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Sample records for stem x-ray mapping

  1. Quantification of elemental segregation to lath and grain boundaries in low-alloy steel by STEM X-ray mapping combined with the zeta-factor method

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, M

    2003-01-01

    Elemental segregation to two types of boundaries in a low-alloy steel were studied by X-ray mapping using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). To quantify the acquired X-ray maps, the zeta-factor method was applied, and then the compositional maps and the thickness map were obtained. Based on these quantified maps, further information about the analytical sensitivity of solute-element detection and the spatial resolution of segregation analysis were extracted. Furthermore, maps of the number of excess atoms on the boundary were also calculated from the compositional and thickness maps. It was concluded that Cr, Ni and Mo are co-segregated on the prior-austenite grain boundary and only Ni was segregated on the lath boundary. (orig.)

  2. Studies of x-ray localization and thickness dependence in atomic-scale elemental mapping by STEM energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy using single-frame scanning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Moya, Jaime M; Yuan, Renliang; Zuo, Jian Min

    2018-03-01

    The delocalization of x-ray signals limits the spatial resolution in atomic-scale elemental mapping by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). In this study, using a SrTiO 3 [001] single crystal, we show that the x-ray localization to atomic columns is strongly dependent on crystal thickness, and a thin crystal is critical for improving the spatial resolution in atomic-scale EDS mapping. A single-frame scanning technique is used in this study instead of the multiple-frame technique to avoid peak broadening due to tracking error. The strong thickness dependence is realized by measuring the full width at half maxima (FWHM) as well as the peak-to-valley (P/V) ratio of the EDS profiles for Ti K and Sr K + L, obtained at several crystal thicknesses. A FWHM of about 0.16 nm and a P/V ratio of greater than 7.0 are obtained for Ti K for a crystal thickness of less than 20 nm. With increasing crystal thickness, the FWHM and P/V ratio increases and decreases, respectively, indicating the advantage of using a thin crystal for high-resolution EDS mapping. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Fast Atomic-Scale Elemental Mapping of Crystalline Materials by STEM Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy Achieved with Thin Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Yuan, Renliang; Zuo, Jian Min

    2017-02-01

    Elemental mapping at the atomic-scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) provides a powerful real-space approach to chemical characterization of crystal structures. However, applications of this powerful technique have been limited by inefficient X-ray emission and collection, which require long acquisition times. Recently, using a lattice-vector translation method, we have shown that rapid atomic-scale elemental mapping using STEM-EDS can be achieved. This method provides atomic-scale elemental maps averaged over crystal areas of ~few 10 nm2 with the acquisition time of ~2 s or less. Here we report the details of this method, and, in particular, investigate the experimental conditions necessary for achieving it. It shows, that in addition to usual conditions required for atomic-scale imaging, a thin specimen is essential for the technique to be successful. Phenomenological modeling shows that the localization of X-ray signals to atomic columns is a key reason. The effect of specimen thickness on the signal delocalization is studied by multislice image simulations. The results show that the X-ray localization can be achieved by choosing a thin specimen, and the thickness of less than about 22 nm is preferred for SrTiO3 in [001] projection for 200 keV electrons.

  4. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Marchis, F.; Bristow, T.; Thompson, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave traces of their actions as features in the size range 10s to 100s of microns. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX) will provide elemental imaging at 100 micron spatial resolution, yielding elemental chemistry at a scale where many relict physical, chemical, or biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks on planetary bodies and planetesimals. MapX is an arm-based instrument positioned on a rock or regolith with touch sensors. During an analysis, an X-ray source (tube or radioisotope) bombards the sample with X-rays or alpha-particles / gamma-rays, resulting in sample X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). X-rays emitted in the direction of an X-ray sensitive CCD imager pass through a 1:1 focusing lens (X-ray micro-pore Optic (MPO)) that projects a spatially resolved image of the X-rays onto the CCD. The CCD is operated in single photon counting mode so that the energies and positions of individual X-ray photons are recorded. In a single analysis, several thousand frames are both stored and processed in real-time. Higher level data products include single-element maps with a lateral spatial resolution of 100 microns and quantitative XRF spectra from ground- or instrument- selected Regions of Interest (ROI). XRF spectra from ROI are compared with known rock and mineral compositions to extrapolate the data to rock types and putative mineralogies. When applied to airless bodies and implemented with an appropriate radioisotope source for alpha-particle excitation, MapX will be able to analyze biogenic elements C, N, O, P, S, in addition to the cations of the rock-forming elements >Na, accessible with either X-ray or gamma-ray excitation. The MapX concept has been demonstrated with a series of lab-based prototypes and is currently under refinement and TRL maturation.

  5. When will Low-Contrast Features be Visible in a STEM X-Ray Spectrum Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Chad M

    2015-06-01

    When will a small or low-contrast feature, such as an embedded second-phase particle, be visible in a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) X-ray map? This work illustrates a computationally inexpensive method to simulate X-ray maps and spectrum images (SIs), based upon the equations of X-ray generation and detection. To particularize the general procedure, an example of nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) containing nm-sized Y2Ti2O7 embedded precipitates in ferritic stainless steel matrix is chosen. The proposed model produces physically appearing simulated SI data sets, which can either be reduced to X-ray dot maps or analyzed via multivariate statistical analysis. Comparison to NFA X-ray maps acquired using three different STEM instruments match the generated simulations quite well, despite the large number of simplifying assumptions used. A figure of merit of electron dose multiplied by X-ray collection solid angle is proposed to compare feature detectability from one data set (simulated or experimental) to another. The proposed method can scope experiments that are feasible under specific analysis conditions on a given microscope. Future applications, such as spallation proton-neutron irradiations, core-shell nanoparticles, or dopants in polycrystalline photovoltaic solar cells, are proposed.

  6. Mapping of auroral x-rays from rocket overflights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, R.A.; Barcus, J.R.; Treinish, L.A.; Vondrak, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    In March 1978, two Nike Tomahawk payloads were launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, to observe the structure of bremsstrhlung x rays and precipitating particles during both nighttime and daytime observe x rays in four spectral ranges (5--10 keV, 10--20 keV, 20--40 keV, and >40 keV). Particle contamination of the detectors was avoided with broom magnet shielding techniques. By virtue of the payloads' approximate 20 0 coning angle (about 10.5-s period), the detectors scanned wide regions on either side of the trajectory paths. This has permitted construction (using computer color graphics) of the time averaged (approx.4 min) x ray source regions near 100 km, a height consistent with Chatanika radar electron density maps obtained during each flight period. X ray image maps for both flights exhibit enhanced source regions well outside the rocket trajectory planes. For the nighttime overflight, Chatanika radar scan data and Fort Yukon riometer data were used to verify the presence of an x ray imaged enhancement of electron precipitation, approximately 30 km to the east of the rocket trajectory plane. The daytime x ray data also exhibited several regions of enhanced emission, but outside the region scanned by Chatanika radar. A comparison of the x ray emissions from the two events shows the daytime x ray spectral distributions to be significantly harder but less intense that the nighttime distributions. Furthermore, for both events, spectra compared within and nearby each enhanced emitting region exhibit characteristics of a two component spectrum, such that the bright regions show an increased flux primarily in the low-energy component. Electron fluxes measured on each of the two flights with Geiger tubes are mainly isotropic over the downward hemisphere at night but show anisotropic pitch angle characteristics by day, consistent with the concept that the enhancement of the low-energy x ray flux component is predominantly induced by electrons filling the loss cone

  7. Color maps of X-ray globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, C.D.; Grindlay, J.E.; Cohn, H.; Lugger, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a search for optical counterparts to X-ray sources in six globular clusters, 47 Tuc, NGC 1851, NGC 6441, NGC 6624, NGC 6712, and M15, are reported. Maps of the U-B color of the central regions of the clusters were prepared. A candidate for the optical counterpart of the source in NGC 6712 was found, along with a blue region near the X-ray source in 47 Tuc. Upper limits on the colors and magnitudes of possible optical counterparts are reported for the other three clusters. The use of color maps to determine color gradients in globular clusters is explored. It is found that, while such gradients do exist and vary from cluster to cluster, they can be explained by crowding effects. Crude limits are placed on the excess populations of blue objects such as CVs, which have been postulated to be concentrated in the centers of dense clusters. 32 references

  8. X-ray analysis and mapping by wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in an electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Miyoko; Takeguchi, Masaki; Furuya, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    A compact and easy-to-use wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer using a multi-capillary X-ray lens attached to a scanning (transmission) electron microscope has been tested for thin-film analysis. B-K spectra from thin-film boron compounds (B 4 C, h-BN, and B 2 O 3 ) samples showed prominent peak shifts and detailed structural differences. Mapping images of a thin W/Si double-layer sample resolved each element clearly. Additionally, a thin SiO 2 film grown on a Si substrate was imaged with O-K X-rays. Energy and spatial resolution of the system is also discussed

  9. X-ray reciprocal space mapping of GaAs.AIAs quantum wires and quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darhuber, A.A.; Koppensteiner, E.; Bauer, G.; Wang, P.D.; Song, Y.P.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Holland, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Periodic arrays of 150 and 175 nm-wide GaAs–AlAs quantum wires and quantum dots were investigated, fabricated by electron beam lithography, and SiCl4/O2 reactive ion etching, by means of reciprocal space mapping using triple axis x-ray diffractometry. From the x-ray data the lateral periodicity of

  10. Quantitative X-ray mapping, scatter diagrams and the generation of correction maps to obtain more information about your material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuhrer, R.; Moran, K.

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative X-ray mapping with silicon drift detectors and multi-EDS detector systems have become an invaluable analysis technique and one of the most useful methods of X-ray microanalysis today. The time to perform an X-ray map has reduced considerably with the ability to map minor and trace elements very accurately due to the larger detector area and higher count rate detectors. Live X-ray imaging can now be performed with a significant amount of data collected in a matter of minutes. A great deal of information can be obtained from X-ray maps. This includes; elemental relationship or scatter diagram creation, elemental ratio mapping, chemical phase mapping (CPM) and quantitative X-ray maps. In obtaining quantitative x-ray maps, we are able to easily generate atomic number (Z), absorption (A), fluorescence (F), theoretical back scatter coefficient (η), and quantitative total maps from each pixel in the image. This allows us to generate an image corresponding to each factor (for each element present). These images allow the user to predict and verify where they are likely to have problems in our images, and are especially helpful to look at possible interface artefacts. The post-processing techniques to improve the quantitation of X-ray map data and the development of post processing techniques for improved characterisation are covered in this paper.

  11. Quantitative X-ray mapping, scatter diagrams and the generation of correction maps to obtain more information about your material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuhrer, R; Moran, K

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative X-ray mapping with silicon drift detectors and multi-EDS detector systems have become an invaluable analysis technique and one of the most useful methods of X-ray microanalysis today. The time to perform an X-ray map has reduced considerably with the ability to map minor and trace elements very accurately due to the larger detector area and higher count rate detectors. Live X-ray imaging can now be performed with a significant amount of data collected in a matter of minutes. A great deal of information can be obtained from X-ray maps. This includes; elemental relationship or scatter diagram creation, elemental ratio mapping, chemical phase mapping (CPM) and quantitative X-ray maps. In obtaining quantitative x-ray maps, we are able to easily generate atomic number (Z), absorption (A), fluorescence (F), theoretical back scatter coefficient (η), and quantitative total maps from each pixel in the image. This allows us to generate an image corresponding to each factor (for each element present). These images allow the user to predict and verify where they are likely to have problems in our images, and are especially helpful to look at possible interface artefacts. The post-processing techniques to improve the quantitation of X-ray map data and the development of post processing techniques for improved characterisation are covered in this paper

  12. Put X-Ray Polarimetry on the MAP!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    With Prof. R. Novick and others at the Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory I help found the field of X-ray polarimetry in the early 1970s. Currently I have more experience with the design, construction, calibration, and space flight of such instruments than anyone on the planet. The early probing beginnings saw only one definitive measurement (that of the integrated low-energy X-ray emission from the Crab Nebula sans pulsar) and a number of upper limits. The limited success did nevertheless inspire a number of detailed theoretical calculations, concentrating at first on neutron stars and black holes showing how precise measurements (e.g. degree of polarization and position angle as a function of pulse phase) would provide definitive limitations on otherwise equally plausible theoretical models. Over time the theoretical foundation has grown (e.g. the proceedings of the X-Ray Polarimetry Workshop held at SLAC in 2004). I will outline these foundations. It is important to understand the history of X-ray polarimetry beyond the early excitement. A polarimeter was at the focus of the original Einstein mission but was dropped during the restructuring. A polarimeter was successfully proposed (R. Novick PI, I was a Co-I) and built for the original Spectrum-X mission. During the years before the cancellation of Spectrum-X, the potential flight of this device stood in the way of other space flights for polarimeters --- "let us wait and see what it finds". This was unfortunate as there were a number of reasons why that polarimeter should not have been flown on the mission. Perhaps the most significant (but not only) reason was that a shared focal plane provided very little observing time. This is an extremely important point in considering the Roadmap. It is doubtful that there many 100%-polarized sources and so the "signal" is more typically a small fraction of the source flux. Thus, the source itself provides a substantial background, making continuum polarimetry even more

  13. Diagnosing and mapping pulmonary emphysema on X-ray projection images: incremental value of grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Felix G; Schwab, Felix; Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Herzen, Julia; Achterhold, Klaus; Auweter, Sigrid; Bamberg, Fabian; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Bohla, Alexander; Eickelberg, Oliver; Loewen, Rod; Gifford, Martin; Ruth, Ronald; Reiser, Maximilian F; Pfeiffer, Franz; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging can increase the sensitivity of X-ray projection images in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema and allow for a more accurate assessment of emphysema distribution. Lungs from three mice with pulmonary emphysema and three healthy mice were imaged ex vivo using a laser-driven compact synchrotron X-ray source. Median signal intensities of transmission (T), dark-field (V) and a combined parameter (normalized scatter) were compared between emphysema and control group. To determine the diagnostic value of each parameter in differentiating between healthy and emphysematous lung tissue, a receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed both on a per-pixel and a per-individual basis. Parametric maps of emphysema distribution were generated using transmission, dark-field and normalized scatter signal and correlated with histopathology. Transmission values relative to water were higher for emphysematous lungs than for control lungs (1.11 vs. 1.06, pemphysema provides color-coded parametric maps, which show the best correlation with histopathology. In a murine model, the complementary information provided by X-ray transmission and dark-field images adds incremental diagnostic value in detecting pulmonary emphysema and visualizing its regional distribution as compared to conventional X-ray projections.

  14. Trends in hard X-ray fluorescence mapping: environmental applications in the age of fast detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E.; Donner, E. [University of South Australia, Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Mawson Lakes, South Australia (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, South Australia (Australia); Jonge, M.D. de; Paterson, D. [Australian Synchrotron, X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Ryan, C.G. [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Normanby Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Environmental samples are extremely diverse but share a tendency for heterogeneity and complexity. This heterogeneity poses methodological challenges when investigating biogeochemical processes. In recent years, the development of analytical tools capable of probing element distribution and speciation at the microscale have allowed this challenge to be addressed. Of these available tools, laterally resolved synchrotron techniques such as X-ray fluorescence mapping are key methods for the in situ investigation of micronutrients and inorganic contaminants in environmental samples. This article demonstrates how recent advances in X-ray fluorescence detector technology are bringing new possibilities to environmental research. Fast detectors are helping to circumvent major issues such as X-ray beam damage of hydrated samples, as dwell times during scanning are reduced. They are also helping to reduce temporal beamtime requirements, making particularly time-consuming techniques such as micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) tomography increasingly feasible. This article focuses on {mu}XRF mapping of nutrients and metalloids in environmental samples, and suggests that the current divide between mapping and speciation techniques will be increasingly blurred by the development of combined approaches. (orig.)

  15. CubeX: The CubeSAT X-ray Telescope for Elemental Abundance Mapping of Airless Bodies and X-ray Pulsar Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittler, L. R.; Hong, J.; Kenter, A.; Romaine, S.; Allen, B.; Kraft, R.; Masterson, R.; Elvis, M.; Gendreau, K.; Crawford, I.; Binzel, R.; Boynton, W. V.; Grindlay, J.; Ramsey, B.

    2017-12-01

    The surface elemental composition of a planetary body provides crucial information about its origin, geological evolution, and surface processing, all of which can in turn provide information about solar system evolution as a whole. Remote sensing X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy has been used successfully to probe the major-element compositions of airless bodies in the inner solar system, including the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and Mercury. The CubeSAT X-ray Telescope (CubeX) is a concept for a 6U planetary X-ray telescope (36U with S/C), which utilizes Miniature Wolter-I X-ray optics (MiXO), monolithic CMOS and SDD X-ray sensors for the focal plane, and a Solar X-ray Monitor (heritage from the REXIS XRF instrument on NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission). CubeX will map the surface elemental composition of diverse airless bodies by spectral measurement of XRF excited by solar X-rays. The lightweight ( 1 kg) MiXO optics provide sub-arcminute resolution with low background, while the inherently rad-hard CMOS detectors provide improved spectral resolution ( 150 eV) at 0 °C. CubeX will also demonstrate X-ray pulsar timing based deep space navigation (XNAV). Successful XNAV will enable autonomous deep navigation with little to no support from the Deep Space Network, hence lowering the operation cost for many more planetary missions. Recently selected by NASA Planetary Science Deep Space SmallSat Studies, the first CubeX concept, designed to rideshare to the Moon as a secondary spacecraft on a primary mission, is under study in collaboration with the Mission Design Center at NASA Ames Research Center. From high altitude ( 6,000 km) frozen polar circular orbits, CubeX will study > 8 regions ( 110 km) of geological interest on the Moon over one year to produce a high resolution ( 2-3 km) elemental abundance map of each region. The novel focal plane design of CubeX also allows us to evaluate the performance of absolute navigation by sequential observations of several

  16. Fate of D3 mouse embryonic stem cells exposed to X-rays or carbon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, S; Pignalosa, D; Nasonova, E; Arrizabalaga, O; Helm, A; Durante, M; Ritter, S

    2014-01-15

    The risk of radiation exposure during embryonic development is still a major problem in radiotoxicology. In this study we investigated the response of the murine embryonic stem cell (mESC) line D3 to two radiation qualities: sparsely ionizing X-rays and densely ionizing carbon ions. We analyzed clonogenic cell survival, proliferation, induction of chromosome aberrations as well as the capability of cells to differentiate to beating cardiomyocytes up to 3 days after exposure. Our results show that, for all endpoints investigated, carbon ions are more effective than X-rays at the same radiation dose. Additionally, in long term studies (≥8 days post-irradiation) chromosomal damage and the pluripotency state were investigated. These studies reveal that pluripotency markers are present in the progeny of cells surviving the exposure to both radiation types. However, only in the progeny of X-ray exposed cells the aberration frequency was comparable to that of the control population, while the progeny of carbon ion irradiated cells harbored significantly more aberrations than the control, generally translocations. We conclude that cells surviving the radiation exposure maintain pluripotency but may carry stable chromosomal rearrangements after densely ionizing radiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. GPU-accelerated depth map generation for X-ray simulations of complex CAD geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Robert J.; Young, Gavin; Holland, Stephen D.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh

    2018-04-01

    Interactive x-ray simulations of complex computer-aided design (CAD) models can provide valuable insights for better interpretation of the defect signatures such as porosity from x-ray CT images. Generating the depth map along a particular direction for the given CAD geometry is the most compute-intensive step in x-ray simulations. We have developed a GPU-accelerated method for real-time generation of depth maps of complex CAD geometries. We preprocess complex components designed using commercial CAD systems using a custom CAD module and convert them into a fine user-defined surface tessellation. Our CAD module can be used by different simulators as well as handle complex geometries, including those that arise from complex castings and composite structures. We then make use of a parallel algorithm that runs on a graphics processing unit (GPU) to convert the finely-tessellated CAD model to a voxelized representation. The voxelized representation can enable heterogeneous modeling of the volume enclosed by the CAD model by assigning heterogeneous material properties in specific regions. The depth maps are generated from this voxelized representation with the help of a GPU-accelerated ray-casting algorithm. The GPU-accelerated ray-casting method enables interactive (> 60 frames-per-second) generation of the depth maps of complex CAD geometries. This enables arbitrarily rotation and slicing of the CAD model, leading to better interpretation of the x-ray images by the user. In addition, the depth maps can be used to aid directly in CT reconstruction algorithms.

  18. Mapping of trace elements with photon microprobes: x-ray fluorescence with focussed synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Pounds, J.G.; Rivers, M.L.; Schidlovsky, G.

    1985-04-01

    High energy electron synchrotron storage rings provide copious quantities of polarized photons that make possible the mapping of many trace elements with sensitivities at the parts per billion (ppB) level with spatial resolutions in the micrometer range. The brightness of the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), presently being commissioned, will be five orders of magnitude larger than that of the bremsstrahlung spectrum of state-of-the-art rotating anode tubes. We will discuss mapping trace elements with a photon microprobe presently being constructed for use at the NSLS. This microprobe will have micrometer spatial resolution

  19. Development of a reconstruction software of elemental maps by micro X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Andre Pereira de; Braz, Delson; Mota, Carla Lemos; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pinto, Nivia Graciele Villela; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho; Moreira, Silvana

    2009-01-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using SR microbeams is a powerful analysis tool for studying elemental composition in several samples. One application of this technique is the analysis done through the mapping of chemical elements forming a matrix of data. The aim of this work is the presentation of the program MapXRF, an in-house software designed to optimize the processing and mapping of fluorescence intensities data. This program uses spectra generated by QXAS as input data and separates the intensities of each chemical element found in the fluorescence spectra in files themselves. From these files, the program generates the intensity maps that can be visualized in any program of treatment of images. The proposed software was tested using fluorescence data obtained in the XRF beamline at National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazil. Automatic 2D scans were performed and element distribution maps were obtained in form of a matrix of data. (author)

  20. Development of a software for reconstruction of X-ray fluorescence intensity maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Andre Pereira de; Braz, Delson; Mota, Carla Lemos; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pinto, Nivia Graciele Villela; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho; Moreira, Silvana

    2009-01-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using SR microbeams is a powerful analysis tool for studying elemental composition in several samples. One application of this technique is the analysis done through the mapping of chemical elements forming a matrix of data. The aim of this work is the presentation of the program MapXRF, an in-house software designed to optimize the processing and mapping of fluorescence intensities data. This program uses spectra generated by QXAS as input data and separates the intensities of each chemical element found in the fluorescence spectra in files themselves. From these files, the program generates the intensity maps that can be visualized in any program of treatment of images. The proposed software was tested using fluorescence data obtained in the XRF beamline of XRF at Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS), Brazil. Automatic 2D scans were performed and element distribution maps were obtained in the form of a matrix of data. (author)

  1. Development of a software for reconstruction of X-ray fluorescence intensity maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Andre Pereira de; Braz, Delson; Mota, Carla Lemos, E-mail: apalmeid@gmail.co, E-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: clemos@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pinto, Nivia Graciele Villela, E-mail: cely@uerj.b, E-mail: lfolive@uerj.b, E-mail: nitatag@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho, E-mail: simone@if.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using SR microbeams is a powerful analysis tool for studying elemental composition in several samples. One application of this technique is the analysis done through the mapping of chemical elements forming a matrix of data. The aim of this work is the presentation of the program MapXRF, an in-house software designed to optimize the processing and mapping of fluorescence intensities data. This program uses spectra generated by QXAS as input data and separates the intensities of each chemical element found in the fluorescence spectra in files themselves. From these files, the program generates the intensity maps that can be visualized in any program of treatment of images. The proposed software was tested using fluorescence data obtained in the XRF beamline of XRF at Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS), Brazil. Automatic 2D scans were performed and element distribution maps were obtained in the form of a matrix of data. (author)

  2. Development of a reconstruction software of elemental maps by micro X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Andre Pereira de; Braz, Delson; Mota, Carla Lemos, E-mail: apalmeid@gmail.co, E-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: clemos@con.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pinto, Nivia Graciele Villela, E-mail: cely@uerj.b, E-mail: lfolive@uerj.b, E-mail: nitatag@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using SR microbeams is a powerful analysis tool for studying elemental composition in several samples. One application of this technique is the analysis done through the mapping of chemical elements forming a matrix of data. The aim of this work is the presentation of the program MapXRF, an in-house software designed to optimize the processing and mapping of fluorescence intensities data. This program uses spectra generated by QXAS as input data and separates the intensities of each chemical element found in the fluorescence spectra in files themselves. From these files, the program generates the intensity maps that can be visualized in any program of treatment of images. The proposed software was tested using fluorescence data obtained in the XRF beamline at National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazil. Automatic 2D scans were performed and element distribution maps were obtained in form of a matrix of data. (author)

  3. Differential effects of x-rays and high-energy 56Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpinski, Kyle; Jang, Deok-Jin; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Rydberg, Bjorn; Chu, Julia; So, Joanna; Wyrobek, Andy; Li, Song; Wang, Daojing

    2009-03-01

    Stem cells hold great potential for regenerative medicine, but they have also been implicated in cancer and aging. How different kinds of ionizing radiation affect stem cell biology remains unexplored. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of X-rays and of high-linear energy transfer (LET) (56)Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). A multi-functional comparison was carried out to investigate the differential effects of X-rays and (56)Fe ions on hMSC. The end points included modulation of key markers such as p53, cell cycle progression, osteogenic differentiation, and pathway and networks through transcriptomic profiling and bioinformatics analysis. X-rays and (56)Fe ions differentially inhibited the cell cycle progression of hMSC in a p53-dependent manner without impairing their in vitro osteogenic differentiation process. Pathway and network analyses revealed that cytoskeleton and receptor signaling were uniquely enriched for low-dose (0.1 Gy) X-rays. In contrast, DNA/RNA metabolism and cell cycle regulation were enriched for high-dose (1 Gy) X-rays and (56)Fe ions, with more significant effects from (56)Fe ions. Specifically, DNA replication, DNA strand elongation, and DNA binding/transferase activity were perturbed more severely by 1 Gy (56)Fe ions than by 1 Gy X-rays, consistent with the significant G2/M arrest for the former while not for the latter. (56)Fe ions exert more significant effects on hMSC than X-rays. Since hMSC are the progenitors of osteoblasts in vivo, this study provides new mechanistic understandings of the relative health risks associated with low- and high-dose X-rays and high-LET space radiation.

  4. Differential Effects of X-Rays and High-Energy 56Fe Ions on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpinski, Kyle; Jang, Deok-Jin; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Rydberg, Bjorn; Chu, Julia; So, Joanna; Wyrobek, Andy; Li Song; Wang Daojing

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Stem cells hold great potential for regenerative medicine, but they have also been implicated in cancer and aging. How different kinds of ionizing radiation affect stem cell biology remains unexplored. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of X-rays and of high-linear energy transfer (LET) 56 Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Methods and Materials: A multi-functional comparison was carried out to investigate the differential effects of X-rays and 56 Fe ions on hMSC. The end points included modulation of key markers such as p53, cell cycle progression, osteogenic differentiation, and pathway and networks through transcriptomic profiling and bioinformatics analysis. Results: X-rays and 56 Fe ions differentially inhibited the cell cycle progression of hMSC in a p53-dependent manner without impairing their in vitro osteogenic differentiation process. Pathway and network analyses revealed that cytoskeleton and receptor signaling were uniquely enriched for low-dose (0.1 Gy) X-rays. In contrast, DNA/RNA metabolism and cell cycle regulation were enriched for high-dose (1 Gy) X-rays and 56 Fe ions, with more significant effects from 56 Fe ions. Specifically, DNA replication, DNA strand elongation, and DNA binding/transferase activity were perturbed more severely by 1 Gy 56 Fe ions than by 1 Gy X-rays, consistent with the significant G2/M arrest for the former while not for the latter. Conclusions: 56 Fe ions exert more significant effects on hMSC than X-rays. Since hMSC are the progenitors of osteoblasts in vivo, this study provides new mechanistic understandings of the relative health risks associated with low- and high-dose X-rays and high-LET space radiation

  5. X-ray irradiation of RC-MAP pre-stored for various numbers of days. Effect of X-ray irradiation on RC-MAP and reuse of RC-MAP after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Naotomo; Nagumo, Fumio; Kawasaki, Seiji; Matsuzaki, Miwako; Tadano, Jutaro

    1995-01-01

    X-ray irradiation is currently in wide use as a means of preventing post-transfusion graft-versus-host disease (PT-GVHD). In this study, we evaluated the effects of X-ray irradiation on RC-MAP pre-stored for various numbers of days, and assessed how long irradiated RC-MAP can be stored. RC-MAP was irradiated at a dosage of 15 Gy at 1, 7, 14, 21 or 28 days after blood collection. These specimens were referred to as group I, II, III, IV and V (X-ray-irradiated groups), respectively. Non-irradiated RC-MAP was used as the control. Results showed that plasma K concentration increased after X-ray irradiation. It is therefore advisable that RC-MAPs be used immediately in infants and in renal failure. However, to maximize the efficiency of blood product use, it seemed possible that groups I and II could be used within two weeks after irradiation, and group III within one week. On the basis of this increase in K concentration, however, groups IV and V plasma should be used immediately after irradiation. (author)

  6. Non-destructive synchrotron X-ray diffraction mapping of a Roman painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooryhee, E.; Anne, M.; Hodeau, J.-L.; Martinetto, P.; Rondot, S.; Bardies, I.; Salomon, J.; Walter, P.; Vaughan, G.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The history and the properties of materials are deduced not only from their elemental and molecular signatures, but also from their exact phase compositions, and from the structures and the defects of their constituents. Here we implement a non-destructive synchrotron X-ray based method, which combines both the quantitative structural content of diffraction and the imaging mode. As a demonstration case, the pigments of a Roman wall painting are examined. The joined elemental and mineral maps mimic the major features of the painting. Different structural phases made of common atomic elements are differentiated. Textures and graininess are measured and related to the artist's know-how. (orig.)

  7. Mapping Metal Elements of Shuangbai Dinosaur Fossil by Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Qun, Y.; Ablett, J.

    2008-01-01

    The metal elements mapping of Shuangbai dinosaur fossil, was obtained by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF). Eight elements, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Y and Sr were determined. Elements As and Y were detected for the first time in the dinosaur fossil. The data indicated that metal elements are asymmetrical on fossil section. This is different from common minerals. Mapping metals showed that metal element As is few. The dinosaur most likely belongs to natural death. This is different from Zigong dinosaurs which were found dead from poisoning. This method has been used to find that metals Fe and Mn are accrete, and the same is true for Sr and Y. This study indicated that colloid granule Fe and Mn, as well as Sr and Y had opposite electric charges in lithification process of fossils. By this analysis, compound forms can be ascertained. Synchrotron light source x-ray fluorescence is a complementary method that shows mapping of metal elements at the dinosaur fossil, and is rapid, exact and intuitionist. This study shows that dinosaur fossil mineral imaging has a potential in reconstructing the paleoenvironment and ancient geology.

  8. Long-term hematopoietic stem cell damage after external irradiation with X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, M.T.; Varas, F.; Bueren, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the functionality of the lympho-hematopoietic stem cells long-term (9 months) after the irradiation (X rays) of mice at different stages of development, by means of a competitive bone marrow repopulation assay. Our data revealed that a dose of 1 Gy was only capable of inducing significant long-term failures in the functionality of the primitive repopulating cells in mice irradiated at the young-adult stage (12 week-old), but not in mice irradiated at the late stages of foetus development (17 day-old fetuses) nor at the early development of the embryo (4 day-old embryos). The differential generation of long-term stem cell defects as a function of the age was confirmed in mice irradiated with 3 Gy. While no significant effects in the long-term repopulating cells were observed in 4 day-old embryos, significant repopulation deficiencies were observed in this population when mice were irradiated at the 17 day of foetus development, and more markedly at the adult stage of growth. These data offer new evidence about the influence of the developmental stage of the animal on the generation of residual hematopoietic dysfunctions by external irradiation, with particular relevance to the very primitive lympho-hematopoietic stem cells. (author)

  9. Mapping metals in Parkinson's and normal brain using rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; George, Martin J; McCrea, Richard P E; Devon, Richard M; George, Graham N; Hanson, Akela D; Chapman, L Dean; Nichol, Helen; Bergmann, Uwe; Garachtchenko, Alex V; Luening, Katharina; Kelly, Michael E; Harder, Sheri M; Pickering, Ingrid J

    2009-01-01

    Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) is a synchrotron technology that maps multiple metals in tissues by employing unique hardware and software to increase scanning speed. RS-XRF was validated by mapping and quantifying iron, zinc and copper in brain slices from Parkinson's disease (PD) and unaffected subjects. Regions and structures in the brain were readily identified by their metal complement and each metal had a unique distribution. Many zinc-rich brain regions were low in iron and vice versa. The location and amount of iron in brain regions known to be affected in PD agreed with analyses using other methods. Sample preparation is simple and standard formalin-fixed autopsy slices are suitable. RS-XRF can simultaneously and non-destructively map and quantify multiple metals and holds great promise to reveal metal pathologies associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases as well as diseases of metal metabolism.

