paralarvae are located between the “ascending” and “descending” branches. In the curve of the U-shaped digestive tract, a caecum and the stomach can be found. The reconstructions reveal that anatomically the digestive system is already complete when the paralarvae hatch. The reconstruction of the buccal mass at different post-hatching days has demonstrated that all the necessary structures for food intake are present. However, the radula surface in contact with the pharynx is very small on the first day of life. Although the digestive system has all the structures to feed, the digestive gland and radula take longer to reach full functionality. We have established four development periods: embryonic, early post-hatching, late post-hatching and juvenile-adult. The differentiation between these periods was done by type of feeding (endogenous or exogenous, the state of maturation and hence functionality of the digestive gland, type of growth (linear, no net, or exponential, and measurement of the arm lengths with respect to the mantle length. 3D reconstruction represents a new tool to study the morphology and functionality of the cephalopod digestive system during the first days of life.

  18. Helmintos parasitos das espécies Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill do litoral cearense: Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea

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    Vera Lucia M. Klein

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available De nematódeos encontrados parasitando estômago, intestinos delgado e grosso de Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuv. e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitch. o autor propões para o gênero Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912 uma nova espécie, C. fortalezae sp. n., que mais se aproxima de C. clavatum (Rud., 1809 Baylis, 1920 dela se diferenciando por possuir espículos desiguais, um curto ovejetor, útero opistodelfo, ovos menores e por apresentar em todos exemplares estudados ceco intestinal curto e ceco esofagiano longo.In this paper the author proposes a new species of the genus Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912. Of the species under Contracaecum, Contracaecum clavatum (Rudolphi, 1809 Baylis, 1920 is the nearest to Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. differing from the latter by the following aspects: The males have unequal spicules. The females have a short ovijector and parallel uteri directed backward and the eggs are smaller. In both sexes the intestinal cecum is always short and the ventricular posterior appendix is always long, while Contracaecum clavatum presents these structures in an inverse way, considering the lenght of them. Besides, the thorn-like formations at the posterior end of the body are different.

  19. Growth and survival of Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier 1797 paralarvae fed on three Artemia-based diets complemented with frozen fish flakes, crushed zooplankton and marine microalgae

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    Lidia Fuentes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During one month, paralarvae of common octopus (Octopus vulgaris were fed 3 different diets: (1 Artemia sp. enriched with Isochrysis galbana (AI complemented with sand eel (Hyperoplus lanceolatus flakes (AH; (2 Artemia sp. enriched with crushed marine zooplankton (AZ; and (3 Artemia sp. cultured with Isochrysis galbana and further enriched with the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. (AN. The highest dry weight (1.6179±0.3861 mg was registered with the AN diet and the best average survival (67.0% with the AZ diet. Considering the highest dry weight obtained, the moderate high survival and the fact that with this diet it was possible to attain the adult stage, the AN diet was the most appropriate. The reasons for the best result in growth observed with AN are discussed as: (1 the combination of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provided by Isochrysis galbana and the high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content present in Nannochloropsis sp.; (2 the fact that the higher protein/lipid ratio of this diet improves the final dry weight of the paralarvae; and (3 the fact that Nannochloropsis sp. could inhibit the harmful microflora growth in the rearing tank. Regarding nutritional aspects, DHA content per se is not the only determinant factor for growth and survival of O. vulgaris paralarvae, but the presence of a high protein/lipid ratio and a high phospholipid content in the diet could possibly explain the better quality and strength of the paralarvae.

  20. The growth and exploitation rate of yellowstripe scad (selaroides leptolepis cuvier, 1833) in the Malacca Strait, Medan Belawan Subdistrict, North Sumatera Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, J.; Bakti, D.; Desrita

    2018-02-01

    Yellowstripe scad included the one of commodity that has an important economic value in the Malacca Strait. Fish were found mostly in Indonesian of waters made this fish as one of the main target catch. But, it can had negative impact on the population of the fish. The study is done at Belawan Waters on March until May 2017 that which is purposed to study about the frequency distribution of length, determine the parameters of growth and, determine mortality rate and the rate of exploitation in order to provide appropriate management model for the fish resource. Yellowstripe scad was observed around 360 samples with the length range between 110 - 175 mm. The fish separated by bhattacarya method used the aid software FISAT II. A pattern of growth Yellowstripe scad alometrik negative with growth coefisien (K) 1.1 with length asimtotic (L∞) 181.65. The rate of mortality total ( Z) yellowstripe scad 4.34 per year at the rate of mortality natural ( M ) 1.204 per year and rate mortality by fishing (F) 3.136 per year in order to obtain the rate of exploitation 0.722. The value of this exploitation rate has exceeded the value of the optimum exploitation of 0.5.

  1. Avances en el conocimiento y el estado actual de conservación del Cocodrilo de Tumbes (Crocodylus acutus Cuvier, 1807

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    Armando H. Escobedo Galván

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta nota se describe el estado de conservación del Cocodrilo de Tumbes en Perú, donde la especie encuentra su límite sur de distribución, por lo que es catalogada como especie rara en la zona. Esto ha generado que se lleven a cabo programas de manejo ex situ para apoyar su conservación. Sin embargo el desconocimiento de los beneficios que brinda la especie, junto con la deforestación, el cambio climático y las actividades antropogénicas, han ocasionado que su población disminuya y se encuentre amenazada.

  2. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  3. Molecular diagnosis of the arowanas Osteoglossum ferreirai Kanazawa, 1966 and O. bicirrhossum (Cuvier, 1829 from the Orinoco and Amazon River basins

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    Maria Doris Escobar L.

    Full Text Available The arowanas, fishes of Gondwanan origin, are represented in South America by the genus Osteoglossum. All species were initially reported as being exclusive to the Amazon region, with O. ferreirai restricted to the Negro River basin and O. bicirrhosum to the Amazon and Essequibo Rivers basin. Starting in the mid 1970's it was reported that O. ferreirai also occurs in the Orinoco River basin. In all regions the arowanas assumed significant socio-economic importance due to their popularity in the international ornamental fish trade, leading to over-exploitation of both species in some areas. The Orinoco populations are particularly heavily exploited, and thus conservation and management measures are needed. Both depend on the clarification of taxonomic status, and phylogenetic distinctness of the Orinoco populations. With the goal of molecularly characterizing the two species of Osteoglossum, and comparing populations of Osteoglossum from the Orinoco and Amazon basins, we characterized individuals sampled from eight localities, one in the Orinoco River basin and seven in the Amazon River basin. We sampled 39 individuals, obtaining 1004 base pairs, of which 79 were synapomorphies. Genetic distance between the two species calculated using the HKY + G model of molecular evolution was 8.94%. Intraspecific distances ranged from 0.42% in O. bicirrhosum to 0.10% in O. ferreirai. The genetic characterization confirmed the taxonomic status of O. ferreirai in the Orinoco basin, and suggested that its distribution in the Orinoco basin is unlikely to be the result of vicariance or natural dispersal, but rather an anthropic introduction.

  4. Feeding of Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier, 1829 (Characiformes in the Serra do Mar State Park - Santa Virgínia Unit, São Paulo, Brazil

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    MLLA Botelho

    Full Text Available We describe the diet of Oligosarcus hepsetus, in the Santa Virgínia Unit of the Serra do Mar State Park. The Paraibuna and Grande rivers in the basin of the Paraíba do Sul River were sampled monthly from January to December 2004. The Alimentary Preference Degree and the frequency of occurrence indices were used to analyze the food items. The diets of Oligosarcus hepsetus in the two localities sampled were very similar, and reinforced the importance of the streamside forests in establishing and maintaining biotic and abiotic conditions in these environments. The species had a carnivorous diet that differed with ontogeny: smaller individuals were principally insectivorous and larger ones ichthyophagous.

  5. 3D Reconstruction of the Digestive System in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 Embryos and Paralarvae during the First Month of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gago, Raquel; Heß, Martin; Gensler, Heidemarie; Rocha, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Octopus vulgaris aquaculture is limited due to poor biological knowledge of the paralarval stages (e.g., digestive system functionality), their nutritional requirements (e.g., adequate live diet) and standardization of rearing techniques. These factors are important in explaining the high mortality rate observed in this developmental stage under culture conditions. For a better understanding of nutrition biology of this species, we investigated the 3D microanatomy of the digestive tract of the embryo and paralarvae during the first month of life. O. vulgaris paralarvae digestive system is similar to that in the adult. The "descending branch" has a dorsal position and is formed by the buccal mass, oesophagus and crop. Ventrally, the "ascending branch" is formed by the intestine and the anus. The digestive gland, the posterior salivary glands and the inner yolk sac (in the case of the embryo and hatched paralarvae) are located between the "ascending" and "descending" branches. In the curve of the U-shaped digestive tract, a caecum and the stomach can be found. The reconstructions reveal that anatomically the digestive system is already complete when the paralarvae hatch. The reconstruction of the buccal mass at different post-hatching days has demonstrated that all the necessary structures for food intake are present. However, the radula surface in contact with the pharynx is very small on the first day of life. Although the digestive system has all the structures to feed, the digestive gland and radula take longer to reach full functionality. We have established four development periods: embryonic, early post-hatching, late post-hatching and juvenile-adult. The differentiation between these periods was done by type of feeding (endogenous or exogenous), the state of maturation and hence functionality of the digestive gland, type of growth (linear, no net, or exponential), and measurement of the arm lengths with respect to the mantle length. 3D reconstruction represents a new tool to study the morphology and functionality of the cephalopod digestive system during the first days of life.

  6. Identification of a Δ5-like fatty acyl desaturase from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier 1797) involved in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Oscar; Navarro, Juan C; Dick, James R; Alemany, Frederic; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-08-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) have been identified as essential compounds for common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), but precise dietary requirements have not been determined due, in part, to the inherent difficulties of performing feeding trials on paralarvae. Our objective is to establish the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements for paralarval stages of the common octopus through characterisation of the enzymes of endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways. In this study, we isolated a cDNA with high homology to fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Functional characterisation in recombinant yeast showed that the octopus Fad exhibited Δ5-desaturation activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acyl substrates. Thus, it efficiently converted the yeast's endogenous 16:0 and 18:0 to 16:1n-11 and 18:1n-13, respectively, and desaturated exogenously added PUFA substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6 to 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 20:4n-6 (ARA), respectively. Although the Δ5 Fad enables common octopus to produce EPA and ARA, the low availability of its adequate substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6, either in the diet or by limited endogenous synthesis from C(18) PUFA, might indicate that EPA and ARA are indeed EFA for this species. Interestingly, the octopus Δ5 Fad can also participate in the biosynthesis of non-methylene-interrupted FA, PUFA that are generally uncommon in vertebrates but have been found previously in marine invertebrates, including molluscs, and now also confirmed to be present in specific tissues of common octopus.

  7. Growth of Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797 in tanks in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain: effects of temperature, salinity and culture density

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    Marina Delgado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess the possibility of O. vulgaris ongrowing using tanks or cages in the bays of the Ebro Delta, we performed several growth trials of common octopus held in tanks. Effects of environmental factors (temperature and salinity and zootechnical aspects (culture density were studied. The thermal ranges that defined positive growth periods in the bays of the Ebro Delta were 19.5ºC to 23ºC (spring-summer and 23.5ºC to 12.3ºC (autumn-winter, the latter being the most suitable period for ongrowing. Salinity did not affect survival (100% or growth within the range tested (34-29 psu, though feeding rates (AFR, SFR were directly related to salinity. On the other hand, after 60 days, final culture density increased three-fold (D1: 12.36 → 44.37 kg m–3; D2: 24.13 → 67.76 kg m–3, with optimal survival results ( > 90% for the two densities tested. Growth and feeding rates showed a slight inverse relationship with density. Finally, growth and feeding rates showed a clear dependence on temperature in the two experiments (density and salinity. Our results conclude that industrial production of O. vulgaris in tanks is promising: this system offers an alternative to cages and allows for a more exhaustive control of culture.

  8. Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

    2011-02-01

    The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Macro and microscopic structure of parotids salivary glands in two species of procyonidae: raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus, G. Cuvier, 1798 and coati (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1766

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    Celina Almeida Furlanetto Mançanares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coati (Nasua nasua, a diurnal animal, and raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus, a crepuscular and nocturnal one, are species of terrestrial mammals, belonging to the procyonidae family, that are widely found in the Brazilian territory. For this work were used three adult coatis and two adult raccoons adults from the Scientific Breeding-Cecrimpas of Centro Universitario da Fundacão de Ensino Octávio Bastos (Ibama 02027.003731/04-76 were used, from which tissue samples of parotid salivary glands were obtained and stained H.E. for light microscopy. It was found that the parotid glands of coatis and raccoons has a positioning similar to that of the other domestic carnivores, opening their ducts within the oral cavity close to the fourth upper premolar tooth, as well as that histologically the parotid glands of coatis and raccoons are formed by serous acini, similarly to most of the domestic animals, humans beings and rodents, and differently from the results found in young dogs, lambs and some carnivores such as the ferret which have mixed acini and other ones which have serous. One concludes that the similarity in serous constitution of the parotid glands of coatis and raccoons might be due to the omnivorous feeding habit shared by these two species.

  10. Histopathological study of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV in cultured false clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier, 1830 and true clownfish, Amphiprion percula (Lacepede, 1802

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    Muthuramalingam Uthaya Siva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV in two species of marine ornamental fishes through histopathological investigation along with control for differentiating the tissue damage. Methods: Six naturally infected fishes were collected. They were anaesthetized and subsequently killed by organ dissection. The infected fish organs were aseptically cut off and stored with 10% formalin solution for histological study. Samples were examined for gross pathology including location, distribution, shape, size, colour, consistency and special features of typical external lesions by standard method. Results: The diameter of the tumor nodules ranged from 1 to 2 mm (Amphiprion ocellaris and 2.5 to 3.5 mm (Amphiprion percula. Light microscopic observation showed over growth of tumor like nodules on the skin or scales and ventral side as well. Numerous hypertrophied cells with basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were in the connective tissues of dermis and between scales on two species. The nucleus of lymphocystis cell were enlarged, irregular and containing basophilic marginated chromatin. Thus, the similarities among cellular patterns of different fish LCDV isolates from different hosts indicated that these profiles do not depend on the host species. Conclusions: In conclusion, this current study of histopathological statement of LCDV may be adequate for a presumptive diagnosis of lymphocystis disease from both marine as well as fresh water fish species. The findings of asymptomatic carriers by histology using infected skin and fin sampling, which does not imply animal killing, could be important tool to epizootics caused by LCDV. This study may be very useful for further molecular studies.

  11. Philometra johnii sp nov (Nematoda, Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting philometrid from the sin croaker Johnius dussumieri (Cuvier) (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) from marine waters of Iraq

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Ali, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2013), s. 263-268 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parasitic nematode * Philometra * new species * marine fish * Johnius * Iraq * Arabian Gulf Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2013

  12. HÁBITOS ALIMENTICIOS DE LA ARAHUANA Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (CUVIER, 1829 EN LA CUENCA MEDIO DEL RÍO PUTUMAYO - EL ESTRECHO, LORETO, PERÚ

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    Bray Torres Del Castillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar los hábitos alimenticios de la arahuana Osteoglossum bicirrhosum en la cuenca media del río Putumayo. Para tal fin, fueron colectados un total de 222 estómagos de especímenes de varias tallas, durante el período de un año, iniciándose en marzo de 2008 y concluyendo en abril de 2009. El análisis del contenido estomacal determinó que el 73% de los estómagos contenían alimento y el 27% no. Mediante el uso del índice de importancia alimenticia (IAi, y el coeficiente alimenticio (Q, se observó una preferencia por los insectos, peces y moluscos, siendo las aves, mamíferos y restos vegetales alimentos secundarios. No se registraron diferencias significativas en el consumo de alimento de acuerdo al régimen hidrológico (p>0.05 ni al sexo (p>0.05. El análisis del IAi y Q, nos indica que el consumo de insectos presenta una relación inversa a los rangos de talla, es decir, a mayor nivel de talla menor consumo de insectos. En contraste, el consumo de peces se incrementó con el tamaño de los ejemplares de arahuana. En conclusión, la arahuana, en el rango de talla estudiado (de 31 a 87 cm, presenta un comportamiento alimenticio generalista y oportunista, de régimen omnívoro con fuerte tendencia a la carnivoría.

  13. Caracterização genética do pirarucu Arapaima gigas (Cuvier) (Teleostei, Osteoglossidae) da bacia Tocantins-Araguaia, estado do Mato Grosso.

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Karla Silvestre Marques

    2003-01-01

    Os Osteoglossiformes são representados na América do Sul pelos gêneros Arapaima e Osteoglossum, que ocorrem particularmente na região Amazônica, nas bacias Amazônica e Tocantins-Araguaia. Os estudos genéticos neste grupo são praticamente inexistentes, evidenciando a necessidade de informações para programas de conservação. A espécie Arapaima gigas da bacia hidrográfica Tocantins-Araguaia apresentou um 2n=56 cromossomos, com fórmula cariotípica 28M/SM+28ST/ A. A marcação por nitrato de p...

  14. Tongue anato-histology of the oceanodromous adult Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1851 with a note on the comparison with the tongue structure of adult R. kanagurta (Cuvier, 1816

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    Jes Kettratad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical and histological structures of the tongue tissue of Rastrelliger brachysoma and R. kanagurta were investigated. Anatomical structure of the tongue in R. brachysoma was poorly developed and was of triangular shape. The histological and histochemical technique showed the tissue to be principally composed of three layers: tunica mucosa, tunica submucosa and osteocartilagionous skeleton. Stratified epithelium of its mucosal surface was interrupted with several cell types including goblet cells and taste buds. Numerous teeth with elongated shape were also found centrally on the anterior tip of the tongue. They are found among a few dermal papillae of the tongue. Tunica submucosa consisted of connective tissue, blood vessels and pigment cells. When compared anatomically and histologically with that of R. kanagurta, the overall morphological was quite similar. However, some histological structures including taste buds and teeth of R. kanagurta were rarely seen. Rastrelliger kanagurta also tended to have more goblet cell than R. brachysoma. Rastrelliger kanagurta tended to possess less overall histological structures of the tongue. This difference could potentially cause by different feeding adaptation between the two species. Regardless of the differences found between the two species, both are still considered as herbivores.

  15. Gonadossomatic relation and reproductive strategy of Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819 in the Serra do Mar State Park - Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    LM Gomiero

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the gonadossomatic relation of males and females of Brycon opalinus (the Pirapitinga do Sul in the Serra do Mar State Park-Núcleo Santa Virgínia. The study area included three rivers: Paraibuna, Ipiranga, and Grande. From the gonadossomatic relation, it was possible to determine the reproductive season and strategy of this species. The gonadossomatic relation was high throughout the year for both males and females. Sperm competition and dilution of the ejaculate in the spawning locations favored substantial development of the testicles. The sex ratio of Brycon opalinus was always in favor of females. The existence of sexual dimorphism in this species was confirmed from the larger size of the females.

  16. Suplementação de metionina e/ou lisina em rações para juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 Reduction of protein levels and methionine and/or lysine supplementation in diets and their effects in total ammonia nitrogen excretion of tambaqui juveniles (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818

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    Lian V. Brandão

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da redução dos níveis de proteína e a suplementação de metionina e/ou lisina em rações sobre a excreção de amônia em juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com esquema fatorial de duas entradas: 2 níveis protéicos (25 e 20% e 4 níveis de inclusão de aminoácidos: a 0% de suplementação, b DL-Metionina (3% da PB, c L-lisina (5% da PB e d Dl-Metionina (3% da PB + L-lisina (5% da PB, com duração de 55 dias. A coleta de água das unidades experimentais ocorreu em três momentos (1º dia, 27º dia e 55º dia durante o período experimental. Nestes dias, foram realizadas 3 coletas de amostras de água para análise de amônia de cada unidade experimental (08:00 , 14:00 e 20:00 horas. Os dados de excreção de amônia foram analisados por ANOVA com medidas repetidas no tempo a 5% do nível de significância. A redução em 5% do nível de proteína na dieta gerou uma diminuição de 28,4% na excreção de amônia. Contudo, a suplementação de lisina e metionina não influenciaram esta diminuição.It was evaluated the effect of the reduction of crude protein level (CP and the lysine and/or methionine supplementation in total ammonia nitrogen excretion on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum juveniles. The experiment developed in a factorial and randomized design with two levels of protein contents (20% and 25% CP and four levels of amino acid supplementation: a Dl-methionine (0% of CP and L-lysine (0% of CP, b Dl-methionine (3% of CP, c L-lysine (5% of CP, d Dl-methionine (3% of CP + L-lysine (5% of CP, during 55 days. The water sampling from experimental units was done at 3 moments (1(0 day, 27(0 day e 55(0 day. In these days, 3 samples of each experimental unit were collected in elapsing of the time (08:00 a.m., 02:00 p.m. and 08:00 p.m.. The ammonia excretion data were analysed by repeated-measures ANOVA (p>0,05 with time as within effect. The reduction of 5% in diet protein, decreased in 28,4% total ammonia excretion decreased, however, the lysine and methionine supplementation did not influenced this factor.

  17. Morfologia e crescimento do músculo estriado esquelético no pirarucu Arapaima gigas Cuvier, 1817 (Teleostei, Arapaimidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3640 Morphology and skeletal muscle growth in pirarucu Arapaima gigas Cuvier, 1817 (Teleostei, Arapaimidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3640

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    Maeli Dal Pai Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características morfológicas e de crescimento do músculo estriado esquelético no pirarucu (Arapaima gigas. Foram utilizados animais em duas fases de crescimento: alevinos, com 50 dias de idade, e juvenis, com um ano de idade. Após eutanásia dos animais, fragmentos musculares das regiões dorsal, lateral cranial e lateral caudal foram coletados e congelados em nitrogênio líquido. Cortes histológicos (10 µm foram submetidos às colorações HE e Tricrômico de Gomori, para a análise morfológica, e NADH-TR, para a análise do metabolismo oxidativo das fibras musculares. Foi calculado o menor diâmetro das fibras musculares brancas nas regiões dorsal e lateral cranial. A musculatura dorsal branca mostrou-se mais desenvolvida e, na musculatura lateral, observaram-se compartimentos distintos: superficial vermelho e profundo branco. Nos alevinos, o crescimento muscular ocorreu predominantemente por hiperplasia das fibras e, nos juvenis, predominou o crescimento muscular por hipertrofia.The aim of this work was to evaluate the morphological and growth characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue in pirarucu (Arapaima gigas using alevins (50 days old and juveniles (1 year old. Muscle samples were collected from dorsal, lateral cranial, and lateral caudal regions, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. Histological frozen sections (10 µm were stained with HE and Gomori Trichrome for morphological analysis, and NADH-TR to evaluate muscle fiber oxidative metabolism. Morphometric analysis samples were obtained from dorsal and lateral cranial regions, and smallest diameter white fibers were measured. White dorsal muscle was thicker and two muscle fiber compartments were identified in the lateral cranial region: red (superficial and white (deep muscle. Hyperplasia muscle growth predominated in alevins and hypertrophy in juveniles.

  18. Desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 alimentados com rações contendo farinha de crueira de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz em substituição ao milho (Zea mays Performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 fed diets containing crueira manioc flour (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in replacement of corn (Zea mays

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    Geraldo Pereira Pereira Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, alimentados com níveis crescentes de farinha de crueira de mandioca, Manihot esculenta (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, como substituto do milho (Zea mays. Os peixes (peso médio inicial de 6,6 ± 0,1 g foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 24 grupos (20 peixes/grupo e alimentados com as dietas experimentais em quatro repetições para avaliação da performance de crescimento, eficiência alimentar, composição corporal e os custos de produção. As performances de crescimento não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. O teor de lipídio no músculo foi diferentemente significativo em peixes alimentados com 40% e 100% em relação aos outros tratamentos. O custo de produção de milho diminuiu linearmente com a substituição. O valor da dieta diminuiu de R $ 1,43 kg-1 a R $ 1,21 kg-1 e o peixe de R $ 1,54 kg-1 a R $ 1,30 peixe kg-1. Concluiu-se que o milho pode ser totalmente substituído por farinha de crueira de mandioca na dieta de juvenil de tambaqui, sem prejudicar o seu desempenho.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of young tambaqui (Colossoma macropum, fed with increasing levels of cassava flour, Manihot esculenta (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, as corn (Zea mays replacement. Fish (initial body weight 6.6 ± 0.1 g were randomly distributed in 24 groups (20 fish/group with four replications. They were fed with the experimental diets for evaluation of growth performances, feed utilization, body composition and production costs. Growth performances were not affected by the dietary treatments. Lipid content in muscle were significant different in fish fed 40% and 100% substitution when compared to the other treatments. The production cost decreased linearly with corn substitution. Diet decreased from R$ 1.43 kg-1 to R$ 1.21 kg-1 and fish production cost from R$ 1.54 kg-1 to R$ 1.30 kg-1 fish. It was concluded that the corn can be totally replaced by cassava flour in juvenile tambaqui diet without adversely affecting the performance of tambaqui.

  19. Farinha de folha de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Lam. de wit como fonte de proteína para juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum CUVIER, 1818 Leucaena leaf flour (Leucaena leucocephala Lam. of wit as a protein source for juveniles of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818

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    Geraldo Pereira Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum é um peixe onívoro, natural da bacia amazônica, que possui elevado valor comercial. Características de rusticidade e desempenho produtivo destacam esta espécie para criação em cativeiro. Contudo, em criações comerciais de peixes, os custos com alimentação podem corresponder de 60 a 80% dos custos totais de produção, sendo a proteína o nutriente mais caro da dieta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui alimentados com rações contendo farinha de folha de leucena como fonte protéica. 240 juvenis foram distribuídos em 12 aquários experimentais (350 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0%, 8%, 16%, 24% de inclusão de farinha de folha de leucena na ração e três repetições. Foram determinados o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente, taxa de crescimento específico, taxa de eficiência protéica e custo de produção do quilograma de peso vivo ganho. Para as variáveis estudadas, não houve diferença significativa (p>0,05 entre os tratamentos, indicando que é possível incluir até 24% de farinha de folha de leucena em rações para juvenis de tambaqui, sem comprometimento das variáveis estudadas, embora a substituição não tenha representado redução no custo de produção do quilograma de peixe.The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum is an omnivorous fish native to the Amazon basin, which has high commercial value. Characteristics of rusticity and desirable growth in farming highlight this species for breeding in captivity. However, in commercial fish breeding, feed costs may represent 60-80% of total costs of production, being the protein the most expensive nutrient in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of juvenile tambaqui fed with diets containing leucaena leaf flour as protein source. A total of 240 juveniles were distributed in 12 experimental aquaria (350 L in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0%, 8%, 16%, 24% of inclusion of leucaena leaf flour in diet and three replications. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, protein efficiency rate and cost of production per kilogram of live weight gained were calculated. For the studied variables, there was no significant difference (p> 0.05 among treatments, indicating that it is possible to include up to 24% of leucaena leaf flour in diets for juveniles of tambaqui, without compromising the variables studied, although the replacement has not represented reduction in cost of production per kilogram of fish.

  20. Tempo de indução e de recuperação de dourados Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816, submetidos a diferentes concentrações de óleo de cravo Eugenia sp. = Induction and recovery time for dourados Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 submitted to different concentrations of clove oil Eugenia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de dourado em cinco diferentes concentrações (20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 mg L-1, utilizando como critério para determinação da concentração ideal os tempos de indução e de recuperação ao efeito do anestésico. Em relação aos tempos de indução, verificou-se diferença significativa (p The present study evaluated five different concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg L-1 of clove oil as an anesthetic for dourado juveniles, using induction and recovery time to determine the ideal concentration. Significant difference (p < 0.05 was observed among 20, 30, 40 and 60 mg L-1 levels of clove oil. However, 50 mg L-1 concentrati on did not show significant difference in comparison to 40 and 60 mg L-1. Regarding recovery time, the shortest time was verified in the concentration of 20 mg L-1. Clove oil is effective and safe as an anesthetic for dourado juveniles in levels between 40 and 60 mg L-1.

  1. Morphological variation in populations of Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1817 (Characiformes, Characidae from Madeira and Paraguay river basins Variação morfológica em populações de Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1817 (Characiformes, Characidae das bacias dos rios Madeira e Paraguai

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    Willian Massaharu Ohara

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The saua Tetragonopterus argenteus is endemic to South America. It has a wide geographic distribution and occurs in different Brazilian basins, such as those of the Madeira and Paraguay rivers. In this work, it was noticed that populations from these basins have morphological variations between them, indicating a possible geographic isolation. Specimens were studied using twelve morphological characters that were submitted to the canonical variates and body proportion analysis. In the canonical variate analysis, the populations from the Madeira and Paraguay river basins were differentiated by caudal peduncle depth, eye diameter, pre-ventral distance, body height, snout length and head length. In the body proportion analysis, the population of Madeira river basin presented head length, orbital diameter, pre-dorsal distance, dorsal-fin length, pre-ventral distance, body height and caudal peduncle height, smaller than those of the population from Paraguay river basin. These results allowed the recognition of intra-specific variation amplitude, that could become an important instrument for management and conservation of this species. O sauá Tetragonopterus argenteus é endêmico da América do Sul, apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica e ocorre em várias bacias brasileiras, entre elas as dos rios Madeira e Paraguai. Neste trabalho foi observado que as populações dessas bacias apresentam variações morfológicas que, provavelmente, representam isolamento geográfico. Exemplares foram estudados através de 12 caracteres morfológicos e submetidos às análises de variáveis canônicas e de proporções corporais. Na análise das variáveis canônicas, as populações das bacias dos rios Madeira e Paraguai diferenciaram-se pelo diâmetro do olho, distância pré-ventral, altura do corpo, comprimento do focinho, altura do pedúnculo caudal e comprimento da cabeça. Na análise das proporções corporais, a população da bacia do rio Madeira apresentou comprimento da cabeça, diâmetro do olho, distância pré-dorsal, comprimento da base da nadadeira dorsal, distância pré ventral, altura do corpo e altura do pedúnculo caudal, menores que os das populações da bacia do rio Paraguai. Esses resultados possibilitam o reconhecimento da amplitude da variação intra-específica, que poderá ser um importante instrumento para o manejo e conservação dessa espécie de peixe.

  2. Digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e energia de ração suplementada com enzimas digestivas exógenas para juvenis de tambaqui (Colosssoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 Apparent digestibility of nutrients and crude energy in diets with addition of exogenous digestive enzymes in tambaqui juveniles ( Colosssoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818

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    Jorge Antonio Moreira da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de um compelxo multienzimático exógeno composto de amilase, protease, lipase e celulase, em rações de juvenis de tambaqui, sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa da proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos (ENN e energia bruta (EB. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (quatro níveis de inclusão de enzimas, 0,0; 0,05; 0,10; e 0,15 %, três repetições (no tempo e 10 peixes por unidade experimental. Foram utilizados 40 juvenis de tambaqui, com peso médio de 155,0 ± 0,49 g, distribuídos em quatro tanques de alimentação de 500 l, recebendo refeições à vontade das 8 às 12h, a cada hora. Em seguida os animais foram transferidos para coletores de fezes (200 l, onde permaneceram até às 18h, sendo a coleta de dejetos realizada a cada hora. A determinação dos CDa foi realizada pelo método indireto, sendo utilizado como indicador externo 0,5% de óxido de cromo-III (Cr2O3 incorporado à ração. Os resultados demonstraram que a suplementação das dietas com enzimas exógenas para juvenis de tambaqui aumenta a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e energia bruta, no nível de inclusão de 0,05% (PThe experiment evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation a multienzyme complex containing amylase, protease, lipase and cellulase for tambaqui juveniles on the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs of crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, carbohydrates (CHO and crude energy (CE. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four treatments (level of enzymes 0.0; 0.05; 0.10; and 0.15 % and three replicates (over time, with ten fish per experimental unity. Forty fish weighting 155.0 ± 0.49g were distributed in four 500 l feeding tanks and were fed hourly, from 8 to 12 AM. After this period, fish were transferred for fecal collection units until 6 PM, where feces were collected hourly. ADCs were evaluated by an indirect method, with 0.5 % III-chromic oxide (Cr2O3 as innert marker. The results showed that supplementary exogenous enzymes on tambaqui diets increased the apparent digestibility of nutrients and crude energy at inclusion level of 0.05% (P<0.05%.

  3. Redescription of the Indo-Pacific scorpionfish Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) (Scorpaenidae), a senior synonym of seven nominal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Hiroyuki; Causse, Romain; Struthers, Carl D

    2016-01-21

    The Indo-Pacific scorpionfish, Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824), is redescribed on the basis of 137 specimens, including types, from a wide geographic range in the Indo-Pacific. Seven nominal species, Scorpaena rubropunctata Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829, Sebastes minutus Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829, Scorpaena chilioprista Rüppell 1838, Scorpaena polylepis Bleeker 1851, Centropogon echinatus Macleay 1881, Scorpaena erinacea Garman 1903, and Scorpaenopsis quiescens Seale 1906, are regarded here as junior synonyms of S. guamensis. The type status of these nominal species is discussed, and lectotypes of Scorpaena guamensis, Scorpaena rubropunctata, Sebastes minutus, and Scorpaena polylepis are herein designated. Validity of Scorpaenopsis scaber (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886) is also discussed.

  4. D’une problématique locale-frontalière à un enjeu binational : le cas de la contrebande transfrontalière de carburants entre la Colombie et le Venezuela

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    Amanda Andrade Benitez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose d’appréhender le processus d’inscription de la question de la contrebande transfrontalière de carburants dans l’agenda d’intégration binational entre la Colombie et le Venezuela. Peu de travaux s’intéressent à ce sujet qui est habituellement abordé dans une perspective de politique intérieure et non pas extérieure. Notre étude s’inscrit dans le cadre théorique de la « mise en agenda » traitée par Cobb et Elders (1983 et des travaux de Jones et Baumgartner (2005 sur l’évolution de l’agenda politique après l’introduction de nouveaux enjeux. Elle vise à comprendre la manière dont la contrebande de carburants trouve une place dans l’agenda d’intégration énergétique bilatéral et devient un enjeu de coopération entre les deux pays. Les effets économiques de la contrebande ainsi que ses conséquences sur la sécurité de la frontière ont été des facteurs déterminants dans la signature d’un accord entre les deux pays. Les agences énergétiques de Colombie et du Venezuela ont été les acteurs privilégiés du processus d’inscription du problème dans l’agenda d’intégration entre les deux pays.This article analyzes the gradual inclusion of the illegal oil trade in the binational integration agenda between Venezuela and Colombia. Few scholars have focused on this question, which is generally examined through the prism of domestic –not foreign– policy. This study borrows from Cobb and Elders’ (1983 agenda setting theory and its development by Jones and Baumgartner (2005 on the evolution of political agendas following the incorporation of new issues. The purpose is to understand the ways in which illegal oil trade found its place in the bilateral energy integration agenda and became the subject of cooperation between Venezuela and Colombia. The economic effects of this illegal traffic along with its consequences on border security were crucial factors in the signing of a bilateral agreement. The energy agencies of Venezuela and Colombia were leading actors in this process and played a great role in the agenda setting process.El artículo identifica el proceso a través del cual la problemática transfronteriza del contrabando de combustibles entre Colombia y Venezuela se inserta en la agenda de integración binacional y logra convertirse en un tema público sustantivo. Existen pocos trabajos que traten este sujeto en una perspectiva de política interna y no externa. Nos basamos en la perspectiva teórica desarrollada por Cobb y Elders (1983 sobre la manera como un asunto arriba a la agenda pública, y en el desarrollo posterior de Jones y Baumgartner (2005 en cuanto a su evolución a través de la intrusión de nuevas temáticas que transforman la percepción de las autoridades políticas sobre un tema. Buscamos entender cómo este problema llega a formar parte de la agenda de integración energética binacional y luego se suscribe una solución basada en la cooperación. Las agencias de energía de Colombia y Venezuela fueron los actores privilegiados de este proceso, interviniendo directamente en la inserción del problema en la agenda y en las negociaciones que permitieron llegar a una solución. Los efectos económicos que generaba esta actividad a escala nacional y el aspecto securitario que implicó su evolución a escala fronteriza, fueron determinantes para llegar a un acuerdo.

  5. 77 FR 33198 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17159

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ..., United Kingdom, to conduct commercial or educational photography on spinner dolphins (Stenella... Animal Planet in the U.S. and elsewhere internationally. The initial filming period is scheduled for two...

  6. PERÍODOS DE ACTIVIDAD Y EFECTO DE LAS VARIABLES AMBIENTALES EN COCODRILOS (Crocodylus acutus Cuvier 1807): EVALUANDO LOS MÉTODOS DE DETERMINACIÓN DE LA FRACCIÓN VISIBLE.

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo Galván, Armando H.; Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Latina de Costa Rica y Asociación Costarricense de Investigadores en Crocodilidos. (Costa Rica).

    2016-01-01

    Se realizaron un total de 8 muestreos durante los meses de Octubre y Noviembre de 2000, en La Estación Experimental La Rambla ubicada en Río Frío de Sarapiquí en la provincia de Heredia, Costa Rica. Se determinó que los cocodrilos presentan un pico de actividad durante la noche, y que el número de cocodrilos observados se ve afectado por condiciones climáticas previas y durante los muestreos. Se comparó los diferentes métodos estadísticos para calcular la fracción visible, determinando que no...

  7. NEMÁTODOS PARÁSITOS DE Lutjanus synagris (Linneaus, 1758 Y Lutjanus analis (Cuvier, 1828 (PERCIFORMES, LUTJANIDAE EN LAS ZONAS DE SANTA MARTA Y NEGUANJE, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés J.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los nemátodos encontrados en el sistema digestivo de las especies de pargo Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis. Esta investigación se orientó principalmente a la clasificación taxonómica de los parásitos y no a los efectos o patologías que estos puedan ocasionar en los peces. Se tuvo en cuenta que en Colombia los pargos constituyen uno de los recursos de mayor importancia para la comercialización; Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis son especies demersales explotadas a lo largo de toda la región costera e insular del Caribe colombiano. Los tractos digestivos se colectaron de los pargos capturados artesanalmente (nasa, cordel por pescadores de las zonas de Santa Marta y Neguanje; se identificaron los siguientes géneros de nemátodos: Capillaria spp., Contracaecum spp., Cucullanus spp. y Raphidascaris spp.; el último género fue el más representativo.

