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Sample records for stem cell contribution

  1. Contribution of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Chimeras through Injection and Coculture of Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jitong; Wu, Baojiang; Li, Shuyu; Bao, Siqin; Zhao, Lixia; Hu, Shuxiang; Sun, Wei; Su, Jie; Dai, Yanfeng; Li, Xihe

    2014-01-01

    Blastocyst injection and morula aggregation are commonly used to evaluate stem cell pluripotency based on chimeric contribution of the stem cells. To assess the protocols for generating chimeras from stem cells, 8-cell mouse embryos were either injected or cocultured with mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, respectively. Although a significantly higher chimera rate resulted from blastocyst injection, the highest germline contribution resulted from injection of 8-cel...

  2. Drosophila's contribution to stem cell research [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanesh Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of Drosophila stem cells with striking similarities to mammalian stem cells has brought new hope for stem cell research. Recent developments in Drosophila stem cell research is bringing wider opportunities for contemporary stem cell biologists. In this regard, Drosophila germ cells are becoming a popular model of stem cell research. In several cases, genes that controlled Drosophila stem cells were later discovered to have functional homologs in mammalian stem cells. Like mammals, Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs are controlled by both intrinsic as well as external signals. Inside the Drosophila testes, germline and somatic stem cells form a cluster of cells (the hub. Hub cells depend on JAK-STAT signaling, and, in absence of this signal, they do not self-renew. In Drosophila, significant changes occur within the stem cell niche that contributes to a decline in stem cell number over time. In case of aging Drosophila, somatic niche cells show reduced DE-cadherin and unpaired (Upd proteins. Unpaired proteins are known to directly decrease stem cell number within the niches, and, overexpression of upd within niche cells restored GSCs in older males also . Stem cells in the midgut of Drosophila are also very promising. Reduced Notch signaling was found to increase the number of midgut progenitor cells. On the other hand, activation of the Notch pathway decreased proliferation of these cells. Further research in this area should lead to the discovery of additional factors that regulate stem and progenitor cells in Drosophila.

  3. Differential cytokine contributions of perivascular haematopoietic stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Noboru; Kunisaki, Yuya; Pierce, Halley; Wang, Zichen; Fernandez, Nicolas F; Birbrair, Alexander; Ma'ayan, Avi; Frenette, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    Arterioles and sinusoids of the bone marrow (BM) are accompanied by stromal cells that express nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) and leptin receptor (LepR), and constitute specialized niches that regulate quiescence and proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, how niche cells differentially regulate HSC functions remains unknown. Here, we show that the effects of cytokines regulating HSC functions are dependent on the producing cell sources. Deletion of chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12 (Cxcl12) or stem cell factor (Scf) from all perivascular cells marked by nestin-GFP dramatically depleted BM HSCs. Selective Cxcl12 deletion from arteriolar NG2 + cells, but not from sinusoidal LepR + cells, caused HSC reductions and altered HSC localization in BM. By contrast, deletion of Scf in LepR + cells, but not NG2 + cells, led to reductions in BM HSC numbers. These results uncover distinct contributions of cytokines derived from perivascular cells in separate vascular niches to HSC maintenance.

  4. Calvarial Suture-Derived Stem Cells and Their Contribution to Cranial Bone Repair

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    Daniel H. Doro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the natural turnover during life, the bones in the skeleton possess the ability to self-repair in response to injury or disease-related bone loss. Based on studies of bone defect models, both processes are largely supported by resident stem cells. In the long bones, the source of skeletal stem cells has been widely investigated over the years, where the major stem cell population is thought to reside in the perivascular niche of the bone marrow. In contrast, we have very limited knowledge about the stem cells contributing to the repair of calvarial bones. In fact, until recently, the presence of specific stem cells in adult craniofacial bones was uncertain. These flat bones are mainly formed via intramembranous rather than endochondral ossification and thus contain minimal bone marrow space. It has been previously proposed that the overlying periosteum and underlying dura mater provide osteoprogenitors for calvarial bone repair. Nonetheless, recent studies have identified a major stem cell population within the suture mesenchyme with multiple differentiation abilities and intrinsic reparative potential. Here we provide an updated review of calvarial stem cells and potential mechanisms of regulation in the context of skull injury repair.

  5. Stem cell potency and the ability to contribute to chimeric organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2013-03-01

    Mouse embryonic chimeras are a well-established tool for studying cell lineage commitment and pluripotency. Experimental chimeras were successfully produced by combining two or more preimplantation embryos or by introducing into host embryo cultured pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Chimera production using genetically modified ESCs became the method of choice for the generation of knockout or knockin mice. Although the derivation of ESCs or ESC-like cells has been reported for other species, only mouse and rat pluripotent stem cells have been shown to contribute to germline-competent chimeras, which is the defining feature of ESCs. Herein, we describe different approaches employed for the generation of embryonic chimeras, define chimera-competent cell types, and describe cases of spontaneous chimerism in humans. We also review the current state of derivation of pluripotent stem cells in several species and discuss outcomes of various chimera studies when such cells are used.

  6. Stem cell biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Silvana

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment.

  7. Epidermal stem cells: location, potential and contribution to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, C A; Määttä, A

    2009-01-01

    Epidermal stem cells have been classically characterized as slow-cycling, long-lived cells that reside in discrete niches in the skin. Gene expression studies of niche-resident cells have revealed a number of stem cell markers and regulators, including the Wnt/beta-catenin, Notch, p63, c-Myc and Hedgehog pathways. A new study challenges the traditional developmental paradigm of slow-cycling stem cells and rapid-cycling transit amplifying cells in some epidermal regions, and there is mounting evidence to suggest that multi-lineage epidermal progenitors can be isolated from highly proliferative, non-niche regions. Whether there is a unique microenvironment surrounding these progenitors remains to be determined. Interestingly, cancer stem cells derived from epidermal tumours exist independent of the classic skin stem cell niche, yet also have stem cell properties, including multi-lineage differentiation. This review summarizes recent studies identifying the location and regulators of mouse and human epidermal stem cells and highlights the strategies used to identify cancer stem cells, including expression of normal epidermal stem cell markers, expression of cancer stem cell markers identified in other epidermal tumours and characterization of side-population tumour cells.

  8. Lgr5+ve Stem/Progenitor Cells Contribute to Nephron Formation during Kidney Development

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    Nick Barker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent stem cells and their lineage-restricted progeny drive nephron formation within the developing kidney. Here, we document expression of the adult stem cell marker Lgr5 in the developing kidney and assess the stem/progenitor identity of Lgr5+ve cells via in vivo lineage tracing. The appearance and localization of Lgr5+ve cells coincided with that of the S-shaped body around embryonic day 14. Lgr5 expression remained restricted to cell clusters within developing nephrons in the cortex until postnatal day 7, when expression was permanently silenced. In vivo lineage tracing identified Lgr5 as a marker of a stem/progenitor population within nascent nephrons dedicated to generating the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop and distal convoluted tubule. The Lgr5 surface marker and experimental models described here will be invaluable for deciphering the contribution of early nephron stem cells to developmental defects and for isolating human nephron progenitors as a prerequisite to evaluating their therapeutic potential.

  9. Aging, metabolism and stem cells: Spotlight on muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prat, Laura; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2017-04-15

    All tissues and organs undergo a progressive regenerative decline as they age. This decline has been mainly attributed to loss of stem cell number and/or function, and both stem cell-intrinsic changes and alterations in local niches and/or systemic environment over time are known to contribute to the stem cell aging phenotype. Advancing in the molecular understanding of the deterioration of stem cell cells with aging is key for targeting the specific causes of tissue regenerative dysfunction at advanced stages of life. Here, we revise exciting recent findings on why stem cells age and the consequences on tissue regeneration, with a special focus on regeneration of skeletal muscle. We also highlight newly identified common molecular pathways affecting diverse types of aging stem cells, such as altered proteostasis, metabolism, or senescence entry, and discuss the questions raised by these findings. Finally, we comment on emerging stem cell rejuvenation strategies, principally emanating from studies on muscle stem cells, which will surely burst tissue regeneration research for future benefit of the increasing human aging population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Investigation of neural stem cell-derived donor contribution in the inner ear following blastocyst injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkenstein, S; Brors, D; Hansen, S; Mlynski, R; Dinger, T C; Müller, A M; Dazert, S

    2008-03-01

    Utilising the enormous proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation potentials of somatic stem cells represents a possible therapeutical strategy for diseases of non-regenerative tissues like the inner ear. In the current study, the possibility of murine neural stem cells to contribute to the developing inner ear following blastocyst injection was investigated. Fetal brain-derived neural stem cells from the embryonic day 14 cortex of male mice were isolated and expanded for four weeks in neurobasal media supplemented with bFGF and EGF. Neural stem cells of male animals were harvested, injected into blastocysts and the blastocysts were transferred into pseudo-pregnant foster animals. Each blastocyst was injected with 5-15 microspheres growing from single cell suspension from neurospheres dissociated the day before. The resulting mice were investigated six months POST PARTUM for the presence of donor cells. Brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA) was performed in six animals. To visualize donor cells Lac-Z staining was performed on sliced cochleas of two animals. In addition, the cochleas of four female animals were isolated and genomic DNA of the entire cochlea was analyzed for donor contribution by Y-chromosome-specific PCR. All animals had normal thresholds in brainstem evoked response audiometry. The male-specific PCR product indicating the presence of male donor cells were detected in the cochleas of three of the four female animals investigated. In two animals, male donor cells were detected unilateral, in one animal bilateral. The results suggest that descendants of neural stem cells are detectable in the inner ear after injection into blastocysts and possess the ability to integrate into the developing inner ear without obvious loss in hearing function.

  11. Slow-cycling stem cells in hydra contribute to head regeneration

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    Niraimathi Govindasamy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells face the challenge of maintaining tissue homeostasis by self-renewal while maintaining their proliferation potential over the lifetime of an organism. Continuous proliferation can cause genotoxic/metabolic stress that can compromise the genomic integrity of stem cells. To prevent stem cell exhaustion, highly proliferative adult tissues maintain a pool of quiescent stem cells that divide only in response to injury and thus remain protected from genotoxic stress. Hydra is a remarkable organism with highly proliferative stem cells and ability to regenerate at whole animal level. Intriguingly, hydra does not display consequences of high proliferation, such as senescence or tumour formation. In this study, we investigate if hydra harbours a pool of slow-cycling stem cells that could help prevent undesirable consequences of continuous proliferation. Hydra were pulsed with the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU and then chased in the absence of EdU to monitor the presence of EdU-retaining cells. A significant number of undifferentiated cells of all three lineages in hydra retained EdU for about 8–10 cell cycles, indicating that these cells did not enter cell cycle. These label-retaining cells were resistant to hydroxyurea treatment and were predominantly in the G2 phase of cell cycle. Most significantly, similar to mammalian quiescent stem cells, these cells rapidly entered cell division during head regeneration. This study shows for the first time that, contrary to current beliefs, cells in hydra display heterogeneity in their cell cycle potential and the slow-cycling cells in this population enter cell cycle during head regeneration. These results suggest an early evolution of slow-cycling stem cells in multicellular animals.

  12. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  13. Biochemistry of epidermal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Richard L; Adhikary, Gautam; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A; Vemuri, Mohan C; Boucher, Shayne E; Bickenbach, Jackie R; Kerr, Candace

    2013-02-01

    The epidermis is an important protective barrier that is essential for maintenance of life. Maintaining this barrier requires continuous cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, these processes must be balanced to produce a normal epidermis. The stem cells of the epidermis reside in specific locations in the basal epidermis, hair follicle and sebaceous glands and these cells are responsible for replenishment of this tissue. A great deal of effort has gone into identifying protein epitopes that mark stem cells, in identifying stem cell niche locations, and in understanding how stem cell populations are related. We discuss these studies as they apply to understanding normal epidermal homeostasis and skin cancer. An assortment of stem cell markers have been identified that permit assignment of stem cells to specific regions of the epidermis, and progress has been made in understanding the role of these cells in normal epidermal homeostasis and in conditions of tissue stress. A key finding is the multiple stem cell populations exist in epidermis that give rise to different structures, and that multiple stem cell types may contribute to repair in damaged epidermis. Understanding epidermal stem cell biology is likely to lead to important therapies for treating skin diseases and cancer, and will also contribute to our understanding of stem cells in other systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Progress in epidermal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Juan; Wang, You-Liang; Yang, Xiao

    2010-03-01

    Mammalian skin epidermis contains different epidermal stem cell pools which contribute to the homeostasis and repair of skin epithelium. Epidermal stem cells possess two essential features common to all stem cells: self-renewal and differentiation. Disturbing the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of epidermal stem cell often causes tumors or other skin diseases. Epidermal stem cell niches provide a special microenvironment that maintains a balance of stem cell quiescence and activity. This review primarily concentrates on the following points of the epidermal stem cells: the existing evidences, the self-renewal and differentiation, the division pattern, the signal pathways regulating self-renewal and differentiation, and the microenvironment (niche) and macroenvironment maintaining the homeostasis of stem cells.

  15. Stem Cell Therapies in Orthopaedic Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Marcucio, Ralph S.; Nauth, Aaron; Giannoudis, Peter V.; Bahney, Chelsea; Piuzzi, Nicolas S.; Muschler, George; Miclau, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells offer great promise to help understand the normal mechanisms of tissue renewal, regeneration, and repair, and also for development of cell-based therapies to treat patients after tissue injury. Most adult tissues contain stem cells and progenitor cells that contribute to homeostasis, remodeling and repair. Multiple stem and progenitor cell populations in bone are found in the marrow, the endosteum, and the periosteum. They contribute to the fracture healing process after injury and...

  16. Counting stem cells : methodological constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bystrykh, Leonid V.; Verovskaya, Evgenia; Zwart, Erik; Broekhuis, Mathilde; de Haan, Gerald

    The number of stem cells contributing to hematopoiesis has been a matter of debate. Many studies use retroviral tagging of stem cells to measure clonal contribution. Here we argue that methodological factors can impact such clonal analyses. Whereas early studies had low resolution, leading to

  17. Pluripotent stem cells and reprogrammed cells in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Kues, Wilfried; Carnwath, Joseph W; Niemann, Heiner

    2011-08-01

    Pluripotent cells are unique because of their ability to differentiate into the cell lineages forming the entire organism. True pluripotent stem cells with germ line contribution have been reported for mice and rats. Human pluripotent cells share numerous features of pluripotentiality, but confirmation of their in vivo capacity for germ line contribution is impossible due to ethical and legal restrictions. Progress toward derivation of embryonic stem cells from domestic species has been made, but the derived cells were not able to produce germ line chimeras and thus are termed embryonic stem-like cells. However, domestic animals, in particular the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are excellent large animals models, in which the clinical potential of stem cell therapies can be studied. Reprogramming technologies for somatic cells, including somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, in vitro culture in the presence of cell extracts, in vitro conversion of adult unipotent spermatogonial stem cells into germ line derived pluripotent stem cells, and transduction with reprogramming factors have been developed with the goal of obtaining pluripotent, germ line competent stem cells from domestic animals. This review summarizes the present state of the art in the derivation and maintenance of pluripotent stem cells in domestic animals.

  18. Drosophila's contribution to stem cell research [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5h7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanesh Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of Drosophila stem cells with striking similarities to mammalian stem cells has brought new hope for stem cell research. A recent development in Drosophila stem cell research is bringing wider opportunities for contemporary stem cell biologists. In this regard, Drosophila germ cells are becoming a popular model of stem cell research. In several cases, genes that controlled Drosophila stem cells were later discovered to have functional homologs in mammalian stem cells. Like mammals, Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs are controlled by both intrinsic as well as external signals. Inside the Drosophila testes, germline and somatic stem cells form a cluster of cells (the hub. Hub cells depend on JAK-STAT signaling, and, in absence of this signal, they do not self-renew. In Drosophila, significant changes occur within the stem cell niche that contributes to a decline in stem cell number over time. In case of aging Drosophila, somatic niche cells show reduced DE-cadherin and unpaired (Upd proteins. Unpaired proteins are known to directly decrease stem cell number within the niches, and, overexpression of upd within niche cells restored GSCs in older males also . Stem cells in the midgut of Drosophila are also very promising. Reduced Notch signaling was found to increase the number of midgut progenitor cells. On the other hand, activation of the Notch pathway decreased proliferation of these cells. Further research in this area should lead to the discovery of additional factors that regulate stem and progenitor cells in Drosophila.

  19. Recent advances in hematopoietic stem cell biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A; Nolta, Jan A

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exciting advances have been made in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology during the past year. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification, culture, and in vivo tracking of hematopoietic stem cells. RECENT FINDINGS: The roles of Wnt and Notch proteins...... in regulating stem cell renewal in the microenvironment, and how these molecules can be exploited in ex vivo stem cell culture, are reviewed. The importance of identification of stem cells using functional as well as phenotypic markers is discussed. The novel field of nanotechnology is then discussed...... in the context of stem cell tracking in vivo. This review concludes with a section on the unexpected potential of bone marrow-derived stem cells to contribute to the repair of damaged tissues. The contribution of cell fusion to explain the latter phenomenon is discussed. SUMMARY: Because of exciting discoveries...

  20. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwood, Nicole J.; Dazzi, Francesco; Zaher, Walid

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are stem cell populations present among the bone marrow stroma and a number of other tissues that are capable of multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSC provide supportive stroma for growth...... and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and hematopoiesis. These cells have been described as important immunoregulators due to their ability to suppress T cells proliferation. MSC can also directly contribute to tissue repair by migrating to sites of injury and providing a source of cells...... for differentiation and/or providing bystander support for resident stromal cells. This chapter discusses the cellular and molecular properties of MSC, the mechanisms by which they can modulate immune responses and the clinical applications of MSC in disorders such as graft-versus-host disease and aplastic anaemia...

  2. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B. Boyette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan.

  3. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Attenuating Age-Related Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation towards the bone forming osteoblastic lineage decreases as a function of age and may contribute to age-related...problem of age-related reduced availability of MSC we propose to examine the bone anabolic potential of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) derived MSC

  4. Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization therapy accelerates recovery of renal function independent of stem cell contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, Geurt; Leemans, Jaklien C.; Claessen, Nike; Weening, Jan J.; Florquin, Sandrine

    2005-01-01

    Acute renal failure and tubular cell loss as a result of ischemia constitute major challenges in renal pathophysiology. Increasing evidence suggests important roles for bone marrow stem cells in the regeneration of renal tissue after injury. This study investigated whether the enhanced availability

  5. In vivo differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into neural stem cells by chimera formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Woo; Hong, Yean Ju; Kim, Jong Soo; Song, Hyuk; Cho, Ssang Gu; Bae, Hojae; Kim, Changsung; Byun, Sung June; Do, Jeong Tae

    2017-01-01

    Like embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into all three germ layers in an in vitro system. Here, we developed a new technology for obtaining neural stem cells (NSCs) from iPSCs through chimera formation, in an in vivo environment. iPSCs contributed to the neural lineage in the chimera, which could be efficiently purified and directly cultured as NSCs in vitro. The iPSC-derived, in vivo-differentiated NSCs expressed NSC markers, and their gene-expression pattern more closely resembled that of fetal brain-derived NSCs than in vitro-differentiated NSCs. This system could be applied for differentiating pluripotent stem cells into specialized cell types whose differentiation protocols are not well established.

  6. Nuclear Mechanics and Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinjian; Gavara, Nuria; Song, Guanbin

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Stem cell differentiation is a prerequisite for the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine and clinical therapy. In addition to chemical stimulation, mechanical cues play a significant role in regulating stem cell differentiation. The integrity of mechanical sensors is necessary for the ability of cells to respond to mechanical signals. The nucleus, the largest and stiffest cellular organelle, interacts with the cytoskeleton as a key mediator of cell mechanics. Nuclear mechanics are involved in the complicated interactions of lamins, chromatin and nucleoskeleton-related proteins. Thus, stem cell differentiation is intimately associated with nuclear mechanics due to its indispensable role in mechanotransduction and mechanical response. This paper reviews several main contributions of nuclear mechanics, highlights the hallmarks of the nuclear mechanics of stem cells, and provides insight into the relationship between nuclear mechanics and stem cell differentiation, which may guide clinical applications in the future.

  7. Reconstitution of mammary epithelial morphogenesis by murine embryonic stem cells undergoing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Jiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the context of the intact epithelium-free mammary stroma, non-mammary epithelial cells may be sequestered and reprogrammed to perform mammary epithelial cell functions and to adopt mammary epithelial characteristics during reconstruction of mammary epithelium in regenerating mammary tissue in vivo.To examine whether other types of progenitor cells are able to contribute to mammary branching morphogenesis, we examined the potential of murine embryonic stem (mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to support mammary reconstitution in vivo. We observed that cells from day 14 embryoid bodies (EBs under hematopoietic differentiation condition, but not supernatants derived from these cells, when transplanted into denuded mammary fat pads, were able to contribute to both the luminal and myoepithelial lineages in branching ductal structures resembling the ductal-alveolar architecture of the mammary tree. No teratomas were observed when these cells were transplanted in vivo.Our data provide evidence for the dominance of the tissue-specific mammary stem cell niche and its role in directing mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to reprogram into mammary epithelial cells and to promote mammary epithelial morphogenesis. These studies should also provide insights into regeneration of damaged mammary gland and the role of the mammary microenvironment in reprogramming cell fate.

  8. Skeletal stem cells and their contribution to skeletal fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related osteoporotic fractures are major health care problem worldwide and are the result of impaired bone formation, decreased bone mass and bone fragility. Bone formation is accomplished by skeletal stem cells (SSC) that are recruited to bone surfaces from bone marrow microenvironment....... This review discusses targeting SSC to enhance bone formation and to abolish age-related bone fragility in the context of using stem cells for treatment of age-related disorders. Recent studies are presented that have demonstrated that SSC exhibit impaired functions during aging due to intrinsic senescence...

  9. Platelet-Rich Plasma Derived Growth Factors Contribute to Stem Cell Differentiation in Musculoskeletal Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Qian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of different stem cells in injury models. Therefore, combination of both agents receives wide expectations in regenerative medicine, especially in bone, cartilage and tendon repair. In this review, we thoroughly discussed the interaction and underlying mechanisms of PRP derived GFs with stem cells, and assessed their functions in cell differentiation for musculoskeletal regeneration.

  10. Platelet-rich plasma derived growth factors contribute to stem cell differentiation in musculoskeletal regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yun; Han, Qixin; Chen, Wei; Song, Jialin; Zhao, Xiaotian; Ouyang, Yuanming; Yuan, Weien; Fan, Cunyi

    2017-10-01

    Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs) for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of different stem cells in injury models. Therefore, combination of both agents receives wide expectations in regenerative medicine, especially in bone, cartilage and tendon repair. In this review, we thoroughly discussed the interaction and underlying mechanisms of platelet-rich plasma derived growth factors with stem cells, and assessed their functions in cell differentiation for musculoskeletal regeneration.

  11. Platelet-Rich Plasma Derived Growth Factors Contribute to Stem Cell Differentiation in Musculoskeletal Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Qian; Yun Qian; Qixin Han; Wei Chen; Wei Chen; Jialin Song; Jialin Song; Xiaotian Zhao; Yuanming Ouyang; Yuanming Ouyang; Weien Yuan; Cunyi Fan

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs) for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of differen...

  12. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  13. Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D.

    2013-01-01

    Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24103496

  14. Skin Stem Cells in Silence, Action, and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In studying how stem cells make and maintain tissues, nearly every chapter of a cell biology textbook takes on special interest. The field even allows us to venture where no chapters have yet been written. In studying this basic problem, we are continually bombarded by nature's surprises and challenges. Stem cell biology has captured my interest for nearly my entire scientific career. Below, I focus on my laboratory's contributions to this fascinating field, to which so many friends and colleagues have made seminal discoveries equally deserving of this award. : In this Perspective, Elaine Fuchs describes her laboratory's contributions to the field of skin stem cells, giving a historical overview of their first isolation and characterization, the discovery of extrinsic and intrinsic factors regulating skin stem cell states, and their role in skin disease. Keywords: stem cells, skin, hair follicle, cancer, wound healing, epidermis

  15. Macrophages contribute to the cyclic activation of adult hair follicle stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellana, Donatello; Paus, Ralf; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    Skin epithelial stem cells operate within a complex signaling milieu that orchestrates their lifetime regenerative properties. The question of whether and how immune cells impact on these stem cells within their niche is not well understood. Here we show that skin-resident macrophages decrease in...

  16. Cell Cycle Regulation of Stem Cells by MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mens, Michelle M J; Ghanbari, Mohsen

    2018-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. They are involved in the fine-tuning of fundamental biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis in many cell types. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. Several miRNAs have been suggested to target transcripts that directly or indirectly coordinate the cell cycle progression of stem cells. Moreover, previous studies have shown that altered expression levels of miRNAs can contribute to pathological conditions, such as cancer, due to the loss of cell cycle regulation. However, the precise mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated regulation of cell cycle in stem cells is still incompletely understood. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of miRNAs regulatory role in cell cycle progression of stem cells. We describe how specific miRNAs may control cell cycle associated molecules and checkpoints in embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells. We further outline how these miRNAs could be regulated to influence cell cycle progression in stem cells as a potential clinical application.

  17. Eckol suppresses maintenance of stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Kyung-Hwan; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Lim, Eun-Jung; An, Sungkwan; Park, Myung-Jin; Hyun, Jin-Won; Suh, Yongjoon; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Su-Jae

    2011-01-01

    A subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell properties is responsible for tumor maintenance and progression, and may contribute to resistance to anticancer treatments. Thus, compounds that target cancer stem-like cells could be usefully applied to destroy cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of Eckol, a phlorotannin compound, on stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells. To determine whether Eckol targets glioma stem-like cells, we examined whether Eckol treatment could change the expression levels of glioma stem-like cell markers and self-renewal-related proteins as well as the sphere forming ability, and the sensitivity to anticancer treatments. Alterations in the malignant properties of sphere-derived cells by Eckol were also investigated by soft-agar colony forming assay, by xenograft assay in nude mice, and by cell invasion assay. Treatment of sphere-forming glioma cells with Eckol effectively decreased the sphere formation as well as the CD133 + cell population. Eckol treatment suppressed expression of the glioma stem-like cell markers and the self-renewal-related proteins without cell death. Moreover, treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol significantly attenuated anchorage-independent growth on soft agar and tumor formation in xenograft mice. Importantly, Eckol treatment effectively reduced the resistance of glioma stem-like cells to ionizing radiation and temozolomide. Treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol markedly blocked both phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and Ras-Raf-1-Erk signaling pathways. These results indicate that the natural phlorotannin Eckol suppresses stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells, and thereby makes glioma stem-like cells more sensitive to anticancer treatments, providing novel therapeutic strategies targeting specifically cancer stem-like cells.

  18. In Vitro Derivation and Propagation of Spermatogonial Stem Cell Activity from Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Yukiko; Yabuta, Yukihiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Tomonori; Okamoto, Ikuhiro; Yamamoto, Takuya; Kurimoto, Kazuki; Shirane, Kenjiro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Mitinori

    2016-12-06

    The in vitro derivation and propagation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a key goal in reproductive science. We show here that when aggregated with embryonic testicular somatic cells (reconstituted testes), primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) induced from mouse embryonic stem cells differentiate into spermatogonia-like cells in vitro and are expandable as cells that resemble germline stem cells (GSCs), a primary cell line with SSC activity. Remarkably, GSC-like cells (GSCLCs), but not PGCLCs, colonize adult testes and, albeit less effectively than GSCs, contribute to spermatogenesis and fertile offspring. Whole-genome analyses reveal that GSCLCs exhibit aberrant methylation at vulnerable regulatory elements, including those critical for spermatogenesis, which may restrain their spermatogenic potential. Our study establishes a strategy for the in vitro derivation of SSC activity from PSCs, which, we propose, relies on faithful epigenomic regulation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Involvement of plant stem cells or stem cell-like cells in dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei eJiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiation is the transformation of cells from a given differentiated state to a less differentiated or stem cell-like state. Stem cell-related genes play important roles in dedifferentiation, which exhibits similar histone modification and DNA methylation features to stem cell maintenance. Hence, stem cell-related factors possibly synergistically function to provide a specific niche beneficial to dedifferentiation. During callus formation in Arabidopsis petioles, cells adjacent to procambium cells (stem cell-like cells are dedifferentiated and survive more easily than other cell types. This finding indicates that stem cells or stem cell-like cells may influence the dedifferentiating niche. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of stem cell maintenance and dedifferentiation regulation. We also summarize current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the balance between differentiation and dedifferentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the correlation of stem cells or stem cell-like cells with dedifferentiation.

  20. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binghua Xue

    Full Text Available Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs.

  1. Skin appendage-derived stem cells: cell biology and potential for wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangfan; Yao, Bin; Han, Yutong; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells residing in the epidermis and skin appendages are imperative for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also participate in the repair of the epidermis after injuries, inducing restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unlike epidermis-derived stem cells, comprehensive knowledge about skin appendage-derived stem cells remains limited. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of skin appendage-derived stem cells, including their fundamental characteristics, their preferentially expressed biomarkers, and their potential contribution involved in wound repair. Finally, we will also discuss current strategies, future applications, and limitations of these stem cells, attempting to provide some perspectives on optimizing the available therapy in cutaneous repair and regeneration.

  2. Decreased Intracellular pH Induced by Cariporide Differentially Contributes to Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1 is an important regulator of intracellular pH (pHi. High pHi is required for cell proliferation and differentiation. Our previous study has proven that the pHi of mesenchymal stem cells is higher than that of normal differentiated cells and similar to tumor cells. NHE1 is highly expressed in both mesenchymal stem cells and tumor cells. Targeted inhibition of NHE1 could induce differentiation of K562 leukemia cells. In the present paper we explored whether inhibition of NHE1 could induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cord and both the surface phenotype and functional characteristics were analyzed. Selective NHE1 inhibitor cariporide was used to treat human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs. The pHi and the differentiation of hUC-MSCs were compared upon cariporide treatment. The putative signaling pathway involved was also explored. Results: The pHi of hUC-MSCs was decreased upon cariporide treatment. Cariporide up-regulated the osteogenic differentiation of hUC-MSCs while the adipogenic differentiation was not affected. For osteogenic differentiation, β-catenin expression was up-regulated upon cariporide treatment. Conclusion: Decreased pHi induced by cariporide differentially contributes to hUC-MSCs differentiation.

  3. Skeletal stem cells in space and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice...

  4. Tumorigenic hybrids between mesenchymal stem cells and gastric cancer cells enhanced cancer proliferation, migration and stemness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jianguo; Zhu, Yuan; Sun, Zixuan; Ji, Runbi; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Wenrong; Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yongmin; Yin, Lei; Xu, Huijuan; Zhang, Leilei; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate cell-cell fusion might contribute to cancer progression. Similarly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can also fuse with other cells spontaneously and capable of adopting the phenotype of other cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of MSCs participated cell fusion in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. We fused human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) with gastric cancer cells in vitro by polyethylene glycol (PEG), the hybrid cells were sorted by flow cytometer. The growth and migration of hybrids were assessed by cell counting, cell colony formation and transwell assays. The proteins and genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness were tested by western blot, immunocytochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. The expression of CD44 and CD133 was examined by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. The xenograft assay was used to evaluation the tumorigenesis of the hybrids. The obtained hybrids exhibited epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) change with down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of Vimentin, N-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibroblast activation protein (FAP). The hybrids also increased expression of stemness factors Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Lin28. The expression of CD44 and CD133 on hybrid cells was stronger than parental gastric cancer cells. Moreover, the migration and proliferation of heterotypic hybrids were enhanced. In addition, the heterotypic hybrids promoted the growth abilities of gastric xenograft tumor in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that cell fusion between hucMSCs and gastric cancer cells could contribute to tumorigenic hybrids with EMT and stem cell-like properties, which may provide a flexible tool for investigating the roles of MSCs in gastric cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1780-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  5. The Fountain of Stem Cell-Based Youth? Online Portrayals of Anti-Aging Stem Cell Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachul, Christen M; Percec, Ivona; Caulfield, Timothy

    2015-08-01

    The hype surrounding stem cell science has created a market opportunity for the cosmetic industry. Cosmetic and anti-aging products and treatments that make claims regarding stem cell technology are increasingly popular, despite a lack of evidence for safety and efficacy of such products. This study explores how stem cell-based products and services are portrayed to the public through online sources, in order to gain insight into the key messages available to consumers. A content analysis of 100 web pages was conducted to examine the portrayals of stem cell-based cosmetic and anti-aging products and treatments. A qualitative discourse analysis of one web page further examined how language contributes to the portrayals of these products and treatments to public audiences. The majority of web pages portrayed stem cell-based products as ready for public use. Very few web pages substantiated claims with scientific evidence, and even fewer mentioned any risks or limitations associated with stem cell science. The discourse analysis revealed that the framing and use of metaphor obscures the certainty of the efficacy of and length of time for stem cell-based anti-aging technology to be publicly available. This study highlights the need to educate patients and the public on the current limits of stem cell applications in this context. In addition, generating scientific evidence for stem cell-based anti-aging and aesthetic applications is needed for optimizing benefits and minimizing adverse effects for the public. Having more evidence on efficacy and risks will help to protect patients who are eagerly seeking out these treatments. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Breast cancer stem cell-like cells are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than non-stem cells: role of ATM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seog-Young Kim

    Full Text Available There are contradictory observations about the different radiosensitivities of cancer stem cells and cancer non-stem cells. To resolve these contradictory observations, we studied radiosensitivities by employing breast cancer stem cell (CSC-like MDA-MB231 and MDA-MB453 cells as well as their corresponding non-stem cells. CSC-like cells proliferate without differentiating and have characteristics of tumor-initiating cells [1]. These cells were exposed to γ-rays (1.25-8.75 Gy and survival curves were determined by colony formation. A final slope, D(0, of the survival curve for each cell line was determined to measure radiosensitivity. The D(0 of CSC-like and non-stem MDA-MB-453 cells were 1.16 Gy and 1.55 Gy, respectively. Similar results were observed in MDA-MB-231 cells (0.94 Gy vs. 1.56 Gy. After determination of radiosensitivity, we investigated intrinsic cellular determinants which influence radiosensitivity including cell cycle distribution, free-radical scavengers and DNA repair. We observed that even though cell cycle status and antioxidant content may contribute to differential radiosensitivity, differential DNA repair capacity may be a greater determinant of radiosensitivity. Unlike non-stem cells, CSC-like cells have little/no sublethal damage repair, a low intracellular level of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM and delay of γ-H2AX foci removal (DNA strand break repair. These results suggest that low DNA repair capacity is responsible for the high radiosensitivity of these CSC-like cells.

  8. Genetically induced cell death in bulge stem cells reveals their redundancy for hair and epidermal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Iwona; Oeztuerk-Winder, Feride; Humphreys, Peter; Frye, Michaela

    2015-03-01

    Adult mammalian epidermis contains multiple stem cell populations in which quiescent and more proliferative stem and progenitor populations coexist. However, the precise interrelation of these populations in homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we blocked the contribution of quiescent keratin 19 (K19)-expressing bulge stem cells to hair follicle formation through genetic ablation of the essential histone methyltransferase Setd8 that is required for the maintenance of adult skin. Deletion of Setd8 eliminated the contribution of bulge cells to hair follicle regeneration through inhibition of cell division and induction of cell death, but the growth and morphology of hair follicles were unaffected. Furthermore, ablation of Setd8 in the hair follicle bulge blocked the contribution of K19-postive stem cells to wounded epidermis, but the wound healing process was unaltered. Our data indicate that quiescent bulge stem cells are dispensable for hair follicle regeneration and epidermal injury in the short term and support the hypothesis that quiescent and cycling stem cell populations are equipotent. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  9. Nanotopographical Control of Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into various lineages, and the ability to reliably direct stem cell fate determination would have tremendous potential for basic research and clinical therapy. Nanotopography provides a useful tool for guiding differentiation, as the features are more durable than surface chemistry and can be modified in size and shape to suit the desired application. In this paper, nanotopography is examined as a means to guide differentiation, and its application is described in the context of different subsets of stem cells, with a particular focus on skeletal (mesenchymal stem cells. To address the mechanistic basis underlying the topographical effects on stem cells, the likely contributions of indirect (biochemical signal-mediated and direct (force-mediated mechanotransduction are discussed. Data from proteomic research is also outlined in relation to topography-mediated fate determination, as this approach provides insight into the global molecular changes at the level of the functional effectors.

  10. PrPC from stem cells to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine eMartin-Lannerée

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein PrPC was initially discovered as the normal counterpart of the pathological scrapie prion protein PrPSc, the main component of the infectious agent of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. While clues as to the physiological function of this ubiquitous protein were greatly anticipated from the development of knock-out animals, PrP-null mice turned out to be viable and to develop without major phenotypic abnormalities. Notwithstanding, the discovery that hematopoietic stem cells from PrP-null mice have impaired long-term repopulating potential has set the stage for investigating into the role of PrPC in stem cell biology. A wealth of data have now exemplified that PrPC is expressed in distinct types of stem cells and regulates their self-renewal as well as their differentiation potential. A role for PrPC in the fate restriction of embryonic stem cells has further been proposed. Paralleling these observations, an overexpression of PrPC has been documented in various types of tumours. In line with the contribution of PrPC to stemness and to the proliferation of cancer cells, PrPC was recently found to be enriched in subpopulations of tumour-initiating cells. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role played by PrPC in stem cell biology and discuss how the subversion of its function may contribute to cancer progression.