  10. Response of mesenchymal stem cells in mice to 3.5 Gy X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Wenxia; Liu Huimin; Chen Yonghong; Zeng Wen; Liu Wenli; Sun Hanying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the response of mesenchymal stem cells in mice to medium-dose X-ray irradiation in vitro. Methods: The mouse mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 was submitted to 3.5 Gy X-ray irradiation. Hoechst33258 staining of adherent cells and Annexin V-FITC staining and flow cytometry analysis of suspension cells were performed respectively to assess cellular apoptosis at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and 1 week after irradiation. SA-β-gal staining was performed to analyze the cellular senescence at 24, 48, 72 h and 1 week after irradiation. The mRNA level of both Fas with its ligand FasL and p53 with its downstream target p21 WAF1 were measured by Real-Time PCR analysis. The expression of Fas protein was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Results: An increased apoptosis was observed at 3 h after irradiation with apoptosis rate 11.72% ± 1.61% (t=9.01, P<0.01), the apoptosis rate reached the peak level at 12 h 20.52% ± 1.96% (t=16.27, P<0.01), and then declined progressively to normal level at 48 h 4.93% ±0.46% (t=2.26, P>0.05). The SA-β-gal positive rate of post-radiation cells at 72 h was 53.33% ± 5.62%, significantly higher than that of normal control 3.24% ± 0.39% (t=17.77, P<0.01). The level of Fas, FasL mRNA was found to be elevated 3 h after irradiation with a peak at 12 h, and no differences were found l week later. The level of Fas protein was observed to reach the peak at 12 h after irradiation. The occurrence of peak level of Fas/FasL mRNA and protein was consistent with that of apoptosis of C3H10T1/2 cell. A transient up-regulation of p53, p21 WAF1 mRNA expression was found at 12 h after irradiation followed by a significant increase later at 72 h after irradiation. The occurrence of the two peaks of p53, p21 WAF1 mRNA expression were coincident with that of cellular apoptosis and senescence, respectively. The levels of p53, p21 WAF1 mRNA in senescence group were significantly higher than those of apoptosis group (t=17.85, 13

  11. Multi-time-scale X-ray reverberation mapping of accreting black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroserio, Guglielmo; Ingram, Adam; van der Klis, Michiel

    2018-04-01

    Accreting black holes show characteristic reflection features in their X-ray spectrum, including an iron Kα line, resulting from hard X-ray continuum photons illuminating the accretion disc. The reverberation lag resulting from the path-length difference between direct and reflected emission provides a powerful tool to probe the innermost regions around both stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. Here, we present for the first time a reverberation mapping formalism that enables modelling of energy-dependent time lags and variability amplitude for a wide range of variability time-scales, taking the complete information of the cross-spectrum into account. We use a pivoting power-law model to account for the spectral variability of the continuum that dominates over the reverberation lags for longer time-scale variability. We use an analytic approximation to self-consistently account for the non-linear effects caused by this continuum spectral variability, which have been ignored by all previous reverberation studies. We find that ignoring these non-linear effects can bias measurements of the reverberation lags, particularly at low frequencies. Since our model is analytic, we are able to fit simultaneously for a wide range of Fourier frequencies without prohibitive computational expense. We also introduce a formalism of fitting to real and imaginary parts of our cross-spectrum statistic, which naturally avoids some mistakes/inaccuracies previously common in the literature. We perform proof-of-principle fits to Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data of Cygnus X-1.

  12. Grey-scale conversion X-ray mapping by EDS of multielement and multiphase layered microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John; Horsewell, Andy

    2007-01-01

    been obtained for several long-term isothermal heat treatments in which significant interdiffusion has taken place. The resulting composition profiles have greatly improved counting statistics compared to traditional point-by-point scans for the same scanning electron microscope time and may......procedure for grey-scale conversion of energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray maps has been developed, which is particularly useful for the plotting of line composition profiles across modified layered engineering surfaces. The method involves (a) the collection of grey-scale elemental maps, (b......, the procedure has been applied to a layered microstructure that results from a plasma-sprayed metallic MCrAlY coating onto a nickel-superalloy turbine blade. As a further demonstration of the accuracy and amount of compositional data that can be obtained with this procedure, measured compositional profiles have...

  13. Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzas, K; Voss, P L; Ougazzaden, A; Patriarche, G; Largeau, L; Mauguin, O; Troadec, D; Gautier, S; Moudakir, T; Suresh, S

    2012-01-01

    Using elastic scattering theory we show that a small set of energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements is sufficient to experimentally evaluate the scattering function of electrons in high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission microscopy (HAADF-STEM). We then demonstrate how to use this function to transform qualitative HAADF-STEM images of InGaN layers into precise, quantitative chemical maps of the indium composition. The maps obtained in this way combine the resolution of HAADF-STEM and the chemical precision of EDX. We illustrate the potential of such chemical maps by using them to investigate nanometer-scale fluctuations in the indium composition and their impact on the growth of epitaxial InGaN layers. (paper)

  14. Mapping the Large Area Straw Detectors of the COMPASS Experiment With X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, K.; Dunnweber, W.; Dedek, N.; Faessler, M.; Geyer, R.; Ilgner, C.; Peshekhonov, V.; Wellenstein, H.

    2005-06-01

    In the COMPASS experiment at CERN, large straw drift tube detectors are used for large-angle tracking. To minimize the total areal density, a self supporting structure of thin-walled plastic tubes was chosen and, hence, a loss in mechanical precision was accepted. A complete mapping of the anode wire coordinate grid was required. An X-ray apparatus using a charge-coupled device (CCD) as imaging detector was built to investigate the mechanical properties and to calibrate (offline) the wire positions. Deviations of typically 200-400 /spl mu/m from the nominal positions, defined by equal spacing, are found across the detector area of 8 m/sup 2/. With a calibration method based on high-resolution CCD imaging and pattern recognition algorithms, the absolute wire coordinates are determined with an accuracy better than 30 /spl mu/m across the whole detector area. Temperature effects are clearly seen. Their inhomogenity limits the achievable accuracy to about 50 /spl mu/m under realistic experimental conditions, which is sufficient in view of the intrinsic straw resolution of 200 /spl mu/m for minimum ionizing particles. The offline calibration was checked with particle tracks in the experimental setup, running COMPASS with 160 GeV/c muons. Tracks reconstructed with other detectors that cover a central angular range were used for this comparison. Good agreement is found between these in situ measurements and the X-ray calibration.

  15. Imaging metals in proteins by combining electrophoresis with rapid x-ray fluorescence mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finney, L.; Chishti, Y.; Khare, T.; Giometti, C.; Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.; Vogt, S.

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence points toward a very dynamic role for metals in biology. This suggests that physiological circumstance may mandate metal ion redistribution among ligands. This work addresses a critical need for technology that detects, identifies, and measures the metal-containing components of complex biological matrixes. We describe a direct, user-friendly approach for identifying and quantifying metal?protein adducts in complex samples using native- or SDS-PAGE, blotting, and rapid synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping with micro-XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) of entire blots. The identification and quantification of each metal bound to a protein spot has been demonstrated, and the technique has been applied in two exemplary cases. In the first, the speciation of the in vitro binding of exogenous chromium to blood serum proteins was influenced markedly by both the oxidation state of chromium exposed to the serum proteins and the treatment conditions, which is of relevance to the biochemistry of Cr dietary supplements. In the second case, in vivo changes in endogenous metal speciation were examined to probe the influence of oxygen depletion on iron speciation in Shewanella oneidensis.

  16. The Corail stem as a reverse hybrid - survivorship and x-ray analysis at 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangen, Helge; Nordsletten, Lars; Boldt, Jens G; Fenstad, Anne M; Beverland, David E

    2017-07-25

    The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA have been sparsely described.We report our experience of reverse hybrid THA, using the Elite plus polyethylene cemented cup together with the Corail fully hydroxyapatite-coated uncemented stem and a 28-mm alumina ceramic head. 132 consecutive reverse hybrid hip arthroplasties were performed from January 2000 to December 2003 in 126 patients with a mean age of 54.3 years (28-65). All patients were routinely reviewed at 3 months, 1, 5, 7 and 10 years postoperatively. At each follow-up patients were seen either by a consultant orthopaedic surgeon or a senior trainee. Anteroposterior pelvic and lateral x-rays of the hip were taken at each visit. To estimate the survival of the THAs we used the Kaplan-Meier method with 95% confidence interval (CI). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which factors affected the presence of radiolucency around the femoral stem. The mean follow-up was 11.1 years (9.0-14.2). 1 patient was lost to follow-up, and 7 patients were deceased at the time of 10-year follow up. At 10 years 7 patients have had further surgery. 5 for infection, 1 periprosthetic femoral fracture and 1 heterotopic bone formation. All stems were classified as well fixed. 2 cups were defined as loose at 10 years. 1 patient is scheduled for revision the other refused revision. The clinical outcome and radiological findings were assessed in 123 hips. The mean Harris Hip Score was 94 (35-100) at 10 years and the mean WOMAC score was 89 (30.2-100). We report good results with respect to clinical outcome and survival of the reverse hybrid concept in patients younger than 65. A successful outcome depends on meticulous preoperative planning, use of modern cementing techniques in the acetabulum and experience in implanting an uncemented stem.

  17. Mapping the continuous reciprocal space intensity distribution of X-ray serial crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefanov, Oleksandr; Gati, Cornelius; Bourenkov, Gleb; Kirian, Richard A; White, Thomas A; Spence, John C H; Chapman, Henry N; Barty, Anton

    2014-07-17

    Serial crystallography using X-ray free-electron lasers enables the collection of tens of thousands of measurements from an equal number of individual crystals, each of which can be smaller than 1 µm in size. This manuscript describes an alternative way of handling diffraction data recorded by serial femtosecond crystallography, by mapping the diffracted intensities into three-dimensional reciprocal space rather than integrating each image in two dimensions as in the classical approach. We call this procedure 'three-dimensional merging'. This procedure retains information about asymmetry in Bragg peaks and diffracted intensities between Bragg spots. This intensity distribution can be used to extract reflection intensities for structure determination and opens up novel avenues for post-refinement, while observed intensity between Bragg peaks and peak asymmetry are of potential use in novel direct phasing strategies.

  18. Investigation of bone morphology using X-ray microfluorescence bidimensional mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, I.; Sales, E.; Anjos, M.J.; Assis, J.T.; Lopes, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The utilization of radiation for medical purposes is an important tool that has been helping in finding the causes of several illnesses. In relation to application of radioisotope in medicine, it has been making a great contribution to the development of analytical techniques that can help diagnostic illness. The X-ray fluorescence technique is within this context providing identification of chemical elements, and moreover, it can provide its spatial concentrations and distributions in several kinds of biological tissues, such as bone. Several issues concerning bone metabolism are still under study, and the investigation of its morphology, in relation to mineral distribution, can be useful. The aim of this study is to characterize trabecular bone samples in order to verify the influence of the chemical elemental distribution in bone morphology through bi-dimensional mapping obtained through X-ray fluorescence technique with synchrotron radiation. The measurements were performed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (XRF beam line). This line is equipped with an HPGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV, a white beam, and the sample holder is placed at 45 deg in relation to the detector and the incident beam. The beam is focused by a fine conical capillary which provides X-ray microbeam of 20 μm diameter. To perform the experiment, the samples were placed in a mylar adhesive tape, positioned in the experimental set up and their measurements was taken into account in the calculation of concentration. The spectra were acquired in 10 s and 200 s to perform 2D images and single profiles respectively. No sample preparation was required and the experiment was performed in vertebrae and femur bone sites (in several positions) with 150 μm of thickness approximately. It was measured NIST Standard Reference Material (bone ash and bone meal - SRM 1400 and SRM 1486) in order to evaluate our experimental method. The sample holder has complete

  19. Microbialite Biosignature Analysis by Mesoscale X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Michael M; Quezergue, Kimbra; Pope, Michael C

    2017-11-01

    As part of its biosignature detection package, the Mars 2020 rover will carry PIXL, the Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry, a spatially resolved X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) spectrometer. Understanding the types of biosignatures detectable by μXRF and the rock types μXRF is most effective at analyzing is therefore an important goal in preparation for in situ Mars 2020 science and sample selection. We tested mesoscale chemical mapping for biosignature interpretation in microbialites. In particular, we used μXRF to identify spatial distributions and associations between various elements ("fluorescence microfacies") to infer the physical, biological, and chemical processes that produced the observed compositional distributions. As a test case, elemental distributions from μXRF scans of stromatolites from the Mesoarchean Nsuze Group (2.98 Ga) were analyzed. We included five fluorescence microfacies: laminated dolostone, laminated chert, clotted dolostone and chert, stromatolite clast breccia, and cavity fill. Laminated dolostone was formed primarily by microbial mats that trapped and bound loose sediment and likely precipitated carbonate mud at a shallow depth below the mat surface. Laminated chert was produced by the secondary silicification of microbial mats. Clotted dolostone and chert grew as cauliform, cryptically laminated mounds similar to younger thrombolites and was likely formed by a combination of mat growth and patchy precipitation of early-formed carbonate. Stromatolite clast breccias formed as lag deposits filling erosional scours and interstromatolite spaces. Cavities were filled by microquartz, Mn-rich dolomite, and partially dolomitized calcite. Overall, we concluded that μXRF is effective for inferring genetic processes and identifying biosignatures in compositionally heterogeneous rocks. Key Words: Stromatolites-Biosignatures-Spectroscopy-Archean. Astrobiology 17, 1161-1172.

  20. Coelectrodeposition of Ternary Mn-Oxide/Polypyrrole Composites for ORR Electrocatalysts: A Study Based on Micro-X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Fluorescence Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto Bozzini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Low energy X-ray fluorescence (XRF and soft X-ray absorption (XAS microspectroscopies at high space-resolution are employed for the investigation of the coelectrodeposition of composites consisting of a polypyrrole(PPy-matrix and Mn-based ternary dispersoids, that have been proposed as promising electrocatalysts for oxygen-reduction electrodes. Specifically, we studied Mn–Co–Cu/PP, Mn–Co–Mg/PPy and Mn–Ni–Mg/PPy co-electrodeposits. The Mn–Co–Cu system features the best ORR electrocatalytic activity in terms of electron transfer number, onset potential, half-wave potential and current density. XRF maps and micro-XAS spectra yield compositional and chemical state distributions, contributing unique molecular-level information on the pulse-plating processes. Mn, Ni, Co and Mg exhibit a bimodal distribution consisting of mesoscopic aggregates of micrometric globuli, separated by polymer-rich ridges. Within this common qualitative scenario, the individual systems exhibit quantitatively different chemical distribution patterns, resulting from specific electrokinetic and electrosorption properties of the single components. The electrodeposits consist of Mn3+,4+-oxide particles, accompanied by combinations of Co0/Co2+, Ni0/Ni2+ and Cu0,+/Cu2+ resulting from the alternance of cathodic and anodic pulses. The formation of highly electroactive Mn3+,4+ in the as-fabricated material is a specific feature of the ternary systems, deriving from synergistic stabilisation brought about by two types of bivalent dopants as well as by galvanic contact to elemental metal; this result represents a considerable improvement in material quality with respect to previously studied Mn/PPy and Mn-based/PPy binaries.

  1. Quantitative atomic resolution elemental mapping via absolute-scale energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Weyland, M. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Sang, X.; Xu, W.; Dycus, J.H.; LeBeau, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); D' Alfonso, A.J.; Allen, L.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D., E-mail: scott.findlay@monash.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative agreement on an absolute scale is demonstrated between experiment and simulation for two-dimensional, atomic-resolution elemental mapping via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This requires all experimental parameters to be carefully characterized. The agreement is good, but some discrepancies remain. The most likely contributing factors are identified and discussed. Previous predictions that increasing the probe forming aperture helps to suppress the channelling enhancement in the average signal are confirmed experimentally. It is emphasized that simple column-by-column analysis requires a choice of sample thickness that compromises between being thick enough to yield a good signal-to-noise ratio while being thin enough that the overwhelming majority of the EDX signal derives from the column on which the probe is placed, despite strong electron scattering effects. - Highlights: • Absolute scale quantification of 2D atomic-resolution EDX maps is demonstrated. • Factors contributing to remaining small quantitative discrepancies are identified. • Experiment confirms large probe-forming apertures suppress channelling enhancement. • The thickness range suitable for reliable column-by-column analysis is discussed.

  2. Mapping metals incorporation of a whole single catalyst particle using element specific X-ray nanotomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirer, Florian; Morris, Darius T; Kalirai, Samanbir; Liu, Yijin; Andrews, Joy C; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-01-01

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy has been used to determine the 3D structure of a whole individual fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particle at high spatial resolution and in a fast, noninvasive manner, maintaining the full integrity of the particle. Using X-ray absorption mosaic imaging to

  3. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering: From band mapping to inter-orbital excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, J.; Hague, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (also known as resonant X-ray Raman spectroscopy when only valence and conduction states are involved in the final state excitation) has developed into a major tool for understanding the electronic properties of complex materials. Presently it provides access to electron excitations in the few hundred meV range with element and bulk selectivity. Recent progress in X-ray optics and synchrotron radiation engineering have opened up new perspectives for this powerful technique to improve resolving power and efficiency. We briefly present the basics of the method and illustrate its potential with examples chosen from the literature. (authors)

  4. Chemical Mapping of Paleontological and Archeological Artifacts with Synchrotron X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Uwe; Manning, Phillip L.; Wogelius, Roy A.

    2012-07-01

    The application of the recently developed synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence (SRS-XRF) technique to the mapping of large objects is the focus of this review. We discuss the advantages of SRS-XRF over traditional systems and the use of other synchrotron radiation (SR) techniques to provide corroborating spectroscopic and diffraction analyses during the same analytical session. After reviewing routine techniques used to analyze precious specimens, we present several case studies that show how SR-based methods have been successfully applied in archeology and paleontology. For example, SRS-XRF imaging of a seventh-century Qur'ān palimpsest and an overpainted original opera score from Luigi Cherubini is described. We also review the recent discovery of soft-tissue residue in fossils of Archaeopteryx and an ancient reptile, as well as work that has successfully resolved the remnants of pigment in Confuciusornis sanctus, a 120-million-year-old fossil of the oldest documented bird with a fully derived avian beak.

  5. Mapping the large area straw detectors of the COMPASS experiment with X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Platzer, Klaus; Dünnweber, Wolfgang; Faessler, Martin A; Geyer, Reiner; Ilgner, C; Peshekhonov, Vladimir D; Wellenstein, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    In the COMPASS experiment at CERN, large straw drift tube detectors are used for large-angle tracking. To minimize the total areal density, a self supporting structure of thin-walled plastic tubes was chosen and, hence, a loss in mechanical precision was accepted. A complete mapping of the anode wire coordinate grid was required. An X-ray apparatus using a charge-coupled device (CCD) as imaging detector was built to investigate the mechanical properties and to calibrate (offline) the wire positions. Deviations of typically 200-400 mu m from the nominal positions, defined by equal spacing, are found across the detector area of 8 m/sup 2/. With a calibration method based on high-resolution CCD imaging and pattern recognition algorithms, the absolute wire coordinates are determined with an accuracy better than 30 mu m across the whole detector area. Temperature effects are clearly seen. Their inhomogenity limits the achievable accuracy to about 50 mu m under realistic experimental conditions, which is sufficient...

  6. Abandoned mine slags analysis by EPMA WDS X-ray mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, F; Rosado, L; Morais, C; Candeias, A E; Pinto, A P; Mirao, J

    2010-01-01

    Mining activity on the Iberian Pyritic Belt (Portugal and Spain) started before Phoenician times, became particularly intense during the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula (for gold), and after the industrial revolution (for gold, copper, zinc, lead and sulphur). The commonest ore of this region is a massive polymetalic sulphide accumulation, where pyrite (FeS 2 ) is the main mineral, with variable concentrations of chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2 ), sphalerite (ZnS), galena (PbS), arsenopyrite (FeAsS 2 ), other sulphides and sulfosalts which include minor elements like Mn, Co, Ni, Se, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg and Bi. Some of the main and minor elements of these ores are hazardous and the drainage basins of pollutant source areas often induce health concerns in the resident population. Electron probe microanalysis study followed previous optical and XRD analysis of the slags. The study focused on the identification of phases how sulphide and metallic phases are distributed within the material and infer about leachable elements during weathering. Electron probe X-ray maps show evidences of different behaviour between the elements: Ca and Zn are completely leached; iron is retained in oxyhydroxides, lead and arsenic precipitate as sulphates. Electron probe microanalysis studies are essential to understand complex materials as earth materials. Nevertheless, care is required to a correct interpretation of data and most quantitative compositional data are not trustworthy.

  7. X-Ray and Radiometrics in Geo-Ecological and Geochemical Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedyanin, S. N. [Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combinat (Uzbekistan)

    2014-05-15

    Monitoring of tailing pits of uranium ore conversion products and reserve supplies of low-grade ores stored in dumps is traditionally based on radiation environment on these sites and adjacent territories. The results of gamma-ray spectrometry of solid fractions and radon concentration measurement in liquid and gas phases of technogenic formations are used in radiation hazard evaluation. Radiometric testing practice of low-activity field formations in loose and lump masses shows that due to high emanating ability it is necessary to use dual-channel radiometer for ionizing radiation background record and compensation. Thus gamma-radiometry is not the direct method of uranium content determination and alfa- and beta-radiometry can be correctly used only for sample analysis in laboratory environment. Consequently, distant express testing with the help of X-ray radiometric (XRM) instruments (on calcium, iron, manganese, titanium, copper, arsenic, lead, strontium, selenium, molybdenum, uranium, etc.) is recommended for additional introduction in field observations of radio-ecological environment in mining and processing production tailing and dumps of low-grade ore reserve supplies. Thanks to preliminary areal schemes of geochemical zonality as per XRM data XRM application allows to use the sample limit, given for a wide range of laboratory analyses rationally. Sampling places and their number as well as kinds of laboratory analyses are chosen based on XRM data.It is rather effective to use laboratory variant of atomic absorptive analysis on mercury and stibium in gases (GA), generated in the process of grated samples calcination in muffle furnaces. During the presentation of the report In order to prove the effectiveness of XRM and GA presentation graphics with the results of areal mapping using the above methods and geochemical testing on the territories of Tashkent (Uzbekistan) and Chimkent (Kazakhstan) regions within the framework of the geological and ecological

  8. Nondestructive Evaluation of Advanced Materials with X-ray Phase Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengwei

    2005-01-01

    X-ray radiation has been widely used for imaging applications since Rontgen first discovered X-rays over a century ago. Its large penetration depth makes it ideal for the nondestructive visualization of the internal structure and/or defects of materials unobtainable otherwise. Currently used nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tools, X-ray radiography and tomography, are absorption-based, and work well in heavy-element materials where density or composition variations due to internal structure or defects are high enough to produce appreciable absorption contrast. However, in many cases where materials are light-weight and/or composites that have similar mass absorption coefficients, the conventional absorption-based X-ray methods for NDE become less useful. Indeed, the light-weight and ultra-high-strength requirements for the most advanced materials used or developed for current flight mission and future space exploration pose a great challenge to the standard NDE tools in that the absorption contrast arising from the internal structure of these materials is often too weak to be resolved. In this presentation, a solution to the problem, the use of phase information of X-rays for phase contrast X-ray imaging, will be discussed, along with a comparison between the absorption-based and phase-contrast imaging methods. Latest results on phase contrast X-ray imaging of lightweight Space Shuttle foam in 2D and 3D will be presented, demonstrating new opportunities to solve the challenging issues encountered in advanced materials development and processing.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a tRNASer acceptor-stem microhelix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Förster, Charlotte; Krauss, Norbert; Brauer, Arnd B. E.; Szkaradkiewicz, Karol; Brode, Svenja; Hennig, Klaus; Fürste, Jens P.; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate tRNA identity elements, an elongator tRNA Ser acceptor-stem helix was crystallized and a data set was collected to 1.8 Å resolution aiming at a comparison with the corresponding region in suppressor tRNA Sec . In order to understand elongator tRNA Ser and suppressor tRNA Sec identity elements, the respective acceptor-stem helices have been synthesized and crystallized in order to analyse and compare their structures in detail at high resolution. The synthesis, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction results for a seven-base-pair tRNA Ser acceptor-stem helix are presented here. Diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å, applying synchrotron radiation and cryogenic cooling. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 36.14, b = 38.96, c = 30.81 Å, β = 110.69°

  10. Escherichia coli tRNAArg acceptor-stem isoacceptors: comparative crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichert, André; Schreiber, Angela; Fürste, Jens P.; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.; Förster, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Various E. coli tRNA Arg acceptor-stem microhelix isoacceptors have been crystallized and investigated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. The aminoacylation of tRNA is a crucial step in cellular protein biosynthesis. Recognition of the cognate tRNA by the correct aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase is ensured by tRNA identity elements. In tRNA Arg , the identity elements consist of the anticodon, parts of the D-loop and the discriminator base. The minor groove of the aminoacyl stem interacts with the arginyl-tRNA synthetase. As a consequence of the redundancy of the genetic code, six tRNA Arg isoacceptors exist. In the present work, three different Escherichia coli tRNA Arg acceptor-stem helices were crystallized. Two of them, the tRNA Arg microhelices RR-1660 and RR-1662, were examined by X-ray diffraction analysis and diffracted to 1.7 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively. The tRNA Arg RR-1660 helix crystallized in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 26.28, b = 28.92, c = 29.00 Å, α = 105.74, β = 99.01, γ = 97.44°, whereas the tRNA Arg RR-1662 helix crystallized in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 33.18, b = 46.16, c = 26.04 Å, β = 101.50°

  11. X-ray Reciprocal Space Mapping of Graded Al x Ga1 - x N Films and Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchu, Hryhorii V; Kuchuk, Andrian V; Kladko, Vasyl P; Ware, Morgan E; Mazur, Yuriy I; Zytkiewicz, Zbigniew R; Belyaev, Alexander E; Salamo, Gregory J

    2016-12-01

    The depth distribution of strain and composition in graded Al x Ga1 - x N films and nanowires (NWs) are studied theoretically using the kinematical theory of X-ray diffraction. By calculating [Formula: see text] reciprocal space maps (RSMs), we demonstrate significant differences in the intensity distributions from graded Al x Ga1 - x N films and NWs. We attribute these differences to relaxation of the substrate-induced strain on the NWs free side walls. Finally, we demonstrate that the developed X-ray reciprocal space map model allows for reliable depth profiles of strain and Al composition determination in both Al x Ga1 - x N films and NWs.

  12. Trace Element Mapping of a Biological Specimen by a Full-Field X-ray Fluorescence Imaging Microscope with a Wolter Mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Masato; Yamada, Norimitsu; Ishino, Toyoaki; Namiki, Takashi; Watanabe, Norio; Aoki, Sadao

    2007-01-01

    A full-field X-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror was applied to the element mapping of alfalfa seeds. The X-ray fluorescence microscope was built at the Photon Factory BL3C2 (KEK). X-ray fluorescence images of several growing stages of the alfalfa seeds were obtained. X-ray fluorescence energy spectra were measured with either a solid state detector or a CCD photon counting method. The element distributions of iron and zinc which were included in the seeds were obtained using a photon counting method

  13. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  14. Analysis of X-ray structures of matrix metalloproteinases via chaotic map clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangreco, Ilenia; Nicolotti, Orazio; Carotti, Angelo; De Carlo, Francesco; Gargano, Gianfranco; Bellotti, Roberto

    2010-10-08

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are well-known biological targets implicated in tumour progression, homeostatic regulation, innate immunity, impaired delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands, and the release and cleavage of cell-surface receptors. With this in mind, the perception of the intimate relationships among diverse MMPs could be a solid basis for accelerated learning in designing new selective MMP inhibitors. In this regard, decrypting the latent molecular reasons in order to elucidate similarity among MMPs is a key challenge. We describe a pairwise variant of the non-parametric chaotic map clustering (CMC) algorithm and its application to 104 X-ray MMP structures. In this analysis electrostatic potentials are computed and used as input for the CMC algorithm. It was shown that differences between proteins reflect genuine variation of their electrostatic potentials. In addition, the analysis has been also extended to analyze the protein primary structures and the molecular shapes of the MMP co-crystallised ligands. The CMC algorithm was shown to be a valuable tool in knowledge acquisition and transfer from MMP structures. Based on the variation of electrostatic potentials, CMC was successful in analysing the MMP target family landscape and different subsites. The first investigation resulted in rational figure interpretation of both domain organization as well as of substrate specificity classifications. The second made it possible to distinguish the MMP classes, demonstrating the high specificity of the S1' pocket, to detect both the occurrence of punctual mutations of ionisable residues and different side-chain conformations that likely account for induced-fit phenomena. In addition, CMC demonstrated a potential comparable to the most popular UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean) method that, at present, represents a standard clustering bioinformatics approach. Interestingly, CMC and UPGMA resulted in closely comparable outcomes, but often

  15. Analysis of X-ray Structures of Matrix Metalloproteinases via Chaotic Map Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargano Gianfranco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are well-known biological targets implicated in tumour progression, homeostatic regulation, innate immunity, impaired delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands, and the release and cleavage of cell-surface receptors. With this in mind, the perception of the intimate relationships among diverse MMPs could be a solid basis for accelerated learning in designing new selective MMP inhibitors. In this regard, decrypting the latent molecular reasons in order to elucidate similarity among MMPs is a key challenge. Results We describe a pairwise variant of the non-parametric chaotic map clustering (CMC algorithm and its application to 104 X-ray MMP structures. In this analysis electrostatic potentials are computed and used as input for the CMC algorithm. It was shown that differences between proteins reflect genuine variation of their electrostatic potentials. In addition, the analysis has been also extended to analyze the protein primary structures and the molecular shapes of the MMP co-crystallised ligands. Conclusions The CMC algorithm was shown to be a valuable tool in knowledge acquisition and transfer from MMP structures. Based on the variation of electrostatic potentials, CMC was successful in analysing the MMP target family landscape and different subsites. The first investigation resulted in rational figure interpretation of both domain organization as well as of substrate specificity classifications. The second made it possible to distinguish the MMP classes, demonstrating the high specificity of the S1' pocket, to detect both the occurrence of punctual mutations of ionisable residues and different side-chain conformations that likely account for induced-fit phenomena. In addition, CMC demonstrated a potential comparable to the most popular UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean method that, at present, represents a standard clustering bioinformatics approach. Interestingly, CMC and

  16. High spatial resolution grain orientation and strain mapping in thin films using polychromatic submicron x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Valek, B.; Bravman, J. C.; Spolenak, R.; Brown, W. L.; Marieb, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    The availability of high brilliance synchrotron sources, coupled with recent progress in achromatic focusing optics and large area two-dimensional detector technology, has allowed us to develop an x-ray synchrotron technique that is capable of mapping orientation and strain/stress in polycrystalline thin films with submicron spatial resolution. To demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument, we have employed it to study the microstructure of aluminum thin film structures at the granular and subgranular levels. Due to the relatively low absorption of x-rays in materials, this technique can be used to study passivated samples, an important advantage over most electron probes given the very different mechanical behavior of buried and unpassivated materials.