  8. Estudos para Composição de uma Dieta Referência Semipurificada para Avaliação de Exigências Nutricionais em Juvenis de Pirapitinga, Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vásquez-Torres Wálter

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de definir uma dieta referência para estudos de exigências nutricionais em Piaractus brachypomus. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas quatro dietas com ingredientes semipurificados (H-440 com 47% PB, C-102 com 41% PB, NRC com 37% PB e IALL-1 com 32% de PB e uma dieta controle (32% de PB com ingredientes comuns. No segundo experimento, foi usada a dieta IALL-1, como base para a formulação de três dietas experimentais. A dieta 2 foi suplementada com vitamina C e uma pré-mistura de macrominerais, enquanto na dieta 3 o óleo vegetal foi substituído por óleo de peixe. O ganho de peso foi usado como critério básico para medir os efeitos das dietas, sendo também considerados consumo de alimento, taxa específica de crescimento (SGR, conversão alimentar aparente (FCR, eficiência de utilização da proteína (PER e retenção de proteína (%PPV e de energia (%RE. Entre as dietas semipurificadas, o melhor desempenho de crescimento e de utilização dos nutrientes foi observado para as dietas NRC e IALL-1, que não diferiram entre si. No segundo experimento, o grupo de peixes alimentados com a dieta 2 apresentou crescimento 42% maior que o observado com as dietas sem suplementação. As outras variáveis analisadas, FCR, SGR, PER e %PPV, também foram significativamente melhoradas. Os resultados em conjunto indicam que a dieta IALL-1 suplementada com macrominerais e vitamina C pode ser considerada adequada como dieta referência semipurificada para estudos de nutrição de Piaractus brachypomus.

  9. Feeding Relationship between Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797 Early Life-Cycle Stages and Their Prey in the Western Iberian Upwelling System: Correlation of Reciprocal Lipid and Fatty Acid Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Lourenço

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under the influence of the Western Iberian upwelling system, the Iberian Atlantic coast holds important hatcheries and recruitment areas for Octopus vulgaris. Recently identified as an octopus hatchery, the Ría de Vigo harbors an important mesozooplankton community that supports O. vulgaris paralarvae during the first days of their planktonic stage. This study represents a preliminary approach to determine the nutritional link between wild O. vulgaris hatchlings, paralarvae and their zooplankton prey in the Ría de Vigo, by analyzing their lipid class content and fatty acid profiles. The results show that octopus hatchlings are richer in structural lipids as phospholipids and cholesterol, while the zooplankton is richer in reserve lipids like triacylglycerol and waxes. Zooplankton samples are also particularly rich in C18:1n9 and 22:6n3 (DHA, that seem to be successfully incorporated by O. vulgaris paralarvae thus resulting in a distinct fatty acid profile to that of the hatchlings. On the other hand, content in C20:4n6 (ARA is maintained high through development, even though the zooplankton is apparently poorer in this essential fatty acid, confirming its importance for the development of O. vulgaris paralarvae. The content in monounsaturated fatty acids, particularly C18:1n7, and the DHA: EPA ratio are suggested as trophic markers of the diet of O. vulgaris paralarvae.

  10. The Sternoptychidae (Pisces, Stomiatoidei) of the Amsterdam Mid North Atlantic Plankton Expedition 1980, with a note on specimens intermediate between Argyropelecus aculeatus Valenciennes, 1849 and A. olfersi (Cuvier, 1829)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pafort-Van Iersel, Trudie

    1981-01-01

    The Sternoptychidae caught during a spring expedition in the Mid North Atlantic in 1980 are studied. Distribution patterns and data on abundance are recorded. It is proposed that Argyropelecus aculeatus and A. olfersi are two formae belonging to one species, the existing phenotypical differences

  11. Evaluación de los aportes de nitrógeno y fósforo al medio procedentes del engorde intensivo de pulpo común (Octopus vulgaris Cuvier)

    OpenAIRE

    Mazón Moya, María José

    2006-01-01

    Presentado como requisito parcial para la obtención del Tí­tulo de Máster Universitario Internacional en Acuicultura, otorgado por la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), el Instituto Canario de Ciencias Marinas (ICCM), y el Centro Internacional de Altos Estudios Agronómicos Mediterráneos de Zaragoza (CIHEAM)

  12. Le statut du genre Barbus Cuvier & Cloquet, 1816. Barbus Kahajani proposé comme nom de substitution pour Barbus tetrazona Bleeker, 1857, un homonyme secondaire de Barbus tetrazona Bleeker, 1955

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, J.J.

    1958-01-01

    Il existe encore une grande confusion au sujet du nom de genre correct s’appliquant à beaucoup de petits barbeaux de l’Inde orientale, lesquels, à juste titre, semble-t-il, ne devraient pas être maintenus dans le vieux genre Barbus. Pour ces espèces, et en particulier pour les espèces asiatiques, on

  13. Evaluación del tiempo de evacuación gástrica de la cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818, utilizando diferentes frecuencias de alimentación y ayuno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ader Gómez-Peñaranda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio estima el tiempo de vaciado del estómago de la cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus en el día de comienzo regular de alimentación posterior a un periodo de ayuno. Para el efecto, se recolectaron muestras de contenido estomacal en periodos de dos horas después del suministro de alimento (9:30 y 15:30 h hasta el primer indicio de vaciado. Se utilizaron cachamas con un peso de 360 ± 12 g dispuestas en cuatro tratamientos: (1 T1 = alimentación a saciedad durante 5 días y ayuno de 2 días, (2 T2 = alimentación a saciedad durante 6 días y ayuno de 1 día, (3 T3 = alimentación a saciedad durante 7 días, y (4 TC = alimentación siguiendo las tablas recomendadas por el fabricante del alimento. El análisis de datos se realizó mediante ANOVA de medidas repetidas, empleando como factores el tratamiento y el tiempo de vaciado, siendo cada repetición la unidad experimental. Las cachamas del tratamiento T1 presentaron mayor cantidad de alimento en el estómago en los muestreos posteriores al suministro de la primera y segunda ración. A diferencia del tratamiento T1, en los demás las cachamas vaciaron su contenido en el estómago en el periodo comprendido entre la primera y la segunda ración de alimentación y en el periodo posterior a la segunda ración. Por tanto, cuando el contenido estomacal fue mayor, debido a un mayor consumo de alimento en la ración, como en el caso del tratamiento (T1, el tiempo necesario para vaciar el estómago de las cachamas se incrementó.

  14. Parâmetros populacionais e simulação do rendimento por recruta de Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 do alto rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1593 Population parameters and simulation of the yield per recruit of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 from the upper Paraná River - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1593

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O dourado Salminus brasiliensis é uma espécie explorada por todos os tipos de pesca na bacia do rio Paraná e sua captura tem sido diminuída nos últimos anos. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo simular o rendimento por recruta de S. brasiliensis partindo da necessidade de rever a regulamentação de pesca, na tentativa de conservar os estoques da espécie. Para realizar o trabalho, foram usados os dados de captura junto aos pescadores profissionais do município de Porto Rico, Estado do Paraná, no período de outubro de 1986 a setembro de 1988, amostrados com redes de espera, com linha e anzol, com espinhéis e com anzóis de galho. A simulação do rendimento por recruta foi realizada considerando diversos cenários de mortalidade por pesca e comprimentos mínimos de captura, a partir do modelo de rendimento de equilíbrio de Beverton e Holt, modificado por Jones. A simulação mostrou um incremento no rendimento por recruta para os comprimentos mínimos de 60 e de 65cm, sugerindo que mudanças na legislação em vigor devem ser consideradas. Além disso, sugerimos mudanças nos procedimentos operacionais das barragens, na época de reprodução da espécie, e proteção da pesca nos locais de desova e nos criadouros naturaisThe “dourado” Salminus brasiliensis (Characidae is caught in all types of fisheries conducted in the upper Paraná River. However, a decline has been observed in the quantity of S. brasiliensis harvested in recent years. In this paper, we deal with simulation of yield per recruit, in order to evaluate ongoing fishery regulation. We expect to generate information that guides the conservation of this species. Data from the artisanal fishery were gathered from October 1986 to September 1988, in the city of Porto Rico. In that region, to catch the “dourado”, fishers use gillnets, hook and line, long lines and branch hooks. Simulations of yield per recruit were performed under diverse scenarios of fishing mortality and minimum size of capture, using the equilibrium model of Beverton and Holt, modified by Jones. Simulations showed increase in the yield per recruit when minimum sizes of capture were 60cm and 65cm, suggesting that a review of ongoing fishery regulation is needed. In addition, adjustments in dam operations during the spawning season of the species, and protection and prohibition of the fishery in nursery and spawning areas are suggested

  15. Development of a satellite-based hazard rating system for Dendrctonus frontallis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Cook; Shane Cherry; Karen Humes; James Guldin; Christopher Williams

    2007-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is the most damaging forest insect pest of pines (Pinus spp.) throughout the southeastern United States. Hazard rating schemes have been developed for D. frontalis, but for these schemes to be accurate and effective, they...

  16. Variations in stomach contents and biochemical composition of tissues in some marine fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, P.G.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    Relationship between calorific values and protein, fat and carbohydrate of the stomach contents (food) and body tissues of marine fishes, Sardinella longiceps, Valenciennes, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), Otolithus ruber (Schneider) and Lactarius...

  17. Volatile components from the anal glands of the yellow mongoose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-12-01

    Dec 1, 1988 ... sampling, gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrome- try. The odour volatiles were ... tube and over the secretion at a flow rate of 15 cm3 min-1 .... behaviour of the yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata. (G. Cuvier).

  18. First assessment of estuarine space use and home range of juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lithognathus lithognathus Cuvier, 1829) in the permanently open Great Fish Estuary, South Africa, were assessed using acoustic telemetry. Seven individuals (154–184 mm fork length) tagged with acoustic transmitters spent the majority of their ...

  19. Mid-Frequency Sonar Interactions with Beaked Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    et al. 2006), in the Bahamas and Madeira in 2000 (NOAA 2001, Cox et al. 2006), and in the Canary Islands in 2002 (Proceed. ECS 2004). Cuvier’s beaked...acoustic testing strand whales?" Nature 392. 29 (1998). L. Freitas, "The stranding of three Cuvier’s beaked whales Ziphius caviostris in Madeira ... Madeira , 1999-2002," Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Technical Report. WHOI-2005- 09, 38 pp. (2005). Available online at http://www.whoi.edu

  20. The Cetaceans of Ghana, a Validated Faunal Checklist | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... S. longirostris longirostris*, S. attenuata, S. frontalis, Delphinus capensis capensis*, Lagenodelphis hosei, Steno bredanensis, Grampus griseus, Peponocephala electra*, Feresa attenuata**, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Orcinus orca*, Pseudorca crassidens*, Kogia sima**, Physetermacrocephalus*, Ziphius cavirostris** ...

  1. Karyotype Evolution in Birds: from Conventional Staining to Chromosome Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    In this work we performed comparative chromosome painting using probes from Gallus gallus (GGA) Linnaeus, 1758 and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL) Latham, 1790 in Synallaxis frontalis Pelzeln, 1859 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae), an exclusively Neotropical species, in order to analyze whether the complex pattern of intrachromosomal rearrangements (paracentric and pericentric inversions) proposed for Oscines and Suboscines is shared with more basal species. S. frontalis has 82 chromosomes, similar...

  2. 75 FR 43150 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 10018, 13846, 14451, 14585, 14599, 14122, 14296, and 14353

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Pack, Ph.D. [File No. 14585], University of Hawaii at Hilo, 200 West Kawili St., Hilo, HI, 96720, was... in Hawaii (primarily off west Maui) and humpback and Eastern gray (Eschrichtius robustus) whales.... In Hawaii, spinner (Stenella longirostris), pantropical spotted (S. attenuata), and bottlenose...

  3. Candidate gene molecular markers as tools for analyzing genetic susceptibility to morbillivirus infection in stranded Cetaceans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskalová, K.; Bayerova, Z.; Futas, J.; Hrazdilová, K.; Klumplerova, M.; Oppelt, J.; Šplíchalová, P.; Di Guardo, G.; Mazzariol, S.; Di Francesco, C. E.; Di Francesco, G.; Terracciano, G.; Paiu, R.M.; Ursache, T. D.; Modrý, David; Horin, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2017), s. 343-353 ISSN 2059-2302 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cetacea * haplotype * immunity * innate * mhc-dqb * Phocoena phocoena * polymorphism * single nucleotide * Stenella coeruleoalba Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  4. Dolphin Morbillivirus in a Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) in Denmark, 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jo, Wendy K.; Grilo, Miguel L.; Wohlsein, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We studied the etiology of encephalitis in a fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) that stranded in 2016 on the coast of Denmark. Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected in the brain and other organs. Phylogenetics showed close relation to DMV isolated from a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba...

  5. Redescription of Oncophora melanocephala (Rudolphi, 1819 Baudin-Laurencin, 1971 (Nematoda, Camallanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magalhães Pinto

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncophora melanocephala, a camallanid nematode from the small intestine of Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 is redescribed from the Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil and this occurrence represents a new host record for the speciesOncophora melanocephala, um nematóide camalanídeo de instestino delgado de Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829, é redescrito da Costa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e esta ocorrência representa um novo hospedeiro para a espécie.

  6. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate jitter parameters in myasthenia gravis in stimulated frontalis and extensor digitorum muscles using the concentric needle electrode. Methods: Forty-two confirmed myasthenia gravis patients, being 22 males (aged 45.6±17.2 years-old were studied. Jitter was expressed as the mean consecutive difference (MCD. Results: MCD in extensor digitorum was 61.6 µs (abnormal in 85.7% and in frontalis 57.3 µs (abnormal in 88.1%. Outliers represented 90.5% for extensor digitorum and 88.1% for frontalis. At least one jitter parameter was abnormal in 90.5% of the combined studies. Acetylcholine receptor antibody was abnormal in 85.7% of the cases. Conclusions: Stimulated jitter recordings measured from muscles using concentric needle electrode can be used for myasthenia gravis diagnosis with high sensitivity. Extensive normative studies are still lacking and, therefore, borderline findings should be judged with great caution.

  7. CHIS – Letter from French health insurance authorities "Assurance Maladie" and “frontalier” status

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Certain members of the personnel residing in France have recently received a letter, addressed to themselves and/or their spouse, from the French health insurance authorities (Assurance Maladie) on the subject of changes in the health insurance coverage of “frontalier” workers.   It should be recalled that employed members of personnel (MPE) are not affected by the changes made by the French authorities to frontalier  workers' "right to choose" (droit d'option) in matters of health insurance (see the CHIS website for more details), which took effect as of 1 June 2014, as they are not considered to be frontalier workers. Associated members of the personnel (MPA) are not affected either, unless they live in France and are employed by a Swiss institute. For the small number of MPAs in the latter category who might be affected, as well as for family members who do have frontalier status, CERN is still in discussion with the authorities o...

  8. Epipona media cooper (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), a social wasp new to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Rodolpho S T; Carvalho Filho, Antonio F; Raw, Anthony; Costa, Marco A

    2010-01-01

    An occupied nest of Epipona media Cooper was discovered and collected in a cabruca (cocoa plantation with native tree cover). This is the first record of E. media from Bahia State. We described the nest structure and compared the adults with the closely related species Epipona tatua Cuvier.

  9. Interoceanic occurrence of species of Aristocleidus Mueller, 1936 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of gerreid fishes in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Roche, Dominique G

    2009-09-01

    During investigations of fish parasites in the Neotropics (including the state of Veracruz and the Yucatán Peninsula in the Gulf of Mexico, the Chautengo Lagoon on the Pacific coast of the state of Guerrero in Mexico, and Lake Gatun in the Panama Canal), three monogenoidean (Dactylogyridae) species were found parasitizing the gills of gerreids (Gerreidae): Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936, was recovered from Eugerres plumieri (Cuvier) and Diapterus auratus Ranzani in Veracruz, from D. auratus and Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) in Yucatán, from Eugerres brasilianus (Cuvier) in Panama (all new hosts and geographical records), and from D. peruvianus (Cuvier) and Gerres cinereus (Walbaum) in Guerrero; Aristocleidus lamothei Kritsky and Mendoza-Franco, 2008, was recovered from E. plumieri in Veracruz and from D. rhombeus in Yucatan (new hosts and geographical records), and Aristocleidus sp. was recovered from G. cinereus in Guerrero. Results from this study suggest that species of Aristocleidus exhibit wide host specificity within gerreid fishes and that geminate species within this parasite genus may have originated with the formation of the Isthmus of Panama (3.1 to 3.5 ma). Evidence is also presented suggesting the potential role of the Panama Canal as a passageway allowing the interoceanic dispersal of Aristocleidus species across the isthmus.

  10. Growth lines within the beak microstructure of the Octopus octopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 is commercially the most important species in the central-eastern Atlantic cephalopod fishery. The estimation of growth parameters in wild octopus populations is essential to management of the fishery. As there are problems with methods based on length-frequency modal analyses for ...

  11. Recherches d’anatomie comparée sur le genre Stenops d’Illiger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder van der Kolk, J.L.C.; Vrolik, W.

    1851-01-01

    Le genre Stenops D’Illiger contient des animaux fort curieux, qui, malgré les savantes recherches de plusieurs naturalistes, ne sont qu’imparfaitement connus. Aux observations disséminées dans les ouvrages anatomiques de Cuvier, de Meckel et de Tiedemann, chacun de nous a tâché, il y a quelque

  12. Socio-economic aspects of the tiger shark diving industry within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding socio-economic aspects of the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier diving industry, including information on participant expectations, experiences and expenditure, is necessary for the effective management of the Aliwal Shoal Marine Protected Area on the east coast of South Africa. Between January and ...

  13. Seasonal variability of bull and tiger shark presence on the west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fisheries-independent survey using longlines and drumlines, and an acoustic telemetry study, revealed that bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas and tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier occur throughout the year off the west coast of Reunion Island. The research, which commenced in 2011, was conducted in response to an ...

  14. Passive acoustic monitoring of beaked whale densities in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, John A; Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Frasier, Kaitlin E; Trickey, Jennifer S; Merkens, Karlina P; Wiggins, Sean M; McDonald, Mark A; Garrison, Lance P; Harris, Danielle; Marques, Tiago A; Thomas, Len

    2015-11-12

    Beaked whales are deep diving elusive animals, difficult to census with conventional visual surveys. Methods are presented for the density estimation of beaked whales, using passive acoustic monitoring data collected at sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from the period during and following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010-2013). Beaked whale species detected include: Gervais' (Mesoplodon europaeus), Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), Blainville's (Mesoplodon densirostris) and an unknown species of Mesoplodon sp. (designated as Beaked Whale Gulf - BWG). For Gervais' and Cuvier's beaked whales, we estimated weekly animal density using two methods, one based on the number of echolocation clicks, and another based on the detection of animal groups during 5 min time-bins. Density estimates derived from these two methods were in good general agreement. At two sites in the western GOM, Gervais' beaked whales were present throughout the monitoring period, but Cuvier's beaked whales were present only seasonally, with periods of low density during the summer and higher density in the winter. At an eastern GOM site, both Gervais' and Cuvier's beaked whales had a high density throughout the monitoring period.

  15. African Journal of Marine Science - Vol 20 (1998)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composition and spatial distribution of cephalopods in two North-western ... Growth lines within the beak microstructure of the Octopus octopus vulgaris cuvier, 1797 ... Summer distribution, abundance and population structure of illex argentines on the .... A preliminary investigation on how meteorological changes may affect ...

  16. Dive Distribution and Group Size Parameters for Marine Species Occurring in the U.S. Navy’s Atlantic and Hawaii-Southern California Training and Testing Study Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    A species will generally only be considered a surrogate for modeling if the species is closely related (within the same genus or family), feeds on... stereotyped , but a species’ behavior can generally be quantified by using an average percentage of time that an animal will typically spend within a...species, pantropical spotted dolphins (Section 2.2.1.3.13) which is also in the genus Stenella. Additionally, all three species occur in similar water

  17. Interacting Populations: Hosts and Pathogens, Prey and Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    model. The importance of seasonality has been well documented for other diseases. For childhood diseases like measles and chicken pox , seasonality comes...Spaniards and in soime cases reduced indigenous population to one tenth of its preepidemic size the Indian p)op)ulation of Mexico is thought to have been... Mexico (1993-94), striped dolphins (Stenella coeuleoalba) in the Mediterranean Sea (1990- 92) and commoin dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the Black Sea

  18. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Yoko; Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  19. Using a GIS-based spot growth model and visual simulator to evaluate the effects of silvicultural treatments on southern pine beetle-infested stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao-Ying Chou; Roy L. Hedden; Bo Song; Thomas M. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Many models are available for simulating the probability of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) (SPB) infestation and outbreak dynamics. However, only a few models focused on the potential spatial SPB growth. Although the integrated pest management systems are currently adopted, SPB management is still challenging because of...

  20. Naturally Occurring Compound Can Protect Pines from the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Strom; R.A. Goyer; J.L. Hayes

    1995-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, is the most destructive insect pest of southern pine forests. This tiny insect, smaller than a grain of rice, is responsible for killing pine timber worth millions of dollars on a periodic basis in Louisiana.

  1. Southern pine beetle infestation probability mapping using weights of evidence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Grogan; David L. Kulhavy; James C. Kroll

    2010-01-01

    Weights of Evidence (WofE) spatial analysis was used to predict probability of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) (SPB) infestation in Angelina, Nacogdoches, San Augustine and Shelby Co., TX. Thematic data derived from Landsat imagery (1974–2002 Landsat 1–7) were used. Data layers included: forest covertype, forest age, forest patch size...

  2. Disturbance from southern pine beetle, suppression, and wildfire affects vegetation composition in central Louisiana: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.W. Coleman; Alton Martin; J.R. Meeker

    2010-01-01

    We assessed plant composition and forest succession following tree mortality from infestation of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis), associated suppression, and wildfire in two forest types, pine (Pinus spp.) with mixed hardwood and longleaf pine (P. palustris). In this case study, vegetation was...

  3. Relaciones entre la presencia de tierra y la supervivencia en serpientes de coral mantenidas en cautiverio

    OpenAIRE

    Reynoso, H.; Bucher, Enrique; Merlini, H. O.

    1985-01-01

    Teniendo en cuenta las particularidades de la especie Micrurus frontalis pyrrhocryptus (coral) en lo referente a su comportamiento semifosorial, hemos considerado conveniente relacionar distintos aspectos biológicos de la especie tales como longevidad, peso y producción de veneno, con la disponibilidad de tierra en recipientes y exposición a la luz.

  4. Mapping pine mortality by aerial photography, Umstead State Park, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarence J. DeMars; Garey W. Slaughter; Lnla E. Greene; John H. Ghent

    1982-01-01

    In 1975-1976, pine trees killed by the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) in a 2l70-hectare (5362-acre) area at the William B. Umstead State Park in central North Carolina, were monitored by sequential color infrared aerial photography. From 1973 through summer 1975, beetles in 350 infestation spots killed more than 20,500 pines on...

  5. The Response of Hyperkinesis to EMG Biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Maryellen J.; And Others

    A study was conducted involving eight hyperkinetic males (11-15 years old) to determine if Ss receiving electromyography (EMG) biofeedback training would show a reduction in frontalis muscle tension, hyperactivity, and lability, and increases in self-esteem and visual and auditory attention span. Individual 45- and 30-minute relaxation exercises…

  6. Documentation and user guides for SPBLOB: a computer simulation model of the join population dynamics for loblolly pine and the southern pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Bishir; James Roberds; Brian Strom; Xiaohai Wan

    2009-01-01

    SPLOB is a computer simulation model for the interaction between loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), the economically most important forest crop in the United States, and the southern pine beetle (SPB: Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.), the major insect pest for this species. The model simulates loblolly pine stands from time of planting...

  7. Xylanases of Anaerobic Fungus Anaeromyces mucronatus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Zuzana; Procházka, J.; Šimůnek, Jiří; Fliegerová, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2010), s. 363-367 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : NEOCALLIMASTIX-FRONTALIS * XYLANOLYTIC ENZYMES * POLYCENTRIC FUNGI Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.977, year: 2010

  8. Intra-annual variation in responses by flying southern pine beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to pheromone component endo-brevicomin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Cavell Brownie; JoAnne P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endobrevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component...

  9. Spatial displacement of release point can enhance activity of an attractant pheromone synergist of a bark beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Sullivan; Kenji Mori

    2009-01-01

    Flight responses of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to widely-spaced (>130 m) traps baited with pine volatiles (in turpentine) and the female-produced pheromone component frontalin were enhanced when a bait containing the male pheromone component (+)-endo-brevicomin was attached...

  10. Logistic regression for southern pine beetle outbreaks with spatial and temporal autocorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Gumpertz; C.-T. Wu; John M. Pye

    2000-01-01

    Regional outbreaks of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) show marked spatial and temporal patterns. While these patterns are of interest in themselves, we focus on statistical methods for estimating the effects of underlying environmental factors in the presence of spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The most comprehensive available information on...

  11. Congenital Double Elevator Palsy with Sensory Exotropia: A Unique Surgical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, R C; Raj, Anuradha; Maitreya, Amit

    2017-01-01

    To report a unique surgical approach for congenital double elevator palsy with sensory exotropia. A 7-year-old boy with congenital double elevator palsy and sensory exotropia was managed surgically by Callahan's procedure with recession and resection of the horizontal recti for exotropia without inferior rectus recession, followed by frontalis sling surgery for congenital ptosis. Favourable surgical outcome was achieved without any complication.

  12. Evaluation of general-use insecticides for preventing host colonization by New Jersey southern pine beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Strom; W.K. Oldland; J.R. Meeker; J. Dunn

    2015-01-01

    Four general-use insecticides (Astro, Onyx, Dominion Tree & Shrub, and Xytect 2F) were evaluated for their effectiveness at preventing attacks by the southern pine beetle (SPB) (Dendroctonus frontalis) and the small southern pine engraver (Ips avulsus) using a previously developed small-bolt method. Evaluations were conducted between 58 and 126 days post treatment...

  13. A methodology for assessing annual risk of southern pine beetle outbreaks across the southern region using pheromone traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald F Billings; William W. Upton

    2010-01-01

    An operational system to forecast infestation trends (increasing, static, declining) and relative population levels (high, moderate, low) of the southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, has been implemented in the Southern and Eastern United States. Numbers of dispersing SPB and those of a major predator (the clerid beetle, ...

  14. Full penetrance of Morgagni-Stewart-Morel syndrome in a 75-year-old woman: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Francesca; Granziera, Serena; Giantin, Valter; Manzato, Enzo

    2013-02-01

    Morgagni-Stewart-Morel syndrome is defined as the presence of hyperostosis frontalis interna, variably associated with metabolic, endocrine, and neuropsychiatric disorders. The possible cause-effect relationship of these associations remains uncertain. A 75-year-old woman presented with severe frontal headache and a history of psychotic disorders. On instrumental examination she was found to have extensive frontal hyperostosis and cortical atrophy. These findings, associated to the metabolic and neuropsychiatric pattern of the patient, are consistent with a high penetrance of Morgagni-Stewart-Morel syndrome. In this clinical case seminar, we summarize the current understanding of the association between hyperostosis frontalis interna and Morgagni-Stewart-Morel, based on a MEDLINE search (case reports, original articles, and reviews published between 1928 and 2011) on this topic. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying both the headache and the hyperostosis frontalis interna are discussed. A case of full penetrance of Morgagni-Stewart-Morel syndrome is reported, presenting many of the clinical features described in the literature. Metabolic and endocrine dysfunctions should be interpreted not only as isolated components of the syndrome, but also as the reason behind its pathogenesis. Endocrine or nutritional disorders may have led to an altered bone metabolism with frontal bone apposition. On the other hand, the severity of our patient's neurological and psychiatric symptoms correlates well with the severity of her hyperostosis frontalis interna and the cortical atrophy.

  15. Effectiveness of Cedar Oil Products for Preventing Host Use by Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in a Modified Small-Bolt Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. L. Strom; L. M. Roton

    2011-01-01

    Insecticide products based on cedar oil are readily available, but evaluations against pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are lacking. In the southeastern U.S., the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm, is the major bark beetle pest for which tree protectants are applied. However, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) are more consistently...

  16. Reproductive isolating mechanisms between two sympatric sibling species of sea snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard; Reed, Robert N; Shetty, Sohan; Lemaster, Michael; Mason, Robert T

    2002-08-01

    Mechanisms that maintain species isolation within sympatric congeners have attracted analysis in many kinds of organisms, but not in snakes. We studied two sibling species of amphibious sea snakes (Laticauda colubrina and L. frontalis) on the island of Efate, in the Pacific Ocean republic of Vanuatu. The two taxa are almost identical morphologically, except that L. colubrina grows much larger than L. frontalis. No natural hybrids have been reported, and geographic distributions of the two taxa suggest the possibility of sympatric speciation. Our fieldwork shows that the two taxa are often syntopic and overlap in breeding seasons. Behavioral studies in outdoor arenas show that the separation between these two taxa is maintained by species-specific cues that control male courtship. Males of both species courted conspecific females but not heterospecific females. The proximate mechanism driving this separation involves chemical cues. Adult females of both taxa possess distinctive lipids in the skin. Males directed courtship behavior (chin-pressing) to hexane-extracted samples of lipids from conspecific but not heterospecific females. Males of the dwarf species (L frontalis) were more selective courters than were those of the larger taxon (L. colubrina), perhaps because a preference for courting larger females means that L. colubrina males would be unlikely to court L. frontalis-sized (i.e., small) females even in the absence of pheromonal barriers.

  17. Prescribed burning and mastication effects on surface fuels in southern pine beetle-killed loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron D. Stottlemyer; Thomas A. Waldrop; G. Geoff Wang

    2015-01-01

    Surface fuels were characterized in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations severely impacted by southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Ehrh.) (SPB) outbreaks in the upper South Carolina Piedmont. Prescribed burning and mastication were then tested as fuel reduction treatments in these areas. Prescribed burning reduced...

  18. The role of multimodal signals in species recognition between tree-killing bark beetles in a narrow sympatric zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa S. Pureswaran; Richard W. Hofstetter; Brian Sullivan; Kristen A. Potter

    2016-01-01

    When related species coexist, selection pressure should favor evolution of species recognition mechanisms to prevent interspecific pairing and wasteful reproductive encounters. We investigated the potential role of pheromone and acoustic signals in species recognition between two species of tree-killing bark beetles, the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis...

  19. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  20. A new species of bark beetle, Dendroctonus mesoamericanus sp nov. (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in southern Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Armendariz-Toledano; Alicia Nino; Brian T. Sullivan; Lawrence R. Kirkendall; Gerado Zunig

    2015-01-01

    The bark beetle Dendroctonus mesoamericanus sp. nov. is described from a population in Parque Nacional Lagunas de Montebello, La Trinitaria, Chiapas, Mexico. This species belongs to the D. frontalis complex, which includes D. adjunctus Blandford 1897, D. approximatus Dietz 1890, D....

  1. The genus Tyrinthia Bates, 1866 in Ecuador (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Hemilophini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; McClarin, Jim; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2017-12-05

    Tyrinthia frontalis (Guérin-Méneville, 1855) is redescribed, formally recorded from Ecuador, and its type locality is questioned. Tyrinthia napoensis sp. nov. is described from Ecuador. Tyrinthia paraba Martins & Galileo, 1991, and T. turuna Martins & Galileo, 1993 are new country records for Ecuador. A key to species of Tyrinthia from Ecuador is provided.

  2. Southern pine beetle infestations in relation to forest stand conditions, previous thinning, and prescribed burning: evaluation of the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Nowak; James R. Meeker; David R. Coyle; Chris A. Steiner; Cavell Brownie

    2015-01-01

    Since 2003, the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program (SPBPP) (a joint effort of the USDA Forest Service and Southern Group of State Foresters) has encouraged and provided cost-share assistance for silvicultural treatments to reduce stand/forest susceptibility to the southern pine beetle (SPB)(Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) in the southeastern United States....

  3. Area-wide efficacy of a localized forest pest management practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.T. Cronin; P. Turchin; J.L. Hayes; C.A. Steiner

    1999-01-01

    Few experimental studies have examined the movement of forest pest populations, particularly in response to management tactics that disrupt the growth of pest infestations.We quantified the interinfestation patterns of dispersal of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, by monitoring the fates of marked beetles after emergence from small natural infestations...

  4. : tous les projets | Page 47 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La création de zones économiques frontalières constitue une importante stratégie d'industrialisation pour la Thaïlande et ouvre de nouvelles perspectives pour deux de ses pays voisins pauvres, le Cambodge et le Myanmar. Sujet: MIGRANTS. Région: Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, Japan. Programme: Employment and ...

  5. A new metric for measuring condition in large predatory sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irschick, D J; Hammerschlag, N

    2014-09-01

    A simple metric (span condition analysis; SCA) is presented for quantifying the condition of sharks based on four measurements of body girth relative to body length. Data on 104 live sharks from four species that vary in body form, behaviour and habitat use (Carcharhinus leucas, Carcharhinus limbatus, Ginglymostoma cirratum and Galeocerdo cuvier) are given. Condition shows similar levels of variability among individuals within each species. Carcharhinus leucas showed a positive relationship between condition and body size, whereas the other three species showed no relationship. There was little evidence for strong differences in condition between males and females, although more male sharks are needed for some species (e.g. G. cuvier) to verify this finding. SCA is potentially viable for other large marine or terrestrial animals that are captured live and then released. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. A new species of Probursata Bravo-Hollis, 1984 (Mogenea: Heteraxinidae: Heteraxininae) parasite of Oligoplites spp. (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) from the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo M. Takemoto; J. F. R. Amato; José Luis Luque

    1993-01-01

    Probursata brasiliensis n. sp., a gill filament parasite of carangid fishes, O. palometa (Cuvier), Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider), and O. saliens (Bloch), from the Brazilian coast, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from Probursata veraecrucis Bravo-Hollis, 1984, the type and only species of this genus by the presence of spines in the auricular expansions of the genital atrium, by the trifurcate supplementary process of the clamp's midsclerite, and by having a l...

  7. Copépodes parasitos de Oligoplites spp. (Osteichthyes, Carangidae) da costa brasileira, com a redescrição de Tuxophorus caligodes Wilson, 1908 (Siphonostomatoida, Tuxophoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Takemoto, Ricardo Massato; Universidade Estadual de Matingá; Luque, José Luis; UFRRJ; Luque, José Luis; UFRRJ

    2008-01-01

    Four species of caligid copepods, parasites of Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier, 1833), O. saurus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) and O. saliens (Bloch, 1793) (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) from the Sepetiba Bay, coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are presented. New geographical and host records for Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898, C. rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905, C. bonito Wilson, 1905 and Metacaligus rufus (Wilson, 1908) are given. Caligus oligoplitisi Carvalho, 1954 is considered a new jun...

  8. Monogeneans of leatherjackets, Oligoplites spp. (Osteichthyes: Carangidae), with the description of a new species of Metacamopia (Monogenea: Allodiscocotylidae) from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Takemoto,Ricardo M; Amato,JFR; Luque,José Luis

    1996-01-01

    Metacamopia oligoplites n. sp., a gill filament parasite of carangid fishes of three species of Oligoplites Gill, O. palometa (Cuvier), O. saurus (Bloch & Schneider), and O. saliens (Bloch), from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described and illustrated. Metacamopia oligoplites n. sp. differs from M. indica by: the shape of the body; the pre-, para-, and post-germarial testes; vaginas lacking sclerotized structures; well-developed seminal receptacles; muscular sleeves...

  9. Morphology of the advanced-stage larva of Eustrongylides wenrichi Canavan 1929, occurring encapsulated in the tissues of Amphiuma in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, T S; Beaver, P C

    1979-02-01

    Larval nematodes identified as Eustrongylides wenrichi Canavan 1929, from cysts in the tissues of Amphiuma means tridactylum Cuvier in Louisana were redescribed. The extent of differentiation of the sex organs was found to be greater than that of 3rd-stage Dioctophyma renale, or of the infective stage of Trichinella spiralis, and comparable with the late 4th-stage larva of secernentean (phasmid) nematodes.

  10. バックランドの地質学と自然神学

    OpenAIRE

    松永, 俊男; Toshio, MATSUNAGA; 桃山学院大学文学部

    1994-01-01

    Scientific geology began in England early in the nineteenth century. Its leader was William Buckland. He imported the historical geology of Continental Europe into England. Historical geology was founded by Werner (a German) and Cuvier (a French), and developed largely by English geologists in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. English geology in the nineteenth century was based on natural theology. This was not the same as biblical geology, which interpreted literally the Mosaic s...

  11. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). WHITE MULLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    of the head Class ............ .Osteichthyes length. Order .... .......... Perciformes - Family .... ........... Mugilidae REASON FOR INCLUSION IN...SERIES Geographic range: Atlantic and East- The white mullet, the second most ern Pacific; in the Western Atlantic common species of the family Mugilidae ...del ciclo de Rep. 55(34):1-15. vida de MugiI curema Valenciennes in Cuviere- Valenciennes, 1836 Moore, R. H. 1973. Energetic re- ilisces: Mugilidae

  12. The dawn of chelonian research

    OpenAIRE

    MacCord, Kate; Caniglia, Guido; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline; Burke, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Many evo-devo studies of the turtle's shell draw hypotheses and support from historical sources. The groundbreaking works of Cuvier, Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Carus, Rathke, Owen, and others are being revived in modern research, and their centuries-old understanding of the turtle's shell reconsidered. In the works of these eminent biologists of the 19th century, comparative anatomy and embryology of turtle morphology set the stage for future studies in developmental biology, histology, and paleon...