  11. Probing Embryonic Stem Cell Autocrine and Paracrine Signaling Using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Laralynne; Voldman, Joel

    2012-07-01

    Although stem cell fate is traditionally manipulated by exogenously altering the cells' extracellular signaling environment, the endogenous autocrine and paracrine signals produced by the cells also contribute to their two essential processes: self-renewal and differentiation. Autocrine and/or paracrine signals are fundamental to both embryonic stem cell self-renewal and early embryonic development, but the nature and contributions of these signals are often difficult to fully define using conventional methods. Microfluidic techniques have been used to explore the effects of cell-secreted signals by controlling cell organization or by providing precise control over the spatial and temporal cellular microenvironment. Here we review how such techniques have begun to be adapted for use with embryonic stem cells, and we illustrate how many remaining questions in embryonic stem cell biology could be addressed using microfluidic technologies.

  12. Gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2013-01-01

    The gastric epithelium is continuously regenerated by gastric stem cells, which give rise to various kinds of daughter cells, including parietal cells, chief cells, surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. The self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells need delicate regulation to maintain the normal physiology of the stomach. Recently, it was hypothesized that cancer stem cells drive the cancer growth and metastasis. In contrast to conventional clonal ev...

  13. Impact of genomic damage and ageing on stem cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Axel; van Deursen, Jan M.; Rudolph, K. Lenhard; Schumacher, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of stem cell function contributes to the progressive deterioration of tissue maintenance and repair with ageing. Evidence is mounting that age-dependent accumulation of DNA damage in both stem cells and cells that comprise the stem cell microenvironment are partly responsible for stem cell dysfunction with ageing. Here, we review the impact of the various types of DNA damage that accumulate with ageing on stem cell functionality, as well as the development of cancer. We discuss DNA-damage-induced cell intrinsic and extrinsic alterations that influence these processes, and review recent advances in understanding systemic adjustments to DNA damage and how they affect stem cells. PMID:24576896

  14. Deregulation of epidermal stem cell niche contributes to pathogenesis of non-healing venous ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Aron G.; Vukelic, Sasa; Krzyzanowska, Agata; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2014-01-01

    The epidermis is maintained by epidermal stem cells (ESC) that reside in distinct niches and contribute to homeostasis and wound closure. Keratinocytes at the non-healing edges of venous ulcers (VUs) are healing-incompetent, hyper-proliferative and non-migratory suggesting deregulation of ESCs. To date genes which regulate ESC niches have been studied in mice only. Utilizing microarray analysis of VU non-healing edges, we identified changes in expression of genes harboring regulation of ESCs and their fate. In a prospective clinical study of ten VUs, we confirmed suppression of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor and GATA binding protein3 as well as inhibitors of DNA-binding proteins 2 and 4. We also found decreased levels of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3, nuclear presence of ß-catenin and overexpression of its transcriptional target, c-myc indicating activation of the Wnt pathway. Additionally, we found down-regulation of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1, a gene important for maintaining ESCs in a quiescent state, and absence of keratin 15, a marker of the basal stem cell compartment suggesting local depletion of ESCs. Our study shows that loss of genes important for regulation of ESCs and their fate along with activation of ß-catenin and c-myc in the VU may contribute to ESC deprivation and a hyper-proliferative, non-migratory, healing incapable wound edge. PMID:24635172

  15. Cellular and epigenetic drivers of stem cell ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, Maria; Neri, Francesco; Ori, Alessandro; Rudolph, K Lenhard

    2018-06-01

    Adult tissue stem cells have a pivotal role in tissue maintenance and regeneration throughout the lifespan of multicellular organisms. Loss of tissue homeostasis during post-reproductive lifespan is caused, at least in part, by a decline in stem cell function and is associated with an increased incidence of diseases. Hallmarks of ageing include the accumulation of molecular damage, failure of quality control systems, metabolic changes and alterations in epigenome stability. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence in support of a novel concept whereby cell-intrinsic damage that accumulates during ageing and cell-extrinsic changes in ageing stem cell niches and the blood result in modifications of the stem cell epigenome. These cumulative epigenetic alterations in stem cells might be the cause of the deregulation of developmental pathways seen during ageing. In turn, they could confer a selective advantage to mutant and epigenetically drifted stem cells with altered self-renewal and functions, which contribute to the development of ageing-associated organ dysfunction and disease.

  16. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  17. A family business: stem cell progeny join the niche to regulate homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Fuchs, Elaine

    2012-01-23

    Stem cell niches, the discrete microenvironments in which the stem cells reside, play a dominant part in regulating stem cell activity and behaviours. Recent studies suggest that committed stem cell progeny become indispensable components of the niche in a wide range of stem cell systems. These unexpected niche inhabitants provide versatile feedback signals to their stem cell parents. Together with other heterologous cell types that constitute the niche, they contribute to the dynamics of the microenvironment. As progeny are often located in close proximity to stem cell niches, similar feedback regulations may be the underlying principles shared by different stem cell systems.

  18. Stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jukes, Jojanneke; Both, Sanne; Post, Janine; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Marcel; de Boer, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter defines stem cells and their properties. It identifies the major differences between embryonic and adult stem cells. Stem cells can be defined by two properties: the ability to make identical copies of themselves and the ability to form other cell types of the body. These properties are

  19. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  20. Stem cell bioprocessing: fundamentals and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, Mark R; Chung, I-Ming; Macedo, Hugo M; Ismail, Siti; Mortera Blanco, Teresa; Lim, Mayasari; Cha, Jae Min; Fauzi, Iliana; Kang, Yunyi; Yeo, David C L; Ma, Chi Yip Joan; Polak, Julia M; Panoskaltsis, Nicki; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2009-03-06

    In recent years, the potential of stem cell research for tissue engineering-based therapies and regenerative medicine clinical applications has become well established. In 2006, Chung pioneered the first entire organ transplant using adult stem cells and a scaffold for clinical evaluation. With this a new milestone was achieved, with seven patients with myelomeningocele receiving stem cell-derived bladder transplants resulting in substantial improvements in their quality of life. While a bladder is a relatively simple organ, the breakthrough highlights the incredible benefits that can be gained from the cross-disciplinary nature of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) that encompasses stem cell research and stem cell bioprocessing. Unquestionably, the development of bioprocess technologies for the transfer of the current laboratory-based practice of stem cell tissue culture to the clinic as therapeutics necessitates the application of engineering principles and practices to achieve control, reproducibility, automation, validation and safety of the process and the product. The successful translation will require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental biology to the 'omics' technologies and advances in immunology) and from existing industrial practice (biologics), especially on automation, quality assurance and regulation. The timely development, integration and execution of various components will be critical-failures of the past (such as in the commercialization of skin equivalents) on marketing, pricing, production and advertising should not be repeated. This review aims to address the principles required for successful stem cell bioprocessing so that they can be applied deftly to clinical applications.

  1. Ovary and fimbrial stem cells: biology, niche and cancer origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Annie; Barker, Nick

    2015-10-01

    The mammalian ovary is covered by a single-layered epithelium that undergoes rupture and remodelling following each ovulation. Although resident stem cells are presumed to be crucial for this cyclic regeneration, their identity and mode of action have been elusive. Surrogate stemness assays and in vivo fate-mapping studies using recently discovered stem cell markers have identified stem cell pools in the ovary and fimbria that ensure epithelial homeostasis. Recent findings provide insights into intrinsic mechanisms and local extrinsic cues that govern the function of ovarian and fimbrial stem cells. These discoveries have advanced our understanding of stem cell biology in the ovary and fimbria, and lay the foundations for evaluating the contribution of resident stem cells to the initiation and progression of human epithelial ovarian cancer.

  2. Naked Mole Rat Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Contribution to Interspecific Chimera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Goo Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole rats (NMRs are exceptionally long-lived, cancer-resistant rodents. Identifying the defining characteristics of these traits may shed light on aging and cancer mechanisms. Here, we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from NMR fibroblasts and their contribution to mouse-NMR chimeric embryos. Efficient reprogramming could be observed under N2B27+2i conditions. The iPSCs displayed a characteristic morphology, expressed pluripotent markers, formed embryoid bodies, and showed typical differentiation patterns. Interestingly, NMR embryonic fibroblasts and the derived iPSCs had propensity for a tetraploid karyotype and were resistant to forming teratomas, but within mouse blastocysts they contributed to both interspecific placenta and fetus. Gene expression patterns of NMR iPSCs were more similar to those of human than mouse iPSCs. Overall, we uncovered unique features of NMR iPSCs and report a mouse-NMR chimeric model. The iPSCs and associated cell culture systems can be used for a variety of biological and biomedical applications.

  3. Translating stem cell therapies: the role of companion animals in regenerative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Susan W.; Theoret, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Veterinarians and veterinary medicine have been integral to the development of stem cell therapies. The contributions of large animal experimental models to the development and refinement of modern hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were noted nearly five decades ago. More recent advances in adult stem cell/regenerative cell therapies continue to expand knowledge of the basic biology and clinical applications of stem cells. A relatively liberal legal and ethical regulation of stem cell r...

  4. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Ryohichi; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Han, Areum; Soria-Valles, Clara; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Lu, Yi-Fen; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Serrao, Erik; Rowe, R. Grant; Malleshaiah, Mohan; Wong, Irene; Sousa, Patricia; Zhu, Ted N.; Ditadi, Andrea; Keller, Gordon; Engelman, Alan N.; Snapper, Scott B.; Doulatov, Sergei; Daley, George Q.

    2018-01-01

    A variety of tissue lineages can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking embryonic development through stepwise exposure to morphogens, or by conversion of one differentiated cell type into another by enforced expression of master transcription factors. Here, to yield functional human haematopoietic stem cells, we perform morphogen-directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into haemogenic endothelium followed by screening of 26 candidate haematopoietic stem-cell-specifying transcription factors for their capacity to promote multi-lineage haematopoietic engraftment in mouse hosts. We recover seven transcription factors (ERG, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10, LCOR, RUNX1 and SPI1) that are sufficient to convert haemogenic endothelium into haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that engraft myeloid, B and T cells in primary and secondary mouse recipients. Our combined approach of morphogen-driven differentiation and transcription-factor-mediated cell fate conversion produces haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells and holds promise for modelling haematopoietic disease in humanized mice and for therapeutic strategies in genetic blood disorders. PMID:28514439

  5. Stem cell-like differentiation potentials of endometrial side population cells as revealed by a newly developed in vivo endometrial stem cell assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Endometrial stem/progenitor cells contribute to the cyclical regeneration of human endometrium throughout a woman's reproductive life. Although the candidate cell populations have been extensively studied, no consensus exists regarding which endometrial population represents the stem/progenitor cell fraction in terms of in vivo stem cell activity. We have previously reported that human endometrial side population cells (ESP, but not endometrial main population cells (EMP, exhibit stem cell-like properties, including in vivo reconstitution of endometrium-like tissues when xenotransplanted into immunodeficient mice. The reconstitution efficiency, however, was low presumably because ESP cells alone could not provide a sufficient microenvironment (niche to support their stem cell activity. The objective of this study was to establish a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay employing cell tracking and tissue reconstitution systems and to examine the stem cell properties of ESP through use of this assay.ESP and EMP cells isolated from whole endometrial cells were infected with lentivirus to express tandem Tomato (TdTom, a red fluorescent protein. They were mixed with unlabeled whole endometrial cells and then transplanted under the kidney capsule of ovariectomized immunodeficient mice. These mice were treated with estradiol and progesterone for eight weeks and nephrectomized. All of the grafts reconstituted endometrium-like tissues under the kidney capsules. Immunofluorescence revealed that TdTom-positive cells were significantly more abundant in the glandular, stromal, and endothelial cells of the reconstituted endometrium in mice transplanted with TdTom-labeled ESP cells than those with TdTom-labeled EMP cells.We have established a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay in which multi-potential differentiation can be identified through cell tracking during in vivo endometrial tissue reconstitution. Using this assay, we demonstrated that ESP

  6. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and Treatment with Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut Selver, Özlem; Yağcı, Ayşe; Eğrilmez, Sait; Gürdal, Mehmet; Palamar, Melis; Çavuşoğlu, Türker; Ateş, Utku; Veral, Ali; Güven, Çağrı; Wolosin, Jose Mario

    2017-10-01

    The cornea is the outermost tissue of the eye and it must be transparent for the maintenance of good visual function. The superficial epithelium of the cornea, which is renewed continuously by corneal stem cells, plays a critical role in the permanence of this transparency. These stem cells are localized at the cornea-conjunctival transition zone, referred to as the limbus. When this zone is affected/destroyed, limbal stem cell deficiency ensues. Loss of limbal stem cell function allows colonization of the corneal surface by conjunctival epithelium. Over 6 million people worldwide are affected by corneal blindness, and limbal stem cell deficiency is one of the main causes. Fortunately, it is becoming possible to recover vision by autologous transplantation of limbal cells obtained from the contralateral eye in unilateral cases. Due to the potential risks to the donor eye, only a small amount of tissue can be obtained, in which only 1-2% of the limbal epithelial cells are actually limbal stem cells. Vigorous attempts are being made to expand limbal stem cells in culture to preserve or even enrich the stem cell population. Ex vivo expanded limbal stem cell treatment in limbal stem cell deficiency was first reported in 1997. In the 20 years since, various protocols have been developed for the cultivation of limbal epithelial cells. It is still not clear which method promotes effective stem cell viability and this remains a subject of ongoing research. The most preferred technique for limbal cell culture is the explant culture model. In this approach, a small donor eye limbal biopsy is placed as an explant onto a biocompatible substrate (preferably human amniotic membrane) for expansion. The outgrowth (cultivated limbal epithelial cells) is then surgically transferred to the recipient eye. Due to changing regulations concerning cell-based therapy, the implementation of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice using

  7. State performance in pluripotent and adult stem cell research, 2009-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surani, Sana H; Levine, Aaron D

    2018-04-01

    To examine how the geographic distribution of pluripotent and adult stem cell research publications within the USA differs from other areas of biomedical research. Publication count data for pluripotent stem cell research, adult stem cell research and a comparison group representative of biomedical research more broadly were collected and analyzed for each US state from 2009 to 2016. The distribution of pluripotent stem cell research differed from the other fields with overperformance in pluripotent stem cell research observed in California, as well as Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Maryland and Connecticut. Our analysis suggests that permissive state stem cell policy may be one of the several factors contributing to strong state performance in pluripotent stem cell research.

  8. Epigenetic Control of Stem Cell Potential During Homeostasis, Aging, and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerman, Isabel; Rossi, Derrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell decline is an important cellular driver of aging-associated pathophysiology in multiple tissues. Epigenetic regulation is central to establishing and maintaining stem cell function, and emerging evidence indicates that epigenetic dysregulation contributes to the altered potential of stem cells during aging. Unlike terminally differentiated cells, the impact of epigenetic dysregulation in stem cells is propagated beyond self; alterations can be heritably transmitted to differentiated progeny, in addition to being perpetuated and amplified within the stem cell pool through self-renewal divisions. This review focuses on recent studies examining epigenetic regulation of tissue-specific stem cells in homeostasis, aging, and aging-related disease. PMID:26046761

  9. Klotho, stem cells, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Ao; Neyra, Javier A; Zhan, Ming; Hu, Ming Chang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and progressive biological process involving dysfunction and eventually destruction of every tissue and organ. This process is driven by a tightly regulated and complex interplay between genetic and acquired factors. Klotho is an antiaging gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane protein, klotho, which serves as an aging suppressor through a wide variety of mechanisms, such as antioxidation, antisenescence, antiautophagy, and modulation of many signaling pathways, including insulin-like growth factor and Wnt. Klotho deficiency activates Wnt expression and activity contributing to senescence and depletion of stem cells, which consequently triggers tissue atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, the klotho protein was shown to suppress Wnt-signaling transduction, and inhibit cell senescence and preserve stem cells. A better understanding of the potential effects of klotho on stem cells could offer novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of klotho deficiency-related aging and disease. The klotho protein may be a promising therapeutic agent for aging and aging-related disorders.

  10. Epithelial cell polarity, stem cells and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    , deregulation of adhesion and polarity proteins can cause misoriented cell divisions and increased self-renewal of adult epithelial stem cells. In this Review, we highlight some advances in the understanding of how loss of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis.......After years of extensive scientific discovery much has been learned about the networks that regulate epithelial homeostasis. Loss of expression or functional activity of cell adhesion and cell polarity proteins (including the PAR, crumbs (CRB) and scribble (SCRIB) complexes) is intricately related...

  11. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  12. Observations on the contributions of environmental restraints and innate stem cell ability to hematopoietic regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke-Cohan, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    A competitive repopulation assay utilizing chromosome markers was used to assay the reconstituting potential of hematopoietic populations. The test populations consisted of tibial murine marrow locally irradiated with doses ranging from 1.5 Gy to 8.5 Gy and of marrow generated from either murine splenic or marrow stem cells. The purpose of this assay was to assess the innate proliferative potential and microenvironmental influences on the ability to repopulate. Regardless of origin, spleen repopulating ability consistently agreed with spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-s) content. Doses of radiation from 5 Gy to 8.5 Gy diminished, by a factor of 2, the ability to repopulate marrow despite maintenance of CFU-s levels. Marrow generated from splenic stem cells had one-fifth the repopulating ability of marrow derived from marrow stem cells, even though CFU-s levels were equivalent. The results imply that the splenic environment can only maintain stem cells at the level of the CFU-s, even if the stem cells were originally of higher quality, and that their original potential cannot be regained in a marrow environment. Nevertheless, the marrow can maintain more primitive stem cells, but this reserve is drained to support CFU-s levels

  13. Fake news portrayals of stem cells and stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Murdoch, Blake; Caulfield, Timothy

    2017-10-01

    This study examines how stem cells and stem cell research are portrayed on websites deemed to be purveyors of distorted and dubious information. Content analysis was conducted on 224 articles from 2015 to 2016, compiled by searching with the keywords 'stem cell(s)' on a list of websites flagged for containing either 'fake' or 'junk science' news. Articles contained various exaggerated positive and negative claims about stem cells and stem cell science, health and science related conspiracy theories, and statements promoting fear and mistrust of conventional medicine. Findings demonstrate the existence of organized misinformation networks, which may lead the public away from accurate information and facilitate a polarization of public discourse.

  14. Muscle Stem Cells: A Model System for Adult Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Ddw; Perdiguero, Eusebio

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells, originally termed satellite cells for their position adjacent to differentiated muscle fibers, are absolutely required for the process of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. In the last decade, satellite cells have become one of the most studied adult stem cell systems and have emerged as a standard model not only in the field of stem cell-driven tissue regeneration but also in stem cell dysfunction and aging. Here, we provide background in the field and discuss recent advances in our understanding of muscle stem cell function and dysfunction, particularly in the case of aging, and the potential involvement of muscle stem cells in genetic diseases such as the muscular dystrophies.

  15. Nanomaterials modulate stem cell differentiation: biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2017-10-25

    Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation into more specialized cell types. The chemical and physical properties of surrounding microenvironment contribute to the growth and differentiation of stem cells and consequently play crucial roles in the regulation of stem cells' fate. Nanomaterials hold great promise in biological and biomedical fields owing to their unique properties, such as controllable particle size, facile synthesis, large surface-to-volume ratio, tunable surface chemistry, and biocompatibility. Over the recent years, accumulating evidence has shown that nanomaterials can facilitate stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and great effort is undertaken to explore their possible modulating manners and mechanisms on stem cell differentiation. In present review, we summarize recent progress in the regulating potential of various nanomaterials on stem cell differentiation and discuss the possible cell uptake, biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

  16. Stem Cell Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dah-Jiun; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa L; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Ellenson, Lora H; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2018-01-24

    Rapid advances in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have opened new opportunities for better understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment approaches. Many stem cell niches are well defined anatomically, thereby allowing their routine pathological evaluation during disease initiation and progression. Evaluation of the consequences of genetic manipulations in stem cells and investigation of the roles of stem cells in regenerative medicine and pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer require significant expertise in pathology for accurate interpretation of novel findings. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing stem cell pathology as a discipline to facilitate stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This review provides examples of anatomically defined niches suitable for evaluation by diagnostic pathologists, describes neoplastic lesions associated with them, and discusses further directions of stem cell pathology.

  17. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2016-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function. PMID:26798358

  18. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kosan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function.

  19. Roles of Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Stem Cell Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations accumulate in somatic stem cells during ageing and cause mitochondrial dysfunction. In this review, we summarize the studies that link mtDNA mutations to stem cell ageing. We discuss the age-related behaviours of the somatic mtDNA mutations in stem cell populations and how they potentially contribute to stem cell ageing by altering mitochondrial properties in humans and in mtDNA-mutator mice. We also draw attention to the diverse fates of the mtDNA mutations with different origins during ageing, with potential selective pressures on the germline inherited but not the somatic mtDNA mutations.

  20. Epigenetic regulation of hematopoietic stem cell aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerman, Isabel; Rossi, Derrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is invariably associated with alterations of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment, including loss of functional capacity, altered clonal composition, and changes in lineage contribution. Although accumulation of DNA damage occurs during HSC aging, it is unlikely such consistent aging phenotypes could be solely attributed to changes in DNA integrity. Another mechanism by which heritable traits could contribute to the changes in the functional potential of aged HSCs is through alterations in the epigenetic landscape of adult stem cells. Indeed, recent studies on hematopoietic stem cells have suggested that altered epigenetic profiles are associated with HSC aging and play a key role in modulating the functional potential of HSCs at different stages during ontogeny. Even small changes of the epigenetic landscape can lead to robustly altered expression patterns, either directly by loss of regulatory control or through indirect, additive effects, ultimately leading to transcriptional changes of the stem cells. Potential drivers of such changes in the epigenetic landscape of aged HSCs include proliferative history, DNA damage, and deregulation of key epigenetic enzymes and complexes. This review will focus largely on the two most characterized epigenetic marks – DNA methylation and histone modifications – but will also discuss the potential role of non-coding RNAs in regulating HSC function during aging

  1. Epigenetic regulation of hematopoietic stem cell aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerman, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.beerman@childrens.harvard.edu [Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children' s Hospital, MA 02116 (United States); Rossi, Derrick J. [Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children' s Hospital, MA 02116 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Aging is invariably associated with alterations of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment, including loss of functional capacity, altered clonal composition, and changes in lineage contribution. Although accumulation of DNA damage occurs during HSC aging, it is unlikely such consistent aging phenotypes could be solely attributed to changes in DNA integrity. Another mechanism by which heritable traits could contribute to the changes in the functional potential of aged HSCs is through alterations in the epigenetic landscape of adult stem cells. Indeed, recent studies on hematopoietic stem cells have suggested that altered epigenetic profiles are associated with HSC aging and play a key role in modulating the functional potential of HSCs at different stages during ontogeny. Even small changes of the epigenetic landscape can lead to robustly altered expression patterns, either directly by loss of regulatory control or through indirect, additive effects, ultimately leading to transcriptional changes of the stem cells. Potential drivers of such changes in the epigenetic landscape of aged HSCs include proliferative history, DNA damage, and deregulation of key epigenetic enzymes and complexes. This review will focus largely on the two most characterized epigenetic marks – DNA methylation and histone modifications – but will also discuss the potential role of non-coding RNAs in regulating HSC function during aging.

  2. College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before…

  3. Concise Review: Fluorescent Reporters in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: Contributions to Cardiac Differentiation and Their Applications in Cardiac Disease and Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartogh, Sabine C; Passier, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, since the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells, the stem cell field has made remarkable progress in the differentiation to specialized cell-types of various tissues and organs, including the heart. Cardiac lineage- and tissue-specific human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) reporter lines have been valuable for the identification, selection, and expansion of cardiac progenitor cells and their derivatives, and for our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. In order to further advance the use of hPSCs in the fields of regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and preclinical drug development in cardiovascular research, it is crucial to identify functionally distinct cardiac subtypes and to study their biological signaling events and functional aspects in healthy and diseased conditions. In this review, we discuss the various strategies that have been followed to generate and study fluorescent reporter lines in hPSCs and provide insights how these reporter lines contribute to a better understanding and improvement of cell-based therapies and preclinical drug and toxicity screenings in the cardiac field. © AlphaMed Press.

  4. Cancer Stem-Like Cells Accumulated in Nickel-Induced Malignant Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Fan, Jia; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wise, James T.F.; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Nickel compounds are known as human carcinogens. Chronic environmental exposure to nickel is a worldwide health concern. Although the mechanisms of nickel-induced carcinogenesis are not well understood, recent studies suggest that stem cells/cancer stem cells are likely important targets. This study examines the role of cancer stem cells in nickel-induced cell transformation. The nontransformed human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) was chronically exposed to nickel chloride for 12 months to induce cell transformation. Nickel induced Beas-2B cell transformation, and cancer stem-like cells were enriched in nickel-transformed cell (BNiT) population. The BNiT cancer stem-like cells demonstrated enhanced self-renewal and distinctive differentiation properties. In vivo tumorigenesis studies show that BNiT cancer stem-like cells possess a high tumor-initiating capability. It was also demonstrated that superoxide dismutase 1 was involved in the accumulation of cancer stem-like cells; the regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression was different in transformed stem-like cells and nontransformed. Overall, the accumulation of stem-like cells and their enhanced stemness functions contribute to nickel-induced tumorigenesis. Our study provides additional insight into the mechanisms by which metals or other chemicals can induce carcinogenesis. PMID:26962057

  5. The longest telomeres: a general signature of adult stem cell compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ignacio; Canela, Andres; Vera, Elsa; Tejera, Agueda; Cotsarelis, George; Blasco, María A.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of adult stem cells and their location (niches) is of great relevance for regenerative medicine. However, stem cell niches are still poorly defined in most adult tissues. Here, we show that the longest telomeres are a general feature of adult stem cell compartments. Using confocal telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (telomapping), we find gradients of telomere length within tissues, with the longest telomeres mapping to the known stem cell compartments. In mouse hair follicles, we show that cells with the longest telomeres map to the known stem cell compartments, colocalize with stem cell markers, and behave as stem cells upon treatment with mitogenic stimuli. Using K15-EGFP reporter mice, which mark hair follicle stem cells, we show that GFP-positive cells have the longest telomeres. The stem cell compartments in small intestine, testis, cornea, and brain of the mouse are also enriched in cells with the longest telomeres. This constitutes the description of a novel general property of adult stem cell compartments. Finally, we make the novel finding that telomeres shorten with age in different mouse stem cell compartments, which parallels a decline in stem cell functionality, suggesting that telomere loss may contribute to stem cell dysfunction with age. PMID:18283121

  6. Pre-Clinical Cell-Based Therapy for Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehic, Amer; Utheim, Øygunn Aass; Ommundsen, Kristoffer; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2015-08-28

    The cornea is essential for normal vision by maintaining transparency for light transmission. Limbal stem cells, which reside in the corneal periphery, contribute to the homeostasis of the corneal epithelium. Any damage or disease affecting the function of these cells may result in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). The condition may result in both severe pain and blindness. Transplantation of ex vivo cultured cells onto the cornea is most often an effective therapeutic strategy for LSCD. The use of ex vivo cultured limbal epithelial cells (LEC), oral mucosal epithelial cells, and conjunctival epithelial cells to treat LSCD has been explored in humans. The present review focuses on the current state of knowledge of the many other cell-based therapies of LSCD that have so far exclusively been explored in animal models as there is currently no consensus on the best cell type for treating LSCD. Major findings of all these studies with special emphasis on substrates for culture and transplantation are systematically presented and discussed. Among the many potential cell types that still have not been used clinically, we conclude that two easily accessible autologous sources, epidermal stem cells and hair follicle-derived stem cells, are particularly strong candidates for future clinical trials.

  7. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Yvonne; Simon, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells are required to support the indeterminate growth style of plants. Meristems are a plants stem cell niches that foster stem cell survival and the production of descendants destined for differentiation. In shoot meristems, stem cell fate is decided at the populational level. The size of the stem cell domain at the meristem tip depends on signals that are exchanged with cells of the organizing centre underneath. In root meristems, individual stem cells are controlled by direct interaction with cells of the quiescent centre that lie in the immediate neighbourhood. Analysis of the interactions and signaling processes in the stem cell niches has delivered some insights into the molecules that are involved and revealed that the two major niches for plant stem cells are more similar than anticipated.

  8. Concise Review: Stem Cell Population Biology: Insights from Hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Adam L; Lo Celso, Cristina; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells are fundamental to human life and offer great therapeutic potential, yet their biology remains incompletely-or in cases even poorly-understood. The field of stem cell biology has grown substantially in recent years due to a combination of experimental and theoretical contributions: the experimental branch of this work provides data in an ever-increasing number of dimensions, while the theoretical branch seeks to determine suitable models of the fundamental stem cell processes that these data describe. The application of population dynamics to biology is amongst the oldest applications of mathematics to biology, and the population dynamics perspective continues to offer much today. Here we describe the impact that such a perspective has made in the field of stem cell biology. Using hematopoietic stem cells as our model system, we discuss the approaches that have been used to study their key properties, such as capacity for self-renewal, differentiation, and cell fate lineage choice. We will also discuss the relevance of population dynamics in models of stem cells and cancer, where competition naturally emerges as an influential factor on the temporal evolution of cell populations. Stem Cells 2017;35:80-88. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  9. Regenerative Endodontics in light of the stem cell paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Vinicius; Botero, Tatiana M.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells play a critical role in development and in tissue regeneration. The dental pulp contains a small sub-population of stem cells that are involved in the response of the pulp to caries progression. Specifically, stem cells replace odontoblasts that have undergone cell death as a consequence of the cariogenic challenge. Stem cells also secrete factors that have the potential to enhance pulp vascularization and provide the oxygen and nutrients required for the dentinogenic response that is typically observed in teeth with deep caries. However, the same angiogenic factors that are required for dentin regeneration may ultimately contribute to the demise of the pulp by enhancing vascular permeability and interstitial pressure. Recent studies focused on the biology of dental pulp stem cells revealed that the multipotency and angiogenic capacity of these cells could be exploited therapeutically in dental pulp tissue engineering. Collectively, these findings suggest new treatment paradigms in the field of Endodontics. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells to Regenerative Endodontics. PMID:21726222

  10. The contribution of human/non-human animal chimeras to stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Levine

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric animals are made up of cells from two separate zygotes. Human/non-human animal chimeras have been used for a number of research purposes, including human disease modeling. Pluripotent stem cell (PSC research has relied upon the chimera approach to examine the developmental potential of stem cells, to determine the efficacy of cell replacement therapies, and to establish a means of producing human organs. Based on ethical issues, this work has faced pushback from various sources including funding agencies. We discuss here the essential role these studies have played, from gaining a better understanding of human biology to providing a stepping stone to human disease treatments. We also consider the major ethical issues, as well as the current status of support for this work in the United States.

  11. What is a stem cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Jonathan M W

    2018-05-15

    The historical roots of the stem cell concept are traced with respect to its usage in embryology and in hematology. The modern consensus definition of stem cells, comprising both pluripotent stem cells in culture and tissue-specific stem cells in vivo, is explained and explored. Methods for identifying stem cells are discussed with respect to cell surface markers, telomerase, label retention and transplantability, and properties of the stem cell niche are explored. The CreER method for identifying stem cells in vivo is explained, as is evidence in favor of a stochastic rather than an obligate asymmetric form of cell division. In conclusion, it is found that stem cells do not possess any unique and specific molecular markers; and stem cell behavior depends on the environment of the cell as well as the stem cell's intrinsic qualities. Furthermore, the stochastic mode of division implies that stem cell behavior is a property of a cell population not of an individual cell. In this sense, stem cells do not exist in isolation but only as a part of multicellular system. This article is categorized under: Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Methods and Principles Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Environmental Control of Stem Cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Advancing Stem Cell Biology toward Stem Cell Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Scadden, David; Srivastava, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Here, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Clinical Translation Committee introduces a series of articles outlining the current status, opportunities, and challenges surrounding the clinical translation of stem cell therapeutics for specific medical conditions.

  13. Origins and implications of pluripotent stem cell variability and heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Patrick; Daley, George Q.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells constitute a platform to model disease and developmental processes and can potentially be used in regenerative medicine. However, not all pluripotent cell lines are equal in their capacity to differentiate into desired cell types in vitro. Genetic and epigenetic variations contribute to functional variability between cell lines and heterogeneity within clones. These genetic and epigenetic variations could ‘lock’ the pluripotency network resulting in residual pluripotent cells or alter the signalling response of developmental pathways leading to lineage bias. The molecular contributors to functional variability and heterogeneity in both embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are only beginning to emerge, yet they are crucial to the future of the stem cell field. PMID:23673969

  14. Extracellular Matrix as a Regulator of Epidermal Stem Cell Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermnykh, Elina; Kalabusheva, Ekaterina; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina

    2018-03-27

    Epidermal stem cells reside within the specific anatomic location, called niche, which is a microenvironment that interacts with stem cells to regulate their fate. Regulation of many important processes, including maintenance of stem cell quiescence, self-renewal, and homeostasis, as well as the regulation of division and differentiation, are common functions of the stem cell niche. As it was shown in multiple studies, extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes a lot to stem cell niches in various tissues, including that of skin. In epidermis, ECM is represented, primarily, by a highly specialized ECM structure, basement membrane (BM), which separates the epidermal and dermal compartments. Epidermal stem cells contact with BM, but when they lose the contact and migrate to the overlying layers, they undergo terminal differentiation. When considering all of these factors, ECM is of fundamental importance in regulating epidermal stem cells maintenance, proper mobilization, and differentiation. Here, we summarize the remarkable progress that has recently been made in the research of ECM role in regulating epidermal stem cell fate, paying special attention to the hair follicle stem cell niche. We show that the destruction of ECM components impairs epidermal stem cell morphogenesis and homeostasis. A deep understanding of ECM molecular structure as well as the development of in vitro system for stem cell maintaining by ECM proteins may bring us to developing new approaches for regenerative medicine.

  15. Stem cells engineering for cell-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Stem cells carry the promise to cure a broad range of diseases and injuries, from diabetes, heart and muscular diseases, to neurological diseases, disorders and injuries. Significant progresses have been made in stem cell research over the past decade; the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from human tissues, the development of cloning technology by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and the confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain and that neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS), including that of humans. Despite these advances, there may be decades before stem cell research will translate into therapy. Stem cell research is also subject to ethical and political debates, controversies and legislation, which slow its progress. Cell engineering has proven successful in bringing genetic research to therapy. In this review, I will review, in two examples, how investigators are applying cell engineering to stem cell biology to circumvent stem cells' ethical and political constraints and bolster stem cell research and therapy.

  16. Potency of Stem Cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Potency of Stem Cells. Totipotent Stem Cells (Zygote + first 2 divisions). -Can form placenta, embryo, and any cell of the body. Pluripotent (Embryonic Stem Cells). -Can form any cell of the body but can not form placenta, hence no embryo. Multipotent (Adult stem cells).

  17. The contribution of human/non-human animal chimeras to stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sonya; Grabel, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Chimeric animals are made up of cells from two separate zygotes. Human/non-human animal chimeras have been used for a number of research purposes, including human disease modeling. Pluripotent stem cell (PSC) research has relied upon the chimera approach to examine the developmental potential of stem cells, to determine the efficacy of cell replacement therapies, and to establish a means of producing human organs. Based on ethical issues, this work has faced pushback from various sources including funding agencies. We discuss here the essential role these studies have played, from gaining a better understanding of human biology to providing a stepping stone to human disease treatments. We also consider the major ethical issues, as well as the current status of support for this work in the United States. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Localized decrease of β-catenin contributes to the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Hayley; Patel, Shyam; Wong, Janelle; Chu, Julia; Li, Adrian; Li, Song

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are pluripotent, and can be directed to differentiate into different cell types for therapeutic applications. To expand hESCs, it is desirable to maintain hESC growth without differentiation. As hESC colonies grow, differentiated cells are often found at the periphery of the colonies, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Here, we utilized micropatterning techniques to pattern circular islands or strips of matrix proteins, and examined the spatial pattern of hESC renewal and differentiation. We found that micropatterned matrix restricted hESC differentiation at colony periphery but allowed hESC growth into multiple layers in the central region, which decreased hESC proliferation and induced hESC differentiation. In undifferentiated hESCs, β-catenin primarily localized at cell-cell junctions but not in the nucleus. The amount of β-catenin in differentiating hESCs at the periphery of colonies or in multiple layers decreased significantly at cell-cell junctions. Consistently, knocking down β-catenin decreased Oct-4 expression in hESCs. These results indicate that localized decrease of β-catenin contributes to the spatial pattern of differentiation in hESC colonies

  19. Guiding osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells using carbon-based nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ee-Seul; Kim, Da-Seul; Suhito, Intan Rosalina; Choo, Sung-Sik; Kim, Seung-Jae; Song, Inbeom; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine, stem cells are highly promising due to their innate ability to generate multiple types of cells that could replace/repair damaged parts of human organs and tissues. It has been reported that both in vitro and in vivo function/survival of stem cells could significantly be improved by utilizing functional materials such as biodegradable polymers, metal composites, nanopatterns and nanohybrid particles. Of various biocompatible materials available for use in stem cell-based therapy and research, carbon-based materials—including fullerenes graphene/graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes—have been found to possess unique physicochemical characteristics that contribute to the effective guidance of stem cell differentiation into specific lineages. In this review, we discuss a number of previous reports that investigated the use of carbon-based materials to control stem cell behavior, with a particular focus on their immense potential to guide the osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We hope that this review will provide information on the full potential of using various carbon-based materials in stem cell-mediated regenerative therapy, particularly for bone regeneration and repair.

  20. Retinal stem cells and potential cell transplantation treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chi Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The retina, histologically composed of ten delicate layers, is responsible for light perception and relaying electrochemical signals to the secondary neurons and visual cortex. Retinal disease is one of the leading clinical causes of severe vision loss, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt's disease, and retinitis pigmentosa. As a result of the discovery of various somatic stem cells, advances in exploring the identities of embryonic stem cells, and the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, cell transplantation treatment for retinal diseases is currently attracting much attention. The sources of stem cells for retinal regeneration include endogenous retinal stem cells (e.g., neuronal stem cells, Müller cells, and retinal stem cells from the ciliary marginal zone and exogenous stem cells (e.g., bone mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. The success of cell transplantation treatment depends mainly on the cell source, the timing of cell harvesting, the protocol of cell induction/transplantation, and the microenvironment of the recipient's retina. This review summarizes the different sources of stem cells for regeneration treatment in retinal diseases and surveys the more recent achievements in animal studies and clinical trials. Future directions and challenges in stem cell transplantation are also discussed.