  17. Structural characterization of self-assembled semiconductor islands by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction mapping in reciprocal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, V.; Mundboth, K.; Mokuta, C.; Metzger, T.H.; Stangl, J.; Bauer, G.; Boeck, T.; Schmidbauer, M.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time self-organized epitaxially grown semiconductor islands were investigated by a full three-dimensional mapping of the scattered X-ray intensity in reciprocal space. Intensity distributions were measured in a coplanar diffraction geometry around symmetric and asymmetric Bragg reflections. The 3D intensity maps were compared with theoretical simulations based on continuum-elasticity simulations of internal strains in the islands and on kinematical scattering theory whereby local chemical composition and strain profiles of the islands were retrieved

  18. MapX: An In Situ, Full-Frame X-Ray Spectroscopic Imager for the Biogenic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David; Sarrazin, Philippe; Thompson, Kathy; Bristow, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Microbial life exploits microscale disequilibria at boundaries where valence, chemical potential, pH, Eh, etc. vary on a length scale commensurate with the organisms themselves - tens to hundreds of micrometers. These disequilibria can exist within cracks or veins in rocks and ice, at inter- or intra-crystalline boundaries, at sediment/water or sediment/atmosphere interfaces, or even within fluid inclusions trapped inside minerals. The detection of accumulations of the biogenic elements C,N,O,P,S at appropriate concentrations on or in a mineral/ice substrate would constitute permissive evidence of extant life, but context is also required. Does the putative biosignature exist in a habitable environment? Under what conditions of P, T, and chemical potential was the host mineralogy formed? MapX is an arm-deployed contact instrument that directly images the biogenic elements C, N, O, P, S, as well as the cations of the rock-forming minerals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe) and important anions such as Cl, Fl. The instrument provides element images having =100 micron lateral spatial resolution over a 2.5 cm X 2.5 cm area, as well as quantitative XRF spectra from ground-selected or instrument-selected Regions of Interest (ROI) on the sample. Quantitative XRF spectra from ROI can be translated into mineralogies using ground- or instrument-based algorithms. Either an X-ray tube source (X-ray fluorescence) or a radioisotope source such as 244-Cm (alpha-particle and gamma-ray fluorescence) can be used, and characteristic X-rays emitted from the sample are imaged onto an X-ray sensitive CCD through an X-ray MicroPore Optic (MPO). As a fluorescent source, 244-Cm is highly desirable in a MapX instrument intended for life detection since high-energy alpha-particles are unrivaled in fluorescence yield for the low-Z elements. The MapX design as well as baseline performance requirements for a MapX instrument intended for life detection/identification of habitable

  19. MapX An In Situ, Full-frame X-Ray Spectroscopic Imager for Planetary Science and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David; Sarrazin, Philippe; Thompson, Kathleen; Bristow, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Microbial life exploits micron-scale disequilibria at boundaries where valence, chemical potential, pH, Eh, etc. vary on a length scale commensurate with the organisms - 10's to 100's of microns. The detection of accumulations of the biogenic elements C,N,O,P,S at appropriate concentrations on or in a mineral/ice substrate would constitute permissive evidence of extant life, but context is also required. Does the putative biosignature exist under habitable conditions? Under what conditions of P, T, and chemical potential was the host mineralogy formed? MapX is an in situ robotic spacecraft instrument that images the biogenic elements C, N, O, P, S, as well as the cations of the rock-forming minerals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe) and important anions such as Cl, Fl. MapX provides element maps with less than or equal to100 microns resolution over a 2.5 cm X 2.5 cm area, as well as quantitative XRF spectra from ground- or instrument-selected Regions of Interest (ROI). XRF spectra are converted to mineralogies using ground- or instrument-based algorithms. Either X-ray tube or radioisotope sources such as 244Cm (Alpha-particle and gamma- ray fluorescence) can be used. Fluoresced sample Xrays are imaged onto an X-ray sensitive CCD through an X-ray MicroPore Optic (MPO). The MapX design as well as baseline performance requirements for a MapX instrument intended for life detection / identification of habitable environments will be presented.

  20. Grain orientation mapping of passivated aluminum interconnect lines with X-ray micro-diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.H.; Patel, J.R.; MacDowell, A.A.; Padmore, H.A.; Thompson, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    A micro x-ray diffraction facility is under development at the Advanced Light Source. Spot sizes are typically about 1-microm size generated by means of grazing incidence Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing mirrors. Photon energy is either white of energy range 6--14 keV or monochromatic generated from a pair of channel cut crystals. Laue diffraction pattern from a single grain in a passivated 2-microm wide bamboo structured Aluminum interconnect line has been recorded. Acquisition times are of the order of seconds. The Laue pattern has allowed the determination of the crystallographic orientation of individual grains along the line length. The experimental and analysis procedure used is described, as is the latest grain orientation result. The impact of x-ray micro-diffraction and its possible future direction are discussed in the context of other developments in the area of electromigration, and other technological problems

  1. Grain orientation mapping of passivated aluminum interconnect lines by x-ray micro-diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C. H.; Patel, J. R.; MacDowell, A. A.; Padmore, H. A.; Thompson, A. C.

    1998-01-01

    A micro x-ray diffraction facility is under development at the Advanced Light Source. Spot sizes are typically about 1-μm size generated by means of grazing incidence Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing mirrors. Photon energy is either white of energy range 6-14 keV or monochromatic generated from a pair of channel cut crystals. Laue diffraction pattern from a single grain in a passivated 2-μm wide bamboo structured Aluminum interconnect line has been recorded. Acquisition times are of the order of seconds. The Laue pattern has allowed the determination of the crystallographic orientation of individual grains along the line length. The experimental and analysis procedure used is described, as is the latest grain orientation result. The impact of x-ray micro-diffraction and its possible future direction are discussed in the context of other developments in the area of electromigration, and other technological problems

  2. Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleber, S.-C.; Thieme, J.; Chao, W.; Fischer, P.

    2008-09-01

    The spatial arrangements of hematite particles within aqueous soil and clay samples are investigated with soft X-ray microscopy, taking advantage of the elemental contrast at the Fe-L edge around E = 707 eV. In combination with stereo microscopy, information about spatial arrangements are revealed and correlated to electrostatic interactions of the different mixtures. Manipulation of a sample mounted to the microscope is possible and particles added while imaging can be detected.

  3. Quantitative X-ray Map Analyser (Q-XRMA): A new GIS-based statistical approach to Mineral Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolano, Gaetano; Visalli, Roberto; Godard, Gaston; Cirrincione, Rosolino

    2018-06-01

    We present a new ArcGIS®-based tool developed in the Python programming language for calibrating EDS/WDS X-ray element maps, with the aim of acquiring quantitative information of petrological interest. The calibration procedure is based on a multiple linear regression technique that takes into account interdependence among elements and is constrained by the stoichiometry of minerals. The procedure requires an appropriate number of spot analyses for use as internal standards and provides several test indexes for a rapid check of calibration accuracy. The code is based on an earlier image-processing tool designed primarily for classifying minerals in X-ray element maps; the original Python code has now been enhanced to yield calibrated maps of mineral end-members or the chemical parameters of each classified mineral. The semi-automated procedure can be used to extract a dataset that is automatically stored within queryable tables. As a case study, the software was applied to an amphibolite-facies garnet-bearing micaschist. The calibrated images obtained for both anhydrous (i.e., garnet and plagioclase) and hydrous (i.e., biotite) phases show a good fit with corresponding electron microprobe analyses. This new GIS-based tool package can thus find useful application in petrology and materials science research. Moreover, the huge quantity of data extracted opens new opportunities for the development of a thin-section microchemical database that, using a GIS platform, can be linked with other major global geoscience databases.

  4. Ultrastructural localization of uranium biosorption in Penicillium digitatum by stem x-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galun, M.; Galun, E.

    1987-01-01

    When Penicillium digitatum Saccardo cultures are exposed to aqueous solutions containing soluble uranium salts, considerable amounts of this element are accumulated in the fungal mycelium. The accumulated uranium is retained after thorough rinsing with distilled water but is removed by alkali carbonate solutions. Analysis of thick sections (0.5 μm) of the fungal hyphae with TEM, after incubation in UO 2 Cl 2 solutions of varying concentrations under both light and dark conditions, revealed conspicuous crystal-like deposits in UO 2 Cl 2 -exposed hyphae, but none in the control hyphae. Thick sections were necessary for crystal visualization. Using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, uranium was detected as the only heavy element in these crystals. Uranium crystal biosorption was localized on the outside surface of the hyphal cell wall (following short exposures to relatively low uranium concentrations) or inside the cell wall (following long exposure to relatively high uranium concentrations). In some cases, crystal-like deposits of uranium salts were located on the outside surface as well as inside the cell. (author)

  5. Grain orientation mapping of passivated aluminum interconnect wires with X-ray micro-diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, A.A.; Padmore, H.A.; Thompson, A.C.; Chang, C.H.; Patel, J.R.

    1998-06-01

    A micro x-ray diffraction facility is under development at the Advanced Light source. Spot sizes are typically about 1-microm size generated by means of grazing incidence Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing mirrors. Photon energy is either white of energy range 6--14 keV or monochromatic generated from a pair of channel cut crystals. A Laue diffraction pattern from a single grain in passivated 2-microm wide bamboo structured Aluminum interconnect line has been recorded. Acquisition times are of the order of a few seconds. The Laue pattern has allowed the determination of the crystallographic orientation of individual grains along the line length. The experimental and analysis procedures used are described, as is a grain orientation result. The future direction of this program is discussed in the context of strain measurements in the area of electromigration

  6. X-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and small beam diffraction mapping of sea urchin teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, S R; Barss, J; Dahl, T; Veis, A; Almer, J D

    2002-07-01

    Two noninvasive X-ray techniques, laboratory X-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and X-ray diffraction mapping, were used to study teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. MicroCT revealed low attenuation regions at near the tooth's stone part and along the carinar process-central prism boundary; this latter observation appears to be novel. The expected variation of Mg fraction x in the mineral phase (calcite, Ca(1-x)Mg(x)CO(3)) cannot account for all of the linear attenuation coefficient decrease in the two zones: this suggested that soft tissue is localized there. Transmission diffraction mapping (synchrotron X-radiation, 80.8 keV, 0.1 x 0.1mm(2) beam area, 0.1mm translation grid, image plate area detector) simultaneously probed variations in 3-D and showed that the crystal elements of the "T"-shaped tooth were very highly aligned. Diffraction patterns from the keel (adaxial web) and from the abaxial flange (containing primary plates and the stone part) differed markedly. The flange contained two populations of identically oriented crystal elements with lattice parameters corresponding to x=0.13 and x=0.32. The keel produced one set of diffraction spots corresponding to the lower x. The compositions were more or less equivalent to those determined by others for camarodont teeth, and the high Mg phase is expected to be disks of secondary mineral epitaxially related to the underlying primary mineral element. Lattice parameter gradients were not noted in the keel or flange. Taken together, the microCT and diffraction results indicated that there was a band of relatively high protein content, of up to approximately 0.25 volume fraction, in the central part of the flange and paralleling its adaxial and abaxial faces. X-ray microCT and microdiffraction data used in conjunction with protein distribution data will be crucial for understanding the properties of various biocomposites and their mechanical functions.

  7. Synchrotron x-ray studies of the keel of the short-spined sea urchin lytechinus variegatus: absorption microtomography (microCT) and small beam diffraction mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, S.R.; Barss, J.; Dahl, T.; Veis, A.; Almer, J.D.; De Carlo, F.

    2003-01-01

    In sea urchin teeth, the keel plays an important structural role, and this paper reports results of microstructural characterization of the keel of Lytechinus variegatus using two noninvasive synchrotron x-ray techniques: x-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and x-ray diffraction mapping. MicroCT with 14 keV x-rays mapped the spatial distribution of mineral at the 1.3 microm level in a millimeter-sized fragment of a mature portion of the keel. Two rows of low absorption channels (i.e., primary channels) slightly less than 10 microm in diameter were found running linearly from the flange to the base of the keel and parallel to its sides. The primary channels paralleled the oral edge of the keel, and the microCT slices revealed a planar secondary channel leading from each primary channel to the side of the keel. The primary and secondary channels were more or less coplanar and may correspond to the soft tissue between plates of the carinar process. Transmission x-ray diffraction with 80.8 keV x-rays and a 0.1 mm beam mapped the distribution of calcite crystal orientations and the composition Ca(1-x)Mg(x)CO(3) of the calcite. Unlike the variable Mg concentration and highly curved prisms found in the keel of Paracentrotus lividus, a constant Mg content (x = 0.13) and relatively little prism curvature was found in the keel of Lytechinus variegatus.

  8. X-ray tomographic microscopy tightens affinity of the early Cambrian Oymurania to the brachiopod stem group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Kouchinsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The geologically rapid biotic evolution in the early Cambrian is marked by the first appearance of major groups of animals in the fossil record (e.g., Budd and Jensen 2000; Kouchinsky et al. 2012. Along with the earliest crown-group representatives of the phylum Brachiopoda, more basal branches of the phylogenetic tree belonging to the stem-group Brachiopoda, such as tannuolinids and mikwitziids, diversified and became widespread during the early Cambrian (e.g., Williams and Holmer 2002; Balthasar et al. 2009; Skovsted et al. 2014. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM of Oymurania gravestocki reveals the microstructure of its calcium-phosphatic shell differentiated into two layers and intersecting systems of canals. The outer layer shows the acrotretoid columnar microstructure and the inner layer consists of continuous prismatic columns. Phosphatized setae preserved within tangential canals, as well as perpendicular canals of Micrina–Setatella type demonstrate homology with the tannuolinid Micrina and the mickwitziid Setatella. A unique and novel combination of microstructural features in Oymurania confirms its evolutionary position within the brachiopod stem group.

  9. X-ray fluorescence microscopy artefacts in elemental maps of topologically complex samples: Analytical observations, simulation and a map correction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billè, Fulvio; Kourousias, George; Luchinat, Enrico; Kiskinova, Maya; Gianoncelli, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    XRF spectroscopy is among the most widely used non-destructive techniques for elemental analysis. Despite the known angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), topological artefacts remain an unresolved issue when using X-ray micro- or nano-probes. In this work we investigate the origin of the artefacts in XRF imaging of topologically complex samples, which are unresolved problems in studies of organic matter due to the limited travel distances of low energy XRF emission from the light elements. In particular we mapped Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293T) cells. The exemplary results with biological samples, obtained with a soft X-ray scanning microscope installed at a synchrotron facility were used for testing a mathematical model based on detector response simulations, and for proposing an artefact correction method based on directional derivatives. Despite the peculiar and specific application, the methodology can be easily extended to hard X-rays and to set-ups with multi-array detector systems when the dimensions of surface reliefs are in the order of the probing beam size.

  10. Chest X-Ray

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  11. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. VII. Understanding the Ultraviolet Anomaly in NGC 5548 with X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, S.; Pogge, R. W.; Adams, S. M.; Beatty, T. G.; Bisogni, S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Gupta, A. [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Page, K.; Goad, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Krongold, Y. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuidad de Mexico (Mexico); Anderson, M. D.; Bazhaw, C.; Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Barth, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bigley, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny, Crimea 298409 (Russian Federation); Boroson, T. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bottorff, M. C. [Fountainwood Observatory, Department of Physics FJS 149, Southwestern University, 1011 East University Avenue, Georgetown, TX 78626 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Breeveld, A. A. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-09-01

    During the Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project observations of NGC 5548, the continuum and emission-line variability became decorrelated during the second half of the six-month-long observing campaign. Here we present Swift and Chandra X-ray spectra of NGC 5548 obtained as part of the campaign. The Swift spectra show that excess flux (relative to a power-law continuum) in the soft X-ray band appears before the start of the anomalous emission-line behavior, peaks during the period of the anomaly, and then declines. This is a model-independent result suggesting that the soft excess is related to the anomaly. We divide the Swift data into on- and off-anomaly spectra to characterize the soft excess via spectral fitting. The cause of the spectral differences is likely due to a change in the intrinsic spectrum rather than to variable obscuration or partial covering. The Chandra spectra have lower signal-to-noise ratios, but are consistent with the Swift data. Our preferred model of the soft excess is emission from an optically thick, warm Comptonizing corona, the effective optical depth of which increases during the anomaly. This model simultaneously explains all three observations: the UV emission-line flux decrease, the soft-excess increase, and the emission-line anomaly.

  12. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. VII. Understanding the Ultraviolet Anomaly in NGC 5548 with X-Ray Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.; Pogge, R. W.; Adams, S. M.; Beatty, T. G.; Bisogni, S.; Gupta, A.; Page, K.; Goad, M. R.; Krongold, Y.; Anderson, M. D.; Bazhaw, C.; Bentz, M. C.; Arévalo, P.; Barth, A. J.; Bigley, A.; Borman, G. A.; Boroson, T. A.; Bottorff, M. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Breeveld, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    During the Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project observations of NGC 5548, the continuum and emission-line variability became decorrelated during the second half of the six-month-long observing campaign. Here we present Swift and Chandra X-ray spectra of NGC 5548 obtained as part of the campaign. The Swift spectra show that excess flux (relative to a power-law continuum) in the soft X-ray band appears before the start of the anomalous emission-line behavior, peaks during the period of the anomaly, and then declines. This is a model-independent result suggesting that the soft excess is related to the anomaly. We divide the Swift data into on- and off-anomaly spectra to characterize the soft excess via spectral fitting. The cause of the spectral differences is likely due to a change in the intrinsic spectrum rather than to variable obscuration or partial covering. The Chandra spectra have lower signal-to-noise ratios, but are consistent with the Swift data. Our preferred model of the soft excess is emission from an optically thick, warm Comptonizing corona, the effective optical depth of which increases during the anomaly. This model simultaneously explains all three observations: the UV emission-line flux decrease, the soft-excess increase, and the emission-line anomaly.

  13. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  14. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  15. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, 1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field

  16. Patient dose map indications on interventional X-ray systems and validation with Gafchromic XR-RV3 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordier, C.; Klausz, R.; Desponds, L.

    2015-01-01

    To help avoiding secondary effects of interventional procedures like skin damage, a dose map method has been developed to provide an indication of the local dose on a surface representative of individual patient shapes. To minimise user interactions, patient envelope shapes are automatically determined depending on simple patient data information. Local doses are calculated in 1-cm 2 areas depending on the estimated air kerma, table and gantry positions and system settings, taking into account the table and mattress attenuations and estimated backscatter from the patient. These local doses are cumulated for each location of the patient envelope during the clinical procedure. To assess the accuracy of the method, Gafchromic XR-RV3 films have been used in several operating configurations. Good visual agreements on cumulated dose localisation were obtained within the 1-cm 2 precision of the map and the dose values agreed within 24.9 % accuracy. The resulting dose map method has been integrated into GE Healthcare X-Ray angiographic systems and should help in the management of the dose by the users during the procedure. (authors)

  17. Sensitivity study of a semiautomatic supervised classifier applied to minerals from x-ray mapping images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Flesche, Harald

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of assessing the robustness with respect to change in parameters of an integrated training and classification routine for minerals commonly encountered in siliciclastic or carbonate rocks. Twelve chemical elements are mapped from thin sections by energy dispersive...

  18. Large area synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempson, I.; Thierry, B.; Smith, E.; Gao, M.; De Jonge, M.

    2014-01-01

    Large area mapping of inorganic material in biological samples has suffered severely from prohibitively long acquisition times. With the advent of new detector technology we can now generate statistically relevant information for studying cell populations, inter-variability and bioinorganic chemistry in large specimen. We have been implementing ultrafast synchrotron-based XRF mapping afforded by the MAIA detector for large area mapping of biological material. For example, a 2.5 million pixel map can be acquired in 3 hours, compared to a typical synchrotron XRF set-up needing over 1 month of uninterrupted beamtime. Of particular focus to us is the fate of metals and nanoparticles in cells, 3D tissue models and animal tissues. The large area scanning has for the first time provided statistically significant information on sufficiently large numbers of cells to provide data on intercellular variability in uptake of nanoparticles. Techniques such as flow cytometry generally require analysis of thousands of cells for statistically meaningful comparison, due to the large degree of variability. Large area XRF now gives comparable information in a quantifiable manner. Furthermore, we can now image localised deposition of nanoparticles in tissues that would be highly improbable to 'find' by typical XRF imaging. In addition, the ultra fast nature also makes it viable to conduct 3D XRF tomography over large dimensions. This technology avails new opportunities in biomonitoring and understanding metal and nanoparticle fate ex-vivo. Following from this is extension to molecular imaging through specific anti-body targeted nanoparticles to label specific tissues and monitor cellular process or biological consequence

  19. Incremental distribution of strontium and zinc in great ape and fossil hominin cementum using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Christopher; Le Cabec, Adeline; Spiers, Kathryn; Zhang, Yi; Garrevoet, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Cementum and the incremental markings it contains have been widely studied as a means of ageing animals and retrieving information about diet and nutrition. The distribution of trace elements in great ape and fossil hominin cementum has not been studied previously. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) enables rapid scanning of large tissue areas with high resolution of elemental distributions. First, we used SXRF to map calcium, phosphorus, strontium and zinc distributions in great ape dentine and cementum. At higher resolution, we compared zinc and strontium distributions in cellular and acellular cementum in regions where clear incremental markings were expressed. We then mapped trace element distributions in fossil hominin dentine and cementum from the 1.55-1.65 million year old site of Koobi Fora, Kenya. Zinc, in particular, is a precise marker of cementum increments in great apes, and is retained in fossil hominin cementum, but does not correspond well with the more diffuse fluctuations observed in strontium distribution. Cementum is unusual among mineralized tissues in retaining so much zinc. This is known to reduce the acid solubility of hydroxyapatite and so may confer resistance to resorption by osteoclasts in the dynamic remodelling environment of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Three-dimensional grain mapping by x-ray diffraction contrast tomography and the use of Friedel pairs in diffraction data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, W.; Reischig, P.; King, A.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) is a technique for mapping grain shape and orientation in plastically undeformed polycrystals. In this paper, we describe a modified DCT data acquisition strategy which permits the incorporation of an innovative Friedel pair method for analyzing...

  1. Evidence for the re-establishment of a heterogeneity in radiosensitivity among spermatogonial stem cells repopulating the mouse testis following depletion by X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattanach, B.M.; Barlow, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that the spermatogonial stem cells of the mouse testis recovering from previous radiation or chemical mutagen exposure give subnormal yields of genetic damage with subsequent X-irradiation. This response has been investigated further: (a) with a high, 9-Gy X-ray dose given 4, 12 or 21 days after a 1-Gy conditioning dose and (b) with a 1 + 7-Gy, 24-h fractionation regime given 4 or 14 days after a 1-Gy conditioning dose. The results of the experiments suggest that a heterogeneity in radiosensitivity, such as exists in unirradiated stem cell populations and absent 24-48 h after radiation depletion, is quickly re-established among the stem cells repopulating the testis. And that the newly established heterogeneity is removed by the second 1-Gy conditioning dose. With longer intervals between treatments, genetic yields consistent with additivity were obtained in Expt. 1; less clear results were obtained in Expt. 2. Comparison with earlier data generally suggested that the duration of the repopulating period is dose-dependent. In a third experiment evidence was obtained that genetic damage induced by X-irradiation can be reduced by a subsequent treatment with triethylenemelamine (TEM) during the repopulating phase. This confirmed an earlier finding. Such an interaction could not be demonstrated with two X-ray treatments. An explanation for the X-ray/TEM interaction is offered. (Auth.)

  2. Mapping Henry: Synchrotron-sourced X-ray fluorescence mapping and ultra-high-definition scanning of an early Tudor portrait of Henry VIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dredge, Paula; Ives, Simon [Art Gallery of New South Wales (AGNSW), Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howard, Daryl L.; Spiers, Kathryn M. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Yip, Andrew [Art Gallery of New South Wales (AGNSW), Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of New South Wales, Laboratory for Innovation in Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums (iGLAM), National Institute for Experimental Arts, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Kenderdine, Sarah [University of New South Wales, Laboratory for Innovation in Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums (iGLAM), National Institute for Experimental Arts, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    A portrait of Henry VIII on oak panel c. 1535 has recently undergone technical examination to inform questions regarding authorship and the painting's relationship to a group of similar works in the collections of the National Portrait Gallery, London, and the Society of Antiquaries. Due to previous conservation treatments of the painting, the conventional transmission X-radiograph image was difficult to interpret. As a result, the painting underwent high-definition X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental mapping on the X-ray fluorescence microscopy beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. Scans were conducted at 12.6 and 18.5 keV, below and above the lead (Pb) L edges, respectively. Typical scan parameters were 120 μm pixel size at 7 ms dwell time, with the largest scan covering an area 545 x 287 mm{sup 2} collected in 23 h (10.8 MP). XRF mapping of the panel has guided the conservation treatment of the painting and the revelation of previously obscured features. It has also provided insight into the process of making of the painting. The informative and detailed elemental maps, alongside ultra-high-definition scans of the painting undertaken before and after varnish and over-paint removal, have assisted in comparison of the finely painted details with the London paintings. The resolution offered by the combination of imaging techniques identifies pigment distribution at an extremely fine scale, enabling a new understanding of the artist's paint application. (orig.)

  3. Mapping Henry: Synchrotron-sourced X-ray fluorescence mapping and ultra-high-definition scanning of an early Tudor portrait of Henry VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dredge, Paula; Ives, Simon; Howard, Daryl L.; Spiers, Kathryn M.; Yip, Andrew; Kenderdine, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    A portrait of Henry VIII on oak panel c. 1535 has recently undergone technical examination to inform questions regarding authorship and the painting's relationship to a group of similar works in the collections of the National Portrait Gallery, London, and the Society of Antiquaries. Due to previous conservation treatments of the painting, the conventional transmission X-radiograph image was difficult to interpret. As a result, the painting underwent high-definition X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental mapping on the X-ray fluorescence microscopy beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. Scans were conducted at 12.6 and 18.5 keV, below and above the lead (Pb) L edges, respectively. Typical scan parameters were 120 μm pixel size at 7 ms dwell time, with the largest scan covering an area 545 x 287 mm 2 collected in 23 h (10.8 MP). XRF mapping of the panel has guided the conservation treatment of the painting and the revelation of previously obscured features. It has also provided insight into the process of making of the painting. The informative and detailed elemental maps, alongside ultra-high-definition scans of the painting undertaken before and after varnish and over-paint removal, have assisted in comparison of the finely painted details with the London paintings. The resolution offered by the combination of imaging techniques identifies pigment distribution at an extremely fine scale, enabling a new understanding of the artist's paint application. (orig.)

  4. Elemental mapping by synchrotron radiation X-Ray microfluorescence in cellular spheroid of prostate tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, R.G.; Anjos, M.J.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Santos, C.A.N. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Biotecnologia; Palumbo Junior, A.; Souza, P.A.V.R.; Nasciutti, L.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Pereira, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ensaios Nao Destrutivos, Corrosao e Soldagem

    2013-08-15

    Prostate cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer and the third most common in males in Western industrialized countries. Cellular spheroid serves as excellent physiologic tumor models as they mimic avascular tumors and micrometastases. Trace elements play a significant role in biological processes. They are capable of affecting human health by competing with essential elements for available binding sites and by the activation or inhibition of reactions between metabolic enzymes. It is well known that zinc levels in the peripheral zone of dorsal and lateral lobes of the prostate are almost 10 times higher than in other soft tissues. Prostate tumor cells were isolated of the prostate tissue samples that were collected from patients submitted to surgery. The measurements were performed in XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil. The results showed that all elements were heterogeneously distributed in different areas of the spheroids analyzed. P, S and Cl showed similar elemental distribution in all the samples analyzed while K, Ca, Fe, and Cu showed different elemental distribution. In all spheroids analyzed, Zn presented more intense distributions in the central region of the spheroid. The relationship between the function of Zn in the secretory epithelial cells and the carcinogenic process suggests that more studies on elemental mapping in spheroids are necessary. (author)

  5. Elemental mapping by synchrotron radiation X-Ray microfluorescence in cellular spheroid of prostate tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, R.G.; Anjos, M.J.; Lopes, R.T.; Santos, C.A.N.; Palumbo Junior, A.; Souza, P.A.V.R.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Pereira, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer and the third most common in males in Western industrialized countries. Cellular spheroid serves as excellent physiologic tumor models as they mimic avascular tumors and micrometastases. Trace elements play a significant role in biological processes. They are capable of affecting human health by competing with essential elements for available binding sites and by the activation or inhibition of reactions between metabolic enzymes. It is well known that zinc levels in the peripheral zone of dorsal and lateral lobes of the prostate are almost 10 times higher than in other soft tissues. Prostate tumor cells were isolated of the prostate tissue samples that were collected from patients submitted to surgery. The measurements were performed in XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil. The results showed that all elements were heterogeneously distributed in different areas of the spheroids analyzed. P, S and Cl showed similar elemental distribution in all the samples analyzed while K, Ca, Fe, and Cu showed different elemental distribution. In all spheroids analyzed, Zn presented more intense distributions in the central region of the spheroid. The relationship between the function of Zn in the secretory epithelial cells and the carcinogenic process suggests that more studies on elemental mapping in spheroids are necessary. (author)

  6. Distribution of trace levels of therapeutic gallium in bone as mapped by synchrotron X-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockman, R.S.; Repo, M.A.; Warrell, R.P. Jr.; Pounds, J.G.; Schidlovsky, G.; Gordon, B.M.; Jones, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Gallium nitrate, a drug that inhibits calcium release from bone, has been proven a safe and effective treatment for the accelerated bone resorption associated with cancer. Though bone is a target organ for gallium, the kinetics, sites, and effects of gallium accumulation in bone are not known. The authors have used synchrotron X-ray microscopy to map the distribution of trace levels of gallium in bone. After short-term in vivo administration of gallium nitrate to rats, trace (nanogram) amounts of gallium preferentially localized to the metabolically active regions in the metaphysis as well as the endosteal and periosteal surfaces of diaphyseal bone, regions where new bone formation and modeling were occurring. The amounts measured were well below the levels known to be cytotoxic. Iron and zinc, trace elements normally found in bone, were decreased in amount after in vivo administration of gallium. These studies represent a first step toward understanding the mechanism(s) of action of gallium in bone by suggesting the possible cellular, structural, and elemental targets of gallium

  7. Residual stress mapping by micro X-ray diffraction: Application to the study of thin film buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of spontaneous detachment of the film from its substrate and in the case of compressive stresses, thin film buckling. Although these effects are undesirable for future applications, one may take benefit of it for thin film mechanical properties investigation. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical works have been done to develop mechanical models with the aim to get a better understanding of driven mechanisms giving rise to this phenomenon and thus to propose solutions to avoid such problems. Nevertheless, only a few experimental works have been done on this subject to support these theoretical results and nothing concerning local stress/strain measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few tenth mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam x-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress/ strain mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  8. Charge state mapping of mixed valent iron and manganese mineral particles using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecher, K.; Nealson, K.; Kneedler, E.; Rothe, J.; Meigs, G.; Warwick, T.; Tonner, B.