  13. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To estimate jitter parameters in myasthenia gravis in stimulated frontalis and extensor digitorum muscles using the concentric needle electrode.Methods:Forty-two confirmed myasthenia gravis patients, being 22 males (aged 45.6±17.2 years-old were studied. Jitter was expressed as the mean consecutive difference (MCD. Results: MCD in extensor digitorum was 61.6 µs (abnormal in 85.7% and in frontalis 57.3 µs (abnormal in 88.1%. Outliers represented 90.5% for extensor digitorum and 88.1% for frontalis. At least one jitter parameter was abnormal in 90.5% of the combined studies. Acetylcholine receptor antibody was abnormal in 85.7% of the cases. Conclusions:Stimulated jitter recordings measured from muscles using concentric needle electrode can be used for myasthenia gravis diagnosis with high sensitivity. Extensive normative studies are still lacking and, therefore, borderline findings should be judged with great caution.Objetivo:Mensurar os valores do jitter em pacientes com miastenia gravis nos músculos frontalis e extensor digitorum pela técnica estimulada, utilizando-se eletrodo de agulha concêntrica.Métodos:Foram estudados 42 pacientes, sendo 22 homens (idade 45,6±17,2 anos, com miastenia gravis confirmada. O jitter foi expresso como a média das diferenças consecutivas (MDC.Resultados: A MDC para o extensor digitorum foi 61,6 µs (anormal em 85,7% e para o frontalis 57,3 µs (anormal em 88,1%. Outliers representaram 90,5% para o extensor digitorum e 88,1% para o frontalis. Pelo menos um parâmetro do jitter foi anormal em 90,5% dos estudos combinados. Anticorpo receptor de acetilcolina estava anormal em 85,7% dos casos. Conclusões:Jitter estimulado mensurado por meio de eletrodo de agulha concêntrica pode ser utilizado para diagnóstico de miastenia gravis com elevada sensibilidade. Estudos normativos mais amplos ainda são necessários e, portanto, valores limítrofes devem ser avaliados com cautela.

  14. [Steinert myotonic dystrophy and blepharoptosis surgery: 9 case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, A; Schapiro, D; Morax, S

    2003-01-01

    Steinert myopathic dystrophy is a generalized, hereditary disease with bone, muscular, heart and ocular involvement. This is a retrospective study of nine patients with significant blepharoptosis due to Steinert disease, who were treated at the Adolphe de Rothschild Ophthalmology Foundation over a period of 5 years. Ptosis was symmetric and major in all cases with poor levator excursion. Severity criteria were an absence of the Bell phenomenon and diminished orbicularis tone. A frontalis suspension was performed in eight cases with intentional undercorrection. The outcome was favorable in all cases, 2 with a slight overcorrection underwent a second operation conclusion: Surgical treatment of ptosis in Steinert disease is difficult because of a risk of lagophthalmic, keratopathy due to the severity of the disease, an absence of the Bell phenomenon and ophthalmoplegia. This surgery must be undertaken with caution, most often using a frontalis suspension. Undercorrection must be systematic, with the single goal of freeing the pupil in the primary position.

  15. Deriving muscle fiber diameter from recorded single fiber potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate muscle fiber diameters through analysis of single muscle fiber potentials (SFPs) recorded in the frontalis muscle of a healthy subject. Our previously developed analytical and graphic method to derive fiber diameter from the analysis of the negative peak duration and the amplitude of SFP, was applied to a sample of ten SFPs recorded in vivo. Muscle fiber diameters derived from the simulation method for the sample of frontalis muscle SFPs are consistent with anatomical data for this muscle. The results confirm the utility of proposed simulation method. Outlying data could be considered as the result of a contribution of other fibers to the potential recorded using an SFEMG electrode. Our graphic tool provides a rapid estimation of muscle fiber diameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactions between carpenter bees and orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae Interações entre abelhas carpinteiras e abelhas das orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae em flores de Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fernando dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition between two species of bees for the same type of floral resource may generate antagonistic behavior between them, especially in cultivated areas where food resources are limited, seasonally and locally. In this study, was tested the hypothesis of antagonism between two solitary bee species of the family Apidae, Eulaema mocsaryi (Euglossini and Xylocopa frontalis (Xylocopini, visiting the Brazil nut flowers (Bertholletia excelsa: Lecythidaceae in a central Amazonia agricultural area. The visitation time was analyzed to detect the possible temporal overlap in the foraging of these bees. Furthermore, was analyzed their interspecific interactions for manipulating flower species visited by an opponent species, as well as attempts to attack this opponent. The individuals of Xylocopa frontalis visited the Brazil nut flowers before Eulaema mocsaryi, although the peak visitation of both did not presented significant differences. Neither of the species manipulated flowers recently visited by opponent species, and there were practically no antagonistic interactions between them. Thus, X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi shared the same food source in the flowers of B. excelsa due to differences in their time of visits and non-aggressive way of interacting with the opponent. This result has important implications for pollinating the Brazil nut, and a possible management of X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi, since these two were the most abundant pollinators in the studied locality.A competição entre duas espécies de abelhas por um mesmo tipo de recurso floral pode gerar comportamentos antagônicos entre elas, principalmente, dentro de áreas cultivadas, onde o recurso alimentar é limitado sazonalmente e localmente. No presente trabalho, foi testada a hipótese de antagonismo entre duas espécies de abelhas solitárias da família Apidae, Eulaema mocsaryi (Euglossini e Xylocopa frontalis (Xylocopini em flores da castanheira do Brasil (Bertholletia

  17. Congenital syphilis in the skeleton of a child from Poland (Radom, 18th–19th century AD

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    Tomczyk Jacek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An incomplete skeleton of a 3-year-old child with suspected congenital syphilis was found in the Radom area of Poland. Squama frontalis and zygomatic bones are characterized by significant bone loss. Radiographic pictures show a geographic destructive lesion of a serpiginous shape surrounded by a zone of reactive osteosclerosis in the squama frontalis. The radiographic findings included a slight widening and contour irregularities of the distal humeral metaphyses. The appearance of teeth did not suggest Hutchinson teeth, but the examination of the permanent molars showed signs of mulberry molars. Two teeth were tested for the presence of mercury. Chemical analysis did not indicate mercury accumulation (enamel: 0.07 μg/g, dentine: 0.14 μg/g, bone: 0.11 μg/g. Mercury values obtained for the examined samples were similar to those that are typical of healthy teeth in today’s individuals.

  18. Un examen de l'économie politique de la violence dans les régions ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mais ces démarches sont souvent freinées par la faiblesse institutionnelle, minées par des intérêts divergents ou par la corruption, et contrecarrées par de puissants réseaux illicites. Les ressources et le niveau d'influence dont jouissent ces réseaux dépassent de loin ceux dont disposent la plupart des services frontaliers et ...

  19. Southern pine beetle in loblolly pine: simulating within stand interactions using the process model SPBLOBTHIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Strom; J. R. Meeker; J. Bishir; James Roberds; X. Wan

    2016-01-01

    Pine stand density is a key determinant of damage resulting from attacks by the southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). High-density stands of maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) are at high risk for losses to SPB, and reducing stand density is the primary tool available to forest managers for preventing and mitigating damage. Field studies are...

  20. Thermal preference, thermal tolerance and the thermal de-pendence of digestive performance in two Phrynocephalus lizards (Agamidae), with a review of species studied

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfu QU, Hong LI, Jianfang GAO, Xuefeng XU, Xiang JI

    2011-01-01

    We reported data on thermal preference, thermal tolerance and the thermal dependence of digestive performance for two Phrynocephalus lizards (P. frontalis and P. versicolor), and compared data among lizards so far studied worldwide. Mean values for selected body temperature (Tsel) and critical thermal maximum (CTMax) were greater in P. versicolor, whereas mean values for critical thermal minimum (CTMin) did not differ between the two species. The two lizards differed in food intake, but not i...

  1. Myanmar : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Programme: Governance and Justice ... La création de zones économiques frontalières constitue une importante stratégie d'industrialisation pour la Thaïlande et ouvre de nouvelles perspectives pour deux ... Una Hakika : Porter à grande échelle les solutions numériques pour la gestion des conflits au Kenya et en Birmanie.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF EMG BIO-FEEDBACK AND PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR RELAXATION IN TENSION HEADACHE1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gada, M.T.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy, deep muscular relaxation therapy and compare the efficacy of both in cases of tension headache. During two week basal-data recording period all patients were taught deep muscular relaxation by Jacobson′s technique. Simultaneously patients were instructed to keep headache diary. Headache diary yielded three different parameters a) number of headache-free days per week, b) peak headache intensity (or each week and c) average daily headache activity score per week. These parameters were used to find out therapeutic efficacy of each treatment. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. EMG Biofeedback group was given frontalis EMG feedback through EMG J 33 muscle trainer of Cyborg Corporation (U.S.A.). Patients in each group were given 20 sessions (two sessions per week); each session lasting 30 minutes. Patients were instructed to practice at least one 30 minute session of relaxation at home. The data were subjected to statistical calculation. The results indicate that frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy and deep muscle relaxation therapy are significantly effective in cases of tension headache. Both treatments are equally effective. The findings are discussed in relation to Indian situation. PMID:21965970

  3. A comparative study of efficacy of emg bio-feedback and progressive muscular relaxation in tension headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gada, M T

    1984-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy, deep muscular relaxation therapy and compare the efficacy of both in cases of tension headache. During two week basal-data recording period all patients were taught deep muscular relaxation by Jacobson's technique. Simultaneously patients were instructed to keep headache diary. Headache diary yielded three different parameters a) number of headache-free days per week, b) peak headache intensity (or each week and c) average daily headache activity score per week. These parameters were used to find out therapeutic efficacy of each treatment. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. EMG Biofeedback group was given frontalis EMG feedback through EMG J 33 muscle trainer of Cyborg Corporation (U.S.A.). Patients in each group were given 20 sessions (two sessions per week); each session lasting 30 minutes. Patients were instructed to practice at least one 30 minute session of relaxation at home. The data were subjected to statistical calculation. The results indicate that frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy and deep muscle relaxation therapy are significantly effective in cases of tension headache. Both treatments are equally effective. The findings are discussed in relation to Indian situation.

  4. Ação de venenos de serpentes brasileiras sôbre a alexina ou complemento

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    F. da Rocha Lagôa

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor estudou a ação inativante, sôbre o complemento de cobaia, alguns venenos de serpentes brasileiras pertencentes às famílias dos Elapideos e Crotalideos. Da primeira, foi utilizado veneno de Micrurus frontalis, da segunda, foram usados venenos de espécies pertencentes aos gêneros Crotalus (C. terrificus e Bothrops (B. atrox, B. neuwiedii, B. jararaca, B. ja-raracussú, B. cotiara e B. alternata. O venenos de M. frontalis e C. terri¬ficus se revelaram incapazes de inativar o complemento, ao passo que os diversos de Bothrops empregados se mostraram altamente inativantes, destruindo sempre o 4.° componente do complemento (C4, fração idêntica à afetada pela ação da amônea.The author shows in this paper the results of the inactivation of com¬plement or alexin by some Brazilian snakes venoms of the Elapideae and Cro¬talideae families. The venom of Micrurus frontalis (Elapideae family and of Crotalus terrificus (Crotalideae family did not destroy the complement; but the venoms of Bothrops generus (B. atrox, B. neuwiedii, B. jararaca, B. jararacussú, B. cotiara e B. alternata, (Crotalideae family are highly active in the inactivation complement, always destroing the fourth component, whichis exactly the same component that is detroyed by ammonia.

  5. Coral snake venoms: mode of action and pathophysiology of experimental envenomation

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    Oswald Vital Brazil

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Coral snakes, the New World Elapidae, are included in the genera Micniroides and Micrurus. The genus Mlcrurus comprises nearly all coral snake species and those which are responsible for human snake-bite accidents. The following generalizations concerning the effects induced by their venoms, and their venom-properties can be made. Coral snake venoms are neurotoxic, producing loss of muscle strenght and death by respiratory paralysis. Local edema and necrosis are not induced nor blood coagulation or hemorrhages. Proteolysis activity is absent or of very low grade. They display phospholipase A2 activity. Nephrotoxic effects are not evoked. The main toxins from elapid venoms are postsynaptic and presynaptic neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. Phospholipases A2 endowed with myonecrotic or cardiotoxin-like properties are important toxic components from some elapid venoms. The mode of action of Micrurus frontalis, M. lemniscatus, M. corallinus and M. fulvius venoms has been investigated in isolated muscle preparations and is here discussed. It is shown that while M. frontalis and M. lemniscatus venoms must contain only neurotoxins that act at the cholinergic end-plate receptor (postsynaptic neurotoxins, M. corallinus venom also inhibits evoked acetylcholine release by the motor nerve endings (presynaptic neurotoxin-like effect and M. fulvius induces muscle fiber membrane depolarization (cardiotoxin-like effect. The effects produced by M. corallinus and M. fulvius venoms in vivo in dogs and M. frontalis venom in dogs and monkeys are also reported.

  6. THE MARINE MAMMAL FAUNA OF POTENTIAL OTEC SITES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO AND HAWAII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.

    1979-05-01

    Twenty-seven marine mammal species have been recorded for the Gulf of Mexico, including 7 Mysticetes or baleen whales, 17 Odontocetes or toothed whales, 1 Sirenian (manatee), and 1 or 2 Pinnipeds or seals. The most common species in the Gulf is Tursiops truncatus, the bottlenosed dolphin, an inshore species. Offshore, Stenella plagiodon, the spotted dolphin, is fairly common. Most other species are recorded from very few sightings or strandings. None of the endangered species is common in potential OTEC sites in the Gulf of Mexico. Twenty-two marine mammals may occur in Hawaii; 2 Mystecetes, 19 Odonotocetes, and the endemic monk seal. The monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi), an endangered species, lives in the extreme northwestern island chain away from potential OTEC sites. Among the most common cetaceans in Hawaii is the endangered humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Stenella longirostris, the spinner dolphin; and Tursiops sp., the bottlenosed dolphin are also fairly common. The baleen whales feed on zooplankton during the summer in polar waters, and are migratory, while the toothed whales feed mainly on fish and squid, and are found in temperate or tropical regions year-round. The manatee is vegetarian and the pinnipeds are fish- or squid-eaters. Environmental effects of OTEC which may affect mammals are: toxic effects of biocide release or ammonia spill, biostimulating effects of seawater redistribution, oil spills, or effects of the physical presence of OTEC plants.

  7. Testing mitochondrial sequences and anonymous nuclear markers for phylogeny reconstruction in a rapidly radiating group: molecular systematics of the Delphininae (Cetacea: Odontoceti: Delphinidae

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    Kingston Sarah E

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many molecular phylogenetic analyses rely on DNA sequence data obtained from single or multiple loci, particularly mitochondrial DNA loci. However, phylogenies for taxa that have undergone recent, rapid radiation events often remain unresolved. Alternative methodologies for discerning evolutionary relationships under these conditions are desirable. The dolphin subfamily Delphininae is a group that has likely resulted from a recent and rapid radiation. Despite several efforts, the evolutionary relationships among the species in the subfamily remain unclear. Results Here, we compare a phylogeny estimated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region sequences to a multi-locus phylogeny inferred from 418 polymorphic genomic markers obtained from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis. The two sets of phylogenies are largely incongruent, primarily because the mtDNA tree provides very poor resolving power; very few species' nodes in the tree are supported by bootstrap resampling. The AFLP phylogeny is considerably better resolved and more congruent with relationships inferred from morphological data. Both phylogenies support paraphyly for the genera Stenella and Tursiops. The AFLP data indicate a close relationship between the two spotted dolphin species and recent ancestry between Stenella clymene and S. longirostris. The placement of the Lagenodelphis hosei lineage is ambiguous: phenetic analysis of the AFLP data is consistent with morphological expectations but the phylogenetic analysis is not. Conclusion For closely related, recently diverged taxa, a multi-locus genome-wide survey is likely the most comprehensive approach currently available for phylogenetic inference.

  8. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs in eight species of adult and developing teleosts: morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C

    1997-12-01

    Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the

  9. Two new species of Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae from South America Dos especies nuevas de Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae de América del Sur

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    Stephen S. Curran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new digenean species belonging in Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 are described from specimens stored in the invertebrate collection at the Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. is described from Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, and Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae in the Paraguay River, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. is described from Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae in Río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei differs from its congeners by having testes with irregular rather than entire outlines. Creptotrema sucumbiosa differs from its congeners by having a bilobed rather than entire ovary. Both C. lamothei and C. sucumbiosa differ from their other congeners by having relatively longer posttesticular spaces in their bodies, representing 25-30% and 24-28% of body length respectively, compared with approximately 6-19% in other species.Dos especies nuevas de digéneos pertenecientes a Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas y Pereira, 1928 fueron descritas de ejemplares depositados en la colección de invertebrados del Museo de Historia Natural de Ginebra, Suiza. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. fue descrita en Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix y Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, y Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Paraguay, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. fue descrita de Tetragonopterus argenteus, Cuvier 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei difiere de sus congéneres por tener testículos con contornos irregulares en contraste con los que presentan contornos enteros. Creptotrema sucumbiosa difiere de

  10. Ten new records of marine invertebrates from the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIRTZ, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemones Telmatactis cricoides (Duchassaign, 1850 and Actinia n. sp., themolluscs Tonna galea Linnaeus, 1758, Vitreolina philippi (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854,Melanella n. sp., Phidiana lynceus (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854 and Anomia patelliformis(Linnaeus, 1761, the nemertine Baseodiscus delineatus (DelleChiaje, 1825 and the echinoderms Leptosynapta inhaerens (O. F. Müller, 1776 and Stichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817, are here recorded from the Azores for the first time. The presence of the two starfishspecies Chaetaster longipes (Retzius, 1805 and Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837 in the Azores is confirmed and the spawning behaviour of the sea urchin Echinocyamus pusillus (O. F. Müller, 1776 is described.

  11. Ecologia parasitária de isópodos e biologia reprodutiva em tibiro, Oligoplites spp (Osteichthyes: carangidae) das águas costeiras de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Gustavo Soares de

    2008-01-01

    As espécies Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier) e Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider) (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) são peixes costeiros pelágicos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o parasitismo por isópodos e a biologia reprodutiva em tibiro, Oligoplites spp. Foram capturados cento e treze exemplares de Oligoplites spp durante o período de janeiro de 2005 a julho de 2007 nas águas costeiras de Natal, RN. Foram realizadas as medidas morfométricas e merísticas, a análise macroscópica pa...

  12. A new species of Probursata Bravo-Hollis, 1984 (Mogenea: Heteraxinidae: Heteraxininae parasite of Oligoplites spp. (Osteichthyes: Carangidae from the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M. Takemoto

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Probursata brasiliensis n. sp., a gill filament parasite of carangid fishes, O. palometa (Cuvier, Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider, and O. saliens (Bloch, from the Brazilian coast, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from Probursata veraecrucis Bravo-Hollis, 1984, the type and only species of this genus by the presence of spines in the auricular expansions of the genital atrium, by the trifurcate supplementary process of the clamp's midsclerite, and by having a larger number of tests and clamps. This is the first record of the genus Probursata Bravo-Hollis, 1984, in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  13. A review of the genus Pempheris (Perciformes, Pempheridae) of the Red Sea, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, Keita; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Imai, Hideyuki; Tachihara, Katsunori

    2014-04-30

    Four species of the fish genus Pempheris are recognized for the Red Sea: P. adusta Bleeker, 1877; P. mangula Cuvier, 1829; P. nesogallica Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1831; and a new species P. tominagai. All are wide-ranging in the western Indian Ocean, and P. mangula has migrated via the Suez Canal to the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Morphological and genetic analysis of 15 species in this genus show that P. adusta, a widely distributed species, that can't be divided into different species, because of the continuity of morphologies and distribution, and lack of variance in genetics between Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and Pacific Ocean populations. This confirms that the two subspecies described by Randall et al. (2013) are both synonyms of P. adusta. Pempheris adusta is distinguished from other species by a blackish spot on pectoral fin base, pored lateral-line scales 56-64, scale rows above lateral line 4 1/2-6 1/2, distinct blackish band on outer edge of anal fin, and blackish band on posterior edge of caudal fin. Pempheris mangula was named by Cuvier (1829) in a footnote making reference to a drawing and short description in Russell (1803) of a Pempheris from southeast India, giving only the native name ''Mangula-Kutti'', and listing no specimen. The wide distribution of this species, from the Indian Ocean to the Red Sea is also demonstrated by morphological and genetic analysis. Thus, the specimen collected from southern India is herein designated as the neotype. This species is distinguished from other species by its huge eye, deep body, blackish tip of the dorsal fin, pored lateral-line scales 49-60, and scale rows above lateral line 4 1/2-5 1/2. The extant syntype of Kossmann & Räuber's P. rhomboidea is designated as the lectotype of the species; however, P. rhomboidea is a synonym of P. mangula. In addition, Kossmann & Räuber's Pempheris erythraea and P. russellii Day, 1888 are also synonyms of P. mangula. Of two existing syntypes of P. nesogallica from

  14. Las faunas pleistocenas de Fuensanta del Júcar y El Provencio y su significado en la evolución del Cuaternario de la Llanura manchega.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazo Pérez, Ana Victoria; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Aguirre, Emiliano

    1990-01-01

    Las terrazas fluviales de +60 m de Fuensanta del Júcar (Sistema aluvial del río Júcar) y de +15-16 m de El Provencio, perteneciente al Sistema fluvial del Guadiana, han proporcionado restos de vertebrados del Pleistoceno. En la primera localidad, que se encuentra en Albacete, se han identificado: Mammuthus meridionalis NESTI, forma progresiva, Hippopotamus major CUVIER y Cervidae ind. En El Provencio (Cuenca): Mammuthus meridionalis NESTI y Bovidae ind. (Bos o Bison). El grado de evolución de...

  15. Continuous osteological characters in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships of the six Euro-Mediterranean mullet species (Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antović, Ivanka

    2013-09-01

    Sixty-three continuous osteological characters (18 skull continuous characters and the total length of neurocranium, 45 continuous characters of 15 elements of the viscerodermal skeleton) were analyzed and included in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships of the six Euro-Mediterranean mullet species from the South Adriatic Sea: Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758; Liza saliens Risso, 1810; Liza aurata Risso, 1810; Liza ramada Risso, 1826; Chelon labrosus Risso, 1826 and Oedalechilus labeo Cuvier, 1829. The study reveals that Sphyraenidae was separated clearly from Mugilidae, C. labrosus and three Liza species form a common cluster (L. ramada and L. saliens being the closest), while O. labeo and M. cephalus cluster together.

  16. Isolation, identification and fibrolytic characteristics of rumen fungi grown with indigenous methanogen from yaks (Bos grunniens) grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y-Q; Yang, H-J; Luan, Y; Long, R-J; Wu, Y-J; Wang, Z-Y

    2016-03-01

    To obtain co-cultures of anaerobic fungi and their indigenously associated methanogens from the rumen of yaks grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and investigate their morphology features and ability to degrade lignocellulose. Twenty fungus-methanogen co-cultures were obtained by Hungate roll-tube technique. The fungi were identified as Orpinomyces, Neocallimastix and Piromyces genera based on the morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences analysis. All methanogens were identified as Methanobrevibacter sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. There were four types of co-cultures: Neocallimastix with Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, Orpinomyces with M. ruminantium, Orpinomyces with Methanobrevibacter millerae and Piromyces with M. ruminantium among 20 co-cultures. In vitro studies with wheat straw as substrate showed that the Neocallimastix with M. ruminantium co-cultures and Piromyces with M. ruminantium co-cultures exhibited higher xylanase, filter paper cellulase (FPase), ferulic acid esterase, acetyl esterase activities, in vitro dry matter digestibility, gas, CH4 , acetate production, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid releases. The Neocallimastix frontalis Yak16 with M. ruminantium co-culture presented the strongest lignocellulose degradation ability among 20 co-cultures. Twenty fungus-methanogen co-cultures were obtained from the rumen of grazing yaks. The N. frontalis with M. ruminantium co-cultures were highly effective combination for developing a fermentative system that bioconverts lignocellulose to high activity fibre-degrading enzyme, CH4 and acetate. The N. frontalis with M. ruminantium co-cultures from yaks grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau present great potential in lignocellulose biodegradation industry. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Appraisals Generate Specific Configurations of Facial Muscle Movements in a Gambling Task: Evidence for the Component Process Model of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Kornelia; Grandjean, Didier; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    Scherer's Component Process Model provides a theoretical framework for research on the production mechanism of emotion and facial emotional expression. The model predicts that appraisal results drive facial expressions, which unfold sequentially and cumulatively over time. In two experiments, we examined facial muscle activity changes (via facial electromyography recordings over the corrugator, cheek, and frontalis regions) in response to events in a gambling task. These events were experimentally manipulated feedback stimuli which presented simultaneous information directly affecting goal conduciveness (gambling outcome: win, loss, or break-even) and power appraisals (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as control appraisal (Experiment 2). We repeatedly found main effects of goal conduciveness (starting ~600 ms), and power appraisals (starting ~800 ms after feedback onset). Control appraisal main effects were inconclusive. Interaction effects of goal conduciveness and power appraisals were obtained in both experiments (Experiment 1: over the corrugator and cheek regions; Experiment 2: over the frontalis region) suggesting amplified goal conduciveness effects when power was high in contrast to invariant goal conduciveness effects when power was low. Also an interaction of goal conduciveness and control appraisals was found over the cheek region, showing differential goal conduciveness effects when control was high and invariant effects when control was low. These interaction effects suggest that the appraisal of having sufficient control or power affects facial responses towards gambling outcomes. The result pattern suggests that corrugator and frontalis regions are primarily related to cognitive operations that process motivational pertinence, whereas the cheek region would be more influenced by coping implications. Our results provide first evidence demonstrating that cognitive-evaluative mechanisms related to goal conduciveness, control, and power appraisals affect

  18. Could beaked whales get the bends? Effect of diving behaviour and physiology on modelled gas exchange for three species: Ziphius cavirostris, Mesoplodon densirostris and Hyperoodon ampullatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Sascha K; Baird, Robin W; Fahlman, Andreas

    2009-07-31

    A mathematical model, based on current knowledge of gas exchange and physiology of marine mammals, was used to predict blood and tissue tension N2 (P(N2)) using field data from three beaked whale species: northern bottlenose whales, Cuvier's beaked whales, and Blainville's beaked whales. The objective was to determine if physiology (body mass, diving lung volume, dive response) or dive behaviour (dive depth and duration, changes in ascent rate, diel behaviour) would lead to differences in P(N2) levels and thereby decompression sickness (DCS) risk between species. Diving lung volume and extent of the dive response had a large effect on end-dive P(N2). The dive profile had a larger influence on end-dive P(N2) than body mass differences between species. Despite diel changes in dive behaviour, P(N2) levels showed no consistent trend. Model output suggested that all three species live with tissue P(N2) levels that would cause a significant proportion of DCS cases in terrestrial mammals. Cuvier's beaked whale diving behaviour appears to put them at higher risk than the other species, which may explain their prevalence in strandings after the use of mid-frequency sonar.

  19. New species of Diplectanum (Monogenoidea:Diplectanidae), and proposal of a new genus of the Dactylogyridae from the gills of gerreid fishes (Teleostei) from Mexico and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Edgar F Mendoza; Roche, Dominique G; Torchin, Mark E

    2008-09-01

    While investigating the parasites of several marine fishes from the Western Atlantic, the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Central America (Panama), the following monogenoidean species from the gills of gerreid fishes (Gerreidae) were found: Diplec-tanum gatunense sp. n. (Diplectanidae) and Octouncuhaptor eugerrei gen. et sp. n. (Dactylogyridae) in Eugerres brasilianus (Cuvier) from Gatun Lake in the Panama Canal Watershed, and Diplectanum mexicanum sp. n. in Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) from the coast of Campeche State, Mexico. New diplectanid species are distinguished from other species of the genus by the general morphology of the copulatory complex and by the shape of the anchors and bars on the haptor. Octouncuhaptor gen. n. is proposed for its new species having slightly overlapping gonads (testis posterodorsal to the ovary), a dextrolateral vaginal aperture, a copulatory complex consisting of a coiled male copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings with the base articulated to the accessory piece, 8 pairs of hooks and the absence of anchors and bars on haptor. Our analysis of morphological features of Diplectanum species on gerreids evidences that these parasites more closely resemble each other than the known species from sciaenids suggesting that split between gerreids and sciaenids resulted in parasite speciation.

  20. Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 represents a species complex based on ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Dana M; Curran, Stephen S; Pulis, Eric E; Provaznik, Jennifer M; Franks, James S

    2013-10-01

    Digeneans in the genus Hirudinella de Blainville, 1828 (Hirudinellidae) from three species of pelagic fishes, Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier), Makaira nigricans Lacépède and Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre), and one benthic fish, Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier), from the Gulf of Mexico are investigated using comparison of ribosomal DNA. Four species are identified based on molecular differences: Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 from A. solandri, Hirudinella ahi Yamaguti, 1970 from T. albacares, and two unidentified but distinct species of Hirudinella, herein referred to as Hirudinella sp. A (from both M. nigricans and M. martinicus) and Hirudinella sp. B from M. nigricans. Additionally, H. ahi, based tentatively on morphological identification, is reported from Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus). This represents the first record of a hirudinellid from M. martinicus and the first record of H. ahi from T. thynnus. A phylogeny of some Hemiurata Skrjabin & Guschanskaja, 1954 using partial fragments of the 28S rDNA sequences is consistent with earlier phylogenies and the position of the Hirudinellidae Dollfus, 1932 is well-supported as a derived group most closely related to the Syncoeliidae Looss, 1899.

  1. Relative abundance and size of coastal sharks derived from commercial shark longline catch and effort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J K; Hale, L F; Morgan, A; Burgess, G

    2012-04-01

    In the north-west Atlantic Ocean, stock assessments conducted for some commercially harvested coastal sharks indicate declines from 64 to 80% with respect to virgin population levels. While the status of commercially important species is available, abundance trend information for other coastal shark species in the north-west Atlantic Ocean are unavailable. Using a generalized linear modelling (GLM) approach, a relative abundance index was derived from 1994 to 2009 using observer data collected in a commercial bottom longline fishery. Trends in abundance and average size were estimated for bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna, tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier and lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris. Increases in relative abundance for all shark species ranged from 14% for C. brevipinna, 12% for C. leucas, 6% for N. brevirostris and 3% for G. cuvier. There was no significant change in the size at capture over the time period considered for all species. While the status of shark populations should not be based exclusively on abundance trend information, but ultimately on stock assessment models, results from this study provide some cause for optimism on the status of these coastal shark species. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

  3. Nilonema gymnarchi Khalil, 1960 and N. senticosum (Baylis, 1922) (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea): Gondwana relicts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cláudia Portes; Gibson, David I

    2007-07-01

    Data-base searches of records of the helminth parasites of South American and African freshwater fishes revealed only two pairs of species from genera endemic to the two regions. One pair, species of the primitive amphilinid cestode genus Nesolecithus Dönges & Harder, 1966, has already been designated as likely Gondwana relicts. The second pair are the philometrid nematodes Nilonema gymnarchi Khalil, 1960 from Gymnarchus niloticus Cuvier (Gymnarchidae) in Africa and N. senticosum (Baylis, 1922) from the South American fish Arapaima gigas (Cuvier) (Arapaimidae). Both species are partly redescribed on the basis of light and scanning electron microscopical observations of the type-specimens, and their relationships are discussed. In view of the fact that both hosts are basal teleosts of the order Osteoglossiformes and they are the same two fish which harbour the amphilinid cestodes already indicated as Gondwana relics, the nematode pair is also deemed to be relictual. However, these species are suggested as being of limited potential value for calibrating a molecular clock.

  4. Trace elements in tissues of cetacean species rarely stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Kerem, Dan; Roditi-Elasar, Mia; Goffman, Oz; Morick, Danny; Yoffe, Olga; Kress, Nurit

    2014-06-15

    In this paper we present the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Se, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in organs of 6 non-common specimens of cetaceans that were stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast (IMC), during 2002-2010: two fin whales, one minke whale, one Cuvier's beaked whale, one rough-toothed dolphin, and one Risso's dolphin. Most of the specimens were calves stranded by accident. Concentrations of Hg and Cd were low in tissues of the baleen whales and higher in the toothed whales, with maximum concentrations of 1067 mg kg(-1) Hg in the liver of the Risso's dolphin and 29 mg kg(-1) Cd in the kidney of the Cuvier's beaked whale. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of trace elements in baleen whales in the Eastern Mediterranean, and the first report of trace elements in minke whale and rough-toothed dolphin in the Mediterranean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. : Design of an online Luxemburgish course: taking into account external constraints for methodological and didactic choices

    OpenAIRE

    Kachafoutdinova , Elvira; Zampuniéris , Denis

    2007-01-01

    À travers le projet Quattropole : e-learning pour l'apprentissage du luxembourgeois, nous aborderons la conception et la réalisation d'un cours de luxembourgeois en ligne. Cet article relatera les difficultés liées à la mise en place d'un tel dispositif pour un public d'adultes francophones frontaliers. En analysant les choix méthodologiques et didactiques en rapport avec les contraintes externes, cet article présentera le retour d'expérience sur la base des réponses des apprenants au formula...

  6. Frontal suspension for congenital ptosis using an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex® sheet: one-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakauchi K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuaki Nakauchi,1 Hidenori Mito,2 Osamu Mimura11Hospital of Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, 2Ide Eye Hospital, Yamagata, JapanBackground: The frontalis suspension technique is the surgical method of choice in patients with ptosis and a levator function of 4 mm or less. Several types of materials have been used, including Gore-Tex®, which has been used successfully as a frontalis sling material since 1986. Recently, a Gore-Tex sheet (wider than a sling or strip suspension was reported. This paper reports the results of 27 eyes from 20 patients with congenital ptosis treated using the frontalis suspension technique with the newly developed Gore-Tex Most Versatile Patch (MVP sheet.Methods: All patients underwent surgery between April 2007 and September 2011 and were followed up for at least one year. The average follow-up duration was 18 months, with a range of 12–36 months. The average patient age was 45 (5–85 years, and the group included 11 males and nine females. Thirteen cases demonstrated ptosis in one eye, and seven cases involved both eyes. The patients were divided by age into a younger group and an older group. All ptosis procedures were performed using the Gore-Tex MVP sheet. The implant was normally 7 mm wide for adults and 5 mm wide for children. The implantation method was the same as that used for the sheet shape fascia.Results: In all patients, satisfactory functional results were observed at the 6-month follow-up examination. Eyelid opening heights were also obtained. The average marginal reflex distance (MRD was -0.5 mm preoperatively, which improved to +1.9 mm after surgery. After one year, average MRD was +1.6 mm. MRD attenuation was more frequent in the younger group. There were no cases requiring redo surgery and only one case of exposure.Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene, Gore-Tex®, frontalis suspension, congenital ptosis, recurrence

  7. Etude linguistique chez les Baráshi/Banyaambo du Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ont quitté le Nkóle et ont gagné le Mutára, puis le Mubarí qui est une large bande frontalière située au nord du lac Ihema jouxtant la région tanzanienne de Karágwe. Puis le mouvement s'est poursuivi vers le sud, ce qui explique donc la présence aujourd'hui d'une communauté Baráshi/Banyaambo au. Gisaká autour des ...

  8. Observations on inshore and pelagic Dolphins on the South-Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S Saayman

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, size and seaward distribution of schools of inshore and pelagic dolphins is described for three study areas on the south-eastern Cape coast (Algoa Bay; the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park and Plettenberg Bay. Inshore dolphins {Tursiops and Sousa sp. frequented the coastline in relatively small schools whereas pelagic dolphins {Delphinus delphis and Stenella caeruleoalba occurred in very large schools far out to sea. Different ecological zones were used by Sousa for feeding and for social behaviour and maintenance activities. The frequency of occurrence of Sousa at Plettenberg Bay was not affected by seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperatures. The role of dolphins as predators and their implication in the regulation of the ecosystem of the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park is discussed.

  9. Los mamíferos marinos en la costa central de Oaxaca Marine mammals along the central coast of Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Meraz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de conocer las especies de mamíferos marinos que se encuentran en la costa central de Oaxaca, se elaboró un listado comentando las características de los registros obtenidos. Se incluyeron las observaciones hechas a lo largo de 30 recorridos por mar, entre junio de 1999 y enero de 2004, realizadas entre las bahías de Huatulco y la playa de La Escobilla. Adicionalmente se incluyeron registros de animales varados, así como observaciones realizadas desde la costa. Se presentan comentarios sobre el registro de 8 especies en la zona, incluyendo las localidades y fechas de los avistamientos. Stenella attenuata es la especie más abundante, y la zona de Zipolite-Isla Roca Blanca la localidad con el mayor número de avistamientos. Dado el crecimiento turístico del lugar, es importante contar con este tipo de registros ya que es poco lo que se sabe sobre estas especies en esta porción de la costa oaxaqueña.With the aim of documenting the species of marine mammals that occur along the central coast of Oaxaca, a list with the characteristics of the records was elaborated based on observations made throughout 30 surveys from Huatulco Bays to La Escobilla beach between June 1999 and January 2004. Additional records from stranded animals are included, as well observations from the coast. Comments on 8 species are presented, including localities and dates of sightings. Stenella attenuata is the most abundant species. Zipolite-Roca Blanca island was the locality with the highest number of sightings. This records are important to promote conservation due growth of tourism in the area, given that Oaxaca coast is poorly known regarding marine mammals.