  1. Stem/progenitor cells in pituitary organ homeostasis and tumourigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshaei, Saba

    2018-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of pituitary gland stem cells has been provided over the last decade using a combination of approaches including in vitro clonogenicity assays, flow cytometric side population analysis, immunohistochemical analysis and genetic approaches. These cells have been demonstrated to be able to self-renew and undergo multipotent differentiation to give rise to all hormonal lineages of the anterior pituitary. Furthermore, evidence exists for their contribution to regeneration of the organ and plastic responses to changing physiological demand. Recently, stem-like cells have been isolated from pituitary neoplasms raising the possibility that a cytological hierarchy exists, in keeping with the cancer stem cell paradigm. In this manuscript, we review the evidence for the existence of pituitary stem cells, their role in maintaining organ homeostasis and the regulation of their differentiation. Furthermore, we explore the emerging concept of stem cells in pituitary tumours and their potential roles in these diseases. PMID:28855316

  2. Dissection of a stem cell hierarchy in the human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubner Fridriksdottir, Agla Jael

    and apoptosis during each menstrual cycle. These changes are most prominent during pregnancy, lactation and involution after breast feeding. These highly dynamic changes are thought to rely on the presence of a breast epithelial stem cell population (reviewed in (Fridriksdottir et al. 2005)). Nevertheless......, cellular pathways that contribute to adult human breast gland architecture and cell lineages have not been described. Here, I identify a candidate stem cell niche in ducts, and zones containing progenitor cells in lobules (Villadsen and Fridriksdottir et al. 2007). Putative stem cells residing in ducts......-rich extracellular matrix gel. Staining for the epithelial lineage markers, cytokeratins K14 and K19, further reveals multipotent cells in the stem cell zone and three lineage- restricted cell types outside this zone. Multiparameter cell sorting and functional characterization with reference to anatomical sites...

  3. Balancing Ethical Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Derived Gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Pennings, Guido

    2017-07-01

    In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and cons of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. The technology of SCD-gametes raises moral concerns of how reproductive autonomy relates to issues of embryo destruction, safety, access, and applications beyond clinical infertility.

  4. Developmental origin and lineage plasticity of endogenous cardiac stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Maria Paola; Forte, Elvira; Harvey, Richard P.; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, several populations of cardiac stem cells have been described in the adult mammalian heart. For the most part, however, their lineage origins and in vivo functions remain largely unexplored. This Review summarizes what is known about different populations of embryonic and adult cardiac stem cells, including KIT+, PDGFRα+, ISL1+ and SCA1+ cells, side population cells, cardiospheres and epicardial cells. We discuss their developmental origins and defining characteristics, and consider their possible contribution to heart organogenesis and regeneration. We also summarize the origin and plasticity of cardiac fibroblasts and circulating endothelial progenitor cells, and consider what role these cells have in contributing to cardiac repair. PMID:27095490

  5. The promises of stem cells: stem cell therapy for movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Hideki; Choong, Chi-Jing; Yasuda, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Despite the multitude of intensive research, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and Huntington's disease remain more or less elusive. Treatments to halt these disease progressions are currently unavailable. With the recent induced pluripotent stem cells breakthrough and accomplishment, stem cell research, as the vast majority of scientists agree, holds great promise for relieving and treating debilitating movement disorders. As stem cells are the precursors of all cells in the human body, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern how they develop and work would provide us many fundamental insights into human biology of health and disease. Moreover, stem-cell-derived neurons may be a renewable source of replacement cells for damaged neurons in movement disorders. While stem cells show potential for regenerative medicine, their use as tools for research and drug testing is thought to have more immediate impact. The use of stem-cell-based drug screening technology could be a big boost in drug discovery for these movement disorders. Particular attention should also be given to the involvement of neural stem cells in adult neurogenesis so as to encourage its development as a therapeutic option. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence for a stem cell hierarchy in the adult human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, René; Fridriksdottir, Agla J; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Cellular pathways that contribute to adult human mammary gland architecture and lineages have not been previously described. In this study, we identify a candidate stem cell niche in ducts and zones containing progenitor cells in lobules. Putative stem cells residing in ducts were essentially...... in laminin-rich extracellular matrix gels. Staining for the lineage markers keratins K14 and K19 further revealed multipotent cells in the stem cell zone and three lineage-restricted cell types outside this zone. Multiparameter cell sorting and functional characterization with reference to anatomical sites...

  7. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  8. Combination cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells for brain stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Razi, Zahra; Delavari, Somayeh; Shakibajahromi, Benafsheh; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Kazemi, Sepehr; Semsar, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Brain stroke is the second most important events that lead to disability and morbidity these days. Although, stroke is important, there is no treatment for curing this problem. Nowadays, cell therapy has opened a new window for treating central nervous system disease. In some previous studies the Mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we have designed an experiment to assess the combination cell therapy (Mesenchymal and Neural stem cells) effects on brain stroke. The Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adult rat bone marrow and the neural stem cells were isolated from ganglion eminence of rat embryo 14 days. The Mesenchymal stem cells were injected 1 day after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the neural stem cells transplanted 7 day after MCAO. After 28 days, the neurological outcomes and brain lesion volumes were evaluated. Also, the activity of Caspase 3 was assessed in different groups. The group which received combination cell therapy had better neurological examination and less brain lesion. Also the combination cell therapy group had the least Caspase 3 activity among the groups. The combination cell therapy is more effective than Mesenchymal stem cell therapy and neural stem cell therapy separately in treating the brain stroke in rats.

  9. [Research progress of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hang; Deng, Xiangyu; Shao, Zengwu

    2017-10-01

    To summarize the research progress of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration and deduce the therapeutic potential of endogenous repair for intervertebral disc degeneration. The original articles about intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration were extensively reviewed; the reparative potential in vivo and the extraction and identification in vitro of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells were analyzed; the prospect of endogenous stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration was predicted. Stem cell niche present in the intervertebral discs, from which stem cells migrate to injured tissues and contribute to tissues regeneration under certain specific microenvironment. Moreover, the migration of stem cells is regulated by chemokines system. Tissue specific progenitor cells have been identified and successfully extracted and isolated. The findings provide the basis for biological therapy of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells. Intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells play a crucial role in intervertebral disc regeneration. Therapeutic strategy of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells is proven to be a promising biological approach for intervertebral disc regeneration.

  10. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  11. Neural Crossroads in the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Sobhika; Tamplin, Owen J

    2018-05-29

    The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche supports steady-state hematopoiesis and responds to changing needs during stress and disease. The nervous system is an important regulator of the niche, and its influence is established early in development when stem cells are specified. Most research has focused on direct innervation of the niche, however recent findings show there are different modes of neural control, including globally by the central nervous system (CNS) and hormone release, locally by neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and intrinsically by hematopoietic cells that express neural receptors and neurotransmitters. Dysregulation between neural and hematopoietic systems can contribute to disease, however new therapeutic opportunities may be found among neuroregulator drugs repurposed to support hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Controversial Clinicobiological Role of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Casarsa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women mainly because of the propensity of primary breast tumors to metastasize. Growing experimental evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs may contribute to tumor progression and metastasis spread. However, despite the tremendous clinical potential of such cells and their possible therapeutic management, the real nature of CSCs remains to be elucidated. Starting from what is currently known about normal mammary stem/progenitor cells, to better define the cell that originates a tumor or is responsible for metastatic spread, this review will discuss experimental evidence of breast cancer stem cells and speculate about the clinical importance and implications of their evaluation.

  13. Development of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Fen; Wu, Mengyao; Wang, Zack Z

    2015-07-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), provide a new cell source for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug discovery, and preclinical toxicity screening. Understanding of the onset and the sequential process of hematopoietic cells from differentiated hPSCs will enable the achievement of personalized medicine and provide an in vitro platform for studying of human hematopoietic development and disease. During embryogenesis, hemogenic endothelial cells, a specified subset of endothelial cells in embryonic endothelium, are the primary source of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this review, we discuss current status in the generation of multipotent hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from hPSCs via hemogenic endothelial cells. We also review the achievements in direct reprogramming from non-hematopoietic cells to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Further characterization of hematopoietic differentiation in hPSCs will improve our understanding of blood development and expedite the development of hPSC-derived blood products for therapeutic purpose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Concise review: preleukemic stem cells: molecular biology and clinical implications of the precursors to leukemia stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Ashley; Barreyro, Laura; Steidl, Ulrich

    2013-02-01

    Recent experimental evidence has shown that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) arise from transformed immature hematopoietic cells following the accumulation of multiple stepwise genetic and epigenetic changes in hematopoietic stem cells and committed progenitors. The series of transforming events initially gives rise to preleukemic stem cells (pre-LSC), preceding the formation of fully transformed leukemia stem cells (LSC). Despite the established use of poly-chemotherapy, relapse continues to be the most common cause of death in AML and MDS. The therapeutic elimination of all LSC, as well as pre-LSC, which provide a silent reservoir for the re-formation of LSC, will be essential for achieving lasting cures. Conventional sequencing and next-generation genome sequencing have allowed us to describe many of the recurrent mutations in the bulk cell populations in AML and MDS, and recent work has also focused on identifying the initial molecular changes contributing to leukemogenesis. Here we review recent and ongoing advances in understanding the roles of pre-LSC, and the aberrations that lead to pre-LSC formation and subsequent LSC transformation.

  15. Single-cell sequencing in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2016-04-15

    Cell-to-cell variation and heterogeneity are fundamental and intrinsic characteristics of stem cell populations, but these differences are masked when bulk cells are used for omic analysis. Single-cell sequencing technologies serve as powerful tools to dissect cellular heterogeneity comprehensively and to identify distinct phenotypic cell types, even within a 'homogeneous' stem cell population. These technologies, including single-cell genome, epigenome, and transcriptome sequencing technologies, have been developing rapidly in recent years. The application of these methods to different types of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells, has led to exciting new findings in the stem cell field. In this review, we discuss the recent progress as well as future perspectives in the methodologies and applications of single-cell omic sequencing technologies.

  16. Human mesenchymal stem cells in rodent whole-embryo culture are reprogrammed to contribute to kidney tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoo, Takashi; Ohashi, Toya; Shen, Jin Song; Sakurai, Ken; Miyazaki, Yoichi; Utsunomiya, Yasunori; Takahashi, Masanori; Terada, Yoshio; Eto, Yoshikatsu; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Osumi, Noriko; Hosoya, Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    The use of stem cells has enabled the successful generation of simple organs. However, anatomically complicated organs such as the kidney have proven more refractory to stem-cell-based regenerative techniques. Given the limits of allogenic organ transplantation, an ultimate therapeutic solution is to establish self-organs from autologous stem cells and transplant them as syngrafts back into donor patients. To this end, we have striven to establish an in vitro organ factory to build up complex...

  17. Pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells: From basic research to applications

    OpenAIRE

    Otsu, Masahiro; Nakayama, Takashi; Inoue, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Basic research on pluripotent stem cells is designed to enhance understanding of embryogenesis, whereas applied research is designed to develop novel therapies and prevent diseases. Attainment of these goals has been enhanced by the establishment of embryonic stem cell lines, the technological development of genomic reprogramming to generate induced-pluripotent stem cells, and improvements in vitro techniques to manipulate stem cells. This review summarizes the techniques required to generate...

  18. Stem cell therapy for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K O Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, have become an area of intense study. Recent advances in stem cell therapy may turn this into a realistic treatment for diabetes in the near future.

  19. Sepsis Induces Hematopoietic Stem Cell Exhaustion and Myelosuppression through Distinct Contributions of TRIF and MYD88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajia Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 plays a central role in host responses to bacterial infection, but the precise mechanism(s by which its downstream signaling components coordinate the bone marrow response to sepsis is poorly understood. Using mice deficient in TLR4 downstream adapters MYD88 or TRIF, we demonstrate that both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous MYD88 activation are major causes of myelosuppression during sepsis, while having a modest impact on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC functions. In contrast, cell-intrinsic TRIF activation severely compromises HSC self-renewal without directly affecting myeloid cells. Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of MYD88 or TRIF contributes to cell-cycle activation of HSC and induces rapid and permanent changes in transcriptional programs, as indicated by persistent downregulation of Spi1 and CebpA expression after transplantation. Thus, distinct mechanisms downstream of TLR4 signaling mediate myelosuppression and HSC exhaustion during sepsis through unique effects of MyD88 and TRIF.

  20. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human fetal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Pascale V

    2016-02-01

    Pluripotency defines the ability of stem cells to differentiate into all the lineages of the three germ layers and self-renew indefinitely. Somatic cells can regain the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells following ectopic expression of a set of transcription factors or, in certain circumstances, via modulation of culture conditions and supplementation with small molecule, that is, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we discuss the use of fetal tissues for reprogramming, focusing in particular on stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid, and the development of chemical reprogramming. We next address the advantages and disadvantages of deriving pluripotent cells from fetal tissues and the potential clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Doxorubicin-induced mitophagy contributes to drug resistance in cancer stem cells from HCT8 human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chen; Luo, Lan; Guo, Chang-Ying; Goto, Shinji; Urata, Yoshishige; Shao, Jiang-Hua; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are known to be drug resistant. Mitophagy selectively degrades unnecessary or damaged mitochondria by autophagy during cellular stress. To investigate the potential role of mitophagy in drug resistance in CSCs, we purified CD133 + /CD44 + CSCs from HCT8 human colorectal cancer cells and then exposed to doxorubicin (DXR). Compared with parental cells, CSCs were more resistant to DXR treatment. Although DXR treatment enhanced autophagy levels in both cell types, the inhibition of autophagy by ATG7 silencing significantly increased the toxicity of DXR only in parental cells, not in CSCs. Interestingly, the level of mitochondrial superoxide was detected to be significantly lower in CSCs than in parental cells after DXR treatment. Furthermore, the mitophagy level and expression of BNIP3L, a mitophagy regulator, were significantly higher in CSCs than in parental cells after DXR treatment. Silencing BNIP3L significantly halted mitophagy and enhanced the sensitivity to DXR in CSCs. Our data suggested that mitophagy, but not non-selective autophagy, likely contributes to drug resistance in CSCs isolated from HCT8 cells. Further studies in other cancer cell lines will be needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stem cell clinics online: the direct-to-consumer portrayal of stem cell medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Darren; Ogbogu, Ubaka; Taylor, Benjamin; Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Caulfield, Timothy

    2008-12-04

    Despite the immature state of stem cell medicine, patients are seeking and accessing putative stem cell therapies in an "early market" in which direct-to-consumer advertising via the internet likely plays an important role. We analyzed stem cell clinic websites and appraised the relevant published clinical evidence of stem cell therapies to address three questions about the direct-to-consumer portrayal of stem cell medicine in this early market: What sorts of therapies are being offered? How are they portrayed? Is there clinical evidence to support the use of these therapies? We found that the portrayal of stem cell medicine on provider websites is optimistic and unsubstantiated by peer-reviewed literature.

  3. Cancer stemness and metastatic potential of the novel tumor cell line K3: an inner mutated cell of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui; Ding, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jiao; Mao, Fei; Sun, Zixuan; Jia, Haoyuan; Yin, Lei; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yongmin; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Wenrong

    2017-06-13

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation has been used for therapeutic applications in various diseases. Here we report MSCs can malignantly transform in vivo. The novel neoplasm was found on the tail of female rat after injection with male rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (rBM-MSCs) and the new tumor cell line, K3, was isolated from the neoplasm. The K3 cells expressed surface antigens and pluripotent genes similar to those of rBM-MSCs and presented tumor cell features. Moreover, the K3 cells contained side population cells (SP) like cancer stem cells (CSCs), which might contribute to K3 heterogeneity and tumorigenic capacity. To investigate the metastatic potential of K3 cells, we established the nude mouse models of liver and lung metastases and isolated the corresponding metastatic cell lines K3-F4 and K3-B6. Both K3-F4 and K3-B6 cell lines with higher metastatic potential acquired more mesenchymal and stemness-related features. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a potential mechanism of K3-F4 and K3-B6 formation.

  4. Dental Stem Cell in Tooth Development and Advances of Adult Dental Stem Cell in Regenerative Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiali; Xu, Xin; Lin, Jiong; Fan, Li; Zheng, Yuting; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are considered as a promising treatment for many clinical usage such as tooth regeneration, bone repairation, spinal cord injury, and so on. However, the ideal stem cell for stem cell-based therapy still remains to be elucidated. In the past decades, several types of stem cells have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs) and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), which may be a good source for stem cell-based therapy in certain disease, especially when they origin from neural crest is considered. In this review, the specific characteristics and advantages of the adult dental stem cell population will be summarized and the molecular mechanisms of the differentiation of dental stem cell during tooth development will be also discussed.

  5. Augmentation of musculoskeletal regeneration: role for pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, Lauren A; Houghton, Franchesca D; Tare, Rahul S

    2018-03-20

    The rise in the incidence of musculoskeletal diseases is attributed to an increasing ageing population. The debilitating effects of musculoskeletal diseases, coupled with a lack of effective therapies, contribute to huge financial strains on healthcare systems. The focus of regenerative medicine has shifted to pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), namely, human embryonic stem cells and human-induced PSCs, due to the limited success of adult stem cell-based interventions. PSCs constitute a valuable cell source for musculoskeletal regeneration due to their capacity for unlimited self-renewal, ability to differentiate into all cell lineages of the three germ layers and perceived immunoprivileged characteristics. This review summarizes methods for chondrogenic, osteogenic, myogenic and adipogenic differentiation of PSCs and their potential for therapeutic applications.

  6. Nuclear reprogramming of somatic nucleus hybridized with embryonic stem cells by electrofusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Masako; Tada, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Cell fusion is a powerful tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming. In hybrid cells of somatic cells and pluripotential stem cells, including embryonic stem (ES) and embryonic germ cells, somatic nuclei acquire pluripotential competence. ES and embryonic germ cells retain intrinsic trans activity to induce epigenetic reprogramming. For generating hybrid cells, we have used the technique of electrofusion. Electrofusion is a highly effective, reproducible, and biomedically safe in vitro system. For successful cell fusion, two sequential steps of electric pulse stimulation are required for the alignment (pearl chain formation) of two different types of cells between electrodes in response to alternating current stimulation and for the fusion of cytoplasmic membranes by direct current stimulation. Optimal conditions for electrofusion with a pulse generator are introduced for ES and somatic cell fusion. Topics in the field of stem cell research include the successful production of cloned animals via the epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cells and contribution of spontaneous cell fusion to generating intrinsic plasticity of tissue stem cells. Cell fusion technology may make important contributions to the fields of epigenetic reprogramming and regenerative medicine.

  7. A stem cell medium containing neural stimulating factor induces a pancreatic cancer stem-like cell-enriched population

    Science.gov (United States)

    WATANABE, YUSAKU; YOSHIMURA, KIYOSHI; YOSHIKAWA, KOICHI; TSUNEDOMI, RYOICHI; SHINDO, YOSHITARO; MATSUKUMA, SOU; MAEDA, NORIKO; KANEKIYO, SHINSUKE; SUZUKI, NOBUAKI; KURAMASU, ATSUO; SONODA, KOUHEI; TAMADA, KOJI; KOBAYASHI, SEI; SAYA, HIDEYUKI; HAZAMA, SHOICHI; OKA, MASAAKI

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been studied for their self-renewal capacity and pluripotency, as well as their resistance to anticancer therapy and their ability to metastasize to distant organs. CSCs are difficult to study because their population is quite low in tumor specimens. To overcome this problem, we established a culture method to induce a pancreatic cancer stem-like cell (P-CSLC)-enriched population from human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines established at our department were cultured in CSC-inducing media containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), neural cell survivor factor-1 (NSF-1), and N-acetylcysteine. Sphere cells were obtained and then transferred to a laminin-coated dish and cultured for approximately two months. The surface markers, gene expression, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, cell cycle, and tumorigenicity of these induced cells were examined for their stem cell-like characteristics. The population of these induced cells expanded within a few months. The ratio of CD24high, CD44high, epithelial specific antigen (ESA) high, and CD44variant (CD44v) high cells in the induced cells was greatly enriched. The induced cells stayed in the G0/G1 phase and demonstrated mesenchymal and stemness properties. The induced cells had high tumorigenic potential. Thus, we established a culture method to induce a P-CSLCenriched population from human pancreatic cancer cell lines. The CSLC population was enriched approximately 100-fold with this method. Our culture method may contribute to the precise analysis of CSCs and thus support the establishment of CSC-targeting therapy. PMID:25118635

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ian A.; Sanina, Cristina; Balkan, Wayne; Hare, Joshua M.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for more deaths globally than any other single disease. There are on average 1.5 million episodes of myocardial infarction (heart attack) each year in the United States alone with roughly one third resulting in death. There is therefore a major need for developing new and effective strategies to promote cardiac repair. Intramyocardial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has emerged as a leading contender in the pursuit of clinical intervention and therapy. MSCs are potent mediators of cardiac repair and are therefore an attractive tool in the development of pre-clinical and clinical trials. MSCs are capable of secreting a large array of soluble factors, which have had demonstrated effects on pathogenic cardiac remolding, fibrosis, immune activation and cardiac stem cell proliferation within the damaged heart. MSCs are also capable of differentiation into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, although the relative contribution of trilineage differentiation and paracrine effectors on cardiac repair remains the subject of active investigation. PMID:27236666

  9. Microenvironmental regulation of hematopoietic stem cells and its implications in leukemogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Madhav; Qu, Cheng-Kui

    2016-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a population of cells in the bone marrow which can self-renew, differentiate into late lineage progenitors, or remain quiescent. HSCs exist alongside several cell types in the bone marrow microenvironment that comprise the stem cell niche. These cells regulate HSC function and can contribute to leukemogenesis. In this review we will discuss recent advances in this field. In the vascular niche, arteriolar and sinusoidal zones appear to play distinct roles in HSC function. Endothelial cells modulate HSC function via Notch and other signaling pathways. In the endosteal niche multiple cell types regulate HSCs. Osteoblasts promote HSC quiescence via secreted factors and possibly physical interactions, whereas adipocytes may oppose HSC quiescence. The balance of these opposing factors depends on metabolic cues. Feedback from HSC-derived cells, including macrophages and megakaryocytes also appears to regulate HSC quiescence. Dysfunction of the bone marrow microenvironment, including mesenchymal stem cell-derived stromal cells and the sympathetic nervous system can induce or alter the progression of hematologic malignancies. Many cell types in the bone marrow microenvironment affect HSC function and contribute to malignancy. Further understanding how HSCs are regulated by the microenvironment has clinical implications for stem cell transplantation and other therapies for hematologic malignancies.

  10. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1 regulates leukemic stem cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bäumer

    Full Text Available External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

  11. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) regulates leukemic stem cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, Nicole; Krause, Annika; Köhler, Gabriele; Lettermann, Stephanie; Evers, Georg; Hascher, Antje; Bäumer, Sebastian; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Tickenbrock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

  12. Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “ni...

  13. Adult neural stem cells: The promise of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Taupin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Philippe TaupinNational Neuroscience Institute, National University of SingaporeAbstract: Stem cells are self-renewing undifferentiated cells that give rise to multiple types of specialized cells of the body. In the adult, stem cells are multipotents and contribute to homeostasis of the tissues and regeneration after injury. Until recently, it was believed that the adult brain was devoid of stem cells, hence unable to make new neurons and regenerate. With the recent evidences that neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain and neural stem cells (NSCs reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS, the adult brain has the potential to regenerate and may be amenable to repair. The function(s of NSCs in the adult CNS remains the source of intense research and debates. The promise of the future of adult NSCs is to redefine the functioning and physiopathology of the CNS, as well as to treat a broad range of CNS diseases and injuries.Keywords: neurogenesis, transdifferentiation, plasticity, cellular therapy

  14. Identification of Multipotent Stem Cells in Human Brain Tissue Following Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebayashi, Kotaro; Tanaka, Yasue; Nakano-Doi, Akiko; Sakuma, Rika; Kamachi, Saeko; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Kageyama, Hiroto; Takagi, Toshinori; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Nakagomi, Takayuki

    2017-06-01

    Perivascular regions of the brain harbor multipotent stem cells. We previously demonstrated that brain pericytes near blood vessels also develop multipotency following experimental ischemia in mice and these ischemia-induced multipotent stem cells (iSCs) can contribute to neurogenesis. However, it is essential to understand the traits of iSCs in the poststroke human brain for possible applications in stem cell-based therapies for stroke patients. In this study, we report for the first time that iSCs can be isolated from the poststroke human brain. Putative iSCs were derived from poststroke brain tissue obtained from elderly stroke patients requiring decompressive craniectomy and partial lobectomy for diffuse cerebral infarction. Immunohistochemistry showed that these iSCs were localized near blood vessels within poststroke areas containing apoptotic/necrotic neurons and expressed both the stem cell marker nestin and several pericytic markers. Isolated iSCs expressed these same markers and demonstrated high proliferative potential without loss of stemness. Furthermore, isolated iSCs expressed other stem cell markers, such as Sox2, c-myc, and Klf4, and differentiated into multiple cells in vitro, including neurons. These results show that iSCs, which are likely brain pericyte derivatives, are present within the poststroke human brain. This study suggests that iSCs can contribute to neural repair in patients with stroke.

  15. Nanotechnology & human stem cells: Applications in cardiogenesis and neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Martin L.

    was ever before possible. My research has made fundamental contributions to the stem cell field by detailed analysis of uniformly generated 3D stem cell intermediates that are embryoid bodies. I have also contributed to the derivation of the first fully characterized ethnically diverse induced pluripotent stem cells from minority populations (ED-iPSCs), and advances in generating functional beating cardiomyocytes in vitro to aid cardiomyoplasty therapies. My work has also explored scaffolds for directing neural cell assembly or encouraging self-assembly for applications in CNS neurodegeneration, addiction, and spinal cord injury. These contributions to the field are outlined in my Specific Aims below and detailed in the chapters of my thesis.

  16. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human fetal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guillot, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotency defines the ability of stem cells to differentiate into all the lineages of the three germ layers and self-renew indefinitely. Somatic cells can regain the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells following ectopic expression of a set of transcription factors or, in certain circumstances, via modulation of culture conditions and supplementation with small molecule, that is, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we discuss the use of fetal tissues for reprogramming, f...

  17. Piwi and potency: PIWI proteins in animal stem cells and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wolfswinkel, Josien C

    2014-10-01

    PIWI proteins are well known for their roles in the animal germline. They are essential for germline development and maintenance, and together with their binding partners, the piRNAs, they mediate transposon silencing. More recently, PIWI proteins have also been identified in somatic stem cells in diverse animals. The expression of PIWI proteins in these cells could be related to the ability of such cells to contribute to the germline. However, evaluation of stem cell systems across many different animal phyla suggests that PIWI proteins have an ancestral role in somatic stem cells, irrespective of their contribution to the germ cell lineage. Moreover, the data currently available reveal a possible correlation between the differentiation potential of a cell and its PIWI levels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Epigenetic control of embryonic stem cell fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Nicolaj Strøyer; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation embryo and are pluripotent, as they are able to differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism. Once established, the pluripotent ES cells can be maintained under defined culture conditions, but can also...... be induced rapidly to differentiate. Maintaining this balance of stability versus plasticity is a challenge, and extensive studies in recent years have focused on understanding the contributions of transcription factors and epigenetic enzymes to the "stemness" properties of these cells. Identifying...... the molecular switches that regulate ES cell self-renewal versus differentiation can provide insights into the nature of the pluripotent state and enhance the potential use of these cells in therapeutic applications. Here, we review the latest models for how changes in chromatin methylation can modulate ES cell...

  19. Brain mesenchymal stem cells: The other stem cells of the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appaix, Florence; Nissou, Marie-France; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dreyfus, Matthieu; Berger, François; Issartel, Jean-Paul; Wion, Didier

    2014-04-26

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), have the potential to differentiate into cells of the mesenchymal lineage and have non-progenitor functions including immunomodulation. The demonstration that MSCs are perivascular cells found in almost all adult tissues raises fascinating perspectives on their role in tissue maintenance and repair. However, some controversies about the physiological role of the perivascular MSCs residing outside the bone marrow and on their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine exist. In brain, perivascular MSCs like pericytes and adventitial cells, could constitute another stem cell population distinct to the neural stem cell pool. The demonstration of the neuronal potential of MSCs requires stringent criteria including morphological changes, the demonstration of neural biomarkers expression, electrophysiological recordings, and the absence of cell fusion. The recent finding that brain cancer stem cells can transdifferentiate into pericytes is another facet of the plasticity of these cells. It suggests that the perversion of the stem cell potential of pericytes might play an even unsuspected role in cancer formation and tumor progression.

  20. Stem cell migration after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothdurft, W.; Fliedner, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The survival rate of irradiated rodents could be significantly improved by shielding only the small parts of hemopoietic tissues during the course of irradiation. The populations of circulating stem cells in adult organisms are considered to be of some importance for the homeostasis between the many sites of blood cell formation and for the necessary flexibility of hemopoietic response in the face of fluctuating demands. Pluripotent stem cells are migrating through peripheral blood as has been shown for several mammalian species. Under steady state conditions, the exchange of stem cells between the different sites of blood cell formation appears to be restricted. Their presence in blood and the fact that they are in balance with the extravascular stem cell pool may well be of significance for the surveilance of the integrity of local stem cell populations. Any decrease of stem cell population in blood below a critical size results in the rapid immigration of circulating stem cells in order to restore local stem cell pool size. Blood stem cells are involved in the regeneration after whole-body irradiation if the stem cell population in bone marrows is reduced to less than 10% of the normal state. In the animals subjected to partial-body irradiation, the circulating stem cells appear to be the only source for the repopulation of the heavily irradiated, aplastic sites of hemopoietic organs. (Yamashita, S.)

  1. Cerebellar stem cells do not produce neurons and astrocytes in adult mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Xin; Guan, Wuqiang; Yu, Yong-Chun; Fu, Yinghui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • No new neurons and astrocytes are generated in adult mouse cerebellum. • Very few mash1 + or nestin + stem cells exist, and most of them are quiescent. • Cell proliferation rate is diversified among cerebellar regions and decreases over time. - Abstract: Although previous studies implied that cerebellar stem cells exist in some adult mammals, little is known about whether these stem cells can produce new neurons and astrocytes. In this study by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, we found that there are abundant BrdU + cells in adult mouse cerebellum, and their quantity and density decreases significantly over time. We also found cell proliferation rate is diversified in different cerebellar regions. Among these BrdU + cells, very few are mash1 + or nestin + stem cells, and the vast majority of cerebellar stem cells are quiescent. Data obtained by in vivo retrovirus injection indicate that stem cells do not produce neurons and astrocytes in adult mouse cerebellum. Instead, some cells labeled by retrovirus are Iba1 + microglia. These results indicate that very few stem cells exist in adult mouse cerebellum, and none of these stem cells contribute to neurogenesis and astrogenesis under physiological condition

  2. Individual fates of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drasdo Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro cultivated stem cell populations are in general heterogeneous with respect to their expression of differentiation markers. In hematopoietic progenitor populations, this heterogeneity has been shown to regenerate within days from isolated subpopulations defined by high or low marker expression. This kind of plasticity has been suggested to be a fundamental feature of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs as well. Here, we study MSC plasticity on the level of individual cells applying a multi-scale computer model that is based on the concept of noise-driven stem cell differentiation. Results By simulation studies, we provide detailed insight into the kinetics of MSC organisation. Monitoring the fates of individual cells in high and low oxygen culture, we calculated the average transition times of individual cells into stem cell and differentiated states. We predict that at low oxygen the heterogeneity of a MSC population with respect to differentiation regenerates from any selected subpopulation in about two days. At high oxygen, regeneration becomes substantially slowed down. Simulation results on the composition of the functional stem cell pool of MSC populations suggest that most of the cells that constitute this pool originate from more differentiated cells. Conclusions Individual cell-based models are well-suited to provide quantitative predictions on essential features of the spatio-temporal organisation of MSC in vitro. Our predictions on MSC plasticity and its dependence on the environment motivate a number of in vitro experiments for validation. They may contribute to a better understanding of MSC organisation in vitro, including features of clonal expansion, environmental adaptation and stem cell ageing.

  3. Strategies to improve homing of mesenchymal stem cells for greater efficacy in stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Mirahmadi, Mahdi; Ahmadiankia, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Stem/progenitor cell-based therapeutic approach in clinical practice has been an elusive dream in medical sciences, and improvement of stem cell homing is one of major challenges in cell therapy programs. Stem/progenitor cells have a homing response to injured tissues/organs, mediated by interactions of chemokine receptors expressed on the cells and chemokines secreted by the injured tissue. For improvement of directed homing of the cells, many techniques have been developed either to engineer stem/progenitor cells with higher amount of chemokine receptors (stem cell-based strategies) or to modulate the target tissues to release higher level of the corresponding chemokines (target tissue-based strategies). This review discusses both of these strategies involved in the improvement of stem cell homing focusing on mesenchymal stem cells as most frequent studied model in cellular therapies. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Ethical and Safety Issues of Stem Cell-Based Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volarevic, Vladislav; Markovic, Bojana Simovic; Gazdic, Marina; Volarevic, Ana; Jovicic, Nemanja; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Armstrong, Lyle; Djonov, Valentin; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2018-01-01

    Results obtained from completed and on-going clinical studies indicate huge therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapy in the treatment of degenerative, autoimmune and genetic disorders. However, clinical application of stem cells raises numerous ethical and safety concerns. In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. We describe ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, emphasizing that ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is a major factor that may have limited the development of hESC-based clinical therapies. With previous derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) this problem has been overcome, however current perspectives regarding clinical translation of iPSCs still remain. Unlimited differentiation potential of iPSCs which can be used in human reproductive cloning, as a risk for generation of genetically engineered human embryos and human-animal chimeras, is major ethical issue, while undesired differentiation and malignant transformation are major safety issues. Although clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has shown beneficial effects in the therapy of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, the ability to promote tumor growth and metastasis and overestimated therapeutic potential of MSCs still provide concerns for the field of regenerative medicine. This review offers stem cell scientists, clinicians and patient's useful information and could be used as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical application of stem cells.

  5. Fluorescent Reporters in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: Contributions to Cardiac Differentiation and Their Applications in Cardiac Disease and Toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartogh, Sabine C.; Passier, Petrus Christianus Johannes Josephus

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, since the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells, the stem cell field has made remarkable progress in the differentiation to specialized cell-types of various tissues and organs, including the heart. Cardiac lineage- and tissue-specific human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)

  6. Ovarian Stem Cell Nests in Reproduction and Ovarian Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Haifeng; Zheng, Tuochen; Li, Wei; Li, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xinxin; Huang, Yaoqi; Hu, Chuan; Li, Jia; Huang, Jian; Liu, Zhengyv; Zheng, Liping; Zheng, Yuehui

    2017-01-01

    The fixed primordial follicles pool theory, which monopolized reproductive medicine for more than one hundred years, has been broken by the discovery, successful isolation and establishment of ovarian stem cells. It has brought more hope than ever of increasing the size of primordial follicle pool, improving ovarian function and delaying ovarian consenescence. Traditional view holds that stem cell aging contributes to the senility of body and organs. However, in the process of ovarian aging, the main factor leading to the decline of the reproductive function is the aging and degradation of ovarian stem cell nests, rather than the senescence of ovarian germ cells themselves. Recent studies have found that the immune system and circulatory system are involved in the formation of ovarian germline stem cell niches, as well as regulating the proliferation and differentiation of ovarian germline stem cells through cellular and hormonal signals. Therefore, we can improve ovarian function and delay ovarian aging by improving the immune system and circulatory system, which will provide an updated program for the treatment of premature ovarian failure (POF) and infertility. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Stem Cells in Skin Regeneration, Wound Healing, and Their Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeh, Nkemcho; Pastar, Irena; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Stojadinovic, Olivera

    2015-10-23

    The skin is the largest organ of the body and has an array of functions. Skin compartments, epidermis, and hair follicles house stem cells that are indispensable for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also contribute to wound repair, resulting in restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unsuccessful wound healing processes often lead to non-healing wounds. Chronic wounds are caused by depletion of stem cells and a variety of other cellular and molecular mechanisms, many of which are still poorly understood. Current chronic wound therapies are limited, so the search to develop better therapeutic strategies is ongoing. Adult stem cells are gaining recognition as potential candidates for numerous skin pathologies. In this review, we will discuss epidermal and other stem cells present in the skin, and highlight some of the therapeutic applications of epidermal stem cells and other adult stem cells as tools for cell/scaffold-based therapies for non-healing wounds and other skin disorders. We will also discuss emerging concepts and offer some perspectives on how skin tissue-engineered products can be optimized to provide efficacious therapy in cutaneous repair and regeneration.

  8. Cellular population dynamics control the robustness of the stem cell niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. MacLean

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within populations of cells, fate decisions are controlled by an indeterminate combination of cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors. In the case of stem cells, the stem cell niche is believed to maintain ‘stemness’ through communication and interactions between the stem cells and one or more other cell-types that contribute to the niche conditions. To investigate the robustness of cell fate decisions in the stem cell hierarchy and the role that the niche plays, we introduce simple mathematical models of stem and progenitor cells, their progeny and their interplay in the niche. These models capture the fundamental processes of proliferation and differentiation and allow us to consider alternative possibilities regarding how niche-mediated signalling feedback regulates the niche dynamics. Generalised stability analysis of these stem cell niche systems enables us to describe the stability properties of each model. We find that although the number of feasible states depends on the model, their probabilities of stability in general do not: stem cell–niche models are stable across a wide range of parameters. We demonstrate that niche-mediated feedback increases the number of stable steady states, and show how distinct cell states have distinct branching characteristics. The ecological feedback and interactions mediated by the stem cell niche thus lend (surprisingly high levels of robustness to the stem and progenitor cell population dynamics. Furthermore, cell–cell interactions are sufficient for populations of stem cells and their progeny to achieve stability and maintain homeostasis. We show that the robustness of the niche – and hence of the stem cell pool in the niche – depends only weakly, if at all, on the complexity of the niche make-up: simple as well as complicated niche systems are capable of supporting robust and stable stem cell dynamics.