    2000-01-01

    The interfaces between solid mineral particles and water play a crucial role in partitioning and chemical transformation of many inorganic as well as organic pollutants in environmental systems. Among environmentally significant minerals, mixed-valent oxides and hydroxides of iron (e.g. magnetite, green rusts) and manganese (hausmanite, birnessite) have been recognized as particularly strong sorbents for metal ions. In addition, minerals containing Fe(II) have recently been proven to be powerful reductants for a wide range of pollutants. Chemical properties of these minerals strongly depend on the distribution and availability of reactive sites and little is known quantitatively about the nature of these sites. We have investigated the bulk distribution of charge states of manganese (Mn (II, III, IV)) and iron (Fe(II, III)) in single particles of natural manganese nodules and synthetic green rusts using Scanning Transmission X-ray SpectroMicroscopy (STXM). Pixel resolved spectra (XANES) extracted from stacks of images taken at different wave lengths across the metal absorption edge were fitted to total electron yield (TEY) spectra of single valent reference compounds. Two dimensional maps of bulk charge state distributions clearly reveal domains of different oxidation states within single particles of Mn-nodules and green rust precipitates. Changes of oxidation states of iron were followed as a result of reductive transformation of an environmental contaminant (CCl 4 ) using green rust as the only reductant

  9. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  10. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  12. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  13. Mapping soil deformation around plant roots using in vivo 4D X-ray Computed Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, S D; Gillard, F; Soper, N; Mavrogordato, M N; Sinclair, I; Roose, T

    2016-06-14

    The mechanical impedance of soils inhibits the growth of plant roots, often being the most significant physical limitation to root system development. Non-invasive imaging techniques have recently been used to investigate the development of root system architecture over time, but the relationship with soil deformation is usually neglected. Correlative mapping approaches parameterised using 2D and 3D image data have recently gained prominence for quantifying physical deformation in composite materials including fibre-reinforced polymers and trabecular bone. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) are computational techniques which use the inherent material texture of surfaces and volumes, captured using imaging techniques, to map full-field deformation components in samples during physical loading. Here we develop an experimental assay and methodology for four-dimensional, in vivo X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) and apply a Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) approach to the data to quantify deformation. The method is validated for a field-derived soil under conditions of uniaxial compression, and a calibration study is used to quantify thresholds of displacement and strain measurement. The validated and calibrated approach is then demonstrated for an in vivo test case in which an extending maize root in field-derived soil was imaged hourly using XCT over a growth period of 19h. This allowed full-field soil deformation data and 3D root tip dynamics to be quantified in parallel for the first time. This fusion of methods paves the way for comparative studies of contrasting soils and plant genotypes, improving our understanding of the fundamental mechanical processes which influence root system development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. X-ray diffraction analysis of a human tRNAGly acceptor-stem microhelix isoacceptor at 1.18 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichert, André; Perbandt, Markus; Schreiber, Angela; Fürste, Jens P.; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.; Förster, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    The tRNA Gly acceptor-stem microhelix isoacceptor from human cytoplasm was crystallized and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed diffraction to 1.18 Å resolution. The sequence of the microhelix was derived from the gene sequence with tRNA Database ID DG9990. Interest has been focused on comparative X-ray structure analyses of different tRNA Gly acceptor-stem helices. tRNA Gly /glycyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the so-called class II system, in which the tRNA identity elements consist of simple and unique determinants that are located in the tRNA acceptor stem and the discriminator base. Comparative structure investigations of tRNA Gly microhelices provide insight into the role of tRNA identity elements. Predominant differences in the structures of glycyl-tRNA synthetases and in the tRNA identity elements between prokaryotes and eukaryotes point to divergence during the evolutionary process. Here, the crystallization and high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis of a human tRNA Gly acceptor-stem microhelix with sequence 5′-G 1 C 2 A 3 U 4 U 5 G 6 G 7 -3′, 5′-C 66 C 67 A 68 A 69 U 70 G 71 C 72 -3′ is reported. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.32, b = 37.61, c = 30.47 Å, β = 112.60° and one molecule per asymmetric unit. A data set was collected using synchrotron radiation and data were processed within the resolution range 50.0–1.18 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement

  15. Mapping jet-ISM interactions in X-ray binaries with ALMA: a GRS 1915+105 case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetarenko, A. J.; Freeman, P.; Rosolowsky, E. W.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.

    2018-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimetre/Sub-Millimetre Array (ALMA) observations of IRAS 19132+1035, a candidate jet-interstellar medium (ISM) interaction zone near the black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) GRS 1915+105. With these ALMA observations (combining data from the 12 m array and the Atacama Compact Array), we map the molecular line emission across the IRAS 19132+1035 region. We detect emission from the 12CO [J = 2 - 1], 13CO [ν = 0, J = 2 - 1], C18O [J = 2 - 1], H2CO [J = 30, 3 - 20, 2], H2CO [J = 32, 2 - 22, 1], H2CO [J = 32, 1 - 22, 0], SiO [ν = 0, J = 5 - 4], CH3OH [J = 42, 2 - 31, 2], and CS [ν = 0, J = 5 - 4] transitions. Given the morphological, spectral, and kinematic properties of this molecular emission, we present several lines of evidence that support the presence of a jet-ISM interaction at this site, including a jet-blown cavity in the molecular gas. This compelling new evidence identifies this site as a jet-ISM interaction zone, making GRS 1915+105, the third Galactic BHXB with at least one conclusive jet-ISM interaction zone. However, we find that this interaction occurs on much smaller scales than was postulated by previous work, where the BHXB jet does not appear to be dominantly powering the entire IRAS 19132+1035 region. Using estimates of the ISM conditions in the region, we utilize the detected cavity as a calorimeter to estimate the time-averaged power carried in the GRS 1915+105 jets of (8.4^{+7.7}_{-8.1})× 10^{32} erg s^{-1}. Overall, our analysis demonstrates that molecular lines are excellent diagnostic tools to identify and probe jet-ISM interaction zones near Galactic BHXBs.

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  17. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  18. Insights into Photosystem II from Isomorphous Difference Fourier Maps of Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction Data and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Structural Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jimin; Askerka, Mikhail; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S

    2017-02-10

    Understanding structure-function relations in photosystem II (PSII) is important for the development of biomimetic photocatalytic systems. X-ray crystallography, computational modeling, and spectroscopy have played central roles in elucidating the structure and function of PSII. Recent breakthroughs in femtosecond X-ray crystallography offer the possibility of collecting diffraction data from the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) before radiation damage of the sample, thereby overcoming the main challenge of conventional X-ray diffraction methods. However, the interpretation of XFEL data from PSII intermediates is challenging because of the issues regarding data-processing, uncertainty on the precise positions of light oxygen atoms next to heavy metal centers, and different kinetics of the S-state transition in microcrystals compared to solution. Here, we summarize recent advances and outstanding challenges in PSII structure-function determination with emphasis on the implementation of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics techniques combined with isomorphous difference Fourier maps, direct methods, and high-resolution spectroscopy.

  19. Quantitative magnetic-moment mapping of a permanent-magnet material by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism nano-spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Ueno

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the quantitative mapping of magnetic moments in a permanent-magnet material by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism nano-spectroscopy. An SmCo5 specimen was prepared from the bulk material by using a micro-fabrication technique. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy images were obtained around the Sm M4,5 absorption edges. By applying the magneto-optical sum rules to these images, we obtained quantitative maps of the orbital and spin magnetic moments as well as their ratio. We found that the magnitudes of the orbital and spin magnetic moments and their ratio do not depend on thickness of the specimen.

  20. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  1. X-ray reciprocal space mapping of dislocation-mediated strain relaxation during InGaAs/GaAs(001) epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2011-01-01

    Dislocation-mediated strain relaxation during lattice-mismatched InGaAs/GaAs(001) heteroepitaxy was studied through in situ x-ray reciprocal space mapping (in situ RSM). At the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8, a hybrid system of molecular beam epitaxy and x-ray diffractometry with a two-dimensional detector enabled us to perform in situ RSM at high-speed and high-resolution. Using this experimental setup, four results in terms of film properties were simultaneously extracted as functions of film thickness. These were the lattice constants, the diffraction broadenings along in-plane and out-of-plane directions, and the diffuse scattering. Based on correlations among these results, the strain relaxation processes were classified into four thickness ranges with different dislocation behavior. In addition, the existence of transition regimes between the thickness ranges was identified. Finally, the dominant dislocation behavior corresponding to each of the four thickness ranges and transition regimes was noted.

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, a radiologist ... about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight Recently posted: ...

  4. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  5. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most ... far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  8. Nondestructive mapping of chemical composition and structural qualities of group III-nitride nanowires using submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, P.L., E-mail: plb2@njit.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gautier, S. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gmili, Y.El.; Moudakir, T. [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Sirenko, A.A. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kazimirov, A. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cai, Z.-H. [Advanced Photon Source, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Martin, J. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Goh, W.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Martinez, A.; Ramdane, A.; Le Gratiet, L. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR CNRS 20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Maloufi, N. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Application aux Matériaux UMR CNRS 7078 Ile du Saulcy 57045 METZ cedex 1 (France); Assouar, M.B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionisés et Applications, Nancy University, CNRS, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cédex (France); Ougazzaden, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-08-31

    Submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques have been developed and used to accurately and nondestructively map chemical composition and material quality of selectively grown group III-nitride nanowires. GaN, AlGaN, and InGaN multi-quantum-well nanowires have been selectively grown on lattice matched and mismatched substrates, and the challenges associated with obtaining and interpreting submicron beam XRD results are addressed and solved. Nanoscale cathodoluminescence is used to examine exciton behavior, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is used to verify chemical composition. Scanning transmission electron microscopy is later used to paint a more complete picture. The advantages of submicron beam XRD over other techniques are discussed in the context of this challenging material system. - Highlights: ► We used nano selective area growth to create nanowires of GaN, AlGaN and InGaN/GaN. ► We characterized them by synchrotron-based submicron beam X-ray diffraction (XRD). ► This technique accurately determined chemical and crystallographic properties. ► Challenges of XRD are addressed in the context of this challenging material system. ► Advantages of XRD over other characterization methods are discussed.

  9. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  10. Human tRNAGly acceptor-stem microhelix: crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis at 1.2 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Förster, Charlotte; Szkaradkiewicz, Karol; Perbandt, Markus; Brauer, Arnd B. E.; Borowski, Tordis; Fürste, Jens P.; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.

    2007-01-01

    The human tRNA Gly acceptor-stem microhelix was crystallized and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis revealed diffraction to a resolution of up to 1.2 Å. The major dissimilarities between the eukaryotic/archaebacterial-type and eubacterial-type glycyl-tRNA synthetase systems (GlyRS; class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases) represent an intriguing example of evolutionarily divergent solutions to similar biological functions. The differences in the identity elements of the respective tRNA Gly systems are located within the acceptor stem and include the discriminator base U73. In the present work, the human tRNA Gly acceptor-stem microhelix was crystallized in an attempt to analyze the structural features that govern the correct recognition of tRNA Gly by the eukaryotic/archaebacterial-type glycyl-tRNA synthetase. The crystals of the human tRNA Gly acceptor-stem helix belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.12, b = 37.49, c = 30.38 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 113.02°, and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit. A high-resolution data set was acquired using synchrotron radiation and the data were processed to 1.2 Å resolution

  11. 3D Mapping Of Density And Crack Propagation Through Sintering Of Catalysis Tablets By X-Ray Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Hjalte Sylvest; Puig-Molina, A.; Dalskov, N.

    2016-01-01

    sintering of the rejected tabletized support material are studied by 3D X-ray tomography. This is a powerful technique, which due to its nondestructive nature is suitable to study the development of internal cracks in the tablets during sintering. Cracks could be identified in the green tablet (before...... properly, cracks may arise and propagate during the sintering of the tablets. This can lead to weak sintered tablets that get rejected in the quality control. For this work, crack-containing samples of rejected tabletized support were provided. The formation, growth and closure of internal cracks during...

  12. On the use of one-dimensional position sensitive detector for x-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping: Data quality and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, Olivier; Boulle, Alexandre; Guinebretiere, Rene; Lecomte, Andre; Dauger, Alain

    2005-01-01

    A homemade x-ray diffractometer using one-dimensional position sensitive detector (PSD) and well suited to the study of thin epitaxial layer systems is presented. It is shown how PSDs can be advantageously used to allow fast reciprocal space mapping, which is especially interesting when analyzing poor crystalline and defective layers as usually observed with oxides and ceramics films. The quality of the data collected with such a setup and the limitations of PSDs in comparison with the use of analyzer crystals are discussed. In particular, the effects of PSD on angular precision, instrument resolution and corrections that must be applied to raw data are presented

  13. Analysis of elemental maps from glaze to body of ancient Chinese Jun and Ru porcelain by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.cn; Li Rongwu [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100049 (China); Pan Qiuli [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan [Institute of Physical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Liu Zhiguo [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The reasons how the middle layer of Ru and Jun porcelain between the glaze and body came into being are still not completely understood. Here, elemental maps from the glaze to the body of pieces of ancient Chinese Ru and Jun porcelain were analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The results show the middle layer was probably formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and undergoing complex physical-chemical reactions with the body. However, the middle layer of Jun porcelain was formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and then infiltrating the body at high temperatures during the firing process.

  14. Analysis of elemental maps from glaze to body of ancient Chinese Jun and Ru porcelain by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Li, Rongwu; Pan, Qiuli; Li, Guoxia; Zhao, Weijuan; Liu, Zhiguo

    2009-01-01

    The reasons how the middle layer of Ru and Jun porcelain between the glaze and body came into being are still not completely understood. Here, elemental maps from the glaze to the body of pieces of ancient Chinese Ru and Jun porcelain were analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The results show the middle layer was probably formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and undergoing complex physical-chemical reactions with the body. However, the middle layer of Jun porcelain was formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and then infiltrating the body at high temperatures during the firing process.

  15. Large area quantitative X-ray mapping of (U,Pu)O2 nuclear fuel pellets using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremier, S.; Haas, D.; Somers, J.; Walker, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    The work presented is an example of how large area compositional mapping (≥1 mm 2 ) can be used to provide quantitative information on element distribution and specimen homogeneity. High-resolution was accomplished by producing a collage of X-ray maps acquired using classical conditions; magnification x400, spatial resolution 256x256 pixels. The individual images, each measuring roughly 250x250 μm, were converted to quantitative maps using the HIMAX reg software package and the XMAS reg matrix correction from SAMx. The quantitative gray-level large area X-ray picture was pieced together using the 'Multiple Image Alignment' function of the ANALYSIS reg image processing software. This software was also used to convert the gray-level pictures to false color images. The specimens investigated were transverse sections of MOX fuel pellets. Results are presented for the distribution of Pu by area fraction and cumulative area fraction, the size distribution of regions of high Pu concentration and average separation of these regions

  16. Direct mapping of 19F in 19FDG-6P in brain tissue at subcellular resolution using soft X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitry-Yamate, C.; Gianoncelli, A.; Kourousias, G.; Kaulich, B.; Lepore, M.; Gruetter, R.; Kiskinova, M.

    2013-10-01

    Low energy x-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) detection was optimized for imaging cerebral glucose metabolism by mapping the fluorine LEXRF signal of 19F in 19FDG, trapped as intracellular 19F-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (19FDG-6P) at 1μm spatial resolution from 3μm thick brain slices. 19FDG metabolism was evaluated in brain structures closely resembling the general cerebral cytoarchitecture following formalin fixation of brain slices and their inclusion in an epon matrix. 2-dimensional distribution maps of 19FDG-6P were placed in a cytoarchitectural and morphological context by simultaneous LEXRF mapping of N and O, and scanning transmission x-ray (STXM) imaging. A disproportionately high uptake and metabolism of glucose was found in neuropil relative to intracellular domains of the cell body of hypothalamic neurons, showing directly that neurons, like glial cells, also metabolize glucose. As 19F-deoxyglucose-6P is structurally identical to 18F-deoxyglucose-6P, LEXRF of subcellular 19F provides a link to in vivo 18FDG PET, forming a novel basis for understanding the physiological mechanisms underlying the 18FDG PET image, and the contribution of neurons and glia to the PET signal.

  17. Direct mapping of 19F in 19FDG-6P in brain tissue at subcellular resolution using soft X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitry-Yamate, C; Lepore, M; Gruetter, R; Gianoncelli, A; Kourousias, G; Kiskinova, M; Kaulich, B

    2013-01-01

    Low energy x-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) detection was optimized for imaging cerebral glucose metabolism by mapping the fluorine LEXRF signal of 19 F in 19 FDG, trapped as intracellular 19 F-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate ( 19 FDG-6P) at 1μm spatial resolution from 3μm thick brain slices. 19 FDG metabolism was evaluated in brain structures closely resembling the general cerebral cytoarchitecture following formalin fixation of brain slices and their inclusion in an epon matrix. 2-dimensional distribution maps of 19 FDG-6P were placed in a cytoarchitectural and morphological context by simultaneous LEXRF mapping of N and O, and scanning transmission x-ray (STXM) imaging. A disproportionately high uptake and metabolism of glucose was found in neuropil relative to intracellular domains of the cell body of hypothalamic neurons, showing directly that neurons, like glial cells, also metabolize glucose. As 19 F-deoxyglucose-6P is structurally identical to 18 F-deoxyglucose-6P, LEXRF of subcellular 19 F provides a link to in vivo 18 FDG PET, forming a novel basis for understanding the physiological mechanisms underlying the 18 FDG PET image, and the contribution of neurons and glia to the PET signal

  18. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  19. Microbeam X-ray fluorescence mapping of Cu and Fe in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, K.M.J.; Leitao, R.G.; Oliveira-Barros, E.G.; Oliveira, M.A.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: kjose@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: eligouveab@gmail.com, E-mail: maria_aparecida_ufrj@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luiz.nasciutti@histo.ufrj.br, E-mail: roberta.leitao@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-11-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem and prostate cancer continues to be one of the most common fatal cancers in men. Copper plays an important role in the aetiology and growth of tumours however, whether intratumoral copper is actually elevated in prostate cancer patients has not been established. Iron, an important trace element, plays a vital function in oxygen metabolism, oxygen uptake, and electron transport in mitochondria, energy metabolism, muscle function, and hematopoiesis. The X-ray microfluorescence technique (μXRF) is a rapid and non-destructive method of elemental analysis that provides useful elemental information about samples without causing damage or requiring extra sample preparations. This study investigated the behavior of cells in spheroids of human prostate cells, tumour cell line (DU145) and normal cell line (RWPE-1), after supplementation with zinc chloride by 24 hours using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μSRXRF). The measurements were performed with a standard geometry of 45 deg of incidence, excited by a white beam using a pixel of 25 μm and a time of 300 ms/pixel at the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results by SRμXRF showed non-uniform Cu and Fe distributions in all the spheroids analyzed. (author)

  20. Microbeam X-ray fluorescence mapping of Cu and Fe in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, K.M.J.; Leitao, R.G.; Oliveira-Barros, E.G.; Oliveira, M.A.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T.; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem and prostate cancer continues to be one of the most common fatal cancers in men. Copper plays an important role in the aetiology and growth of tumours however, whether intratumoral copper is actually elevated in prostate cancer patients has not been established. Iron, an important trace element, plays a vital function in oxygen metabolism, oxygen uptake, and electron transport in mitochondria, energy metabolism, muscle function, and hematopoiesis. The X-ray microfluorescence technique (μXRF) is a rapid and non-destructive method of elemental analysis that provides useful elemental information about samples without causing damage or requiring extra sample preparations. This study investigated the behavior of cells in spheroids of human prostate cells, tumour cell line (DU145) and normal cell line (RWPE-1), after supplementation with zinc chloride by 24 hours using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μSRXRF). The measurements were performed with a standard geometry of 45 deg of incidence, excited by a white beam using a pixel of 25 μm and a time of 300 ms/pixel at the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results by SRμXRF showed non-uniform Cu and Fe distributions in all the spheroids analyzed. (author)

  1. Diagnosis for the localization of cemented intramedullar stem protheses and ICLH-protheses of the hip by means of stereo X-ray prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probst, K.J.; Herp, A.; Leidel, W.

    1978-01-01

    It is known that the loosening of artificial hip joints leads to their shift relative to the carrying bone structure. For a quantitative radiological detection of even minimal dislocations fix-points both in the carrying bone structure as well as in the prostheses have to be defined. While for the stem prostheses and cups such points can be defined directly from their geometrical structure, they have to be generated artificially for the carrying bone structure by implanted metal pins, which can easily be detected in the X-ray print. Having defined in this way a complete and appropriate set of fix-points, the position of the prosthesis relative to the bone structure is uniquely defined by the distance vectors between the different fix-points. The main biometrical steps of such a concept as well as their computational formulation and realization are derived; the main advantages and the accuracy of the technique are elucidated and critically discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Small-angle X-ray scattering tensor tomography: model of the three-dimensional reciprocal-space map, reconstruction algorithm and angular sampling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebi, Marianne; Georgiadis, Marios; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Holler, Mirko; Raabe, Jörg; Usov, Ivan; Menzel, Andreas; Schneider, Philipp; Bunk, Oliver; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering tensor tomography, which allows reconstruction of the local three-dimensional reciprocal-space map within a three-dimensional sample as introduced by Liebi et al. [Nature (2015), 527, 349-352], is described in more detail with regard to the mathematical framework and the optimization algorithm. For the case of trabecular bone samples from vertebrae it is shown that the model of the three-dimensional reciprocal-space map using spherical harmonics can adequately describe the measured data. The method enables the determination of nanostructure orientation and degree of orientation as demonstrated previously in a single momentum transfer q range. This article presents a reconstruction of the complete reciprocal-space map for the case of bone over extended ranges of q. In addition, it is shown that uniform angular sampling and advanced regularization strategies help to reduce the amount of data required.

  3. 3D mapping of water in oolithic limestone at atmospheric and vacuum saturation using X-ray micro-CT differential imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, M.A., E-mail: marijn.boone@ugent.be [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Unit Sustainable Materials Management, VITO, Boerentang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Kock, T.; Bultreys, T. [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Schutter, G. [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Department of Structural Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 904, 9052 Ghent (Belgium); Vontobel, P. [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Van Hoorebeke, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy—UGCT, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cnudde, V. [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    Determining the distribution of fluids in porous sedimentary rocks is of great importance in many geological fields. However, this is not straightforward, especially in the case of complex sedimentary rocks like limestone, where a multidisciplinary approach is often needed to capture its broad, multimodal pore size distribution and complex pore geometries. This paper focuses on the porosity and fluid distribution in two varieties of Massangis limestone, a widely used natural building stone from the southeast part of the Paris basin (France). The Massangis limestone shows locally varying post-depositional alterations, resulting in different types of pore networks and very different water distributions within the limestone. Traditional techniques for characterizing the porosity and pore size distribution are compared with state-of-the-art neutron radiography and X-ray computed microtomography to visualize the distribution of water inside the limestone at different imbibition conditions. X-ray computed microtomography images have the great advantage to non-destructively visualize and analyze the pore space inside of a rock, but are often limited to the larger macropores in the rock due to resolution limitations. In this paper, differential imaging is successfully applied to the X-ray computed microtomography images to obtain sub-resolution information about fluid occupancy and to map the fluid distribution in three dimensions inside the scanned limestone samples. The detailed study of the pore space with differential imaging allows understanding the difference in the water uptake behavior of the limestone, a primary factor that affects the weathering of the rock. - Highlights: • The water distribution in a limestone was visualized in 3D with micro-CT. • Differential imaging allowed to map both macro and microporous zones in the rock. • The 3D study of the pore space clarified the difference in water uptake behavior. • Trapped air is visualized in the moldic

  4. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  5. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  6. Inclined inheritance of interface roughness in semiconductor superlattices as characterized by x-ray reciprocal space mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidbauer, M.; Opitz, R.; Wiebach, Th.; Koehler, R.

    2001-01-01

    The inclined inheritance of interface roughness is investigated for an AlASGaAs superlattice grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a vicinal (001) GaAs substrate. As a consequence of vertical correlation of the roughness of subsequent interfaces the diffusely scattered x-ray intensity is bunched into resonant diffuse scattering (RDS) sheets in reciprocal space. Inclined inheritance leads to corresponding shearing of the RDS sheets. A simple model for the evaluation of inclined roughness inheritance in three dimensions is presented, where the sheared RDS sheets are modeled by anisotropic sheared ellipsoids. From measurements at different azimuthal sample orientations the two angles characterizing the inclined inheritance of interface roughness can be determined accurately. At the present sample the inheritance of interface roughness approximately follows the direction of step flow during growth. The results show that a three-dimensional analysis of diffuse scattering is necessary for a correct evaluation and interpretation

  7. The use of synchrotron radiation for trace element analysis and element mapping by scanning X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation excited X-Ray Fluorescence is a potentially powerful tool for the routine quantitative chemical analysis of materials, with minimum detection limits typically of the order of a tenth of a ppm, and with the added advantages of simultaneous multi-element detection capability, spatial resolution on a micron scale, large signal to noise ratios and short analysis times. This paper presents a brief review of the use of Synchrotron Radiation in Trace Element Analysis and discusses the requirements for a microprobe for chemical analysis utilising SR. Data obtained at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury Laboratory include XRF spectra of standard reference materials and an application of the technique to the study of ion implanted layers in semiconductors is outlined. (author)

  8. A comparison of rapid-scanning X-ray fluorescence mapping and magnetic resonance imaging to localize brain iron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, Richard P.E.; Harder, Sheri L.; Martin, Melanie; Buist, Richard; Nichol, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of many neurodegenerative disorders relies primarily or exclusively on observed behaviors rather than measurable physical tests. One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the presence of amyloid-containing plaques associated with deposits of iron, copper and/or zinc. Work in other laboratories has shown that iron-rich plaques can be seen in the mouse brain in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a high-field strength magnet but this iron cannot be visualized in humans using clinical magnets. To improve the interpretation of MRI, we correlated iron accumulation visualized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, an element-specific technique with T1, T2, and susceptibility weighted MR (SWI) in a mouse model of AD. We show that SWI best shows areas of increased iron accumulation when compared to standard sequences

  9. Automatic reduction of large X-ray fluorescence data-sets applied to XAS and mapping experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Montoya, Ligia Andrea

    2017-02-01

    In this thesis two automatic methods for the reduction of large fluorescence data sets are presented. The first method is proposed in the framework of BioXAS experiments. The challenge of this experiment is to deal with samples in ultra dilute concentrations where the signal-to-background ratio is low. The experiment is performed in fluorescence mode X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a 100 pixel high-purity Ge detector. The first step consists on reducing 100 fluorescence spectra into one. In this step, outliers are identified by means of the shot noise. Furthermore, a fitting routine which model includes Gaussian functions for the fluorescence lines and exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) functions for the scattering lines (with long tails at lower energies) is proposed to extract the line of interest from the fluorescence spectrum. Additionally, the fitting model has an EMG function for each scattering line (elastic and inelastic) at incident energies where they start to be discerned. At these energies, the data reduction is done per detector column to include the angular dependence of scattering. In the second part of this thesis, an automatic method for texts separation on palimpsests is presented. Scanning X-ray fluorescence is performed on the parchment, where a spectrum per scanned point is collected. Within this method, each spectrum is treated as a vector forming a basis which is to be transformed so that the basis vectors are the spectra of each ink. Principal Component Analysis is employed as an initial guess of the seek basis. This basis is further transformed by means of an optimization routine that maximizes the contrast and minimizes the non-negative entries in the spectra. The method is tested on original and self made palimpsests.

  10. Combination of synchrotron radiation X-ray microprobe and nuclear microprobe for chromium and chromium oxidation states quantitative mapping in single cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Richard; Deves, Guillaume; Fayard, Barbara; Salome, Murielle; Susini, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium compounds are established carcinogens but their mechanism of cell transformation has not been elucidated yet. In this study, chromium oxidation state distribution maps in cells exposed to soluble (Na 2 CrO 4 ), or insoluble (PbCrO 4 ), Cr(VI) compounds have been obtained by use of the ESRF ID-21 X-ray microscope. In addition, the quantitative maps of element distributions in cells have been determined using the nuclear microprobe of Bordeaux-Gradignan. Nuclear microprobe quantitative analysis revealed interesting features on chromium, and lead, cellular uptake. It is suggested that cells can enhance PbCrO 4 solubility, resulting in chromium, but not lead uptake. The differential carcinogenic potential of soluble and insoluble Cr(VI) compounds is discussed with regard to chromium intracellular quantitative distribution

  11. Low doses of X-rays induce prolonged and ATM-independent persistence of γH2AX foci in human gingival mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Andreyan N; Pustovalova, Margarita; Grekhova, Anna; Eremin, Petr; Vorobyova, Natalia; Pulin, Andrey; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Klokov, Dmitry Y; Eremin, Ilya

    2015-09-29

    Diagnostic imaging delivering low doses of radiation often accompany human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based therapies. However, effects of low dose radiation on MSCs are poorly characterized. Here we examine patterns of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and phospho-S1981 ATM (pATM) foci formation in human gingiva-derived MSCs exposed to X-rays in time-course and dose-response experiments. Both γH2AX and pATM foci accumulated linearly with dose early after irradiation (5-60 min), with a maximum induction observed at 30-60 min (37 ± 3 and 32 ± 3 foci/cell/Gy for γH2AX and pATM, respectively). The number of γH2AX foci produced by intermediate doses (160 and 250 mGy) significantly decreased (40-60%) between 60 and 240 min post-irradiation, indicating rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks. In contrast, γH2AX foci produced by low doses (20-80 mGy) did not change after 60 min. The number of pATM foci between 60 and 240 min decreased down to control values in a dose-independent manner. Similar kinetics was observed for pATM foci co-localized with γH2AX foci. Collectively, our results suggest differential DNA double-strand break signaling and processing in response to low vs. intermediate doses of X-rays in human MSCs. Furthermore, mechanisms governing the prolonged persistence of γH2AX foci in these cells appear to be ATM-independent.

  12. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  13. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  14. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  16. Comparative crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of locked nucleic acid and RNA stems of a tenascin C-binding aptamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Förster, Charlotte; Brauer, Arnd B. E.; Brode, Svenja; Schmidt, Kathrin S.; Perbandt, Markus; Meyer, Arne; Rypniewski, Wojciech; Betzel, Christian; Kurreck, Jens; Fürste, Jens P.; Erdmann, Volker A.

    2006-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) nucleotides are RNA analogues with a useful additional conformational constraint; the current investigation will provide the first crystallographic view of an all-LNA duplex. The pharmacokinetic properties of an aptamer against the tumour-marker protein tenascin-C have recently been successfully improved by the introduction of locked nucleic acids (LNAs) into the terminal stem of the aptamer. Since it is believed that this post-SELEX optimization is likely to provide a more general route to enhance the in vitro and in vivo stability of aptamers, elucidation of the structural basis of this improvement was embarked upon. Here, the crystallographic and X-ray diffraction data of the isolated aptamer stem encompassed in a six-base-pair duplex both with and without the LNA modification are presented. The obtained all-LNA crystals belong to space group P4 1 2 1 2 or P4 3 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 52.80, c = 62.83 Å; the all-RNA crystals belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 45.21, c = 186.97 Å, γ = 120.00°

  17. Quantification of 2D elemental distribution maps of intermediate-thick biological sections by low energy synchrotron μ-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kump, P.; Vogel-Mikuš, K.

    2018-05-01

    Two fundamental-parameter (FP) based models for quantification of 2D elemental distribution maps of intermediate-thick biological samples by synchrotron low energy μ-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-μ-XRF) are presented and applied to the elemental analysis in experiments with monochromatic focused photon beam excitation at two low energy X-ray fluorescence beamlines—TwinMic, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy, and ID21, ESRF, Grenoble, France. The models assume intermediate-thick biological samples composed of measured elements, the sources of the measurable spectral lines, and by the residual matrix, which affects the measured intensities through absorption. In the first model a fixed residual matrix of the sample is assumed, while in the second model the residual matrix is obtained by the iteration refinement of elemental concentrations and an adjusted residual matrix. The absorption of the incident focused beam in the biological sample at each scanned pixel position, determined from the output of a photodiode or a CCD camera, is applied as a control in the iteration procedure of quantification.

  18. Micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluoresence mapping of enamel and dental materials after chemical erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nahórny, Sídnei; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-10-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence was employed to test the hypothesis that beverage consumption or mouthwash utilization will change the chemical properties of dental materials and enamel mineral content. Bovine enamel samples (n = 45) each received two cavity preparations (n = 90), each pair filled with one of three dental materials (R: nanofilled composite resin; GIC: glass-ionomer cement; RMGIC: resin-modified GIC). Furthermore, they were treated with three different solutions (S: saliva; E: erosion/Pepsi Twist®; or EM: erosion+mouthwash/Colgate Plax®). It was found that mineral loss in enamel was greater in GICE samples than in RE > RMGICE > RMGICEM > REM > GICEM. An increased percentage of Zr was found in REM indicating organic matrix degradation. Dental materials tested (R, GIC, and RMGIC) were not able to protect adjacent enamel from acid erosion by the soft drink tested. The use of mouthwash promoted protection of enamel after erosion by the soft drink. To avoid chemical dissolution by mouthwashes, protection by resin composites with surface sealants is recommended.

  19. Morphological evolution and internal strain mapping of pomelo peel using X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B.