  10. Seven new dolphin mitochondrial genomes and a time-calibrated phylogeny of whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Kaiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogeny of Cetacea (whales is not fully resolved with substantial support. The ambiguous and conflicting results of multiple phylogenetic studies may be the result of the use of too little data, phylogenetic methods that do not adequately capture the complex nature of DNA evolution, or both. In addition, there is also evidence that the generic taxonomy of Delphinidae (dolphins underestimates its diversity. To remedy these problems, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of seven dolphins and analyzed these data with partitioned Bayesian analyses. Moreover, we incorporate a newly-developed "relaxed" molecular clock to model heterogenous rates of evolution among cetacean lineages. Results The "deep" phylogenetic relationships are well supported including the monophyly of Cetacea and Odontoceti. However, there is ambiguity in the phylogenetic affinities of two of the river dolphin clades Platanistidae (Indian River dolphins and Lipotidae (Yangtze River dolphins. The phylogenetic analyses support a sister relationship between Delphinidae and Monodontidae + Phocoenidae. Additionally, there is statistically significant support for the paraphyly of Tursiops (bottlenose dolphins and Stenella (spotted dolphins. Conclusion Our phylogenetic analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes using recently developed models of rate autocorrelation resolved the phylogenetic relationships of the major Cetacean lineages with a high degree of confidence. Our results indicate that a rapid radiation of lineages explains the lack of support the placement of Platanistidae and Lipotidae. Moreover, our estimation of molecular divergence dates indicates that these radiations occurred in the Middle to Late Oligocene and Middle Miocene, respectively. Furthermore, by collecting and analyzing seven new mitochondrial genomes, we provide strong evidence that the delphinid genera Tursiops and Stenella are not monophyletic, and the current taxonomy

  11. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  12. Multi-step EMG Classification Algorithm for Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Peng; Barreto, Armando; Adjouadi, Malek

    A three-electrode human-computer interaction system, based on digital processing of the Electromyogram (EMG) signal, is presented. This system can effectively help disabled individuals paralyzed from the neck down to interact with computers or communicate with people through computers using point-and-click graphic interfaces. The three electrodes are placed on the right frontalis, the left temporalis and the right temporalis muscles in the head, respectively. The signal processing algorithm used translates the EMG signals during five kinds of facial movements (left jaw clenching, right jaw clenching, eyebrows up, eyebrows down, simultaneous left & right jaw clenching) into five corresponding types of cursor movements (left, right, up, down and left-click), to provide basic mouse control. The classification strategy is based on three principles: the EMG energy of one channel is typically larger than the others during one specific muscle contraction; the spectral characteristics of the EMG signals produced by the frontalis and temporalis muscles during different movements are different; the EMG signals from adjacent channels typically have correlated energy profiles. The algorithm is evaluated on 20 pre-recorded EMG signal sets, using Matlab simulations. The results show that this method provides improvements and is more robust than other previous approaches.

  13. Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrated a pattern of annual flowering which was continuous, of long duration, with periods of greater flowering activity in the dry season. The inflorescence is of the paniculatum type, with flowers whose attributes are related to the syndrome of melittophily. Anthesis occurs during the day, beginning at 05h00. Nectar is produced from the phase of pre-anthesis, with a concentration of sugars around 44-60%. Visits by bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta and X. sp., Apis mellifera and Centris similis and birds (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura and Coereba flaveola were observed. Xylocopa frontalis acted as an effective pollinator.

  14. The modulation of venlafaxine on cortical activation of language area in healthy subjects with fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Liu, Yan; Li, Chun-Yong; Song, Xue-Zhu; Wang, Jun; Han, Li-Xin; Bai, Hong-Min

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, activators of the cortex, apparently improved language functional recovery after brain damage rather than simply affective disorders. Our aim was to determine whether venlafaxine (an agonist of both norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine) could modulate language cortex function. A double-blind, crossover, randomized design was used to compare two 7-day treatment sessions with either venlafaxine (75 mg per day) or placebo. A functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment and two language function tests were performed on eight healthy males (mean age, 28.25 ± 3.15 years) at the end of each session, i.e., study entry, after venlafaxine, and after placebo (days 0, 7, and 18). Hyperactivation (venlafaxine minus placebo >0) or hypoactivation (placebo minus venlafaxine >0) by venlaxafine was assessed on the basis of the activation-baseline contrast. The naming score (P gyrus frontalis medius and the bilateral fusiform gyrus and the bilateral outer occipital lobes, (2) hyperactivation was observed in the adjoining area of posterior upper Broca area and premotor area in the dominant hemisphere in venlafaxine session (after venlafaxine), (3) the hyperactivation of the left gyrus frontalis medius on fMRI and the increase in naming test score were positively correlated, and (4) by contrast, we observed hypoactivation in the temporo-parieto-occipital region in venlafaxine session (after venlafaxine). This improvement may be related to increased phonics-related output in the frontal language cortex of the dominant hemisphere.

  15. Uncrossed cortico-muscular projections in humans are abundant to facial muscles of the upper and lower face, but may differ between sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Urs; Hess, Christian W; Rösler, Kai M

    2005-01-01

    It is a popular concept in clinical neurology that muscles of the lower face receive predominantly crossed cortico-bulbar motor input, whereas muscles of the upper face receive additional ipsilateral, uncrossed input. To test this notion, we used focal transcranial magnetic brain stimulation to quantify crossed and uncrossed cortico-muscular projections to 6 different facial muscles (right and left Mm. frontalis, nasalis, and orbicularis oris) in 36 healthy right-handed volunteers (15 men, 21 women, mean age 25 years). Uncrossed input was present in 78% to 92% of the 6 examined muscles. The mean uncrossed: crossed response amplitude ratios were 0.74/0.65 in right/left frontalis, 0.73/0.59 in nasalis, and 0.54/0.71 in orbicularis oris; ANOVA p>0.05). Judged by the sizes of motor evoked potentials, the cortical representation of the 3 muscles was similar. The amount of uncrossed projections was different between men and women, since men had stronger left-to-left projections and women stronger right-to-right projections. We conclude that the amount of uncrossed pyramidal projections is not different for muscles of the upper from those of the lower face. The clinical observation that frontal muscles are often spared in central facial palsies must, therefore, be explained differently. Moreover, gender specific lateralization phenomena may not only be present for higher level behavioural functions, but may also affect simple systems on a lower level of motor hierarchy.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of OnabotulinumtoxinA Treatment of Forehead Lines: A Multicenter, Randomized, Dose-Ranging Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solish, Nowell; Rivers, Jason K; Humphrey, Shannon; Muhn, Channy; Somogyi, Chris; Lei, Xiaofang; Bhogal, Meetu; Caulkins, Carrie

    2016-03-01

    Various onabotulinumtoxinA doses are effective in treating forehead lines (FHL), with a trend toward lower doses. To evaluate efficacy and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA dose-ranging treatment of FHL when the frontalis area and glabellar complex are treated together. Adults with moderate-to-severe FHL received onabotulinumtoxinA 40 U (FHL, 20 U; glabellar lines [GL], 20 U), 30 U (FHL, 10 U; GL, 20 U), or placebo. Response was assessed at weeks 1, 2, day 30, and monthly to day 180. Coprimary efficacy end points were investigator- and subject-assessed Facial Wrinkle Scale scores of none or mild (day 30). Patient-reported outcomes, onset/duration of effect, and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. Responder rates (investigator/subject, respectively) were 40-U group, 91.2%/89.5%; 30-U group, 86.4%/81.4%; placebo, 1.7%/5.1%. OnabotulinumtoxinA resulted in significantly greater responder rates than placebo (p < .001). Adverse events were mild to moderate and similar between groups (most common AEs: nasopharyngitis [4.6%] and headache [4.0%]). Treatment of FHL with onabotulinumtoxinA 40 and 30 U (in frontalis and glabellar complex muscles) was tolerable, effective, and sustained. Both doses significantly reduced FHL severity; however, the 40-U dose demonstrated a trend toward greater sustained benefit and longer duration of effect versus the 30-U dose, with similar AE rates.

  17. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS FOR Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum (Characidae AND HYBRID TAMBACU (P. mesopotamicus X C. macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study for investigating the values of plasma glucose,serum total protein and serum ions (calcium, potassium, magnesium,sodium and chloride was carried out in young Colossomomamacropomum Cuvier, 1818, Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg,1887 and the hybrid tambacu (P. mesopotamicus x C. macropomum,kept in intensive system. Glucose concentrations were higher intambacu than in P. mesopotamicus and C. macropomum. Totalprotein levels were higher in P. mesopotamicus than both C.macropomum and tambacu. C. macropomum presented higherconcentrations of sodium and chloride, while P. mesopotamicushad higher concentrations of potassium and magnesium.However, levels of calcium were similar for the species studied.The hybrid tambacu showed the smallest levels of total protein,and intermediate levels of sodium, potassium, magnesium andchloride, compared to both P. mesopotamicus and C. macropomum.Baseline values for healthy fish in aquaculture were established,and they may be used for further comparisons in studies with wildpopulations of P. mesopotamicus and C. macropomum.

  18. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Nov. 1984 to Jun. 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in sea fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Seven species of fish (Branchiostegus sp., Katsuwonus pelamis, Limanda herzensteini, Sillago sihama, Scomber japonicus, Caesio chrysozonus cuvier, and Sebastes Inermis) were collected during the fishing season from nine sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in cases of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in cases of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonization, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 0.9 +- 0.26 pCi/kg in Limanda herzensteini collected from Hiroshima in March 1985; and that of Cs-137 was 12 +- 0.5 pCi/kg in Katsuwonus pelamis collected from Kochi in May 1985. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Rebuttal to Koeda et al. (2014) on the Red Sea fishes of the perciform genus Pempheris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, John E; Victor, Benjamin C; Alpermann, Tilman J; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O; Satapoomin, Ukkrit; Bineesh, K K

    2014-11-25

    Koeda et al. (2014) published a review of fishes of the genus Pempheris of the Red Sea. They concluded that there are four species: P. adusta Bleeker, P. mangula Cuvier, P. nesogallica Cuvier, and a new species, P. tominagai. We show that the first three species they cite are not present in the Red Sea, as follows. 1) P. adusta is a western Pacific species (type locality Ambon), described only from the holotype, and without a dark border on the anal fin. Koeda et al. (2014) mistakenly apply that name to P. flavicycla which is a widespread Indian Ocean species characterized by a prominent broad black border along the anal fin. Koeda et al. (2014) also redescribe P. adusta, using Indian Ocean specimens of P. flavicycla, despite the coloration difference and a 2.5% difference in the mtDNA sequence (COI) between Indian Ocean and W. Pacific populations. 2) P. mangula is a species from the east coast of India (type locality Visakhapatnam), clearly distinct in both gill-raker counts and a 1.1% sequence divergence in COI from its Red Sea relative P. rhomboidea. Pempheris mangula is not found west of India, and Koeda et al. (2014) mistakenly use DNA from Oman and Madagascar to represent P. mangula, instead of genetic material available from the type locality. 3) Pempheris nesogallica (type locality Mauritius) is unknown from the Red Sea. Koeda et al. (2014) separate P. nesogallica from P. rhomboidea (their "P. mangula") by eye size; we fail to find any difference (and they use their purported eye-size difference to erroneously rename one of the two syntypes of P. nesogallica as "P. mangula"). 4) Their new species P. tominagai is referred to as the Indian Ocean sister species of "P. schwenkii of the Pacific"; however, the type locality of P. schwenkii is the Batu Islands off the SW coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean. They mistakenly include specimens of a distant South African species as paratypes of P. tominagai. We have determined that P. tominagai is a valid species

  20. A comparison of the heart and muscle total lipid and fatty acid profiles of nine large shark species from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Bruce; Sidell, Jonathan; Rhodes, Jeffrey; Cliff, Geremy

    2011-03-01

    We have assessed the fatty acid profiles of the hearts and different muscle tissues from nine large shark species (Carcharhinus limbatus (blacktip), Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky), Carcharhinus brevipinna (spinner), Carcharhinus leucas (Zambezi/bull), Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger), Sphyrna lewini (scalloped hammerhead), Sphyrna zygaena (smooth hammerhead), Carcharodon carcharias (great white) and Carcharias taurus (raggedtooth/grey nurse/sand tiger)) found off the east coast of South Africa. While there was generally little variation between the species, all species showed profiles rich in both n6 and n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to terrestrial commercial meats that have low n3. Thus, utilizing skeletal muscle tissues from sharks caught as part of the bycatch when fishing for teleosts would avoid unnecessary wastage of a potentially valuable resource, with all the possible health benefits of high quality protein combined with balanced polyunsaturates, although contamination with high levels of metabolic wastes, such as urea, may be a negative consideration.

  1. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish from Nov. 1983 to Jun. 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in sea fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Seven species of fish (Branchiostegus sp., Katsuwonus pelamis, Limanda herzensteini, Sillago sihama, Pneumatophorus japonicus, Caesio chrysozonus cuvier, and Sebastes Inermis) were collected during the fishing season from 8 sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum values of Sr-90 was 1.0+-0.25 pCi/kg in Sebastes Inermis collected from Yamaguchi in April 1984; the maximum value of Cs-137 was 14.0+-0.60 pCi/kg in Katsuwonus pelamis collected from Kochi in May 1984. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Gideon Mantell and the Discovery of Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Dennis R.

    1999-01-01

    Gideon Mantell and the Discovery of Dinosaurs is a scholarly yet accessible biography--the first in a generation--of a pioneering dinosaur hunter and scholar. Gideon Mantell discovered the Iguanodon (a famous tale set right in this book) and several other dinosaur species, spent over twenty-five years restoring Iguanodon fossils, and helped establish the idea of an Age of Reptiles that ended with their extinction at the conclusion of the Mesozoic Era. He had significant interaction with such well-known figures as James Parkinson, Georges Cuvier, Charles Lyell, Roderick Murchison, Charles Darwin, and Richard Owen. Dennis Dean, a well-known scholar of geology and the Victorian era, here places Mantell's career in its cultural context, employing original research in archives throughout the world, including the previously unexamined Mantell family papers in New Zealand.

  3. A new Huffmanela species, H. schouteni sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae) from flying fishes in Curaçao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Campbell, B G

    1991-01-01

    A new nematode species, Huffmanela schouteni sp. n., has been established on the basis of its egg morphology and biological characters (adult nematodes are unknown). The dark-shelled eggs of this histozoic parasite occur in masses in the abdominal cavity, serose covers of internal organs and in the liver of the flying fishes Hirundichthys affinis Günther (type host) and Cypselurus cyanopterus Cuvier et Valenciennes in Curaçao. The eggs of H. schouteni sp. n. differ from those in other congeneric species mainly in the absence of small spines on the surface of the transparent envelope enclosing the egg proper, measurements (size of eggs 0.069-0.075 x 0.027-0.030 mm) and their localization in the host. A key to Huffmanela species based on egg morphology has been provided.

  4. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.

  5. Larval fish in the surf zone of Pontal do Sul beach, Pontal do Paraná, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santiago Godefroid

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6,575 larvae in the preflexion, flexion and post-flexion stages of 15 families, 26 genera and 29 species were captured in the surf zone of Pontal do Sul beach, Paraná, Brazil. Samples of the families Gerreidae and Scianidae predominated and larvae of Eucinostomus argenteus (Baird&Girard, 1854, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Eucinostomus gula (Cuvier, 1830, Menticirrhus ameri-canus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Anchoa tricolor (Agassiz, 1829 were the most dominant species. Greater abundance of larvae was observed during the summer, followed by winter and in a less extent during spring and autumn. The number of species was greater in the summer, and there were no significant differences in the rest of the seasons.

  6. Fish farming of native species in Colombia: current situation and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, P. E.; Medina-Robles, V. M.; Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    . The Colombian pisciculture is based on red Tilapia Oreochromis sp. (Linnaeus), Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier), which currently represent around 96% of the total national production. The remaining 4% comes from other farmed species such as bocachico......In Colombia and the rest of the world, the decrease in capture fisheries production has turned the aquaculture into an alternative source of protein for the populations food security as well as an important productive activity, generating employment and income for the rural communities...... Prochilodus magdalenae (Steindachner), carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) and yamu Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz). From the three main fish species, cachama blanca is the only native species, which has shown excellent performance in pond farming due to its rusticity, omnivorous habits, docility, meat quality...

  7. Don quijote, Christelike geloof en natuurwetenskap 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P.P. Lötter

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The story about Don Qulchote and the windmills is used in this article as an analogy to typify the debates that have taken place in history between natural science and representatives of Christian religion. The analogy is tested on debates that took place around Galileo. Darwin, Newton, Cuvier and the Big Bang theory. The analogy matches these debates quite well and this Is explained by the view that scientific claims to knowledge, and claims to knowledge based on Christian faith, belong to different categories and are thus not concurrents for the same truth. Gilbert Ryle's criticism on Descartes' mind-body dualism is used here to strengthen this argument. The article is concluded by pointing out in what ways one can engage in a meaningful debate on the nature of the relationship between science and Christian religion.

  8. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 y

  9. Studies on the eggs and larvae, of Sardinella aurita (Cuv. & Val.) in the fishing grounds of Southern Fujian and the Taiwan Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sufei; Lin, Liyu

    1986-03-01

    In this paper, the morphological characters of eggs and larvae of Sardinella aurita (Cuvier & Valenciennes), its spawning ground, spawning seasons and spawning conditions have been studied. Sardinella aurita likes to breed in the upwelling area and selects the Waixie fishing ground as its main spawning ground. The months from February to September are its spawning seasons, reaching its peak in April. In the main spawning ground, the temperature of the surface layer was found to be 24.4 25.2°C, the salinity 33.87 34.07%. and the depth of water between 34 60m. The distribution of the larvae is closely related to the distribution of plankton, the path of migration of adult fish, and the current direction of the water system. In order to protect fishery resources, it is necessary to prohibit catching the spawning fish in the Waixie fishing ground in April, and the catching of immatures from March to June.

  10. A new species of Cacatuocotyle (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) parasitizing Astyanax spp. (Characiformes, Characidae) from Brazil, including molecular data and a key to species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Aline Cristina; Franceschini, Lidiane; Müller, Maria Isabel; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2018-06-26

    The present study describes Cacatuocotyle papilionis n. sp. (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the skin of the characid fishes Astyanax lacustris (Lütken, 1875) (=Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000) and Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) (Characiformes, Characidae) from the Southeast of Brazil, supported by morphological and molecular data. The new species differs from all congeners, mainly due to the morphology of the ventral bar (resembling a butterfly), accessory piece, and the number of rings of the male copulatory organ (MCO), comprising a coiled tube with 4.5-5.5 counterclockwise rings. The first molecular data for this monogenean genus is provided in this study, using the partial sequences of the ribosomal gene (28S), as well as providing an identification key to the species.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic position of the Sicklefin weasel shark Hemigaleus microstoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Quanfa; Li, Weidong; Chen, Hao; Ai, Weiming; Chen, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Sicklefin weasel shark Hemigaleus microstoma was first presented in this study. It was 16 701 bp in length with the typical gene arrangement in vertebrates. A total of 25 bp short intergenic spaces and 33 bp overlaps located in 12 and 9 gene junctions, respectively. The overall nucleotide composition was 31.0% A, 26.4% C, 13.5% G and 29.1% T. Two start (ATG and GTG) and three stop (TAG, AGG and TAA/T) codons were found in the protein-coding genes. The size of 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67 to 75 bp. In the phylogenetic tree, H. microstoma (Hemigaleidae) was placed as sister to Galeocerdo cuvier (Carcharhinidae).

  12. Elemental characterization of tissues of Octopus vulgaris along the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoleão, P; Pinheiro, T; Sousa Reis, C

    2005-06-01

    The concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, and Pb were measured in digestive gland (DG), branchial hearts (BH), gill (G), and muscle (M) of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 caught in three fishing areas of the Portuguese coast, Viana do Castelo, Cascais, and Santa Luzia, for 2 years. The elemental concentrations measured for the different tissues were in accordance with values reported in the literature. The digestive gland presented high concentration levels of Fe, Cu, and Zn, while the branchial hearts showed elevated levels of V, Ni, Mo, as well as Fe and Cu. Significant variations in As, V, Cu, Mo, and Pb tissue concentrations were observed for animals originated from different sampling sites. Pb and As determined in the digestive gland and branchial hearts of animals from Cascais and Santa Luzia, can reflect local environmental characteristics. The variability observed in the elemental concentrations may be useful to further assess the species susceptibility to environmental conditions.

  13. Cymothoa recifea sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae from the mouths of marine fishes of Pernambuco State, Brazil Cymothoa recifea sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae das bocas de peixes marinhos do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cymothoa recifea sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae is described from the mouths of Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792 and Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier, 1832. The fish hosts were caught near Itamaracá and Cabo de Santo Agostinho, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The new species bears a superficial resemblance to Cymothoa oestrum (Linnaeus, 1793 from which it differs in a number of important respects. In the new species, the basal carinae are large on pereopods 4-7 and usually pointed, whereas in C. oestrum the carinae are small on pereopods 4-6, large on 7 and not pointed. In the new species, only pleopod 1 is simple and 2-5 are provided with pockets and folds. In the other species, pleopods 1-4 are simple and only 5 has folds.Cymothoa recifea sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae é descrito das bocas de Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792 e Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier, 1832. Os peixes foram capturados perto de Itamaracá, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. A nova espécie apresenta uma semelhança superficial à Cymothoa oestrum (Linnaeus, 1793 da qual distingue-se pôr várias características. Na nova espécie, as expansões nas bases dos pereópodos ("carinae" são grandes nos 4-7 e, geralmente, terminam em pontas agudas. Em contraste, em C. oestrum, estas estruturas são pequenas nos pereópodos 4-6, grande somente no sétimo e não têm pontas agudas. Na nova espécie, somente o pleópodo 1 é simples e 2-5 apresentam bolsas e dobras. Na outra espécie, os pleópodos 1-4 são simples e somente 5 tem dobras.

  14. Parasitic copepods on Oligoplites spp. (Osteichthyes, Carangidae from the Brazilian coastal zone, with the redescription of Tuxophorus caligodes Wilson, 1908 (Siphonostomatoida, Tuxophoridae Copépodes parasitos de Oligoplites spp. (Osteichthyes, Carangidae da costa brasileira, com a redescrição de Tuxophorus caligodes Wilson, 1908 (Siphonostomatoida, Tuxophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Massato Takemoto

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Four species of caligid copepods, parasites of Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier, 1833, O. saurus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 and O. saliens (Bloch, 1793 (Osteichthyes: Carangidae from the Sepetiba Bay, coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are presented. New geographical and host records for Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898, C. rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905, C. bonito Wilson, 1905 and Metacaligus rufus (Wilson, 1908 are given. Caligus oligoplitisi Carvalho, 1954 is considered a new junior synonym of C. robustus. Fishes of the genus Oligoplites are new host records for this species of copepod. Redescription and illustration of Tuxophorus caligodes Wilson, 1908, collected on the body surface of Oligoplites saliens, O. palometa and O. saurus, are provided.Quatro espécies de copépodes caligídeos, parasitos de Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier, 1833, O. saurus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 e O. saliens (Bloch, 1793 (Osteichthyes, Carangidae da Baia de Sepetiba, litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, são descritos. São apresentados o registro de novo hospedeiro e nova distribuição geográfica para Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898, C. rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905, C. bonito Wilson, 1905 e Metacaligus rufus (Wilson, 1908. Caligus oligoplitisi Carvalho, 1954, é considerado novo sinônimo júnior de C. robustus. Tuxophorus caligodes Wilson, 1908, coletado na superfície do corpo de Oligoplites saliens, O. palometa e O. saurus é redescrito e ilustrado. Peixes do gênero Oligoplites são novos hospedeiros para estas espécies de copépodes.

  15. Species distribution models of tropical deep-sea snappers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Gomez

    Full Text Available Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830. We evaluated the performance of four different algorithms (CTA, GLM, MARS, and MAXENT within the BIOMOD framework to obtain an ensemble of predicted distributions. We projected these predictions across the Western Central Pacific Ocean to produce maps of potential deep-sea snapper distributions in 32 countries and territories. Depth was consistently the best predictor of presence for all species groups across all models. Bathymetric slope was consistently the poorest predictor. Temperature at depth was a good predictor of presence for GLM only. Model precision was highest for MAXENT and CTA. There were strong regional patterns in predicted distribution of suitable habitat, with the largest areas of suitable habitat (> 35% of the Exclusive Economic Zone predicted in seven South Pacific countries and territories (Fiji, Matthew & Hunter, Nauru, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu and Wallis & Futuna. Predicted habitat also varied among species, with the proportion of predicted habitat highest for Aphareus and lowest for Etelis. Despite data paucity, the relationship between deep-sea snapper presence and their environments was sufficiently strong to predict their distribution across a large area of the Pacific Ocean. Our results therefore provide a strong baseline for designing monitoring programs that balance resource exploitation and

  16. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  17. Acleotrema lamothei n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae from the gills of Kyphosus incisor in Brazilian waters Acleotrema lamothei n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae de las branquias de Kyphosus incisor en aguas brasileñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia P. Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A diplectanid monogenean, Acleotrema lamothei n. sp., is described from the gills of the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Cuvier, 1831 in Brazilian waters off Rio de Janeiro State. This species is distinguished by the facts that the male copulatory organ is armed with spines throughout most of its length, the ventral hamuli have a very long, stout outer root, which is slightly notched proximally, an inner root less than half the length of the outer root and a fine blade and point. It also differs from most species of the genus by the greater size of the haptor and its hard parts. This is the first record of a species of Acleotrema Johnston and Tiegs, 1922 from South American waters.Se describe Acleotrema lamothei n. sp. de las branquias del pez Kyphosus incisor (Cuvier, 1831 recolectado en las costas del estado de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. La nueva especie se distingue por la armadura del órgano copulador con espinas en casi toda su longitud, por la presencia de una raíz externa larga y robusta en el hámuli ventral, provista de una pequeña muesca proximal, por la raíz interna que mide menos de la mitad de la longitud de la externa y por tener la hoja y la punta finas. Asimismo, difiere de muchas de las especies del género por el gran tamaño del haptor y de sus partes esclerozadas. El presente constituye el primer registro de una especie de Acleotrema Johnston y Tiegs, 1922 en aguas sudamericanas.

  18. A note on the occurrence of praniza larvae of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda on fishes from Northeast of Pará, Brazil

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    Daniel G. Diniz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The infection of the estuarine teleost fishes Mugil gaimardianus Desmarest, 1831 (Mugilidae, Arius phrygiatus Valenciennes, 1839 (Ariidae, Conodon nobilis Linnaeus, 1759 (Haemulidae, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1829 (Engraulidae, and Anableps anableps Linnaeus, 1758 (Anablepidae by praniza larvae of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda was studied in specimens fished off the Atlantic Ocean in Northeast of Pará State, near Bragança, Brazil. The highest infection prevalence value was found in Anableps anableps (42.3% and the lowest in Conodon nobilis (9.1%. The mean intensity varied from 1 parasitein Conodon nobilis to 19.5 in Arius phrygiatus. A description of the larvae is provided. The morphology of the mouthparts is related to the blood sucking activity, and is compared with the characteristics of other gnathiidae species.Foi estudada a parasitose dos peixes estuarinos Mugil gaimardianus Desmarest, 1831 (Mugilidae, Arius phrygiatus Valenciennes, 1839 (Ariidae, Conodon nobilis Linnaeus, 1759 (Haemulidae, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1829 (Engraulidae, e Anableps anableps Linnaeus, 1758 (Anablepidae por larvas praniza de Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda em exemplares pescados no Oceano Atlântico, no Nordeste do Pará, próximo a Bragança, Brasil. O valor mais elevado da prevalência da infecção foi observado em A. anableps (42,3% e o menor em C. nobilis (9,1%. A intensidade média da parasitose variou entre 1 parasita em C. nobilis até 19,5 em A. phrygiatus. Efetua-se a descrição da larva, verificando-se que a morfologia da armadura bucal está relacionada com a atividade sugadora de sangue, e faz-se a comparação com as características de outras espécies.

  19. Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-habitat associations: implications of marine park zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Mario; Cappo, Mike; Heupel, Michelle R; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-specific habitat associations in response to geographic and environmental drivers is critical to assessing risk of exposure to fishing, habitat degradation, and the effects of climate change. The present study examined shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and marine reserve use with baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS) along the entire Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) over a ten year period. Overall, 21 species of sharks from five families and two orders were recorded. Grey reef Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, silvertip C. albimarginatus, tiger Galeocerdo cuvier, and sliteye Loxodon macrorhinus sharks were the most abundant species (>64% of shark abundances). Multivariate regression trees showed that hard coral cover produced the primary split separating shark assemblages. Four indicator species had consistently higher abundances and contributed to explaining most of the differences in shark assemblages: C. amblyrhynchos, C. albimarginatus, G. cuvier, and whitetip reef Triaenodon obesus sharks. Relative distance along the GBRMP had the greatest influence on shark occurrence and species richness, which increased at both ends of the sampling range (southern and northern sites) relative to intermediate latitudes. Hard coral cover and distance across the shelf were also important predictors of shark distribution. The relative abundance of sharks was significantly higher in non-fished sites, highlighting the conservation value and benefits of the GBRMP zoning. However, our results also showed that hard coral cover had a large effect on the abundance of reef-associated shark species, indicating that coral reef health may be important for the success of marine protected areas. Therefore, understanding shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and the drivers responsible for those patterns is essential for developing sound management and conservation approaches.

  20. Estudos de cestóides de peixes do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arandas Rego

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores iniciam com este trabalho um estudo sistemático de determinação dos cestóides de peixes depositados na Coleção helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. São referidas ou descritas as seguintes espécies e seus hospedeiros: Schizochoerus liguloideus (Diesing, 1850 e Nesolecithus janicki Posche, 1922, ambas de Arapaima gigas (Cuvier, (piracuru; Gyrocotyle meandrica Herrera, 1946, de Callorhynchus callorhynchus (L., (quimera; Acanthobothrium dasybati Yamaguti, 1934 e Pterobothriidae não identificado, de uma arraia não determinada; três tipos larvares de trypanorrhyncha e um de Proteocephalidea, de Cynoscion striatus (Cuv. e C. leiarchus (pescadinha; Proteocephalus jandia Woodland, 1934, de um bagre não determinado. Monticellia siluri (Fuhrmann, 1916 e Amphoteromorphus praeputialis sp. n. de Cetopsis caecutiens e Nomimoscolex magna sp. n. de Pimelodus clarias (mandi.The authors start, with this note, a systematic study for determination of cestodes of fishes of the Helminthological Collection of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The following species and hosts are refered and described: Schizochoerus liguloideus (Diesing, 1850 and Nesolecithus janicki poche, 1922 both of Arapaima gigas (Cuvier; Gyrocotyle meandrica Herrera, 1946 of Callorhynchus callorhynchus (L.,Acanthobothrium dasybati Yamaguti, 1934 and Pterobothriidae unidentified, of an indeterminate ray; three types of larvae of Trypanorrhyncha and type of Proteocephalidea, of Cynoscion striatus (Cuv. and C. leiarchus; Proteocephalus jandia Woodland, 1934 of an indeterminate catfish; Monticellia siluri (Furhrmann, 1916 and Amphoteromorphus praeputialis sp. n. of Cetopsis caecutiens and Nomimoscolex magna sp. n. of Pimelodus clarias.

  1. Madame Bovary and Catastrophism: Revolving narratives

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    Ruth Morris

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article relie Madame Bovary au contexte scientifique français des années 1850, en lisant le roman de Flaubert à la lumière des théories de Cuvier. Le savant français Georges Cuvier, avec nombre de ses contemporains, explique les origines du monde à l’aide de la théorie des catastrophes. D’après cette théorie, le monde est divisé en périodes très courtes ponctuées de grandes catastrophes ou, en termes cuviériens, de « révolutions » qui ont éradiqué toute vie et ont permis au monde d’être entièrement repeuplé. Une telle conception affecte l’idée même du « temps ». Cuvier pense que la formation de la Terre est relativement récente, l’époque présente n’étant vieille que de cinq mille ans. Cette compression temporelle peut être rapportée à Madame Bovary dont le « tempo » s’accroît au fur et à mesure qu’on se rapproche du dénouement. Dans la théorie des catastrophes comme dans le roman, le temps ne suit pas une ligne chronologique. Les « révolutions » viennent briser le fil continu du temps et Emma est souvent incapable de distinguer entre le passé, le présent et le futur. Les « révolutions » servent aussi à ponctuer et à perturber le cours de la vie sur Terre en produisant des événements majeurs dans l’histoire du globe. Il en est de même dans la vie d’Emma. Son existence est marquée par des événements majeurs, comme le bal, qui créent un éclatement et une fragmentation de la temporalité, comme dans la théorie de Cuvier. Je défendrai aussi l’idée d’un lien entre la soudaineté et la violence des « révolutions » et les crises nerveuses d’Emma, qui surviennent brusquement et relèvent de l’hystérie. La conception cuviérienne de la temporalité doit enfin être envisagée au regard des théories de l’évolution, ce qui implique de réévaluer les notions d’adaptation, d’hérédité et de mort dans le roman de Flaubert.This paper locates Madame

  2. Understanding the Anatomy of the Upper Face When Providing Aesthetic Injection Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Tracey A

    2016-01-01

    Advanced rejuvenation procedures for the upper face are becoming increasingly popular for aesthetic providers but are considered a high-risk treatment area for dermal filler/contouring products. Risks may range from bruising, which is manageable, to blindness, most often irreversible. Detailed comprehension of the facial anatomy is imperative when performing aesthetic injections including neuromodulators and dermal filler/contouring products. Understanding the location and function of the muscles, as well as landmarking the blood vessels and nerves, will assist the aesthetic provider to perform safe, confident injection procedures. This article focuses on the upper face anatomy as identified by the author's cadaveric dissections and includes the treatment areas of the frontalis, temporalis, and glabellar complex. The author's next article for the Plastic Surgical Nursing journal will focus on the periorbital area.

  3. [Thick and thin zones of the neurocranium, impressiones gyrorum and foramina parietalia in children and adults (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Brückner, B

    1981-01-01

    At 102 skulls from adults and 67 skulls from children we have investigated 1) The postnatal changes of the thickness from basal parts of the Fossae craniales ant., med. et post. 2) The postnatal thickening and lateral shifting of the Processus clinoideus anterior. 3) The postnatal development at the superior side of the Canalis opticus. 4) Between the Os sphenoidale Clivus angle from newborn age to 17 years of life at 67 skulls. 5) The postnatal changes of the lateral angle at the Pars petrosa and its right-left-differences. 6) The postnatal thickening of the Calvaria (Squama frontalis - Tuber frontale, Os parietale - Tuber parietale). 7) The development, size and position of the Foramina parietalia. 8) The postnatal development of the Protuberantiae gyrorum and Sulci meningei.

  4. Health Insurance – Affiliation to LAMal insurance for families of CERN personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On May 16, the HR department published in the CERN Bulletin an article concerning cross-border workers (“frontaliers”) and the exercise of the right of choice in health insurance: « In view of the Agreement concluded on 7 July 2016 between Switzerland and France regarding the choice of health insurance system* for persons resident in France and working in Switzerland ("frontaliers"), the Swiss authorities have indicated that those persons who have not “formally exercised their right to choose a health insurance system before 30 September 2017 risk automatically becoming members of the Swiss LAMal system” and having to “pay penalties to their insurers that may amount to several years’ worth of contributions”. Among others, this applies to spouses of members of the CERN personnel who live in France and work in Switzerland. » But the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), provides insuranc...

  5. Colonna, Fanny, Récits de la province égyptienne. Une ethnographie sud/sud, Sinbad, Actes Sud, 2004, 486 p.

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    Emma Aubin-Boltanski

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage s’inscrit dans un champ frontalier, à la fois littérature de déambulation et sociologie. Il est constitué par une longue série d’entretiens illustrés par des photographies en noir et blanc et s’achève par un « point de vue sociologique » d’une dizaine de pages. L’enquête s’est déroulée entre 1996 et 1997 dans la province égyptienne avec l’objectif de comprendre comment on y vit, comment on y pense et ainsi combler un vide dans la recherche qui s’intéresse peu aux marges. Dans le d...

  6. Peïra-Cava: itinéraire d’un lieu touristique dans la moyenne montagne niçoise

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    Christian Hélion

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A la fin du xixe siècle, la proximité et l’accessibilité de Peïra-Cava depuis Nice transforment en haut lieu touristique d’été et d’hiver un replat ouvert par l’armée frontalière dans la moyenne montagne azuréenne. L’itinéraire long et complexe de ce lieu aujourd’hui pratiquement en friche et le mythe de l’âge d’or qui s’y rattache, cachent la réalité de la dynamique territoriale: Peïra-Cava, annexe de Nice, ville d’hiver, s’inscrit désormais dans son aire de loisirs.

  7. The anesthesia and brain monitor (ABM). Concept and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, B

    1984-01-01

    Three integral components of the ABM, the frontalis electromyogram (EMG), the processed unipolar electroencephalogram (EEG) and the neuromuscular transmission monitor (NMT) were compared with standard research methods, and their clinical utility indicated. The EMG was compared with the method of Dundee et al (2) for measuring the induction dose of thiopentone; the EEG was compared with the SLE Galileo E8-b and the NMT was compared with the Medelec MS6. In each case correlation of results was extremely high, and the ABM offered some advantages over the standard research methods. We conclude that each of the integral units of the ABM is simple to apply and interpret, yet as accurate as standard apparatus used for research. In addition the ABM offers excellent display and recording facilities and alarm systems.