  9. Mammary Stem Cells and Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Connections and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni

    2018-05-04

    Cancer arises from subpopulations of transformed cells with high tumor initiation and repopulation ability, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which share many similarities with their normal counterparts. In the mammary gland, several studies have shown common molecular regulators between adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs). Cell plasticity and self-renewal are essential abilities for MaSCs to maintain tissue homeostasis and regenerate the gland after pregnancy. Intriguingly, these properties are similarly executed in breast cancer stem cells to drive tumor initiation, tumor heterogeneity and recurrence after chemotherapy. In addition, both stem cell phenotypes are strongly influenced by external signals from the microenvironment, immune cells and supportive specific niches. This review focuses on the intrinsic and extrinsic connections of MaSC and bCSCs with clinical implications for breast cancer progression and their possible therapeutic applications.

  10. Beta1 integrins activate a MAPK signalling pathway in neural stem cells that contributes to their maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Lia S; Leone, Dino P; Relvas, Joao B

    2004-01-01

    , signalling is required for neural stem cell maintenance, as assessed by neurosphere formation, and inhibition or genetic ablation of beta1 integrin using cre/lox technology reduces the level of MAPK activity. We conclude that integrins are therefore an important part of the signalling mechanisms that control......The emerging evidence that stem cells develop in specialised niches highlights the potential role of environmental factors in their regulation. Here we examine the role of beta1 integrin/extracellular matrix interactions in neural stem cells. We find high levels of beta1 integrin expression...... in the stem-cell containing regions of the embryonic CNS, with associated expression of the laminin alpha2 chain. Expression levels of laminin alpha2 are reduced in the postnatal CNS, but a population of cells expressing high levels of beta1 remains. Using neurospheres - aggregate cultures, derived from...

  11. Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) Have a Superior Neuroprotective Capacity Over Fetal MSCs in the Hypoxic-Ischemic Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Kate E; Corcelli, Michelangelo; Dowding, Kate; Ranzoni, Anna M; Vlahova, Filipa; Hau, Kwan-Leong; Hunjan, Avina; Peebles, Donald; Gressens, Pierre; Hagberg, Henrik; de Coppi, Paolo; Hristova, Mariya; Guillot, Pascale V

    2018-05-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have huge potential for regenerative medicine. In particular, the use of pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PSC-MSCs) overcomes the hurdle of replicative senescence associated with the in vitro expansion of primary cells and has increased therapeutic benefits in comparison to the use of various adult sources of MSCs in a wide range of animal disease models. On the other hand, fetal MSCs exhibit faster growth kinetics and possess longer telomeres and a wider differentiation potential than adult MSCs. Here, for the first time, we compare the therapeutic potential of PSC-MSCs (ES-MSCs from embryonic stem cells) to fetal MSCs (AF-MSCs from the amniotic fluid), demonstrating that ES-MSCs have a superior neuroprotective potential over AF-MSCs in the mouse brain following hypoxia-ischemia. Further, we demonstrate that nuclear factor (NF)-κB-stimulated interleukin (IL)-13 production contributes to an increased in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of ES-MSC-conditioned medium (CM) over AF-MSC-CM, thus suggesting a potential mechanism for this observation. Moreover, we show that induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iMSCs) exhibit many similarities to ES-MSCs, including enhanced NF-κB signaling and IL-13 production in comparison to AF-MSCs. Future studies should assess whether iMSCs also exhibit similar neuroprotective potential to ES-MSCs, thus presenting a potential strategy to overcome the ethical issues associated with the use of embryonic stem cells and providing a potential source of cells for autologous use against neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in humans. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:439-449. © 2018 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  12. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affects tissue specific stem cells in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Yuriko; Doi, Hanako; Ono, Yusuke; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kitajima, Michio; Miura, Kiyonori; Li, Tao-Sheng; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal disorders are frequently observed in various organs, but their relationship with estrogen deficiency and mechanisms remain unclear. As tissue-specific stem cells have been found to express estrogen receptors, we examined the hypothesis that estrogen deficiency impairs stem cells, which consequently contributes to postmenopausal disorders. Six-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized, following which they received 17β-estradiol replacement or vehicle (control). Sham-operated mice were used as healthy controls. All mice were killed for evaluation 2 months after treatments. Compared with the healthy control, ovariectomy significantly decreased uterine weight, which was partially recovered by 17β-estradiol replacement. Ovariectomy significantly increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, but impaired their capacity to grow mixed cell-type colonies in vitro. Estrogen replacement further increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, without significantly affecting colony growth in vitro. The number of CD105-positive mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow also significantly decreased after ovariectomy, but completely recovered following estrogen replacement. Otherwise, neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement changed the number of Pax7-positive satellite cells, which are a skeletal muscle-type stem cell. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affected tissue-specific stem cells, suggesting a likely and direct relationship with postmenopausal disorders. PMID:26245252

  13. Stem cells in dentistry: A study regarding awareness of stem cells among dental professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Parita K Chitroda; Girish Katti; Nikhat M Attar; Syed Shahbaz; G Sreenivasarao; Ambika Patil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dental stem cell, a type of adult stem cell, exhibits multipotent differentiation capacity and is drawing worldwide attention because of its numerous applications. The advances in applications of dental stem cells seem to be unsurpassed in the near future, for which specialized skills and knowledge in this arena are of prime significance. Hence, there is a need to acquire more knowledge about dental stem cells to obtain maximum benefits from it in the coming years. Dental stem cel...

  14. The neural stem cell fate determinant TLX promotes tumorigenesis and genesis of cells resembling glioma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Jun-Kyum; Jeon, Hye-Min; Oh, Se-Yeong; Kim, Sung-Hak; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Hyunggee

    2010-11-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that deregulation of stem cell fate determinants is a hallmark of many types of malignancies. The neural stem cell fate determinant TLX plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis in the adult brain by maintaining neural stem cells. Here, we report a tumorigenic role of TLX in brain tumor initiation and progression. Increased TLX expression was observed in a number of glioma cells and glioma stem cells, and correlated with poor survival of patients with gliomas. Ectopic expression of TLX in the U87MG glioma cell line and Ink4a/Arf-deficient mouse astrocytes (Ink4a/Arf(-/-) astrocytes) induced cell proliferation with a concomitant increase in cyclin D expression, and accelerated foci formation in soft agar and tumor formation in in vivo transplantation assays. Furthermore, overexpression of TLX in Ink4a/Arf(-/-) astrocytes inhibited cell migration and invasion and promoted neurosphere formation and Nestin expression, which are hallmark characteristics of glioma stem cells, under stem cell culture conditions. Our results indicate that TLX is involved in glioma stem cell genesis and represents a potential therapeutic target for this type of malignancy.

  15. Overexpression of microRNA-194 suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in targeting stem cell transcription factor Sox3 in endometrial carcinoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Baolan; Yue, Yan; Wang, Renxiao; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Quanfang; Zhou, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is the key process driving cancer metastasis. MicroRNA-194 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers and its downregulation indicates a poor prognosis in human endometrial carcinoma. Self-renewal factor Sox3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition at gastrulation and is also involved epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers. We intended to determine the roles of Sox3 in inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer stem cells and the possible role of microRNA-194 in controlling Sox3 expression. Firstly, we found that Sox3 and microRNA-194 expressions were associated with the status of endometrial cancer stem cells in a panel of endometrial carcinoma tissue, the CD133+ cell was higher in tumorsphere than in differentiated cells, and overexpression of microRNA-194 would decrease CD133+ cell expression. Silencing of Sox3 in endometrial cancer stem cell upregulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin, downregulated the mesenchymal marker vimentin, and significantly reduced cell invasion in vitro; overexpression of Sox3 reversed these phenotypes. Furthermore, we discovered that the expression of Sox3 was suppressed by microRNA-194 through direct binding to the Sox3 3'-untranslated region. Ectopic expression of microRNA-194 in endometrial cancer stem cells induced a mesenchymal-epithelial transition by restoring E-cadherin expression, decreasing vimentin expression, and inhibiting cell invasion in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of microRNA-194 inhibited endometrial cancer stem cell invasion or metastasis in vivo by injection of adenovirus microRNA-194. These findings demonstrate the novel mechanism by which Sox3 contributes to endometrial cancer stem cell invasion and suggest that repression of Sox3 by microRNA-194 may have therapeutic potential to suppress endometrial carcinoma metastasis. The cancer stem cell marker, CD133, might be the surface marker of endometrial cancer stem

  16. The Androgen Receptor Bridges Stem Cell-Associated Signaling Nodes in Prostate Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair H. Davies

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of stem cells relies on dissecting the complex signaling networks that are thought to regulate their pluripotency and self-renewal. Until recently, attention has focused almost exclusively on a small set of “core” transcription factors for maintaining the stem cell state. It is now clear that stem cell regulatory networks are far more complex. In this review, we examine the role of the androgen receptor (AR in coordinating interactions between signaling nodes that govern the balance of cell fate decisions in prostate stem cells.

  17. Cancer stem cells and differentiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiong; Jin, Xun; Kim, Hyunggee

    2017-10-01

    Cancer stem cells can generate tumors from only a small number of cells, whereas differentiated cancer cells cannot. The prominent feature of cancer stem cells is its ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple types of cancer cells. Cancer stem cells have several distinct tumorigenic abilities, including stem cell signal transduction, tumorigenicity, metastasis, and resistance to anticancer drugs, which are regulated by genetic or epigenetic changes. Like normal adult stem cells involved in various developmental processes and tissue homeostasis, cancer stem cells maintain their self-renewal capacity by activating multiple stem cell signaling pathways and inhibiting differentiation signaling pathways during cancer initiation and progression. Recently, many studies have focused on targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate malignancies by regulating stem cell signaling pathways, and products of some of these strategies are in preclinical and clinical trials. In this review, we describe the crucial features of cancer stem cells related to tumor relapse and drug resistance, as well as the new therapeutic strategy to target cancer stem cells named "differentiation therapy."

  18. [Perinatal sources of stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorska-Jasiulewicz, Magdalena Maria; Witkowska-Zimny, Małgorzata

    2015-03-08

    Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton's jelly.

  19. The neural crest is a source of mesenchymal stem cells with specialized hematopoietic stem cell niche function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isern, Joan; García-García, Andrés; Martín, Ana M; Arranz, Lorena; Martín-Pérez, Daniel; Torroja, Carlos; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón

    2014-09-25

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteolineage cells contribute to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow of long bones. However, their developmental relationships remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that different MSC populations in the developing marrow of long bones have distinct functions. Proliferative mesoderm-derived nestin(-) MSCs participate in fetal skeletogenesis and lose MSC activity soon after birth. In contrast, quiescent neural crest-derived nestin(+) cells preserve MSC activity, but do not generate fetal chondrocytes. Instead, they differentiate into HSC niche-forming MSCs, helping to establish the HSC niche by secreting Cxcl12. Perineural migration of these cells to the bone marrow requires the ErbB3 receptor. The neonatal Nestin-GFP(+) Pdgfrα(-) cell population also contains Schwann cell precursors, but does not comprise mature Schwann cells. Thus, in the developing bone marrow HSC niche-forming MSCs share a common origin with sympathetic peripheral neurons and glial cells, and ontogenically distinct MSCs have non-overlapping functions in endochondrogenesis and HSC niche formation.

  20. Materials as stem cell regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

  1. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  2. Stem cell therapy: the great promise in lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Dario; Sullo, Nikol; Maione, Sabatino; Rossi, Francesco; D'Agostino, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    Lung injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pulmonary diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by loss of lung elasticity, small airway tethers, and luminal obstruction with inflammatory mucoid secretions, or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis characterized by excessive matrix deposition and destruction of the normal lung architecture, have essentially symptomatic treatments and their management is costly to the health care system.Regeneration of tissue by stem cells from endogenous, exogenous, and even genetically modified cells is a promising novel therapy. The use of adult stem cells to help with lung regeneration and repair could be a newer technology in clinical and regenerative medicine. In fact, different studies have shown that bone marrow progenitor cells contribute to repair and remodeling of lung in animal models of progressive pulmonary hypertension.Therefore, lung stem cell biology may provide novel approaches to therapy and could represent a great promise for the future of molecular medicine. In fact, several diseases can be slowed or even blocked by stem cell transplantation.

  3. Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Ethan L; Terlecki, Ryan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jackson, John; Atala, Anthony

    2018-04-06

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) is substantial and continues to rise. Current therapeutics for ED consist of oral medications, intracavernosal injections, vacuum erection devices, and penile implants. While such options may manage the disease state, none of these modalities, however, restore function. Stem cell therapy has been evaluated for erectile restoration in animal models. These cells have been derived from multiple tissues, have varied potential, and may function via local engraftment or paracrine signaling. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) have both been used in these models with noteworthy effects. Herein, we will review the pathophysiology of ED, animal models, current and novel stem-cell based therapeutics, clinical trials and areas for future research. The relevant literature and contemporary data using keywords, "stem cells and erectile dysfunction" was reviewed. Examination of evidence supporting the association between erectile dysfunction and adipose derived stem cells, bone marrow derived stem cells, placental stem cells, urine stem cells and stem cell therapy respectively. Placental-derived stem cells and urine-derived stem cells possess many similar properties as BMSC and ASC, but the methods of acquisition are favorable. Human clinical trials have already demonstrated successful use of stem cells for improvement of erectile function. The future of stem cell research is constantly being evaluated, although, the evidence suggests a place for stem cells in erectile dysfunction therapeutics. Matz EL, Terlecki R, Zhang Y, et al. Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med Rev 2018;XX:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomaterial-stem cell interactions and their impact on stem cell response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oziemlak-Schaap, Aneta M.; Kuhn, Philipp T.; van Kooten, Theo G.; van Rijn, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this review, current research in the field of biomaterial properties for directing stem cells are discussed and placed in a critical perspective. Regenerative medicine, in which stem cells play a crucial role, has become an interdisciplinary field between cell biology and materials science. New

  5. Embryonic stem cells require Wnt proteins to prevent differentiation to epiblast stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. ten Berge (Derk); D. Kurek (Dorota); T. Blauwkamp (Tim); W. Koole (Wouter); A. Maas (Alex); E. Eroglu (Elif); R.K. Siu (Ronald); R. Nusse (Roel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPluripotent stem cells exist in naive and primed states, epitomized by mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the developmentally more advanced epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs; ref.). In the naive state of ESCs, the genome has an unusual open conformation and possesses a minimum of repressive

  6. Reprogramming stem cells is a microenvironmental task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Inman, Jamie

    2008-10-14

    That tumor cells for all practical purposes are unstable and plastic could be expected. However, the astonishing ability of the nuclei from cells of normal adult tissues to be reprogrammed - given the right embryonic context - found its final truth even for mammals in the experiments that allowed engineering Dolly (1). The landmark experiments showed that nuclei originating from cells of frozen mammary tissues were capable of being reprogrammed by the embryonic cytoplasm and its microenvironment to produce a normal sheep. The rest is history. However, whether microenvironments other than those of the embryos can also reprogram adult cells of different tissue origins still containing their cytoplasm is of obvious interest. In this issue of PNAS, the laboratory of Gilbert Smith (2) reports on how the mammary gland microenvironment can reprogram both embryonic and adult stem neuronal cells. The work is a follow-up to their previous report on testis stem cells that were reprogrammed by the mammary microenvironment (3). They demonstrated that cells isolated from the seminiferous tubules of the mature testis, mixed with normal mammary epithelial cells, contributed a sizable number of epithelial progeny to normal mammary outgrowths in transplanted mammary fat pads. However, in those experiments they were unable to distinguish which subpopulation of the testis cells contributed progeny to the mammary epithelial tree. The current work adds new, compelling, and provocative information to our understanding of stem cell plasticity. Booth et al. (2) use neuronal stem cells (NSCs) isolated from WAP-cre/R26R mice combined with unlabeled mammary epithelial cells that subsequently are implanted in cleared mammary fat pads. In this new microenvironment, the NSCs that are incorporated into the branching mammary tree make chimeric glands (Fig. 1) that remarkably can also express the milk protein {beta}-casein, progesterone receptor, and estrogen receptor {alpha}. Remarkably, the

  7. Optimization of three-dimensional imaging on in vitro produced porcine blastocysts and chimeras for stem cell testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Jan Ole Bertelsen; Freude, Kristine; Li, Rong

    2015-01-01

    . This is relevant for testing of presumed pluripotent stem cells. The gold standard for pluripotent stem cells is to test if the cells are capable of contributing to germline chimeras. Differential staining can be used to evaluate the possibility of chimeric contribution; if the cells are located in the area...

  8. Gigantol Suppresses Cancer Stem Cell-Like Phenotypes in Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumol Bhummaphan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As cancer stem cells (CSCs contribute to malignancy, metastasis, and relapse of cancers, potential of compound in inhibition of CSCs has garnered most attention in the cancer research as well as drug development fields recently. Herein, we have demonstrated for the first time that gigantol, a pure compound isolated from Dendrobium draconis, dramatically suppressed stem-like phenotypes of human lung cancer cells. Gigantol at nontoxic concentrations significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth and survival of the cancer cells. Importantly, gigantol significantly reduced the ability of the cancer cells to form tumor spheroids, a critical hallmark of CSCs. Concomitantly, the treatment of the compound was shown to reduce well-known lung CSCs markers, including CD133 and ALDH1A1. Moreover, we revealed that gigantol decreased stemness in the cancer cells by suppressing the activation of protein kinase B (Akt signal which in turn decreased the cellular levels of pluripotency and self-renewal factors Oct4 and Nanog. In conclusion, gigantol possesses CSCs suppressing activity which may facilitate the development of this compound for therapeutic approaches by targeting CSCs.

  9. Perinatal sources of stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Maria Piskorska-Jasiulewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton’s jelly.

  10. TOPICAL REVIEW: Stem cells engineering for cell-based therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Stem cells carry the promise to cure a broad range of diseases and injuries, from diabetes, heart and muscular diseases, to neurological diseases, disorders and injuries. Significant progresses have been made in stem cell research over the past decade; the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from human tissues, the development of cloning technology by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and the confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain and that neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS), including that of humans. Despite these advances, there may be decades before stem cell research will translate into therapy. Stem cell research is also subject to ethical and political debates, controversies and legislation, which slow its progress. Cell engineering has proven successful in bringing genetic research to therapy. In this review, I will review, in two examples, how investigators are applying cell engineering to stem cell biology to circumvent stem cells' ethical and political constraints and bolster stem cell research and therapy.

  11. Road for understanding cancer stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Erzik, Can

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and, consequently, can be the origin of many cancers. Recently, the neoplastic potential of stem cells has been supported by many groups showing the existence of subpopulations with stem cell characteristics...... in tumor biopsies such as brain and breast. Evidence supporting the cancer stem cell hypothesis has gained impact due to progress in stem cell biology and development of new models to validate the self-renewal potential of stem cells. Recent evidence on the possible identification of cancer stem cells may...... offer an opportunity to use these cells as future therapeutic targets. Therefore, model systems in this field have become very important and useful. This review will focus on the state of knowledge on cancer stem cell research, including cell line models for cancer stem cells. The latter will, as models...

  12. Role of the Vasa Vasorum and Vascular Resident Stem Cells in Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kawabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is considered an “inside-out” response, that begins with the dysfunction of intimal endothelial cells and leads to neointimal plaque formation. The adventitia of large blood vessels has been recognized as an active part of the vessel wall that is involved in the process of atherosclerosis. There are characteristic changes in the adventitial vasa vasorum that are associated with the development of atheromatous plaques. However, whether vasa vasorum plays a causative or merely reactive role in the atherosclerotic process is not completely clear. Recent studies report that the vascular wall contains a number of stem/progenitor cells that may contribute to vascular remodeling. Microvessels serve as the vascular niche that maintains the resident stem/progenitor cells of the tissue. Therefore, the vasa vasorum may contribute to vascular remodeling through not only its conventional function as a blood conducting tube, but also its new conceptual function as a stem cell reservoir. This brief review highlights the recent advances contributing to our understanding of the role of the adventitial vasa vasorum in the atherosclerosis and discusses new concept that involves vascular-resident factors, the vasa vasorum and its associated vascular-resident stem cells, in the atherosclerotic process.

  13. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2 , CALR , or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Activin pathway enhances colorectal cancer stem cell self-renew and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Jun-Hua; Xu, Chengxiong; Sun, Bo; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2016-10-28

    Activin belongs to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β super family of growth and differentiation factors and activin pathway participated in broad range of cell process. Studies elaborated activin pathway maintain pluripotency in human stem cells and suggest that the function of activin/nodal signaling in self-renew would be conserved across embryonic and adult stem cells. In this study, we tried to determine the effect of activin signaling pathway in regulation of cancer stem cells as a potential target for cancer therapy in clinical trials. A population of colorectal cancer cells was selected by the treatment of activin A. This population of cell possessed stem cell character with sphere formation ability. We demonstrated activin pathway enhanced the colorectal cancer stem cells self-renew and contribute to colorectal cancer progression in vivo. Targeting activin pathway potentially provide effective strategy for colorectal cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stem cell engineering a WTEC global assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, Jeanne; McDevitt, Todd; Palecek, Sean; Schaffer, David; Zandstra, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This book describes a global assessment of stem cell engineering research, achieved through site visits by a panel of experts to leading institutes, followed by dedicated workshops. The assessment made clear that engineers and the engineering approach with its quantitative, system-based thinking can contribute much to the progress of stem cell research and development. The increased need for complex computational models and new, innovative technologies, such as high-throughput screening techniques, organ-on-a-chip models and in vitro tumor models require an increasing involvement of engineers and physical scientists. Additionally, this book will show that although the US is still in a leadership position in stem cell engineering, Asian countries such as Japan, China and Korea, as well as European countries like the UK, Germany, Sweden and the Netherlands are rapidly expanding their investments in the field. Strategic partnerships between countries could lead to major advances of the field and scalable expansi...

  16. Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yalin; Kim, Min Soo; Jia, Baosen; Yan, Jingqi; Zuniga-Hertz, Juan Pablo; Han, Cheng; Cai, Dongsheng

    2017-08-03

    It has been proposed that the hypothalamus helps to control ageing, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Here we develop several mouse models in which hypothalamic stem/progenitor cells that co-express Sox2 and Bmi1 are ablated, as we observed that ageing in mice started with a substantial loss of these hypothalamic cells. Each mouse model consistently displayed acceleration of ageing-like physiological changes or a shortened lifespan. Conversely, ageing retardation and lifespan extension were achieved in mid-aged mice that were locally implanted with healthy hypothalamic stem/progenitor cells that had been genetically engineered to survive in the ageing-related hypothalamic inflammatory microenvironment. Mechanistically, hypothalamic stem/progenitor cells contributed greatly to exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, and these exosomal miRNAs declined during ageing, whereas central treatment with healthy hypothalamic stem/progenitor cell-secreted exosomes led to the slowing of ageing. In conclusion, ageing speed is substantially controlled by hypothalamic stem cells, partially through the release of exosomal miRNAs.

  17. Symmetric vs. asymmetric stem cell divisions: an adaptation against cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Shahriyari

    Full Text Available Traditionally, it has been held that a central characteristic of stem cells is their ability to divide asymmetrically. Recent advances in inducible genetic labeling provided ample evidence that symmetric stem cell divisions play an important role in adult mammalian homeostasis. It is well understood that the two types of cell divisions differ in terms of the stem cells' flexibility to expand when needed. On the contrary, the implications of symmetric and asymmetric divisions for mutation accumulation are still poorly understood. In this paper we study a stochastic model of a renewing tissue, and address the optimization problem of tissue architecture in the context of mutant production. Specifically, we study the process of tumor suppressor gene inactivation which usually takes place as a consequence of two "hits", and which is one of the most common patterns in carcinogenesis. We compare and contrast symmetric and asymmetric (and mixed stem cell divisions, and focus on the rate at which double-hit mutants are generated. It turns out that symmetrically-dividing cells generate such mutants at a rate which is significantly lower than that of asymmetrically-dividing cells. This result holds whether single-hit (intermediate mutants are disadvantageous, neutral, or advantageous. It is also independent on whether the carcinogenic double-hit mutants are produced only among the stem cells or also among more specialized cells. We argue that symmetric stem cell divisions in mammals could be an adaptation which helps delay the onset of cancers. We further investigate the question of the optimal fraction of stem cells in the tissue, and quantify the contribution of non-stem cells in mutant production. Our work provides a hypothesis to explain the observation that in mammalian cells, symmetric patterns of stem cell division seem to be very common.

  18. When stem cells grow old: phenotypes and mechanisms of stem cell aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael B.; Sinclair, David A.

    2016-01-01

    All multicellular organisms undergo a decline in tissue and organ function as they age. An attractive theory is that a loss in stem cell number and/or activity over time causes this decline. In accordance with this theory, aging phenotypes have been described for stem cells of multiple tissues, including those of the hematopoietic system, intestine, muscle, brain, skin and germline. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of why adult stem cells age and how this aging impacts diseases and lifespan. With this increased understanding, it is feasible to design and test interventions that delay stem cell aging and improve both health and lifespan. PMID:26732838

  19. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graft-versus-host disease: A potential risk when stem cells come from donors If you receive a transplant ... medications and blood products into your body. Collecting stem cells for transplant If a transplant using your own ...

  20. From here to there, progenitor cells and stem cells are everywhere in lung vascular remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Heise

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of stem cell biology, cell therapy and regenerative medicine has expanded almost exponentially in the last decade. Clinical trials are evaluating the potential therapeutic use of stem cells in many adult and pediatric lung diseases with vascular component, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Extensive research activity is exploring lung resident and circulating progenitor cells and their contribution to vascular complications of chronic lung diseases, and researchers hope to use resident or circulating stem/progenitor cells to treat chronic lung diseases and their vascular complications. It is becoming more and more clear that progress in mechanobiology will help to understand the various influences of physical forces and extracellular matrix composition on the phenotype and features of the progenitor cells and stem cells. The current review provides an overview of current concepts in the field.

  1. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  2. [Characterization of stem cells derived from the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diensthuber, M; Heller, S

    2010-11-01

    In contrast to regenerating hair cell-bearing organs of nonmammalian vertebrates the adult mammalian organ of Corti appears to have lost its ability to maintain stem cells. The result is a lack of regenerative ability and irreversible hearing loss following auditory hair cell death. Unexpectedly, the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium has recently been shown to harbor cells with stem cell features. The origin of these cells within the cochlea's sensory epithelium is unknown. We applied a modified neurosphere assay to identify stem cells within distinct subregions of the neonatal mouse auditory sensory epithelium. Sphere cells were characterized by multiple markers and morphologic techniques. Our data reveal that both the greater and the lesser epithelial ridge contribute to the sphere-forming stem cell population derived from the auditory sensory epithelium. These self-renewing sphere cells express a variety of markers for neural and otic progenitor cells and mature inner ear cell types. Stem cells can be isolated from specific regions of the auditory sensory epithelium. The distinct features of these cells imply a potential application in the development of a cell replacement therapy to regenerate the damaged sensory epithelium.

  3. The epidermis comprises autonomous compartments maintained by distinct stem cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Page, Mahalia E; Lombard, Patrick; Ng, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    populations. In contrast, upon wounding, stem cell progeny from multiple compartments acquire lineage plasticity and make permanent contributions to regenerating tissue. We further show that oncogene activation in Lrig1(+ve) cells drives hyperplasia but requires auxiliary stimuli for tumor formation....... In summary, our data demonstrate that epidermal stem cells are lineage restricted during homeostasis and suggest that compartmentalization may constitute a conserved mechanism underlying epithelial tissue maintenance....

  4. Mechanosensing of matrix by stem cells: From matrix heterogeneity, contractility, and the nucleus in pore-migration to cardiogenesis and muscle stem cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucas; Cho, Sangkyun; Discher, Dennis E

    2017-11-01

    Stem cells are particularly 'plastic' cell types that are induced by various cues to become specialized, tissue-functional lineages by switching on the expression of specific gene programs. Matrix stiffness is among the cues that multiple stem cell types can sense and respond to. This seminar-style review focuses on mechanosensing of matrix elasticity in the differentiation or early maturation of a few illustrative stem cell types, with an intended audience of biologists and physical scientists. Contractile forces applied by a cell's acto-myosin cytoskeleton are often resisted by the extracellular matrix and transduced through adhesions and the cytoskeleton ultimately into the nucleus to modulate gene expression. Complexity is added by matrix heterogeneity, and careful scrutiny of the evident stiffness heterogeneity in some model systems resolves some controversies concerning matrix mechanosensing. Importantly, local stiffness tends to dominate, and 'durotaxis' of stem cells toward stiff matrix reveals a dependence of persistent migration on myosin-II force generation and also rigid microtubules that confer directionality. Stem and progenitor cell migration in 3D can be further affected by matrix porosity as well as stiffness, with nuclear size and rigidity influencing niche retention and fate choices. Cell squeezing through rigid pores can even cause DNA damage and genomic changes that contribute to de-differentiation toward stem cell-like states. Contraction of acto-myosin is the essential function of striated muscle, which also exhibit mechanosensitive differentiation and maturation as illustrated in vivo by beating heart cells and by the regenerative mobilization of skeletal muscle stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative study of adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in similar microenvironmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guneta, Vipra [Division of Materials Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tan, Nguan Soon [School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science Technology & Research - A*STAR, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore 138673 (Singapore); Chan, Soon Kiat Jeremy [School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Tanavde, Vivek [Bioinformatics Institute, Agency for Science Technology & Research - A*STAR, 30 Biopolis Street, Matrix, Singapore 138671 (Singapore); Lim, Thiam Chye [Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Department of Surgery, National University Hospital (NUH) and National University of Singapore (NUS), Kent Ridge Wing, Singapore 119074 (Singapore); Wong, Thien Chong Marcus [Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Section, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), 11, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Choong, Cleo, E-mail: cleochoong@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore)

    2016-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were first isolated from the bone marrow, are now being extracted from various other tissues in the body, including the adipose tissue. The current study presents systematic evidence of how the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bm-MSCs) behave when cultured in specific pro-adipogenic microenvironments. The cells were first characterized and identified as MSCs in terms of their morphology, phenotypic expression, self-renewal capabilities and multi-lineage potential. Subsequently, the proliferation and gene expression profiles of the cell populations cultured on two-dimensional (2D) adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated tissue culture plastic (TCP) and in three-dimensional (3D) AlgiMatrix® microenvironments were analyzed. Overall, it was found that adipogenesis was triggered in both cell populations due to the presence of adipose tissue ECM. However, in 3D microenvironments, ASCs and Bm-MSCs were predisposed to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages respectively. Overall, findings from this study will contribute to ongoing efforts in adipose tissue engineering as well as provide new insights into the role of the ECM and cues provided by the immediate microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Native adipose tissue ECM coated on 2D TCP triggers adipogenesis in both ASCs and Bm-MSCs. • A 3D microenvironment with similar stiffness to adipose tissue induces adipogenic differentiation of ASCs. • ASCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to adipogenesis. • Bm-MSCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to osteogenesis. • The native microenvironment of the cells affects their differentiation behaviour in vitro.

  6. Comparative study of adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in similar microenvironmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guneta, Vipra; Tan, Nguan Soon; Chan, Soon Kiat Jeremy; Tanavde, Vivek; Lim, Thiam Chye; Wong, Thien Chong Marcus; Choong, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were first isolated from the bone marrow, are now being extracted from various other tissues in the body, including the adipose tissue. The current study presents systematic evidence of how the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bm-MSCs) behave when cultured in specific pro-adipogenic microenvironments. The cells were first characterized and identified as MSCs in terms of their morphology, phenotypic expression, self-renewal capabilities and multi-lineage potential. Subsequently, the proliferation and gene expression profiles of the cell populations cultured on two-dimensional (2D) adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated tissue culture plastic (TCP) and in three-dimensional (3D) AlgiMatrix® microenvironments were analyzed. Overall, it was found that adipogenesis was triggered in both cell populations due to the presence of adipose tissue ECM. However, in 3D microenvironments, ASCs and Bm-MSCs were predisposed to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages respectively. Overall, findings from this study will contribute to ongoing efforts in adipose tissue engineering as well as provide new insights into the role of the ECM and cues provided by the immediate microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Native adipose tissue ECM coated on 2D TCP triggers adipogenesis in both ASCs and Bm-MSCs. • A 3D microenvironment with similar stiffness to adipose tissue induces adipogenic differentiation of ASCs. • ASCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to adipogenesis. • Bm-MSCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to osteogenesis. • The native microenvironment of the cells affects their differentiation behaviour in vitro.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Nóra; Veréb, Zoltán; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Német, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. ► Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. ► MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  8. Stem Cells and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliakos, George

    2017-02-01

    The article is a presentation at the 4th Conference of ESAAM, which took place on October 30-31, 2015, in Athens, Greece. Its purpose was not to cover all aspects of cellular aging but to share with the audience of the Conference, in a 15-minute presentation, current knowledge about the rejuvenating and repairing somatic stem cells that are distinct from other stem cell types (such as embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells), emphasize that our body in old age cannot take advantage of these rejuvenating cells, and provide some examples of novel experimental stem cell applications in the field of rejuvenation and antiaging biomedical research.

  9. Aging and stem cell therapy: AMPK as an applicable pharmacological target for rejuvenation of aged stem cells and achieving higher efficacy in stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorraminejad-Shirazi, Mohammadhossein; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Kardeh, Bahareh; Estedlal, Alireza; Kardeh, Sina; Monabati, Ahmad

    2017-10-19

    In recent years, tissue regeneration has become a promising field for developing stem cell-based transplantation therapies for human patients. Adult stem cells are affected by the same aging mechanisms that involve somatic cells. One of the mechanisms involved in cellular aging is hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and disruption of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Aging of stem cells results in their impaired regenerative capacity and depletion of stem cell pools in adult tissue, which results in lower efficacy of stem cell therapy. By utilizing an effective therapeutic intervention for aged stem cells, stem cell therapy can become more promising for future application. mTORC1 inhibition is a practical approach to preserve the stem cell pool. In this article, we review the dynamic interaction between sirtuin (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, AMPK, and mTORC1. We propose that using AMPK activators such as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, A769662, metformin, and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) are practical ways to be employed for achieving better optimized results in stem cell-based transplantation therapies. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stem Cell Lineages: Between Cell and Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Bonnie Fagan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies of living things are increasingly grounded on the concepts and practices of current life science. Biological development is a process, undergone by living things, which begins with a single cell and (in an important class of cases ends with formation of a multicellular organism. The process of development is thus prima facie central for ideas about biological individuality and organismality. However, recent accounts of these concepts do not engage developmental biology. This paper aims to fill the gap, proposing the lineage view of stem cells as an ontological framework for conceptualizing organismal development. This account is grounded on experimental practices of stem cell research, with emphasis on new techniques for generating biological organization in vitro. On the lineage view, a stem cell is the starting point of a cell lineage with a specific organismal source, time-interval of existence, and ‘tree topology’ of branch-points linking the stem to developmental termini. The concept of ‘enkapsis’ accommodates the cell-organism relation within the lineage view; this hierarchical notion is further explicated by considering the methods and results of stem cell experiments. Results of this examination include a (partial characterization of stem cells’ developmental versatility, and the context-dependence of developmental processes involving stem cells.

  11. Fluorescent labelling of intestinal epithelial cells reveals independent long-lived intestinal stem cells in a crypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horita, Nobukatsu [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kiichiro, E-mail: kii.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Diseases, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Hayashi, Ryohei [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Hiroshima University (Japan); Fukushima, Keita; Hibiya, Shuji; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Yui, Shiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Okamoto, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Department of Advanced Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Diseases, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Watanabe, Mamoru [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Lentivirus mixed with Matrigel enables direct infection of intestinal organoids. • Our original approach allows the marking of a single stem cell in a crypt. • Time-lapse imaging shows the dynamics of a single stem cell. • Our lentivirus transgene system demonstrates plural long-lived stem cells in a crypt. - Abstract: Background and aims: The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour. Methods: Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence. Results: We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1 year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids. Conclusions: The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus.

  12. Fluorescent labelling of intestinal epithelial cells reveals independent long-lived intestinal stem cells in a crypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, Nobukatsu; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Hayashi, Ryohei; Fukushima, Keita; Hibiya, Shuji; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Yui, Shiro; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lentivirus mixed with Matrigel enables direct infection of intestinal organoids. • Our original approach allows the marking of a single stem cell in a crypt. • Time-lapse imaging shows the dynamics of a single stem cell. • Our lentivirus transgene system demonstrates plural long-lived stem cells in a crypt. - Abstract: Background and aims: The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour. Methods: Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence. Results: We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1 year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids. Conclusions: The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus

  13. Osteopontin attenuates aging-associated phenotypes of hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Novella; Sacma, Mehmet; Ständker, Ludger; Soller, Karin; Marka, Gina; Eiwen, Karina; Weiss, Johannes M; Kirchhoff, Frank; Weil, Tanja; Cancelas, Jose A; Florian, Maria Carolina; Geiger, Hartmut

    2017-04-03

    Upon aging, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo changes in function and structure, including skewing to myeloid lineages, lower reconstitution potential and loss of protein polarity. While stem cell intrinsic mechanisms are known to contribute to HSC aging, little is known on whether age-related changes in the bone marrow niche regulate HSC aging. Upon aging, the expression of osteopontin (OPN) in the murine bone marrow stroma is reduced. Exposure of young HSCs to an OPN knockout niche results in a decrease in engraftment, an increase in long-term HSC frequency and loss of stem cell polarity. Exposure of aged HSCs to thrombin-cleaved OPN attenuates aging of old HSCs, resulting in increased engraftment, decreased HSC frequency, increased stem cell polarity and a restored balance of lymphoid and myeloid cells in peripheral blood. Thus, our data suggest a critical role for reduced stroma-derived OPN for HSC aging and identify thrombin-cleaved OPN as a novel niche informed therapeutic approach for ameliorating HSC phenotypes associated with aging. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  14. Stem cell plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Verfaillie, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack of a clear definition for plasticity has led to confusion with several reports failing to demonstrate that a single cell can indeed differentiate into multiple lineages at significant levels. Further, differences between results obtained in different labs has cast doubt on some results and several studies still await independent confirmation. In this review, we critically evaluate studies that report stem cell plasticity using three rigid criteria to define stem cell plasticity; differentiation of a single cell into multiple cell lineages, functionality of differentiated cells in vitro and in vivo, robust and persistent engraft of transplanted cells.