    2017-10-15

    Cellular microstructures within natural materials enlighten and promote the development of novel materials and structures in the industrial and engineering fields. Characterization of the microstructures and mechanical properties of these natural materials can help to understand the morphology-related mechanical properties and guide the structural optimization in industrial design. Among these natural cellular materials, pomelo peels, having a foam-like hierarchical microstructure, represent an ideal model for developing materials with high energy absorption efficiency. In this work, by combining X-ray tomographic imaging technique and digital volume correlation (DVC), in-situ stepwise uniaxial compression tests were performed to quantify the internal morphological evolution and kinematic responses of pomelo peel samples during compression. Via these experiments, the varying microstructure features and thus diverse resistance to compression from endocarp to exocarp are examined, and the evolution of both bundles bending and large strain domain from endocarp to mesocarp are explored. Based on the experimental results, the microstructure-related mechanical properties of pomelo peels in response to compressive loading that demonstrates nearly linear morphology-mechanics relationship were revealed.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an Escherichia coli tRNAGly acceptor-stem microhelix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Förster, Charlotte; Perbandt, Markus; Brauer, Arnd B. E.; Brode, Svenja; Fürste, Jens P.; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the identity elements of the E. coli tRNA Gly /GlyRS class II system, a tRNA Gly acceptor-stem microhelix was crystallized and a data set was collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The tRNA Gly and glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) system is an evolutionary special case within the class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases because two divergent types of GlyRS exist: an archaebacterial/human type and an eubacterial type. The tRNA identity elements which determine the correct aminoacylation process are located in the aminoacyl domain of tRNA Gly . To obtain further insight concerning structural investigation of the identity elements, the Escherichia coli seven-base-pair tRNA Gly acceptor-stem helix was crystallized. Data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Crystals belong to space group P3 1 21 or P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 35.35, c = 130.82 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit

  1. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Mullett, Ruth; Ferri, Laurent; Woll, Arthur R.

    2017-07-01

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment.

  2. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Woll, Arthur R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Wilson Laboratory, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mullett, Ruth [Cornell University, Medieval Studies Program, Ithaca, NY (United States); Ferri, Laurent [Cornell University, Cornell Library Rare and Manuscript Collections, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-07-15

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment. (orig.)

  3. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  4. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  5. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  6. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  9. X-ray examination apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an X-ray apparatus which includes an adjustable X-ray filter. In order to adjust an intensity profile of the X-ray beam, an X-ray absorbing liquid is transported to filter elements of the X-ray filter. Such transport is susceptible to gravitational forces which lead to an

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  13. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  14. In situ real-time x-ray reciprocal space mapping during InGaAs/GaAs growth for understanding strain relaxation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sai, Akihisa; Lee, Jong-Han; Kamiya, Itaru; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masamitsu; Fujikawa, Seiji; Arafune, Koji

    2009-01-01

    In situ real-time X-ray diffraction measurements during In 0.12 Ga 0.88 As/GaAs(001) epitaxial growth are performed for the first time to understand the strain relaxation mechanisms in a lattice-mismatched system. The high resolution reciprocal space maps of 004 diffraction obtained at interval of 6.2 nm thickness enable transient behavior of residual strain and crystal quality to be observed simultaneously as a function of InGaAs film thickness. From the evolution of these data, five thickness ranges with different relaxation processes and these transition points are determined quantitatively, and the dominant dislocation behavior in each phase is deduced. (author)

  15. In situ biological dose mapping estimates the radiation burden delivered to 'spared' tissue between synchrotron X-ray microbeam radiotherapy tracks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rothkamm

    Full Text Available Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT using high doses of synchrotron X-rays can destroy tumours in animal models whilst causing little damage to normal tissues. Determining the spatial distribution of radiation doses delivered during MRT at a microscopic scale is a major challenge. Film and semiconductor dosimetry as well as Monte Carlo methods struggle to provide accurate estimates of dose profiles and peak-to-valley dose ratios at the position of the targeted and traversed tissues whose biological responses determine treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to utilise γ-H2AX immunostaining as a biodosimetric tool that enables in situ biological dose mapping within an irradiated tissue to provide direct biological evidence for the scale of the radiation burden to 'spared' tissue regions between MRT tracks. Γ-H2AX analysis allowed microbeams to be traced and DNA damage foci to be quantified in valleys between beams following MRT treatment of fibroblast cultures and murine skin where foci yields per unit dose were approximately five-fold lower than in fibroblast cultures. Foci levels in cells located in valleys were compared with calibration curves using known broadbeam synchrotron X-ray doses to generate spatial dose profiles and calculate peak-to-valley dose ratios of 30-40 for cell cultures and approximately 60 for murine skin, consistent with the range obtained with conventional dosimetry methods. This biological dose mapping approach could find several applications both in optimising MRT or other radiotherapeutic treatments and in estimating localised doses following accidental radiation exposure using skin punch biopsies.

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  17. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  18. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  3. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  6. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masswig, I.

    1986-01-01

    The tkb market survey comparatively evaluates the X-ray sources and replacement tubes for stationary equipment currently available on the German market. It lists the equipment parameters of 235 commercially available X-ray sources and their replacement tubes and gives the criteria for purchase decisions. The survey has been completed with December 1985, and offers good information concerning medical and technical aspects as well as those of safety and maintenance. (orig.) [de

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  13. Cosmological analysis of galaxy clusters surveys in X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, N.

    2012-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies are the most massive objects in equilibrium in our Universe. Their study allows to test cosmological scenarios of structure formation with precision, bringing constraints complementary to those stemming from the cosmological background radiation, supernovae or galaxies. They are identified through the X-ray emission of their heated gas, thus facilitating their mapping at different epochs of the Universe. This report presents two surveys of galaxy clusters detected in X-rays and puts forward a method for their cosmological interpretation. Thanks to its multi-wavelength coverage extending over 10 sq. deg. and after one decade of expertise, the XMM-LSS allows a systematic census of clusters in a large volume of the Universe. In the framework of this survey, the first part of this report describes the techniques developed to the purpose of characterizing the detected objects. A particular emphasis is placed on the most distant ones (z ≥ 1) through the complementarity of observations in X-ray, optical and infrared bands. Then the X-CLASS survey is fully described. Based on XMM archival data, it provides a new catalogue of 800 clusters detected in X-rays. A cosmological analysis of this survey is performed thanks to 'CR-HR' diagrams. This new method self-consistently includes selection effects and scaling relations and provides a means to bypass the computation of individual cluster masses. Propositions are made for applying this method to future surveys as XMM-XXL and eRosita. (author) [fr

  14. A new software routine that automates the fitting of protein X-ray crystallographic electron-density maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, D G

    2001-07-01

    The classical approach to building the amino-acid residues into the initial electron-density map requires days to weeks of a skilled investigator's time. Automating this procedure should not only save time, but has the potential to provide a more accurate starting model for input to refinement programs. The new software routine MAID builds the protein structure into the electron-density map in a series of sequential steps. The first step is the fitting of the secondary alpha-helix and beta-sheet structures. These 'fits' are then used to determine the local amino-acid sequence assignment. These assigned fits are then extended through the loop regions and fused with the neighboring sheet or helix. The program was tested on the unaveraged 2.5 A selenomethionine multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SMAD) electron-density map that was originally used to solve the structure of the 291-residue protein human heart short-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SHAD). Inputting just the map density and the amino-acid sequence, MAID fitted 80% of the residues with an r.m.s.d. error of 0.43 A for the main-chain atoms and 1.0 A for all atoms without any user intervention. When tested on a higher quality 1.9 A SMAD map, MAID correctly fitted 100% (418) of the residues. A major advantage of the MAID fitting procedure is that it maintains ideal bond lengths and angles and constrains phi/psi angles to the appropriate Ramachandran regions. Recycling the output of this new routine through a partial structure-refinement program may have the potential to completely automate the fitting of electron-density maps.

  15. High-resolution fluorescence mapping of impurities in historical zinc oxide pigments: hard X-ray nanoprobe applications to the paints of Pablo Picasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Francesca; Rose, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Here for the first time we describe the use of high resolution nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping for the analysis of artists' paints, hierarchically complex materials typically composed of binder, pigments, fillers, and other additives. The work undertaken at the nanoprobe sought to obtain highly spatially resolved, highly sensitive mapping of metal impurities (Pb, Cd, Fe, and other metals) in submicron particles of zinc oxide pigments used in early 20th century artists' tube paints and enamel paints, with particular emphasis on Ripolin, a popular brand of French house paint used extensively by Pablo Picasso and some of his contemporaries. Analysis revealed that the Zn oxide particles only contain a little Fe, proving that the highest quality Zn oxide pigment, free of Pb and Cd, was used for Ripolin house paints as well as artists' paints. Nanoprobe XRF mapping also demonstrated that artists' tube paints generally have more abundant fillers and additional whites (based on Pb, Ti, Ca) than Ripolin paints, which contain mostly pure zinc oxide. The chemical characterization of paints at the nanoscale opens the path to a better understanding of their fabrication and chemical reactivity. (orig.)

  16. High-resolution fluorescence mapping of impurities in historical zinc oxide pigments: hard X-ray nanoprobe applications to the paints of Pablo Picasso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, Francesca [The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rose, Volker [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source and Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Here for the first time we describe the use of high resolution nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping for the analysis of artists' paints, hierarchically complex materials typically composed of binder, pigments, fillers, and other additives. The work undertaken at the nanoprobe sought to obtain highly spatially resolved, highly sensitive mapping of metal impurities (Pb, Cd, Fe, and other metals) in submicron particles of zinc oxide pigments used in early 20th century artists' tube paints and enamel paints, with particular emphasis on Ripolin, a popular brand of French house paint used extensively by Pablo Picasso and some of his contemporaries. Analysis revealed that the Zn oxide particles only contain a little Fe, proving that the highest quality Zn oxide pigment, free of Pb and Cd, was used for Ripolin house paints as well as artists' paints. Nanoprobe XRF mapping also demonstrated that artists' tube paints generally have more abundant fillers and additional whites (based on Pb, Ti, Ca) than Ripolin paints, which contain mostly pure zinc oxide. The chemical characterization of paints at the nanoscale opens the path to a better understanding of their fabrication and chemical reactivity. (orig.)

  17. High-resolution mapping of two-dimensional lattice distortions in ion-implanted crystals from X-ray diffractometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, A.Y.; Gureyev, T.E.; Stevenson, A.W.; Wilkins, S.W.; Hashizume, H.; Cookson, D.

    1996-01-01

    The triple-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffractometry data described in Nikulin, Stevenson, Hashizume, Wilkins, Foran, Cookson and Garrett (J. Appl. Cryst. 28, 57-60 (1995)) has been analyzed to map out two-dimensional (2D) lattice distortions in silicon (111) crystals implanted with B + ions of 100 keV energy through a periodic SiO 2 strip pattern. The lateral periodic structure produced a series of satellite reflections associated with the 111 Bragg peak. The 2D reconstruction incorporates the use of the Petrashen-Chukhovskii method, which retrieves the phases of the Bragg waves for these satellite reflections, together with that for the fundamental. The finite Fourier series is then synthesized with the relative phases determined. Localized distortions perpendicular to the surface arising from deposited B + ions in near-surface layers of the crystal are clearly displayed with spatial resolutions of 0.016 and 0.265 μm in the depth and lateral directions respectively. For a sample with the oxide layer removed from the surface, two equally plausible strain maps have been obtained by assigning relative phases to eleven satellites using a sequential trial method and a minimum-energy method. Failed map reconstructions for the oxide-covered sample are discussed in terms of the non-unique solutions of the Petrashen-Chukhovskii phase-recovery algorithm and the ambiguous phases determined for the satellites. 16 refs., 8 figs

  18. Discrete tomographic reconstruction of 2D polycrystal orientation maps from X-ray diffraction projections using Gibbs priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodek, L.; Knudsen, E.; Poulsen, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    discrete tomographic algorithm, applying image-modelling Gibbs priors and a homogeneity condition. The optimization of the objective function is accomplished via the Gibbs Sampler in conjunction with simulated annealing. In order to express the structure of the orientation map, the similarity...

  19. Mapping Analyte Distributions in Surrogate Nuclear Melt Glass Using Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Micro X-Ray Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shattan, Michael [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stowe, Ashley [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McIntosh, Kathryn [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Auxier II, John [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Parigger, Christian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hall, Howard [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-10-10

    Explore feasibility of portable LIBS and micro-XRF systems as methods of field screening for real debris; Develop a LIBS Capability to rapidly screen beads for production quality control; Complete 3D elemental mapping of surrogate debris to determine uranium and other elemental migration patterns during debris formation

  20. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chithra Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  1. A new life for the wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WDS): incorporation of a silicon drift detector into the WDS for improved quantification and X-ray mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuhrer, R.; Moran, K.

    2018-01-01

    The wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WDS) has been around for a long time and the design has not changed much since its original development. The electron microprobe operator using WDS has to be meticulous in monitoring items such as gas flow, gas purity, gas pressure, noise levels of baseline and window, gas flow proportional counter (GFPC) voltage levels, count rate suppression, anode wire contamination and other detector parameters. Recent development and improvements of silicon drift detectors (SDD’s) has allowed the incorporation of a SDD as the X-ray detector in place of the proportional counter (PC) and/or gas flow proportional counter (GFPC). This allows minimal mechanical alteration and no loss of movement range. The superiority of a WDS with a SDD, referred to as SD-WDS, is easily seen once in operation. The SD-WDS removes many artefacts including the worse of all high order diffraction, thus allowing more accurate analysis. The incorporation of the SDD has been found to improve the light and mid element range and consequently improving the detection limit for these elements. It is also possible to obtain much more reliable results at high count rates with almost no change in resolution, gain and zero-peak characteristics of the energy spectrum.

  2. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  3. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  4. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  5. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  6. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deployment of detectors outside the deleterious effects of the atmosphere by sending them in space vehicles, has been explained. This has thrown open the entire spectrum of the electromagnetic and particle radiation to direct observations, thus enlarging the vistas of the field of astronomy and astrophysics. The discovery of strong emitters of X-rays such as SCO X-1, NorX-2, transient sources such as Cen X-2, Cen X-4, Cen X-1, Supernova remnants Tan X-1, etc., are reported. The background of the X-ray spectrum as measured during two rocket flights over Thumba, India is presented. (K.B.)

  7. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  8. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  9. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  10. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  11. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  13. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  14. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  15. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  16. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  17. Piet Mondrian’s Broadway Boogie Woogie : non invasive analysis using macro X-ray fluorescence mapping (MA-XRF) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square (MCR-ALS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, A; Albertson, C.; McGlinchey, C.; Dik, J.

    2016-01-01

    Piet Mondrian’s Broadway Boogie Woogie (1942–1943) was examined using Macro X-Ray Fluorescence mapping (MA-XRF) to help characterize the artist’s materials and understand his creative process as well as the current condition issues of the painting. The presence and distribution of key chemical

  18. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  19. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  20. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  2. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, U.

    1979-11-01

    The author describes several possibilities for the production of X-radiation. Especially he discusses the use of bremsstrahlung at electron impact on solid targets and the synchrotron radiation. He presents some equations for the calculation of X-ray intensities. Especially the X-radiation from the DORIS storage ring is discussed. (HSI)

  3. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Gui Ah Auu; Husaini Salleh; Idris Besar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Shaharuddin Mohd; Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader; Mahalatchimi Dave; Mohd Fazly Abdul Rahim; Ng Chee Moon; Ram Piari; Teoh Hoon Heng; Lee Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  4. Material Discriminated X-Ray CT System by Using New X-Ray Imager with Energy Discriminate Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Aoki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Material discriminated X-ray CT system has been constructed by using conventional X-ray tube (white X-ray source and photon-counting X-ray imager as an application with energy band detection. We have already reported material identify X-ray CT using K-shell edge method elsewhere. In this report the principle of material discrimination was adapted the separation of electron-density and atomic number from attenuation coefficient mapping in X-ray CT reconstructed image in two wavelength X-ray CT method using white X-ray source and energy discriminated X-ray imager by using two monochrome X-ray source method. The measurement phantom was prepared as four kinds material rods (Carbon(C, Iron(Fe, Copper(Cu, Titanium(Ti rods of 3mm-diameter inside an aluminum(Al rod of 20mm-diameter. We could observed material discriminated X-ray CT reconstructed image, however, the discrimination properties were not good than two monochrome X-ray CT method. This results was could be explained because X-ray scattering, beam-hardening and so on based on white X-ray source, which could not observe in two monochrome X-ray CT method. However, since our developed CdTe imager can be detect five energy-bands at the same time, we can use multi-band analysis to decrease the least square error margin. We will be able to obtain more high separation in atomic number mapping in X-ray CT reconstructed image by using this system.

  5. Full-field mapping of internal strain distribution in red sandstone specimen under compression using digital volumetric speckle photography and X-ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Mao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is always desirable to know the interior deformation pattern when a rock is subjected to mechanical load. Few experimental techniques exist that can represent full-field three-dimensional (3D strain distribution inside a rock specimen. And yet it is crucial that this information is available for fully understanding the failure mechanism of rocks or other geomaterials. In this study, by using the newly developed digital volumetric speckle photography (DVSP technique in conjunction with X-ray computed tomography (CT and taking advantage of natural 3D speckles formed inside the rock due to material impurities and voids, we can probe the interior of a rock to map its deformation pattern under load and shed light on its failure mechanism. We apply this technique to the analysis of a red sandstone specimen under increasing uniaxial compressive load applied incrementally. The full-field 3D displacement fields are obtained in the specimen as a function of the load, from which both the volumetric and the deviatoric strain fields are calculated. Strain localization zones which lead to the eventual failure of the rock are identified. The results indicate that both shear and tension are contributing factors to the failure mechanism.

  6. Synthesis, X-ray crystallography characterization, vibrational spectroscopic, molecular electrostatic potential maps, thermodynamic properties studies of N,N'-di(p-thiazole)formamidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofouei, M K; Fereyduni, E; Sohrabi, N; Shamsipur, M; Attar Gharamaleki, J; Sundaraganesan, N

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we will report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular and vibrational structure of N,N'-di(p-thiazole)formamidine (DpTF). DpTF has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of DpTF were recorded in the solid phase. The optimized geometry was calculated by HF and B3LYP methods using 6-31G(d) basis set. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of DpTF was calculated at the HF/B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and were interpreted in terms of potential energy distribution (PED) analysis. The scaled theoretical wavenumber showed very good agreement with the experimental values. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of DpTF was reported. On the basis of vibrational analyses, the thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been calculated, revealing the correlations between Cp,m°, Sm°, Hm° and temperatures. Furthermore, molecular electrostatic potential maps (MESP) and total dipole moment properties of the compound have been calculated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Li Meitian; Kim Youshi; Fan Changsheng; Wang Shanghai; Pan Qiuli; Liu Zhiguo; Li Rongwu

    2011-01-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  8. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin, E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.c [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Meitian; Kim Youshi [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Fan Changsheng; Wang Shanghai [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, Jiangxi Province 330025 (China); Pan Qiuli; Liu Zhiguo [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Rongwu [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-02-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  9. Mapping the dynamics of cortical neuroplasticity of skilled motor learning using micro X-ray fluorescence and histofluorescence imaging of zinc in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Paterson, Phyllis G.

    2017-01-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) of zinc (Zn) has been recently implemented to understand the efficiency of various therapeutic interventions targeting post-stroke neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. However, it is uncertain if micro XFI can resolve neuroplasticity-induced changes. Thus, we explored if learning-associated behavioral changes would be accompanied by changes in cortical Zn concentration measured by XFI in healthy adult rats. Proficiency in a skilled reach-to-eat task during early and late stages of motor learning served as a functional measure of neuroplasticity. c-Fos protein and vesicular Zn expression were employed as indirect neuronal measures of brain plasticity. A total Zn map (20 × 20 × 30 μm3 resolution) generated by micro XFI failed to reflect increases in either c-Fos or vesicular Zn in the motor cortex contralateral to the trained forelimb or improved proficiency in the skilled reaching task. Remarkably, vesicular Zn increased in the late stage of motor learning along with a concurrent decrease in the number of c-fos-ip neurons relative to the early stage of motor learning. This inverse dynamics of c-fos and vesicular Zn level as the motor skill advances suggest that a qualitatively different neural population, comprised of fewer active but more efficiently connected neurons, supports a skilled action in the late versus early stage of motor learning. The lack of sensitivity of the XFI-generated Zn map to visualize the plasticity-associated changes in vesicular Zn suggests that the Zn level measured by micro XFI should not be used as a surrogate marker of neuroplasticity in response to the acquisition of skilled motor actions. Nanoscopic XFI could be explored in future as a means of imaging these subtle physiological changes. PMID:27840249

  10. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  11. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  12. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  13. X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The most common form of radio therapy is X-ray therapy, where a beam of photons or their parent electrons break down hydrogen bonds within the body's cells and remove certain DNA information necessary for cell multiplication. This process can eradicate malignant cells leading to complete recovery, to the remission of some cancers, or at least to a degree of pain relief. The radiotherapy instrument is usually an electron linac, and the electrons are used either directly in 'electrotherapy' for some 10% of patients, or the electrons bombard a conversion target creating a broad beam of high energy photons or 'penetration X-rays'. The simplest machine consists of several accelerating sections at around 3 GHz, accelerating electrons to 6 MeV; a cooled tungsten target is used to produce a 4 Gray/min X-ray field which can be collimated into a rectangular shape at the patient position. This tiny linac is mounted inside a rotating isocentric gantry above the patient who must remain perfectly still. Several convergent beams can also be used to increase the delivered dose. More sophisticated accelerators operate at up to 18 MeV to increase penetration depths and decrease skin exposure. Alternatively, electrotherapy can be used with different energies for lower and variable penetration depths - approximately 0.5 cm per MeV. In this way surface tissue may be treated without affecting deeper and more critical anatomical regions. This type of linac, 1 to 2 metres long, is mounted parallel to the patient with a bending magnet to direct the beam to the radiotherapy system, which includes the target, thick movable collimator jaws, a beam field equalizer, dose rate and optical field simulation and energy controls. There are over 2000 acceleratorbased X-ray treatment units worldwide. Western countries have up to two units per million population, whereas in developing countries such as Bangladesh, the density is only one per 100 million. Several

  14. X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucarias, A; Shepherd, J W

    1982-09-08

    An X-ray tube has a tubular envelope with a cathode for directing an electron beam onto a focal spot area of a spaced anode target to generate X-rays. The target is mounted for axial rotation on one end of a rotor disposed in an end portion of the envelope and encircled by a stator of an alternating current induction motor. An annular shield of high permeability magnetic material extends transversely between the electron beam and the stator of the induction motor for shunting stray or fringe electromagnetic fields established by the stator away from the electron beam to avoid consequent lateral deflections of the electron and corresponding lateral movements of the focal spot area.

  15. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  16. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  17. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  18. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  19. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  20. X-ray diffractometry with spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiner, K.

    1981-04-01

    X-ray diffractometry is one of the extensively used methods for investigation of the crystalline structure of materials. Line shape and position of a diffracted line are influenced by grain size, deformation and stress. Spatial resolution of one of these specimen characteristics is usually achieved by point-focused X-ray beams and subsequently analyzing different specimen positions. This work uses the method of image reconstruction from projections for the generation of distribution maps. Additional experimental requirements when using a conventional X-ray goniometer are a specimen scanning unit and a computer. The scanning unit repeatedly performs a number of translation steps followed by a rotation step in a fixed X-ray tube/detector (position sensitive detector) arrangement. At each specimen position a diffraction line is recorded using a line-shaped X-ray beam. This network of diffraction lines (showing line resolution) is mathematically converted to a distribution map of diffraction lines and going thus a point resolution. Specimen areas of up to several cm 2 may be analyzed with a linear resolution of 0.1 to 1 mm. Image reconstruction from projections must be modified for generation of ''function-maps''. This theory is discussed and demonstrated by computer simulations. Diffraction line analysis is done for specimen deformation using a deconvolution procedure. The theoretical considerations are experimentally verified. (author)

  1. X-ray mapping in heterocyclic design: 18. X-ray diffraction study of a series of derivatives of 3-cyanopyridine-2-one with annelated heptane and octane cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybakov, V. B., E-mail: Rybakov20021@yandex.ru; Babaev, E. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Paronikyan, E. G., E-mail: Ervand.paronikyan@mail.ru [National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Mnjoyan Institute of Fine Organic Chemistry, Scientific Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry (Armenia)

    2017-03-15

    Seven new, previously unknown, bicyclic and tricyclic heterocycles based on derivatives of 3-cyanopyrid-2-ones are obtained: 2-oxo-2,5,6,7,8,9-hexahydro-1H-cyclohepta[b]pyridine-3-carbonitrile, C{sub 11}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}O (1a); 2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxoethoxy]-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-cyclohepta[b] pyridine-3-carbonitrile, C{sub 19}H{sub 17}ClN{sub 2}O{sub 2} (2a); (3-amino-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-cyclohepta[b]furo[3,2-e]pyridin-2-yl)(4- chlorophenyl)methanone, C{sub 19}H{sub 17}ClN{sub 2}O{sub 2} (3); 2-oxo-1,2,5,6,7,8,9,10-octahydrocycloocta[b]pyridine-3-carboxamide, C{sub 12}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}O{sub 2} (4); 2-[2-(4-chorophenyl)-2-oxoethoxy]-5,6,7,8,9,10 -hexahydrocycloocta[b]pyridine-3-carboxamide, C{sub 20}H{sub 21}ClN{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5a); 1-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxo-1,2,5,6,7,8,9,10 -octahydrocycloocta[b]pyridine-3-carboxamide, C{sub 20}H{sub 21}ClN{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5b); and 2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxoethoxy]-5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydrocycloocta[b] pyridine-3-carbonitrile, C{sub 20}H{sub 19}ClN{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (6). All compounds are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, and their crystal structures are determined by X-ray diffraction.

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  6. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray ...

  14. Analysis of two-dimensional elemental maps in adult and middle-aged female and male Wistar rats by X-ray microfluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, R.F.; Anjos, M.J.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Lopes, R.T.; Oliveira, L.F. de; Carmo, M.G.T. do; Rocha, M.S.; Martinez, A.M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are few methods available to measure the spatial (two (three)-dimensional) elemental distribution in animal brain. X-Ray Microfluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation is a multielemental mapping technique, which was used in this work to determine the two-dimensional maps of phosphorous (P), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in coronal sections of adult (60 days old) and middle aged (20 months old) female (n = 4) and male (n = 4) Wistar rats. The measurements were carried out at the XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). A two-dimensional scanning was performed in order to study the tendency of elemental concentration variation and the elemental distribution. The acquisition time for each pixel was 10 s/step and the step size was 300 μm/step in both directions. It was observed that P levels decreased with advancing age in female rats, but, on the other hand, these levels increased with advancing age in male rats. K, Fe and Cu levels increased in female and male middle-aged rats in the same ways as P and Cl levels (only in male animals). In addition to this, Fe levels were higher in females rats than males ones. However, in relation to P and K distributions, they were homogeneous in the entire brain section, independently of the gender and age. Cl distribution was more pronounced in cortical areas, hippocampus and thalamus for all the animals studied, except for the middle-aged female rats. Fe distribution was more conspicuous in the thalamus, hypothalamus and cortical area. Moreover, Zn distributions are in good concern with the results reported by the literature, being more intense in the hippocampus. Our results showed that an increase of Fe, Cu and Zn with aging can be related to the development of some neurodegenerative disorders, since the literature reports an increase of these elements in Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and Wilson Disease. Therefore, we can see that

  15. MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MAGNETAR 1E 1048.1–5937 IN OUTBURST AND QUIESCENCE THROUGH PHASE-RESOLVED X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güver, Tolga; Göğüş, Ersin; Özel, Feryal

    2015-01-01

    We model the pulse profiles and the phase-resolved spectra of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1048.1–5937 obtained with XMM-Newton to map its surface temperature distribution during an active and a quiescent epoch. We develop and apply a model that takes into account the relevant physical and geometrical effects on the neutron star surface, magnetosphere, and spacetime. Using this model, we determine the observables at infinity as a function of pulse phase for different numbers and sizes of hot spots on the surface. We show that the pulse profiles extracted from both observations can be modeled with a single hot spot and an antipodal cool component. The size of the hot spot changes from ≈80° in 2007, three months after the onset of a dramatic flux increase, to ≈30° during the quiescent observation in 2011, when the pulsed fraction returned to the pre-outburst ≈65% level. For the 2007 observation, we also find that a model consisting of a single 0.4 keV hot spot with a magnetic field strength of 1.8 × 10 14 G accounts for the spectra obtained at three different pulse phases but underpredicts the flux at the pulse minimum, where the contribution to the emission from the cooler component is non-negligible. The inferred temperature of the spot stays approximately constant between different pulse phases, in agreement with a uniform temperature, single hot spot model. These results suggest that the emitting area grows significantly during outbursts but returns to its persistent and significantly smaller size within a timescale of a few years

  16. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Hip What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  20. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Ankle What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  1. SMM x ray polychromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  2. Obstetric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwachi, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography of the pelvis should never be taken to diagnose early pregnancy, because of potential hazards of radiation damage to the growing foetus. the only indication occurs in the last week of pregnancy (37 weeks). Obstetric X-ray will help you answer like confirmation of malposition,multiple pregnancies; fetal abnormalities e.g. hydrocephalus, foetal disposition. The choice of radiographic projection will help give foetal presentation, disposition as well as foetal maturity. The search pattern helps you determine maternal and spine deformity, foetal spine and head , foetal presentation and any other anomalies

  3. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  4. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  5. Dark field X-ray microscopy for studies of recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahl, Sonja Rosenlund; Simons, Hugh; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2015-01-01

    We present the recently developed technique of Dark Field X-Ray Microscopy that utilizes the diffraction of hard X-rays from individual grains or subgrains at the (sub)micrometre- scale embedded within mm-sized samples. By magnifying the diffracted signal, 3D mapping of orientations and strains...... external influences. The capabilities of Dark Field X- Ray Microscopy are illustrated by examples from an ongoing study of recrystallization of 50% cold-rolled Al1050 specimens....

  6. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  7. X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.A.; Van Grieken, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the period under review, i.e, through 1984 and 1985, some 600 articles on XRS (X-ray spectrometry) were published; most of these have been scanned and the most fundamental ones are discussed. All references will refer to English-language articles, unless states otherwise. Also general books have appeared on quantitative EPXMA (electron-probe X-ray microanalysis) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) as well as an extensive review on the application of XRS to trace analysis of environmental samples. In the period under review no radically new developments have been seen in XRS. However, significant improvements have been made. Gain in intensities has been achieved by more efficient excitation, higher reflectivity of dispersing media, and better geometry. Better understanding of the physical process of photon- and electron-specimen interactions led to complex but more accurate equations for correction of various interelement effects. Extensive use of micro- and minicomputers now enables fully automatic operation, including qualitative analysis. However, sample preparation and presentation still put a limit to further progress. Although some authors find XRS in the phase of stabilization or even stagnation, further gradual developments are expected, particularly toward more dedicated equipment, advanced automation, and image analysis systems. Ways are outlined in which XRS has been improved in the 2 last years by excitation, detection, instrumental, methodological, and theoretical advances. 340 references

  8. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K.

    2004-01-01

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a μm-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF). We developed a μ-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit μ-XRF (GE-μ-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 μm at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant 'Quinoa'. The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-μ-XRF. We expect that GE-μ-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region

  9. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K. E-mail: tsuji@a-chem.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp

    2004-08-31

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a {mu}m-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry ({mu}-XRF). We developed a {mu}-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit {mu}-XRF (GE-{mu}-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 {mu}m at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant 'Quinoa'. The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-{mu}-XRF. We expect that GE-{mu}-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region.