  8. Produção de néctar e visitas por abelhas em duas espécies cultivadas de Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae Nectar production and bee visits in two cultivated species of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae

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    Isabela Galarda Varassin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A atividade dos polinizadores é afetada pela disponibilidade de recursos. Flores que produzem mais néctar podem ser mais visitadas e assim apresentar maior produção de frutos. O efeito da produção de néctar na atividade dos polinizadores foi testado em duas espécies cultivadas de maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis e Passiflora edulis Sims, em Morretes, Paraná. Botões foram ensacados e o néctar acumulado das flores foi coletado em intervalos de 1 h. Em P. alata o volume e a concentração de solutos no néctar aumentaram durante o período de antese, associados com o aumento da temperatura. Em P. edulis, o volume aumentou durante o período diurno da antese, e decresceu após as 18 horas. A concentração de solutos no néctar permaneceu constante. A taxa média de visitação de Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier em P. alata foi de 1,7 visitas/100flores/hora e em P. edulis foi de 6,6 visitas/100flores/hora, sendo constante durante a antese. A taxa média de visitação de Bombus morio (Swederus em P. alata foi de 5,8 visitas/100flores/hora, sendo mais alta no início da antese. A constância das visitas de X. frontalis deve estar associada à produção contínua de néctar em ambas as espécies de maracujazeiros. Como as espécies são xenogâmicas, a manutenção das visitas é importante para propiciar o fluxo de pólen entre indivíduos e assim garantir boa produção de frutos.Pollinator activity is affected by resource availability. Flowers that produce more nectar are visited more, which results in a greater fruit set. The effect of nectar production on pollinator activity was tested in two cultivated species of passion fruit, Passiflora alata Curtis and Passiflora edulis Sims, in Morretes, Paraná. Flower buds were bagged and the accumulated nectar of flowers was collected hourly. The volume and concentration of nectar of P. alata increased during anthesis, which was associated with rising temperatures. The volume of nectar of P

  9. Liminarités, fissures et réécritures : un événement à la frontière entre le nord du Portugal et la Galice

    OpenAIRE

    Godinho, Paula

    2017-01-01

    La zone frontalière entre le Portugal et l’Espagne a longtemps souffert de l’attraction suscitée par les centres : Lisbonne et Madrid. Dans le même temps, elle constituait une zone où se réfugier, un lieu où tisser des liens ; elle était un recours de plus pour sauver sa vie ou la gagner. L’histoire, la langue et les sociabilités locales mettent en lumière une réalité déployée dans le temps à travers la coexistence de populations locales, qui alternaient entre querelle et coopération par-delà...

  10. Considerations for emotion-aware consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Egon L; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2009-11-01

    Emotion-aware consumer products require reliable, short-term emotion assessment (i.e., unobtrusive, robust, and lacking calibration). To explore the feasibility of this, an experiment was conducted where the galvanic skin response (GSR) and three electromyography (EMG) signals (frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and zygomaticus major) were recorded on 24 participants who watched eight 2-min emotion inducing film fragments. The unfiltered psychophysiological signals were processed and six statistical parameters (i.e., mean, absolute deviation, standard deviation, variance, skewness, and kurtosis) were derived for each 10-s interval of the film fragment. For each physiological signal, skewness and kurtosis discriminated among affective states, accompanied by other parameters, depending on the signal. The skewness parameter also showed to indicate mixed emotions. Moreover, a mapping of events in the fragments on the signals showed the importance of short-term emotion assessment. Hence, this research identified generic features, denoted important considerations, and illustrated the feasibility of emotion-aware consumer products.

  11. A Novel Supra-Brow Combined with Infra-Brow Lift Approach for Asian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Maoguo; He, Lin; Su, Yingjun; Shi, Junli; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Xiangyu; Yu, Xueyuan

    2016-06-01

    Direct brow lift surgery remains popular among Asian women despite its disadvantages. The traditional direct brow lift by a supra-brow incision is not suitable for Asian women because of their unique facial features, such as higher eyebrows, wider upper eyelids, and more orbital fat. Therefore, we designed a novel brow lift technique via a supra-brow combined with an infra-brow approach for Asian women. An area of skin above and below the eyebrow was measured, demarcated, and surgically removed. The redundant orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM) was excised while keeping the frontalis muscle intact. The OOM in the inferior flap was elevated and sutured to the frontalis muscle. In cases of puffy eyelids, orbital fat was partially removed through an infra-brow incision. Finally, a series of modifications were performed to reduce post-operative scarring. A total of 496 patients underwent this surgery from July 2009 to December 2013 and 432 patients were followed up for at least 6 months after surgery. Post-operative scars, in most patients (428/432), were inconspicuous. There were no facial nerve injuries documented and eight patients reported transient forehead numbness. The height of the palpebral fissure was increased but there was no marked increase observed of the distance between the upper eyelid edge and the eyebrow. In follow-up visits, 409 out of 432 patients (94.7 %) were satisfied with their surgical results. This new brow lift technique via a supra-brow combined with an infra-brow approach provided a simple and safe surgical repair of lateral brow ptosis, upper eyelids hooding, and crows' feet in Asian women. The surgical outcomes were predictable and the scars were inconspicuous. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  12. Diversity of Micrurus Snake Species Related to Their Venom Toxic Effects and the Prospective of Antivenom Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Gabriela D.; Furtado, Maria de Fátima D.; Portaro, Fernanda C. V.; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest, few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for coral snake envenomation is the intravenous application of heterologous antivenom and, in Brazil, it is produced by horse immunization with a mixture of M. corallinus and M. frontalis venoms, snakes that inhabit the South and Southeastern regions of the country. However, this antivenom might be inefficient, considering the existence of intra- and inter-specific variations in the composition of the venoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic properties of venoms from nine species of Micrurus: eight present in different geographic regions of Brazil (M. frontalis, M. corallinus, M. hemprichii, M. spixii, M. altirostris, M. surinamensis, M. ibiboboca, M. lemniscatus) and one (M. fulvius) with large distribution in Southeastern United States and Mexico. This study also analyzed the antigenic cross-reactivity and the neutralizing potential of the Brazilian coral snake antivenom against these Micrurus venoms. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of protein composition and toxicity revealed a large diversity of venoms from the nine Micrurus species. ELISA and Western blot assays showed a varied capability of the therapeutic antivenom to recognize the diverse species venom components. In vivo and in vitro neutralization assays indicated that the antivenom is not able to fully neutralize the toxic activities of all venoms. Conclusion These results indicate the existence of a large range of both qualitative and quantitative variations in Micrurus venoms, probably reflecting the adaptation of the snakes from this genus to vastly dissimilar habitats. The data also show that the antivenom used for human therapy in Brazil is not fully able to neutralize the main toxic activities present in the venoms from all Micrurus species occurring in the country. It suggests that modifications in the

  13. Anatomy of the Corrugator Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jung Hun; Lim, Hee Joong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%). Corrugator extended through the frontalis and orbicularis oculi (41%), only the frontalis (41%), or only the orbicularis oculi (18%). Corrugator ran superolaterally (59%), or laterally (41%). Corrugators inserted mostly to the middle of the eyebrow (57%), or the medial half of the eyebrow (36%), but also to the glabella region (7%). The length of the corrugator ranged 38 to 53 mm. The transverse head (23.38 mm) was longer than the oblique head (19.75 mm). Corrugator was thicker at the medial canthus than at the midpupillary line. Corrugator was innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (66%), the zygomatic branch (17%), or the angular nerve (zygomatic branch and buccal branch, 17%). Supraorbital nerve (60%) or supratrochlear nerve (40%) penetrated the corrugator. The action was depressing, pulling the eyebrow medially (91%), or with medial eyebrow elevation and lateral eyebrow depression (9%). Surgeons must keep this anatomy in mind during surgical procedures.

  14. Fenologia reprodutiva e biologia da polinização de Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae

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    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-08-01

    trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia e biologia da polinização de C. brasiliensis. Quinze indivíduos foram marcados e acompanhados quinzenalmente para as observações dos estudos fenológicos. Para o estudo da morfologia e biologia florais, flores e inflorescências foram marcadas e acompanhadas até a formação dos frutos. Os visitantes florais foram observados ao longo do período do experimento, anotando-se freqüência, horário e comportamento de suas visitas. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrou padrão de floração anual, contínua, de longa duração com períodos de maior atividade fenológica de floração na estação seca. As inflorescências são do tipo paniculada, com flores cujos atributos florais estão relacionados à síndrome da melitofilia. A antese é diurna, com início às 05h00. Há néctar desde a fase de pré-antese, com concentração de açúcares em torno de 44-60%. Os visitantes florais observados foram abelhas (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta e X. sp. Apis mellifera e Centris similis e pássaros (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura e Coereba flaveola. Xylocopa frontalis atuou como polinizadora efetiva, enquanto que os pássaros restringem-se a pilhar o néctar.

  15. Near-shore distribution of phyllosomas of the two only lobster species (Decapoda: Achelata present in Robinson Crusoe Island and endemic to the Juan Fernández archipelago Distribución costera de filosomas de las dos únicas especies de langostas (Decapoda: Achelata presentes en la Isla Robinson Crusoe y endémicas del archipiélago de Juan Fernández

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁLVARO T PALMA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two lobster species coexist in the southeast Pacific Juan Fernández archipelago, Jasus frontalis (Milne-Edwards, 1837 and Acantharctus delfini (Bouvier, 1909. Like most lobster species they undergo a prolonged larval period, which is particularly long for J. frontalis (> 16 months. Though typical of Palinurids, this long larval duration is usually not thought to be conducive to local recruitment. While it is known that settlement is confined to the three islands of the archipelago (Robinson Crusoe, Alejandro Selkirk and Santa Clara and Desventuradas Islands (aprox. 800 km to the north, it remains poorly understood how local larval supply allows such distribution pattern. The goal of this study is twofold. Firstly, we aimed to characterize the distribution and abundance of the larvae of these two species around Robinson Crusoe Island using plankton tows and systematic hydrographic records between October 2008 to March of 2011, thus providing the first systematic and prolonged coupled biophysical observations in the nearshore of the archipelago. We hypothesize that spatial and temporal larval distribution patterns are associated to their retention around the archipelago, thus contributing to our knowledge of the physical and biological processes maintaining their extreme isolation. Secondly, using molecular genetics, we confirm a simple taxonomic criteria to distinguish the larvae of the two species, thus aiding future studies of larval dynamics. Throughout phyllosomas of A. delfini were more abundant than that of J. frontalis. Both species were more abundant on the northern shores of Robinson Crusoe Island and generally associated with warmer and saltier waters and mostly present in the samples collected during spring and summer months. Phyllosomas of both species were more abundant during nighttime tows in the upper layer of the water column surveyed suggesting a diurnal vertical migration behavior which, for coastal dwelling meroplanktonic

  16. Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cardona

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus, spearfish (Tetrapturus belone and swordfish (Xiphias gladius. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix, blue shark (Prionace glauca, leerfish (Lichia amia, bonito (Sarda sarda, striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga, amberjack (Seriola dumerili, blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola, bullet tuna (Auxis rochei, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, mackerel (Scomber scombrus and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish, most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing.

  17. Postmortem evidence of interactions of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with other dolphin species in south-west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J; Davison, N; Deaville, R; Monies, R; Loveridge, J; Tregenza, N; Jepson, P D

    2009-10-10

    Reports of violent interactions between bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the coastal waters of the UK are well documented. Examination of stranded cetaceans by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust Marine Strandings Network and the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme has indicated that seven animals, of four other species, found stranded in south-west England, had pathology consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction, including two juvenile and two adult common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), one juvenile pilot whale (Globicephala melas), one juvenile Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and one adult striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Although recorded traumatic lesions were often not as severe as those found in harbour porpoises, it is probable that the interactions did contribute to stranding and/or death in all four of the juvenile animals examined. Furthermore, analysis of photographs taken before establishment of the Marine Strandings Network revealed rake (teeth) marks consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction on one stranded common dolphin in 1992. A number of causes have been suggested for these interactions in harbour porpoises stranded in the UK and it is possible that any combination of these factors may also be implicated in the cases described in this report.

  18. Prion search and cellular prion protein expression in stranded dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, G; Cocumelli, C; Meoli, R; Barbaro, K; Terracciano, G; Di Francesco, C E; Mazzariol, S; Eleni, C

    2012-01-01

    The recent description of a prion disease (PD) case in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prompted us to carry out an extensive search for the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brain and in a range of lymphoid tissues from 23 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), 5 bottlenose dolphins and 2 Risso s dolphins (Grampus griseus) found stranded between 2007 and 2012 along the Italian coastline. Three striped dolphins and one bottlenose dolphin showed microscopic lesions of encephalitis, with no evidence of spongiform brain lesions being detected in any of the 30 free-ranging cetaceans investigated herein. Nevertheless, we could still observe a prominent PrPC immunoreactivity in the brain as well as in lymphoid tissues from these dolphins. Although immunohistochemical and Western blot investigations yielded negative results for PrPSc deposition in all tissues from the dolphins under study, the reported occurrence of a spontaneous PD case in a wild dolphin is an intriguing issue and a matter of concern for both prion biology and intra/inter-species transmissibility, as well as for cetacean conservation medicine.

  19. Ethnoecology of small cetaceans: interactions between an artisanal fishery and dolphins in northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies in northern Rio de Janeiro indicate there are interactions between fisheries and cetaceans, but there are no studies that focus on the knowledge fishermen have about these animals. This study describes the interactions between cetaceans and a fishery through the perception of fishermen from Atafona (RJ. Between February and March 2010, 20 fishermen were selected using the “snowball” technique. An ethnographic questionnaire was given to each fisherman. Each participant described more than one species of dolphin, which explains why the sample size of the responses (N=34 is greater than the number of respondents (N=20. Based on the reports, three species and one genus were identified: Sotalia guianensis (N=15; 75%, Pontoporia blainvillei (N=9; 45%, Steno bredanensis (N=6; 30% and Stenella (N=4; 20%. The answer “collision with artifacts” was the only one given for the question about the occurrence of accidents between the fishery and dolphins (N=24; 71%; gillnets are responsible for the entanglement of the animals. The carcasses of dolphins killed by accidental capture are discarded into the sea and/or the muscle and blubber is used as bait to fish for elasmobranchs. The dolphin species identified by the fishermen corresponded to the four main species reported in the literature for the area. All interviewees said that bycatch is caused by dolphins and affects fishing.

  20. Investigation of trophic level and niche partitioning of 7 cetacean species by stable isotopes, and cadmium and arsenic tissue concentrations in the western Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.-Y.; Chou, L.-S.; Chen, M.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Muscular δ 13 C and δ 15 N data of cetaceans were used to identify their ecological niche • Inshore–offshore distribution pattern was found for four sympatric neritic odontocetes. • Horizontal and vertical movements found in sympatric odontocetes as they grow. • Taiwan’s Chinese white dolphins is an exclusive fish eater. • Prey-derived As- and Cd-induced health threats were found for some dolphins. - Abstract: A total of 24 stranded or bycatch cetaceans, including Balaenoptera omurai, Lagenodelphis hosei, Kogia sima, Stenella attenuata, Grampus griseus, Neophocaena phocaenoides, and Sousa chinensis, were collected from 2001 to 2011 in Taiwan. Using the muscular δ 13 C and δ 15 N data, three ecological groups were identified as the oceanic baleen whale, the neritic, and the coastal toothed whale groups, coinciding with their taxonomy, feeding habits and geographical distribution. A horizontal inshore to offshore distribution was found for the sympatric neritic toothed dolphins, G. griseus, K. sima, S. attenuata, and L. hosei in the outermost offshore waters, accompanying their growth. For the first time we identify Taiwan’s Chinese white dolphin, S. chinensis, as an exclusive fish eater. Cd and As bioaccumulated in the G. griseus, L. hosei and S. attenuata increase as they grow. Prey-derived As- and Cd-induced health threats were found in L. hosei, and G. griseus

  1. Trophic relationships of the spinner dolphin at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, SW Atlantic

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    José Martins Silva-Jr

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of predator-prey and other trophic relationships of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris around Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, off northeastern Brazil, with use of original data and a brief review of data published elsewhere. Records were made while snorkelling among the dolphins in daytime. Individual fish pursuit and coordinated school herding were the two hunting tactics recorded. Three small prey types (oceanic squids, fishes, and prawns were recovered from vomits collected in situ and from stomachs of two stranded dolphins. In their turn, spinners were preyed on by the cookiecutter sharks (Dalatiidae as evidenced by round and crater-like wounds and circular scars. Additionally, the dolphins were preyed on by large sharks (Lamnidae, Carcharhinidae, as evidenced by crescent-shaped wounds and scars. Unidentified fishes bit fin pieces, as evidenced by variably-shaped marks. On the other hand, dolphins’ particulate faeces, vomits and live roundworms were eaten by plankton-feeding fishes. Thus, the trophic role of the spinner dolphins of Fernando de Noronha may be summarised as that of : 1 a predator of small oceanic squids, fishes, and prawns; 2 a prey for the small, piece-eating cookiecutter sharks and other unidentified fishes; 3 a prey for large sharks able to kill a dolphin; and 4 a particulate food supplier for plankton-eating fishes.

  2. Multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic characters differentiate several novel species of Mycosphaerella and related anamorphs on banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzanlou, M; Groenewald, J Z; Fullerton, R A; Abeln, E C A; Carlier, J; Zapater, M-F; Buddenhagen, I W; Viljoen, A; Crous, P W

    2008-06-01

    Three species of Mycosphaerella, namely M. eumusae, M. fijiensis, and M. musicola are involved in the Sigatoka disease complex of bananas. Besides these three primary pathogens, several additional species of Mycosphaerella or their anamorphs have been described from Musa. However, very little is known about these taxa, and for the majority of these species no culture or DNA is available for study. In the present study, we collected a global set of Mycosphaerella strains from banana, and compared them by means of morphology and a multi-gene nucleotide sequence data set. The phylogeny inferred from the ITS region and the combined data set containing partial gene sequences of the actin gene, the small subunit mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and the histone H3 gene revealed a rich diversity of Mycosphaerella species on Musa. Integration of morphological and molecular data sets confirmed more than 20 species of Mycosphaerella (incl. anamorphs) to occur on banana. This study reconfirmed the previously described presence of Cercospora apii, M. citri and M. thailandica, and also identified Mycosphaerella communis, M. lateralis and Passalora loranthi on this host. Moreover, eight new species identified from Musa are described, namely Dissoconium musae, Mycosphaerella mozambica, Pseudocercospora assamensis, P. indonesiana, P. longispora, Stenella musae, S. musicola, and S. queenslandica.

  3. Bones as biofuel: a review of whale bone composition with implications for deep-sea biology and palaeoanthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Nicholas D; Little, Crispin T S; Glover, Adrian G

    2011-01-07

    Whales are unique among vertebrates because of the enormous oil reserves held in their soft tissue and bone. These 'biofuel' stores have been used by humans from prehistoric times to more recent industrial-scale whaling. Deep-sea biologists have now discovered that the oily bones of dead whales on the seabed are also used by specialist and generalist scavenging communities, including many unique organisms recently described as new to science. In the context of both cetacean and deep-sea invertebrate biology, we review scientific knowledge on the oil content of bone from several of the great whale species: Balaenoptera musculus, Balaenoptera physalus, Balaenoptera borealis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Eschrichtius robustus, Physeter macrocephalus and the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba. We show that data collected by scientists over 50 years ago during the heyday of industrial whaling explain several interesting phenomena with regard to the decay of whale remains. Variations in the lipid content of bones from different parts of a whale correspond closely with recently observed differences in the taphonomy of deep-sea whale carcasses and observed biases in the frequency of whale bones at archaeological sites.

  4. Metazoan parasites from odontocetes off New Zealand: new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kristina; Randhawa, Haseeb; Poulin, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Information about the parasite fauna of spectacled porpoises and cetaceans from New Zealand waters in general is scarce. This study takes advantage of material archived in collections of the Otago Museum in Dunedin and Massey University in Auckland, sampled from cetacean species found stranded along the New Zealand coastline between 2007 and 2014. Parasites from seven species of cetaceans (spectacled porpoise, Phocoena dioptrica (n = 2 individuals examined); pygmy sperm whale (n = 1); long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas (n = 1); Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus (n = 1); short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (n = 7); striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (n = 3) and dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus (n = 2)) from the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract, cranial sinus, liver, urogenital and mammary tract, fascia and blubber were investigated. Ten parasite species were identified, belonging to the Nematoda (Stenurus minor, Stenurus globicephalae, Halocercus sp. (Pseudaliidae), Anisakis sp. (Anisakidae), Crassicauda sp. (Crassicaudidae)), Cestoda (Phyllobothrium delphini and Monorygma grimaldii (Phyllobothriidae)), Trematoda (Brachicladium palliata and Brachicladium delphini (Brachicladiidae)) and Crustacea (Scutocyamus antipodensis (Cyamidae)). Some of the parasite species encountered comprises new records for their host. Although the material was not sampled within a systematic parasitological survey, the findings contain valuable new information about the parasite fauna of rare, vagile and vulnerable marine wildlife from a remote oceanic environment.

  5. Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossi, M.C.; Casini, S.; Marsili, L.

    2007-01-01

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females

  6. Habitat modeling for cetacean management: Spatial distribution in the southern Pelagos Sanctuary (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennino, Maria Grazia; Mérigot, Bastien; Fonseca, Vinícius Prado; Monni, Virginia; Rotta, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Effective management and conservation of wild populations requires knowledge of their habitats, especially by mean of quantitative analyses of their spatial distributions. The Pelagos Sanctuary is a dedicated marine protected area for Mediterranean marine mammals covering an area of 90,000 km2 in the north-western Mediterranean Sea between Italy, France and the Principate of Monaco. In the south of the Sanctuary, i.e. along the Sardinian coast, a range of diverse human activities (cities, industry, fishery, tourism) exerts several current ad potential threats to cetacean populations. In addition, marine mammals are recognized by the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive as essential components of sustainable ecosystems. Yet, knowledge on the spatial distribution and ecology of cetaceans in this area is quite scarce. Here we modeled occurrence of the three most abundant species known in the Sanctuary, i.e. the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), using sighting data from scientific surveys collected from 2012 to 2014 during summer time. Bayesian site-occupancy models were used to model their spatial distribution in relation to habitat taking into account oceanographic (sea surface temperature, primary production, photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll-a concentration) and topographic (depth, slope, distance of the land) variables. Cetaceans responded differently to the habitat features, with higher occurrence predicted in the more productive areas on submarine canyons. These results provide ecological information useful to enhance management plans and establish baseline for future population trend studies.

  7. Concentration of mercury and selenium in tissues of five cetacean species from Croatian coastal waters

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    Bilandžić Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg and selenium (Se concentrations were measured in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and lung tissues of five cetacean species, three dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus and Grampus griseus and two whale species (Balaenoptera physalus and Ziphius cavirostris, stranded along the Croatian coast during the period 1999-2002. Statistically significant differences in Hg concentrations in muscle, spleen and lung, and Se in liver and lung of the different dolphin species were observed. Mercury levels in liver and spleen and Se levels in liver differed between young and adult T. truncatus species. A significant positive correlation between different tissue types for Hg and Se concentrations was observed. In all tissues tested, the lowest Hg and Se concentrations were found in B. physalus. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with Se in all tissues. The results present one of few studies related to lung and spleen tissues in these mammals, particularly in the Adriatic Sea. Since very little data are available, this research provides new data on concentrations of Hg and Se in five cetacean species from the Adriatic Sea basin.

  8. Ecology of Hawaiian marine mammals emphasizing the impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) on endangered species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.; Hartwig, E.O.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty-two marine mammal species including 2 baleen whales, 20 toothed whales, and one pinniped occur in Hawaiian waters. Among these are two endangered species, the migratory humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae) around the main islands, and the non-migratory Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) in the extreme northwestern island chain. The endangered species are among those most commonly sighted, while spinner dolphins (Stenella spp.), bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops sp.), and false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are sighted less frequently. Most Hawaiian cetacean species are Odontoceti, or toothed whales, and feed on fish and squid. The Mysteceti or baleen whales feed on plankton, however the endangered humpback whale, which migrates to Hawaii to breed and calve, presumably does not feed there. The endangered monk seal feeds on cephalopods and fish. The impact of OTEC on endangered and non-endangered marine mammals results from several direct and indirect effects and is discussed in the text. Careful siting of OTEC plants away from humpback breeding areas and monk seal breeding and feeding areas will avoid adverse effects on these populations.

  9. Cetáceos de las aguas costeras del Pacífico norte y sur de Costa Rica

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    Damián Martínez-Fernández

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available De las 29 especies de cetáceos presentes en Costa Rica, se han realizado investigaciones exhaustivas solamente para tres especies. Lo anterior evidencia la poca información general existente sobre cetáceos, a pesar de que Costa Rica posee un notable crecimiento de actividades de avistamiento. Debido al uso que se está generando en las zonas costeras, cada vez se hace más necesario determinar la ocurrencia de cetáceos en zonas de alta actividad turística, con el fin de proponer medidas de conservación. En el presente estudio, se determinaron variables ambientales que estaban relacionadas con la presencia de especies registradas, a partir de 166 avistamientos entre el 2005 y 2006. Las especies con mayor proporción de avistamientos fueron Stenella attenuata (68%, seguida por Megaptera novaeangliae (13% y Tursiops truncatus (10%. La presencia del delfín manchado se relaciona con cambios de salinidad y trasparencia del agua, mientras que la de la ballena jorobada estuvo relacionada con el oleaje y la temperatura superficial del agua. Se confirma la presencia de 7 especies de cetáceos en dos zonas costeras del Pacífico de Costa Rica, de las cuales tres están presentes a lo largo del año. Se encontraron variables ambientales relacionadas con la presencia de al menos dos especies.

  10. Differences in the whistle characteristics and repertoire of Bottlenose and Spinner Dolphins

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    Bazúa-Durán Carmen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been used to compare the whistles produced by dolphins. The two methods used in this study are: (1 a classification of whistle contours in six categories (i.e. constant frequency, upsweep, downsweep, concave, convex, and sine and (2 the extraction of frequency and time parameters from each whistle contour. Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus whistles are described in the same way when comparing whistle contour distributions in each of the six categories and whistle frequency and time parameters using Discriminant Function Analysis. For Spinner Dolphin Stenella longirostris whistles, each method describes whistles differently. Several facts may explain these differences in describing dolphin whistles, such as a greater fluidity of Spinner Dolphin groups when compared to Bottlenose Dolphin groups, greater geographic variation in the whistles of Bottlenose Dolphins than in those of Spinner Dolphins, an average beginning frequency 16% lower than the average ending frequency in Spinner Dolphin whistles compared to a varied relationship for Bottlenose Dolphins, and stricter criteria used to define whistle contour categories in the study of Spinner Dolphin whistles than in the Bottlenose Dolphin whistle study.

  11. A spatially explicit risk assessment approach: Cetaceans and marine traffic in the Pelagos Sanctuary (Mediterranean Sea.

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    Maria Grazia Pennino

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit risk assessment is an essential component of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP, which provides a comprehensive framework for managing multiple uses of the marine environment, minimizing environmental impacts and conflicts among users. In this study, we assessed the risk of the exposure to high intensity vessel traffic areas for the three most abundant cetacean species (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus and Balaenoptera physalus in the southern area of the Pelagos Sanctuary, which is the only pelagic Marine Protected Area (MPA for marine mammals in the Mediterranean Sea. In particular, we modeled the occurrence of the three cetacean species as a function of habitat variables in June by using hierarchical Bayesian spatial-temporal models. Similarly, we modelled the marine traffic intensity in order to find high risk areas and estimated the potential conflict due to the overlap with the cetacean home ranges. Results identified two main hot-spots of high intensity marine traffic in the area, which partially overlap with the area of presence of the studied species. Our findings emphasize the need for nationally relevant and transboundary planning and management measures for these marine species.

  12. Summer Distribution, Relative Abundance and Encounter Rates of Cetaceans in the Mediterranean Waters off Southern Italy (Western Ionian Sea and Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

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    R. SANTORO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2010 and summer 2011, weekly cetacean surveys were undertaken in “passing mode”, using ferries as platform of opportunity, along the “fixed line transect” between Catania and Civitavecchia (Southern Italy. Of the 20 species of cetaceans confirmed for the Mediterranean sea, 8 were sighted within the survey period: 7 species represented by Mediterranean subpopulations (Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis, Grampus griseus, Tursiops truncatus and Ziphius cavirostris and one considered visitor (Steno bredanensis. We had a total of 220 sightings during the 2010 and a total of 240 sightings in the 2011. The most frequent species was S. coeruleoalba. By the comparison of the data from the two sampling seasons, a significant increase of D. delphis sightings and a decrease of sightings of B. physalus and P. macrocephalus was observed from 2010 to 2011. While all the other species were observed in both sampling seasons, Z. cavirostris and Steno bredanensis were observed only during 2011. The presence of mixed groups of odontocetes was documented too: we sighted groups composed by S. coeruleoalba and D. delphis, by S. coeruleoalba and T. truncatus, and by S. coeruleoalba and G. griseus. The results of this research add useful information on cetacean species in a very poorly known area and highlight the need to standardize large scale and long term monitoring programs in order to detect variation in presence, abundance and distribution of cetaceans populations and understand the effect of anthropogenic factors.

  13. Tissue concentrations of four Taiwanese toothed cetaceans indicating the silver and cadmium pollution in the western Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Hsien; Zhuang, Ming-Feng; Chou, Lien-Siang; Liu, Jean-Yi; Shih, Chieh-Chih; Chen, Chiee-Young

    2017-11-30

    Muscle, lung, kidney and liver tissues of 45 bycatch and stranded cetaceans, including 14 Grampus griseus (Gg), 7 Kogia simus (Ks), 10 Lagenodelphis hosei (Lh), and 14 Stenella attenuata (Sa), were collected in the waters off Taiwan from 1994 to 1995, and from 2001 to 2012. Baseline concentrations (in μgg -1 dry weight) of the cetaceans were lung (<0.05)=muscle (<0.05)

  14. Brucellosis in mammals of Costa Rica: An epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Bonilla-Montoya, Roberto; Barrantes-Granados, Osvaldo; Esquivel-Suárez, Andrea; Montero-Caballero, Danilo; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Fallas-Monge, Zeanne; Palacios-Alfaro, José David; Baldi, Mario; Campos, Elena; Chanto, Grettel; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán Verri, Caterina; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan-José; Moreno, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999-2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003-2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Antibodies against Brucella were not detected in feral or domestic pigs. Likewise, brucellosis seroprevalence in horse and water buffalo farms was estimated in 6.5% and 21.7%, respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Six cetacean species showed positive reactions against Brucella antigens, and B. ceti was isolated in 70% (n = 29) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). A steady increase in the diagnosis of human brucellosis cases was observed. Taking into account the prevalence of brucellosis in the various host mammals of Costa Rica, different measures are recommended.

  15. Evaluación de la toxicidad aguda oral y de la actividad antimicrobiana de una mezcla de aceite de hígado de tiburones de Cuba Assessment of the oral acute toxicity and the antimicrobial activity of an oily mixture from shark's liver of Cuba

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    Caridad Margarita García Peña

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la toxicidad aguda oral y la actividad antimicrobiana de una mezcla de aceites de hígado de tiburón, de las especies Rhincodon typu (tiburón ballena y Galeocerdo cuvier (tiburón tigre, que habitan en zonas aledañas a las costas del litoral norte occidental de Cuba, para su posterior uso farmacéutico, debido a que presenta un alto contenido de vitaminas y de ácidos grasos, que le confieren actividad antioxidante y antiinflamatoria. El estudio de la toxicidad aguda oral demostró que la mezcla de aceites de hígado de tiburones, no provocó alteraciones macroscópicas en los órganos extraídos, ni síntomas tóxicos severos, ni mortalidad de ninguno de los animales empleados en el estudio a la dosis de 20 mL/kg. Los resultados del estudio de la actividad antimicrobiana demostraron una ligera actividad bacteriostática frente a K. pneumoniae; además una actividad antifúngica frente a Microsporum canis; y resistencia frente a C. albicans y T. mentagrophytes a las concentraciones evaluadas.The total acute toxicity and the antimicrobial activity of an oil mixtures from shark liver of Rhicodon typu (whale-shark and Galeocerdo cuvier (tigger-shark was assessed in species leaving in the adjacent costs of Cuban northern coastal for its subsequent pharmaceutical use due to its high content of vitamins and fatty acids and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Study of oral acute toxicity demonstrated that oil mixture of shark liver hasn't macroscopic alterations in removed organs, severe toxic symptoms and on mortality of any animals used in study at 20 mL/kg dose. Study results of antimicrobial activity showed a slight bacteriostatic activity against K. pneumoniae and an antifungal activity against Microsporum canis, and a resistance against C. albicans and T. mentagrophytes at assessed concentrations.

  16. Respostas fisiológicas de tambaqui a banhos terapêuticos com mebendazol Physiological responses of tambaqui to therapeutic baths of mebendazole

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    Edsandra Campos Chagas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Cuvier 1818 a banhos terapêuticos com mebendazol. Juvenis de tambaqui (n = 108, massa média de 37,80±0,24 g foram submetidos a banhos terapêuticos de mebendazol a 0, 100, 300 e 600 mg L-1, com três repetições, em exposições de 30, 60 e 120 minutos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para íons plasmáticos (sódio, potássio e cálcio e parâmetros hematológicos - hematócrito, número de eritrócitos e constantes corpusculares -, com exceção da hemoglobina, que apresentou aumento significativo, após 120 minutos na concentração de 300 mg L-1 de mebendazol, de forma similar ao que ocorreu com a glicose. Os indicadores fisiológicos de estresse avaliados revelam que o tambaqui mantém a sua homeostasia em concentrações de até 600 mg L-1 de mebendazol por até 120 minutos, com boa tolerância ao mebendazol.The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological responses of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Cuvier 1818 to therapeutic baths with mebendazole. Tambaqui juveniles (n = 108, mean weight 37.80±0.24 g were submitted to therapeutic baths with mebendazole at 0, 100, 300 and 600 mg L-1, with three replicates, during 30, 60 and 120 minutes. No significant differences were observed for plasma ions (sodium, potassium and calcium concentration and for hematological parameters (hematocrit, eritrocit numbers and corpuscular indices, except hemoglobin, which increase after exposure of 120 minutes in the mebendazole concentration of 300 mg L-1 was significant, similarly to the observed for glucose. Stress physiological indices evaluated showed that tambaqui maintains its homeostasis in concentrations until 600 mg L-1 of mebendazole for 120 minutes, presenting a good tolerance to mebendazole.

  17. The Maturation of Skulls in Postnatal Risso’s Dolphins (Grampus griseus from Taiwanese Waters

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    Ing Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fusion between bones is a useful indicator of skeletal and sexual maturity for cetacean specimens preserved in museum collections. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to examine the degree of fusion between bony elements in skulls of Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus Cuvier, 1812 from Taiwanese waters; and second, to analyze the relationship between skull maturity, body length, sexual maturity, and estimated age, with the aim of determining a useful skull predictor for maturity in Risso’s dolphins. The stage of fusion of 20 superficial sutures or joints between selected skull bones was examined on 33 clean, dry skulls, which were salvaged from stranded or bycaught dead Risso’s dolphins in Taiwanese waters during the years of 1994 – 2001. The bones of the caudoventral braincase fused early in development (basioccipital-exoccipital synchondrosis, supraoccipital- exoccipital suture, whereas fusion along the nuchal crest (fronto-interparietal and fronto-parietal sutures occurred later. Some sutures remained open in some adult specimens (lacrimal/maxilla-frontal, squamosal-parietal, squamosal-exoccipital sutures, and the intermandibular symphysis. Bilateral asymmetry of the fusion process was not detected. Advanced fusion occurred in the fronto-interparietal suture along the medial aspect of the nuchal crest, and in the rostral nasal-frontal and distal maxilla-incisive sutures at total body length > 250 cm, and may be useful skull indicators of sexual maturity.

  18. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Andrade, Humber A; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks) whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Efectos del parasitismo sobre el tejido branquial en peces cultivados: estudio parasitologico e histopatologico Effect of the parasitism on the gill tissue of cultivated fishes: parasitological and histopathological studies

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    Maurício Laterça Martins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred four out of 225 diagnosticated cases were myxosporidian, monogenean, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 and bacterial diseases in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (pacu, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 (tambaqui and tambacu, at Aquaculture Center, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, between 1992 and 1995. The gills were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution to posterior histologic routine. It was observed Henneguya sp. cysts into the capillaries of the secondary lamellae, encapsulated by the respiratory epithelium cells. It provoked adherence of the adjacent lamellae, hyperplasia, congestion, oedema and epithelium displacement. Monogeneans infestations by Anacanthorus penilabiatus Boeger, Husak & Martins, 1995 and Ancyrocephalinae sub-family caused light inflammatory reaction and hyperplasia. In severe infestations was observed hyperplasia of primary lamellae, necrosis, oedema, respiratory epithelium displacement, ruptured pillar cells and telangiectasis. Response to I. multifiliis was limited to surrounding epithelial cells in young fishes and hyperplasia, necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and oedema in old fishes. Such lesions iniciate hyperplasic and oedematous process that with inflammation of the parasitic sites, provoked alterations over gases and ions interchange surface and consequently fish metabolism.

  20. Monogeneans of leatherjackets, Oligoplites spp. (Osteichthyes: Carangidae, with the description of a new species of Metacamopia (Monogenea: Allodiscocotylidae from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M Takemoto

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Metacamopia oligoplites n. sp., a gill filament parasite of carangid fishes of three species of Oligoplites Gill, O. palometa (Cuvier, O. saurus (Bloch & Schneider, and O. saliens (Bloch, from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described and illustrated. Metacamopia oligoplites n. sp. differs from M. indica by: the shape of the body; the pre-, para-, and post-germarial testes; vaginas lacking sclerotized structures; well-developed seminal receptacles; muscular sleeves around the constriction between the vaginas and the seminal receptacles; and the haptor highly asymmetric, with a large, heel-like area; and differs from M. chorinemi by: the esophagus lacking diverticles; a larger number of testes (26-55 and not just, approximately 10; and the vaginas lacking sclerotized structures of any kind. This is the first record of Metacamopia in the South Atlantic Ocean. The generic diagnosis of Metacamopia is emended. Hargicola oligoplites is reported for the first time in the South Atlantic Ocean. Oligoplites palometa and O. saliens are new host records for Hargicola oligoplites.