  15. Characterization and comparison of osteoblasts derived from mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming San; Kannan, Vishnu; de Vries, Anneriek E; Czepiel, Marcin; Wesseling, Evelyn; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Kuijer, Roelof; Vissink, Arjan; Copray, Sjef; Raghoebar, Gerry

    New developments in stem cell biology offer alternatives for the reconstruction of critical-sized bone defects. One of these developments is the use of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These stem cells are similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, but can be generated from adult somatic cells and

  16. When stem cells grow old: phenotypes and mechanisms of stem cell aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael B; Sinclair, David A

    2016-01-01

    All multicellular organisms undergo a decline in tissue and organ function as they age. An attractive theory is that a loss in stem cell number and/or activity over time causes this decline. In accordance with this theory, aging phenotypes have been described for stem cells of multiple tissues, including those of the hematopoietic system, intestine, muscle, brain, skin and germline. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of why adult stem cells age and how this aging impacts diseases and lifespan. With this increased understanding, it is feasible to design and test interventions that delay stem cell aging and improve both health and lifespan. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Non-coding RNAs in Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles: Deciphering Regulatory Roles in Stem Cell Potency, Inflammatory Resolve, and Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Fatima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are heterogeneous populations of nano- and micro-sized vesicles secreted by various cell types. There is mounting evidence that EVs have widespread roles in transporting proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between cells and serve as mediators of intercellular communication. EVs secreted from stem cells could function as paracrine factors, and appear to mimic and recapitulate several features of their secreting cells. EV-mediated transport of regulatory RNAs provides a novel source of trans-regulation between cells. As such, stem cells have evolved unique forms of paracrine mechanisms for recapitulating their potencies with specialized functions by transporting non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs via EVs. This includes the dissemination of stem cell-derived EV-ncRNAs and their regulatory effects elicited in differentiation, self-renewal, pluripotency, and the induction of reparative programs. Here, we summarize and discuss the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cell-derived EV-ncRNAs in the induction of intrinsic regenerative programs elicited through regulating several mechanisms. Among them, most noticeable are the EV-mediated enrichment of ncRNAs at the injury sites contributing the regulation of matrix remodeling, epithelial mesenchymal transitions, and attraction of fibroblasts. Additionally, we emphasize EV-mediated transmission of anti-inflammatory RNAs from stem cells to injury site that potentially orchestrate the resolution of the inflammatory responses and immune alleviation to better facilitate healing processes. Collectively, this knowledge indicates a high value and potential of EV-mediated RNA-based therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine.

  18. THE GERMLINE STEM CELL NICHE UNIT IN MAMMALIAN TESTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Jon M.; Brinster, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    This review addresses current understanding of the germline stem cell niche unit in mammalian testes. Spermatogenesis is a classic model of tissue-specific stem cell function relying on self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). These fate decisions are influenced by a niche microenvironment composed of a growth factor milieu that is provided by several testis somatic support cell populations. Investigations over the last two decades have identified key determinants of the SSC niche including cytokines that regulate SSC functions and support cells providing these factors, adhesion molecules that influence SSC homing, and developmental heterogeneity of the niche during postnatal aging. Emerging evidence suggests that Sertoli cells are a key support cell population influencing the formation and function of niches by secreting soluble factors and possibly orchestrating contributions of other support cells. Investigations with mice have shown that niche influence on SSC proliferation differs during early postnatal development and adulthood. Moreover, there is mounting evidence of an age-related decline in niche function, which is likely influenced by systemic factors. Defining the attributes of stem cell niches is key to developing methods to utilize these cells for regenerative medicine. The SSC population and associated niche comprise a valuable model system for study that provides fundamental knowledge about the biology of tissue-specific stem cells and their capacity to sustain homeostasis of regenerating tissue lineages. While the stem cell is essential for maintenance of all self-renewing tissues and has received considerable attention, the role of niche cells is at least as important and may prove to be more receptive to modification in regenerative medicine. PMID:22535892

  19. Current Status on Stem Cells and Cancers of the Gastric Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hoffmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is still a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide in spite of declining incidence. Gastric cancers are, essentially, adenocarcinomas and one of the strongest risk factors is still infection with Helicobacter pylori. Within the last years, it became clear that gastric self-renewal and carcinogenesis are intimately linked, particularly during chronic inflammatory conditions. Generally, gastric cancer is now regarded as a disease resulting from dysregulated differentiation of stem and progenitor cells, mainly due to an inflammatory environment. However, the situation in the stomach is rather complex, consisting of two types of gastric units which show bidirectional self-renewal from an unexpectedly large variety of progenitor/stem cell populations. As in many other tumors, cancer stem cells have also been characterized for gastric cancer. This review focuses on the various gastric epithelial stem cells, how they contribute to self-renewal and which routes are known to gastric adenocarcinomas, including their stem cells.

  20. Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediate viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brian Sims,1,2,* Linlin Gu,3,* Alexandre Krendelchtchikov,3 Qiana L Matthews3,4 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 4Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Viruses enter host cells through interactions of viral ligands with cellular receptors. Viruses can also enter cells in a receptor-independent fashion. Mechanisms regarding the receptor-independent viral entry into cells have not been fully elucidated. Exosomal trafficking between cells may offer a mechanism by which viruses can enter cells.Methods: To investigate the role of exosomes on cellular viral entry, we employed neural stem cell-derived exosomes and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 for the proof-of-principle study. Results: Exosomes significantly enhanced Ad5 entry in Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR-deficient cells, in which Ad5 only had very limited entry. The exosomes were shown to contain T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM-4, which binds phosphatidylserine. Treatment with anti-TIM-4 antibody significantly blocked the exosome-mediated Ad5 entry.Conclusion: Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediated significant cellular entry of Ad5 in a receptor-independent fashion. This mediation may be hampered by an antibody specifically targeting TIM-4 on exosomes. This set of results will benefit further elucidation of virus/exosome pathways, which would contribute to reducing natural viral infection by developing therapeutic agents or vaccines. Keywords: neural stem cell-derived exosomes, adenovirus type 5, TIM-4, viral entry, phospholipids

  1. What's missing? Discussing stem cell translational research in educational information on stem cell "tourism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Zarzeczny, Amy; Rachul, Christen; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell tourism is a growing industry in which patients pursue unproven stem cell therapies for a wide variety of illnesses and conditions. It is a challenging market to regulate due to a number of factors including its international, online, direct-to-consumer approach. Calls to provide education and information to patients, their families, physicians, and the general public about the risks associated with stem cell tourism are mounting. Initial studies examining the perceptions of patients who have pursued stem cell tourism indicate many are highly critical of the research and regulatory systems in their home countries and believe them to be stagnant and unresponsive to patient needs. We suggest that educational material should include an explanation of the translational research process, in addition to other aspects of stem cell tourism, as one means to help promote greater understanding and, ideally, curb patient demand for unproven stem cell interventions. The material provided must stress that strong scientific research is required in order for therapies to be safe and have a greater chance at being effective. Through an analysis of educational material on stem cell tourism and translational stem cell research from patient groups and scientific societies, we describe essential elements that should be conveyed in educational material provided to patients. Although we support the broad dissemination of educational material on stem cell translational research, we also acknowledge that education may simply not be enough to engender patient and public trust in domestic research and regulatory systems. However, promoting patient autonomy by providing good quality information to patients so they can make better informed decisions is valuable in itself, irrespective of whether it serves as an effective deterrent of stem cell tourism. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  2. The therapeutic implications of plasticity of the cancer stem cell phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Leder

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell hypothesis suggests that tumors contain a small population of cancer cells that have the ability to undergo symmetric self-renewing cell division. In tumors that follow this model, cancer stem cells produce various kinds of specified precursors that divide a limited number of times before terminally differentiating or undergoing apoptosis. As cells within the tumor mature, they become progressively more restricted in the cell types to which they can give rise. However, in some tumor types, the presence of certain extra- or intracellular signals can induce committed cancer progenitors to revert to a multipotential cancer stem cell state. In this paper, we design a novel mathematical model to investigate the dynamics of tumor progression in such situations, and study the implications of a reversible cancer stem cell phenotype for therapeutic interventions. We find that higher levels of dedifferentiation substantially reduce the effectiveness of therapy directed at cancer stem cells by leading to higher rates of resistance. We conclude that plasticity of the cancer stem cell phenotype is an important determinant of the prognosis of tumors. This model represents the first mathematical investigation of this tumor trait and contributes to a quantitative understanding of cancer.

  3. Niche matters: The comparison between bone marrow stem cells and endometrial stem cells and stromal fibroblasts reveal distinct migration and cytokine profiles in response to inflammatory stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuma Khatun

    Full Text Available Intrinsic inflammatory characteristics play a pivotal role in stem cell recruitment and homing through migration where the subsequent change in niche has been shown to alter these characteristics. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs have been demonstrated to migrate to the endometrium contributing to the stem cell reservoir and regeneration of endometrial tissue. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the inflammation-driven migration and cytokine secretion profile of human bmMSCs to endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs and endometrial fibroblasts (eSFs.The bmMSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirates through culturing, whereas eMSCs and eSFs were FACS-isolated. All cell types were tested for their surface marker, proliferation profiles and migration properties towards serum and inflammatory attractants. The cytokine/chemokine secretion profile of 35 targets was analysed in each cell type at basal level along with lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced state.Both stem cell types, bmMSCs and eMSCs, presented with similar stem cell surface marker profiles as well as possessed high proliferation and migration potential compared to eSFs. In multiplex assays, the secretion of 16 cytokine targets was detected and LPS stimulation expanded the cytokine secretion pattern by triggering the secretion of several targets. The bmMSCs exhibited higher cytokine secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA, IL-6, interferon-gamma inducible protein (IP-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP1α and RANTES compared to eMSCs and/or eSFs after stimulation with LPS. The basal IL-8 secretion was higher in both endometrial cell types compared to bmMSCs.Our results highlight that similar to bmMSCs, the eMSCs possess high migration activity while the differentiation process towards stromal fibroblasts seemed

  4. Stem Cell Technology in Cardiac Regeneration: A Pluripotent Stem Cell Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duelen, Robin; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2017-02-01

    Despite advances in cardiovascular biology and medical therapy, heart disorders are the leading cause of death worldwide. Cell-based regenerative therapies become a promising treatment for patients affected by heart failure, but also underline the need for reproducible results in preclinical and clinical studies for safety and efficacy. Enthusiasm has been tempered by poor engraftment, survival and differentiation of the injected adult stem cells. The crucial challenge is identification and selection of the most suitable stem cell type for cardiac regenerative medicine. Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have emerged as attractive cell source to obtain cardiomyocytes (CMs), with potential applications, including drug discovery and toxicity screening, disease modelling and innovative cell therapies. Lessons from embryology offered important insights into the development of stem cell-derived CMs. However, the generation of a CM population, uniform in cardiac subtype, adult maturation and functional properties, is highly recommended. Moreover, hurdles regarding tumorigenesis, graft cell death, immune rejection and arrhythmogenesis need to be overcome in clinical practice. Here we highlight the recent progression in PSC technologies for the regeneration of injured heart. We review novel strategies that might overcome current obstacles in heart regenerative medicine, aiming at improving cell survival and functional integration after cell transplantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Stem Cell Technology in Cardiac Regeneration: A Pluripotent Stem Cell Promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Duelen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in cardiovascular biology and medical therapy, heart disorders are the leading cause of death worldwide. Cell-based regenerative therapies become a promising treatment for patients affected by heart failure, but also underline the need for reproducible results in preclinical and clinical studies for safety and efficacy. Enthusiasm has been tempered by poor engraftment, survival and differentiation of the injected adult stem cells. The crucial challenge is identification and selection of the most suitable stem cell type for cardiac regenerative medicine. Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs have emerged as attractive cell source to obtain cardiomyocytes (CMs, with potential applications, including drug discovery and toxicity screening, disease modelling and innovative cell therapies. Lessons from embryology offered important insights into the development of stem cell-derived CMs. However, the generation of a CM population, uniform in cardiac subtype, adult maturation and functional properties, is highly recommended. Moreover, hurdles regarding tumorigenesis, graft cell death, immune rejection and arrhythmogenesis need to be overcome in clinical practice. Here we highlight the recent progression in PSC technologies for the regeneration of injured heart. We review novel strategies that might overcome current obstacles in heart regenerative medicine, aiming at improving cell survival and functional integration after cell transplantation.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  7. Systems Biology and Stem Cell Pluripotency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Freude, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology have accelerated research in the area of regenerative medicine. Over the past years, it has become possible to derive patient-specific stem cells which can be used to generate different cell populations for potential cell therapy. Systems biological...... modeling of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation have largely been based on prior knowledge of signaling pathways, gene regulatory networks, and epigenetic factors. However, there is a great need to extend the complexity of the modeling and to integrate different types of data, which would further...... improve systems biology and its uses in the field. In this chapter, we first give a general background on stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Stem cell potency is introduced together with the hierarchy of stem cells ranging from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem...

  8. Engineering Stem Cells for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Perry T.; Han, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by a number of useful properties, including their ability to migrate, differentiate, and secrete a variety of therapeutic molecules such as immunomodulatory factors. As such, numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have utilized stem cell-based therapies and demonstrated their tremendous potential for the treatment of various human diseases and disorders. Recently, efforts have focused on engineering stem cells in order to further enhance their innate abilities as well as to confer them with new functionalities, which can then be used in various biomedical applications. These engineered stem cells can take on a number of forms. For instance, engineered stem cells encompass the genetic modification of stem cells as well as the use of stem cells for gene delivery, nanoparticle loading and delivery, and even small molecule drug delivery. The present Review gives an in-depth account of the current status of engineered stem cells, including potential cell sources, the most common methods used to engineer stem cells, and the utilization of engineered stem cells in various biomedical applications, with a particular focus on tissue regeneration, the treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, and cancer. PMID:25772134

  9. Engineering Stem Cells for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Perry T; Han, Edward; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2016-01-07

    Stem cells are characterized by a number of useful properties, including their ability to migrate, differentiate, and secrete a variety of therapeutic molecules such as immunomodulatory factors. As such, numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have utilized stem cell-based therapies and demonstrated their tremendous potential for the treatment of various human diseases and disorders. Recently, efforts have focused on engineering stem cells in order to further enhance their innate abilities as well as to confer them with new functionalities, which can then be used in various biomedical applications. These engineered stem cells can take on a number of forms. For instance, engineered stem cells encompass the genetic modification of stem cells as well as the use of stem cells for gene delivery, nanoparticle loading and delivery, and even small molecule drug delivery. The present Review gives an in-depth account of the current status of engineered stem cells, including potential cell sources, the most common methods used to engineer stem cells, and the utilization of engineered stem cells in various biomedical applications, with a particular focus on tissue regeneration, the treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, and cancer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. International Society for Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... renowned stem cell and regenerative medicine community. More stem cell research Take a closer look Recent Blogs View ... story independent nonprofit organization & the voice of the stem cell research community The International Society for Stem Cell ...

  11. Twenty years of embryonic stem cell research in farm animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notable distinctions between an embryonic stem cell (ESC) and somatic cell are that the ESC can maintain an undifferentiated state indefinitely, self renew, and is pluripotent, meaning that the ESC can potentially generate cells representing all the three primordial germ layers and contribute to the...

  12. Stem Cells in Burn Eschar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; Vlig, M.; van Milligen-Kummer, F.J.; de Vries, S.I.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares mesenchymal cells isolated from excised burn wound eschar with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and dermal fibroblasts in their ability to conform to the requirements for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A population of multipotent stem cells in burn eschar could be an

  13. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth / For Teens / Stem Cell Transplants What's ... Take to Recover? Coping Print What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  14. [Progress in stem cells and regenerative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libin; Zhu, He; Hao, Jie; Zhou, Qi

    2015-06-01

    Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all types of cells in the body and therefore have great application potential in regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modelling and drug screening. In recent years, stem cell technology has made great progress, and induced pluripotent stem cell technology revolutionizes the whole stem cell field. At the same time, stem cell research in our country has also achieved great progress and becomes an indispensable power in the worldwide stem cell research field. This review mainly focuses on the research progress in stem cells and regenerative medicine in our country since the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, including induced pluripotent stem cells, transdifferentiation, haploid stem cells, and new gene editing tools.

  15. Stem cells applications in bone and tooth repair and regeneration: New insights, tools, and hopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Meguid, Eiman; Ke, Yuehai; Ji, Junfeng; El-Hashash, Ahmed H K

    2018-03-01

    The exploration of stem and progenitor cells holds promise for advancing our understanding of the biology of tissue repair and regeneration mechanisms after injury. This will also help in the future use of stem cell therapy for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of different tissue-species defects or disorders such as bone, cartilages, and tooth defects or disorders. Bone is a specialized connective tissue, with mineralized extracellular components that provide bones with both strength and rigidity, and thus enable bones to function in body mechanical supports and necessary locomotion process. New insights have been added to the use of different types of stem cells in bone and tooth defects over the last few years. In this concise review, we briefly describe bone structure as well as summarize recent research progress and accumulated information regarding the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, as well as stem cell contributions to bone repair/regeneration, bone defects or disorders, and both restoration and regeneration of bones and cartilages. We also discuss advances in the osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration of dental and periodontal stem cells as well as in stem cell contributions to dentine regeneration and tooth engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Potential antitumor therapeutic strategies of human amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, N-H; Hwang, K-A; Kim, S U; Kim, Y-B; Hyun, S-H; Jeung, E-B; Choi, K-C

    2012-08-01

    As stem cells are capable of self-renewal and can generate differentiated progenies for organ development, they are considered as potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. Along with this capacity, stem cells have the therapeutic potential for treating human diseases including cancers. According to the origins, stem cells are broadly classified into two types: embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells. In terms of differentiation potential, ESCs are pluripotent and adult stem cells are multipotent. Amnion, which is a membranous sac that contains the fetus and amniotic fluid and functions in protecting the developing embryo during gestation, is another stem cell source. Amnion-derived stem cells are classified as human amniotic membrane-derived epithelial stem cells, human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells. They are in an intermediate stage between pluripotent ESCs and lineage-restricted adult stem cells, non-tumorigenic, and contribute to low immunogenicity and anti-inflammation. Furthermore, they are easily available and do not cause any controversial issues in their recovery and applications. Not only are amnion-derived stem cells applicable in regenerative medicine, they have anticancer capacity. In non-engineered stem cells transplantation strategies, amnion-derived stem cells effectively target the tumor and suppressed the tumor growth by expressing cytotoxic cytokines. Additionally, they also have a potential as novel delivery vehicles transferring therapeutic genes to the cancer formation sites in gene-directed enzyme/prodrug combination therapy. Owing to their own advantageous properties, amnion-derived stem cells are emerging as a new candidate in anticancer therapy.

  17. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or

  18. Stem cells and cancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are the small units of multicellular creature. Regeneration and self-renewal are the ability of the stem cells. Each tissue is having particular stem cells, specific to it. These normal stem cells are converted into cancer stem cells through mutations in it. Although the expression of oncogenes is enhanced a lot, the tumor-supressing gene is lessened. Cancer stem cells are isolated and visualized through different techniques like immunocytochemical staining, spectral karyotyping, immunohistochemistry, induction method and dissection measures, then are performed histological procedures which include fascination, immunohistochemistry, dispensation, in situ hybridization and also quantitative examination of tissue flow cytometric analysis. For the analysis of quantization, statistical tests are also performed as two-sample t-test, Chi-square test, SD and arithmetic mean. Tumor cells generate glioma spheres. These are used in cancer study. Axin 1 is the gene suppressing cancer. Its removal causes the generation of liver cancer. Curcumin is the most effective for suppressing cancer as it increases the normal stem cell function and decreases the cancer stem cell function. Brahma-related gene 1 is crucial for the safeguarding of the stem cell residents in tissue-specific comportment. Different types of cancers originate through genetic mutation, tissue disorganization and cell proliferation. Tumor configuration is produced by the alteration in original cell culture having stem cells and progenitor cell populations. The developmental facets about cancer cells and cancer stem cells as well as their personal natal functions sustain an intricate steadiness to settle on their personal donations to the efficacy or harmfulness of the biological organization.

  19. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... here Home » Glossary Back to top Glossary Adult stem cell Astrocyte Blastocoel Blastocyst Bone marrow stromal cells Bone ...

  20. Spermatogonial stem cells from domestic animals: progress and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Yaqing; Qu, Rongfeng; He, Ying; Tian, Xiue; Zeng, Wenxian

    2014-03-01

    Spermatogenesis, an elaborate and male-specific process in adult testes by which a number of spermatozoa are produced constantly for male fertility, relies on spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). As a sub-population of undifferentiated spermatogonia, SSCs are capable of both self-renewal (to maintain sufficient quantities) and differentiation into mature spermatozoa. SSCs are able to convert to pluripotent stem cells during in vitro culture, thus they could function as substitutes for human embryonic stem cells without ethical issues. In addition, this process does not require exogenous transcription factors necessary to produce induced-pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells. Moreover, combining genetic engineering with germ cell transplantation would greatly facilitate the generation of transgenic animals. Since germ cell transplantation into infertile recipient testes was first established in 1994, in vivo and in vitro study and manipulation of SSCs in rodent testes have been progressing at a staggering rate. By contrast, their counterparts in domestic animals, despite the failure to reach a comparable level, still burgeoned and showed striking advances. This review outlines the recent progressions of characterization, isolation, in vitro propagation, and transplantation of spermatogonia/SSCs from domestic animals, thereby shedding light on future exploration of these cells with high value, as well as contributing to the development of reproductive technology for large animals.

  1. Information on Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Current Research » Focus on Research Focus on Stem Cell Research Stem cells possess the unique ability to differentiate into ... virus infection. To search the complete list of stem cell research projects funded by NIH please go to NIH ...

  2. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  3. Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells produce chimeric offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Franklin D; Terlouw, Steve L; Kwon, Dae Jin; Mumaw, Jennifer L; Dhara, Sujoy K; Hasneen, Kowser; Dobrinsky, John R; Stice, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Ethical and moral issues rule out the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in chimera studies that would determine the full extent of their reprogrammed state, instead relying on less rigorous assays such as teratoma formation and differentiated cell types. To date, only mouse iPSC lines are known to be truly pluripotent. However, initial mouse iPSC lines failed to form chimeric offspring, but did generate teratomas and differentiated embryoid bodies, and thus these specific iPSC lines were not completely reprogrammed or truly pluripotent. Therefore, there is a need to address whether the reprogramming factors and process used eventually to generate chimeric mice are universal and sufficient to generate reprogrammed iPSC that contribute to chimeric offspring in additional species. Here we show that porcine mesenchymal stem cells transduced with 6 human reprogramming factors (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, LIN28, and C-MYC) injected into preimplantation-stage embryos contributed to multiple tissue types spanning all 3 germ layers in 8 of 10 fetuses. The chimerism rate was high, 85.3% or 29 of 34 live offspring were chimeras based on skin and tail biopsies harvested from 2- to 5-day-old pigs. The creation of pluripotent porcine iPSCs capable of generating chimeric offspring introduces numerous opportunities to study the facets significantly affecting cell therapies, genetic engineering, and other aspects of stem cell and developmental biology.

  4. Bioprinting for stem cell research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cell of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439

  5. Turnover of circulating hematopoietic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorie, M J; Maloney, M A; Patt, H M

    1979-10-01

    Short-term parabiosis of male and female CBA/CaJ mice was used to investigate the turnover of circulating hematopoietic stem cells. The change and subsequent disappearance of donor stem cells were monitored by spleen colony assay and chromosome analysis of individual colonies. The results revealed an exponential disappearance of pluripotent stem cells from blood with a characteristic half time of 1.7 h. Blood-borne stem cells were shown to be equilibrated with a subpopulation of marrow stem cells exhibiting a disappearance half time of 9.5 h. Splenectomy did not change the apparent rate of stem cell removal from the blood.

  6. Properties of internalization factors contributing to the uptake of extracellular DNA into tumor-initiating stem cells of mouse Krebs-2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgova, Evgeniya V; Potter, Ekaterina A; Proskurina, Anastasiya S; Minkevich, Alexandra M; Chernych, Elena R; Ostanin, Alexandr A; Efremov, Yaroslav R; Bayborodin, Sergey I; Nikolin, Valeriy P; Popova, Nelly A; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Bogachev, Sergey S

    2016-05-25

    Previously, we demonstrated that poorly differentiated cells of various origins, including tumor-initiating stem cells present in the ascites form of mouse cancer cell line Krebs-2, are capable of naturally internalizing both linear double-stranded DNA and circular plasmid DNA. The method of co-incubating Krebs-2 cells with extracellular plasmid DNA (pUC19) or TAMRA-5'-dUTP-labeled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was used. It was found that internalized plasmid DNA isolated from Krebs-2 can be transformed into competent Escherichia coli cells. Thus, the internalization processes taking place in the Krebs-2 cell subpopulation have been analyzed and compared, as assayed by E. coli colony formation assay (plasmid DNA) and cytofluorescence (TAMRA-DNA). We showed that extracellular DNA both in the form of plasmid DNA and a PCR product is internalized by the same subpopulation of Krebs-2 cells. We found that the saturation threshold for Krebs-2 ascites cells is 0.5 μg DNA/10(6) cells. Supercoiled plasmid DNA, human high-molecular weight DNA, and 500 bp PCR fragments are internalized into the Krebs-2 tumor-initiating stem cells via distinct, non-competing internalization pathways. Under our experimental conditions, each cell may harbor 340-2600 copies of intact plasmid material, or up to 3.097 ± 0.044×10(6) plasmid copies (intact or not), as detected by quantitative PCR. The internalization dynamics of extracellular DNA, copy number of the plasmids taken up by the cells, and competition between different types of double-stranded DNA upon internalization into tumor-initiating stem cells of mouse ascites Krebs-2 have been comprehensively analyzed. Investigation of the extracellular DNA internalization into tumor-initiating stem cells is an important part of understanding their properties and possible destruction mechanisms. For example, a TAMRA-labeled DNA probe may serve as an instrument to develop a target for the therapy of cancer, aiming at elimination of

  7. [Bioethical challenges of stem cell tourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Erices, Alejandro; Santos, Manuel J

    2013-08-01

    Stem cells have drawn extraordinary attention from scientists and the general public due to their potential to generate effective therapies for incurable diseases. At the same time, the production of embryonic stem cells involves a serious ethical issue concerning the destruction of human embryos. Although adult stem cells and induced pluripotential cells do not pose this ethical objection, there are other bioethical challenges common to all types of stem cells related particularly to the clinical use of stem cells. Their clinical use should be based on clinical trials, and in special situations, medical innovation, both of which have particular ethical dimensions. The media has raised unfounded expectations in patients and the public about the real clinical benefits of stem cells. At the same time, the number of unregulated clinics is increasing around the world, making direct offers through Internet of unproven stem cell therapies that attract desperate patients that have not found solutions in standard medicine. This is what is called stem cells tourism. This article reviews this situation, its consequences and the need for international cooperation to establish effective regulations to prevent the exploitation of patients and to endanger the prestige of legitimate stem cell research.

  8. Skeletal Muscle-derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Muscular Dystrophy Therapy by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Asakura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    For postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle, satellite cells, a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells, give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells that contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. In addition to this key myogenic cell class, adult skeletal muscle also contains hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell populations which can be purified as a side population (SP) fraction or as a hematopoietic marker CD45-positive cell population. These muscle-derived he...

  9. Tumourigenicity and radiation resistance of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Filippo P; Horsman, Michael R; Kassem, Moustapha; Overgaard, Jens; Safwat, Akmal

    2012-05-01

    Cancer stem cells are believed to be more radiation resistant than differentiated tumour cells of the same origin. It is not known, however, whether normal nontransformed adult stem cells share the same radioresistance as their cancerous counterpart. Nontumourigenic (TERT4) and tumourigenic (TRET20) cell lines, from an immortalised mesenchymal stem cell line, were grown in culture prior to irradiation and gene expression analysis. Radiation resistance was measured using a clonogenic assay. Differences in gene expression between the two cell lines, both under nontreated and irradiated conditions, were assessed with microarrays (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array). The cellular functions affected by the altered gene expressions were assessed through gene pathway mapping (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis). Based on the clonogenic assay the nontumourigenic cell line was found to be more sensitive to radiation than the tumourigenic cell line. Using the exon chips, 297 genes were found altered between untreated samples of the cell lines whereas only 16 genes responded to radiation treatment. Among the genes with altered expression between the untreated samples were PLAU, PLAUR, TIMP3, MMP1 and LOX. The pathway analysis based on the alteration between the untreated samples indicated cancer and connective tissue disorders. This study has shown possible common genetic events linking tumourigenicity and radiation response. The PLAU and PLAUR genes are involved in apoptosis evasion while the genes TIMP3, MMP1 and LOX are involved in regulation of the surrounding matrix. The first group may contribute to the difference in radiation resistance observed and the latter could be a major contributor to the tumourigenic capabilities by degrading the intercellular matrix. These results also indicate that cancer stem cells are more radiation resistant than stem cells of the same origin.

  10. Therapeutic application of multipotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sichani, Laleh Shiri

    2018-01-01

    Cell therapy is an emerging fields in the treatment of various diseases such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic, and neoplastic diseases. Stem cells are an integral tool for cell therapy. Multipotent stem cells are an important class of stem cells which have the ability to self-renew through...... been showed that multipotent stem cells exert their therapeutic effects via inhibition/activation of a sequence of cellular and molecular pathways. Although the advantages of multipotent stem cells are numerous, further investigation is still necessary to clarify the biology and safety of these cells...... before they could be considered as a potential treatment for different types of diseases. This review summarizes different features of multipotent stem cells including isolation, differentiation, and therapeutic applications....

  11. Lasers, stem cells, and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Necochea-Campion Rosalia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The medical use of low level laser (LLL irradiation has been occurring for decades, primarily in the area of tissue healing and inflammatory conditions. Despite little mechanistic knowledge, the concept of a non-invasive, non-thermal intervention that has the potential to modulate regenerative processes is worthy of attention when searching for novel methods of augmenting stem cell-based therapies. Here we discuss the use of LLL irradiation as a "photoceutical" for enhancing production of stem cell growth/chemoattractant factors, stimulation of angiogenesis, and directly augmenting proliferation of stem cells. The combination of LLL together with allogeneic and autologous stem cells, as well as post-mobilization directing of stem cells will be discussed.

  12. The Emerging Cell Biology of Thyroid Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rauf; Minsky, Noga C.; Ma, Risheng

    2011-01-01

    Context: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the property of self-renewal and give rise to highly specialized cells under appropriate local conditions. The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine holds great promise for the treatment of many diseases, including those of the thyroid gland. Evidence Acquisition: This review focuses on the progress that has been made in thyroid stem cell research including an overview of cellular and molecular events (most of which were drawn from the period 1990–2011) and discusses the remaining problems encountered in their differentiation. Evidence Synthesis: Protocols for the in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells, based on normal developmental processes, have generated thyroid-like cells but without full thyrocyte function. However, agents have been identified, including activin A, insulin, and IGF-I, which are able to stimulate the generation of thyroid-like cells in vitro. In addition, thyroid stem/progenitor cells have been identified within the normal thyroid gland and within thyroid cancers. Conclusions: Advances in thyroid stem cell biology are providing not only insight into thyroid development but may offer therapeutic potential in thyroid cancer and future thyroid cell replacement therapy. PMID:21778219

  13. Periarteriolar Glioblastoma Stem Cell Niches Express Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hira, Vashendriya V. V.; Wormer, Jill R.; Kakar, Hala; Breznik, Barbara; van der Swaan, Britt; Hulsbos, Renske; Tigchelaar, Wikky; Tonar, Zbynek; Khurshed, Mohammed; Molenaar, Remco J.; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2018-01-01

    In glioblastoma, a fraction of malignant cells consists of therapy-resistant glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) residing in protective niches that recapitulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches in bone marrow. We have previously shown that HSC niche proteins stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α),

  14. Stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

    2011-11-01

    Multiple populations of stem cells have been indicated to potentially participate in regeneration of injured organs. Especially, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and recently inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) receive a marked attention from scientists and clinicians for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferative and differentiation capacities. Despite that ESC and iPS cells are expected to give rise into multiple regenerative applications when their side effects are overcame during appropriate preparation procedures, in fact their most recent application of human ESC may, however, reside in their use as a tool in drug development and disease modeling. This review focuses on the applications of stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology. We discuss possible relevance of pluripotent cell stem populations in developing physiological models for any human tissue cell type useful for pharmacological, metabolic and toxicity evaluation necessary in the earliest steps of drug development. The present models applied for preclinical drug testing consist of primary cells or immortalized cell lines that show limitations in terms of accessibility or relevance to their in vivo counterparts. The availability of renewable human cells with functional similarities to their in vivo counterparts is the first landmark for a new generation of cell-based assays. We discuss the approaches for using stem cells as valuable physiological targets of drug activity which may increase the strength of target validation and efficacy potentially resulting in introducing new safer remedies into clinical trials and the marketplace. Moreover, we discuss the possible applications of stem cells for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The knowledge about the mechanisms governing the development and progression of multitude disorders which would come from the cellular models established based on stem cells, may give rise to new therapeutical strategies for such diseases. All

  15. HPV-Induced Field Cancerisation: Transformation of Adult Tissue Stem Cell Into Cancer Stem Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Carlotta; Lanfredini, Simone; Borgogna, Cinzia; Gariglio, Marisa; Patel, Girish K

    2018-01-01

    Field cancerisation was originally described as a basis for multiple head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and is a pre-malignant phenomenon that is frequently attributable to oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Our work on β-HPV-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas identified a novel Lrig1+ hair follicle junctional zone keratinocyte stem cell population as the basis for field cancerisation. Herein, we describe the ability for HPV to infect adult tissue stem cells in order to establish persistent infection and induce their proliferation and displacement resulting in field cancerisation. By review of the HPV literature, we reveal how this mechanism is conserved as the basis of field cancerisation across many tissues. New insights have identified the capacity for HPV early region genes to dysregulate adult tissue stem cell self-renewal pathways ensuring that the expanded population preserve its stem cell characteristics beyond the stem cell niche. HPV-infected cells acquire additional transforming mutations that can give rise to intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN), from environmental factors such as sunlight or tobacco induced mutations in skin and oral cavity, respectively. With establishment of IEN, HPV viral replication is sacrificed with loss of the episome, and the tissue is predisposed to multiple cancer stem cell-driven carcinomas.

  16. Mechanisms of therapeutic resistance in cancer (stem cells with emphasis on thyroid cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHombach-Klonisch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue invasion, metastasis and therapeutic resistance to anti-cancer treatments are common and main causes of death in cancer patients. Tumor cells mount complex and still poorly understood molecular defense mechanisms to counteract and evade oxygen deprivation, nutritional restrictions as well as radio- and chemotherapeutic treatment regimens aimed at destabilizing their genomes and important cellular processes. In thyroid cancer, as in other tumors, such defense strategies include the reactivation in cancer cells of early developmental programs normally active exclusively in stem cells, the stimulation of cancer stem-like cells resident within the tumor tissue and the recruitment of bone marrow-derived progenitors into the tumor (Thomas et al., 2008;Klonisch et al., 2009;Derwahl, 2011. Metastasis and therapeutic resistance in cancer (stem cells involves the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition- (EMT- mediated enhancement in cellular plasticity, which includes coordinated dynamic biochemical and nuclear changes (Ahmed et al., 2010. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of the role of DNA repair mechanisms contributing to therapeutic resistance in thyroid cancer and highlight the emerging roles of autophagy and damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP responses in EMT and chemoresistance in tumor cells. Finally, we use the stem cell factor and nucleoprotein High Mobility Group A2 (HMGA2 as an example to demonstrate how factors intended to protect stem cells are wielded by cancer (stem cells to gain increased transformative cell plasticity which enhances metastasis, therapeutic resistance and cell survival. Wherever possible, we have included information on these cellular processes and associated factors as they relate to thyroid cancer cells.

  17. Characterization of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Natasha; Boyette, Lisa B; Tuan, Rocky S

    2015-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells are a resource for autologous and allogeneic cell therapies for immune-modulation and regenerative medicine. However, patients most in need of such therapies are often of advanced age. Therefore, the effects of the aged milieu on these cells and their intrinsic aging in vivo are important considerations. Furthermore, these cells may require expansion in vitro before use as well as for future research. Their aging in vitro is thus also an important consideration. Here, we focus on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), which are unique compared to other stem cells due to their support of hematopoietic cells in addition to contributing to bone formation. BMSCs may be sensitive to age-related diseases and could perpetuate degenerative diseases in which bone remodeling is a contributory factor. Here, we review (1) the characterization of BMSCs, (2) the characterization of in vivo-aged BMSCs, (3) the characterization of in vitro-aged BMSCs, and (4) potential approaches to optimize the performance of aged BMSCs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Stem Cells and Bone". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stem-cell-specific endocytic degradation defects lead to intestinal dysplasia in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Nagy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available UV radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG is a tumor suppressor involved in autophagy, endocytosis and DNA damage repair, but how its loss contributes to colorectal cancer is poorly understood. Here, we show that UVRAG deficiency in Drosophila intestinal stem cells leads to uncontrolled proliferation and impaired differentiation without preventing autophagy. As a result, affected animals suffer from gut dysfunction and short lifespan. Dysplasia upon loss of UVRAG is characterized by the accumulation of endocytosed ligands and sustained activation of STAT and JNK signaling, and attenuation of these pathways suppresses stem cell hyperproliferation. Importantly, the inhibition of early (dynamin-dependent or late (Rab7-dependent steps of endocytosis in intestinal stem cells also induces hyperproliferation and dysplasia. Our data raise the possibility that endocytic, but not autophagic, defects contribute to UVRAG-deficient colorectal cancer development in humans.