  10. X-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R.; Otto, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray radiographic or fluoroscopic table is described which includes a film holder with a frame attached to a cable running over end pulleys for positioning the holder longitudinally as desired under the table top. The holder has a front opening to receive a cassette-supporting tray which can be slid out on tracks to change the cassette. A reed switch on the frame is opened by a permanent magnet on the tray only when the tray is half-way out. When the switch is closed, an electromagnet locks the pulley and the holder in place. The holder is thus automatically locked in place not only during exposure (tray in) but when the tray is out for changing the cassette. To re-position the holder, the operator pulls the tray half-out and, using the tray itself, pushes the holder along the table, the holder being counterbalanced by a weight. (author)

  11. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  12. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  13. Effective absorption correction for energy dispersive X-ray mapping in a scanning transmission electron microscope: analysing the local indium distribution in rough samples of InGaN alloy layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Chauvat, M-P; Ruterana, P; Walther, T

    2017-12-01

    We have applied our previous method of self-consistent k*-factors for absorption correction in energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to quantify the indium content in X-ray maps of thick compound InGaN layers. The method allows us to quantify the indium concentration without measuring the sample thickness, density or beam current, and works even if there is a drastic local thickness change due to sample roughness or preferential thinning. The method is shown to select, point-by-point in a two-dimensional spectrum image or map, the k*-factor from the local Ga K/L intensity ratio that is most appropriate for the corresponding sample geometry, demonstrating it is not the sample thickness measured along the electron beam direction but the optical path length the X-rays have to travel through the sample that is relevant for the absorption correction. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Depiction of blood vessels by x-ray phase contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi [School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    Blood vessels in livers of a mouse and a rat were depicted by phase-contrast x-ray imaging with an x-ray interferometer without using contrast agents. X-ray interference patterns were converted to image mapping x-ray phase shift caused by the livers using the technique of phase-shifting x-ray interferometry. The arteries and veins to and from the livers were tied before excision in order to prevent blood from flowing out of the liver. The x-ray phase shift caused by blood was substantially different from that caused by other soft sues, and consequently trees of blood vessels were revealed in the images. Vessels of diameter smaller than 0.1 mm were detected. This result suggests new possibilities for investigating vascular systems. (author)

  15. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  16. X-ray instrumentation in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhlane, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference devoted to x-ray instrumentation in astronomy. Special sections are: AXAF X-Ray Optical Systems; Specialized X-Ray Systems; X-Ray Optical Systems I; X-Ray Optical Systems II; Gas Filled X-Ray Detectors II; The NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility; X-Ray and EUV Spectrometers; Microchannel Plates; and Solid State Detectors

  17. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  18. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  19. X-ray filtration apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an X-ray shielding support device. In spite of considerable development in X-ray taking techniques, a need still exists for effective shielding, inter alia, to compensate for variations in the thickness, density and the absorption properties of the object being studied. By appropriate shielding, the X-ray image produced is of sufficient detail, contrast and intensity over its entire area to constitute a useful diagnostic aid. It is also desirable to subject the patient to the smallest possible X-ray dosage. 4 figs

  20. Growth rates and geochemical proxies in Late Campanian bivalves - New insights from micro-X-ray Fluorescence mapping and numerical growth modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Niels; Goderis, Steven; van Malderen, Stijn; Vanhaecke, Frank; Claeys, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Late Cretaceous greenhouse climate is of vital importance for understanding present and future climate change. While a lot of good work has been done to reconstruct climate in this interesting period, most paleoclimatic studies have focused on long-term climate change[1]. Alternatively, multi-proxy records from marine bivalves provide us with a unique opportunity to study past climate on a seasonal scale. However, previous fossil bivalve studies have reported ambiguous results with regard to the interpretation of trace element and stable isotope proxies in marine bivalve shells[2]. One major problem in the interpretation of such records is the bivalve's vital effect and the occurrence of disequilibrium fractionation during bivalve growth. Both these problems are linked to the annual growth cycle of marine bivalves, which introduces internal effects on the incorporation of isotopes and trace elements into the shell[3]. Understanding this growth cycle in extinct bivalves is therefore of great importance for the interpretation of seasonal proxy records in their shells. In this study, three different species of extinct Late Campanian bivalves (two rudist species and one oyster species) that were found in the same stratigraphic interval are studied. Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence line scanning and mapping of trace elements such as Mg, Sr, S and Zn, calibrated by LA-ICP-MS measurements, is combined with microdrilled stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis on the well-preserved part of the shells. Data of this multi-proxy study is compared with results from a numerical growth model written in the open-source statistics package R[4] and based on annual growth increments observed in the shells and shell thickness. This growth model is used together with proxy data to reconstruct rates of trace element incorporation into the shell and to calculate the mass balance of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes. In order to achieve this goal, 2D mapping of bivalve shell

  1. Chromium mapping in male mice reproductive glands exposed to CrCl{sub 3} using proton and X-ray synchrotron radiation microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, R. E-mail: ortega@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Deves, G.; Bonnin-Mosbah, M.; Salome, M.; Susini, J.; Anderson, L.M.; Kasprzak, K.S

    2001-07-01

    Preconception exposure to certain chemicals may increase risk of tumors in offspring, especially with regard to occupational metals such as chromium. However, the mechanism of chromium trans-generation carcinogenicity remains unknown. Using scanning proton X-ray microanalysis we have been able to detect chromium in testicular tissue sections from mice treated by intraperitoneal injection of 1 mmol/kg CrCl{sub 3}. Chromium concentration was about 5 {mu}g/g dry mass in average, but higher concentrations were found within the limiting membrane of the testes, the tunica albuginea. In addition, synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence measurements, with microscopic resolution, clearly demonstrated the presence of chromium in the tunica albuginea but also within isolated cells from the interstitial connective tissue.

  2. X-ray optics and X-ray microscopes: new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susini, J.

    2004-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of X-rays in 1895 by W. Roentgen, it became rapidly clear that the methods traditionally used in the visible light regime, namely refraction, diffraction and reflection were difficult to apply for X-ray optics. The physical origins of these difficulties are closely linked to the very nature of interaction of X-rays with matter. The small deviation δ of the refractive index of condensed matter from unity makes it difficult to extend refraction-based optics from the optical spectral region to the X-ray region because the refraction angle is proportional to δ. Similarly it is very challenging to extend diffraction-based focusing techniques to X-rays because the diffraction angle scales inversely with wavelength. Finally, the use of reflection-based optics is also limited by the very small critical angle for total reflection. All those fundamental limitations prevented for almost one century, the development of X-ray microscopy whereas electron microscopy became a standard tool. In the past twenty years, interests for X-ray microscopy revived, mainly because of several major advances in X-ray sources and X-ray optics. X-ray microscopy techniques are now emerging as powerful and complementary tools for submicron investigations. Soft X-ray microscopes offer traditionally the possibility to form direct images of thick hydrated biological material in near-native environment, at a spatial resolution well beyond that achievable with visible light microscopy. Natural contrast is available in the soft X-ray region, in the so-called ''water-window'', due to the presence of absorption edges of the major constituents (C,N,O). Recent advances in manufacturing techniques have enlarged the accessible energy range of micro-focussing optics and offer new applications in a broad range of disciplines. X-ray microscopy in the 1 - 30 keV energy range is better suited for fluorescence to map trace elements, tomography for 3D imaging and micro-diffraction. The

  3. Mapping the topographic epitope landscape on the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) by surface plasmon resonance and X-ray crystallography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Baoyu; Gandhi, Sonu; Yuan, Cai

    2015-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR or CD87) is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein often expressed in the microenvironment of invasive solid cancers and high levels are generally associated with poor patient prognosis (Kriegbaum et al., 2011 [1]). uPAR is organized as a dy...... of these mAbs by X-ray crystallography alone and in complex with uPAR [deposited in the PDB database as 4QTH and 4QTI, respectively]....

  4. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  5. 3D map of theranostic nanoparticles distribution in mice brain and liver by means of X-ray Phase Contrast Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, E.; Bravin, A.; Brun, F.; Bukreeva, I.; Cedola, A.; Fratini, M.; Le Guevel, X.; Massimi, L.; Sancey, L.; Tillement, O.; Zeitoun, P.; de La Rochefoucauld, O.

    2018-01-01

    The word "theranostic" derives from the fusion of two terms: therapeutic and diagnostic. It is a promising research field that aims to develop innovative therapies with high target specificity by exploiting the therapeutic and diagnostic properties, in particular for metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) developed to erase cancer. In the framework of a combined research program on low dose X-ray imaging and theranostic nanoparticles (NPs), high resolution Phase-Contrast Tomography images of mice organs injected with gadolinium and gold-NPs were acquired at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Both compounds are good X-ray contrast agents due to their high attenuation coefficient with respect to biological tissues, especially immediately above K-edge energy. X-ray tomography is a powerful non-invasive technique to image the 3D vasculature network in order to detect abnormalities. Phase contrast methods provide more detailed anatomical information with higher discrimination among soft tissues. We present the images of mice liver and brain injected with gold and gadolinium NPs, respectively. We discuss different image processing methods used aiming at enhancing the accuracy on localizing nanoparticles.

  6. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr. A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra...

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.T.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  8. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si0 2 . The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? ...

  11. Traditional x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of imaging x-rays, with particular reference to medicine, are reviewed. The history and nature of x-rays, their production and spectra, contrast, shapes and fine structure, image transducers, including fluorescent screens, radiography, fluoroscopy, and image intensifiers, image detection, perception and enhancement and clinical applications are considered. (U.K.)

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for ... organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  17. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  18. X-ray diagnostics for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

    1982-12-01

    A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment

  19. X-ray filter for chest X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of an X-ray filter comprised of a sheet of radiation absorbing material with an opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. The upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter. This filter will permit an acceptable density level of x-ray exposure for the lungs while allowing a higher level of x-ray exposure for the mediastinum areas of the body. (author)

  20. X-ray filter for chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Filter for use in medical x-ray apparatus to permit higher intensity x-ray exposure in the heart and mediastinum area while maintaining a normal level of x-ray exposure in other areas of the body, particlarly in the lung area. The filter comprises a sheet of radiation absorbing material having an opening therein, said opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. Accordingly, the upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter

  1. Mapping strain fields induced in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses during in-situ nanoindentation by X-ray nanodiffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gamcová, J.; Mohanty, G.; Michalik, Štefan; Wehrs, J.; Bednarčík, J.; Krywka, C.; Breguet, J.M.; Michler, J.; Franz, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 3 (2016), 1-4, č. článku 031907. ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057 Grant - others:OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057; AVČR(CZ) M100101221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : X-ray diffraction * hardness * elasticity * nanotechnology * amorphous metals Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  2. Real-time X-ray microradiographic imaging and image correlation for local strain mapping in single trabecula under mechanical load

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doktor, Tomáš; Jiroušek, Ondřej; Kytýř, Daniel; Zlámal, Petr; Jandejsek, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2011), s. 7-12 ISSN 1748-0221. [International workshop on radiation imaging detectors /13./. Zurich, 03.07.2011-07.07.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : pixelated detectors and associated VLSI electronics * X-ray radiography and digital radiography * digital image correlation * human trabecula Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/6/11/C11007

  3. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 Radiological Society of North America, Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 Radiological Society of North America, Inc. ( ...

  6. X-ray film calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Henke, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of silver halide x-ray films for imaging and spectroscopy which is limited by the range of intensities that can be recorded and densitometered. Using the manufacturers processing techniques can result in 10 2-3 range in intensity recorded over 0-5 density range. By modifying the chemistry and processing times, ranges of 10 5-6 can be recorded in the same density range. The authors report on x-ray film calibration work and dynamic range improvements. Changes to the processing chemistry and the resulting changes in dynamic range and x-ray sensitivity are discussed

  7. Women and x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkley, P A; Stewart, J H

    1976-01-01

    When a woman comes to an X-Ray Department it is usually necessary to know the present stage of her menstrual cycle. X-Rays may have an adverse effect on the embryo, especially in early pregnancy. However, exposure to X-Rays at any stage may be associated with a slightly increased incidence of malignant disease in childhood. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends that in women of child-bearing age (in some cases as young as 11 years), non-urgent diagnostic radiography be confined to the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle: that is, 14 days following the first day of the last menstrual period.

  8. A prospective dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry study of bone remodeling after implantation of the Nanos short-stemmed prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Alexander; Pankow, Franziska; Röllinhoff, Marc; Delank, Stefan; Wohlrab, David

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the bone remodeling around the Nanos stem (Smith & Nephew, Marl, Germany) after primary total hip arthroplasty for coxarthrosis. In 25 patients (15 male, 10 female, mean age 59.9 years) with the diagnosis of coxarthrosis, a DEXA scan was performed immediately after surgery, 97 days (SD 6.1 days) and 368 days (SD 6.2 days) after implantation of a Nanos prosthesis. Plain radiographs were analyzed digitally for radiolucent lines, varus-valgus femoral stem alignment, measurement of stem migration and changes in varus-valgus femoral stem alignment. The position of the center of rotation (COR) and the offset were assessed pre- and postoperatively. Harris Hip Score was used to evaluate the clinical outcome. The DEXA scan showed a significant and relevant increase in BMD (Bone Mineral Density) in Gruen-Zone 6 (12%) and a decrease in Zone 1 (15%), 2 (5%) and 7 (12%), which was interpreted as reflecting a distal load transfer in the metaphysis of the femur. There was no clinically relevant migration or tilting of the Nanos stem. Radiolucent lines were noted in 12 cases, mainly at the polished tip area of the prosthesis; this was not regarded as a sign of impaired osseointegration. There was no significant difference between the position of the COR and the pre- and postoperative offset. The absence of stem migration, angulation, or relevant radiolucent lines is seen as evidence for an unimpaired osseointegration of the Nanos stem approximately 12 months after implantation. It is concluded that the Nanos prosthesis can reduce loss of BMD of the proximal femur composed with conventional stems or other short-stemmed implants.

  9. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  10. Simulation and application of micro X-ray fluorescence based on an ellipsoidal capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yude; Wang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Xiaoyan

    2017-06-01

    A micro X-ray fluorescence setup was presented, based on an ellipsoidal capillary and a traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Using Ray-tracing principle, we have simulated the transmission path of X-ray beam in the ellipsoidal capillary and designed the optimal parameters of the ellipsoidal capillary for the micro X-ray fluorescence setup. We demonstrate that ellipsoidal capillary is well suited as condenser for the micro X-ray fluorescence based on traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Furthermore, we obtain the 2D mapping image of the leaf blade sample by using the ellipsoidal capillary we designed.

  11. Laboratory characterization of Woelter x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Morales, R.I.

    1994-04-01

    We have conducted an extensive series of characterization measurements of a Woe1ter incidence x-ray microscope. The measurements were carried out on 5% sectors of the Woe1ter x-ray optic in a laboratory utilizing a high brightness, ''point'' x-ray source and fall into two categories. (1) Absolute reflectance measurements as a function of x-ray energy were made with Si(Li) detectors to acquire continuum spectra prior to and after reflecting off the Woe1ter optic. (2) Spatial resolution measurements were made using back-illuminated pinholes or grids imaged onto film or an x-ray CCD camera. The depth of field was mapped out by varying the distance between the Woe1ter optic and the backlit grid

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken ... and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray may ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. ... should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are ...

  15. X-ray guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, R.; Lezana, A.H.; Pedrosa, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is now a routine procedure in many X-ray Departments. This paper presents the authors' experience with this technique in chest, abdominal and skeletal lesions. (Auth.)

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  18. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  20. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a ... Images related ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ... so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ... the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a patient. View ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  3. Flash x-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide an overview of the potential capabilities and limitations of flash x-ray cinematography as a diagnostic technique for a Fast Reactor Safety Test Facility are described. The results provide estimates of the x-ray pulse intensity required to obtain adequate radiographs of an array of fuel pins in a typical reactor configuration. An estimate of the upper limit on the pulse duration imposed by the reactor background radiation was also determined. X-ray cinematography has been demonstrated at a repetition rate limited only by the recording equipment on hand at the time of these measurements. These preliminary results indicate that flash x-ray cinematography of the motion of fuel in a Fast Reactor Test Facility is technically feasible

  4. X-ray screening materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to x-ray screening materials and especially to materials in sheet form for use in the production of, for example, protective clothing such as aprons and lower back shields, curtains, mobile screens and suspended shields. The invention is based on the observation that x-ray screening materials in sheet form having greater flexiblity than the hitherto known x-ray screening materials of the same x-ray absorber content can be produced if, instead of using a single sheet of filled sheet material of increased thickness, one uses a plurality of sheets of lesser thickness together forming a laminar material of the desired thickness and one bonds the individual sheets together at their edges and, optionally, at other spaced apart points away from the edges thereby allowing one sheet to move relative to another. (U.K.)

  5. X-ray luminescent glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Yamada, O.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray luminescent glasses comprising a divalent cation such as an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cations such as pb, cd, or zn, and certain rare earth metaphosphates are suitable as vitreous, x-ray phosphors or x-ray luminescent glass fibers in an x-ray intensifying screen. The glasses have the composition n(Mo X p2o5)((1-y)tb2o3 X yce2o3 X 3p2o5) wherein N is greater than zero but less than or equal to 16, M is an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cation such as pb, cd, or zn, and Y is greater than or equal to zero but less than one

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  8. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  9. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppach, W.

    1982-01-01

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ... the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  17. Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Paul G [Computer-Aided Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Isaacs, Eric D [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction uses the structural specificity of x-ray diffraction to probe complex magnetic structures at the length scales relevant to physical phenomena including domain dynamics and phase transitions. Conventional magnetic crystallography techniques such as neutron or x-ray diffraction lack this spatial resolution. The combination of both reciprocal space and real space resolution with a rich magnetic cross section allows new microscopy techniques to be developed and applied to magnetism at the scale of single domains. Potential applications include a wide range of magnetic problems in nanomagnetism, the interaction of strain, polarization and magnetization in complex oxides and spatially resolved studies of magnetic phase transitions. We present the physical basis for x-ray microdiffraction and magnetic scattering processes, review microdiffraction domain imaging techniques in antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials and discuss potential directions for studies. (topical review)

  18. Mapping the metal uptake in plants from Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve using synchrotron micro-focused X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Allison [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Serpentine soil originates in the Earth’s mantle and contains high concentrations of potentially toxic transition metals. Although serpentine soil limits plant growth, endemic and adapted plants at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, located behind SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, can tolerate these conditions. Serpentine soil and seeds belonging to native California and invasive plants were collected at Jasper Ridge. The seeds were grown hydroponically and on serpentine and potting soil to examine the uptake and distribution of ions in the roots and shoots using synchrotron micro-focused X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results were used to determine differences between serpentine-tolerant plants. Rye grown on potting soil was enriched in Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr compared to purple needlegrass grown on serpentine soil. Serpentine vegetation equally suppressed the uptake of Mn, Ni, and Fe in the roots and shoots. The uptake of Ca and Mg affected the uptake of other elements such as K, S, and P.

  19. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  20. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  1. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  2. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  3. X-ray data processing

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Harold R.

    2017-01-01

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most c...

  4. Low energy (soft) x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.; Miller, R.C.; Nakamura, Nori; Mizuno, Masayoshi; Nishio, Shoji.

    1987-05-01

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60 Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60 Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60 Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  5. Triple-axis X-ray reciprocal space mapping of In{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}As thermophotovoltaic diodes grown on (1 0 0) InP substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashiell, M.W.; Ehsani, H.; Sander, P.C. [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Schenectady, NY 12301-1072 (United States); Newman, F.D. [Emcore Corporation, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Wang, C.A. [MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420 (United States); Shellenbarger, Z.A. [Sarnoff Corporation, Princeton NJ, 08543-5300 (United States); Donetski, D.; Gu, N.; Anikeev, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2350 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Analysis of the composition, strain-relaxation, layer-tilt, and the crystalline quality of In{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}As/InP{sub 1-x}As{sub x} thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is demonstrated using triple-axis X-ray reciprocal space mapping techniques. In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (E{sub gap}=0.74 eV) n/p junction diodes are grown lattice matched (LM) to InP substrates and lattice-mismatched (LMM) In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As (E{sub gap}=0.6 eV) TPV diodes are grown on three-step InP{sub 1-x}As{sub x} (0X-ray reciprocal space maps about the symmetric (4 0 0) and asymmetric (5 3 3) reciprocal lattice points (RELPs) determine the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters and strain of the In{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}As TPV active layer and underlying InP{sub 1-x}As{sub x} buffers. Triple-axis X-ray rocking curves about the LMM In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As RELP show an order of magnitude increase of its full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) compared to that from the LM In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (250 vs. 30 arcsec). Despite the significant RELP broadening, the photovoltaic figure of merits show that the electronic quality of the LMM In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As approaches that of the LM diode material. This indicates that misfit-related crystalline imperfections are not dominating the photovoltaic response of the optimized LMM In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As material compared with the intrinsic recombination processes and/or recombination through native point defects, which would be present in both LMM and LM diode material. However, additional RELP broadening in non-optimized LMM In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As n/p junction diodes does correspond to significant degradation of TPV diode open-circuit voltage and minority carrier lifetime demonstrating that there is correlation between X-ray FWHM and the electronic performance of the LMM TPV diodes. (author)

  6. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  7. Covariance mapping of two-photon double core hole states in C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 6 produced by an x-ray free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, M; Motomura, K; Bozek, J D; Schorb, S; Messerschmidt, M; Glownia, J M; Cryan, J P; Coffee, R N; Takahashi, O; Prince, K C; Feifel, R; Univ. of Gothenburg

    2015-01-01

    Few-photon ionization and relaxation processes in acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) and ethane (C 2 H 6 ) were investigated at the linac coherent light source x-ray free electron laser (FEL) at SLAC, Stanford using a highly efficient multi-particle correlation spectroscopy technique based on a magnetic bottle. The analysis method of covariance mapping has been applied and enhanced, allowing us to identify electron pairs associated with double core hole (DCH) production and competing multiple ionization processes including Auger decay sequences. The experimental technique and the analysis procedure are discussed in the light of earlier investigations of DCH studies carried out at the same FEL and at third generation synchrotron radiation sources. In particular, we demonstrate the capability of the covariance mapping technique to disentangle the formation of molecular DCH states which is barely feasible with conventional electron spectroscopy methods

  8. Tomographic image reconstruction using x-ray phase information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Hirano, Keiichi

    1996-04-01

    We have been developing phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography (CT) to make possible the observation of biological soft tissues without contrast enhancement. Phase-contrast x-ray CT requires for its input data the x-ray phase-shift distributions or phase-mapping images caused by an object. These were measured with newly developed fringe-scanning x-ray interferometry. Phase-mapping images at different projection directions were obtained by rotating the object in an x-ray interferometer, and were processed with a standard CT algorithm. A phase-contrast x-ray CT image of a nonstained cancerous tissue was obtained using 17.7 keV synchrotron x rays with 12 micrometer voxel size, although the size of the observation area was at most 5 mm. The cancerous lesions were readily distinguishable from normal tissues. Moreover, fine structures corresponding to cancerous degeneration and fibrous tissues were clearly depicted. It is estimated that the present system is sensitive down to a density deviation of 4 mg/cm3.

  9. Low levels of endogenous or X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks activate apoptosis in adult neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzuol, Lara; Rickett, Nicole; Ju, Limei; Jeggo, Penny A

    2015-10-01

    The embryonic neural stem cell compartment is characterised by rapid proliferation from embryonic day (E)11 to E16.5, high endogenous DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and sensitive activation of apoptosis. Here, we ask whether DSBs arise in the adult neural stem cell compartments, the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the sub-granular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and whether they activate apoptosis. We used mice with a hypomorphic mutation in DNA ligase IV (Lig4(Y288C)), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm(-/-)) and double mutant Atm(-/-)/Lig4(Y288C) mice. We demonstrate that, although DSBs do not arise at a high frequency in adult neural stem cells, the low numbers of DSBs that persist endogenously in Lig4(Y288C) mice or that are induced by low radiation doses can activate apoptosis. A temporal analysis shows that DSB levels in Lig4(Y288C) mice diminish gradually from the embryo to a steady state level in adult mice. The neonatal SVZ compartment of Lig4(Y288C) mice harbours diminished DSBs compared to its differentiated counterpart, suggesting a process selecting against unfit stem cells. Finally, we reveal high endogenous apoptosis in the developing SVZ of wild-type newborn mice. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Rotating anode x-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueschen, R.E.; Jens, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A solid low thermal conductivity columbium metal stem supports heavy refractory metal x-ray target and adjoins high thermal conductivity rotor hub fastened to rotor with low thermally conductive bearing hub fastened to a shaft journaled for rotation in bearings. The rotor is coated to enhance heat dissipation and the arrangement promotes thermal isolation of the bearings from the hot rotor hub and hot target. The hub is of Mo or Mo based alloy, and hub of Ni based alloy. Specific compositions with additives are detailed. Hub additionally restricts heat flow due to its maximised length and minimised cross-section, the reduced area bosses further restricting surface contact. (author)

  11. Residual γH2AX foci induced by low dose x-ray radiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells do not cause accelerated senescence in the progeny of irradiated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovalova, Margarita; Astrelina, Тatiana A; Grekhova, Anna; Vorobyeva, Natalia; Tsvetkova, Anastasia; Blokhina, Taisia; Nikitina, Victoria; Suchkova, Yulia; Usupzhanova, Daria; Brunchukov, Vitalyi; Kobzeva, Irina; Karaseva, Тatiana; Ozerov, Ivan V; Samoylov, Aleksandr; Bushmanov, Andrey; Leonov, Sergey; Izumchenko, Evgeny; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Klokov, Dmitry; Osipov, Andreyan N

    2017-11-21

    Mechanisms underlying the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation (IR) exposure (10-100 mGy) remain unknown. Here we present a comparative study of early (less than 24h) and delayed (up to 11 post-irradiation passages) radiation effects caused by low (80 mGy) vs intermediate (1000 mGy) dose X-ray exposure in cultured human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We show that γН2АХ foci induced by an intermediate dose returned back to the control value by 24 h post-irradiation. In contrast, low-dose irradiation resulted in residual γН2АХ foci still present at 24 h. Notably, these low dose induced residual γН2АХ foci were not co-localized with рАТМ foci and were observed predominantly in the proliferating Кi67 positive (Кi67+) cells. The number of γН2АХ foci and the fraction of nonproliferating (Кi67-) and senescent (SA-β-gal+) cells measured at passage 11 were increased in cultures exposed to an intermediate dose compared to unirradiated controls. These delayed effects were not seen in the progeny of cells that were irradiated with low-dose X-rays, although such exposure resulted in residual γН2АХ foci in directly irradiated cells. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the low-dose IR induced residual γH2AХ foci do not play a role in delayed irradiation consequences, associated with cellular senescence in cultured MSCs.

  12. Periprosthetic bone density changes after MiniHipTM cementless femoral short stem: one-year results of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the reaction of the femur to the implantation of the MiniHipTM in terms of: (1 bone density change during one year; (2 correlations between stem length, CCD (caput-collum-diaphyseal, femoral offset, T-value, and bone density; (3 other co-variables that influence the change of bone density. Patients and methods: MiniHipTM implant was performed for 62 patients. The age range of the patients who underwent treatment was 25–78 years. Periprothestic bone density was determined within two weeks postoperatively, after three, six, and twelve months utilizing the DEXA scan. Results: The highest change was observed in the first three months post-implantation, while significant decrease in density was recorded at proximal Gruen zones 1, 2, and 7, and at distal Gruen zone 4. The decrease in density reached a plateau between the third and sixth months after operation. Afterwards, bone density recovered up to the 12th postoperative month. The correlation analysis showed significant difference between Gruen zone 1 and stem size and CCD. The same significant trend was not reached for Gruen zone 7. Femoral offset showed no correlation. Covariance analysis was unable to establish connection of the results with diagnosis, pairings, or gender. Discussion: MiniHipTM densitometric results are promising and comparable to good results of the other representatives of the femoral neck partially-sustaining short stem prostheses with a lower proximal bone density reduction. Periprosthetic bone resorption is a multifactorial process where stem size, CCD angle, and patient-specific variables such as T-value have an impact on the periprosthetic bone remodeling. In particular, this applies to Gruen zone 1.

  13. Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boye, Pit

    2010-02-05

    This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the

  14. Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, Pit

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the

  15. Operation of a separated-type x-ray interferometer for phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Momose, Atsushi; Seya, Eiichi; Hirano, Keiichi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1999-12-01

    Aiming at large-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging, a separated-type x-ray interferometer system was designed and developed to produce 25×20 mm interference patterns. The skew-symmetric optical system was adopted because of the feasibility of alignment. The rotation between the separated crystal blocks was controlled within a drift of 0.06 nrad using a feedback positioning system. This interferometer generated a 25×15 mm interference pattern with 0.07 nm synchrotron x-rays. A slice of a rabbit's kidney was observed, and its tubular structure could be revealed in a measured phase map.

  16. X-ray fluorescent elemental analysis. Ch. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, V.; Kulipanov, G.; Skrinsky, A.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XFA) is used worldwide to define a quantitative content of the elements as well as to visualize the distribution of elements in different regions (element mapping). Utilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) to excite X-ray fluorescence enables the XFA method to be qualitatively improved. This chapter reviews the experimental work in especially the last decade (author). 71 refs.; 24 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. X-ray fluorescence imaging with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The micro-distribution of trace elements is of great interest in fields such as geochemistry, biology and material science. The synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe provides a technique to quantitatively measure trace element compositions at individual points and to construct semiquantitative two dimensional maps of trace element compositions. This paper describes an x-ray fluorescence system used at the National Synchrotron Light Source

  18. Measuring Cavitation with Synchrotron X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Daniel; Kastengren, Alan; Powell, Chris; X-Ray Fuel Spray Group, Energy Systems Division Team

    2012-11-01

    Cavitation plays an important role in the formation of sprays from small nozzles such as those found in fuel injection systems. A sharp-edged inlet from the sac into the nozzle of a diesel fuel injector is shown to inititate a strong sheet-like cavitation along the boundary layer of the nozzle throat, which is difficult to measure and can lead to acoustic damage. To investigate this phenomenon, a diagnostic technique capable of mapping the density field of the nozzle through regions of intense cavitation is required. Available visible-light techniques are limited to qualitative observations of the outer extent of cavitation zones. However, brilliant X-rays from a synchrotron source have negligible refraction and are capable of penetrating the full extent of cavitation zones. We present the early results of a novel application of line-of-sight, time-resolved X-ray radiography on a cavitating model nozzle. Experiments were conducted at Sector 7-BM of the Advanced Photon Source. Density and vapor distribution are measured from the quantitative absorption of monochromatic X-rays. The density field can then be tomographically reconstructed from the projections. The density is then validated against a range of compressible and incompressible numerical simulations. This research was performed at the 7-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program (DOE-EERE).

  19. Transmission X-ray mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lairson, B.M.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission X-ray mirrors have been made from 400 A to 10 000 A thick soap films and have been shown to have novel properties. Using grazing angles of incidence, low energy X-rays were reflected from the front surface while more energetic X-rays were transmitted through the mirror largely unattenuated. A wide bandpass monochromator was made from a silicon carbide mirror followed by a soap film transmission mirror and operated in the white beam at the cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Bandpasses of ΔE/E=12% to 18% were achieved at 13 keV with peak efficiencies estimated to be between 55% and 75%, respectively. Several wide angle scattering photographs of stretched polyethylene and a phospholipid were obtained in 10 s using an 18% bandpass. (orig.)

  20. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  1. Exponential x-ray transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazou, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    In emission computed tomography one wants to determine the location and intensity of radiation emitted by sources in the presence of an attenuating medium. If the attenuation is known everywhere and equals a constant α in a convex neighborhood of the support of f, then the problem reduces to that of inverting the exponential x-ray transform P/sub α/. The exponential x-ray transform P/sub μ/ with the attenuation μ variable, is of interest mathematically. For the exponential x-ray transform in two dimensions, it is shown that for a large class of approximate δ functions E, convolution kernels K exist for use in the convolution backprojection algorithm. For the case where the attenuation is constant, exact formulas are derived for calculating the convolution kernels from radial point spread functions. From these an exact inversion formula for the constantly attenuated transform is obtained

  2. X-ray of osteopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Osteoporosis, osteomalcia, fibro-osteoclasia and osteosclerosis are essential reactions to pathologicometabolic processes of the bone. The X-ray film shows precisely which changes have taken place in the bone structure, thus supplying the means for an analysis based on anatomic pathology. These phenomena are discussed in detail, special attention being paid to structural modifications. Attention is also focused on the problems connected with X-ray technology. The value of direct and indirect magnification of the skeleton of the hand for the identification and classification of esteopathies is explained. Phenomena observed in X-ray films, such as enosteal erosion, intracortical longitudinal stripes or tunnelisation, as well as subperiostal absorption, can be of pathognomonic importance for certain osteopathies. (orig.) [de

  3. Imaging X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory, more appealingly called the Einstein Observatory, marked one of the most revolutionary steps taken in astrophysics this century. Its greater sensitivity compared with earlier satellites and its ability to make high spacial and spectral resolution observations transformed X-ray astronomy. This book is based on a Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to celebrate a decade of Einstein Observatory's achievements. It discusses the contributions that this satellite has made to each area of modern astrophysics and the diversity of the ongoing work based on Einstein data. There is a guide to each of the main data bases now coming on-line to increase the availability and to preserve this valuable archive for the future. A review of NASA's next big X-ray mission, AXAF, and a visionary program for novel X-ray astronomy satellites by Riccardo Giacconi conclude this wide-ranging volume. (author)

  4. Solar X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnov, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the popular form the consideration is given to the modern state tasks and results of X-ray spectrometry of solar bursts. The operation of X-ray spectroheliograph is described. Results of spectral and polarization measurings of X-ray radiation of one powerful solar burst are presented. The conclusion has been drawn that in the process of burst development three characteristic stages may be distingwished: 1) the initial phase; just in this period processes which lead to observed consequences-electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation are born; 2) the impulse phase, or the phase of maximum, is characterised by sharp increase of radiation flux. During this phase the main energy content emanates and some volumes of plasma warm up to high temperatures; 3) the phase of burst damping, during which plasma cools and reverts to the initial condition

  5. X-ray fluorescence holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu, Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-03-07

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy.