  1. Experimental studies on the biokinetics of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments using the photon-emitters 237 Pu and 241 Am were performed to examine uptake, tissue distribution and retention of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris Cuvier. A 2 wk exposure in contaminated sea water resulted in twice as much 237 Pu being taken up by whole octopus as 241 Am. Immediately following uptake approximately 41% and 73% of the 237 Pu and 241 Am respectively were located in the branchial hearts. Depuration rates for both radionuclides were identical; approximately 46% of both radionuclides initially incorporated were associated with a long-lived compartment which turned over very slowly (Tbsub(1/2) = 1.5 yr). Longer exposures to 241 Am resulted in an increase in the size of the slowly exchanging 241 Am pool in the octopus. After 2 mo depuration, the majority of the residual activity of both radionuclides was in the branchial hearts. On average 33% of the 241 Am ingested with food was assimilated into tissues, primarily the hepatopancreas. Different whole-body 241 Am excretion rates were observed at different times following assimilation and were related to transfer processes taking place within internal tissues, most notably between hepatopancreas and the branchial hearts. Relationships between circulatory and excretory functions of these 2 organs are discussed and a physiological mechanism is proposed to explain the observed patterns of 241 Am excretion in O. vulgaris. (orig.)

  2. Experimental studies on the biokinetics of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1982-03-05

    Radiotracer experiments using the photon-emitters /sup 237/Pu and /sup 241/Am were performed to examine uptake, tissue distribution and retention of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris Cuvier. A 2 wk exposure in contaminated sea water resulted in twice as much /sup 237/Pu being taken up by whole octopus as /sup 241/Am. Immediately following uptake approximately 41% and 73% of the /sup 237/Pu and /sup 241/Am respectively were located in the branchial hearts. Depuration rates for both radionuclides were identical; approximately 46% of both radionuclides initially incorporated were associated with a long-lived compartment which turned over very slowly (Tbsub(1/2) = 1.5 yr). Longer exposures to /sup 241/Am resulted in an increase in the size of the slowly exchanging /sup 241/Am pool in the octopus. After 2 mo depuration, the majority of the residual activity of both radionuclides was in the branchial hearts. On average 33% of the /sup 241/Am ingested with food was assimilated into tissues, primarily the hepatopancreas. Different whole-body /sup 241/Am excretion rates were observed at different times following assimilation and were related to transfer processes taking place within internal tissues, most notably between hepatopancreas and the branchial hearts. Relationships between circulatory and excretory functions of these 2 organs are discussed and a physiological mechanism is proposed to explain the observed patterns of /sup 241/Am excretion in O. vulgaris.

  3. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani

    2012-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters.

  5. Widespread utility of highly informative AFLP molecular markers across divergent shark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Kyall R; Stow, Adam J; Peddemors, Victor; Briscoe, David A; Harcourt, Robert G

    2006-01-01

    Population numbers of many shark species are declining rapidly around the world. Despite the commercial and conservation significance, little is known on even the most fundamental aspects of their population biology. Data collection that relies on direct observation can be logistically challenging with sharks. Consequently, molecular methods are becoming increasingly important to obtain knowledge that is critical for conservation and management. Here we describe an amplified fragment length polymorphism method that can be applied universally to sharks to identify highly informative genome-wide polymorphisms from 12 primer pairs. We demonstrate the value of our method on 15 divergent shark species within the superorder Galeomorphii, including endangered species which are notorious for low levels of genetic diversity. Both the endangered sand tiger shark (Carcharodon taurus, N = 18) and the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, N = 7) displayed relatively high levels of allelic diversity. A total of 59 polymorphic loci (H(e) = 0.373) and 78 polymorphic loci (H(e) = 0.316) were resolved in C. taurus and C. carcharias, respectively. Results from other sharks (e.g., Orectolobus ornatus, Orectolobus sp., and Galeocerdo cuvier) produced remarkably high numbers of polymorphic loci (106, 94, and 86, respectively) from a limited sample size of only 2. A major constraint to obtaining much needed genetic data from sharks is the time-consuming process of developing molecular markers. Here we demonstrate the general utility of a technique that provides large numbers of informative loci in sharks.

  6. Larvae of migratory fish (Teleostei: Ostariophysi in the lotic remnant of the Paraná River in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Barzotto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fish larvae and adults are morphologically distinct from each other and have different ecological requirements. Research on the dynamics of ichthyoplankton provides valuable information about the early stages of the life cycle of fish. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of the larval stages of three migratory species - Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816, Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 - to identify possible spawning areas in the last lotic remnant of the upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian territory. A total of 26 points were sampled monthly from October 2003 to November 2004. The PERMANOVA detected significant differences between the months only for S. brasiliensis (Pseudo-F = 3.88, p = 0.0021 and P. corruscans (Pseudo-F = 3.35, p = 0.004. Among the environmental variables, temperature was the most important and the Mantel test detected a significant correlation between temperature and the densities, only for P. lineatus (r = 0.09, p = 0.03. The species in our data chose for spawning tributaries that are not dammed, of which most are outside conservation areas. Therefore, recruitment, maintenance and possible actions aiming to recover the stocks of these species are dependent on the conservation of tributaries and floodplain lakes in the region, in addition to monitoring to prevent fishing during the reproductive period.

  7. ON THE PRESENCE OF PYRAMIODONTHERIUM (MAMMALIA, XENARTHRA, MEGATHERIIDAE IN THE LATE MIOCENE OF NORTHEASTERN ARGENTINA AND ITS BIOGEOGRAPHICAL IMPLICATIONS

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    DIEGO BRANDONI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The biochron of the subfamily Megatheriinae, large to very large terrestrial sloths typified by Megatherium Cuvier, in Argentina extends from the middle Miocene of Patagonia to the late Pleistocene-early Holocene. Megatheriines reached their highest diversity in the lower levels (="conglomerado osífero", late Miocene of the Ituzaingó Formation in Entre Ríos Province, northeastern Argentina. Among the four megatheriines that occur in this unit, the genera Promegatherium Ameghino, Eomegatherium Kraglievich and Pliomegatherium Kraglievich represent relatively small to medium-sized taxa. Here we describe new material assigned to Pyramiodontherium, the largest of the four genera from the same bed and comparable in size to some Quaternary species of Megatherium. Three valid species of Pyramiodontherium have been recognized, all distributed mainly in northwestern Argentina, from the late Miocene in Catamarca Province (and probably also in Tucumán Province, and the late Pliocene in La Rioja Province. The presence of this genus in northeastern Argentina extends its known paleobiogeographical distribution. 

  8. NIDIFICACIÓN Y EFICIENCIA REPRODUCTIVA DEL COCODRILO AMERICANO EN UNA RESERVA ECOLÓGICA DE MANATÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Torres Martínez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se caracteriza la variación espacial y temporal de los patrones reproductivos del cocodrilo americano (Crocodylus acutus Cuvier, entre 2008 y 2010, para las localidades de La Isleta y Los Coquitos, en la Reserva Ecológica Bahía de Nuevas Grandes-La Isleta en Manatí, Las Tunas. Se describen las conductas de nidificación, desove y atención al nido. Además, se analiza la dinámica de las puestas, eclosiones y la morfometría de los huevos. Se detectó que las hembras no despliegan la misma conducta para la construcción del nido, pero en todos los casos la nidificación implica la transformación del paisaje. En ambas localidades las curvas de acumulación de puestas y eclosiones se dividen en tres etapas: inicial, aceleración y meseta. En general, existe consistencia de la correlación entre el largo y ancho de los huevos con tendencia a que los huevos largos y pesados incrementen su natalidad y viabilidad. En La Isleta la altura y tipo de suelo aseguran una elevada eficiencia de reproducción, lo que sugiere mayor estabilidad temporal de factores bióticos y abióticos.

  9. The asteroid impact connection of planetary evolution with special reference to large Precambrian and Australian impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Glikson, Andrew Y

    2014-01-01

    When in 1981 Louis and Walter Alvarez, the father and son team, unearthed a tell-tale Iridium-rich sedimentary horizon at the 65 million years-old Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Gubbio, Italy, their find heralded a paradigm shift in the study of terrestrial evolution.  Since the 1980s the discovery and study of asteroid impact ejecta in the oldest well-preserved terrains of Western Australia and South Africa, by Don Lowe, Gary Byerly, Bruce Simonson, Scott Hassler, the author and others, and the documentation of new exposed and buried impact structures in several continents, have led to a resurgence of the idea of the catastrophism theory of Cuvier, previously largely supplanted by the uniformitarian theory of Hutton and Lyell. Several mass extinction of species events are known to have occurred in temporal proximity to large asteroid impacts, global volcanic eruptions and continental splitting. Likely links are observed between asteroid clusters and the 580 Ma acritarch radiation, end-Devonian extinction, ...

  10. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  11. Haliotrematoides spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of grunts (Perciformes: Haemulidae) from the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Reyes-Lizama, C; González-Solís, D

    2009-12-01

    One previously described species, Haliotrema striatohamus Zhukov, 1981, found off the coast of Cuba and Campeche (Gulf of Mexico), is redescribed and transferred to Haliotrematoides Kritsky, Yang and Sun, 2009, as Haliotrematoides striatohamus ( Zhukov, 1981) n. comb. This transfer is based on the study of new specimens of this species found in the gill lamellae of grunts, i.e., Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier, Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède), and Haemulon sciurus (Shaw) (Haemulidae), all from the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico. In addition, another previously described species, Haliotrema brevispirocirrus Zhukov, 1981 from Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus) from Havana, Cuba, is also transferred to Haliotrematoides based on the comparative morphology of its original description. Data are provided for prevalence and mean intensity as well as for the morphologic and biometric variability of H. striatohamus from different hosts. The new replacement of H. striatohamus ( Zhukov, 1981) n. comb. and H. brevispirocirrus (Zhukov, 1981) n. comb. infecting these taxa represents the first known species of Haliotrematoides on these fishes and new geographical records for these dactylogyrid monogenoids.

  12. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  13. Estudo dos vestígios de peixes dos sítios arqueológicos da área de influência da Usina Hidrelétrica Machadinho, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil A study of fish traces taken from the archaeological sites of the areas surrounding the Machadinho Hydroelectric power station, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ricken

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the material obtained in the rescue of archaeological sites in the area surrounding the Hydroelectric Plant of Machadinho, Rio Grande do Sul, revealed that a considerable amount of bones and fish scales incorporated in the alimentary remains. Using an osteological collection as reference, we identified remains of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 (Characidae, Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Characidae, Pogonopoma obscurum Quevedo & Reis, 2002 (Loricariidae, Hemiancistrus fuliginosus Cardoso & Malabarba, 1999, Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 (Prochilodontidae, Schizodon sp. (Anostomidae, Leporinus sp. (Anostomidae, Hoplias sp. (Erythrinidae, Hypostomus sp. (Loricariidae and Crenicichla sp. (Cichlidae. Based on specimens from fish collections, regressions were obtained comparing the size of the pre-maxillary bone in Crenicichla spp. and the length of the pectoral fin spine of Hemiancistrus fuliginosus, Pogonopoma obscurum and Hypostomus spp, with the standard length and weight of corresponding specimens. The estimated size and weight of the specimens obtained from fish remains in the archaeological sites varied between 79.7-153.9 mm and 13.5-33.9 g for Hemiancistrus fuliginosus, 158.2-151.0 mm and 179.5-194.3 g for Pogonopoma obscurum, 117.1-166.2 mm and 86.6-93.1 g for Crenicichla spp., and 62.2-397.2 mm and 34-20.3 g for Hypostomus spp. Therefore using these estimates of standard lengths and weights it was possible to formulate a hypotheses on the fishing technology used by the inhabitants of these sites.

  14. Combining abundance and performance data reveals how temperature regulates coastal occurrences and activity of a roaming apex predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nicholas L; Meyer, Carl G; Smith, James A; Houghton, Jonathan D R; Barnett, Adam; Holmes, Bonnie J; Nakamura, Itsumi; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Royer, Mark A; Coffey, Daniel M; Anderson, James M; Hutchinson, Melanie R; Sato, Katsufumi; Halsey, Lewis G

    2018-05-01

    The redistribution of species has emerged as one of the most pervasive impacts of anthropogenic climate warming, and presents many societal challenges. Understanding how temperature regulates species distributions is particularly important for mobile marine fauna such as sharks given their seemingly rapid responses to warming, and the socio-political implications of human encounters with some dangerous species. The predictability of species distributions can potentially be improved by accounting for temperature's influence on performance, an elusive relationship for most large animals. We combined multi-decadal catch data and bio-logging to show that coastal abundance and swimming performance of tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier are both highest at ~22°C, suggesting thermal constraints on performance may regulate this species' distribution. Tiger sharks are responsible for a large proportion of shark bites on humans, and a focus of controversial control measures in several countries. The combination of distribution and performance data moves towards a mechanistic understanding of tiger shark's thermal niche, and delivers a simple yet powerful indicator for predicting the location and timing of their occurrences throughout coastlines. For example, tiger sharks are mostly caught at Australia's popular New South Wales beaches (i.e. near Sydney) in the warmest months, but our data suggest similar abundances will occur in winter and summer if annual sea surface temperatures increase by a further 1-2°C. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Size-dependent variation in plant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Cobb, Edward D

    2017-09-11

    The study of organic form has a long and distinguished history going at least as far back as Aristotle's Historia Anima¯lium, wherein he identified five basic biological processes that define the forms of animals (metabolism, temperature regulation, information processing, embryo development, and inheritance). Unfortunately, all of Aristotle's writings about plant forms are lost. We know of them only indirectly from his student Theophrastus's companion books, collectively called Historia Plantarum, wherein plant forms are categorized into annual herbs, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and trees. The study of plant forms did not truly begin until the romantic poet and naturalist Goethe proposed the concept of a hypothetical 'Plant Archetype', declared "Alles ist Blatt", and first coined the word morphologie, which inspired the French anatomist Cuvier (who established the field of comparative morphology), the English naturalist Darwin (who saw his theory of evolution reinforced by it), and the Scottish mathematician D'Arcy Thompson (who attempted to quantify it). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maressa Ferreira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  17. Morphometric partitioning of the respiratory surface area and diffusion capacity of the gills and swim bladder in juvenile Amazonian air-breathing fish, Arapaima gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marisa Narciso; da Cruz, André Luis; da Costa, Oscar Tadeu Ferreira; Perry, Steven Franklin

    2012-09-01

    The gills and the respiratory swim bladders of juvenile specimens (mean body mass 100g) of the basal teleost Arapaima gigas (Cuvier 1829) were evaluated using stereological methods in vertical sections. The surface areas, harmonic mean barrier thicknesses and morphometric diffusing capacities for oxygen and carbon dioxide were estimated. The average respiratory surface area of the swim bladder (2173 cm² kg⁻¹) exceeded that of the gills (780 cm² kg⁻¹) by a factor of 2.79. Due to the extremely thin air-blood barrier in the swim bladder (harmonic mean 0.22 μm) and the much thicker water-blood barrier of the gills (9.61 μm), the morphometric diffusing capacity for oxygen and carbon dioxide was 88 times greater in the swim bladder than in the gills. These data clearly indicate the importance of the swim bladder, even in juvenile A. gigas that still engage in aquatic respiration. Because of the much greater diffusion constant of CO₂ than O₂ in water, the gills also remain important for CO₂ release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predator-guided sampling reveals biotic structure in the bathypelagic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Southall, Brandon L; Moline, Mark A

    2016-02-24

    We targeted a habitat used differentially by deep-diving, air-breathing predators to empirically sample their prey's distributions off southern California. Fine-scale measurements of the spatial variability of potential prey animals from the surface to 1,200 m were obtained using conventional fisheries echosounders aboard a surface ship and uniquely integrated into a deep-diving autonomous vehicle. Significant spatial variability in the size, composition, total biomass, and spatial organization of biota was evident over all spatial scales examined and was consistent with the general distribution patterns of foraging Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) observed in separate studies. Striking differences found in prey characteristics between regions at depth, however, did not reflect differences observed in surface layers. These differences in deep pelagic structure horizontally and relative to surface structure, absent clear physical differences, change our long-held views of this habitat as uniform. The revelation that animals deep in the water column are so spatially heterogeneous at scales from 10 m to 50 km critically affects our understanding of the processes driving predator-prey interactions, energy transfer, biogeochemical cycling, and other ecological processes in the deep sea, and the connections between the productive surface mixed layer and the deep-water column. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Contamination level of mercury in red meat products from cetaceans available from South Korea markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Tetsuya [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)]. E-mail: endotty@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp; Yong-Un, Ma [Korean Federation for Environmental Movement, 251 Nuha-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-806, Republic of Korea (Korea); Baker, C. Scott [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Marine Mammal Program and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Newport, OR 97365 (United States); Funahashi, Naoko [International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1-6-10-203, Saiwaicho, Higashikurume, Tokyo 203-0052 (Japan); Lavery, Shane [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dalebout, Merel L. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi [School of Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22-1 Tamagawa-Cho, Minami-Ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Levels of total mercury (T-Hg) were surveyed in red meat (n = 73) and liver (n = 3) from toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises (odontocetes) sold for human consumption in the coastal cities of South Korea. High concentrations of T-Hg were found in the liver products of finless porpoises (18.7 and 156 {mu}g/wet g) and common dolphins (13.2 {mu}g/wet g). The T-Hg concentrations in red meat products were highest in the false killer whale (9.66 {+-} 12.3 {mu}g/wet g, n = 9), bottlenose dolphin (10.6 {+-} 12.6 {mu}g/wet g, n = 3) and killer whale (13.3 {mu}g/wet g, n = 1), and lowest in Cuvier's beaked whale and the harbour porpoise (0.4-0.5 {mu}g/wet g). Thus, most of the products that originated from odontocetes exceeded the safety limit of 0.5 {mu}g/wet g for T-Hg set by the South Korean health authorities for the fishery industry. Pregnant women and other vulnerable sectors of the population living in South Korea should therefore limit their consumption of odontocete products.

  20. Shark teeth as edged weapons: serrated teeth of three species of selachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Joshua K; Bemis, William E

    2017-02-01

    Prior to European contact, South Pacific islanders used serrated shark teeth as components of tools and weapons. They did this because serrated shark teeth are remarkably effective at slicing through soft tissues. To understand more about the forms and functions of serrated shark teeth, we examined the morphology and histology of tooth serrations in three species: the Tiger Shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), Blue Shark (Prionace glauca), and White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias). We show that there are two basic types of serrations. A primary serration consists of three layers of enameloid with underlying dentine filling the serration's base. All three species studied have primary serrations, although the dentine component differs (orthodentine in Tiger and Blue Sharks; osteodentine in the White Shark). Smaller secondary serrations are found in the Tiger Shark, formed solely by enameloid with no contribution from underlying dentine. Secondary serrations are effectively "serrations within serrations" that allow teeth to cut at different scales. We propose that the cutting edges of Tiger Shark teeth, equipped with serrations at different scales, are linked to a diet that includes large, hard-shelled prey (e.g., sea turtles) as well as smaller, softer prey such as fishes. We discuss other aspects of serration form and function by making analogies to man-made cutting implements, such as knives and saws. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic structure of Octopus vulgaris (Cephalopoda, Octopodidae) in the central Mediterranean Sea inferred from the mitochondrial COIII gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Knittweis, Leyla; Aurelle, Didier; Nafkha, Chaala; Ezzeddine, Soufia; Fiorentino, Fabio; Ghmati, Hisham; Ceriola, Luca; Jarboui, Othman; Maltagliati, Ferruccio

    2012-01-01

    The polymorphism of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase III was studied in the Mediterranean octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797. A total of 202 specimens from seven sampling sites were analysed with the aim of elucidating patterns of genetic structure in the central Mediterranean Sea and to give an insight into the phylogeny of the Octopus genus. Phylogenetic analyses showed that individuals from the central Mediterranean belong to the O. vulgaris species whose limits should nevertheless be clarified. Concerning genetic structure, two high-frequency haplotypes were present in all locations. The overall genetic divergence (Φ(ST)=0.05, P<0.05) indicated a significant genetic structuring in the study area and an AMOVA highlighted a significant break between western and eastern Mediterranean basins (Φ(CT)=0.094, P<0.05). Possible explanations for the observed patterns of genetic structuring are discussed with reference to their relevance for fisheries management. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. An integration of historical records and genetic data to the assessment of global distribution and population structure in Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eDe Luca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 is one of the most widely distributed species belonging to the genus Octopus as well as an important commercially harvested species and a model organism for behavioral biology of invertebrates. It has been described for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea but it is considered a cosmopolitan species inhabiting the temperate and tropical sea of the northern and southern hemispheres. In the last few years, several species previously considered as O. vulgaris have been recognized as new species, limiting the distributional range of vulgaris and reinforcing the thesis of a species complex. Where it is an important fishery resource, numerous studies have been conducted in order to define its genetic structure with the purpose of managing different stocks. However, many locations are still poorly investigated from this point of view and others are under taxonomic revision to exclude or confirm its occurrence. Here we provide a summary of the current status of knowledge on distribution and genetic structure in this species in the different oceanic regions.

  3. Skin lesion-associated pathogens from Octopus vulgaris: first detection of Photobacterium swingsii, Lactococcus garvieae and betanodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Perrucci, S; Vanni, A; Cersini, A; Lenzi, C; De Wolf, T; Fronte, B; Guarducci, M; Susini, F

    2015-07-23

    The common octopus Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most Mediterranean countries. Here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. Within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°C and microbiologically examined within 24 h. Bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and biochemical analyses. Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were only isolated from cultured animals. A conventional PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and sequencing were performed on 2 bacterial isolates that remained unidentified after taxonomical and biochemical analysis. The sequence results indicated that the bacteria had a 99% identity with Lactococcus garvieae and Photobacterium swingsii. L. garvieae was confirmed using a specific PCR based on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region, while P. swingsii was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Although all animals examined were found to be infected by the protozoan species Aggregata octopiana localised in the intestines, it was also present in skin lesions of 2 of the animals. Betanodavirus was detected in both cultured and wild individuals by cell culture, PCR and electron microscopy. These findings are the first report of L. garvieae and betanodavirus from skin lesions of common octopus and the first identification of P. swingsii both in octopus skin lesions and in marine invertebrates in Italy.

  4. Passive acoustic monitoring using a towed hydrophone array results in identification of a previously unknown beaked whale habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, Tina M; Barlow, Jay; Calambokidis, John; Southall, Brandon; Coates, Shannon

    2013-09-01

    Beaked whales are diverse and species rich taxa. They spend the vast majority of their time submerged, regularly diving to depths of hundreds to thousands of meters, typically occur in small groups, and behave inconspicuously at the surface. These factors make them extremely difficult to detect using standard visual survey methods. However, recent advancements in acoustic detection capabilities have made passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) a viable alternative. Beaked whales can be discriminated from other odontocetes by the unique characteristics of their echolocation clicks. In 2009 and 2010, PAM methods using towed hydrophone arrays were tested. These methods proved highly effective for real-time detection of beaked whales in the Southern California Bight (SCB) and were subsequently implemented in 2011 to successfully detect and track beaked whales during the ongoing Southern California Behavioral Response Study. The three year field effort has resulted in (1) the successful classification and tracking of Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), Baird's (Berardius bairdii), and unidentified Mesoplodon beaked whale species and (2) the identification of areas of previously unknown beaked whale habitat use. Identification of habitat use areas will contribute to a better understanding of the complex relationship between beaked whale distribution, occurrence, and preferred habitat characteristics on a relatively small spatial scale. These findings will also provide information that can be used to promote more effective management and conservation of beaked whales in the SCB, a heavily used Naval operation and training region.

  5. Contamination level of mercury in red meat products from cetaceans available from South Korea markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Yong-Un, Ma; Baker, C. Scott; Funahashi, Naoko; Lavery, Shane; Dalebout, Merel L.; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Levels of total mercury (T-Hg) were surveyed in red meat (n = 73) and liver (n = 3) from toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises (odontocetes) sold for human consumption in the coastal cities of South Korea. High concentrations of T-Hg were found in the liver products of finless porpoises (18.7 and 156 μg/wet g) and common dolphins (13.2 μg/wet g). The T-Hg concentrations in red meat products were highest in the false killer whale (9.66 ± 12.3 μg/wet g, n = 9), bottlenose dolphin (10.6 ± 12.6 μg/wet g, n = 3) and killer whale (13.3 μg/wet g, n = 1), and lowest in Cuvier's beaked whale and the harbour porpoise (0.4-0.5 μg/wet g). Thus, most of the products that originated from odontocetes exceeded the safety limit of 0.5 μg/wet g for T-Hg set by the South Korean health authorities for the fishery industry. Pregnant women and other vulnerable sectors of the population living in South Korea should therefore limit their consumption of odontocete products

  6. Three new species of Heteromysis (Mysida, Mysidae, Heteromysini from the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, with first documentation of a mysid-cephalopod association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J. Wittmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Faunistic studies in sublittoral and littoral marine habitats on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, have yielded three new species belonging to the genus Heteromysis, subgenus Heteromysis: H. cancelli sp. n. associated with the diogenid hermit crab Cancellus macrothrix Stebbing, 1924, and H. fosteri sp. n. extracted from ‘empty’ urchin and gastropod shells. The first documented mysid-cephalopod association is reported for H. octopodis sp. n. which was found in dens occupied by Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, but was also captured from tide pools. The three new species differ from previously known E. Atlantic species, among other characters, by a single spine on the endopods of uropods in combination with large cornea and absence of median sternal processes on thoracic somites. They are also characterized by a white stripe along the dorso-lateral terminal margin of the eyestalks in living specimens. The new species appear quite similar to each other, but are distinguished by different depths of the telson cleft, different distributions of spines on the lateral margins of the telson, different numbers of segments on thoracic endopod 4, and by differently modified setae on the carpus of the third thoracic endopod, as well as on the carpopropodus of the fourth endopod. An updated key to the species of Heteromysis known from the E. Atlantic is given.

  7. "How nationality influences Opinion": Darwinism and palaeontology in France (1859-1914).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Claudine

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the "non-reception" of Darwin's works and concepts in French palaeontology and palaeoanthropology between 1859 and 1914. Indeed, this integration was difficult, biased and belated, for ideological, intellectual and epistemological reasons: Clémence Royer's biased 1862 translation of Darwin's Origin of Species pulled its ideas toward "social darwinism", making them less attractive to the natural sciences. - French nationalism and the authority of religion, which imposed Cuvier's thinking until late into the century - the dominance of Lamarckian and neo-Lamarckian transformism in France, both in biology and in paleontology, which proposed the notion of orthogenetic laws and environmental determinations, and refused darwinian evolutionary mechanisms - obstacles inherent to the application of Darwin's concepts to palaeontology, namely the impossibility to identify evolutionary mechanisms through the fossil record, which was stressed by Darwin himself and underlined in turn by 19th century French palaeontologists. However, as I argue, in the course of the examined period, French palaeontology grew from refusal to a better understanding and evaluation of Darwin's thinking. The quest for intermediary forms, the construction of branching evolutionary trees and the attempts to reconstruct human biological and cultural evolution were important efforts toward an integration of some aspects of Darwinian views and practices into French palaeontology and plaeoanthropology. The 1947 Paris conference which brought together American Neo-darwinists and French paleontologists made Darwinian concepts better understood and triggered a revival of French palaeontology from the 1960s. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Cucullanid nematodes (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from deep-sea marine fishes off New Caledonia, including Dichelyne etelidis n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2011-02-01

    Three nematode species of the family Cucullanidae, intestinal parasites of marine perciform fishes, are reported from off New Caledonia: Cucullanus bourdini Petter & Le Bel, 1992 from the crimson jobfish Pristipomoides filamentosus (Valenciennes) and the goldflag jobfish Pristipomoides auricilla (Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka) (new host record) (both Lutjanidae); Dichelyne etelidis n. sp. from the deep-water red snapper Etelis carbunculus Cuvier (type-host) and the deep-water longtail red snapper Etelis coruscans Valenciennes (both Lutjanidae); and Dichelyne sp. (only one female) from the trumpet emperor Lethrinus miniatus (Forster) (Lethrinidae). Detailed light and electron microscopical studies revealed in C. bourdini some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the location of the excretory pore, nature of the vulva and the size of fully-developed eggs. The new species, D. etelidis, is characterised mainly by the length of the spicules (462-748 μm), a single intestinal caecum, the location of the deirids and excretory pore, the arrangement of the genital papillae and the host group.

  9. New records of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off Australia, including description of four new species and erection of Digitiphilometroides gen. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Barton, Diane P

    2018-04-16

    The following six species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) were recorded from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia in 2015 and 2016: Philometra arafurensis sp. n. and Philometra papillicaudata sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the emperor red snapper Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier); Philometra mawsonae sp. n. and Dentiphilometra malabarici sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus (Bloch et Schneider); Philometra sp. from the ovary of the goldbanded jobfish Pristipomoides multidens (Day) (Perciformes: all Lutjanidae); and Digitiphilometroides marinus (Moravec et de Buron, 2009) comb. n. from the body cavity of the cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Rachycentridae). Digitiphilometroides gen. n. is established based on the presence of unique digital cuticular ornamentations on the female body. New gonad-infecting species, P. arafurensis and P. mawsonae, are characterised mainly by the length of spicules (252-264 µm and 351-435 µm, respectively) and the structure of the gubernaculum, whereas P. papillicaudata is characterised mainly by the body length (70 mm) of gravid female, extent of the oesophageal gland, size of caudal projections and the location in the host. Dentiphilometra malabarici differs from congeners mainly in the arrangement of circumoral teeth (in a single row), extent of the oesophageal gland and the absence of sclerotised teeth or protuberances on the oesophageal lobes in the mouth. Digitiphilometroides marinus has not previously been reported from fishes in Australian waters.

  10. Genetic differentiation among Parastichopus regalis populations from Western Mediterranean Sea: potential effects of its fishery and current connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. MAGGI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parastichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817 is the most expensive seafood product on the catalonian market (NE Spain, with prices around 130 €/Kg (fresh weight. Despite its ecological and economic importance, biological and genetic information on this sea cucumber species is scarce. We provided the first insight on the genetic structure of P. regalis using sequences of cytochrome oxidase I (COI and 16S genes, as well as a morphological description of its populations. Individuals were collected in six locations along the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including an area under fishery pressure (Catalonia. We found high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity for both genes, with higher levels of genetic diversity observed on COI gene. Population pairwise fixation index (FST, AMOVA and correspondence analysis (CA based on COI, revealed significant genetic differentiation among some locations. However, further analysis using nuclear markers (e.g. microsatellites would be necessary to corroborate these results. Moreover, the genetic and morphological data may indicate fishery effects on the Catalonian population with decrease of the size and weight average and lower genetic diversity compared to locations without fishery pressure. For an appropriate management of this species, we suggest: 1 an accurate assessment of the stocks status along the Spanish coasts; 2 the study of the reproductive cycle of this target species and the establishment of a closed fishery season according to it; 3 the founding of protected areas (i.e. not take zones to conserve healthy populations and favour the recruitment on the nearby areas.

  11. Repeated, long-distance migrations by a philopatric predator targeting highly contrasting ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, James S E; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Queiroz, Nuno; Burnie, Neil; Aming, Choy; Sousa, Lara L; Mucientes, Gonzalo R; Humphries, Nicolas E; Harvey, Guy M; Sims, David W; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2015-06-09

    Long-distance movements of animals are an important driver of population spatial dynamics and determine the extent of overlap with area-focused human activities, such as fishing. Despite global concerns of declining shark populations, a major limitation in assessments of population trends or spatial management options is the lack of information on their long-term migratory behaviour. For a large marine predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier, we show from individuals satellite-tracked for multiple years (up to 1101 days) that adult males undertake annually repeated, round-trip migrations of over 7,500 km in the northwest Atlantic. Notably, these migrations occurred between the highly disparate ecosystems of Caribbean coral reef regions in winter and high latitude oceanic areas in summer, with strong, repeated philopatry to specific overwintering insular habitat. Partial migration also occurred, with smaller, immature individuals displaying reduced migration propensity. Foraging may be a putative motivation for these oceanic migrations, with summer behaviour showing higher path tortuosity at the oceanic range extremes. The predictable migratory patterns and use of highly divergent ecosystems shown by male tiger sharks appear broadly similar to migrations seen in birds, reptiles and mammals, and highlight opportunities for dynamic spatial management and conservation measures of highly mobile sharks.

  12. Distribution, abundance and habitat use of deep diving cetaceans in the North-East Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Emer; Cañadas, Ana; Macleod, Kelly; Santos, M. Begoña; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Uriarte, Ainhize; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Vázquez, José Antonio; Hammond, Philip S.

    2017-07-01

    In spite of their oceanic habitat, deep diving cetacean species have been found to be affected by anthropogenic activities, with potential population impacts of high intensity sounds generated by naval research and oil prospecting receiving the most attention. Improving the knowledge of the distribution and abundance of this poorly known group is an essential prerequisite to inform mitigation strategies seeking to minimize their spatial and temporal overlap with human activities. We provide for the first time abundance estimates for five deep diving cetacean species (sperm whale, long-finned pilot whale, northern bottlenose whale, Cuvier's beaked whale and Sowerby's beaked whale) using data from three dedicated cetacean sighting surveys that covered the oceanic and shelf waters of the North-East Atlantic. Density surface modelling was used to obtain model-based estimates of abundance and to explore the physical and biological characteristics of the habitat used by these species. Distribution of all species was found to be significantly related to depth, distance from the 2000m depth contour, the contour index (a measure of variability in the seabed) and sea surface temperature. Predicted distribution maps also suggest that there is little spatial overlap between these species. Our results represent the best abundance estimates for deep-diving whales in the North-East Atlantic, predict areas of high density during summer and constitute important baseline information to guide future risk assessments of human activities on these species, evaluate potential spatial and temporal trends and inform EU Directives and future conservation efforts.

  13. Biomassa sustentável de juvenis de pirarucu em tanques-rede de pequeno volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavero Bruno Adan Sagratzki

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a biomassa sustentável de juvenis de pirarucu Arapaima gigas (Cuvier, 1829 mantidos em tanquesrede de pequeno volume. Durante 200 dias os peixes foram estocados em quatro tanques-rede de 1 m³, cada um com biomassa inicial total de 0,84±0,14 kg (21 peixes/tanque-rede. Os tanquesrede foram colocados em um viveiro de 50 m² com renovação constante de água. Os índices do fator de condição, da conversão alimentar, do crescimento específico e do ganho de biomassa revelaram que a biomassa sustentável de juvenis de pirarucu para a criação intensiva em tanques-rede de 1 m³ foi de aproximadamente 29 kg. O comprimento alcançado pelo peixe, no espaço reduzido do tanque-rede, é um fator limitante para manter bons índices zootécnicos.

  14. Total mercury of selected fish species from Laguna de Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relon, Milagros Lontoc

    1996-01-01

    Dalag Ophicephalus striatus Block, kanduli Arius thalassinus Ruppell, bia Amblygobius phalaena Cuvier et Valenciennes and tilapia Tilapia nilotica Linnnaeus collected from Laguna de Bay between Taguig and Binangonan area in August 1989 to July 1990 were analyzed for total mercury by atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest metal concentration in soft muscle tissue was observed in Dalag followed by kanduli, less in bia and least in tilapia with mean values of 0.021, 0.020, 0.013, and 0.008 ug/g, respectively. Analysis using two-way ANOVA showed a significant difference in the mean total mercury in ug/g in the difference fish samples, among the different months and the interaction between these two variables. Mean total mercury of the four fish samples were significantly higher in April than in October. The results show that the levels of total mercury in the fish samples are below the World Health Organization maximum tolerable consumption of mercury in food of 300 ug or 0.03 mg of total mercury per week. (author)

  15. Mercury accumulation in sharks from the coastal waters of southwest Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Darren; Wasno, Robert; Hammerschlag, Neil; Volety, Aswani

    2014-10-01

    As large long-lived predators, sharks are particularly vulnerable to exposure to methylmercury biomagnified through the marine food web. Accordingly, nonlethal means were used to collect tissues for determining mercury (Hg) concentrations and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) from a total of 69 sharks, comprising 7 species, caught off Southwest Florida from May 2010 through June 2013. Species included blacknose (Carcharhinus acronotus), blacktip (C. limbatus), bull (C. leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran), lemon (Negaprion brevirostris), sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), and tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). The sharks contained Hg concentrations in their muscle tissues ranging from 0.19 mg/kg (wet-weight basis) in a tiger shark to 4.52 mg/kg in a blacktip shark. Individual differences in total length and δ(13)C explained much of the intraspecific variation in Hg concentrations in blacknose, blacktip, and sharpnose sharks, but similar patterns were not evident for Hg and δ(15)N. Interspecific differences in Hg concentration were evident with greater concentrations in slower-growing, mature blacktip sharks and lower concentrations in faster-growing, young tiger sharks than other species. These results are consistent with previous studies reporting age-dependent growth rate can be an important determinant of intraspecific and interspecific patterns in Hg accumulation. The Hg concentrations observed in these sharks, in particular the blacktip shark, also suggested that Hg may pose a threat to shark health and fitness.

  16. Evidence of positive selection associated with placental loss in tiger sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Dominic G; Dunning, Luke T; Igea, Javier; Brooks, Edward J; Jones, Catherine S; Noble, Leslie R; Ciezarek, Adam; Humble, Emily; Savolainen, Vincent

    2016-06-14

    All vertebrates initially feed their offspring using yolk reserves. In some live-bearing species these yolk reserves may be supplemented with extra nutrition via a placenta. Sharks belonging to the Carcharhinidae family are all live-bearing, and with the exception of the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), develop placental connections after exhausting yolk reserves. Phylogenetic relationships suggest the lack of placenta in tiger sharks is due to secondary loss. This represents a dramatic shift in reproductive strategy, and is likely to have left a molecular footprint of positive selection within the genome. We sequenced the transcriptome of the tiger shark and eight other live-bearing shark species. From this data we constructed a time-calibrated phylogenetic tree estimating the tiger shark lineage diverged from the placental carcharhinids approximately 94 million years ago. Along the tiger shark lineage, we identified five genes exhibiting a signature of positive selection. Four of these genes have functions likely associated with brain development (YWHAE and ARL6IP5) and sexual reproduction (VAMP4 and TCTEX1D2). Our results indicate the loss of placenta in tiger sharks may be associated with subsequent adaptive changes in brain development and sperm production.

  17. Repeated, long-distance migrations by a philopatric predator targeting highly contrasting ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, James S. E.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Queiroz, Nuno; Burnie, Neil; Aming, Choy; Sousa, Lara L.; Mucientes, Gonzalo R.; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Harvey, Guy M.; Sims, David W.; Shivji, Mahmood S.