  19. Regenerative toxicology: the role of stem cells in the development of chronic toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas-Jorda, David; Louisse, Jochem; Pistollato, Francesca; Zagoura, Dimitra; Bremer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Human stem cell lines and their derivatives, as alternatives to the use of animal cells or cancer cell lines, have been widely discussed as cellular models in predictive toxicology. However, the role of stem cells in the development of long-term toxicities and carcinogenesis has not received great attention so far, despite growing evidence indicating the relationship of stem cell damage to adverse effects later in life. However, testing this in vitro is a scientific/technical challenge in particular due to the complex interplay of factors existing under physiological conditions. Current major research programs in stem cell toxicity are not aiming to demonstrate that stem cells can be targeted by toxicants. Therefore, this knowledge gap needs to be addressed in additional research activities developing technical solutions and defining appropriate experimental designs. The current review describes selected examples of the role of stem cells in the development of long-term toxicities in the brain, heart or liver and in the development of cancer. The presented examples illustrate the need to analyze the contribution of stem cells to chronic toxicity in order to make a final conclusion whether stem cell toxicities are an underestimated risk in mechanism-based safety assessments. This requires the development of predictive in vitro models allowing the assessment of adverse effects to stem cells on chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity.

  20. Sensory neurons do not induce motor neuron loss in a human stem cell model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Andrew J; Ebert, Allison D

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to paralysis and early death due to reduced SMN protein. It is unclear why there is such a profound motor neuron loss, but recent evidence from fly and mouse studies indicate that cells comprising the whole sensory-motor circuit may contribute to motor neuron dysfunction and loss. Here, we used induced pluripotent stem cells derived from SMA patients to test whether sensory neurons directly contribute to motor neuron loss. We generated sensory neurons from SMA induced pluripotent stem cells and found no difference in neuron generation or survival, although there was a reduced calcium response to depolarizing stimuli. Using co-culture of SMA induced pluripotent stem cell derived sensory neurons with control induced pluripotent stem cell derived motor neurons, we found no significant reduction in motor neuron number or glutamate transporter boutons on motor neuron cell bodies or neurites. We conclude that SMA sensory neurons do not overtly contribute to motor neuron loss in this human stem cell system.

  1. Endogenous WNT Signals Mediate BMP-Induced and Spontaneous Differentiation of Epiblast Stem Cells and Human Embryonic Stem Cells

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    Dorota Kurek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic application of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs requires precise control over their differentiation. However, spontaneous differentiation is prevalent, and growth factors induce multiple cell types; e.g., the mesoderm inducer BMP4 generates both mesoderm and trophoblast. Here we identify endogenous WNT signals as BMP targets that are required and sufficient for mesoderm induction, while trophoblast induction is WNT independent, enabling the exclusive differentiation toward either lineage. Furthermore, endogenous WNT signals induce loss of pluripotency in hESCs and their murine counterparts, epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs. WNT inhibition obviates the need to manually remove differentiated cells to maintain cultures and improves the efficiency of directed differentiation. In EpiSCs, WNT inhibition stabilizes a pregastrula epiblast state with novel characteristics, including the ability to contribute to blastocyst chimeras. Our findings show that endogenous WNT signals function as hidden mediators of growth factor-induced differentiation and play critical roles in the self-renewal of hESCs and EpiSCs.

  2. The Stem Cell Club: a model for unrelated stem cell donor recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingrut, Warren; Parmar, Simran; Cuperfain, Ari; Rikhraj, Kiran; Charman, Erin; Ptak, Emilie; Kahlon, Manjot; Graham, Alice; Luong, Susan; Wang, Yongjun George; Yu, Janice; Arora, Neha; Suppiah, Roopa; Li, Edward W; Lee, Anna; Welsh, Christopher; Benzaquen, Menachem; Thatcher, Alicia; Baharmand, Iman; Ladd, Aedan; Petraszko, Tanya; Allan, David; Messner, Hans

    2017-12-01

    Patients with blood, immune, or metabolic diseases may require a stem cell transplant as part of their treatment. However, 70% of patients do not have a suitable human leukocyte antigen match in their family, and need an unrelated donor. Individuals can register as potential donors at stem cell drives, where they provide consent and a tissue sample for human leukocyte antigen typing. The ideal donors are young, male, and from a diversity of ethnic backgrounds. However, in Canada, non-Caucasian males ages 17 to 35 years represent only 8.8% of listed donors. The Stem Cell Club is a non-profit organization founded in 2011 in Canada that aims to augment recruitment of the most needed donors. The initiative published a recruitment toolkit online (www.stemcellclub.ca). Currently, there are 12 chapters at universities across Canada. To date, the Stem Cell Club has recruited 6585 potential registrants, representing 1.63% of donors on Canada's donor-database. Of the recruited registrants, 58.3% were male; 60.3% of males self-reported as non-Caucasian, and 78.5% were ages 17 to 25 years. From 2015 to 2016, the initiative recruited 13.7% of all ethnically diverse males ages 17 to 35 years listed in Canada's donor database. Data from this initiative demonstrate sustainability and performance on key indicators of stem cell drive quality. The Stem Cell Club has developed a capacity to recruit 2600 donors annually, with the majority being males with a high degree of ethnic diversity. The initiative enhances the quality of Canada's unrelated donor-database, improving the chances that patients in need of an unrelated donor will find a match for transplant. The Stem Cell Club is a model relevant to recruitment organizations around the world. © 2017 AABB.

  3. ¬Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate: Applying Biomaterials for Control of Stem Cell Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Jane Anderson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate: Applying Biomaterials for Control of Stem Cell BehaviourHilary J Anderson1, Jugal Kishore Sahoo2, Rein V Ulijn2,3, Matthew J Dalby1*1 Centre for Cell Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.2 Technology and Innovation centre, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. 3 Advanced Science Research Centre (ASRC and Hunter College, City University of New York, NY 10031, NY, USA. Correspondence:*Hilary Andersonh.anderson.1@research.gla.ac.ukKeywords: mesenchymal stem cells, bioengineering, materials synthesis, nanotopography, stimuli responsive material□AbstractThe materials pipeline for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications is under continuous development. Specifically, there is great interest in the use of designed materials in the stem cell arena as materials can be used to manipulate the cells providing control of behaviour. This is important as the ability to ‘engineer’ complexity and subsequent in vitro growth of tissues and organs is a key objective for tissue engineers. This review will describe the nature of the materials strategies, both static and dynamic, and their influence specifically on mesenchymal stem cell fate.

  4. Physics strategies for sparing neural stem cells during whole-brain radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean; Hwang, Andrew; Barani, Igor J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Currently, there are no successful long-term treatments or preventive strategies for radiation-induced cognitive impairments, and only a few possibilities have been suggested. One such approach involves reducing the dose to neural stem cell compartments (within and outside of the hippocampus) during whole-brain radiation treatments for brain metastases. This study investigates the fundamental physics issues associated with the sparing of neural stem cells during photon radiotherapy for brain metastases. Methods: Several factors influence the stem cell dose: intracranial scattering, collimator leakage, beam energy, and total number of beams. The relative importance of these factors is investigated through a set of radiation therapy plans, which are all variations of an initial 6 MV intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan designed to simultaneously deliver a whole-brain dose of 30 Gy and maximally reduce stem cell compartment dose. Additionally, an in-house leaf segmentation algorithm was developed that utilizes jaw motion to minimize the collimator leakage. Results: The plans are all normalized such that 50% of the PTV receives 30 Gy. For the initial 6 MV IMRT plan, 50% of the stem cells receive a dose greater than 6.3 Gy. Calculations indicate that 3.6 Gy of this dose originates from intracranial scattering. The jaw-tracking segmentation algorithm, used in conjunction with direct machine parameter optimization, reduces the 50% stem cell dose to 4.3 and 3.7 Gy for 6 and 10 MV treatment beams, respectively. Conclusions: Intracranial scattering alone is responsible for a large dose contribution to the stem cell compartment. It is, therefore, important to minimize other contributing factors, particularly the collimator leakage, to maximally reduce dose to these critical structures. The use of collimator jaw tracking in conjunction with modern collimators can minimize this leakage.

  5. Prostate Cancer Stem-like Cells Contribute to the Development of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Ojo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT has been the standard care for patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC since the 1940s. Although ADT shows clear benefits for many patients, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC inevitably occurs. In fact, with the two recent FDA-approved second-generation anti-androgens abiraterone and enzalutamide, resistance develops rapidly in patients with CRPC, despite their initial effectiveness. The lack of effective therapeutic solutions towards CRPC largely reflects our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for CRPC development. While persistent androgen receptor (AR signaling under castration levels of serum testosterone (<50 ng/mL contributes to resistance to ADT, it is also clear that CRPC evolves via complex mechanisms. Nevertheless, the physiological impact of individual mechanisms and whether these mechanisms function in a cohesive manner in promoting CRPC are elusive. In spite of these uncertainties, emerging evidence supports a critical role of prostate cancer stem-like cells (PCSLCs in stimulating CRPC evolution and resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide. In this review, we will discuss the recent evidence supporting the involvement of PCSLC in CRPC acquisition as well as the pathways and factors contributing to PCSLC expansion in response to ADT.

  6. Seeding of single hemopoietic stem cells and self renewal of committed stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.

    1986-01-01

    Single cells and two to five proliferating cells were transfused into mice whose own stem cells had been killed by irradiation. When a small inoculum of 50,000 AB marrow cells was given only 4 of 20 recipients survived, but all 4 had only PGK A enzyme in their peripheral blood cells. The results indicate that the survivors received a single pluripotential stem cell capable of proliferating. Survivors showed no deterioration in their blood picture after many months. It was concluded that there is no clonal succession in the marrow cells. Further studies with transfusions of 100,000 and 10,000,000 marrow cells after lethal irradiation suggest that there is production of committed stem cells with significant self-renewal

  7. Suspension culture of pluripotent stem cells: effect of shear on stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kevin C; Rodrigues, Beatriz; zur Nieden, Nicole I

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant promise, the routine usage of suspension cell culture to manufacture stem cell-derived differentiated cells has progressed slowly. Suspension culture is an innovative way of either expanding or differentiating cells and sometimes both are combined into a single bioprocess. Its advantages over static 2D culturing include a homogeneous and controllable culture environment and producing a large quantity of cells in a fraction of time. This feature makes suspension cell culture ideal for use in stem cell research and eventually ideal in the large-scale production of differentiated cells for regenerative medicine. Because of their tremendous differentiation capacities and unlimited growth properties, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in particular are considered potential sources for future cell-replacement therapies. Currently, expansion of PSCs is accomplished in 2D, which only permits a limited amount of cell growth per culture flask before cells need to be passaged. However, before stem cells can be applied clinically, several aspects of their expansion, such as directed growth, but also differentiation, need to be better controlled. This review will summarize recent advantages in suspension culture of PSCs, while at the same time highlighting current challenges.

  8. Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, stem cell-based approaches have attracted more attention from scientists and clinicians due to their possible therapeutical effect on stroke. Animal studies have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs, inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, neural stem cells (NSCs, and mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs might be due to cell replacement, neuroprotection, endogenous neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and modulation on inflammation and immune response. Although several clinical studies have shown the high efficiency and safety of stem cell in stroke management, mainly MSCs, some issues regarding to cell homing, survival, tracking, safety, and optimal cell transplantation protocol, such as cell dose and time window, should be addressed. Undoubtably, stem cell-based gene therapy represents a novel potential therapeutic strategy for stroke in future.

  9. Autophagy in Stem Cell Biology: A Perspective on Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process that degrades modified, surplus, or harmful cytoplasmic components by sequestering them in autophagosomes which then fuses with the lysosome for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis, as well as for remodeling during normal development. Impairment of this process has been implicated in various diseases, in the pathogenic response to bacterial and viral infections, and in aging. Pluripotent stem cells, with their ability to self-replicate and to give rise to any specialized cell type, are very valuable resources for cell-based medical therapies and open a number of promising avenues for studying human development and disease. It has been suggested that autophagy is vital for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in stem cells, and subsequently more in-depth knowledge about the regulation of autophagy in stem cell biology has been acquired recently. In this review, we describe the most significant advances in the understanding of autophagy regulation in hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as in induced pluripotent stem cells. In particular, we highlight the roles of various autophagy activities in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of these stem cells.

  10. Stem Cell Therapy: An emerging science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad M.

    2007-01-01

    The research on stem cells is advancing knowledge about the development of an organism from a single cell and to how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Stem cell therapy is emerging rapidly nowadays as a technical tool for tissue repair and replacement. The purpose of this review to provide a framework of understanding for the challenges behind translating fundamental stem cell biology and its potential use into clinical therapies, also to give an overview on stem cell research to the scientists of Saudi Arabia in general. English language MEDLINE publications from 1980 through January 2007 for experimental, observational and clinical studies having relation with stem cells with different diseases were reviewed. Approximately 85 publications were reviewed based on the relevance, strength and quality of design and methods, 36 publications were selected for inclusion. Stem cells reside in a specific area of each tissue where they may remain undivided for several years until they are activated by disease or tissue injury. The embryonic stem cells are typically derived from four or five days old embryos and they are pluripotent. The adult tissues reported to contain stem cells brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin and liver. The promise of stem cell therapies is an exciting one, but significant technical hurdles remain that will only be overcome through years of intensive research. (author)

  11. Aqp 9 and Brain Tumour Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guri Fossdal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated the aquaporins (aqp 1, 4, and 9 in the pathogenesis of malignant brain tumours, suggesting that they contribute to motility, invasiveness, and oedema formation and facilitate metabolism in tumour cells under hypoxic conditions. We have studied the expression of aqp1, 4, and 9 in biopsies from glioblastomas, isolated tumour stem cells grown in a tumoursphere assay and analyzed the progenitor and differentiated cells from these cultures. We have compared these to the situation in normal rat brain, its stem cells, and differentiated cells derived thereof. In short, qPCR in tumour tissue showed presence of aqp1, 4, and 9. In the tumour progenitor population, aqp9 was markedly more highly expressed, whilst in tumour-derived differentiated cells, aqp4 was downregulated. However, immunostaining did not reveal increased protein expression of aqp9 in the tumourspheres containing progenitor cells; in contrast, its expression (both mRNA and protein was high in differentiated cultures. We, therefore, propose that aquaporin 9 may have a central role in the tumorigenesis of glioblastoma.

  12. The pluripotency of hair follicle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2006-02-01

    The hair follicle bulge area is an abundant, easily accessible source of actively growing, pluripotent adult stem cells. Nestin, a protein marker for neural stem cells, is also expressed in follicle stem cells as well as their immediate differentiated progeny. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells differentiated into neurons, glial cells, keratinocytes and smooth muscle cells in vitro. Hair-follicle stem cells were implanted into the gap region of a severed sciatic nerve. The hair follicle stem cells greatly enhanced the rate of nerve regeneration and the restoration of nerve function. The follicle stem cells transdifferentiated largely into Schwann cells which are known to support neuron regrowth. Function of the rejoined sciatic nerve was measured by contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle upon electrical stimulation. After severing the tibial nerve and subsequent transplantation of hair-follicle stem cells, the transplanted mice recovered the ability to walk normally. These results suggest that hair-follicle stem cells provide an important accessible, autologous source of adult stem cells for regenerative medicine.

  13. The suture provides a niche for mesenchymal stem cells of craniofacial bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hu; Feng, Jifan; Ho, Thach-Vu; Grimes, Weston; Urata, Mark; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue undergoes constant turnover supported by stem cells. Recent studies showed that perivascular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to the turnover of long bones. Craniofacial bones are flat bones derived from a different embryonic origin than the long bones. The identity and regulating niche for craniofacial bone MSCs remain unknown. Here, we identify Gli1+ cells within the suture mesenchyme as the major MSC population for craniofacial bones. They are not associated with vasculature, give rise to all craniofacial bones in the adult and are activated during injury repair. Gli1+ cells are typical MSCs in vitro. Ablation of Gli1+ cells leads to craniosynostosis and arrest of skull growth, indicating these cells are an indispensible stem cell population. Twist1+/− mice with craniosynostosis show reduced Gli1+ MSCs in sutures, suggesting that craniosynostosis may result from diminished suture stem cells. Our study indicates that craniofacial sutures provide a unique niche for MSCs for craniofacial bone homeostasis and repair. PMID:25799059

  14. Multifaceted Interpretation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hirata, Akihiro; Hara, Akira; Tomita, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-05

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, despite recent advances in clinical oncology. Accumulating evidence sheds light on the existence of cancer stem cells and their role in conferring therapeutic resistance. Cancer stem cells are a minor fraction of cancer cells, which enable tumor heterogeneity and initiate tumor formation. In addition, these cells are resistant to various cytotoxic factors. Therefore, elimination of cancer stem cells is difficult but essential to cure the malignant foci completely. Herein, we review the recent evidence for intestinal stem cells and colon cancer stem cells, methods to detect the tumor-initiating cells, and clinical significance of cancer stem cell markers. We also describe the emerging problems of cancer stem cell theory, including bidirectional conversion and intertumoral heterogeneity of stem cell phenotype.

  15. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to

  16. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human

  17. Stem Cells and Herbal Acupuncture Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok Kwon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy implies the birth of regenerative medicine. Regenerative medicine signify treatment through regeneration of cells which was impossible by existing medicine. Stem cell is classified into embryonic stem cell and adult stem cell and they have distinctive benefits and limitations. Researches on stem cell are already under active progression and is expected to be commercially available in the near future. One may not relate the stem cell treatment with Oriental medicine, but can be interpreted as the fundamental treatment action of Oriental medicine is being investigated in more concrete manner. When it comes to difficult to cure diseases, there is no boundary between eastern and western medicine, and one must be ready to face and overcome changes lying ahead.

  18. Therapeutic potential of adult stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Keith, W. Nicol

    2006-01-01

    is the necessity to be able to identify, select, expand and manipulate cells outside the body. Recent advances in adult stem cell technologies and basic biology have accelerated therapeutic opportunities aimed at eventual clinical applications. Adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate down multiple...... lineages are an attractive alternative to human embryonic stem cells (hES) in regenerative medicine. In many countries, present legislation surrounding hES cells makes their use problematic, and indeed the origin of hES cells may represent a controversial issue for many communities. However, adult stem...... cells are not subject to these issues. This review will therefore focus on adult stem cells. Based on their extensive differentiation potential and, in some cases, the relative ease of their isolation, adult stem cells are appropriate for clinical development. Recently, several observations suggest...

  19. Two subpopulations of stem cells for T cell lineage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Y.; Amagai, T.; Kina, T.; Sado, T.; Nishikawa, S.

    1985-01-01

    An assay system for the stem cell that colonizes the thymus and differentiates into T cells was developed, and by using this assay system the existence of two subpopulations of stem cells for T cell lineage was clarified. Part-body-shielded and 900-R-irradiated C57BL/6 (H-2b, Thy-1.2) recipient mice, which do not require the transfer of pluripotent stem cells for their survival, were transferred with cells from B10 X Thy-1.1 (H-2b, Thy-1.1) donor mice. The reconstitution of the recipient's thymus lymphocytes was accomplished by stem cells in the donor cells and those spared in the shielded portion of the recipient that competitively colonize the thymus. Thus, the stem cell activity of donor cells can be evaluated by determining the proportion of donor-type (Thy-1.1+) cells in the recipient's thymus. Bone marrow cells were the most potent source of stem cells. By contrast, when the stem cell activity was compared between spleen and bone marrow cells of whole-body-irradiated (800 R) C57BL/6 mice reconstituted with B10 X Thy-1.1 bone marrow cells by assaying in part-body-shielded and irradiated C57BL/6 mice, the activity of these two organs showed quite a different time course of development. The results strongly suggest that the stem cells for T cell lineage in the bone marrow comprise at least two subpopulations, spleen-seeking and bone marrow-seeking cells

  20. Nanomaterials for Engineering Stem Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerativitayanan, Punyavee; Carrow, James K; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-08-05

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has stimulated the development of multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Synergistic interactions between nanomaterials and stem cell engineering offer numerous possibilities to address some of the daunting challenges in regenerative medicine, such as controlling trigger differentiation, immune reactions, limited supply of stem cells, and engineering complex tissue structures. Specifically, the interactions between stem cells and their microenvironment play key roles in controlling stem cell fate, which underlines therapeutic success. However, the interactions between nanomaterials and stem cells are not well understood, and the effects of the nanomaterials shape, surface morphology, and chemical functionality on cellular processes need critical evaluation. In this Review, focus is put on recent development in nanomaterial-stem cell interactions, with specific emphasis on their application in regenerative medicine. Further, the emerging technologies based on nanomaterials developed over the past decade for stem cell engineering are reviewed, as well as the potential applications of these nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, stem cell isolation, and drug/gene delivery. It is anticipated that the enhanced understanding of nanomaterial-stem cell interactions will facilitate improved biomaterial design for a range of biomedical and biotechnological applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Luciano; Cordeiro, Mabel M; Nör, Silvia A; Nör, Jacques E

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. This characteristic facilitates ex vivo expansion and enhances the translational potential of these cells. Notably, the dental pulp is arguably the most accessible source of postnatal stem cells. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  2. Deriving multipotent stem cells from mouse spermatogonial stem cells: a new tool for developmental and clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Dirk G.; Mizrak, S. Canan

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells have been obtained from cultured mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). These advances have shown that SSCs can transition from being the stem cell-producing cells of spermatogenesis to being multipotent cells that can differentiate into

  3. Concise Review: Kidney Generation with Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizane, Ryuji; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2017-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health care problem, resulting in increased cardiovascular mortality and often leading to end-stage kidney disease, where patients require kidney replacement therapies such as hemodialysis or kidney transplantation. Loss of functional nephrons contributes to the progression of CKD, which can be attenuated but not reversed due to inability to generate new nephrons in human adult kidneys. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), by virtue of their unlimited self-renewal and ability to differentiate into cells of all three embryonic germ layers, are attractive sources for kidney regenerative therapies. Recent advances in stem cell biology have identified key signals necessary to maintain stemness of human nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro, and led to establishment of protocols to generate NPCs and nephron epithelial cells from human fetal kidneys and hPSCs. Effective production of large amounts of human NPCs and kidney organoids will facilitate elucidation of developmental and pathobiological pathways, kidney disease modeling and drug screening as well as kidney regenerative therapies. We summarize the recent studies to induce NPCs and kidney cells from hPSCs, studies of NPC expansion from mouse and human embryonic kidneys, and discuss possible approaches in vivo to regenerate kidneys with cell therapies and the development of bioengineered kidneys. Stem Cells 2017;35:2209-2217. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Stem cells in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Jeong Min [Department of Preventive and Social Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Chul; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Hwang, Yu-Shik [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mantalaris, Anathathios, E-mail: yshwang@khu.ac.k [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their distinct biological capability to differentiate into osteogenic lineages. The application of these stem cells to bone tissue engineering requires inducing in vitro differentiation of these cells into bone forming cells, osteoblasts. For this purpose, efficient in vitro differentiation towards osteogenic lineage requires the development of well-defined and proficient protocols. This would reduce the likelihood of spontaneous differentiation into divergent lineages and increase the available cell source for application to bone tissue engineering therapies. This review provides a critical examination of the various experimental strategies that could be used to direct the differentiation of ESC, BM-MSC, UCB-MSC, ADSC, MDSC and DPSC towards osteogenic lineages and their potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly in the regeneration of bone. (topical review)

  5. Stem cells in bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jeong Min; Kim, Byung-Chul; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Mantalaris, Anathathios

    2010-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their distinct biological capability to differentiate into osteogenic lineages. The application of these stem cells to bone tissue engineering requires inducing in vitro differentiation of these cells into bone forming cells, osteoblasts. For this purpose, efficient in vitro differentiation towards osteogenic lineage requires the development of well-defined and proficient protocols. This would reduce the likelihood of spontaneous differentiation into divergent lineages and increase the available cell source for application to bone tissue engineering therapies. This review provides a critical examination of the various experimental strategies that could be used to direct the differentiation of ESC, BM-MSC, UCB-MSC, ADSC, MDSC and DPSC towards osteogenic lineages and their potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly in the regeneration of bone. (topical review)

  6. Cell-geometry-dependent changes in plasma membrane order direct stem cell signalling and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Erlach, Thomas C.; Bertazzo, Sergio; Wozniak, Michele A.; Horejs, Christine-Maria; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Attwood, Simon; Robinson, Benjamin K.; Autefage, Hélène; Kallepitis, Charalambos; del Río Hernández, Armando; Chen, Christopher S.; Goldoni, Silvia; Stevens, Molly M.

    2018-03-01

    Cell size and shape affect cellular processes such as cell survival, growth and differentiation1-4, thus establishing cell geometry as a fundamental regulator of cell physiology. The contributions of the cytoskeleton, specifically actomyosin tension, to these effects have been described, but the exact biophysical mechanisms that translate changes in cell geometry to changes in cell behaviour remain mostly unresolved. Using a variety of innovative materials techniques, we demonstrate that the nanostructure and lipid assembly within the cell plasma membrane are regulated by cell geometry in a ligand-independent manner. These biophysical changes trigger signalling events involving the serine/threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) that direct cell-geometry-dependent mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Our study defines a central regulatory role by plasma membrane ordered lipid raft microdomains in modulating stem cell differentiation with potential translational applications.

  7. Potential feasibility of dental stem cells for regenerative therapies: stem cell transplantation and whole-tooth engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Taka

    2011-07-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow are expected to be a somatic stem cell source for the development of new cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine. However, dental clinicians are unlikely to carry out autologous cell/tissue collection from patients (i.e., marrow aspiration) as a routine procedure in their clinics; hence, the utilization of bone marrow stem cells seems impractical in the dental field. Dental tissues harvested from extracted human teeth are well known to contain highly proliferative and multipotent stem cell compartments and are considered to be an alternative autologous cell source in cell-based medicine. This article provides a short overview of the ongoing studies for the potential application of dental stem cells and suggests the utilization of 2 concepts in future regenerative medicine: (1) dental stem cell-based therapy for hepatic and other systemic diseases and (2) tooth replacement therapy using the bioengineered human whole tooth, called the "test-tube dental implant." Regenerative therapies will bring new insights and benefits to the fields of clinical medicine and dentistry.

  8. Stem cell mediation of functional recovery after stroke in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramos-Cabrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regenerative strategies of stem cell grafting have been demonstrated to be effective in animal models of stroke. In those studies, the effectiveness of stem cells promoting functional recovery was assessed by behavioral testing. These behavioral studies do, however, not provide access to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the observed functional outcome improvement. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to address the underlying mechanisms of stem cell mediated functional improvement, this functional improvement after stroke in the rat was investigated for six months after stroke by use of fMRI, somatosensory evoked potentials by electrophysiology, and sensorimotor behavior testing. Stem cells were grafted ipsilateral to the ischemic lesion. Rigorous exclusion of spontaneous recovery as confounding factor permitted to observe graft-related functional improvement beginning after 7 weeks and continuously increasing during the 6-month observation period. The major findings were i functional improvement causally related to the stem cells grafting; ii tissue replacement can be excluded as dominant factor for stem cell mediated functional improvement; iii functional improvement occurs by exclusive restitution of the function in the original representation field, without clear contributions from reorganization processes, and iv stem cells were not detectable any longer after six months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A delayed functional improvement due to stem cell implantation has been documented by electrophysiology, fMRI and behavioral testing. This functional improvement occurred without cells acting as a tissue replacement for the necrotic tissue after the ischemic event. Combination of disappearance of grafted cells after six months on histological sections with persistent functional recovery was interpreted as paracrine effects by the grafted stem cells being the dominant mechanism of cell activity underlying the observed

  9. Inhibition of notch signaling in glioblastoma targets cancer stem cells via an endothelial cell intermediate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovinga, Koos E.; Shimizu, Fumiko; Wang, Rong; Panagiotakos, Georgia; van der Heijden, Maartje; Moayedpardazi, Hamideh; Correia, Ana Sofia; Soulet, Denis; Major, Tamara; Menon, Jayanthi; Tabar, Viviane

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly heterogeneous malignant tumor. Recent data suggests the presence of a hierarchical organization within the GBM cell population that involves cancer cells with stem-like behavior, capable of repopulating the tumor and contributing to its resistance to

  10. Engineering the human pluripotent stem cell microenvironment to direct cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeltine, Laurie B; Selekman, Joshua A; Palecek, Sean P

    2013-11-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, offer a potential cell source for research, drug screening, and regenerative medicine applications due to their unique ability to self-renew or differentiate to any somatic cell type. Before the full potential of hPSCs can be realized, robust protocols must be developed to direct their fate. Cell fate decisions are based on components of the surrounding microenvironment, including soluble factors, substrate or extracellular matrix, cell-cell interactions, mechanical forces, and 2D or 3D architecture. Depending on their spatio-temporal context, these components can signal hPSCs to either self-renew or differentiate to cell types of the ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm. Researchers working at the interface of engineering and biology have identified various factors which can affect hPSC fate, often based on lessons from embryonic development, and they have utilized this information to design in vitro niches which can reproducibly direct hPSC fate. This review highlights culture systems that have been engineered to promote self-renewal or differentiation of hPSCs, with a focus on studies that have elucidated the contributions of specific microenvironmental cues in the context of those culture systems. We propose the use of microsystem technologies for high-throughput screening of spatial-temporal presentation of cues, as this has been demonstrated to be a powerful approach for differentiating hPSCs to desired cell types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Skeletal Stem Cells: Origins, Functions and Uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Fatma F; Franceschi, Renny T

    2017-12-01

    The development and maintenance of the skeleton requires a steady source of skeletal progenitors to provide the osteoblasts and chondrocytes necessary for bone and cartilage growth and development. The current model for skeletal stem cells (SSCs) posits that SSC/progenitor cells are present in bone marrow (BM) and other osteogenic sites such as cranial sutures where they undergo self-renewal and differentiation to give rise to the main skeletal tissues. SSCs hold great promise for understanding skeletal biology and genetic diseases of bone as well as for the advancement of bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. In the past few years, a considerable effort has been devoted to identifying and purifying skeletal stem cells and determining their contribution to bone formation and homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress in this area with particular emphasis on the discovery of specific SSC markers, their use in tracking the progression of cell populations along specific lineages and the regulation of SSCs in both the appendicular and cranial skeleton.

  12. Clinical trials for stem cell therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax Geoff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, clinical trials with stem cells have taken the emerging field in many new directions. While numerous teams continue to refine and expand the role of bone marrow and cord blood stem cells for their vanguard uses in blood and immune disorders, many others are looking to expand the uses of the various types of stem cells found in bone marrow and cord blood, in particular mesenchymal stem cells, to uses beyond those that could be corrected by replacing cells in their own lineage. Early results from these trials have produced mixed results often showing minor or transitory improvements that may be attributed to extracellular factors. More research teams are accelerating the use of other types of adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells for diseases where beneficial outcome could result from either in-lineage cell replacement or extracellular factors. At the same time, the first three trials using cells derived from pluripotent cells have begun.

  13. Redox regulation of plant stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jian; Dong, Zhicheng; Wu, Haijun; Tian, Zhaoxia; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-10-02

    Despite the importance of stem cells in plant and animal development, the common mechanisms of stem cell maintenance in both systems have remained elusive. Recently, the importance of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) signaling in priming stem cell differentiation has been extensively studied in animals. Here, we show that different forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have antagonistic roles in plant stem cell regulation, which were established by distinct spatiotemporal patterns of ROS-metabolizing enzymes. The superoxide anion (O2·-) is markedly enriched in stem cells to activate WUSCHEL and maintain stemness, whereas H 2 O 2 is more abundant in the differentiating peripheral zone to promote stem cell differentiation. Moreover, H 2 O 2 negatively regulates O2·- biosynthesis in stem cells, and increasing H 2 O 2 levels or scavenging O2·- leads to the termination of stem cells. Our results provide a mechanistic framework for ROS-mediated control of plant stem cell fate and demonstrate that the balance between O2·- and H 2 O 2 is key to stem cell maintenance and differentiation. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Target irradiation induced bystander effects between stem-like and non stem-like cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Alisa [Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Maeda, Takeshi [Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fu, Qibin [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Oikawa, Masakazu [Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yang, Gen, E-mail: gen.yang@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Konishi, Teruaki, E-mail: tkonishi@nirs.go.jp [Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uchihori, Yukio [Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Existence of radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) between cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. • Existence of significant difference in generation and response of bystander signals between CSCs and NSCCs. • CSCs are significantly less sensitive to NO scavenger than that of NSCCs in terms of DNA double strand breaks induced by RIBE. - Abstract: Tumors are heterogeneous in nature and consist of multiple cell types. Among them, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are suggested to be the principal cause of tumor metastasis, resistance and recurrence. Therefore, understanding the behavior of CSCs in direct and indirect irradiations is crucial for clinical radiotherapy. Here, the CSCs and their counterpart non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell line were sorted and labeled, then the two cell subtypes were mixed together and chosen separately to be irradiated via a proton microbeam. The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) between the CSCs and NSCCs was measured by imaging 53BP1 foci, a widely used indicator for DNA double strand break (DSB). CSCs were found to be less active than NSCCs in both the generation and the response of bystander signals. Moreover, the nitric oxide (NO) scavenger c-PTIO can effectively alleviate the bystander effect in bystander NSCCs but not in bystander CSCs, indicating a difference of the two cell subtypes in NO signal response. To our knowledge, this is the first report shedding light on the RIBE between CSCs and NSCCs, which might contribute to a further understanding of the out-of-field effect in cancer radiotherapy.

  15. Target irradiation induced bystander effects between stem-like and non stem-like cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Kobayashi, Alisa; Maeda, Takeshi; Fu, Qibin; Oikawa, Masakazu; Yang, Gen; Konishi, Teruaki; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Existence of radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) between cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. • Existence of significant difference in generation and response of bystander signals between CSCs and NSCCs. • CSCs are significantly less sensitive to NO scavenger than that of NSCCs in terms of DNA double strand breaks induced by RIBE. - Abstract: Tumors are heterogeneous in nature and consist of multiple cell types. Among them, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are suggested to be the principal cause of tumor metastasis, resistance and recurrence. Therefore, understanding the behavior of CSCs in direct and indirect irradiations is crucial for clinical radiotherapy. Here, the CSCs and their counterpart non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell line were sorted and labeled, then the two cell subtypes were mixed together and chosen separately to be irradiated via a proton microbeam. The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) between the CSCs and NSCCs was measured by imaging 53BP1 foci, a widely used indicator for DNA double strand break (DSB). CSCs were found to be less active than NSCCs in both the generation and the response of bystander signals. Moreover, the nitric oxide (NO) scavenger c-PTIO can effectively alleviate the bystander effect in bystander NSCCs but not in bystander CSCs, indicating a difference of the two cell subtypes in NO signal response. To our knowledge, this is the first report shedding light on the RIBE between CSCs and NSCCs, which might contribute to a further understanding of the out-of-field effect in cancer radiotherapy

  16. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor); Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  17. CD133(+)/CD44(+)/Oct4(+)/Nestin(+) stem-like cells isolated from Panc-1 cell line may contribute to multi-resistance and metastasis of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqing; Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Ying; Liu, Yanfang; Shen, Huiling; Yin, Ruigen; Zhang, Zhijian; Su, Zhaoliang

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant disease. Owing to the lack of early symptoms, accompanied by extensive metastasis and high resistance to chemotherapy, pancreatic adenocarcinoma becomes the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. In this study, we identified a subpopulation of cells isolated from the Panc-1 cell line and named pancreatic cancer stem-like cells. These Panc-1 stem-like cells expressed high levels of CD133/CD44/Oct4/Nestin. Compared to Panc-1 cells, Panc-1 stem-like cells were resistant to gemcitabine and expressed high levels of MDR1; furthermore, Panc-1 stem-like cells have high anti-apoptotic, but weak proliferative potential. These results indicated that Panc-1 stem-like cells, as a novel group, may be a potential major cause of pancreatic cancer multidrug resistance and extensive metastasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Stem cell biology meets systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Roeder, I.; Radtke, F.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells and their descendents are the building blocks of life. How stem cell populations guarantee their maintenance and/or self-renewal, and how individual stem cells decide to transit from one cell stage to another to generate different cell types are long-standing and fascinating questions in the field. Here, we review the discussions that took place at a recent EMBO conference in Cambridge, UK, in which these questions were placed in the context of the latest advances in stem cell biol...

  19. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P var. (P var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells: cell biology and potential use in therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Kristiansen, Malthe; Abdallah, Basem M

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are clonogenic, non-haematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial-cells and also non-mesoderm-type lineages e.g. neuronal-like cells. Several methods...... are currently available for isolation of the mesenchymal stem cells based on their physical and immunological characteristics. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, mesenchymal stem cells are among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Recent...... studies have demonstrated that the life span of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro can be extended by increasing the levels of telomerase expression in the cells and thus allowing culture of large number of cells needed for therapy. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible to culture the cells...