  6. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy. (topical review)

  7. Preparation of the Femoral Bone Cavity for Cementless Stems: Broaching vs Compaction. A Five-Year Randomized Radiostereometric Analysis and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorption Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mette H; Kold, Søren; Søballe, Kjeld; Langdahl, Bente L; Nielsen, Poul T; Christensen, Poul H; Stilling, Maiken

    2017-06-01

    Short-term experimental and animal studies have confirmed superior fixation of cementless implants inserted with compaction compared to broaching of the cancellous bone. Forty-four hips in 42 patients (19 men) were randomly operated using cementless hydroxyapatite-coated Bi-Metric stems. Patients were followed with radiostereometric analysis at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks, 1, 2, and 5 years, and measurements of periprosthetic bone mineral density at baseline, 1, 2, and 5 years. Complications during the study period and clinical outcome measures of Harris Hip Score were recorded at mean 7 years (5-8.8) after surgery. Absolute migrations of medio/lateral translations between the broaching group and the compaction group of mean 0.14 mm (standard deviation [SD] 0.10) vs mean 0.30 mm (SD 0.27) (P = .01) at 1 year, and of mean 0.13 mm (SD 0.10) vs 0.34 mm (0.31) (P = .01) at 5 years were different. Absolute valgus/varus rotations of mean 0.12° (SD 0.13°) in the broaching group were less than mean 0.35° (0.45°) in the compaction group (P .13). The compaction group had significantly less bone loss than the broaching group in Gruen zone 3 (distal-lateral to the stem) at 1 and 5 years. No further differences in bone mineral density changes were found between groups up to 5 years after surgery. Complications throughout the period and clinical outcome measures of Harris Hip Score were similar at 7 years (5-8.8) after surgery. We found increased migration when preparing the bone with compaction compared with broaching in cementless femoral stems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Present status of research and development on X-ray microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masaki; Suzuki, I.H.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray beam micro-analysis has advanced rapidly in these years in conjunction with the development of powerful X-ray sources. Among a variety of methods being attempted, the method using a collimated narrow beam has been important because of high brightness, and of usability in both regions of soft and hard X-rays. In the soft X-ray region, the focused beam is formed by a fresnel zone plate or a Schwaltzschild mirror assembly, and can be used for scanning transmission microscope or scanning photoelectron microscope. In the hard X-ray region, the beam is formed by grazing incidence mirrors, and can be used for X-ray fluorescence micro-analysis for obtaining elemental mapping. In this report, the recent progress on the soft X-ray scanning microscopy and the X-ray microprobe has been surveyed, together with the improvement on the related optical elements. (author) 84 refs

  9. Overutilization of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    In this article on the overutilization of x-rays the author defines the term overutilization as excessive irradiation per unit of diagnostic information, therapeutic impact, or health outcome. Three main factors are described which lead to overutilization of x-rays: excessive radiation per film; excessive films per examination; and excessive examinations per patient. Topics discussed which influence the excessive examinations per patient are: the physician's lack of knowledge; undue dependence; lack of screening by radiologists; the physician's need for action and certainty; patient demand; reimbursement policies; institutional requirements; preventive medicine; defensive medicine; and the practice of radiology by nonradiologists

  10. Multichannel X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabakhpashev, A

    1980-10-01

    A typical design is discussed of multiwire proportional counters and their characteristic feature is explained, ie., the possibility of showing one or two coordinates of the X-ray quantum absorption site. The advantages of such instruments are listed, such as increased sensitivity of determination, the possibility of recording radiations of a different intensity, the possibility of on-line data processing and of the digital display of results. The fields of application include X-ray structural analysis in solid state physics, crystallography, molecular biology, astronomy, materials testing, and medicine.

  11. Semiconductor X-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1978-02-01

    An outline is given of recent developments in particle and photon induced x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Following a brief description of the basic mechanism of semiconductor detector operation a comparison is made between semiconductor detectors, scintillators and gas filled proportional devices. Detector fabrication and cryostat design are described in more detail and the effects of various device parameters on system performance, such as energy resolution, count rate capability, efficiency, microphony, etc. are discussed. The main applications of these detectors in x-ray fluorescence analysis, electron microprobe analysis, medical and pollution studies are reviewed

  12. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  13. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)

  14. X-ray data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Harold R

    2017-10-31

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most commonly used software in the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  16. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  17. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray ... MRI): Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  18. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Neck Enlarged Adenoids Croup Sinusitis Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  19. Illumination system for X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray lithography system is described, comprising: a point source of X-Ray radiation; a wafer plane disposed in spaced relation to the point source of X-Ray radiation; a mask disposed between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane whereby X-Ray radiation from the point source of X-ray radiation passes through the mask to the water plane; and X-Ray absorbent means mounted between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane, the X-Ray absorbent means being of quadratically absorption from maximum absorption at the center to minimum absorption at the edge so as to have a radial absorption gradient profile to compensate for radial flux variation of the X-Ray radiation

  20. Anisotropically biaxial strain in non-polar (112-0) plane In x Ga1-x N/GaN layers investigated by X-ray reciprocal space mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guijuan; Li, Huijie; Wang, Lianshan; Meng, Yulin; Ji, Zesheng; Li, Fangzheng; Wei, Hongyuan; Yang, Shaoyan; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-07-03

    In this study, the indium composition x as well as the anisotropically biaxial strain in non-polar a-plane In x Ga 1-x N on GaN is studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. In accordance with XRD reciprocal lattice space mapping, with increasing indium composition, the maximum of the In x Ga 1-x N reciprocal lattice points progressively shifts from a fully compressive strained to a fully relaxed position, then to reversed tensile strained. To fully understand the strain in the ternary alloy layers, it is helpful to grow high-quality device structures using a-plane nitrides. As the layer thickness increases, the strain of In x Ga 1-x N layer releases through surface roughening and the 3D growth-mode.

  1. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, E.

    1984-11-01

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  2. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  3. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  5. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    TM 8772 5 Literature reports on BiI3/nylon composites used X-ray sources with a Mo target (Reference 18) or magnesium target (Reference 19). However...1981. Pp. D-155 to D-160. 22. G. Pretzsch, B. Dorschel, and T. Schonmuth. IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. EI -21, No.3, June 1986

  6. X-ray system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray system tester for measuring anode voltage, cathode voltage, anode current, filament current and line voltage in an X-ray system has a selector which couples one of these analog signals or one of a plurality of processing control signals entered by an operator from a control panel to a digitizing section selectively in accordance with control signals provided to the selector by a computing section. The digitizing section converts the selected signal into a train of pulses having a frequency proportional to the value of the selected signal. These pulses are counted, the counts being used by the computing section to determine the value of the selected signal. This computed value is stored in a computing memory section of the computing section. The computing section is adapted to store a plurality of the sets of signals produced during a corresponding sequence of operational intervals of the X-ray system and determines a measure of the deviation of any selected one of the stored electrical signals over the sequence of operating intervals. Each signal produced during the sequential operational intervals can be recalled to aid analysis of the operation of the X-ray system. (author)

  7. X-ray image coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention aims at decreasing the effect of stray radiation in X-ray images. This is achieved by putting a plate between source and object with parallel zones of alternating high and low absorption coefficients for X-radiation. The image is scanned with the help of electronic circuits which decode the signal space coded by the plate, thus removing the stray radiation

  8. X-ray simulation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey, L.D.; Tollefsrud, P.B.; Woodall, H.W.; McDaniel, D.H.; Allred, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Design modifications are discussed for an electron beam accelerator used as a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The primary goal of the program, to obtain a reliable 5 cal/gm exposure capability, can be accomplished with beam compression by an external magnetic guide field. Initial operating characteristics and performance improvements are presented

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate ...

  10. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, N.B.

    1977-01-01

    The principle, instrument and procedure of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are described. It is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the trace analysis of elements from sodium to uranium in powder, liquid or metal samples. (M.G.B.)

  11. X-rays from stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies available from Chandra and XMM-Newton play a pivotal part in the understanding of the physical processes in stellar (magnetic and non-magnetic) atmospheres. It is now routinely possible to derive densities and to study the influence of ultraviolet radiation fields, both of which can be used to infer the geometry of the radiating sources. Line profiles provide important information on bulk mass motions and attenuation by neutral matter, e.g. in stellar winds. The increased sensitivity has revealed new types of X-ray sources in systems that were thought to be unlikely places for X-rays: flaring brown dwarfs, including rather old, non-accreting objects, and terminal shocks in jets of young stars are important examples. New clues concerning the role of stellar high-energy processes in the modification of the stellar environment (ionization, spallation, etc.) contribute significantly to our understanding of the "astro-ecology" in forming planetary systems. Technological limitations are evident. The spectral resolution has not reached the level where bulk mass motions in cool stars become easily measurable. Higher resolution would also be important to perform X-ray "Doppler imaging" in order to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of the X-ray sources around a rotating star. Higher sensitivity will be required to perform high-resolution spectroscopy of weak sources such as brown dwarfs or embedded pre-main-sequence sources. A new generation of satellites such as Constellation-X or XEUS should pursue these goals.

  12. Chandra's X-ray Vision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-07-23

    Jul 23, 1999 ... CXO is 13.8 metres long and its solar arrays have a wingspan of. 19.5 metres as shown in ... the Universe (for example, coronae of stars, matter ejected from .... The telescope system and the scientific instruments were put through ..... solve the puzzle about the origin of cosmic X-ray background- one of the ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  14. Stellar X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.I.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO

    1988-01-01

    I Review some of the salient accomplishments of X-rap studies of compact objects. Progress in this field has closely followed the improvement of observational methods, particularly in angular resolution and duration of exposure. Luminous compact X-ray sources are accreting neutron stars or black holes. Accreting neutron stars may have characteristic temporal signatures, but the only way to establish that an X-ray source is a black hole is to measure its mass. A rough phenomenological theory is succesful, but the transport of angular momentum in accretion flows is not onderstood. A number of interesting complications have been observed, including precessing accretion discs, X-ray bursts, and the acceleration of jets in SS433. Many puzzles remain unsolved, including the excitation of disc precession, the nature of the enigmatic A- and gamma-ray source Cyg X-3, the mechanism by which slowly spinning accreting neutron stars lose angular momentum, and the superabundance of X-ray sources in globular clusters. 41 refs.; 5 figs

  15. X-rays and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques. (report on progress)

  16. X-ray examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Griswa, P.J.; Halter, P. Jr.; Kidd, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray cardiovascular examination and which can also be used for general purpose examination is described. An advantage of the system is that there is no mechanical connection between the image intensifier and source to interfere with the medical examiner or emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  17. X-ray tube transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray generator is described which comprises a transmission line transformer including an electrical conductor with a cavity and a second electrical conductor including helical windings disposed along a longitudinal axis within the cavity of the first conductor. The windings have a pitch which varies per unit length along the axis. There is dielectric material in the cavity for insulation and to couple electromagnetically the two conductors in response to an electric current flowing through the conductors, which have an impedance between them; this varies with distance along the axis of the helix of the second conductor. An X-ray tube is disposed along the longitudinal axis within the cavity, for radiating X-rays. The invention increases the voltage of applied voltage pulses at the remote tube-head with a transformer formed by using a spiral delay line geometry to give a tapered-impedance coaxial high voltage multiplier for pulse voltage operation. This transformer is smaller and lighter than previous designs for the same high peak voltage and power ratings. This is important because the penetration capabilities of Flash X-ray equipment increase with voltage, particularly in heavy materials such as steel. (U.K.)

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure ... diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part ...

  20. Proton exciting X ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei

    1986-04-01

    The analyzing capability of proton exciting X ray analysis for different elements in organisms was discussed, and dealing with examples of trace element analysis in the human body and animal organisms, such as blood serum, urine, and hair. The sensitivity, accuracy, and capability of multielement analysis were discussed. Its strong points for the trace element analysis in biomedicine were explained

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ...

  3. X-ray absorption holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Lausi, A.; Bussetto, E.; Kub, Jiří; Savoia, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 18 (2002), s. 185503-1 - 185503-3 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : x-ray holography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002

  4. Simulation and application of micro X-ray fluorescence based on an ellipsoidal capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yude; Wang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: yangjing_928@126.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A micro X-ray fluorescence setup based on an ellipsoidal capillary was presented. • The optimal parameters of ellipsoidal capillary were designed. • The 2D mapping image of biological sample was obtained. - Abstract: A micro X-ray fluorescence setup was presented, based on an ellipsoidal capillary and a traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Using Ray-tracing principle, we have simulated the transmission path of X-ray beam in the ellipsoidal capillary and designed the optimal parameters of the ellipsoidal capillary for the micro X-ray fluorescence setup. We demonstrate that ellipsoidal capillary is well suited as condenser for the micro X-ray fluorescence based on traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Furthermore, we obtain the 2D mapping image of the leaf blade sample by using the ellipsoidal capillary we designed.

  5. Submicron hard X-ray fluorescence imaging of synthetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Aryal, Baikuntha P; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle E

    2012-04-13

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) using hard X-rays focused into sub-micron spots is a powerful technique for elemental quantification and mapping, as well as microspectroscopic measurements such as μ-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure). We have used XFM to image and simultaneously quantify the transuranic element plutonium at the L(3) or L(2)-edge as well as Th and lighter biologically essential elements in individual rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to the long-lived plutonium isotope (242)Pu. Elemental maps demonstrate that plutonium localizes principally in the cytoplasm of the cells and avoids the cell nucleus, which is marked by the highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc, under the conditions of our experiments. The minimum detection limit under typical acquisition conditions with an incident X-ray energy of 18 keV for an average 202 μm(2) cell is 1.4 fg Pu or 2.9×10(-20) moles Pu μm(-2), which is similar to the detection limit of K-edge XFM of transition metals at 10 keV. Copper electron microscopy grids were used to avoid interference from gold X-ray emissions, but traces of strontium present in naturally occurring calcium can still interfere with plutonium detection using its L(α) X-ray emission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  7. Observation of human tissue with phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tu, Jinhong; Hirano, Keiichi

    1999-05-01

    Human tissues obtained from cancerous kidneys fixed in formalin were observed with phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) using 17.7-keV synchrotron X-rays. By measuring the distributions of the X-ray phase shift caused by samples using an X-ray interferometer, sectional images that map the distribution of the refractive index were reconstructed. Because of the high sensitivity of phase- contrast X-ray CT, a cancerous lesion was differentiated from normal tissue and a variety of other structures were revealed without the need for staining.

  8. The effect of X-ray irradiation on changes of blood chemistry in RC-MAP and CPD-whole blood after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Tetsuhito; Katayama, Norihumi; Okamoto, Yukiharu; Tsuda, Tadaaki; Ota, Kiichiro; Nishioka, Shingo; Tsumura, Michiyo

    1997-01-01

    The Japanese Welfare Ministry recommended to irradiate transfused blood in order to inactivate lymphocytes, thereby preventing from transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (PT-GVHD). But an adequate dose of irradiation applied to various kinds of transfused blood has not yet known. We investigated the effect of a irradiation dose of 15 Gy (gray) on changes of plasma K, GOT, BUN and total protein (T.P) in RC-MAP (MAP) and CPD added whole blood (CPD) after days of storage of irradiation. There was a significant increase of potassium (K) in plasma in irradiated RC-MAP, compared with those in non-irradiated RC-MAP, after storage from day 2. Plasma K level in irradiated CPD increased more than those in non-irradiated CPD after storage at day 5. No different increases in plasma GOT, BUN and T.P levels were not shown in irradiated RC-MAP and CPD. Our data led to a conclusion that a adequate irradiated dose seemed to be different in various kinds of transfused blood to inactivate lymphocyte for the prevention of PT-GVHD. (author)

  9. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers

  10. X-ray diagnostic in gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suhe; Wang Dalun; Cui Gaoxian; Wang Mei; Fu Yibei; Zhang Xinwei; Zhang Wushou

    1995-01-01

    X rays were observed when the anomalous phenomenon in the metal loaded with deuterium studied by the gas-discharge method. Therefore the X-ray energy spectra were measured by the absorption method, the specific X-ray approach and the NaI scintillation counter, while X-ray intensity was estimated by using 7 Li thermoluminescent foils. The X-ray average energy measured by the absorption method is 27.6 +- 2.1 keV, which is fitted within the error extent to 26.0 +-2.4 keV monoenergetic X rays measured by the NaI scintillation counter

  11. X-ray cardiovascular examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An X-ray source is mounted in an enclosure for angulating longitudinally about a horizontal axis. An X-ray-permeable, patient-supporting table is mounted on the top of the enclosure for executing lateral and longitudinal movements. An X-ray image-receiving device such as an X-ray image intensifier is mounted above the table on a vertically movable arm which is on a longitudinally movable carriage. Electric control means are provided for angulating the X-ray source and image intensifier synchronously as the image intensifier system is shifted longitudinally or vertically such that the central ray from the X-ray source is kept intensifier

  12. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  13. Smart X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michette, A G; Pfauntsch, S J; Sahraei, S; Shand, M; Morrison, G R; Hart, D; Vojnovic, B; Stevenson, T; Parkes, W; Dunare, C; Willingale, R; Feldman, C; Button, T; Zhang, D; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D; Wang, H

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes reflective adaptive/active optics for applications including studies of biological radiation damage. The optics work on the polycapillary principle, but use arrays of channels in thin silicon. For optimum performance the x-rays should reflect once off a channel wall in each of two successive arrays. This reduces aberrations since then the Abbe sine condition is approximately satisfied. Adaptivity is achieved by flexing the arrays via piezo actuation, providing further aberration reduction and controllable focal length.

  14. X-ray microscopy and spectromicroscopy - tools for environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: X-ray microscopy achieves a much higher resolution than light microscopy. This is due to the much shorter wavelength of X-rays compared to visible light. The smallest structures that can be seen in an X-ray microscope at present are about 20 nm in size. X-ray microscopy is also capable of imaging specimens directly in aqueous media. By choosing the wavelength of the X-radiation appropriately, it is possible to perform spectromicroscopy studies. Comprising, it is a tool very well suited to study colloidal structures in the environment. X-ray microscopy can be performed with two types of instruments. An X-ray microscope quickly takes high-resolution images of objects to be studied, whereas a scanning X-ray microscope is an analytical instrument for spectromicroscopy. Here, an object can be imaged using energies above and below the absorption edge of an element. Dividing both images gives rise to a map of the distribution of this element in the sample. Using near-edge resonances it is possible to conduct NEXAFS studies. As the X-ray energy is raised to match the absorption edge resonances are found, that reflect the chemical bonding state of the element. Therefore, it is possible with X-ray microscopy to combine high spatial resolution with high spectral resolution for studies of colloidal structures. The Institute of X-ray physics builds up an X-ray microscopy beamline at the electron storage ring BESSY II with both, an X-ray microscope and a scanning X-ray microscope. The status of this beamline will be presented in this talk. Colloidal structures play an important role in the environment. Due to their surface activity they are involved in various processes. Substances can be bound and immobilized or transported, colloids can attach to microorganisms building up microhabitats, and organic substances as humics can flocculate due the interaction with metals. A great variety of colloidal structures from the environment have been studied using X-ray

  15. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  16. X-ray area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nintrakit, N.

    1983-01-01

    The X-ray area monitor is a nuclear electronic device that is essential in radiation protection in high radiation laboratories, e.g. in medical diagnosis using X-rays and in industrial X-radiography. Accidentally the level of X-radiator may arise above the safe permissible level and in such a case the alarm system of the area monitor will work and disconnect the ac power supply form the X-ray unit. Principally the device is a radiation counter using G.M.tube as radiation detector with high voltage supply variable form 200 to 2,000 volts. The maximum count rate of the scaler is 1.5 MHz and the total count is displayed on 4 digit LED's. A time base is used to control the counting time, the frequency multiplier, radiation safety limit, comparator and the radiation hazard warning signal. The reliability of the instrument is further enhanced through the addition of the random correction circuit, and it is applicable both in X- and γ -radiation

  17. Soft X-ray beam induced current technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, B; Ade, H [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Queen, D; Hellman, F [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kilcoyne, A L D; Tyliszczak, T, E-mail: benjamin.watts@gmail.co [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Direct mapping of the charge transport efficiency of polymer solar cell devices using a soft X-ray beam induced current (SoXBIC) method is described. By fabricating a polymer solar cell on an x-ray transparent substrate, we demonstrate the ability to map polymer composition and nanoscale structure within an operating solar cell device and to simultaneously measure the local charge transport efficiency via the short-circuit current. A simple model is calculated and compared to experimental SoXBIC data of a PFB:F8BT bulk-heterojunction device in order to gain greater insight into the device operation and physics.

  18. X-ray microscopy using collimated and focussed synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Gordon, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray microscopy is a field that has developed rapidly in recent years. Two different approaches have been used. Zone plates have been employed to produce focused beams with sizes as low as 0.07 μm for x-ray energies below 1 keV. Images of biological materials and elemental maps for major and minor low Z have been produced using above and below absorption edge differences. At higher energies collimators and focusing mirrors have been used to make small diameter beams for excitation of characteristic K- or L-x rays of all elements in the periodic table. The practicality of a single instrument combining all the features of these two approaches is unclear. The use of high-energy x rays for x-ray microscopy has intrinsic value for characterization of thick samples and determination of trace amounts of most elements. A summary of work done on the X-26 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) with collimated and focused x rays with energies above 4 keV is given here. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Hard x-ray phase contrastmicroscopy - techniques and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzner, Christian

    In 1918, Einstein provided the first description of the nature of the refractive index for X-rays, showing that phase contrast effects are significant. A century later, most x-ray microscopy and nearly all medical imaging remains based on absorption contrast, even though phase contrast offers orders of magnitude improvements in contrast and reduced radiation exposure at multi-keV x-ray energies. The work presented is concerned with developing practical and quantitative methods of phase contrast for x-ray microscopy. A theoretical framework for imaging in phase contrast is put forward; this is used to obtain quantitative images in a scanning microscope using a segmented detector, and to correct for artifacts in a commercial phase contrast x-ray nano-tomography system. The principle of reciprocity between scanning and full-field microscopes is then used to arrive at a novel solution: Zernike contrast in a scanning microscope. These approaches are compared on a theoretical and experimental basis in direct connection with applications using multi-keV x-ray microscopes at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Phase contrast provides the best means to image mass and ultrastructure of light elements that mainly constitute biological matter, while stimulated x-ray fluorescence provides high sensitivity for studies of the distribution of heavier trace elements, such as metals. These approaches are combined in a complementary way to yield quantitative maps of elemental concentration from 2D images, with elements placed in their ultrastructural context. The combination of x-ray fluorescence and phase contrast poses an ideal match for routine, high resolution tomographic imaging of biological samples in the future. The presented techniques and demonstration experiments will help pave the way for this development.

  20. New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre lengthscale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, W.; King, A.; Reischig, P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-destructive, three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the grain structure in mono-phase polycrystalline materials is an open challenge in material science. Recent advances in synchrotron based X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer interesting possibilities for mapping 3D grain shapes....... A recent extension of this methodology, termed X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT), combines the principles of X-ray diffraction imaging, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (3DXRD) and image reconstruction from projections. DCT provides simultaneous access to 3D grain shape...

  1. Achromatic X-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Marion

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents first results on the development of achromatic refractive X-ray lenses which can be used for scientific experiments at synchrotron sources. First of all the different requirements for achromatic X-ray lenses have been worked out. There are different types of lenses, one type can be used for monochromatized sources when the energy is scanned while the spot size should be constant. The other type can be used at beamlines providing a broad energy band. By a combination of focusing and defocusing elements we have developed a lens system that strongly reduces the chromatic aberration of a refractive lens in a given energy range. The great challenge in the X-ray case - in contrast to the visible range - the complex refractive index, which is very similar for the possible materials in the X-ray spectrum. For precise studies a numerical code has been developed, which calculates the different rays on their way through the lenses to the detector plane via raytracing. In this numerical code the intensity distribution in the detector plane has been analyzed for a chromatic and the corresponding achromatic system. By optimization routines for the two different fields of applications specific parameter combinations were found. For the experimental verification an achromatic system has been developed, consisting of biconcave SU-8 lenses and biconvex Nickel Fresnel lenses. Their fabrication was based on the LIGA-process, including a further innovative development, namely the fabrication of two different materials on one wafer. In the experiment at the synchrotron source ANKA the energy was varied in a specific energy range in steps of 0.1 keV. The intensity distribution for the different energies was detected at a certain focal length. For the achromatic system a reduction of the chromatic aberration could be clearly shown. Achromatic refractive X-ray lenses, especially for the use at synchrotron sources, have not been developed so far. As a consequence of the

  2. X-ray electromagnetic application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, particularly for X-ray electromagnetic application technology from January 2006 to December 2008. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and free-electron laser, Saga Synchrotron Project, X-ray waveguides and waveguide-based lens-less hard-X-ray imaging, X-ray nanofocusing for capillaries and zone plates, dispersion characteristics in photonics crystal consisting of periodic atoms for nanometer waveguides, electromagnetic characteristics of grid structures for scattering fields of nano-meter electromagnetic waves and X-rays, FDTD parallel computing of fundamental scattering and attenuation characteristics of X-ray for medical imaging diagnosis, orthogonal relations of electromagnetic fields including evanescent field in dispersive medium. (author)

  3. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  4. Soft x-ray Planetary Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to prototype a soft X-ray Imager for planetary applications that has the sensitivity to observe solar system sources of soft  X-ray emission. A strong...

  5. Stabilized x-ray generator power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Subimal; Purushotham, K.V.; Bose, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis are very much adopted in laboratories to determine the type and structure of the constituent compounds in solid materials, chemical composition of materials, stress developed on metals etc. These experiments need X-ray beam of fixed intensity and wave length. This can only be achieved by X-ray generator having highly stabilized tube voltage and tube current. This paper describes how X-ray tube high voltage and electron beam current are stabilized. This paper also highlights generation of X-rays, diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and their wide applications. Principle of operation for stabilizing the X-ray tube voltage and current, different protection circuits adopted, special features of the mains H.V. transformer and H.T. tank are described in this report. (author)

  6. Three-dimensional mapping of the martensite microstructure of lithium by 3DXRD high-energy X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichl, W.; Krystian, M.; Prem, M.; Krexner, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Metallic lithium undergoes a partial martensitic phase transition from bcc to a complex combination of close-pacKEXd structures below 80 K. On cooling, a rhombohedral 9R structure and a one-dimensionally disordered polytype phase coexist with the bcc matrix, whereas on heating an additional fcc phase appears. Up to now very little is known about the microstructure of this phase mixture. In the present investigation the 3DXRD method was applied in order to map the individual phases. This technique has been developed at the Risoe National Laboratory (Denmark) and is implemented at the Beamline ID11 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). It uses a micro-focussed synchrotron radiation beam and a conical slit cell for depth resolution. The method has been used successfully for the mapping of grains in single-phase, polycrystalline materials in the past. In the present work it was for the first time applied to the study of a phase transition. A lithium single crystal was cooled to 80 K. After the first transformation a gage volume of 200x200x200 μm was scanned two times with the conical slit cell in position for the bcc and for the 9R structure, respectively. The presence or absence of reflections within the different rings of the slit cell allows to distinguish between the two structures. In addition, diffuse streaks corresponding to the disordered polytype phase could be identified. (author)

  7. Development of quantitative x-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckman, H.W.; Dunsmuir, J.A.; D'Amico, K.L.; Ferguson, S.R.; Flannery, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have developed several x-ray microtomography systems which function as quantitative three dimensional x-ray microscopes. In this paper the authors describe the evolutionary path followed from making the first high resolution experimental microscopes to later generations which can be routinely used for investigating materials. Developing the instrumentation for reliable quantitative x-ray microscopy using synchrotron and laboratory based x-ray sources has led to other imaging modalities for obtaining temporal and spatial two dimensional information

  8. X-ray diagnostics - benefits and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The brochure on benefits and risks of X-ray diagnostics discusses the following issues: X radiation - a pioneering discovery and medical sensation, fundamentals of X radiation, frequency of X-ray examinations in Germany in relation to CT imaging, radiation doses resulting from X-ray diagnostics, benefits of X-ray diagnostics - indication and examples, risks - measures for radiation exposure reductions, avoidance of unnecessary examinations.

  9. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  10. Transient soft X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, S.; Murakami, T.; Nagase, F.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamashita, K.

    1976-01-01

    A rocket observation of cosmic soft X-rays suggests the existence of transient, recurrent soft X-ray sources which are found variable during the flight time of the rocket. Some of the soft X-ray sources thus far reported are considered to be of this time. These sources are listed and their positions are shown. (Auth.)

  11. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source

  12. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  13. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emitting Products and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most x- ...

  14. Automatic weld joint X-ray inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.U.; Linke, D.; Siems, K.D.; Kruse, H.; Schuetze, E.

    1990-01-01

    A gantry mounted robotic x-ray inspection unit has been developed for the series testing of small and medium sized welded components (pipe bends and nozzles). The unit features computer controlled positioning of the x-ray tube and x-ray image amplifier. Image quality classes 2 and even 1 could be achieved without difficulty. (author)

  15. Lifting the veil on the X-ray universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    detected during rocket-borne experiments. Satellites have since conducted more extensive surveys. The first satellite dedicated to X-ray astronomy was Uhuru. Launched in 1970 it mapped the sky identifying 339 sources. Several others were to follow, including Einstein which carried grazing incidence mirrors and detectors capable of recording images of cosmic X-ray sources. Einstein studied more than ten thousand sources. EXOSAT (1983-1986) was the European Space Agency's first X-ray observatory mission. Placed on a highly eccentric orbit reaching out 191 700 km from Earth, it allowed very long observations above the radiation belts and greatly enlarged our understanding of many classes of X-ray sources. The German/US/UK ROSAT launched in 1990 was another big step forwards. Until its recent switch off it carried out a complete sky survey identifying 100 000 X-ray sources. XMM will be opening up a golden age of X-ray astronomy alongside two other major missions. Launched in July 1999, Chandra is the third of NASA's Great Observatories. It is exploring X-rays from space with images 25 times sharper than previously obtained. ASTRO-E is Japan's fifth X-ray astronomy mission and is due to be launched early in 2000. Europe has already begun studying a next generation X-ray astrophysics facility, XEUS. By making use of the International Space Station and by ensuring significant potential for growth and evolution, XEUS will offer vastly expanded capabilities allowing the study of the very first black holes created when the Universe was just a few percent of its present age.

  16. X-ray photographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray photographic system is designed for medical applications. Two detectors are used for surveys in different planes, and produce electrical signals which are supplied to a comparator. The electron beams are examined according to a system of reference time steps. The apparatus includes a light source and a photo-detector and enables a reference signal to be produced against which the detected signals are compared. The beam source is formed from an electron gun, an extractor electrode and an anode; beam then passes through a collimator. (G.C.)