    2015-06-01

    Long-distance movements of animals are an important driver of population spatial dynamics and determine the extent of overlap with area-focused human activities, such as fishing. Despite global concerns of declining shark populations, a major limitation in assessments of population trends or spatial management options is the lack of information on their long-term migratory behaviour. For a large marine predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier, we show from individuals satellite-tracked for multiple years (up to 1101 days) that adult males undertake annually repeated, round-trip migrations of over 7,500 km in the northwest Atlantic. Notably, these migrations occurred between the highly disparate ecosystems of Caribbean coral reef regions in winter and high latitude oceanic areas in summer, with strong, repeated philopatry to specific overwintering insular habitat. Partial migration also occurred, with smaller, immature individuals displaying reduced migration propensity. Foraging may be a putative motivation for these oceanic migrations, with summer behaviour showing higher path tortuosity at the oceanic range extremes. The predictable migratory patterns and use of highly divergent ecosystems shown by male tiger sharks appear broadly similar to migrations seen in birds, reptiles and mammals, and highlight opportunities for dynamic spatial management and conservation measures of highly mobile sharks.

  18. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and State of Queensland.

  19. Marine mammals of Easter Island (Rapa Nui and Salas y Gómez Island (Motu Motiro Hiva, Chile: a review and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean oceanic islands Easter Island (Rapa Nui and Salas y Gómez Island (Motu Motiro Hiva have received little attention with regards to basic marine mammal investigations. Here we review and update available information on the status of marine mammals in this area from different sources, including published accounts, local interviews and two recent expeditions. We also provide detailed accounts for each confirmed family or species, including historical data from published archaeological studies and whalers' logbooks from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Results indicate that a total of five marine mammal families (Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae, Ziphiidae, Delphinidae and Phocidae have been confirmed within the study area, representing two mammalian orders (Cetartiodactyla and Carnivora. Within these, twelve species are known to occur: blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, unidentified minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis or B. acutorostrata, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus, Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris, Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris, false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens, unidentified pilot whale (Globicephala sp., bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, common dolphin (Delphinus sp., southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina and leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx. We discuss the implications of some of most noteworthy records and make a plea for further studies to improve our knowledge of these top predators in one of the most isolated places in the world.

  20. Extended mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses yield new insight into crocodylian evolution and their survival of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Jonas; Aggarwal, Ramesh K; Janke, Axel

    2007-11-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of the dwarf crocodile, Osteolaemus tetraspis, and two species of dwarf caimans, the smooth-fronted caiman, Paleosuchus trigonatus, and Cuvier's dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus, were sequenced and included in a mitogenomic phylogenetic study. The phylogenetic analyses, which included a total of ten crocodylian species, yielded strong support to a basal split between Crocodylidae and Alligatoridae. Osteolaemus fell within the Crocodylidae as the sister group to Crocodylus. Gavialis and Tomistoma, which joined on a common branch, constituted a sister group to Crocodylus/Osteolaemus. This suggests that extant crocodylians are organized in two families: Alligatoridae and Crocodylidae. Within the Alligatoridae there was a basal split between Alligator and a branch that contained Paleosuchus and Caiman. The analyses also provided molecular estimates of various divergences applying recently established crocodylian and outgroup fossil calibration points. Molecular estimates based on amino acid data placed the divergence between Crocodylidae and Alligatoridae at 97-103 million years ago and that between Alligator and Caiman/Paleosuchus at 65-72 million years ago. Other crocodilian divergences were placed after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Thus, according to the molecular estimates, three extant crocodylian lineages have their roots in the Cretaceous. Considering the crocodylian diversification in the Cretaceous the molecular datings suggest that the extinction of the dinosaurs was also to some extent paralleled in the crocodylian evolution. However, for whatever reason, some crocodylian lineages survived into the Tertiary.

  1. The dawn of chelonian research: turtles between comparative anatomy and embryology in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCord, Kate; Caniglia, Guido; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Burke, Ann C

    2015-05-01

    Many evo-devo studies of the turtle's shell draw hypotheses and support from historical sources. The groundbreaking works of Cuvier, Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Carus, Rathke, Owen, and others are being revived in modern research, and their centuries-old understanding of the turtle's shell reconsidered. In the works of these eminent biologists of the 19th century, comparative anatomy and embryology of turtle morphology set the stage for future studies in developmental biology, histology, and paleontology. Given the impact that these works still make on modern research, it is important to develop a thorough appreciation of previous authors, regarding how they arrived at their conclusions (i.e., what counted as evidence?), whether there was debate amongst these authors about shell development (i.e., what counted as an adequate explanation?), and even why these men, some of the most powerful and influential thinkers and anatomists of their day, were concerned with turtles. By tracing and exposing the context and content of turtle shell studies in history, our aim is to inform modern debates about the evolution and development of the turtle's shell. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Role of electrical stimulation added to conventional therapy in patients with idiopathic facial (Bell) palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Figen; Borman, Pinar; Taşer, Burcu; Ünlü, İlhan; Samim, Erdal

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of electrical stimulation when added to conventional physical therapy with regard to clinical and neurophysiologic changes in patients with Bell palsy. This was a randomized controlled trial. Sixty patients diagnosed with Bell palsy (39 right sided, 21 left sided) were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two therapy groups. Group 1 received physical therapy applying hot pack, facial expression exercises, and massage to the facial muscles, whereas group 2 received electrical stimulation treatment in addition to the physical therapy, 5 days per week for a period of 3 wks. Patients were evaluated clinically and electrophysiologically before treatment (at the fourth week of the palsy) and again 3 mos later. Outcome measures included the House-Brackmann scale and Facial Disability Index scores, as well as facial nerve latencies and amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials derived from the frontalis and orbicularis oris muscles. Twenty-nine men (48.3%) and 31 women (51.7%) with Bell palsy were included in the study. In group 1, 16 (57.1%) patients had no axonal degeneration and 12 (42.9%) had axonal degeneration, compared with 17 (53.1%) and 15 (46.9%) patients in group 2, respectively. The baseline House-Brackmann and Facial Disability Index scores were similar between the groups. At 3 mos after onset, the Facial Disability Index scores were improved similarly in both groups. The classification of patients according to House-Brackmann scale revealed greater improvement in group 2 than in group 1. The mean motor nerve latencies and compound muscle action potential amplitudes of both facial muscles were statistically shorter in group 2, whereas only the mean motor latency of the frontalis muscle decreased in group 1. The addition of 3 wks of daily electrical stimulation shortly after facial palsy onset (4 wks), improved functional facial movements and electrophysiologic outcome measures at

  3. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitantes das flores de urucum em Vitória da Conquista, BA Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitors of the annatto flowers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Jorge Cavalcante Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O urucum é um arbusto da família Bixaceae, utilizado na fabricação de corantes naturais para a indústria alimentícia e cosmética. No Brasil, somente nos últimos 15 anos, houve maior interesse pelo cultivo, pois se tornou uma alternativa agrícola promissora. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores do urucuzeiro em Vitória da Conquista, BA. O trabalho foi conduzido no campo experimental da UESB, em uma lavoura do tipo cultivado Peruana Paulista. A coleta das abelhas visitantes foi feita na época principal de floração do urucueiro: março/abril, das 6h às 18h. Foram coletadas 3019 abelhas de 22 espécies, com predominância na visitação das 8h às 14h em relação ao número de indivíduos e número de espécies capturadas. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, Apis mellifera L., Schwarziana quadripunctata (Lepeletier e Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille. Espécies de maior porte, como Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, Bombus morio (Swederus e Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, consideradas como eficientes na polinização da cultura do urucum, não foram abundantes neste estudo.Annatto is a shrub from Bixaceae family, which natural pigment (annatto is widely used in food and cosmetic industries. In Brazil, the interest for this crop started in the last fifteen years, once it became a promising agricultural alternative. This study was aimed at identifing visitor bees of annatto flowers at the agriculture region of Vitória da Conquista (BA. The research was carried out in the experimental field of UESB, in an experimental plot planted with the cv. Peruana Paulista. The visitor bees were collected during the main blooming period: March/April, between 6:00h and 18:00h. A total of 3,019 bees from 22 species was collected, with higher visitation during the period from 8:00 to 14:00h, regarding the number of individuals and species. The species most frequent were Trigona spinipes

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR morphometry of the central auditory pathway and auditory cortex in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profant, O; Škoch, A; Balogová, Z; Tintěra, J; Hlinka, J; Syka, J

    2014-02-28

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is caused mainly by the hypofunction of the inner ear, but recent findings point also toward a central component of presbycusis. We used MR morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a 3T MR system with the aim to study the state of the central auditory system in a group of elderly subjects (>65years) with mild presbycusis, in a group of elderly subjects with expressed presbycusis and in young controls. Cortical reconstruction, volumetric segmentation and auditory pathway tractography were performed. Three parameters were evaluated by morphometry: the volume of the gray matter, the surface area of the gyrus and the thickness of the cortex. In all experimental groups the surface area and gray matter volume were larger on the left side in Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale and slightly larger in the gyrus frontalis superior, whereas they were larger on the right side in the primary visual cortex. Almost all of the measured parameters were significantly smaller in the elderly subjects in Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale and gyrus frontalis superior. Aging did not change the side asymmetry (laterality) of the gyri. In the central part of the auditory pathway above the inferior colliculus, a trend toward an effect of aging was present in the axial vector of the diffusion (L1) variable of DTI, with increased values observed in elderly subjects. A trend toward a decrease of L1 on the left side, which was more pronounced in the elderly groups, was observed. The effect of hearing loss was present in subjects with expressed presbycusis as a trend toward an increase of the radial vectors (L2L3) in the white matter under Heschl's gyrus. These results suggest that in addition to peripheral changes, changes in the central part of the auditory system in elderly subjects are also present; however, the extent of hearing loss does not play a significant role in the central changes. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  5. Molecular evolution of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae: Is there evidence of rapid evolution or reduced selective constraint in Domestic cattle?

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    McCulloch Alan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If mutation within the coding region of the genome is largely not adaptive, the ratio of nonsynonymous (dN to synonymous substitutions (dS per site (dN/dS should be approximately equal among closely related species. Furthermore, dN/dS in divergence between species should be equivalent to dN/dS in polymorphisms. This hypothesis is of particular interest in closely related members of the Bovini tribe, because domestication has promoted rapid phenotypic divergence through strong artificial selection of some species while others remain undomesticated. We examined a number of genes that may be involved in milk production in Domestic cattle and a number of their wild relatives for evidence that domestication had affected molecular evolution. Elevated rates of dN/dS were further queried to determine if they were the result of positive selection, low effective population size (Ne or reduced selective constraint. Results We have found that the domestication process has contributed to higher dN/dS ratios in cattle, especially in the lineages leading to the Domestic cow (Bos taurus and Mithan (Bos frontalis and within some breeds of Domestic cow. However, the high rates of dN/dS polymorphism within B. taurus when compared to species divergence suggest that positive selection has not elevated evolutionary rates in these genes. Likewise, the low rate of dN/dS in Bison, which has undergone a recent population bottleneck, indicates a reduction in population size alone is not responsible for these observations. Conclusion The effect of selection depends on effective population size and the selection coefficient (Nes. Typically under domestication both selection pressure for traits important in fitness in the wild and Ne are reduced. Therefore, reduced selective constraint could be responsible for the observed elevated evolutionary ratios in domesticated species, especially in B. taurus and B. frontalis, which have the highest dN/dS in the

  6. Cetáceos de las aguas costeras del Pacífico norte y sur de Costa Rica

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    Damián Martínez-Fernández

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available De las 29 especies de cetáceos presentes en Costa Rica, se han realizado investigaciones exhaustivas solamente para tres especies. Lo anterior evidencia la poca información general existente sobre cetáceos, a pesar de que Costa Rica posee un notable crecimiento de actividades de avistamiento. Debido al uso que se está generando en las zonas costeras, cada vez se hace más necesario determinar la ocurrencia de cetáceos en zonas de alta actividad turística, con el fin de proponer medidas de conservación. En el presente estudio, se determinaron variables ambientales que estaban relacionadas con la presencia de especies registradas, a partir de 166 avistamientos entre el 2005 y 2006. Las especies con mayor proporción de avistamientos fueron Stenella attenuata (68%, seguida por Megaptera novaeangliae (13% y Tursiops truncatus (10%. La presencia del delfín manchado se relaciona con cambios de salinidad y trasparencia del agua, mientras que la de la ballena jorobada estuvo relacionada con el oleaje y la temperatura superficial del agua. Se confirma la presencia de 7 especies de cetáceos en dos zonas costeras del Pacífico de Costa Rica, de las cuales tres están presentes a lo largo del año. Se encontraron variables ambientales relacionadas con la presencia de al menos dos especies.Inshore cetaceans from the North and South Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Twenty nine cetacean species occur in Costa Rican waters but extensive research has been conducted only for three species. The latter shows there is a lack of general and local information about these mammals, even when the country, has shown a remarkable growth in whale watching activities. The increasing use of marine resources in coastal areas has also developed the need to determine the occurrence of cetaceans in areas showing high tourist presence, in order to propose sound conservation measures. In this study, environmental variables were determined and subsequently related to the

  7. Tuna and dolphin associations in the North-east Atlantic: Evidence of different ecological niches from stable isotope and heavy metal measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.; Lepoint, G.; Loizeau, V.; Debacker, V.; Dauby, P.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Associations of tunas and dolphins in the wild are quite frequent events and the question arises how predators requiring similar diet in the same habitat share their environmental resources. As isotopic composition of an animal is related to that of its preys, stable isotope ( 13 C/ 12 C and 15 N/ 14 N) analyses were performed in three predator species from the North-east Atlantic: the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, the common dolphin Delphinus delphis and the albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, and compared to their previously described stomach content. Heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe) are mainly transferred through the diet and so, have been determined in the tissues of the animals. Tuna muscles display higher δ 15 N than in common and striped dolphins (mean: 11.4 vs. 10.3%o and 10.4%o, respectively) which reflects their higher trophic level nutrition. Higher δ 13 C are found in common (-18.4%o) and striped dolphin (-18.1%o) muscles than in albacore tuna (-19.3%o) probably in relation with its migratory pattern. The most striking feature is the presence of two levels of cadmium concentrations in the livers of the tunas (32 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) vs. 5 mg kg -1 DW). These two groups also differ by their iron concentrations and their δ 15 N and δ 13 C liver values. These results suggest that in the Biscay Bay, tunas occupy two different ecological niches probably based on different squid inputs in their diet

  8. Radionuclides in marine mammals off the Portuguese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malta, Margarida; Carvalho, Fernando P.

    2011-01-01

    Radionuclide analyses were performed in tissue samples including muscle, gonad, liver, mammary gland, and bone of marine mammals stranded on the Portuguese west coast during January-July 2006. Tissues were collected from seven dolphins (Delphinus delphis and Stenella coeruleoalba) and one pilot whale (Globicephala sp.). Samples were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb by alpha spectrometry and for 137 Cs and 40 K by gamma spectrometry. Po-210 concentrations in common dolphin's muscle (D. delphis) averaged 56 ± 32 Bq kg -1 wet weight (w.w.), while 210 Pb averaged 0.17 ± 0.07 Bq kg -1 w.w., 137 Cs averaged 0.29 ± 0.28 Bq kg -1 w.w., and 40 K 129 ± 48 Bq kg -1 w.w. Absorbed radiation doses due to these radionuclides for the internal organs of common dolphins were computed and attained a 1.50 μGy h -1 on a whole body basis. 210 Po was the main contributor to the weighted absorbed dose, accounting for 97% of the dose from internally accumulated radionuclides. These computed radiation doses in dolphins are compared to radiation doses from 210 Po and other radionuclides reported for human tissues. Due to the high 210 Po activity concentration in dolphins, the internal radiation dose in these marine mammals is about three orders of magnitude higher than in man. - Highlights: → In marine mammals the highest activity concentrations were those of 40 K and 210 Po. → Absorbed radiation doses in dolphin tissues attained 1.50 mGy h -1 on a whole body basis. → Po-210 was the main contributor (97%) to the internal absorbed radiation dose. → The high 210 Po concentration in the marine mammal's tissues is due to food chain transfer. → The absorbed radiation dose in dolphins is three orders of magnitude higher than in man.

  9. Dolphins in a Scaled-Down Mediterranean: The Gulf of Corinth's Odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearzi, G; Bonizzoni, S; Santostasi, N L; Furey, N B; Eddy, L; Valavanis, V D; Gimenez, O

    The Gulf of Corinth is a 2400-km 2 semi-enclosed inland system (a mediterraneus) in central Greece. Its continental shelf areas, steep bottom relief, and waters up to 500-900m deep offer suitable habitat to neritic and pelagic species. We used photographic capture-recapture, distribution modelling, and direct observations to investigate the abundance, status, habitat preferences, movements, and group size of four odontocete species regularly observed in the Gulf, based on five years (2011-2015) of survey effort from small boats. Striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) are more abundant (1324 individuals, 95%CI 1158-1515) than was determined from previous estimates. Striped dolphins appear to be confined to the Gulf, where they favour deep and oligotrophic waters, and were encountered in single-species and mixed-species groups. Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) (22 individuals, 95%CI 16-31), individuals with intermediate pigmentation (possibly striped/common dolphin hybrids) (55, 95%CI 36-83), and a single Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) were only encountered in mixed-species groups with striped dolphins. Short-beaked common dolphins constitute a discrete conservation unit (subpopulation), and based on the current estimate, would qualify as Critically Endangered according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) (39 animals, 95%CI 33-47) occur in single-species groups; they prefer continental shelf waters and areas near fish farms in the northern sector, and several animals appear to move into and out of the Gulf. Additionally, we contribute records of marine fauna and an assessment of the fishing fleet operating in the Gulf. Our study shows that the importance of this vulnerable marine environment has been underestimated, and management action must be taken to mitigate human impact and ensure long-term protection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  10. Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2011-04-01

    The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime.

  11. Limited trophic partitioning among sympatric delphinids off a tropical oceanic atoll.

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    Hillary Young

    Full Text Available Understanding trophic relationships among marine predators in remote environments is challenging, but it is critical to understand community structure and dynamics. In this study, we used stable isotope analysis of skin biopsies to compare the isotopic, and thus, trophic niches of three sympatric delphinids in the waters surrounding Palmyra Atoll, in the Central Tropical Pacific: the melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra, Gray's spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris longirostris, and the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus. δ15N values suggested that T. truncatus occupied a significantly higher trophic position than the other two species. δ13C values did not significantly differ between the three delphinds, potentially indicating no spatial partitioning in depth or distance from shore in foraging among species. The dietary niche area-determined by isotopic variance among individuals-of T. truncatus was also over 30% smaller than those of the other species taken at the same place, indicating higher population specialization or lower interindividual variation. For P. electra only, there was some support for intraspecific variation in foraging ecology across years, highlighting the need for temporal information in studying dietary niche. Cumulatively, isotopic evidence revealed surprisingly little evidence for trophic niche partitioning in the delphinid community of Palmyra Atoll compared to other studies. However, resource partitioning may happen via other behavioral mechanisms, or prey abundance or availability may be adequate to allow these three species to coexist without any such partitioning. It is also possible that isotopic signatures are inadequate to detect trophic partitioning in this environment, possibly because isotopes of prey are highly variable or insufficiently resolved to allow for differentiation.

  12. Random Forest population modelling of striped and common-bottlenose dolphins in the Gulf of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Roberto; Cipriano, Giulia; Paoli, Chiara; Ricci, Pasquale; Fanizza, Carmelo; Capezzuto, Francesca; Vassallo, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    This study provides the first estimates of density and abundance of the striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba and common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in the Gulf of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Central Mediterranean Sea) and identifies the predictive variables mainly influencing their occurrence and concentration in the study area. Conventional Distance Sampling (CDS) and the Delta approach on Random Forest (DaRF) methods have been applied to sightings data collected between 2009 and 2016 during standardized vessel-based surveys, providing similar outcomes. The mean value of density over the entire study area was 0.72 ± 0.26 specimens/km2 for the striped dolphin and 0.47 ± 0.09 specimens/km2 for the common bottlenose dolphin. The abundance estimated by DaRF in the Gulf of Taranto was 10080 ± 3584 specimens of S. coeruleoalba and 6580 ± 1270 specimens of T. truncatus, respectively. Eight predictive variables were selected, considering both the local physiographic features and human activities existing in the investigated area. The explanatory variables depth, distance from the coast, distance from industrial areas and distance from areas exploited by fishery seem to play a key role in influencing the spatial distribution of both species, whereas the geomorphological variables proved to be the most significant factors shaping the concentration of both dolphins. The establishment of a Specially Protected Area of Mediterranean Importance (SPAMI) according the SPA/BD Protocol in the Gulf of Taranto is indicated as an effective management tool for the conservation of both dolphin populations in the Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Whale phylogeny and rapid radiation events revealed using novel retroposed elements and their flanking sequences

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    Zhou Kaiya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A diversity of hypotheses have been proposed based on both morphological and molecular data to reveal phylogenetic relationships within the order Cetacea (dolphins, porpoises, and whales, and great progress has been made in the past two decades. However, there is still some controversy concerning relationships among certain cetacean taxa such as river dolphins and delphinoid species, which needs to be further addressed with more markers in an effort to address unresolved portions of the phylogeny. Results An analysis of additional SINE insertions and SINE-flanking sequences supported the monophyly of the order Cetacea as well as Odontocete, Delphinoidea (Delphinidae + Phocoenidae + Mondontidae, and Delphinidae. A sister relationship between Delphinidae and Phocoenidae + Mondontidae was supported, and members of classical river dolphins and the genera Tursiops and Stenella were found to be paraphyletic. Estimates of divergence times revealed rapid divergences of basal Odontocete lineages in the Oligocene and Early Miocene, and a recent rapid diversification of Delphinidae in the Middle-Late Miocene and Pliocene within a narrow time frame. Conclusions Several novel SINEs were found to differentiate Delphinidae from the other two families (Monodontidae and Phocoenidae, whereas the sister grouping of the latter two families with exclusion of Delphinidae was further revealed using the SINE-flanking sequences. Interestingly, some anomalous PCR amplification patterns of SINE insertions were detected, which can be explained as the result of potential ancestral SINE polymorphisms and incomplete lineage sorting. Although a few loci were potentially anomalous, this study demonstrated that the SINE-based approach is a powerful tool in phylogenetic studies. Identifying additional SINE elements that resolve the relationships in the superfamily Delphinoidea and family Delphinidae will be important steps forward in completely resolving

  14. New-tools to assess the toxicological hazard of endocrine disruptor organoclorine contaminants in Mediterranean cetaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Cristina Fossi; Marsili, L.; Casini, S. [Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Siena (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The Mediterranean top predators, and particularly cetacean odontocetes, accumulate high concentrations of organochlorine contaminants (OCs), incurring high toxicological risk. Some organochlorine compounds, now with worldwide distribution, are known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Four types of organochlorine endocrine disruptors are commonly found in Mediterranean cetaceans: (1) environmental estrogens, (2) environmental androgens, (3) anti-estrogens and (4) anti-androgens. Endocrine disruptors act by mimicking sex steroid hormones, both estrogens and androgens, by binding to hormone receptors or influencing cell pathways (environmental estrogens and androgens), or by blocking and altering hormone receptor binding (anti-estrogens, antiandrogens). Environmental estrogens are the most common and most widely studied EDCs. The relative estrogenic power of these chemicals, identified by in vitro and in vivo screening methods is rather weak (10{sup -3} or less) compared with the reference power of 17-estradiol or DES. However, the high levels of organochlorine compounds detected in marine mammals, particularly in pinnipeds and odontocetes, and consequently, the high levels of organochlorines with ED capacity, cannot be ignored. Here the hypothesis that some Mediterranean cetaceans (Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus and Balaenoptera physalus) are ''potentially at risk'' due to organochlorines with endocrine disrupting capacity is investigated using new non-lethal tools. As ''diagnostic'' tool we use benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase (CYP1A1) activity in skin biopsies (non-lethal biomarker) as a potential indicator of exposure to organochlorines, with special reference to the compounds with endocrine disrupting capacity. As ''prognostic'' tool we propose the immunofluorescence technique in fibroblast cell cultures, for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the target

  15. Whale phylogeny and rapid radiation events revealed using novel retroposed elements and their flanking sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Shixia; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2011-10-27

    A diversity of hypotheses have been proposed based on both morphological and molecular data to reveal phylogenetic relationships within the order Cetacea (dolphins, porpoises, and whales), and great progress has been made in the past two decades. However, there is still some controversy concerning relationships among certain cetacean taxa such as river dolphins and delphinoid species, which needs to be further addressed with more markers in an effort to address unresolved portions of the phylogeny. An analysis of additional SINE insertions and SINE-flanking sequences supported the monophyly of the order Cetacea as well as Odontocete, Delphinoidea (Delphinidae + Phocoenidae + Mondontidae), and Delphinidae. A sister relationship between Delphinidae and Phocoenidae + Mondontidae was supported, and members of classical river dolphins and the genera Tursiops and Stenella were found to be paraphyletic. Estimates of divergence times revealed rapid divergences of basal Odontocete lineages in the Oligocene and Early Miocene, and a recent rapid diversification of Delphinidae in the Middle-Late Miocene and Pliocene within a narrow time frame. Several novel SINEs were found to differentiate Delphinidae from the other two families (Monodontidae and Phocoenidae), whereas the sister grouping of the latter two families with exclusion of Delphinidae was further revealed using the SINE-flanking sequences. Interestingly, some anomalous PCR amplification patterns of SINE insertions were detected, which can be explained as the result of potential ancestral SINE polymorphisms and incomplete lineage sorting. Although a few loci were potentially anomalous, this study demonstrated that the SINE-based approach is a powerful tool in phylogenetic studies. Identifying additional SINE elements that resolve the relationships in the superfamily Delphinoidea and family Delphinidae will be important steps forward in completely resolving cetacean phylogenetic relationships in the future.

  16. Molecular characterization of poxviruses associated with tattoo skin lesions in UK cetaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A Blacklaws

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern for the well-being of cetacean populations around the UK. Tattoo skin disease (characterised by irregular, grey, black or yellowish, stippled cutaneous lesions caused by poxvirus infection is a potential health indicatora potential health indicator for cetaceans. Limited sequence data indicates that cetacean poxviruses (CPVs belong to an unassigned genus of the Chordopoxvirinae. To obtain further insight into the phylogenetic relationships between CPV and other Chordopoxvirinae members we partially characterized viral DNA originating from tattoo lesions collected in Delphinidae and Phocoenidae stranded along the UK coastline in 1998-2008. We also evaluated the presence of CPV in skin lesions other than tattoos to examine specificity and sensitivity of visual diagnosis. After DNA extraction, regions of the DNA polymerase and DNA topoisomerase I genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared with other isolates. The presence of CPV DNA was demonstrated in tattoos from one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, eight harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena and one short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis and in one 'dubious tattoo' lesion detected in one other porpoise. Seventeen of the 18 PCR positive skin lesions had been visually identified as tattoos and one as a dubious tattoo. None of the other skin lesions were PCR positive. Thus, visual identification had a 94.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The DNA polymerase PCR was most effective in detecting CPV DNA. Limited sequence phylogeny grouped the UK samples within the odontocete poxviruses (CPV group 1 and indicated that two different poxvirus lineages infect the Phocoenidae and the Delphinidae. The phylogenetic tree had three major branches: one with the UK Phocoenidae viruses, one with the Delphinidae isolates and one for the mysticete poxvirus (CPV group 2. This implies a radiation of poxviruses according to the host suborder and the families within

  17. Molecular Identification and Historic Demography of the Marine Tucuxi (Sotalia guianensis at the Amazon River’s Mouth by Means of Mitochondrial Control Region Gene Sequences and Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mark Shostell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, three fishermen, with artisan fishing vessels and drift gillnets, accidentally captured around 200 dolphins between Vigia and Salinópolis in the Amazon River estuary. The dolphins died and they then prepared their vaginas and penises in order to sell them in the Ver-ao-Peso market in the city of Belem within the Brazilian state of Pará. We randomly sampled a minimal quantity of tissue of these sexual organs from 78 of these 200 dolphins and we determined the following results after sequencing 689 base pairs (bp from the mitochondrial control region gene: (1 96.15% (75/78 of these dolphins belonged to the species Sotalia guianensis. The other species detected were Steno brenadensis, Stenella coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus; (2 The levels of gene diversity found in this sample of S. guianensis were high (33 haplotypes, haplotype diversity of 0.917 and nucleotide diversity of 0.0045 compared to gene diversities found in other Brazilian S. guianensis locations; (3 All the population genetics methods employed indicated a clear population expansion in this population. This population expansion could have begun 400,000 years ago; (4 The haplotype divergence within this population could have begun around 2.1 millions of years ago (MYA, with posterior splits around 2.0–1.8 MYA, 1.7–1.8 MYA, 1–1.5 MYA, 0.6–0.8 MYA, 0.4–0.2 MYA and 0.16–0.02 MYA, all during the Pleistocene.

  18. Distribution and feeding ecology of dolphins along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Iceland and the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksæter, L.; Olsen, E.; Nøttestad, L.; Fernö, A.

    2008-01-01

    During Leg 1 of the MAR-ECO expedition on the R.V. G.O. Sars in June 2004 four main species of dolphins were observed along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to the Azores: pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) ( n=326), short-beaked common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) ( n=273), white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) ( n=103), and striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba) ( n=86). Pilot whales and white-sided dolphins were found in cold (5-16 °C) and less-saline (34.6-35.8‰) water masses in the northern part of the study area, whereas common and striped dolphins inhabited warmer (12-22 °C) and more-saline (34.8-36.7‰) waters in the south. Dolphins tended to aggregate in areas of steep slopes, but actual bottom depth appeared to be less important. Based on spatial correlations between dolphin occurrence and candidate prey organisms recorded acoustically and by midwater trawling, mesopelagic fishes and squids were assumed to be important prey items, with Benthosema glaciale probably being the most important prey for pilot whales and white-sided dolphins, while Lampanyctus macdonaldi, Stomias boa ferox and Chauliodus sloani were probably of particular importance for common dolphins. Cephalopods, especially Gonatus sp. and Teuthowenia megalops were the most likely prey species of pilot whales and striped dolphins, respectively. The difference in physical habitat north and south of the Sub-polar Frontal Zone seemed to have important effects on prey distribution, in turn influencing dolphin distribution.

  19. Explosive pollination mechanism in Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. (Fabaceae in the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Cavalcante Meireles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p71 Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. has papilionaceous flowers with a complex pollination mechanism. This study examined pollination and reproduction in P. mediterranea from November 2009 to October 2011 at the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil. The petals are modified in a keel that protects the stamens and stigma; two wings surround the keel, and a standard that serves as landing platform for floral visitors. Periandra mediterranea exhibits an explosive type pollination mechanism in which the bee species Xylocopa frontalis, Acanthopus excellens and Epicharis sp., land on the standard and, due to body weight, expose the reproductive organs in the wing-keel complex. As a result, the reproductive organs of the flower come into contact with the dorsal region of the bee body, depositing pollen (i.e., nototríbic pollination. Reproductive assays showed 20% fruiting in spontaneous auto-pollination, 33% in manual auto-pollination, 33% in manual cross-pollination, and 100% in the control group, with no reproductive success while in apomixis. These results demonstrate self-compatibility in this species, however it depends on pollinators to ensure reproductive success.

  20. Explosive pollination mechanism in Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. (Fabaceae in the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Cavalcante Meireles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. has papilionaceous flowers with a complex pollination mechanism. This study examined pollination and reproduction in P. mediterranea from November 2009 to October 2011 at the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil. The petals are modified in a keel that protects the stamens and stigma; two wings surround the keel, and a standard that serves as landing platform for floral visitors. Periandra mediterranea exhibits an explosive type pollination mechanism in which the bee species Xylocopa frontalis, Acanthopus excellens and Epicharis sp., land on the standard and, due to body weight, expose the reproductive organs in the wing-keel complex. As a result, the reproductive organs of the flower come into contact with the dorsal region of the bee body, depositing pollen (i.e., nototríbic pollination. Reproductive assays showed 20% fruiting in spontaneous auto-pollination, 33% in manual auto-pollination, 33% in manual cross-pollination, and 100% in the control group, with no reproductive success while in apomixis. These results demonstrate self-compatibility in this species, however it depends on pollinators to ensure reproductive success.

  1. Corrugator Activity Confirms Immediate Negative Affect in Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for these consequences. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by suprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low suprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect and frontalis (cultural surprise expression activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes.

  2. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium species, the occurrence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the buccal cavity of Crotalus durissus (Viperiade, Eunectes murinus (Boidae, Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae and Bacillus subtilis, common to oral cavity of Bothrops alternatus (Viperidae and Phalotris mertensi (Colubridae, was detected. It was observed higher diversity of isolated bacteria from the oral cavity of Micrurus frontalis (Elapidae and Philodryas nattereri (Colubridae, as well as the prevalence of gram-positive baccillus and gram-positive cocci. The composition of the oral microbiota of the studied snakes, with or without inoculating fangs, is diverse and also related to the formation of abscesses at the bite site in the victims of the ophidian accidents, and to pathogenic processes in the snakes that host these microorganisms.

  3. Effects of altitudinal variation on pollination in purple passion fruit crops (passiflora edulis f. edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gutierrez, Julian; Ospina Torres, Rodulfo; Nates Parra, Guiomar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study in two crops of purple passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. edulis harvested at different altitudes (2225 m.a.s.l. and 1657 m.a.s.l.) in the municipality of Buenavista - Boyaca, located in the eastern Mountain range of Colombia, in order to familiarize with visitors and pollinators. This study reveals that in both crops there were differences found in composition, the number of visitors and pollinators. In the crop at 2225 m.a.s.l., 7 species were registered, while 18 species were recorded at the 1657 m.a.s.l. crop. In order to achieve this, collected material by the visitors and the floral structures with which they approach, were observed; at the same time four experiments took place: passive pollination, natural pollination, manual pollination and pollinator's efficiency. These experiments established that pollinator species are: in C1 Apis mellifera, and in C2 and Xylocopa frontalis, Xylocopa lachnea and Epicharis sp.

  4. Visitantes florais de Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers: (Lythraceae Floral visitors in Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers: (Lythraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Vitali-Veiga

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out with Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers. on floral reproductive systems, diversity and constancy of visiting insects at different hours of day, the behaviour of these insects at the flowers and the influence of these environmental factors in relation to their visits. The fenology, anthesis and others particularity of this vegetal species was studied. A great diversity of insects was verified visiting the flowers with the predominance of bees. The most frequent and constant species encountered were: Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836 (40,2%, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811 (16,9%, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (11,8%, Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900 (9,1 % e Exomalopsis fulvofasciata (Smith, 1879 (8,5%. The blossoms possessis features of melittophily syndrome and diurnal anthesis. The environmental factors influence the insects foraging activity, mainly temperature, light, time of day, humidity and wind speed. The effective pollinators were the large insects like Bombus morio (Swederus, 1787, Bombus atratus (Franklin, 1913, Centris tarsata (Smith, 1874, Centris flavifrons Fabricius, 1775, Xylocopa suspecta Camargo & Moure, 1988, Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, 1789 and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841.

  5. La revolution des savants

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...

  6. Videotapes

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants", de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essaient de penetrer en France pour occuper le pays. C...

  7. Density and Distribution of Xylocopa Nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Caatinga Areas in the Surroundings of Passion Fruit Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C F; de Siqueira, K M M; Kiill, L H P; Sá, I I S; Aguiar, C M L

    2014-08-01

    Due to their importance as pollinators of many plant species, this study aimed to know the nest density, spatial distribution, and nesting substrates used by Xylocopa species in the Caatinga, a xerophilous vegetation of Northeastern Brazil. Three areas of Caatinga in the surroundings of passion fruit crops were sampled. The bee species found in these areas were Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier). All nests were in Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae) trees (n = 113). Phytosociological analysis showed that this tree species presented the highest absolute density (212.5 individuals/ha) and index of importance value (52.7). The distribution pattern of the C. leptophloeos was aggregated. The nests were located in dead and dried branches with an average diameter of 5.3 ± 2.0 cm (n = 43). The mean number of nests/tree was 3.1 ± 2.8 (n = 113). The less disturbed area showed 6.7 nests/ha and 4.2 nests/tree. In the disturbed areas, 0.9 nests/ha and 2.4 to 2.7 nests/tree were observed. The availability of substrate for nesting in the studied areas and its importance as a limiting factor for nesting are discussed.

  8. The effects of different types of music on perceived and physiological measures of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jason L; Labbé, Elise; Arke, Brooke; Capeless, Kirsten; Cooksey, Bret; Steadman, Angel; Gonzales, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The effects of different types of music on perceived and physiological measures of stress were evaluated. Sixty undergraduate psychology students, 31 males and 29 females, rated their level of relaxation and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) after they were told that they would be taking a stressful, mental test. Participants were randomly assigned to listen to different types of music or silence while skin temperature, frontalis muscle activity, and heart rate were recorded. Participants rated their relaxation and anxiety levels after listening to music or silence and completed the Mental Rotations Task Test. MANOVA's resulted in significant differences between groups for trait anxiety, F(57, 3) = 3.058, p =.036, and postmusic phase heart rate, F(57, 3) = 3.522, p =.021. Significant differences were also found between groups on state anxiety when trait anxiety was used as a covariate, F(57, 3) = 3.95, p =.024. The results of the research suggest that music may have an effect on the cognitive component of the stress response.