  1. Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Mary; Zhou, Hua; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Lange, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells) that must exist for the survival of an adequate number of normal stem cells. Our main tools are birth–death Markov chains in continuous time. In this framework, we investigate the extinction times of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells. Application of extreme value theory from mathematical statistics yields an accurate asymptotic distribution and corresponding moments for both extinction times. We compare these distributions for the two cell populations as a function of the killing rates. Perhaps a more telling comparison involves the number of normal stem cells NH at the extinction time of the cancer stem cells. Conditioning on the asymptotic time to extinction of the cancer stem cells allows us to calculate the asymptotic mean and variance of NH. The full distribution of NH can be retrieved by the finite Fourier transform and, in some parameter regimes, by an eigenfunction expansion. Finally, we discuss the impact of quiescence (the resting state) on stem cell dynamics. Quiescence can act as a sanctuary for cancer stem cells and imperils the proposed therapy. We approach the complication of quiescence via multitype branching process models and stochastic simulation. Improvements to the τ-leaping method of stochastic simulation make it a versatile tool in this context. We conclude that the proposed therapy must target quiescent cancer stem cells as well as actively dividing cancer stem cells. The current cancer models demonstrate the virtue of attacking the same quantitative questions from a variety of modeling, mathematical, and computational perspectives

  2. Stem cell therapy. Use of differentiated pluripotent stem cells as replacement therapy for treating disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Ira J; Daley, George Q; Goldman, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) directed to various cell fates holds promise as source material for treating numerous disorders. The availability of precisely differentiated PSC-derived cells will dramatically affect blood component and hematopoietic stem cell therapies and should facilitate......, and industry is critical for generating new stem cell-based therapies....... treatment of diabetes, some forms of liver disease and neurologic disorders, retinal diseases, and possibly heart disease. Although an unlimited supply of specific cell types is needed, other barriers must be overcome. This review of the state of cell therapies highlights important challenges. Successful...

  3. Upregulated miR-132 in Lgr5+ gastric cancer stem cell-like cells contributes to cisplatin-resistance via SIRT1/CREB/ABCG2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanfang; Guo, Xiaohe; Zhang, Dezhong; Fan, Yingying; Qin, Lei; Dong, Shuping; Zhang, Lanfang

    2017-09-01

    Cisplatin resistance has long been a major problem that restricts its use. A novel paradigm in tumor biology suggests that gastric tumor chemo-resistance is driven by gastric cancer stem cell-like (GCSCs). Growing evidence has indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to chemo-resistance in gastric cancer (GC). Here, Lgr5 + cells derived from gastric cancer cell lines displayed stem cell-like features. Flow cytometry demonstrated the presence of a variable fraction of Lgr5 in 19 out of 20 GC specimens. By comparing the miRNA expression profiles of Lgr5 + GCSCs and Lrg5 - cells, we established the upregulation of miR-132 in Lgr5 + GCSCs. The enhanced miR-132 expression correlated chemo-resistance in GC patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that patients with low miR-132 expression survived obviously longer. Functional assays results indicated that miR-132 promoted cisplatin resistance in Lgr5 + GCSCs in vitro and in vivo. Further dual-luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that SIRT1 was the direct target of miR-132. The expression of miR-132 was inversely correlated with SIRT1 in gastric cancer specimens. Furthermore, through PCR array we discovered ABCG2 was one of the downstream targets of SIRT1. Overexpression of SIRT1 down-regulated ABCG2 expression by promoting the de-acetylation of the transcription factor CREB. CREB was further activated ABCG2 via binding to the promoter of ABCG2 to induce transcription. Thus, we concluded that miR-132 regulated SIRT1/CREB/ABCG2 signaling pathway contributing to the cisplatin resistance and might serve as a novel therapeutic target against gastric cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Stem Cell Transplantation from Bench to Bedside

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Stem Cell Transplantation from Bench to Bedside · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Principles of an allogeneic stem cell transplant · Principle of an allogeneic stem cell transplant · Principle of an autologous Stem Cell Transplant · Slide 8 · Conditioning · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Stem Cell Transplantation · Slide 13.

  5. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  6. Stem cells for tooth engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bluteau

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Tooth development results from sequential and reciprocal interactions between the oral epithelium and the underlying neural crest-derived mesenchyme. The generation of dental structures and/or entire teeth in the laboratory depends upon the manipulation of stem cells and requires a synergy of all cellular and molecular events that finally lead to the formation of tooth-specific hard tissues, dentin and enamel. Although mesenchymal stem cells from different origins have been extensively studied in their capacity to form dentin in vitro, information is not yet available concerning the use of epithelial stem cells. The odontogenic potential resides in the oral epithelium and thus epithelial stem cells are necessary for both the initiation of tooth formation and enamel matrix production. This review focuses on the different sources of stem cells that have been used for making teeth in vitro and their relative efficiency. Embryonic, post-natal or even adult stem cells were assessed and proved to possess an enormous regenerative potential, but their application in dental practice is still problematic and limited due to various parameters that are not yet under control such as the high risk of rejection, cell behaviour, long tooth eruption period, appropriate crown morphology and suitable colour. Nevertheless, the development of biological approaches for dental reconstruction using stem cells is promising and remains one of the greatest challenges in the dental field for the years to come.

  7. Pervasive satellite cell contribution to uninjured adult muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowski, Bradley; Pulliam, Crystal; Betta, Nicole Dalla; Kardon, Gabrielle; Olwin, Bradley B

    2015-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle adapts to functional needs, maintaining consistent numbers of myonuclei and stem cells. Although resident muscle stem cells or satellite cells are required for muscle growth and repair, in uninjured muscle, these cells appear quiescent and metabolically inactive. To investigate the satellite cell contribution to myofibers in adult uninjured skeletal muscle, we labeled satellite cells by inducing a recombination of LSL-tdTomato in Pax7(CreER) mice and scoring tdTomato+ myofibers as an indicator of satellite cell fusion. Satellite cell fusion into myofibers plateaus postnatally between 8 and 12 weeks of age, reaching a steady state in hindlimb muscles, but in extra ocular or diaphragm muscles, satellite cell fusion is maintained at postnatal levels irrespective of the age assayed. Upon recombination and following a 2-week chase in 6-month-old mice, tdTomato-labeled satellite cells fused into myofibers as 20, 50, and 80 % of hindlimb, extra ocular, and diaphragm myofibers, respectively, were tdTomato+. Satellite cells contribute to uninjured myofibers either following a cell division or directly without an intervening cell division. The frequency of satellite cell fusion into the skeletal muscle fibers is greater than previously estimated, suggesting an important functional role for satellite cell fusion into adult myofibers and a requirement for active maintenance of satellite cell numbers in uninjured skeletal muscle.

  8. Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo

    2005-01-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications

  9. Biomechanics of stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, A. A.; Yuan, D.; Somers, S.; Grayson, W. L.

    2018-04-01

    Stem cells play a key role in the healthy development and maintenance of organisms. They are also critically important in medical treatments of various diseases. It has been recently demonstrated that the mechanical factors such as forces, adhesion, stiffness, relaxation, etc. have significant effects on stem cell functions. Under physiological conditions, cells (stem cells) in muscles, heart, and blood vessels are under the action of externally applied strains. We consider the stem cell microenvironment and performance associated with their conversion (differentiation) into skeletal muscle cells. Two problems are studied by using mathematical models whose parameters are then optimized by fitting experiments. First, we present our analysis of the process of stem cell differentiation under the application of cyclic unidirectional strain. This process is interpreted as a transition through several (six) stages where each of them is defined in terms of expression of a set of factors typical to skeletal muscle cells. The stem cell evolution toward muscle cells is described by a system of nonlinear ODEs. The parameters of the model are determined by fitting the experimental data on the time course of expression of the factors under consideration. Second, we analyse the mechanical (relaxation) properties of a scaffold that serves as the microenvironment for stem cells differentiation into skeletal muscle cells. This scaffold (surrounded by a liquid solution) is composed of unidirectional fibers with pores between them. The relaxation properties of the scaffold are studied in an experiment where a long cylindrical specimen is loaded by the application of ramp displacement until the strain reaches a prescribed value. The magnitude of the corresponding load is recorded. The specimen is considered as transversely isotropic poroelastic cylinder whose force relaxation is associated with liquid diffusion through the pores. An analytical solution for the total force applied to

  10. Requirement of myomaker-mediated stem cell fusion for skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Qingnian; Millay, Douglas P

    2017-02-10

    Fusion of skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells is required for proper development and regeneration, however the significance of this process during adult muscle hypertrophy has not been explored. In response to muscle overload after synergist ablation in mice, we show that myomaker, a muscle specific membrane protein essential for myoblast fusion, is activated mainly in muscle progenitors and not myofibers. We rendered muscle progenitors fusion-incompetent through genetic deletion of myomaker in muscle stem cells and observed a complete reduction of overload-induced hypertrophy. This blunted hypertrophic response was associated with a reduction in Akt and p70s6k signaling and protein synthesis, suggesting a link between myonuclear accretion and activation of pro-hypertrophic pathways. Furthermore, fusion-incompetent muscle exhibited increased fibrosis after muscle overload, indicating a protective role for normal stem cell activity in reducing myofiber strain associated with hypertrophy. These findings reveal an essential contribution of myomaker-mediated stem cell fusion during physiological adult muscle hypertrophy.

  11. Comparison of Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells, hESC-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Barbet; Isabelle Peiffer; Antoinette Hatzfeld; Pierre Charbord; Jacques A. Hatzfeld

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy to identify developmental/differentiation and plasma membrane marker genes of the most primitive human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). Using sensitive and quantitative TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) methodology, we compared the expression of 381 genes in human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs), hESC-derived MSCs ...

  12. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells towards hematopoietic cells: progress and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinghui; Kaufman, Dan S

    2008-07-01

    Hematopoietic development from embryonic stem cells has been one of the most productive areas of stem cell biology. Recent studies have progressed from work with mouse to human embryonic stem cells. Strategies to produce defined blood cell populations can be used to better understand normal and abnormal hematopoiesis, as well as potentially improve the generation of hematopoietic cells with therapeutic potential. Molecular profiling, phenotypic and functional analyses have all been utilized to demonstrate that hematopoietic cells derived from embryonic stem cells most closely represent a stage of hematopoiesis that occurs at embryonic/fetal developmental stages. Generation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells comparable to hematopoietic stem cells found in the adult sources, such as bone marrow and cord blood, still remains challenging. However, genetic manipulation of intrinsic factors during hematopoietic differentiation has proven a suitable approach to induce adult definitive hematopoiesis from embryonic stem cells. Concrete evidence has shown that embryonic stem cells provide a powerful approach to study the early stage of hematopoiesis. Multiple hematopoietic lineages can be generated from embryonic stem cells, although most of the evidence suggests that hematopoietic development from embryonic stem cells mimics an embryonic/fetal stage of hematopoiesis.

  13. In vitro differentiation of primordial germ cells and oocyte-like cells from stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José J N; Souza, Glaucinete B; Soares, Maria A A; Ribeiro, Regislane P; van den Hurk, Robert; Silva, José R V

    2018-02-01

    Infertility is the result of failure due to an organic disorder of the reproductive organs, especially their gametes. Recently, much progress has been made on generating germ cells, including oocytes, from various types of stem cells. This review focuses on advances in female germ cell differentiation from different kinds of stem cells, with emphasis on embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of the derivation of female germ cells from several types of stem cells are also highlighted, as well as the ability of stem cells to generate mature and functional female gametes. This review shows that stem cell therapies have opened new frontiers in medicine, especially in the reproductive area, with the possibility of regenerating fertility.

  14. Reduced Erg Dosage Impairs Survival of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Koch, Mia Lee; Zhang, Xin; Hamblen, Melanie J; Godinho, Frank J; Fujiwara, Yuko; Xie, Huafeng; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Orkin, Stuart H; Li, Zhe

    2017-07-01

    ERG, an ETS family transcription factor frequently overexpressed in human leukemia, has been implicated as a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cells. However, how ERG controls normal hematopoiesis, particularly at the stem and progenitor cell level, and how it contributes to leukemogenesis remain incompletely understood. Using homologous recombination, we generated an Erg knockdown allele (Erg kd ) in which Erg expression can be conditionally restored by Cre recombinase. Erg kd/kd animals die at E10.5-E11.5 due to defects in endothelial and hematopoietic cells, but can be completely rescued by Tie2-Cre-mediated restoration of Erg in these cells. In Erg kd/+ mice, ∼40% reduction in Erg dosage perturbs both fetal liver and bone marrow hematopoiesis by reducing the numbers of Lin - Sca-1 + c-Kit + (LSK) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and megakaryocytic progenitors. By genetic mosaic analysis, we find that Erg-restored HSPCs outcompete Erg kd/+ HSPCs for contribution to adult hematopoiesis in vivo. This defect is in part due to increased apoptosis of HSPCs with reduced Erg dosage, a phenotype that becomes more drastic during 5-FU-induced stress hematopoiesis. Expression analysis reveals that reduced Erg expression leads to changes in expression of a subset of ERG target genes involved in regulating survival of HSPCs, including increased expression of a pro-apoptotic regulator Bcl2l11 (Bim) and reduced expression of Jun. Collectively, our data demonstrate that ERG controls survival of HSPCs, a property that may be used by leukemic cells. Stem Cells 2017;35:1773-1785. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  15. From embryonic stem cells to functioning germ cells: science, clinical and ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop

    2007-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells have been well recognized as cells having a versatile potential to differentiate into all types of cells in the body including germ cells. There are many research studies focusing on the differentiation processes and protocols to derive various types of somatic cells from embryonic stem cells. However, germ cells have unique differentiation process and developmental pathway compared with somatic cells. Consequently, they will require different differentiation protocols and special culture techniques. More understanding and established in vitro systems for gametogenesis will greatly contribute to further progression of knowledge and technology in germ cell biology, reproductive biology and reproductive medicine. Moreover if oocytes can be efficiently produced in vitro, this will play an important role on progression in nuclear transfer and nuclear reprogramming technology. The present article will provide concise review on past important discoveries, current ongoing studies and future views of this challenging research area. An ethical perspective has also been proposed to give comprehensive summary and viewpoint for future clinical application.

  16. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Legislation governing pluripotent stem cells in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pepper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most exciting areas of medical research involves the use of stem cells for the treatment of patients with a variety of diseases and for tissue repair. Although stem cell research is accelerating rapidly in many countries, it has in the past been limited in South Africa (SA; very little has been done in this country to explore the great potential offered by stem cells to address the high disease burden. Stem cell therapy has however been practised for many years, in SA and worldwide, in the form of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mainly for haematological malignancies. From a therapeutic perspective, two types of stem cells can be defined: pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells. Pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts (either from in vitro fertilisation or following somatic cell nuclear transfer are called embryonic stem (ES cells, while those derived by reprogramming adult cells are called induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. Adult stem cells include haematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells.The purpose of this article is to critically examine the SA legislation with regard to elements that impact on pluripotent stem cell research and the use of pluripotent stem cells for therapeutic purposes. This includes (but is not limited to legislation from the National Health Act (Chapter 8 in particular and its regulations, and deals with matters related to research on embryos in the stem cell context, somatic cell nuclear transfer, reproductive and therapeutic cloning and the generation and therapeutic use of iPS and ES cells.

  18. Stem cell-based approaches in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TA Mitsiadis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Repair of dental pulp and periodontal lesions remains a major clinical challenge. Classical dental treatments require the use of specialised tissue-adapted materials with still questionable efficacy and durability. Stem cell-based therapeutic approaches could offer an attractive alternative in dentistry since they can promise physiologically improved structural and functional outcomes. These therapies necessitate a sufficient number of specific stem cell populations for implantation. Dental mesenchymal stem cells can be easily isolated and are amenable to in vitro expansion while retaining their stemness. In vivo studies realised in small and large animals have evidenced the potential of dental mesenchymal stem cells to promote pulp and periodontal regeneration, but have also underlined new important challenges. The homogeneity of stem cell populations and their quality control, the delivery method, the quality of the regenerated dental tissues and their integration to the host tissue are some of the key challenges. The use of bioactive scaffolds that can elicit effective tissue repair response, through activation and mobilisation of endogenous stem cell populations, constitutes another emerging therapeutic strategy. Finally, the use of stem cells and induced pluripotent cells for the regeneration of entire teeth represents a novel promising alternative to dental implant treatment after tooth loss. In this mini-review, we present the currently applied techniques in restorative dentistry and the various attempts that are made to bridge gaps in knowledge regarding treatment strategies by translating basic stem cell research into the dental practice.

  19. Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2007-06-01

    In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  20. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  1. The potential application of stem cell in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Suardita

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are generally defined as cells that have the capacity to self-renewal and differentiate to specialize cell. There are two kinds of stem cell, embryonic stem cell and adult stem cells. Stem cell therapy has been used to treat diseases including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart diseases, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Stem cells were found in dental pulp, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone marrow. Because of their potential in medical therapy, stem cells were used to regenerate lost or damage teeth and periodontal structures. This article discusses the potential application of stem cells for dental field.

  2. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Albers, Andreas E.

    2011-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  3. Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are the building blocks for all other cells in an organism. The human body has about 200 different types of cells and any of those cells can be produced by a stem cell. This fact emphasizes the significance of stem cells in transplantational medicine, regenerative therapy and bioengineering. Whether embryonic or adult, these cells can be used for the successful treatment of a wide range of diseases that were not treatable before, such as osteogenesis imperfecta in children, different forms of leukemias, acute myocardial infarction, some neural damages and diseases, etc. Bioengineering, e.g. successful manipulation of these cells with multipotential capacity of differentiation toward appropriate patterns and precise quantity, are the prerequisites for successful outcome and treatment. By combining in vivo and in vitro techniques, it is now possible to manage the wide spectrum of tissue damages and organ diseases. Although the stem-cell therapy is not a response to all the questions, it provides more...

  4. System for tracking transplanted limbal epithelial stem cells in the treatment of corneal stem cell deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, J.; Sangwal, V.; MacNeil, S.; Matcher, S. J.

    2015-03-01

    The prevailing hypothesis for the existence and healing of the avascular corneal epithelium is that this layer of cells is continually produced by stem cells in the limbus and transported onto the cornea to mature into corneal epithelium. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD), in which the stem cell population is depleted, can lead to blindness. LSCD can be caused by chemical and thermal burns to the eye. A popular treatment, especially in emerging economies such as India, is the transplantation of limbal stem cells onto damaged limbus with hope of repopulating the region. Hence regenerating the corneal epithelium. In order to gain insights into the success rates of this treatment, new imaging technologies are needed in order to track the transplanted cells. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is well known for its high resolution in vivo images of the retina. A custom OCT system has been built to image the corneal surface, to investigate the fate of transplanted limbal stem cells. We evaluate two methods to label and track transplanted cells: melanin labelling and magneto-labelling. To evaluate melanin labelling, stem cells are loaded with melanin and then transplanted onto a rabbit cornea denuded of its epithelium. The melanin displays strongly enhanced backscatter relative to normal cells. To evaluate magneto-labelling the stem cells are loaded with magnetic nanoparticles (20-30nm in size) and then imaged with a custom-built, magneto-motive OCT system.

  5. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    In his influential essay on markets, An essay on framing and overflowing (1998), Michel Callon writes that `the growing complexity of industrialized societies [is] due in large part to the movements of the technosciences, which are causing connections and interdependencies to proliferate'. This p...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products.......'. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...

  6. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkum, Kelsey L; Stemler, Kristina M; White, Lynn S; Loza, Andrew J; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-12-22

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy.

  7. Challenges for heart disease stem cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoover-Plow J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jane Hoover-Plow, Yanqing GongDepartments of Cardiovascular Medicine and Molecular Cardiology, Joseph J Jacobs Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death worldwide. The use of stem cells to improve recovery of the injured heart after myocardial infarction (MI is an important emerging therapeutic strategy. However, recent reviews of clinical trials of stem cell therapy for MI and ischemic heart disease recovery report that less than half of the trials found only small improvements in cardiac function. In clinical trials, bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood cells were used as the source of stem cells delivered by intracoronary infusion. Some trials administered only a stem cell mobilizing agent that recruits endogenous sources of stem cells. Important challenges to improve the effectiveness of stem cell therapy for CVD include: (1 improved identification, recruitment, and expansion of autologous stem cells; (2 identification of mobilizing and homing agents that increase recruitment; and (3 development of strategies to improve stem cell survival and engraftment of both endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. This review is an overview of stem cell therapy for CVD and discusses the challenges these three areas present for maximum optimization of the efficacy of stem cell therapy for heart disease, and new strategies in progress.Keywords: mobilization, expansion, homing, survival, engraftment

  8. Mismatch repair deficient hematopoietic stem cells are preleukemic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Qing

    Full Text Available Whereas transformation events in hematopoietic malignancies may occur at different developmental stages, the initial mutation originates in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, creating a preleukemic stem cell (PLSC. Subsequent mutations at either stem cell or progenitor cell levels transform the PLSC into lymphoma/leukemia initiating cells (LIC. Thymic lymphomas have been thought to develop from developing thymocytes. T cell progenitors are generated from HSCs in the bone marrow (BM, but maturation and proliferation of T cells as well as T-lymphomagenesis depends on both regulatory mechanisms and microenvironment within the thymus. We studied PLSC linked to thymic lymphomas. In this study, we use MSH2-/- mice as a model to investigate the existence of PLSC and the evolution of PLSC to LIC. Following BM transplantation, we found that MSH2-/- BM cells from young mice are able to fully reconstitute multiple hematopoietic lineages of lethally irradiated wild-type recipients. However, all recipients developed thymic lymphomas within three and four months post transplantation. Transplantation of different fractions of BM cells or thymocytes from young health MSH2-/- mice showed that an HSC enriched fraction always reconstituted hematopoiesis followed by lymphoma development. In addition, lymphomas did not occur in thymectomized recipients of MSH2-/- BM. These results suggest that HSCs with DNA repair defects such as MSH2-/- are PLSCs because they retain hematopoietic function, but also carry an obligate lymphomagenic potential within their T-cell progeny that is dependent on the thymic microenvironment.

  9. Stem cells in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Rama Kumar M, Madhu Varma K, Kalyan Satish R, Manikya kumar Nanduri.R, Murali Krishnam Raju S, Mohan rao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. Serving as a sort of repair system for the body, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. However, progress in stem cell biology and tissue engineering may present new options for replacing heavily damaged or lost teeth, or even individual tooth structures. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells on regenerative endodontics.

  10. Therapeutic potential of stem cells in auditory hair cell repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Hata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of acquired hearing loss is very high. About 10% of the total population and more than one third of the population over 65 years suffer from debilitating hearing loss. The most common type of hearing loss in adults is idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL. In the majority of cases, ISSHL is permanent and typically associated with loss of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti. Following the loss of sensory hair cells, the auditory neurons undergo secondary degeneration. Sensory hair cells and auditory neurons do not regenerate throughout life, and loss of these cells is irreversible and cumulative. However, recent advances in stem cell biology have gained hope that stem cell therapy comes closer to regenerating sensory hair cells in humans. A major advance in the prospects for the use of stem cells to restore normal hearing comes with the recent discovery that hair cells can be generated ex vivo from embryonic stem (ES cells, adult inner ear stem cells and neural stem cells. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that stem cells can promote damaged cell repair in part by secreting diffusible molecules such as growth factors. These results suggest that stem-cell-based treatment regimens can be applicable to the damaged inner ear as future clinical applications.Previously we have established an animal model of cochlear ischemia in gerbils and showed progressive hair cell loss up to 4 days after ischemia. Auditory brain stem response (ABR recordings have demonstrated that this gerbil model displays severe deafness just after cochlear ischemia and gradually recovers thereafter. These pathological findings and clinical manifestations are reminiscent of ISSHL in humans. In this study, we have shown the effectiveness of stem cell therapy by using this animal model of ISSHL.

  11. Differentiation of isolated human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ji-Ming; Duan, Hong-Tao; Kong, Jia-Hui; Wang, Yue-Xin; Dong, Meng; Bi, Xue; Song, Jian

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether umbilical cord human mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro. METHODS The umbilical cords were obtained from pregnant women with their written consent and the approval of the Clinic Ethnics Committee. UC-MSC were isolated by adherent culture in the medium contains 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), then they were maintained in the medium contain 10% FBS and induced to neural cells in neural differentiation medium. We investigated whether UC-MSC was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro by using flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence (IF) analyzes. RESULTS A substantial number of UC-MSC was harvested using the tissue explants adherent method at about 2wk. Flow cytometric study revealed that these cells expressed common markers of MSCs, such as CD105 (SH2), CD73 (SH3) and CD90. After induction of differentiation of neural stem cells, the cells began to form clusters; RT-PCR and IF showed that the neuron specific enolase (NSE) and neurogenic differentiation 1-positive cells reached 87.3%±14.7% and 72.6%±11.8%, respectively. Cells showed neuronal cell differentiation after induced, including neuron-like protrusions, plump cell body, obviously and stronger refraction. RT-PCR and IF analysis showed that microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and nuclear factor-M-positive cells reached 43.1%±10.3% and 69.4%±19.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION Human umbilical cord derived MSCs can be cultured and proliferated in vitro and differentiate into neural stem cells, which may be a valuable source for cell therapy of neurodegenerative eye diseases. PMID:26949608

  12. Differentiation of isolated human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether umbilical cord human mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro. METHODS: The umbilical cords were obtained from pregnant women with their written consent and the approval of the Clinic Ethnics Committee. UC-MSC were isolated by adherent culture in the medium contains 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS, then they were maintained in the medium contain 10% FBS and induced to neural cells in neural differentiation medium. We investigated whether UC-MSC was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro by using flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunofluorescence (IF analyzes. RESULTS: A substantial number of UC-MSC was harvested using the tissue explants adherent method at about 2wk. Flow cytometric study revealed that these cells expressed common markers of MSCs, such as CD105 (SH2, CD73 (SH3 and CD90. After induction of differentiation of neural stem cells, the cells began to form clusters; RT-PCR and IF showed that the neuron specific enolase (NSE and neurogenic differentiation 1-positive cells reached 87.3%±14.7% and 72.6%±11.8%, respectively. Cells showed neuronal cell differentiation after induced, including neuron-like protrusions, plump cell body, obviously and stronger refraction. RT-PCR and IF analysis showed that microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 and nuclear factor-M-positive cells reached 43.1%±10.3% and 69.4%±19.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Human umbilical cord derived MSCs can be cultured and proliferated in vitro and differentiate into neural stem cells, which may be a valuable source for cell therapy of neurodegenerative eye diseases.

  13. Role of Notch signaling in cell-fate determination of human mammary stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dontu, Gabriela; Jackson, Kyle W; McNicholas, Erin; Kawamura, Mari J; Abdallah, Wissam M; Wicha, Max S

    2004-01-01

    suggest that Notch signaling plays a critical role in normal human mammary development by acting on both stem cells and progenitor cells, affecting self-renewal and lineage-specific differentiation. Based on these findings we propose that abnormal Notch signaling may contribute to mammary carcinogenesis by deregulating the self-renewal of normal mammary stem cells

  14. β1 Integrins Mediate Attachment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Cartilage Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zwolanek (Daniela); M. Flicker (Magdalena); E. Kirstätter (Elisabeth); F. Zaucke (Frank); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); R.G. Erben (Reinhold)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may have great potential for cell-based therapies of osteoarthritis. However, after injection in the joint, only few cells adhere to defective articular cartilage and contribute to cartilage regeneration. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of MSC

  15. Concise Review: Cell Surface N-Linked Glycoproteins as Potential Stem Cell Markers and Drug Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boheler, Kenneth R; Gundry, Rebekah L

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells and their derivatives hold great promise to advance regenerative medicine. Critical to the progression of this field is the identification and utilization of antibody-accessible cell-surface proteins for immunophenotyping and cell sorting-techniques essential for assessment and isolation of defined cell populations with known functional and therapeutic properties. Beyond their utility for cell identification and selection, cell-surface proteins are also major targets for pharmacological intervention. Although comprehensive cell-surface protein maps are highly valuable, they have been difficult to define until recently. In this review, we discuss the application of a contemporary targeted chemoproteomic-based technique for defining the cell-surface proteomes of stem and progenitor cells. In applying this approach to pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), these studies have improved the biological understanding of these cells, led to the enhanced use and development of antibodies suitable for immunophenotyping and sorting, and contributed to the repurposing of existing drugs without the need for high-throughput screening. The utility of this latter approach was first demonstrated with human PSCs (hPSCs) through the identification of small molecules that are selectively toxic to hPSCs and have the potential for eliminating confounding and tumorigenic cells in hPSC-derived progeny destined for research and transplantation. Overall, the cutting-edge technologies reviewed here will accelerate the development of novel cell-surface protein targets for immunophenotyping, new reagents to improve the isolation of therapeutically qualified cells, and pharmacological studies to advance the treatment of intractable diseases amenable to cell-replacement therapies. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:131-138. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  16. Interplay between Inflammation and Stemness in Cancer Cells: The Role of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are a small population of cancer cells that exhibit stemness. These cells contribute to cancer metastasis, treatment resistance, and relapse following therapy; therefore, they may cause malignancy and reduce the success of cancer treatment. Nuclear factor kappa B- (NF-κB- mediated inflammatory responses increase stemness in cancer cells, and CSCs constitutively exhibit higher NF-κB activation, which in turn increases their stemness. These opposite effects form a positive feedback loop that further amplifies inflammation and stemness in cancer cells, thereby expanding CSC populations in the tumor. Toll-like receptors (TLRs activate NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses when stimulated by carcinogenic microbes and endogenous molecules released from cells killed during cancer treatment. NF-κB activation by extrinsic TLR ligands increases stemness in cancer cells. Moreover, it was recently shown that increased NF-κB activity and inflammatory responses in CSCs may be caused by altered TLR signaling during the enrichment of stemness in cancer cells. Thus, the activation of TLR signaling by extrinsic and intrinsic factors drives a positive interplay between inflammation and stemness in cancer cells.

  17. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

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    Juan Antonio Guadix

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 promoted expression of the mesodermal marker PDGFRα, upregulated characteristic (proepicardial progenitor cell genes, and downregulated transcription of myocardial genes. We confirmed the (proepicardial-like properties of these cells using in vitro co-culture assays and in ovo grafting of hPSC-epicardial cells into chick embryos. Our data show that RA + BMP4-treated hPSCs differentiate into (proepicardial-like cells displaying functional properties (adhesion and spreading over the myocardium of their in vivo counterpart. The results extend evidence that hPSCs are an excellent model to study (proepicardial differentiation into cardiovascular cells in human development and evaluate their potential for cardiac regeneration. : The authors have shown that hPSCs can be instructed in vitro to differentiate into a specific cardiac embryonic progenitor cell population called the proepicardium. Proepicardial cells are required for normal formation of the heart during development and might contribute to the development of cell-based therapies for heart repair. Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells, proepicardium, progenitor cells, cardiovascular, differentiation

  18. Ocular Stem Cell Research from Basic Science to Clinical Application: A Report from Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ouyang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells hold promise for treating a wide variety of diseases, including degenerative disorders of the eye. The eye is an ideal organ for stem cell therapy because of its relative immunological privilege, surgical accessibility, and its being a self-contained system. The eye also has many potential target diseases amenable to stem cell-based treatment, such as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, and retinitis pigmentosa (RP. Among them, AMD and glaucoma are the two most common diseases, affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Recent results on the clinical trial of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in treating dry AMD and Stargardt’s disease in the US, Japan, England, and China have generated great excitement and hope. This marks the beginning of the ocular stem cell therapy era. The recent Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium discussed the potential applications of various stem cell types in stem cell-based therapies, drug discoveries and tissue engineering for treating ocular diseases.

  19. Stem cells: sources and therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Monti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical, lexical and conceptual issues embedded in stem cell biology are reviewed from technical, ethical, philosophical, judicial, clinical, economic and biopolitical perspectives. The mechanisms assigning the simultaneous capacity to self-renew and to differentiate to stem cells (immortal template DNA and asymmetric division are evaluated in the light of the niche hypothesis for the stemness state. The induction of cell pluripotency and the different stem cells sources are presented (embryonic, adult and cord blood. We highlight the embryonic and adult stem cell properties and possible therapies while we emphasize the particular scientific and social values of cord blood donation to set up cord blood banks. The current scientific and legal frameworks of cord blood banks are reviewed at an international level as well as allogenic, dedicated and autologous donations. The expectations and the challenges in relation to present-day targeted diseases like diabetes mellitus type I, Parkinson's disease and myocardial infarction are evaluated in the light of the cellular therapies for regenerative medicine.

  20. Sensing radiosensitivity of human epidermal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachidi, Walid; Harfourche, Ghida; Lemaitre, Gilles; Amiot, Franck; Vaigot, Pierre; Martin, Michele T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Radiosensitivity of stem cells is a matter of debate. For mouse somatic stem cells, both radiosensitive and radioresistant stem cells have been described. By contrast, the response of human stem cells to radiation has been poorly studied. As epidermis is a radiosensitive tissue, we evaluated in the present work the radiosensitivity of cell populations enriched for epithelial stem cells of human epidermis. Methods and materials: The total keratinocyte population was enzymatically isolated from normal human skin. We used flow cytometry and antibodies against cell surface markers to isolate basal cell populations from human foreskin. Cell survival was measured after a dose of 2 Gy with the XTT assay at 72 h after exposure and with a clonogenic assay at 2 weeks. Transcriptome analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays was performed to assess the genomic cell responses to radiation. Results: Cell sorting based on two membrane proteins, α6 integrin and the transferrin receptor CD71, allowed isolation of keratinocyte populations enriched for the two types of cells found in the basal layer of epidermis: stem cells and progenitors. Both the XTT assay and the clonogenic assay showed that the stem cells were radioresistant whereas the progenitors were radiosensitive. We made the hypothesis that upstream DNA damage signalling might be different in the stem cells and used microarray technology to test this hypothesis. The stem cells exhibited a much more reduced gene response to a dose of 2 Gy than the progenitors, as we found that 6% of the spotted genes were regulated in the stem cells and 20% in the progenitors. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that radiation exposure induced very specific pathways in the stem cells. The most striking responses were the repression of a network of genes involved in apoptosis and the induction of a network of cytokines and growth factors. Conclusion: These results show for the first time that keratinocyte

  1. Stem cell factor enhances the survival of murine intestinal stem cells after photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, B.R.; Khan, W.; Hancock, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant rat stem cell factor (SCF) has been shown to decrease lethality in mice exposed to total-body irradiation (TBI) in the lower range of lethality through radioprotection of hematopoietic stem cells and acceleration of bone marrow repopulation. This study evaluates the effect of SCF on the survival of the intestinal mucosal stem cell after TBI. This non-hematopoietic cell is clinically relevant. Gastrointestinal toxicity is common during and after abdominal and pelvic radiation therapy and limits the radiation dose in these regions. As observed with bone marrow, the administration of SCF to mice prior to TBI enhanced the survival of mouse duodenal crypt stem cells. The maximum enhancement of survival was seen when 100 μ/kg of SCF was given intraperitoneally 8 h before irradiation. This regimen increased the survival of duodenal crypt stem cells after 12.0 Gy TBI from 22.5 ± 0.7 per duodenal cross section for controls to 30.0 ± 1.7 after treatment with SCF (P=0.03). The TBI dose producing 50% mortality of 6 days (LD 50/6 ) was increased from 14.9 Gy for control mice to 19.0 Gy for mice treated with SCF (dose modification factor = 1.28). These findings demonstrate that SCF (dose modification factor = 1.28). These findings demonstrate that SCF has radioprotective effects on a non-hematopoietic stem cell population and suggest that SCF may be of clinical value in preventing radiation injury to the intestine. 29 refs., 4 figs

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells generate distinct functional hybrids in vitro via cell fusion or entosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottile, Francesco; Aulicino, Francesco; Theka, Ilda; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2016-11-09

    Homotypic and heterotypic cell-to-cell fusion are key processes during development and tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, aberrant cell fusion can contribute to tumour initiation and metastasis. Additionally, a form of cell-in-cell structure called entosis has been observed in several human tumours. Here we investigate cell-to-cell interaction between mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). MSCs represent an important source of adult stem cells since they have great potential for regenerative medicine, even though they are also involved in cancer progression. We report that MSCs can either fuse forming heterokaryons, or be invaded by ESCs through entosis. While entosis-derived hybrids never share their genomes and induce degradation of the target cell, fusion-derived hybrids can convert into synkaryons. Importantly we show that hetero-to-synkaryon transition occurs through cell division and not by nuclear membrane fusion. Additionally, we also observe that the ROCK-actin/myosin pathway is required for both fusion and entosis in ESCs but only for entosis in MSCs. Overall, we show that MSCs can undergo fusion or entosis in culture by generating distinct functional cellular entities. These two processes are profoundly different and their outcomes should be considered given the beneficial or possible detrimental effects of MSC-based therapeutic applications.

  3. Neural stem cells induce bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to generate neural stem-like cells via juxtacrine and paracrine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Arshak R.