  17. X-ray source array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Lanza, R.C.; Sohval, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    A circular array of cold cathode diode X-ray sources, for radiation imaging applications, such as computed tomography includes electrically conductive cathode plates each of which cooperates with at least two anodes to form at least two diode sources. In one arrangement, two annular cathodes are separated by radially extending, rod-like anodes. Field enhancement blades may be provided on the cathodes. In an alternative arrangement, the cathode plates extend radially and each pair is separated by an anode plate also extending radially. (author)

  18. X-ray intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossomaier, T.R.J.; Sangway, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It is claimed that stabilization of X-ray intensifying screens against discolouration and hydrolysis of lanthanum or gadolinium oxyhalide phosphors can be achieved by incorporating into the phosphor/binder formulation a compound containing free epoxy groups. Suitable epoxy compounds include gamma glycidoxy trimethoxy silane and dimethyl di(m-glycidoxy methylphenyl) methane. The oxyhalide may be activated by Tb, Tm or Yb and may be mixed with other phosphors. Plasticisers and organo-tin stabilisers for the formulation are given. Many binders are specified, preferably these should not react with the free epoxy groups. (UK)

  19. Protonium X-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gotta, D

    1999-01-01

    The Lyman and Balmer transitions from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were studied extensively at the low-energy-antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. A first series of experiments $9 was performed with semiconductor and gaseous X-ray detectors. In the last years of LEAR operation using a Bragg crystal spectrometer, strong interaction parameters in the 2p states of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were measured $9 directly. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (39 refs).

  20. X-ray calibration qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Since the recent publication of IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 374 ''Calibration of Dosimeters Used in Radiotheraphy'', there have been a number of queries about the origin of, and the rationale behind, the X-ray qualities recommended for calibration purposes. The simple answer is that these are the qualities derived at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in 1971 for calibration of therapy-level dosimeters and which are still in use for that purpose. As some SSDLs may have difficulties in adopting these exact combinations of kV and filtration. This paper discusses the basic ideas involved, and how to go about deriving a different series of qualities

  1. NIKOLA TESLA AND THE X-RAY

    OpenAIRE

    Rade R. Babic

    2005-01-01

    After professor Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen published his study of an x-ray discovery (Academy Bulletin, Berlin, 08. 11. 1895.), Nikola Tesla published his first study of an x-ray on the 11th of March in 1896. (X-ray, Electrical Review). Until the 11th of August in 1897 he had published ten studies on this subject. All Tesla,s x-ray studies were experimental, which is specific to his work. Studying the nature of the x-ray, he established a new medical branch-radiology. He wrote:” There’s no doubt...

  2. Einstein pictures the x-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartline, B.K.

    1979-01-01

    The second High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-2, Einstein) is revolutionizing x-ray astronomy just as its namesake revolutionized physics. Earlier x-ray observatories, including HEAO-1, were designed to scan the sky for x-ray emitters. With Einstein, the challenge has shifted from discovering x-ray sources to understanding the processes producing the x-rays. But having 500 times the sensitivity of previous detectors, Einstein makes more than its share of discoveries, too. For example, it sees distant quasars and clusters of galaxies that can barely be detected by the largest optical telescopes

  3. Picosecond x-ray streak camera studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasyanov, Yu.S.; Malyutin, A.A.; Richardson, M.C.; Chevokin, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Some initial results of direct measurement of picosecond x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas are presented. A PIM-UMI 93 image converter tube, incorporating an x-ray sensitive photocathode, linear deflection, and three stages of image amplification was used to analyse the x-ray radiation emanating from plasmas produced from solid Ti targets by single high-intensity picosecond laser pulses. From such plasmas, the x-ray emission typically persisted for times of 60psec. However, it is shown that this detection system should be capable of resolving x-ray phenomena of much shorter duration. (author)

  4. Si(Li) X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xianglin; Li Zhiyong; Hong Xiuse

    1990-08-01

    The fabrication technology of the 10∼80 mm 2 Si(Li) X-ray detectors are described and some problems concerning technology and measurement are discussed. The specifications of the detectors are shown as well. The Si(Li) X-ray detector is a kind of low energy X-ray detectors. Owing to very high energy resolution, fine linearity and high detection efficiency in the range of low energy X-rays, it is widely used in the fields of nuclear physics, medicine, geology and environmental protection, etc,. It is also a kernel component for the scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence analysis systems

  5. Phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer for biological imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi; Koyama, Ichiro [Tokyo Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoneyama, Akio [Hitachi Ltd., Advanced Research Laboratory, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The potential of phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer is discussed comparing with other phase-contrast X-ray imaging methods, and its principle of contrast generation is presented including the case of phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography. The status of current instrumentation is described and perspectives for practical applications are discussed. (author)

  6. Method for spatially modulating X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2015-03-10

    A method and apparatus are provided for spatially modulating X-rays or X-ray pulses using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based X-ray optics. A torsionally-oscillating MEMS micromirror and a method of leveraging the grazing-angle reflection property are provided to modulate X-ray pulses with a high-degree of controllability.

  7. X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect x-ray-drive implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Takayasu; Sakabe, Shuji; Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    1983-01-01

    X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect X-ray drive pellet implosion for inertial confinement fusion has been numerically analyzed. Attainable X-ray driven ablation pressure has been found to be coupled with X-ray irradiation uniformity. (author)

  8. X-ray diffraction device comprising cooling medium connections provided on the x-ray tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction device comprises a water-cooled X-ray tube which exhibits a line focus as well as, after rotation through 90 DEG , a point focus. Contrary to customary X-ray tubes, the cooling water is not supplied via the housing (12) in which the X-ray tube is mounted, but the cooling water

  9. Miniature x-ray point source for alignment and calibration of x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Boyle, M.J.; Glaros, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature x-ray point source of high brightness similar to that of Rovinsky, et al. is described. One version of the x-ray source is used to align the x-ray optics on the Argus and Shiva laser systems. A second version is used to determine the spatial and spectral transmission functions of the x-ray optics. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the x-ray emission from the x-ray point source are described. The physical constraints including size, intensity and thermal limitations, and useful lifetime are discussed. The alignment and calibration techniques for various x-ray optics and detector combinations are described

  10. High-speed X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckers, W.; Oppolzer, H.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of lattice defects in semiconductor crystals by conventional X-ray diffraction topography is very time-consuming. Exposure times can be reduced by using high-intensity X-rays and X-ray image intensifiers. The described system comprises a high-power rotating-anode X-ray tube, a remote-controlled X-ray topography camera, and a television system operating with an X-ray sensing VIDICON. System performance is demonstrated with reference to exploratory examples. The exposure time for photographic plates is reduced to 1/20 and for the X-ray TV system (resolution of the order of 30 μm) to 1/100 relative to that required when using a conventional topography system. (orig.) [de

  11. X-ray and gamma radiography devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    When we are using this technique, we also must familiar with the device and instrument that used such as gamma projector, crawler, x-ray tubes and others. So this chapter discussed detailed on device used for radiography work. For the x-ray and gamma, their characteristics are same but the source to produce is a big different. X-ray produced from the machine meanwhile, gamma produce from the source such as Co-60 and IR-192. Both are electromagnetic waves. So, the reader can have some knowledge on what is x-ray tube, discrete x-ray and characteristic x-ray, how the machine works and how to control a machine, what is source for gamma emitter, how to handle the projector and lastly difference between x-ray and gamma. Of course this cannot be with the theory only, so detailed must be learned practically.

  12. Exploring the X-Ray Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Frederick D.; Charles, Philip A.

    1995-11-01

    Exploring the X-Ray Universe describes the view of the stars and galaxies that is obtained through X-ray telescopes. X-rays, which are invisible to human sight, are created in the cores of active galaxies, in cataclysmic stellar explosions, and in streams of gas expelled by the Sun and stars. The window on the heavens used by the X-ray astronomers shows the great drama of cosmic violence on the grandest scale. This account of X-ray astronomy incorporates the latest findings from several observatories operating in space. These include the Einstein Observatory operated by NASA, and the EXOSAT satellite of the European Space Agency. The book covers the entire field, with chapters on stars, supernova remnants, normal and active galaxies, clusters of galaxies, the diffuse X-ray background, and much more. The authors review basic principles, include the necessary historical background, and explain exactly what we know from X-ray observations of the Universe.

  13. Small scale soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; DiCicco, D.S.; Kim, D.; Voorhees, D.; Suckewer, S.

    1990-01-01

    The widespread application of soft x-ray laser technology is contingent on the development of small scale soft x-ray lasers that do not require large laser facilities. Progress in the development of soft x-ray lasers pumped by a Nd laser of energy 6-12J is reported below. Application of an existing soft x-ray laser to x-ray microscopy has begun. A soft x-ray laser of output energy 1-3 mJ at 18,2 nm has been used to record high resolution images of biological specimens. The contact images were recorded on photoresist which was later viewed in a scanning electron microscope. The authors present a composite optical x-ray laser microscope design

  14. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, Alastair; Celestre, Richard; Tamura, Nobumichi; Spolenak, Ralph; Valek, Bryan; Brown, Walter; Bravman, John; Padmore, Howard; Batterman, Boris; Patel, Jamshed

    2000-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The instrument is for instance, capable of probing a sub-micron size volume inside micron sized aluminum metal grains buried under a silicon dioxide insulating layer. The resulting Laue pattern is collected on a large area CCD detector and automatically indexed to yield the grain orientation and deviatoric (distortional) strain tensor of this sub-micron volume. A four-crystal monochromator is then inserted into the beam, which allows monochromatic light to illuminate the same part of the sample. Measurement of diffracted photon energy allows for the determination of d spacings. The combination of white and monochromatic beam measurements allow for the determination of the total strain/stress tensor (6 components) inside each sub-micron sized illuminated volume of the sample

  15. Accelerator X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    2006-01-01

    This is the first monograph to cover in-depth the production of brilliant x-ray beams in accelerators, with emphasis on fourth generation designs, such as energy recovery linacs (ERL), fast cycling storage rings, and free electron lasers (FEL). Going beyond existing treatments of the influence of synchroton radiation on accelerator operation, special emphasis is placed on the design of undulator-based beam lines, and the physics of undulator radiation. Starting from the unified treatment of electron and photon beams both as bunches of particles and as waves, the author proceeds to analyse the main components, from electron gun, through linac and arc lattice, to the x-ray beam line. Designs are given for both an ERL and a more conventional storage ring complex, and their anticipated properties are compared in detail. Space charge effects are analysed with emphasis on coherent synchrotron radiation and emittance dilution. Beam diagnostics using synchrotron radiation or laser wire (Compton scattering) are also analysed in detail. Written primarily for general, particle, and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers. (orig.)

  16. X-ray fluorescence microtomography analyzing prostate tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Gabriela R.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the elemental distribution map in reference samples and prostate tissue samples using X-Ray Fluorescence Microtomography (XRFCT) in order to verify concentrations of certain elements correlated with characteristics observed by the transmission microtomography. The experiments were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Facility of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. A quasi-monochromatic beam produced by a multilayer monochromator was used as an incident beam. The transmission CT images were reconstructed using filtered-back-projection algorithm, and the XRFCT images were reconstructed using filtered-back-projection algorithm with absorption corrections. (author)

  17. Hard X-ray studies on the Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.

    1990-04-01

    The electron runaway processes in tokamaks are discussed with regard to hard X radiation measurements. The origin and confinement of runaway electrons, their bremsstrahlung spectra and the influence of lower hybrid current drive on the distribution of high-energy electrons are analyzed for the case of the Castor tokamak. The hard X-ray spectrometer designed for the Castor tokamak is also described and preliminary qualitative results of hard X-ray measurements are presented. The first series of integral measurements made it possible to map the azimuthal dependence of the hard X radiation

  18. Semiconductor detectors in current energy dispersive X-ray spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betin, J; Zhabin, E; Krampit, I; Smirnov, V

    1980-04-01

    A review is presented of the properties of semiconductor detectors and of the possibilities stemming therefrom of using the detectors in X-ray spectral analysis in industries, in logging, in ecology and environmental control, in medicine, etc.

  19. Bone quality analysis using X-ray microtomography and microfluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, E.; Lima, I. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, PEN/COPPE/UFRJ, PO Box: 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Assis, J.T. de [Polytechnic Institute, DEMEC/UERJ (Brazil); Gomez, W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Center of the National Polytechnic Institute (Mexico); Pereira, W.C.A. [Biomedical Engineering Program, COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, PEN/COPPE/UFRJ, PO Box: 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Bone quality is an evaluation index often applied in order to interpret clinical observations made upon bone health, such as bone mineral density, micro and macro architecture, and mineral content. Conventional inspection techniques do not provide full information on trabecular bone quality. This study shows the high resolution potential and the non-destructive character of X-ray microtomography and microfluorescence upon the application of such techniques for evaluating bone quality. The mineral content assessment was performed by two-dimensional concentration mappings of calcium, zinc, and strontium. The results showed significant changes in bone morphology. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study shows bone microarchitectural evaluation by X-ray microtomography and microfluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For this purpose, lumbar vertebrae of Wistar rats have been used as test subjects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray techniques proved to have an excellent perfomance in quantifying bone mineral content.

  20. Femtosecond X-ray Fourier holography imaging of freeflying nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorkhover, Tais; Ulmer, Anatoli; Ferguson, Ken R.; Bucher, Max; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.; Bielecki, Johan; Ekeberg, Tomas; Hantke, Max F.; Daurer, Benedikt J.; Bostedt, Christoph

    2018-02-26

    Ultrafast X-ray imaging on individual fragile specimens such as aerosols1, metastable particles2, superfluid quantum systems3 and live biospecimen4 provides high resolution information, which is inaccessible with conventional imaging techniques. Coherent X-ray diffractive imag- 2 ing, however, suffers from intrinsic loss of phase, and therefore structure recovery is often complicated and not always uniquely-defined4, 5. Here, we introduce the method of in-flight holography, where we use nanoclusters as reference X-ray scatterers in order to encode relative phase information into diffraction patterns of a virus. The resulting hologram contains an unambiguous three-dimensional map of a virus and two nanoclusters with the highest lateral resolution so far achieved via single shot X-ray holography. Our approach unlocks the benefits of holography for ultrafast X-ray imaging of nanoscale, non-periodic systems and paves the way to direct observation of complex electron dynamics down to the attosecond time scale.

  1. X-ray intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, G.W.; DeBoer, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray intensifying screen comprises a support which has a luminescent composition comprising an isotropic phosphor and a polymer having an index of refraction within 0.02 of that of the phosphor over at least 80 percent of its emission spectrum. The support has an index of refraction up to or equal to 0.05 units higher than that of the phosphor and has a reflection optical density of at least 1.7 to light emitted by the phosphor. A preferred luminescent composition comprises Kl:Tl, Rbl:Tl at BaSrFCl:Eu mixed with two monomers such as 1-naphthylmethylmethacrylate, S(1-naphthylmethyl) thioacrylate, 1-bromo-2-naphthylacrylate, and benzyl methacrylate, coated on black anodised Al and polymerised in situ. The ratio of monomers is adjusted to give the desired refractive index. Other phosphors, polymers and supports are specified together with the preparation of the monomers and polymers. (author)

  2. X-ray protective garment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claim relates to a protective apron. It incorporates material comprising an array of at least two superposed sheets prepared from a composition comprising a natural or synthetic polymeric material, optionally in combination with a plasticiser, and, as a filler, a material serving as an x-ray absorber, the outer, or the outer two sheets having on their outer surfaces a decorative and/or protective surface covering, for example, a layer of unfilled rubber or plastics material, the array of superposed sheets being bonded together round its edges, there being unbonded areas between the sheets in regions away from the edges. Bonding may be by welding, adhesion or stitching. (U.K.)

  3. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L 3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  4. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, G.K.; Skinner, G.K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro arc seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black holes in the center of active galaxies What then is precluding their immediate adoption Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed atmospheric absorption

  5. X-ray tomographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray tomographic system consists of a radiation source such as gamma or x radiation which produces a fan-shaped beam. The fan is wide enough to encompass the patient circle. The system further includes means for rotating the radiation source about the patient for less than a full rotation, and detectors for detecting the radiation at positions that surround the patient by 180 0 plus the angle of the fan beam plus the angle between adjacent fan detectors. Attenuation data from the detectors is sorted into detector fans of attenuation data, then processed. The convolved data is back-projected into an image memory and displayed on a video monitor

  6. Soft x-ray interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument's components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200 angstrom wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency

  7. Acoustooptics of x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakhanov, M.V.; Pustovoyt, V.I.; Radzhabov, R.U.; Khabibullayev, P.K.

    Scattering of x-rays by acoustic phonons in crystals during excitation of a noise phonon flux thermodynamically at equilibrium is analyzed from the standpoint of the dynamic diffraction theory, emphasis being put on the differences with the conventional acoustooptic effect attributable to lower frequencies and smaller amplitudes. The structural peak and the diffusional peak are calculated from known relations for the intensity of scattering in each mode, assuming that the Laue condition is satisfied. Interaction of x-rays and an acoustic wave is considered, the conditions for a diffraction peak being determined by the relations between location of that peak and angular dimensions of the structural peak. Experiments were performed in crystals of photosensitive piezoelectric semiconductors with phonon generation. Rectangular or variable-shape voltage pulses with amplitudes up to 800 V were applied to 6-60 ..mu..m thick CdS crystals at repetition rates up to 800 Hz. The electron concentration was (1.3-4.5) x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ and the electron mobility, according to saturation of the current-voltage characteristics, was differentially in time. The results reveal sharp anisotropy of scattering, evident in the dependence of scattering intensity on the angle of crystal rotation and the resulting lobar scattering pattern. Structural scattering varies exponentially and diffusional scattering varies linearly with increasing amplitude of the applied voltage. According to the dependence of the spectral density of phonon generation on the concentration of charge carriers, the phase of the scattering effect changes upon transition from the structural range to the diffusional range. 8 references, 3 figures.

  8. An x-ray microprobe using focussing optics with a synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Wu, Y.; Giauque, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray microprobe can be used to produce maps of the concentration of elements in a sample. Synchrotron radiation provides x-ray beams with enough intensity and collimation to make possible elemental images with femtogram sensitivity. The use of focussing x-ray mirrors made from synthetic multilayers with a synchrotron x-ray beam allows beam spot sizes of less than 10 μm /times/ 10 μm to be produced. Since minimal sample preparation is required and a vacuum environment is not necessary, there will be a wide variety of applications for such microprobes. 8 refs., 6 figs

  9. Development of confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using two X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Ding Xunliang

    2007-01-01

    A new confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument was developed. This instrument has two independent micro X-ray tubes with Mo targets. A full polycapillary X-ray lens was attached to each X-ray tube. Another half polycapillary lens was attached to a silicon drift X-ray detector (SDD). The focal spots of the three lenses were adjusted to a common position. The effects of the excitation of two X-ray beams were investigated. The instrument enabled highly sensitive three-dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis. We confirmed that the X-ray fluorescence intensity from the sample increased by applying the two independent X-ray tubes in confocal configuration. Elemental depth profiling of black wheat was demonstrated with the result that each element in the surface coat of a wheat grain showed unique distribution

  10. Sensors for x-ray astronomy satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi; Kondo, Ichiro; Nishioka, Yonero; Kameda, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Masaki.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of observing the cosmic X-ray, the cosmic X-ray astronomy satellite (CORSA-b, named ''Hakucho'', Japanese for cygnus,) was launched Feb. 21, 1979 by Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. The primary objectives of the satellite are: to perform panoramic survey of the space for X-ray bursts and to perform the spectral and temporal measurement of X-ray sources. The very soft X-ray sensor for X-ray observation and the horizon sensor for spacecraft attitude sensing were developed by Toshiba Corporation under technical support by University of Tokyo and Nagoya University for ''Hakucho''. The features of these sensors are outlined in this paper. (author)

  11. Handbook of X-Ray Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornack, Günter

    2007-01-01

    This sourcebook is intended as an X-ray data reference for scientists and engineers working in the field of energy or wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry and related fields of basic and applied research, technology, or process and quality controlling. In a concise and informative manner, the most important data connected with the emission of characteristic X-ray lines are tabulated for all elements up to Z = 95 (Americium). This includes X-ray energies, emission rates and widths as well as level characteristics such as binding energies, fluorescence yields, level widths and absorption edges. The tabulated data are characterized and, in most cases, evaluated. Furthermore, all important processes and phenomena connected with the production, emission and detection of characteristic X-rays are discussed. This reference book addresses all researchers and practitioners working with X-ray radiation and fills a gap in the available literature.

  12. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2

  13. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2.

  14. Higher coherent x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Noboru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2001-01-01

    X-ray lasers generated by an ultra short pulse laser have advantages such as monochromatic, short pulse duration, small beam divergence, high intensity, and coherence. Spatial coherence is most important for applications, we have investigated the transient collisional excitation (TCE) scheme x-ray laser lasing from Ne-like titanium (31.6 nm), Ne-like silver (13.9 nm) and tin (11.9 nm). However, the spatial coherence was not so good with this scheme. We have been studying to improve the spatial coherence of the x-ray laser and have proposed to use coherent seed light tuned to the x-ray laser wavelength generated from higher harmonics generation (HHG), which is introduced to the x-ray laser medium (Ne-like titanium, Ni-like silver plasmas). We present about the theoretical study of the coupling efficiency HHG light with x-ray laser medium. (author)

  15. Arrangement for X-ray shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    X-ray screen unit consisting of a light transmissive carrier onto which scintillation material is deposited, which is able to generate light under the influence of incident X-ray irradiation, characterised in that the X-ray screen comprises a number of sectors, wherein the surface with respect to the incident X-radiation is maintained at an acute angle. (G.C.)

  16. X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An improved real-time x-ray image intensifier tube of the proximity type used for medical x-ray fluoroscopy is described. It is claimed that this intensifier is of sufficient gain and resolution whilst remaining convenient to use and that the design is such that the patient dosage is minimized whilst the x-ray image information content at the scintillator-photocathode screen is maximized. (U.K.)

  17. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed

  18. The Livermore X-ray Laser Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    I will report on the status of x-ray laser development and its applications at Livermore. I will review some of our recent results and comment on where our future research is headed including plans for developing a compact x-ray laser users facility. Finally, I will briefly summarize the results of an X-ray Laser Applications Workshop that was held in San Francisco in January 1992

  19. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  20. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  1. Soft x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the development and of the current state of the art in picosecond soft x-ray streak camera technology. Accomplishments from a number of institutions are discussed. X-ray streak cameras vary from standard visible streak camera designs in the use of an x-ray transmitting window and an x-ray sensitive photocathode. The spectral sensitivity range of these instruments includes portions of the near UV and extends from the subkilovolt x- ray region to several tens of kilovolts. Attendant challenges encountered in the design and use of x-ray streak cameras include the accommodation of high-voltage and vacuum requirements, as well as manipulation of a photocathode structure which is often fragile. The x-ray transmitting window is generally too fragile to withstand atmospheric pressure, necessitating active vacuum pumping and a vacuum line of sight to the x-ray signal source. Because of the difficulty of manipulating x-ray beams with conventional optics, as is done with visible light, the size of the photocathode sensing area, access to the front of the tube, the ability to insert the streak tube into a vacuum chamber and the capability to trigger the sweep with very short internal delay times are issues uniquely relevant to x-ray streak camera use. The physics of electron imaging may place more stringent limitations on the temporal and spatial resolution obtainable with x-ray photocathodes than with the visible counterpart. Other issues which are common to the entire streak camera community also concern the x-ray streak camera users and manufacturers

  2. Atom-resolving x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, B.; Hiort, T.; Materlik, G.; Nishino, Y.; Novikov, D. V.

    2000-01-01

    The current state of atomic resolution x-ray holography is discussed on the basis of theory and experimental results. X-ray holography is theoretically described in quantum theory. Presently-used experimental implementations are shown together with the data analysis used. Reconstructions of experimental and simulated holograms are compared for a Cu 3 Au crystal structure. Rigorous experimental realizations of pure direct and reciprocal x-ray holography methods are demonstrated, and future developments and applications of the method are suggested

  3. X-ray imaging with compound refractive lens and microfocus X-ray tube

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Ladislav; Dudchik, Yury; Jelinek, Vaclav; Sveda, Libor; Marsik, Jiri; Horvath, Martin; Petr, Ondrej

    2008-01-01

    Compound refractive lenses (CRL), consisting of a lot number in-line concave microlenses made of low-Z material were studied. Lenses with focal length 109 mm and 41 mm for 8-keV X-rays, microfocus X-ray tube and X-ray CCD camera were used in experiments. Obtained images show intensity distribution of magnified microfocus X-ray source focal spot. Within the experiments, one lens was also used as an objective lens of the X-ray microscope, where the copper anode X-ray microfocus tube served as a...

  4. Synchrotron x-ray microbeam characteristics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Atsuo; Noma, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using a synchrotron x-ray microprobe has become an indispensable technique for non-destructive micro-analysis. One of the most important parameters that characterize the x-ray microbeam system for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the beam size. For practical analysis, however, the photon flux, the energy resolution and the available energy range are also crucial. Three types of x-ray microbeam systems, including monochromatic and continuum excitation systems, were compared with reference to the sensitivity, the minimum detection limit and the applicability to various types of x-ray spectroscopic analysis. 16 refs., 5 figs

  5. Equipment, components and production of x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris Besar

    2004-01-01

    The contents of this chapter are follows - Equipment, Components and Production of x-Ray: x-ray system, generator, control panel. x-ray tube, cathode, anode, envelope, housing, collimator, other components, x-ray production, Bremsstrahlung x-ray, characteristic x-ray, heat production

  6. X-ray microscopy in Aarhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uggerhoej, Erik; Abraham-Peskir, Joanna V.

    2000-01-01

    The Aarhus imaging soft X-ray microscope is now a busy multi-user facility. The optical set-up will be described and project highlights discussed. a) Metal-induced structural changes in whole cells in solution. The effects of aluminum, copper, nickel and zinc on protozoa investigated by using a combination of light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and X-ray microscopy. b) Botanical studies by X-ray microscopy used to compliment electron microscopy studies. c) Sludge morphology and iron precipitation in Danish freshwater plants by combining X-ray, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy

  7. X-ray speckle correlation interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, Rachel; Materlik, Gerhard

    2000-01-01

    Speckle Pattern Correlation Interferometry (SPCI) is a well-established technique in the visible-light regime for observing surface disturbances. Although not a direct imaging technique, SPCI gives full-field, high-resolution information about an object's motion. Since x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines with high coherent flux have allowed the observation of x-ray speckle, x-ray SPCI could provide a means to measure strains and other quasi-static motions in disordered systems. This paper therefore examines the feasibility of an x-ray speckle correlation interferometer

  8. The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, M.; Kelley, R.

    2017-10-01

    On 25 March 2016, the Japanese 6th X-ray astronomical satellite ASTRO-H (Hitomi), launched on February 17, lost communication after a series of mishap in its attitude control system. In response to the mishap the X-ray astronomy community and JAXA analyzed the direct and root cause of the mishap and investigated possibility of a recovery mission with the international collaborator NASA and ESA. Thanks to great effort of scientists, agencies, and governments, the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) are proposed. The recovery mission is planned to resume high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with imaging realized by Hitomi under the international collaboration in the shortest time possible, simply by focusing one of the main science goals of Hitomi Resolving astrophysical problems by precise high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy'. XARM will carry a 6 x 6 pixelized X-ray micro-calorimeter on the focal plane of an X-ray mirror assembly, and an aligned X-ray CCD camera covering the same energy band and wider field of view, but no hard X-ray or soft gamma-ray instruments are onboard. In this paper, we introduce the science objectives, mission concept, and schedule of XARM.

  9. Phase-contrast X-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi [Hitachi Ltd., Saitama (Japan). Advanced Research Laboratory; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) enabling the observation of biological soft tissues without contrast enhancement has been developed. The X-ray phase shift caused by an object is measured and input to a standard CT reconstruction algorithm. A thousand times increase in the image sensitivity to soft tissues is achieved compared with the conventional CT using absorption contrast. This is because the X-ray phase shift cross section of light elements is about a thousand times larger than the absorption cross section. The phase shift is detected using an X-ray interferometer and computer analyses of interference patterns. Experiments were performed using a synchrotron X-ray source. Excellent image sensitivity is demonstrated in the observation of cancerous rabbit liver. The CT images distinguish cancer lesion from normal liver tissue and, moreover, visualize the pathological condition in the lesion. Although the X-ray energy employed and the present observation area size are not suitable for medical applications as they are, phase-contrast X-ray CT is promising for investigating the internal structure of soft tissue which is almost transparent for X-rays. The high sensitivity also provides the advantage of reducing X-ray doses. (author).

  10. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.

    1994-01-01

    The author's achievements in the title field are summarized and discussed. The following topics are dealt with: (i) principles of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis; (ii) mathematical methods in X-ray fluorescence analysis; (iii) Ross differential filters; (iv) application of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis in the coal industry (with emphasis on the determination of the ash content, sulfur content, and arsenic content of coal); and (v) evaluation of the X-ray fluorescence analyzer from the radiological safety point of view. (P.A.)

  11. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Alan Hap [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90° Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ~ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 Å) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been demonstrated as a

  12. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.H.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1998-01-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90 o Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ∼ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 (angstrom)) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been

  13. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, D.R.; Cahn, R.; Cederstrom, B.; Danielsson, M.; Vestlund, J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point

  14. X-ray Observations at Gaisberg Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Hettiarachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of X-rays at ground level due to cloud-to-ground flashes of upward-initiated lightning from Gaisberg Tower, in Austria, which is located at an altitude of 1300 m. This is the first observation of X-ray emissions from upward lightning from a tower top located at high altitude. Measurements were carried out using scintillation detectors installed close to the tower top in two phases from 2011 to 2015. X-rays were recorded in three subsequent strokes of three flashes out of the total of 108 flashes recorded in the system during both phases. In contrast to the observations from downward natural or triggered lightning, X-rays were observed only within 10 µs before the subsequent return stroke. This shows that X-rays were emitted when the dart leader was in the vicinity of the tower top, hence during the most intense phase of the dart leader. Both the detected energy and the fluence of X-rays are far lower compared to X-rays from downward natural or rocket-triggered lightning. In addition to the above 108 flashes, an interesting observation of X-rays produced by a nearby downward flash is also presented. The shorter length of dart-leader channels in Gaisberg is suggested as a possible cause of this apparently weaker X-ray production.

  15. X-ray fluorescence in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, C.V.; Gomes, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the X-ray fluorescence aplication in geology. It's showing the X-ray origin and excitation. About the instrumentation this work shows the following: X-ray tubes, colimators, analysers crystals, detectors, amplifiers, pulse height selector, and others electronic components. By X-ray fluorescente are done quantitative and qualitative geological analysis and this work shows this analysis and its detection limits. The problems determination is the example. In this work was done yet the comparative analysis of the various instrumental methods in geochemistry. (C.G.) [pt

  16. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  17. X-rays from supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Sutherland, P.; Mccray, R.; Ross, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed calculations of the development of the X-ray spectrum of 1987A are presented using more realistic models for the supernova composition and density structure provided by Woosley. It is shown how the emergence of the X-ray spectrum depends on the parameters of the model and the nature of its central energy source. It is shown that the soft X-ray spectrum should be dominated by a 6.4 keV Fe K(alpha) emission line that could be observed by a sensitive X-ray telescope. 28 references

  18. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with

  19. Near edge x-ray spectroscopy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    We propose to develop a quantitative theory of x-ray spectroscopies in the near edge region, within about 100 eV of threshold. These spectroscopies include XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure), photoelectron diffraction (PD), and diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS), all of which are important tools for structural studies using synchrotron radiation x-ray sources. Of primary importance in these studies are many-body effects, such as the photoelectron self-energy, and inelastic losses. A better understanding of these quantities is needed to obtain theories without adjustable parameters. We propose both analytical and numerical calculations, the latter based on our x-ray spectroscopy codes FEFF

  20. The efficacy of x-ray pelvimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, J.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago); Garbaciak, J.A. Jr.; Ryan, G.M., Jr.

    1982-06-01

    Comparison is made of x-ray pelvimetry use on a public and private service in 1974 with experience in 1979, when the clinic service did no x-ray pelvimetry while the private service continued as before. It is concluded that the use of x-ray pelvimetry is inadequate as a predictor of cesarean section because of cephalopelvic disproportion, does not improve neonatal mortality, and poses potential hazards to the mother and fetus. Its use in the management of breech presentations is not currently established by our data. Guidelines are presented for the management of patients in labor without using x-ray pelvimetry.