  9. Neuropsychological profile of a male psychiatric patient with a Morgagni-Stewart-Morel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Aksel; Engelhardt, Liliana; Pleschutznig, Wolfgang; Dammann, Gerhard; Vietze, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    In 1765 Giovanni Morgagni described a syndrome consisting of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), obesity and hirsutism. In 1928 Stewart and in 1930 Morel added neuropsychiatric symptoms, e.g. depression and dementia, which led to the definition of the Morgagni-Stewart-Morel Syndrome (MSM). Although mostly women were characterized in literature no gender specifity is demanded. This case report presents the rare case of a 66 year old male psychiatric patient with Morgagni-Stewart-Morel Syndrome. The patient complained of loss of concentration and difficulties with activities of daily living. Admission diagnosis was an opioid misuse on the basis of a chronic pain syndrome. In this case report we are describing clinical features, the patient history and technical (MRI) and neuropsychological tests. Although severe psychiatric symptoms and neuropsychological deficits are commonly seen in these patients, our patient showed only mild symptoms. This case reports shows the possibility of a male patient with MSM. If MSM is a separate entity or just an epiphenomena of hormone dysregulation should be investigated in further studies.

  10. Meige`s syndrome associated with basal ganglia and thalamic functional disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Tsutomu; Shikishima, Keigo; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) or both were performed and the responses of surface electromyography (EMG) were examined in seven cases of Meige`s syndrome. MRI or SPECT or both demonstrated lesions of the basal ganglia, the thalamus, or both in five of the cases. Surface EMG revealed abnormal burst discharges in the orbicularis oculi and a failure of reciprocal muscular activity between the frontalis and orbicularis oculi in all the cases. These findings suggest that voluntary motor control and reciprocal activity in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are impaired in Meige`s syndrome. In addition, good responses were seen to clonazepam, tiapride and trihexyphenidyl in these cases. Therefore, we conclude that dopaminergic, cholinergic, and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic imbalances in the disorders of the basal ganglia and thalamus in Meige`s syndrome cause control in the excitatory and inhibitory pathways to be lost, resulting in the failure of integration in reciprocal muscular activity and voluntary motor control. This failure subsequently causes the symptoms of Meige`s syndrome. (author)

  11. From nestling calls to fledgling silence: adaptive timing of change in response to aerial alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Robert D; Platzen, Dirk; Kondo, Junko

    2006-09-22

    Young birds and mammals are extremely vulnerable to predators and so should benefit from responding to parental alarm calls warning of danger. However, young often respond differently from adults. This difference may reflect: (i) an imperfect stage in the gradual development of adult behaviour or (ii) an adaptation to different vulnerability. Altricial birds provide an excellent model to test for adaptive changes with age in response to alarm calls, because fledglings are vulnerable to a different range of predators than nestlings. For example, a flying hawk is irrelevant to a nestling in a enclosed nest, but is dangerous to that individual once it has left the nest, so we predict that young develop a response to aerial alarm calls to coincide with fledging. Supporting our prediction, recently fledged white-browed scrubwrens, Sericornis frontalis, fell silent immediately after playback of their parents' aerial alarm call, whereas nestlings continued to calling despite hearing the playback. Young scrubwrens are therefore exquisitely adapted to the changing risks faced during development.

  12. Pollination in Jacaranda rugosa (Bignoniaceae): euglossine pollinators, nectar robbers and low fruit set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milet-Pinheiro, P; Schlindwein, C

    2009-03-01

    Nectar robbers access floral nectar in illegitimate flower visits without, in general, performing a pollination service. Nevertheless, their effect on fruit set can be indirectly positive if the nectar removal causes an incremental increase in the frequency of legitimate flower visits of effective pollinators, especially in obligate outcrossers. We studied pollination and the effect of nectar robbers on the reproductive fitness of Jacaranda rugosa, an endemic shrub of the National Park of Catimbau, in the Caatinga of Pernambuco, Brazil. Xenogamous J. rugosa flowers continuously produced nectar during the day at a rate of 1 mul.h(-1). Female and male Euglossa melanotricha were the main pollinators. Early morning flower visits substantially contributed to fruit set because stigmas with open lobes were almost absent in the afternoon. Ninety-nine per cent of the flowers showed damage caused by nectar robbers. Artificial addition of sugar water prolonged the duration of flower visits of legitimate flower visitors. Removal of nectar, simulating the impact of nectar robbers, resulted in shorter flower visits of euglossine bees. While flower visits of nectar-robbing carpenter bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. grisescens, X. ordinaria) produced only a longitudinal slit in the corolla tube in the region of the nectar chamber, worker bees of Trigona spinipes damaged the gynoecium in 92% of the flowers. This explains the outstandingly low fruit set (1.5%) of J. rugosa in the National Park of Catimbau.

  13. Threats to North American Forests from Southern Pine Beetle with Warming Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesk, Corey; Coffel, Ethan; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Dodds, Kevin; Horton, Radley M.

    2016-01-01

    In coming decades, warmer winters are likely to lift range constraints on many cold-limited forest insects. Recent unprecedented expansion of the southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis) into New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts in concert with warming annual temperature minima highlights the risk that this insect pest poses to the pine forests of the northern United States and Canada under continued climate change. Here we present the first projections of northward expansion in SPB-suitable climates using a statistical bioclimatic range modeling approach and current-generation general circulation model (GCM) output under the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios. Our results show that by the middle of the 21st century, the climate is likely to be suitable for SPB expansion into vast areas of previously unaffected forests throughout the northeastern United States and into southeastern Canada. This scenario would pose a significant economic and ecological risk to the affected regions, including disruption oflocal ecosystem services, dramatic shifts in forest structure, and threats to native biodiversity.

  14. Reliability and validity of a new fingertip-shaped pressure algometer for assessing pressure pain thresholds in the temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Olaf; Schiffman, Eric L; Look, John O

    2007-01-01

    To test in vitro and in vivo the reliability and accuracy of a new algometer, the pressure algometer for palpation (PAP), for measuring pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and to compare its features with those of a commercially available pressure algometer. For in vitro accuracy testing, 6 repeated measurements were made at 8 defined test weights from 0.5 to 5 lb. In vivo validity testing compared the PAP to a standard instrument, the hand-held Somedic algometer, at 16 sites including the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joints, and the frontalis (as the control site) in 15 temporomandibular disorder (TMD) cases and 15 controls. Intraexaminer reliability was also assessed for both algometers. In vitro reliability was high, with coefficients of variation of test weights at r = .99 (P algometer. PPT values correlated moderately between the 2 devices (r ranged from 0.38 to 0.66; P algometers (P algometer showed high reliability. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by statistically significant correlations between the devices. Both showed equally high capacity for differentiating TMD cases from controls. The PAP yielded significantly higher PPTs than the Somedic algometer.

  15. Complications after mesial temporal lobe surgery via inferiortemporal gyrus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Fernando L; Reintjes, Stephen; Garcia, Hermes G

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the complications associated with the inferior temporal gyrus approach to anterior mesial temporal lobe resection for temporal lobe epilepsy. This retrospective study examined complications experienced by 483 patients during the 3 months after surgery. All surgeries were performed during 1998-2012 by the senior author (F.L.V.). A total of 13 complications (2.7%) were reported. Complications were 8 delayed subdural hematomas (1.6%), 2 superficial wound infections (0.4%), 1 delayed intracranial hemorrhage (0.2%), 1 small lacunar stroke (0.2%), and 1 transient frontalis nerve palsy (0.2%). Three patients with subdural hematoma (0.6%) required readmission and surgical intervention. One patient (0.2%) with delayed intracranial hemorrhage required readmission to the neuroscience intensive care unit for observation. No deaths or severe neurological impairments were reported. Among the 8 patients with subdural hematoma, 7 were older than 40 years (87.5%); however, this finding was not statistically significant (p = 0.198). The inferior temporal gyrus approach to mesial temporal lobe resection is a safe and effective method for treating temporal lobe epilepsy. Morbidity and mortality rates associated with this procedure are lower than those associated with other neurosurgical procedures. The finding that surgical complications seem to be more common among older patients emphasizes the need for early surgical referral of patients with medically refractory epilepsy.

  16. The Current Status of the Distribution Range of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Curculionidae: Solytinae) in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio-Mendoza, O; Armendáriz-Toledano, F; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, G; Negrón, José F; Zúñiga, G

    2017-09-01

    The distribution range of the western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is supported only by scattered records in the northern parts of Mexico, suggesting that its populations may be marginal and rare in this region. In this study, we review the geographical distribution of D. brevicomis in northern Mexico and perform a geometric morphometric analysis of seminal rod shape to evaluate its reliability for identifying this species with respect to other members of the Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex. Our results provide 30 new records, with 26 distributed in the Sierra Madre Occidental and 4 in the Sierra Madre Oriental. These records extend the known distribution range of D. brevicomis to Durango and Tamaulipas states in northern Mexico. Furthermore, we find high geographic variation in size and shape of the seminal rod, with conspicous differences among individuals from different geographical regions, namely west and east of the Great Basin and between mountain systems in Mexico. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-08-25

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given.

  18. Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: Interspecific competition or ecological change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, P.L.; Mallek, E.J.; King, R.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2008-01-01

    Goose populations molting in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska have changed in size and distribution over the past 30 years. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are relatively stable in numbers but are shifting from large, inland lakes to salt marshes. Concurrently, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) have increased seven fold. Populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis and/or B. hutchinsii) are stable with little indication of distributional shifts. The lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) population is proportionally small, but increasing rapidly. Coastline erosion of the Beaufort Sea has altered tundra habitats by allowing saltwater intrusion, which has resulted in shifts in composition of forage plant species. We propose two alternative hypotheses for the observed shift in black brant distribution. Ecological change may have altered optimal foraging habitats for molting birds, or alternatively, interspecific competition between black brant and greater white-fronted geese may be excluding black brant from preferred habitats. Regardless of the causative mechanism, the observed shifts in species distributions are an important consideration for future resource planning. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Ecologia da polinização do maracujá-amarelo, na região do vale do submédio São Francisco Ecology of pollination of the yellow passion fruit (passiflora edulis sims f. flavicarpa deg., in the region of São Francisco valley

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    Kátia Maria Medeiros de Siqueira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve aspectos da biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (Passifloraceae, incluindo os padrões de forrageio e comportamento dos visitantes florais. O estudo foi desenvolvido em cultivo irrigado no Projeto Maniçoba, em Juazeiro-BA, em 2005/2006. A antese floral ocorreu entre 12h e 13h, o fechamento da flor teve início às 18h, terminando por volta de 1h. O tempo para a deflexão dos estiletes foi de 71,4 ± 12,4 min, mas cerca de 5% das flores permaneceram com os estiletes sem curvatura. Os estigmas foram receptivos durante toda a antese, e os grãos de pólen apresentaram viabilidade de 94%. O volume de néctar foi em média de 100 µL, com 48% de concentração de açúcares. O número médio de grãos de pólen/ flor foi de 140.595 ± 34.175, e 426 ± 77 óvulos/ovário. As maiores taxas de frutificação (74% foram obtidas com polinização cruzada manual, confirmando a existência de sistema de autoincompatibilidade. Registraram-se 10% de flores com quatro estigmas que, quando polinizadas manualmente, apresentaram frutos maiores e com maior número de sementes (477,7 ± 76,8. Observou-se correlação positiva entre o número de sementes e o peso dos frutos. Os visitantes florais identificados foram Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes, Xylocopa grisescens, X. frontalis e X. cearensis. As abelhas A. mellifera e T. spinipes foram pilhadores de pólen e néctar, respectivamente. As abelhas do gênero Xylocopa foram mais frequentes nas flores durante o período seco, e A. mellifera, durante o período chuvoso. Os polinizadores efetivos foram X. grisescens e X. frontalis, constatando-se uma limitação desses polinizadores nas áreas estudadas. Entretanto, eles foram mais frequentes em outras espécies vegetais no período chuvoso, indicando competição com as flores dos maracujazeiros pelos serviços de polinização.This study describes aspects of floral biology and the reproductive system of

  20. [The effect of a new antiparkinson agent, Selegilin, on psychomotor performance in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Limmroth, W

    1985-01-01

    A combination of tests consisting of a compensation task with differential value indication, a tachystoscopic arrangement with verbal identification of characteristic features and an arrangement for a visually induced motor reaction was carried out on 12 healthy volunteers aged from 20-30 to determine psychomotor efficiency under the influence of the new antiparkinson drug selegiline (Eldepryl). The results were compared with the effects of the psychostimulant fenetylline and the depressant-antihistamine chlorphenoxamine, and with a placebo. While fenetylline and chlorphenoxamine produced the anticipated effects with regard to an improvement or deterioration in performance in all parameters, selegiline resulted in a slightly longer motor reaction time and an increase in control errors, and in a significantly longer mental processing time. In comparison with the placebo, selegiline increased the motor reaction time by 0.8 +/- 1.95% and mental processing time by 4.1 +/- 1.7%. This depressant effect of selegiline, however, only attained 1/8 and 2/3, resp., of the sedative effect of the normal dose of the antihistamine chlorophenoxamine. Under the influence of chlorphenoxamine, performance becomes less regular and under fenetylline more regular. Selegiline does not differ significantly from the placebo. In spite of selegiline metabolites 1-metamphetamine and 1-amphetamine, which act as mild stimulants, the slightly depressant effect of selegiline detected can be explained by the increased effect of dopamine inhibitory neurons, particularly in the inhibitory system of the formatio reticularis and the cortex frontalis as a result of a concentration of dopamine.

  1. [Botulinum toxin and rejuvenation of the eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpei, Ch; Miniconi, M-J; Brunner, C I; Besins, T; Braccini, F

    2013-01-01

    Treatments with botulinum toxin in the forehead and periorbital areas may induce disappointing or even paradoxical results. Our study, focused on this area aimed at refining injection techniques by analyzing muscular balances and comparing the effect according to injection doses and topography. This experimental study has been carried out in the form of 2 session workshops, with volunteers duly informed of the study contents and giving their informed consent. It was conducted by physicians and surgeons members of SAMCEP* (Société Avancée de Médecine et Chirurgie Esthétique et Plastique). The botulinum toxin was onabotulinumtoxin A. Results were evaluated 15 days after treatment, in regard to global eyebrow position, eyebrow head and tail position; muscle interactions; lines above the eyebrow. Eleven case reports and their results are shown and discussed. Our study underlines two important insights: muscle balances and "border areas", between orbicularis oculi and corrugator, key features for eyebrow head, and between frontalis and orbicularis oculifor eyebrow tail.

  2. 3D-Ultrasonography for evaluation of facial muscles in patients with chronic facial palsy or defective healing: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Gerd Fabian; Pohlmann, Martin; Finkensieper, Mira; Chalmers, Heather J; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    While standardized methods are established to examine the pathway from motorcortex to the peripheral nerve in patients with facial palsy, a reliable method to evaluate the facial muscles in patients with long-term palsy for therapy planning is lacking. A 3D ultrasonographic (US) acquisition system driven by a motorized linear mover combined with conventional US probe was used to acquire 3D data sets of several facial muscles on both sides of the face in a healthy subject and seven patients with different types of unilateral degenerative facial nerve lesions. The US results were correlated to the duration of palsy and the electromyography results. Consistent 3D US based volumetry through bilateral comparison was feasible for parts of the frontalis muscle, orbicularis oculi muscle, depressor anguli oris muscle, depressor labii inferioris muscle, and mentalis muscle. With the exception of the frontal muscle, the facial muscles volumes were much smaller on the palsy side (minimum: 3% for the depressor labii inferior muscle) than on the healthy side in patients with severe facial nerve lesion. In contrast, the frontal muscles did not show a side difference. In the two patients with defective healing after spontaneous regeneration a decrease in muscle volume was not seen. Synkinesis and hyperkinesis was even more correlated to muscle hypertrophy on the palsy compared with the healthy side. 3D ultrasonography seems to be a promising tool for regional and quantitative evaluation of facial muscles in patients with facial palsy receiving a facial reconstructive surgery or conservative treatment.

  3. Leprosy in a patient infected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtrey, Clare M; Modarres, Hamid; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Brandner, Sebastian; Rossor, Alexander M; Lockwood, Diana Nj; Reilly, Mary M; Manji, Hadi; Schon, Fred

    2017-04-01

    A 60-year-old Nigerian man, who had lived in Europe for 30 years but had returned home frequently, presented with right frontalis muscle weakness and right ulnar nerve palsy, without skin lesions. Neurophysiology showed a generalised neuropathy with demyelinating features. Blood tests were positive for HIV, with a normal CD4 count. There was nerve thickening both clinically and on MRI. Nerve biopsy showed chronic endoneuritis and perineuritis (indicating leprosy) without visible mycobacteria. His neuropathy continued to deteriorate (lepra reaction) before starting treatment with WHO multidrug therapy, highly active antiretroviral therapy and corticosteroids. There are 10 new cases of leprosy diagnosed annually in the UK. Coinfection with HIV is rare but paradoxically does not usually adversely affect the outcome of leprosy or change treatment. However, permanent nerve damage in leprosy is common despite optimal therapy. Leprosy should be considered in patients from endemic areas who present with mononeuritis multiplex. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Fossils and Theories of Evolution in Gustave Flaubert’s Bouvard et Pécuchet

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    Anthony Zielonka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude se propose d’analyser de près le chapitre III de ce chef d’œuvre comique et satirique qu’est le dernier roman de Flaubert, Bouvard et Pécuchet (1881. Après avoir exploré la médecine, la cosmologie, l’astronomie et la zoologie, les « deux bonshommes » de Flaubert se tournent vers la géologie, la paléontologie, et même les théories rivales de l’évolution. Ce chapitre est d’un intérêt considérable comme tour de force comique, surtout quand on le replace dans le contexte des découvertes, théories, controverses et querelles scientifiques (incluant les conflits entre les positions antagonistes de la religion et de la science qui faisaient rage à l’époque de Flaubert. Alors que le romancier avait réalisé des recherches exhaustives sur l’histoire des sciences, il est particulièrement intéressant de relever que ce sont les théories et les découvertes les plus récentes qui sont présentées sur le mode comique et sceptique. Après avoir passé en revue les idées de Buffon, Cuvier, Lamarck et Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ainsi que celle des savants fidèles à l’inspiration biblique, Bouvard et Pécuchet ne manquent pas de conclure à l’incompatibilité, et finalement à l’inanité, de toutes ces théories. Ils tirent leurs informations d’ouvrages savants mais aussi populaires, puisant dans les journaux et les magazines. Flaubert montre, de manière tout à fait significative, comment les simplifications et les erreurs des textes de vulgarisation ne servent qu’à renforcer le trouble et le doute des deux personnages et les amènent finalement à abandonner leurs recherches scientifiques.This paper proposes a close textual analysis of Chapter III of the masterpiece of comic and satirical fiction that is Gustave Flaubert’s last novel, Bouvard et Pécuchet (1881. After exploring the sciences of medicine, cosmology, astronomy, and zoology, Flaubert’s “deux bonshommes” turn their attention

  5. Caracterização da piscicultura na região do Vale do Ribeira - SP Characterization of fish farming in the Ribeira Valley region - SP

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    Daniela Castellani

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou caracterizar a piscicultura na Região do Vale do Ribeira quanto aos sistemas de manejo. Estudaram-se quarenta e duas pisciculturas sendo que, destas, 36 praticam o sistema semi-intensivo e seis o sistema intensivo, com os seguintes objetivos: engorda de peixes, produção de alevinos e pesque-pagues. Foram listadas 41 espécies de peixes cultivadas. Apenas 6 espécies são nativas da Bacia do Rio Ribeira de Iguape: lambari (Astyanax sp Linneaus, 1758, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794, robalo (Centropomus ssp Cuvier e Valenciennes, 1928, jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Quoy e Gaimard, 1824, cascudo (Hypostomus sp Marschall, 1873 e cará (Geophagus brasiliensis Quoy e Gaimard, 1824. Em 95% das pisciculturas foram verificadas fugas de peixes exóticos e alóctones dos cultivos. A tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758 foi a espécie mais freqüente em escapes, e também é a segunda mais cultivada pelos piscicultores, perdendo somente para o pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Halmberg, 1887. Foi possível verificar mediante o cálculo da conversão alimentar, que há um desperdício anual de cerca de 32% da ração utilizada nos cultivos pesquisados. A piscicultura encontra-se em plena expansão nesta região, e já representa a atividade agropecuária mais importante após a bananicultura.The aim of this work was to characterize the fish farming in the Ribeira de Iguape Basin, southern São Paulo State (Brazil, in relation to the management systems. Forty two farms were studied. A semi-intensive system is used by 36 farmers, while an intensive system is used only by 6 studied farmers. Their objectives were raising fish, juvenile fish production and sportive fishery. Forty one fish species were found to be cultivated, but only six were native species from Ribeira Valley: lambari (Astyanax sp Linneaus, 1758, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794, robalo (Centropomus ssp Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1928, jundi

  6. Metazoários parasitos de seis espécies de peixes do Reservatório de Lajes, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Metazoan parasites of six fishes species from Lajes Reservoir in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Aline R. Paraguassú

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre abril de 2002 e julho de 2003, foram necropsiados 231 espécimes de peixes: 39 Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, 79 A. fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819, 23 Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner, 1877, 26 Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794, 30 Loricariichthys castaneus (Castelnau, 1855 e 34 Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1876 provenientes do Reservatório de Lajes (22º42' - 22º50'S, 43º53' 44º05'O, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estudo das suas comunidades parasitárias. A maioria dos espécimes de H. affinis (95,6% e H. malabaricus (84,6% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de metazoário. Em A. bimaculatus, A. fasciatus, L. castaneus e T. striatulus 41%, 39,2%, 56,7% e 14,7% dos espécimes estavam parasitados, respectivamente. Foram coletadas oito diferentes espécies de metazoários parasitos: 2 em A. bimaculatus, 3 em A. fasciatus, 3 em H. affinis, 4 em H. malabaricus, 4 em L. castaneus e 1 em T. striatulus. As comunidades de metazoários parasitos das seis espécies de peixes estudadas apresentaram típico padrão de distribuição agregada. Foram observados dois casos de correlação negativa entre a abundância e a prevalência parasitárias e o comprimento total dos hospedeiros. A comunidade parasitária de L. castaneus apresentou os maiores valores de intensidade média, índice de dispersão e diversidade. As comunidades parasitárias dos peixes estudados apresentaram escassez de correlação entre a abundância, riqueza parasitária e diversidade com o comprimento total dos hospedeiros. Os baixos valores de riqueza e diversidade das comuni-dades parasitárias podem ser atribuídos as características oligotróficas do Reservatório de Lajes.From April 2002 to July 2003, 231 freshwater fishes from Lajes Reservoir in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (22º42' - 22º50'S, 43º53' - 44º05'W were necropsied to study their community metazoan parasites: 39 Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, 79 A. fasciatus

  7. Environmental influences on distribution of four Sciaenidae species (Actinopterygii, Perciformes in a tropical bay at Southeastern Brazil Influências ambientais na distribuição de quatro espécies de Sciaenidae (Actinopterygii, Perciformes numa baía tropical do sudeste do Brasil

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    Francisco G. Araújo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We sampled fish and measured environmental variables in the Sepetiba Bay, a tropical embayment at Southeastern Brazil. The aim was to assess environmental influences on distribution of four abundant species of Sciaenidae Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar, 1919, Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier, 1830 and Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 to test the habitat partition hypothesis. Samples were taken between June 1993 and July 1996, at three bay zones (outer, central and inner. Depth was the most important environmental variable to influence fish distribution, followed by transparency. M. furnieri showed significant negative correlation to depth, transparency and salinity, while C. gracilicirrhus showed the opposite situation. The highest densities of C. leiarchus occurred in the lowest temperature, while M. americanus did not showed preferences for any of the examined environmental variables. Spatial separation, mainly between M. furnieri and C. gracilicirrhus, seems to be the strategy developed to coexist in the Sepetiba Bay, with M. furnieri being more adapted to copy with harsh environmental conditions of the inner bay. The other three species, which use mostly the outer bay zone, seem to be restricted to more stable conditions, where influences from oceanic waters are more intense.Foram coletados peixes e medidas as variáveis ambientais na Baía de Sepetiba, uma baía tropical do Sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi determinar influências ambientais na distribuição de quatro espécies abundantes de Sciaenidae Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar,1919, Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier,1830 and Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 para testar a hipótese de partição do hábitat. Amostragens foram feitas entre Junho de 1993 e Julho de 1996 em três zonas da baía (externa, central e interna. A profundidade foi a mais importante variável ambiental que

  8. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Abrantes, Kátya G; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier) displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas) of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive exclusion among shark

  9. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

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    André S Afonso

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  10. Crossing latitudes--long-distance tracking of an apex predator.

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    Luciana C Ferreira

    Full Text Available Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier are apex predators occurring in most tropical and warm temperate marine ecosystems, but we know relatively little of their patterns of residency and movement over large spatial and temporal scales. We deployed satellite tags on eleven tiger sharks off the north-western coast of Western Australia and used the Brownian Bridge kernel method to calculate home ranges and analyse movement behaviour. One individual recorded one of the largest geographical ranges of movement ever reported for the species, travelling over 4000 km during 517 days of monitoring. Tags on the remainder of the sharks reported for shorter periods (7-191 days. Most of these sharks had restricted movements and long-term (30-188 days residency in coastal waters in the vicinity of the area where they were tagged. Core home range areas of sharks varied greatly from 1166.9 to 634,944 km2. Tiger sharks spent most of their time in water temperatures between 23°-26°C but experienced temperatures ranging from 6°C to 33°C. One shark displayed seasonal movements among three distinct home range cores spread along most of the coast of Western Australia and generalized linear models showed that this individual had different patterns of temperature and depth occupancy in each region of the coast, with the highest probability of residency occurring in the shallowest areas of the coast with water temperatures above 23°C. These results suggest that tiger sharks can migrate over very large distances and across latitudes ranging from tropical to the cool temperate waters. Such extensive long-term movements may be a key element influencing the connectivity of populations within and among ocean basins.

  11. Comparative analysis of the metazoan parasite communities of leatherjackets, Oligoplites palometa, O. saurus, and O. saliens (Osteichthyes:Carangidae) from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, R M; Amato, J F; Luque, J L

    1996-11-01

    One hundred and fifty-seven specimens of leatherjackets, 84 specimens of Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier), 37 specimens of O. saurus (Bloch & Schneider), and 36 specimens of O. saliens (Bloch) captured at the Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, between March of 1991 and November of 1992, were necropsied to study their communities of metazoan parasites. All fishes studied were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Eighteen parasite species were found in O. palometa and 13 parasite species were found in O. saurus and O. saliens, respectively. The digeneans were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 90.3%, 82.2%, and 87.7% in O. palometa, O. saurus, and O. saliens, respectively. The Simpson index was lower than 0.25 for the 3 host species, showing an absence of concentration for dominance. The similarity coefficients among the parasite communities of the 3 fish species was above 66%. The parasites of the 3 host species showed typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. Four cases of positive correlation between host's total length and prevalence and parasite intensity were found. The majority of the species did not show influence of host sex. The 3 host species had similar parasite diversity, which was not correlated with the host's total body length and there was no significant difference between male and female hosts. Oligoplites palometa and O. saurus each had one pair of ectoparasite species sharing a positive association and with a positive correlation between their intensities. No pairs of associated species were found in O. saliens. Parasites were found along the entire extension of the gastrointestinal tract of the 3 host species. The parasite communities of O. palometa, O. saurus, and O. saliens are defined as isolationists because there are few evidences of interspecific association or covariation. The presence of larval stages of cestodes and nematodes suggests that the three species of Oligoplites are at an intermediate level in

  12. Comparative Use of a Caribbean Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem and Association with Fish Spawning Aggregations by Three Species of Shark.

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    Alexandria E Pickard

    Full Text Available Understanding of species interactions within mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; ~ 30-150 m lags well behind that for shallow coral reefs. MCEs are often sites of fish spawning aggregations (FSAs for a variety of species, including many groupers. Such reproductive fish aggregations represent temporal concentrations of potential prey that may be drivers of habitat use by predatory species, including sharks. We investigated movements of three species of sharks within a MCE and in relation to FSAs located on the shelf edge south of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands. Movements of 17 tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, seven lemon (Negaprion brevirostris, and six Caribbean reef (Carcharhinus perezi sharks tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored within the MCE using an array of acoustic receivers spanning an area of 1,060 km2 over a five year period. Receivers were concentrated around prominent grouper FSAs to monitor movements of sharks in relation to these temporally transient aggregations. Over 130,000 detections of telemetered sharks were recorded, with four sharks tracked in excess of 3 years. All three shark species were present within the MCE over long periods of time and detected frequently at FSAs, but patterns of MCE use and orientation towards FSAs varied both spatially and temporally among species. Lemon sharks moved over a large expanse of the MCE, but concentrated their activities around FSAs during grouper spawning and were present within the MCE significantly more during grouper spawning season. Caribbean reef sharks were present within a restricted portion of the MCE for prolonged periods of time, but were also absent for long periods. Tiger sharks were detected throughout the extent of the acoustic array, with the MCE representing only portion of their habitat use, although a high degree of individual variation was observed. Our findings indicate that although patterns of use varied, all three species of sharks repeatedly

  13. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg M Brunnschweiler

    Full Text Available Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive

  14. Utilización de la proteína dietaría por alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas

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    Félix Walter Gutiérrez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento fue conducido para evaluar los efectos de cinco niveles de proteína (25,27, 29, 31 y 33% sobre el comportamiento productivo de alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier 1818, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas (2,7 kcal de ED/g. Los parámetros medidos fueron ganancia de peso (GP, conversión alimenticia (CA, proteína retenida (PR, razón de eficiencia proteica (REP y energía retenida (ER. En la preparación de las dietas experimentales se utilizaron como fuentes de proteína harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya y como fuentes de energía maíz amarillo duro, subproducto de trigo y aceite de pescado. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P<0,05 entre tratamientos para los parámetros GP, PR, REP y ER. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la CA. Los mejores rendimientos fueron obtenidos cuando las gamitanas fueron alimentadas con niveles dietarios de 25, 27 y 33% de proteína cruda. También se encontró que a medida que se elevó el nivel de proteína de la dieta, la REP decreció significativamente. Tomando en cuenta el costo de la proteína en la dieta, se concluye que la alimentación de la gamitana con niveles dietarios de 25 ó 27% de proteína cruda y 2,7 kcal de ED/g, garantizarán su exitoso crecimiento.

  15. A revision of the species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae), parasites of mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Montero, Francisco E; Gibson, David I; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Raga, Juan Antonio; Shvetsova, Ludmila S; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-09-01

    The genus Saturnius Manter, 1969 is defined, its species re-examined and a key to the species presented. S. overstreeti n. sp. is described from Mugil soiuy Basilewsky and M. cephalus L. from the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan and distinguished from the morphologically related S. papernai Overstreet, 1977 and S. maurepasi Overstreet, 1977. S. segmentatus Manter, 1969 is redescribed on the basis of the type- and newly collected material from M. cephalus on the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan. The morphometric variation of S. papernai is studied based on newly collected material from Liza aurata (Risso) in the Ebro Delta and off Santa Pola, Spain. The comparisons reveal lower ranges of most metrical features than previously known. A principal component analysis, carried out after adding the new data to those of Blasco-Costa et al. (2006), confirms the species identification. Other valid species recognised are S. mugilis (Yamaguti, 1970), S. maurepasi, S. belizensis Fischthal, 1977, S. dimitrovi Blasco-Costa et al., 2006 and S. minutus Blasco-Costa et al., 2006. Forms considered species inquirendae are S. valamugilis Rekharani & Madhavi, 1984, Bunocotyle constrictus Domnich & Sarabeev, 1999 [=S. papernai of Domnich & Sarabeev (2000a, b, c, d)], B. mugilis Yamaguti, 1970 of Solonchenko (1976) and S. mugilis of Dmitrieva & Gaevskaya (2001). Host and locality information is given in detail for all species. Lisa ramado (Risso) and Chelon labrosus (Cuvier) are new host records for S. papernai (sensu stricto) and S. dimitrovi. L. aurata is a new host record for S. dimitrovi and S. minutus, and L. saliens (Risso) is a new host record for S. minutus.

  16. Pathogenic ability and saline stress tolerance of two Fusarium isolates from Odontesthes bonariensis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Marino, Suani G; Cabello, Marta N; Dinolfo, María I; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N; Salibián, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Several fungal species represent a potential risk to embryos of Odontesthes bonariensis (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1835), a euryhaline freshwater fish that lives in the Pampean inland waters and has potential economic relevance. To identify two fungi isolated from O. bonariensis eggs exposed to saline conditions and to characterize their pathogenicity and tolerance to sodium chloride solutions. The isolates were identified by morphological features, and a preliminar phylogenetic analysis using sequences of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CAM) was performed. Koch's postulates were tested to identify the causative agent of fungal infection. The influence of NaCl on the fungal growth was evaluated in in vitro assays. The isolates LPSC 1001 and 1002 were identified as representatives of the genus Fusarium, and belonging to the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex (FIESC) and the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), respectively. Histological observations on eggs exposed in vitro to both isolates in infectivity assays confirmed the ability of the fungal isolates to penetrate to egg's chorionic membrane, leading to the death of embryos. Increasing NaCl concentration in the culture medium reduced the growth of the isolates LPSC 1001 and 1002, being completely inhibited at 160 and 120g/l NaCl respectively. The isolates LPSC 1001 (FIESC) and 1002 (FSSC) were identified as fungal pathogens to O. bonariensis eggs. The use of NaCl solutions as antifungal treatment was not effective to control the infection with these strains. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative Use of a Caribbean Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem and Association with Fish Spawning Aggregations by Three Species of Shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Alexandria E; Vaudo, Jeremy J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Nemeth, Richard S; Blondeau, Jeremiah B; Kadison, Elizabeth A; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of species interactions within mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; ~ 30-150 m) lags well behind that for shallow coral reefs. MCEs are often sites of fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) for a variety of species, including many groupers. Such reproductive fish aggregations represent temporal concentrations of potential prey that may be drivers of habitat use by predatory species, including sharks. We investigated movements of three species of sharks within a MCE and in relation to FSAs located on the shelf edge south of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands. Movements of 17 tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), seven lemon (Negaprion brevirostris), and six Caribbean reef (Carcharhinus perezi) sharks tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored within the MCE using an array of acoustic receivers spanning an area of 1,060 km2 over a five year period. Receivers were concentrated around prominent grouper FSAs to monitor movements of sharks in relation to these temporally transient aggregations. Over 130,000 detections of telemetered sharks were recorded, with four sharks tracked in excess of 3 years. All three shark species were present within the MCE over long periods of time and detected frequently at FSAs, but patterns of MCE use and orientation towards FSAs varied both spatially and temporally among species. Lemon sharks moved over a large expanse of the MCE, but concentrated their activities around FSAs during grouper spawning and were present within the MCE significantly more during grouper spawning season. Caribbean reef sharks were present within a restricted portion of the MCE for prolonged periods of time, but were also absent for long periods. Tiger sharks were detected throughout the extent of the acoustic array, with the MCE representing only portion of their habitat use, although a high degree of individual variation was observed. Our findings indicate that although patterns of use varied, all three species of sharks repeatedly utilized the MCE and

  18. The shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals atoll, Hawai'i: species composition, abundance and habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jonathan J; Stankus, Austin M; Burns, Michael S; Meyer, Carl G

    2011-02-10

    Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8%) and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4%) sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao M(h) ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 289-1720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling.

  19. Captura de tiburones en la región noroccidental de Cuba

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    Consuelo Aguilar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Los tiburones han sido una importante fuente de alimento e ingresos en Cuba. A pesar de esto, es muy escasa la información sobre este grupo y, en las últimas décadas, no han sido objeto de una investigación organizada. De octubre 2009 a junio 2011 se recolectaron datos biológicos (229 tiburones examinados y pesqueros en cuatro sitios de desembarque de la región noroccidental de Cuba. En esta región, los tiburones son capturados en pesquerías comerciales multiespecíficas en la plataforma insular y de manera incidental en pesquerías deportivas de corto radio de acción durante la captura de grandes especies pelágicas de mar abierto. Se registró un total de 17 especies; seis en pesca comercial, dominada por Carcharhinus perezii, Sphyrna mokarran y Carcharhinus leucas, y 14 en pesca deportiva (artesanal de pequeña escala, no propiamente recreacional, dominada por Isurus oxyrinchus, Isurus paucus, Carcharhinus longimanus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Galeocerdo cuvier y Prionace glauca. La CPUE mensual en las pesquerías deportivas, varió de 0,43 a 4,44 tiburones capturados por diez viajes de pesca. La mayoría de los tiburones oceánicos capturados en las pesquerías deportivas son especies altamente migratorias y sus poblaciones muestran gran conectividad ecológica en el Golfo de México y aguas adyacentes. Este hecho y la presencia de una gran proporción de individuos de C. longimanus y C. falciformis por debajo de la longitud de madurez, son resultados que deben ser considerados en los planes regionales de conservación y uso racional de los tiburones.

  20. Establishment of infection models in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio to study the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila.

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    Paolo Roberto Saraceni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen of fish and terrestrial animals. In humans, A. hydrophila mainly causes gastroenteritis, septicaemia and tissue infections. The mechanisms of infection, the main virulence factors and the host immune response triggered by A. hydrophila have been studied in detail using murine models and adult fish. However, the great limitation of studying adult animals is that the animal must be sacrificed and its tissues/organs extracted, which prevents the study of the infectious processes in the whole living animal.Zebrafish larvae are being used for the analysis of several infectious diseases, but their use for studying the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila has never been explored. The great advantage of zebrafish larvae is their transparency during the first week after fertilization, which allows detailed descriptions of the infectious processes using in vivo imaging techniques such as differential interferential contrast (DIC and fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the availability of fluorescent pathogens and transgenic reporter zebrafish lines expressing fluorescent immune cells, immune marker genes or cytokines/chemokines allows the host-pathogen interactions to be characterized.The present study explores the suitability of zebrafish larvae to study the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila and the interaction mechanisms between the bacterium and the innate immune responses through an infection model using different routes for infection. We used an early-embryo infection model at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf through the microinjection of A. hydrophila into the duct of Cuvier, caudal vein, notochord or muscle and two bath infection models using 4 dpf healthy and injured larvae. The latter resembled the natural conditions under which A. hydrophila produces infectious diseases in animals. We compared the cellular processes after infection in each anatomical site by confocal fluorescence imaging and