    2005-01-01

    Several recent reports suggest that there is far more plasticity that previously believed in the developmental potential of bone-marrow-derived cells (BMCs) that can be induced by extracellular developmental signals of other lineages whose nature is still largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) co-cultured with mouse proliferating or fixed (by paraformaldehyde or methanol) neural stem cells (NSCs) generate neural stem cell-like cells with a higher expression of Sox-2 and nestin when grown in NS-A medium supplemented with N2, NSC conditioned medium (NSCcm) and bFGF. These neurally induced MSCs eventually differentiate into β-III-tubulin and GFAP expressing cells with neuronal and glial morphology when grown an additional week in Neurobasal/B27 without bFGF. We conclude that juxtacrine interaction between NSCs and MSCs combined with soluble factors released from NSCs are important for generation of neural-like cells from bone-marrow-derived adherent MSCs

  4. In Search for Anti-Aging Strategy: Can We Rejuvenate Our Aging Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggested that we grow old partly because of our stem cells grow old as a result of mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer over a lifetime. We believe that a further, more precise mechanistic understanding of this process will be required before this knowledge can be translated into human anti-aging therapies. CONTENT: A diminished capacity to maintain tissue homeostasis is a central physiological characteristic of aging. As stem cells regulate tissue homeostasis, depletion of stem cell reserves and/or diminished stem cell function have been postulated to contribute to aging. It has further been suggested that accumulated DNA damage could be a principal mechanism underlying age-dependent stem cell decline. It is interesting that many of the rejuvenating interventions act on the stem cell compartments, perhaps reflecting shared genetic and biochemical pathways controlling stem cell function and longevity. Strategy to slow down the aging processes is based on caloric restriction refers to a dietary regimen low in calories but without undernutrition. Sirtuin (SIRT1 and 3, increases longevity by mimicking the beneficial effects of caloric restriction. SIRT3 regulates stress-responsive mitochondrial homeostasis, and more importantly, SIRT3 upregulation rejuvenates aged stem cells in tissues. Resveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbene, a natural polyphenol found in grapes and wine, was the most powerful natural activator of SIRT1. In fact, resveratrol treatment has been demonstrated to rescue adult stem cell decline, slow down bodyweight loss, improve trabecular bone structure and mineral density, and significantly extend lifespan. SUMMARY: Tissue-specific stem cells persist throughout the entire lifespan to repair and maintain tissues, but their self-renewal and differentiation potential become dysregulated with aging. Given that adult stem cells are thought to be central to tissue maintenance and organismal

  5. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Application Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujde Kivanc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cells derived from adipose tissue as an autologous and self-replenishing source for a variety of differentiated cell phenotypes, provides a great deal of promise for reconstructive surgery. The secret of the human body, stem cells are reserved. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells found in the human body placed in any body tissue characteristics that differentiate and win ever known to cross the tissue instead of more than 200 diseases and thus improve and, rejuvenates the tissues. So far, the cord blood of newborn babies are used as a source of stem cells, bone marrow, and twenty years after tooth stem cells in human adipose tissue, scientists studied more than other sources of stem cells in adipose tissue and discovered that. Increase in number of in vitro studies on adult stem cells, depending on many variables is that the stem cells directly to the desired soybean optimization can be performed.. We will conclude by assessing potential avenues for developing this incredibly promising field. The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature on applications of harvest, purification, characterization and cryopreservation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 399-408

  6. Identification of Novel Targets for Lung Cancer Therapy Using an Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vivek; Rao, Mahadev; Zhang, Hongen; Beers, Jeanette; Wangsa, Darawalee; Wangsa, Danny; Buishand, Floryne O; Wang, Yonghong; Yu, Zhiya; Stevenson, Holly; Reardon, Emily; McLoughlin, Kaitlin C; Kaufman, Andrew; Payabyab, Eden; Hong, Julie A; Zhang, Mary; Davis, Sean R; Edelman, Daniel C; Chen, Guokai; Miettinen, Markku; Restifo, Nicholas; Ried, Thomas; Meltzer, Paul S; Schrump, David S

    2018-04-01

    Despite extensive studies, the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that mediate initiation and progression of lung cancers have not been fully elucidated. Previously, we have demonstrated that via complementary mechanisms, including DNA methylation, polycomb repressive complexes, and noncoding RNAs, cigarette smoke induces stem-like phenotypes that coincide with progression to malignancy in normal respiratory epithelia as well as enhanced growth and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells. To further investigate epigenetic mechanisms contributing to stemness/pluripotency in lung cancers and potentially identify novel therapeutic targets in these malignancies, induced pluripotent stem cells were generated from normal human small airway epithelial cells. Lung induced pluripotent stem cells were generated by lentiviral transduction of small airway epithelial cells of OSKM (Yamanaka) factors (octamer-binding transcription factor 4 [Oct4], sex-determining region Y box 2 [SOX2], Kruppel-like factor 4 [KLF4], and MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor [MYC]). Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis were performed. The lung induced pluripotent stem cells exhibited hallmarks of pluripotency, including morphology, surface antigen and stem cell gene expression, in vitro proliferation, and teratoma formation. In addition, lung induced pluripotent stem cells exhibited no chromosomal aberrations, complete silencing of reprogramming transgenes, genomic hypermethylation, upregulation of genes encoding components of polycomb repressive complex 2, hypermethylation of stem cell polycomb targets, and modulation of more than 15,000 other genes relative to parental small airway epithelial cells. Additional sex combs like-3 (ASXL3), encoding a polycomb repressive complex 2-associated protein not previously described in reprogrammed cells, was markedly upregulated in lung induced pluripotent stem cell as well as human

  7. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in a myocardial infarction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe; Frøbert, Ole; Holst-Hansen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of myocardial infarction with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and recently also adipose-derived stem cells has shown promising results. In contrast to clinical trials and their use of autologous bone marrow-derived cells from the ischemic patient, the animal...... myocardial infarction models are often using young donors and young, often immune-compromised, recipient animals. Our objective was to compare bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells from an elderly ischemic patient in the treatment of myocardial infarction, using a fully...... grown non-immunecompromised rat model. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissue and bone marrow and compared with respect to surface markers and proliferative capability. To compare the regenerative potential of the two stem cell populations, male Sprague-Dawley rats were...

  8. Embryos, Clones, and Stem Cells: A Scientific Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon S. Tweedell

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to give the nonspecialist an insight into the nuances of “clones”, cloning, and stem cells. It distinguishes embryonic and adult stem cells, their normal function in the organism, their origin, and how they are recovered to produce stem cell lines in culture. As background, the fundamental processes of embryo development are reviewed and defined, since the manipulation of stem cell lines into desired specialized cells employs many of the same events. Stem cells are defined and characterized and shown how they function in the intact organism during early development and later during cell regeneration in the adult. The complexity of stem cell recovery and their manipulation into specific cells and tissue is illustrated by reviewing current experimentation on both embryonic and adult stem cells in animals and limited research on human stem cell lines. The current and projected use of stem cells for human diseases and repair, along with the expanding methodology for the recovery of human embryonic stem cells, is described. An assessment on the use of human embryonic stem cells is considered from ethical, legal, religious, and political viewpoints.

  9. Recent Developments in β-Cell Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced by Small and Large Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suresh Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs, hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β-cells. Small and large molecules play important roles in each stage of β-cell differentiation from both hESCs and hiPSCs. The small and large molecules that are described in this review have significantly advanced efforts to cure diabetic disease. Lately, effective protocols have been implemented to induce hESCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs to differentiate into functional β-cells. Several small molecules, proteins, and growth factors promote pancreatic differentiation from hESCs and hMSCs. These small molecules (e.g., cyclopamine, wortmannin, retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate and large molecules (e.g. activin A, betacellulin, bone morphogentic protein (BMP4, epidermal growth factor (EGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, noggin, transforming growth factor (TGF-α, and WNT3A are thought to contribute from the initial stages of definitive endoderm formation to the final stages of maturation of functional endocrine cells. We discuss the importance of such small and large molecules in uniquely optimized protocols of β-cell differentiation from stem cells. A global understanding of various small and large molecules and their functions will help to establish an efficient protocol for β-cell differentiation.

  10. Recent Developments in β-Cell Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced by Small and Large Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Suresh; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Singh, A. J. A. Ranjith; Peng, I-Chia; Priya, Sivan Padma; Hamat, Rukman Awang; Higuchi, Akon

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β)-cells. Small and large molecules play important roles in each stage of β-cell differentiation from both hESCs and hiPSCs. The small and large molecules that are described in this review have significantly advanced efforts to cure diabetic disease. Lately, effective protocols have been implemented to induce hESCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into functional β-cells. Several small molecules, proteins, and growth factors promote pancreatic differentiation from hESCs and hMSCs. These small molecules (e.g., cyclopamine, wortmannin, retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate) and large molecules (e.g. activin A, betacellulin, bone morphogentic protein (BMP4), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), noggin, transforming growth factor (TGF-α), and WNT3A) are thought to contribute from the initial stages of definitive endoderm formation to the final stages of maturation of functional endocrine cells. We discuss the importance of such small and large molecules in uniquely optimized protocols of β-cell differentiation from stem cells. A global understanding of various small and large molecules and their functions will help to establish an efficient protocol for β-cell differentiation. PMID:25526563

  11. Skin Stem Cells: At the Frontier Between the Laboratory and Clinical Practice. Part 1: Epidermal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastushenko, I; Prieto-Torres, L; Gilaberte, Y; Blanpain, C

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into the different cell lineages of their tissue of origin. The discovery of stem cells in adult tissues, together with the description of specific markers for their isolation, has opened up new lines of investigation, expanding the horizons of biomedical research and raising new hope in the treatment of many diseases. In this article, we review in detail the main characteristics of the stem cells that produce the specialized cells of the skin (epidermal, mesenchymal, and melanocyte stem cells) and their potential implications and applications in diseases affecting the skin. Part I deals with the principal characteristics and potential applications of epidermal stem cells in dermatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Stem Cells for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelic, Molly N; Larkin, Lisa M

    2018-04-19

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a debilitating condition wherein muscle loss overwhelms the body's normal physiological repair mechanism. VML is particularly common among military service members who have sustained war injuries. Because of the high social and medical cost associated with VML and suboptimal current surgical treatments, there is great interest in developing better VML therapies. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) is a promising alternative to traditional VML surgical treatments that use autogenic tissue grafts, and rather uses isolated stem cells with myogenic potential to generate de novo skeletal muscle tissues to treat VML. Satellite cells are the native precursors to skeletal muscle tissue, and are thus the most commonly studied starting source for SMTE. However, satellite cells are difficult to isolate and purify, and it is presently unknown whether they would be a practical source in clinical SMTE applications. Alternative myogenic stem cells, including adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, perivascular stem cells, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and embryonic stem cells, each have myogenic potential and have been identified as possible starting sources for SMTE, although they have yet to be studied in detail for this purpose. These alternative stem cell varieties offer unique advantages and disadvantages that are worth exploring further to advance the SMTE field toward highly functional, safe, and practical VML treatments. The following review summarizes the current state of satellite cell-based SMTE, details the properties and practical advantages of alternative myogenic stem cells, and offers guidance to tissue engineers on how alternative myogenic stem cells can be incorporated into SMTE research.

  13. Genome editing in mouse spermatogonial stem/progenitor cells using engineered nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle A Fanslow

    Full Text Available Editing the genome to create specific sequence modifications is a powerful way to study gene function and promises future applicability to gene therapy. Creation of precise modifications requires homologous recombination, a very rare event in most cell types that can be stimulated by introducing a double strand break near the target sequence. One method to create a double strand break in a particular sequence is with a custom designed nuclease. We used engineered nucleases to stimulate homologous recombination to correct a mutant gene in mouse "GS" (germline stem cells, testicular derived cell cultures containing spermatogonial stem cells and progenitor cells. We demonstrated that gene-corrected cells maintained several properties of spermatogonial stem/progenitor cells including the ability to colonize following testicular transplantation. This proof of concept for genome editing in GS cells impacts both cell therapy and basic research given the potential for GS cells to be propagated in vitro, contribute to the germline in vivo following testicular transplantation or become reprogrammed to pluripotency in vitro.

  14. Mesenchymal dental stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Francisco-Javier; Insausti, Carmen-Luisa; Iniesta, Francisca; Blanquer, Miguel; Ramírez, María-del-Carmen; Meseguer, Luis; Meseguer-Henarejos, Ana-Belén; Marín, Noemí; Martínez, Salvador; Moraleda, José-María

    2012-11-01

    In the last decade, tissue engineering is a field that has been suffering an enormous expansion in the regenerative medicine and dentistry. The use of cells as mesenchymal dental stem cells of easy access for dentist and oral surgeon, immunosuppressive properties, high proliferation and capacity to differentiate into odontoblasts, cementoblasts, osteoblasts and other cells implicated in the teeth, suppose a good perspective of future in the clinical dentistry. However, is necessary advance in the known of growth factors and signalling molecules implicated in tooth development and regeneration of different structures of teeth. Furthermore, these cells need a fabulous scaffold that facility their integration, differentiation, matrix synthesis and promote multiple specific interactions between cells. In this review, we give a brief description of tooth development and anatomy, definition and classification of stem cells, with special attention of mesenchymal stem cells, commonly used in the cellular therapy for their trasdifferentiation ability, non ethical problems and acceptable results in preliminary clinical trials. In terms of tissue engineering, we provide an overview of different types of mesenchymal stem cells that have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs), and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs), growth factors implicated in regeneration teeth and types of scaffolds for dental tissue regeneration.

  15. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A

    2011-01-01

    cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed.......This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...

  16. Dental Tissue — New Source for Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Petrovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have been isolated from many tissues and organs, including dental tissue. Five types of dental stem cells have been established: dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, periodontal ligament stem cells, and dental follicle progenitor cells. The main characteristics of dental stem cells are their potential for multilineage differentiation and self-renewal capacity. Dental stem cells can differentiate into odontoblasts, adipocytes, neuronal-like cells, glial cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, melanocytes, myotubes, and endothelial cells. Possible application of these cells in various fields of medicine makes them good candidates for future research as a new, powerful tool for therapy. Although the possible use of these cells in therapeutic purposes and tooth tissue engineering is still in the beginning stages, the results are promising. The efforts made in the research of dental stem cells have clarified many mechanisms underlying the biological processes in which these cells are involved. This review will focus on the new findings in the field of dental stem cell research and on their potential use in the therapy of various disorders.

  17. Efficient and Fast Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based therapies have been used for repairing damaged brain tissue and helping functional recovery after brain injury. Aberrance neurogenesis is related with brain injury, and multipotential neural stem cells from human embryonic stem (hES cells provide a great promise for cell replacement therapies. Optimized protocols for neural differentiation are necessary to produce functional human neural stem cells (hNSCs for cell therapy. However, the qualified procedure is scarce and detailed features of hNSCs originated from hES cells are still unclear. In this study, we developed a method to obtain hNSCs from hES cells, by which we could harvest abundant hNSCs in a relatively short time. Then, we examined the expression of pluripotent and multipotent marker genes through immunostaining and confirmed differentiation potential of the differentiated hNSCs. Furthermore, we analyzed the mitotic activity of these hNSCs. In this report, we provided comprehensive features of hNSCs and delivered the knowledge about how to obtain more high-quality hNSCs from hES cells which may help to accelerate the NSC-based therapies in brain injury treatment.

  18. Evaluation of hematopoietic potential generated by transplantation of muscle-derived stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Francoise; Prestoz, Laetitita; Badaoui, Sabrina; Guillier, Martine; Haond, Celine; Opolon, Paule; Thomas, Jean-Leon; Zalc, Bernard; Vainchenker, William; Turhan, Ali G

    2004-02-01

    Muscle tissue of adult mice has been shown to contain stem cells with hematopoietic repopulation ability in vivo. To determine the functional characteristics of stem cells giving rise to this hematopoietic activity, we have performed hematopoietic reconstitution experiments by the use of muscle versus marrow transplantation in lethally irradiated mice and followed the fate of transplanted cells by Y-chimerism using PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. We report here that transplantation of murine muscle generate a major hematopoietic chimerism at the level of CFU-C, CFU-S, and terminally-differentiated cells in three generations of lethally irradiated mice followed up to 1 year after transplantation. This potential is totally abolished when muscle grafts were performed by the use of muscle from previously irradiated mice. As compared to marrow transplantation, muscle transplants were able to generate similar potencies to give rise to myeloid, T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. Interestingly, marrow stem cells that have been generated in primary and then in secondary recipients were able to contribute efficiently to myofibers in the muscle tissue of tertiary recipients. Altogether, our data demonstrate that muscle-derived stem cells present a major hematopoietic repopulating ability with evidence of self-replication in vivo. They are radiation-sensitive and similar to marrow-derived stem cells in terms of their ability to generate multilineage hematopoiesis. Finally, our data demonstrate that muscle-derived hematopoietic stem cells do not lose their ability to contribute to myofiber generation after at least two rounds of serial transplantation, suggesting a potential that is probably equivalent to that generated by marrow transplantation.

  19. Cancer stem cells revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle, Eduard; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept was proposed four decades ago, and states that tumor growth, analogous to the renewal of healthy tissues, is fueled by small numbers of dedicated stem cells. It has gradually become clear that many tumors harbor CSCs in dedicated niches, and yet their

  20. Stem cells therapy for ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Letizia; Vescovi, Angelo; Cantello, Roberto; Gelati, Maurizio; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Despite knowledge on the molecular basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) having quickly progressed over the last few years, such discoveries have not yet translated into new therapeutics. With the advancement of stem cell technologies there is hope for stem cell therapeutics as novel treatments for ALS. We discuss in detail the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells in preclinical and clinical works. Moreover, we address many open questions in clinical translation. SC therapy is a potentially promising new treatment for ALS and the need to better understand how to develop cell-based experimental treatments, and how to implement them in clinical trials, becomes more pressing. Mesenchymal stem cells and neural fetal stem cells have emerged as safe and potentially effective cell types, but there is a need to carry out appropriately designed experimental studies to verify their long-term safety and possibly efficacy. Moreover, the cost-benefit analysis of the results must take into account the quality of life of the patients as a major end point. It is our opinion that a multicenter international clinical program aime d at fine-tuning and coordinating transplantation procedures and protocols is mandatory.

  1. Strategies for future histocompatible stem cell therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan; Barington, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell therapy based on the safe and unlimited self-renewal of human pluripotent stem cells is envisioned for future use in tissue or organ replacement after injury or disease. A gradual decline of regenerative capacity has been documented among the adult stem cell population in some body organs...... during the aging process. Recent progress in human somatic cell nuclear transfer and inducible pluripotent stem cell technologies has shown that patient-derived nuclei or somatic cells can be reprogrammed in vitro to become pluripotent stem cells, from which the three germ layer lineages can be generated......, genetically identical to the recipient. Once differentiation protocols and culture conditions can be defined and optimized, patient-histocompatible pluripotent stem cells could be directed towards virtually every cell type in the human body. Harnessing this capability to enrich for given cells within...

  2. Stem Cell Banking for Regenerative and Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Harris

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and gene therapy offer the opportunity to treat and cure many of today’s intractable afflictions. These approaches to personalized medicine often utilize stem cells to accomplish these goals. However, stem cells can be negatively affected by donor variables such as age and health status at the time of collection, compromising their efficacy. Stem cell banking offers the opportunity to cryogenically preserve stem cells at their most potent state for later use in these applications. Practical stem cell sources include bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and tissue, and adipose tissue. Each of these sources contains stem cells that can be obtained from most individuals, without too much difficulty and in an economical fashion. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each stem cell source, factors to be considered when contemplating banking each stem cell source, the methodology required to bank each stem cell source, and finally, current and future clinical uses of each stem cell source.

  3. Stem Cell Banking for Regenerative and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and gene therapy offer the opportunity to treat and cure many of today’s intractable afflictions. These approaches to personalized medicine often utilize stem cells to accomplish these goals. However, stem cells can be negatively affected by donor variables such as age and health status at the time of collection, compromising their efficacy. Stem cell banking offers the opportunity to cryogenically preserve stem cells at their most potent state for later use in these applications. Practical stem cell sources include bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and tissue, and adipose tissue. Each of these sources contains stem cells that can be obtained from most individuals, without too much difficulty and in an economical fashion. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each stem cell source, factors to be considered when contemplating banking each stem cell source, the methodology required to bank each stem cell source, and finally, current and future clinical uses of each stem cell source. PMID:28548060

  4. Stem cell self-renewal in intestinal crypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, Benjamin D.; Clevers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    As a rapidly cycling tissue capable of fast repair and regeneration, the intestinal epithelium has emerged as a favored model system to explore the principles of adult stem cell biology. However, until recently, the identity and characteristics of the stem cell population in both the small intestine and colon has remained the subject of debate. Recent studies based on targeted lineage tracing strategies, combined with the development of an organotypic culture system, have identified the crypt base columnar cell as the intestinal stem cell, and have unveiled the strategy by which the balance between proliferation and differentiation is maintained. These results show that intestinal stem cells operate in a dynamic environment in which frequent and stochastic stem cell loss is compensated by the proliferation of neighboring stem cells. We review the basis of these experimental findings and the insights they offer into the mechanisms of homeostatic stem cell regulation.

  5. Stem cell plasticity enables hair regeneration following Lgr5+ cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeck, Joerg D; Biehs, Brian; Kurtova, Antonina V; Kljavin, Noelyn M; de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Alicke, Bruno; Koeppen, Hartmut; Modrusan, Zora; Piskol, Robert; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2017-06-01

    Under injury conditions, dedicated stem cell populations govern tissue regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce stem cell regeneration and enable plasticity are poorly understood. Here, we investigate stem cell recovery in the context of the hair follicle to understand how two molecularly distinct stem cell populations are integrated. Utilizing diphtheria-toxin-mediated cell ablation of Lgr5 + (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5) stem cells, we show that killing of Lgr5 + cells in mice abrogates hair regeneration but this is reversible. During recovery, CD34 + (CD34 antigen) stem cells activate inflammatory response programs and start dividing. Pharmacological attenuation of inflammation inhibits CD34 + cell proliferation. Subsequently, the Wnt pathway controls the recovery of Lgr5 + cells and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents Lgr5 + cell and hair germ recovery. Thus, our study uncovers a compensatory relationship between two stem cell populations and the underlying molecular mechanisms that enable hair follicle regeneration.

  6. When nano meets stem: the impact of nanotechnology in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Savneet; Singhal, Barkha

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology and biomedical treatments using stem cells are among the latest conduits of biotechnological research. Even more recently, scientists have begun finding ways to mate these two specialties of science. The advent of nanotechnology has paved the way for an explicit understanding of stem cell therapy in vivo and by recapitulation of such in vivo environments in the culture, this technology seems to accommodate a great potential in providing new vistas to stem cell research. Nanotechnology carries in its wake, the development of highly stable, efficient and specific gene delivery systems for both in vitro and in vivo genetic engineering of stem cells, use of nanoscale systems (such as microarrays) for investigation of gene expression in stem cells, creation of dynamic three-dimensional nano-environments for in vitro and in vivo maintenance and differentiation of stem cells and development of extremely sensitive in vivo detection systems to gain insights into the mechanisms of stem cell differentiation and apoptosis in different disease models. The present review presents an overview of the current applications and future prospects for the use of nanotechnology in stem cell biology. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stem cell applications in military medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopherson, Gregory T; Nesti, Leon J

    2011-10-19

    There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military medicine. In this review we outline the array of tissue-specific injuries typically seen in modern combat - as well as address a few complications unique to soldiers--and discuss the state of current stem cell research in addressing each area. Embryonic, induced-pluripotent and adult stem cell sources are defined, along with advantages and disadvantages unique to each cell type. More detailed stem cell sources are described in the context of each tissue of interest, including neural, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and sensory tissues, with brief discussion of their potential role in regenerative medicine moving forward. Additional commentary is given to military stem cell applications aside from regenerative medicine, such as blood pharming, immunomodulation and drug screening, with an overview of stem cell banking and the unique opportunity provided by the military and civilian overlap of stem cell research.

  8. Generation and Characterization of Erythroid Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hsin Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the imbalance in the supply and demand of red blood cells (RBCs, especially for alloimmunized patients or patients with rare blood phenotypes, extensive research has been done to generate therapeutic quantities of mature RBCs from hematopoietic stem cells of various sources, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, and cord blood. Since human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can be maintained indefinitely in vitro, they represent potentially inexhaustible sources of donor-free RBCs. In contrast to other ex vivo stem-cell-derived cellular therapeutics, tumorigenesis is not a concern, as RBCs can be irradiated without marked adverse effects on in vivo function. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent publications relevant to the generation and characterization of hESC- and iPSC-derived erythroid cells and discuss challenges to be met before the eventual realization of clinical usage of these cells.

  9. Stem cell signaling. An integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration : Wnt signaling and stem cell control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, Hans; Loh, Kyle M; Nusse, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells fuel tissue development, renewal, and regeneration, and these activities are controlled by the local stem cell microenvironment, the "niche." Wnt signals emanating from the niche can act as self-renewal factors for stem cells in multiple mammalian tissues. Wnt proteins are lipid-modified,

  10. Stem cells and repair of lung injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randell Scott H

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fueled by the promise of regenerative medicine, currently there is unprecedented interest in stem cells. Furthermore, there have been revolutionary, but somewhat controversial, advances in our understanding of stem cell biology. Stem cells likely play key roles in the repair of diverse lung injuries. However, due to very low rates of cellular proliferation in vivo in the normal steady state, cellular and architectural complexity of the respiratory tract, and the lack of an intensive research effort, lung stem cells remain poorly understood compared to those in other major organ systems. In the present review, we concisely explore the conceptual framework of stem cell biology and recent advances pertinent to the lungs. We illustrate lung diseases in which manipulation of stem cells may be physiologically significant and highlight the challenges facing stem cell-related therapy in the lung.

  11. Facts about Stem Cells and Importance of Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Saeidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells—ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells—but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. There are three accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest, Adipose tissue (lipid cells, which requires extraction by liposuction, and Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation, and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. Adult stem cells are frequently used in medical therapies, for example in bone marrow transplantation. Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through Somatic-cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation

  12. Aging of marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells and their contribution to age-related bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellantuono, Ilaria; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    Marrow stromal cells (MSC) are thought to be stem cells with osteogenic potential and therefore responsible for the repair and maintenance of the skeleton. Age related bone loss is one of the most prevalent diseases in the elder population. It is controversial whether MSC undergo a process of agi...

  13. Epimorphin Regulates the Intestinal Stem Cell Niche via Effects on the Stromal Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishy, Courtney E; Swietlicki, Elzbieta A; Gazit, Vered; Amara, Suneetha; Heslop, Gabriela; Lu, Jianyun; Levin, Marc S; Rubin, Deborah C

    2018-04-06

    Stem cell therapy is a potential therapeutic approach for disorders characterized by intestinal injury or loss of functional surface area. Stem cell function and proliferation are mediated by the stem cell niche. Stromal cells such as intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) are important but poorly studied components of the stem cell niche. To examine the role of ISEMFs, we have previously generated mice with deletion of epimorphin (Epim), an ISEMF protein and member of the syntaxin family of intracellular vesicle docking proteins that regulate cell secretion. Herein we explore the mechanisms for previous observations that Epim deletion increases gut crypt cell proliferation, crypt fission and small bowel length in vivo. Stem cell derived crypt culture techniques were used to explore the interaction between enteroids and myofibroblasts from Epim -/- and WT mice. Enteroids co-cultured with ISEMFS had increased growth and crypt-like budding compared to enteroids cultured without stromal support. Epim deletion in ISEMFs resulted in increased enteroid budding and surface area compared to co-cultures with WT ISEMFs. In primary crypt cultures, Epim -/- enteroids had significantly increased surface area and budding compared WTs. However stem cell assays comparing the number of Epim -/- vs WT colony forming units after first passage showed no differences in the absence of ISEMF support. Epim -/- vs. WT ISEMFs had increased Wnt4 expression and addition of Wnt4 to WT co-cultures enhanced budding. We conclude that ISEMFs play an important role in the stem cell niche. Epim regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation via stromal contributions to the niche microenvironment.

  14. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xiaobin; Shi, Xuetao; Ostrovidov, Serge; Wu, Hongkai; Nakajima, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  15. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xiaobin [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shi, Xuetao, E-mail: mrshixuetao@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ostrovidov, Serge [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Wu, Hongkai, E-mail: chhkwu@ust.hk [Department of Chemistry & Division of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nakajima, Ken [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  16. Attitude of A Sample of Iranian Researchers toward The Future of Stem Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipanah, Mahdi; Azadeh, Fereydoon; Totonchi, Mehdi; Omani-Samani, Reza

    2018-10-01

    Stem cells that have unlimited proliferation potential as well as differentiation potency are considered to be a promising future treatment method for incurable diseases. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the future trend of stem cell researches from researchers' viewpoints. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study on researchers involved in stem cell research at Royan Institute. We designed a questionnaire using a qualitative study based on expert opinion and a literature review. Content validity was performed using three rounds of the Delphi method with experts. Face validity was undertaken by a Persian literature expert and a graphics designer. The questionnaire was distributed among 150 researchers involved in stem cell studies in Royan Institute biology laboratories. We collected 138 completed questionnaires. The mean age of participants was 31.13 ± 5.8 years; most (60.9%) were females. Participants (76.1%) considered the budget to be the most important issue in stem cell research, 79.7% needed financial support from the government, and 77.5% felt that charities could contribute substantially to stem cell research. A total of 90.6% of participants stated that stem cells should lead to commercial usage which could support future researches (86.2%). The aim of stem cell research was stipulated as increasing health status of the society according to 92.8% of the participants. At present, among cell types, importance was attached to cord blood and adult stem cells. Researchers emphasized the importance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) rather than hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, 57.73%). The prime priorities were given to cancer so that stem cell research could be directed to sphere stem cell research whereas the least preference was given to skin research. Regenerative medicine is considered the future of stem cell research with emphasis on application of these cells, especially in cancer treatment. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights

  17. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A; Baldini, N; Cenni, E; Gomez-Barrena, E; Granchi, D; Kassem, M; Konttinen, Y T; Mustafa, K; Pioletti, D P; Sillat, T; Finne-Wistrand, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed. PMID:21129153

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Debus, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression

  19. Organizing Organoids: Stem Cells Branch Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A

    2017-12-07

    In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Taguchi and Nishinakamura (2017) describe a carefully optimized method for making a branch-competent ureteric bud, a tissue fundamental to kidney development, from mouse embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells. The work illuminates embryology and has important implications for making more realistic kidney organoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fundamental Principles of Stem Cell Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changbin; Yue, Jianhui; He, Na; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are highly promising resources for application in cell therapy, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, toxicology and developmental biology research. Stem cell banks have been increasingly established all over the world in order to preserve their cellular characteristics, prevent contamination and deterioration, and facilitate their effective use in basic and translational research, as well as current and future clinical application. Standardization and quality control during banking procedures are essential to allow researchers from different labs to compare their results and to develop safe and effective new therapies. Furthermore, many stem cells come from once-in-a-life time tissues. Cord blood for example, thrown away in the past, can be used to treat many diseases such as blood cancers nowadays. Meanwhile, these cells stored and often banked for long periods can be immediately available for treatment when needed and early treatment can minimize disease progression. This paper provides an overview of the fundamental principles of stem cell banking, including: (i) a general introduction of the construction and architecture commonly used for stem cell banks; (ii) a detailed section on current quality management practices; (iii) a summary of questions we should consider for long-term storage, such as how long stem cells can be stored stably, how to prevent contamination during long term storage, etc.; (iv) the prospects for stem cell banking.

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated From Human Gliomas Increase Proliferation and Maintain Stemness of Glioma Stem Cells Through the IL-6/gp130/STAT3 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Anwar; Gumin, Joy; Gao, Feng; Figueroa, Javier; Shinojima, Naoki; Takezaki, Tatsuya; Priebe, Waldemar; Villarreal, Diana; Kang, Seok-Gu; Joyce, Celine; Sulman, Erik; Wang, Qianghu; Marini, Frank C; Andreeff, Michael; Colman, Howard; Lang, Frederick F

    2015-08-01

    Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been implicated as stromal components of several cancers, their ultimate contribution to tumorigenesis and their potential to drive cancer stem cells, particularly in the unique microenvironment of human brain tumors, remain largely undefined. Consequently, using established criteria, we isolated glioma-associated-human MSCs (GA-hMSCs) from fresh human glioma surgical specimens for the first time. We show that these GA-hMSCs are nontumorigenic stromal cells that are phenotypically similar to prototypical bone marrow-MSCs. Low-passage genomic sequencing analyses comparing GA-hMSCs with matched tumor-initiating glioma stem cells (GSCs) suggest that most GA-hMSCs (60%) are normal cells recruited to the tumor (group 1 GA-hMSCs), although, rarely (10%), GA-hMSCs may differentiate directly from GSCs (group 2 GA-hMSCs) or display genetic patterns intermediate between these groups (group 3 GA-hMSCs). Importantly, GA-hMSCs increase proliferation and self-renewal of GSCs in vitro and enhance GSC tumorigenicity and mesenchymal features in vivo, confirming their functional significance within the GSC niche. These effects are mediated by GA-hMSC-secreted interleukin-6, which activates STAT3 in GSCs. Our results establish GA-hMSCs as a potentially new stromal component of gliomas that drives the aggressiveness of GSCs, and point to GA-hMSCs as a novel therapeutic target within gliomas. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  2. The continuum of stem cell transdifferentiation: possibility of hematopoietic stem cell plasticity with concurrent CD45 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, V M

    2006-02-01

    Recent years have seen a surge of scientific research examining adult stem cell plasticity. For example, the hematopoietic stem cell has been shown to give rise to skin, respiratory epithelium, intestinal epithelium, renal epithelium, liver parenchyma, pancreas, skeletal muscle, vascular endothelium, myocardium, and central nervous system (CNS) neurons. The potential for such stem cell plasticity seems to be enhanced by stressors such as injury and neoplasia. Interestingly, recent studies have demonstrated that hematopoietic stem cells may be able to adopt certain nonhematopoietic phenotypes, such as endothelial, neural, or skeletal muscle phenotypes, without entirely losing their initial hematopoietic identity. We propose that transdifferentiation can, in certain conditions, be a partial rather than a complete event, and we encourage further investigation into the phenomenon of a stem cell simultaneously expressing phenotypic features of two distinct cell fates.

  3. Origins and implications of pluripotent stem cell variability and heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Cahan, Patrick; Daley, George Q.

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells constitute a platform to model disease and developmental processes and can potentially be used in regenerative medicine. However, not all pluripotent cell lines are equal in their capacity to differentiate into desired cell types in vitro. Genetic and epigenetic variations contribute to functional variability between cell lines and heterogeneity within clones. These genetic and epigenetic variations could ‘lock’ the pluripotency network resulting in residual pluripotent...

  4. DMRT1 Is Required for Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cell Maintenance and Replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Oatley, Jon; Bardwell, Vivian J; Zarkower, David

    2016-09-01

    Male mammals produce sperm for most of postnatal life and therefore require a robust germ line stem cell system, with precise balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Prior work established doublesex- and mab-3-related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1) as a conserved transcriptional regulator of male sexual differentiation. Here we investigate the role of Dmrt1 in mouse spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) homeostasis. We find that Dmrt1 maintains SSCs during steady state spermatogenesis, where it regulates expression of Plzf, another transcription factor required for SSC maintenance. We also find that Dmrt1 is required for recovery of spermatogenesis after germ cell depletion. Committed progenitor cells expressing Ngn3 normally do not contribute to SSCs marked by the Id4-Gfp transgene, but do so when spermatogonia are chemically depleted using busulfan. Removal of Dmrt1 from Ngn3-positive germ cells blocks the replenishment of Id4-GFP-positive SSCs and recovery of spermatogenesis after busulfan treatment. Our data therefore reveal that Dmrt1 supports SSC maintenance in two ways: allowing SSCs to remain in the stem cell pool under normal conditions; and enabling progenitor cells to help restore the stem cell pool after germ cell depletion.

  5. Organization of haemopoietic stem cells: the generation-age hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosendaal, M.; Hodgson, G.S.; Bradley, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper proposes that the previous division history of each stem cell is one determinant of the functional organisation of the haemopoietic stem cell population. Older stem cell are used to form blood before younger ones. The stem cells generating capacity of a lineage is finite, and cells are eventually lost to the system by forming two committed precursors of the cell lines, and the next oldest stem cell takes over. Hence the proposed term 'generation-age hypothesis', supported by experimental evidence. Older stem cells from normal bone marrow and 13 day foetal liver were stripped away with phase-specific drugs revealing a younger population of stem cells with three-to four-fold greater stem cell generating capacity. Normal stem cells aged by continuous irradiation and serial retransplantation had eight-fold reduced generating capacity. That of stem cells in the bloodstream was half to a quarter that of normal bone marrow stem cells. There were some circulating stem cells, identified by reaction to brain-associated antigen, positive for 75% of normal femoral stem cells but not their progeny, whose capacity for stem cell generation was an eighth to one fortieth that of normal cells. (U.K.)

  6. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Need for Research & Potential Applications. It’s status in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad D. Banavali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that through replications have the capabilities of both self-renewal and differentiation into mature specialized cells. Broadly, there are two types of stem cells, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cell biology has been associated with ethical controversy and also their growth is difficult to control. Adult stem cells are located in tissues throughout the body and function as a reservoir to replace damaged or aging cells. Embryonic stem cells are by definitions, the master cells capable of differentiating into every type of cells either in-vitro or in-vivo. Several lines of evidence suggests, however, that adult stem cells and even terminally differentiated somatic cells under appropriate micro-environmental cues are able to be reprogrammed and contribute to a much wider spectrum of differentiated progeny than previously anticipated. Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs, for example, from different sources have been shown to cross the tissue boundaries and give rise to the cells of the other germ layers.In the past few years, the plasticity of adult cells in several post-natal tissues has attracted special attention in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies represent a new field of biomedical science which could provide in the future the cure for diseases until now considered incurable. The reconstitution of adult stem cells may be promising source for the regeneration of damaged tissues and for the resolution of organ dysfunction. However, there are two major limitations to the use of such cells:- (i They are rare and (ii Only a few types exist that can be isolated without harming the patient.Due to the inability to efficiently and safely harvest or expand stem cells from most adult organs (e.g. liver, gastrointestinal tract, heart, brain, the majority of human stem cell trials have focused on clinical applications for HSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, or both, which can be easily

  7. Targeted inactivation of integrin-linked kinase in hair follicle stem cells reveals an important modulatory role in skin repair after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrieko, Kerry-Ann; Rudkouskaya, Alena; Irvine, Timothy S; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina

    2011-07-15

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is key for normal epidermal morphogenesis, but little is known about its role in hair follicle stem cells and epidermal regeneration. Hair follicle stem cells are important contributors to newly formed epidermis following injury. We inactivated the Ilk gene in the keratin 15--expressing stem cell population of the mouse hair follicle bulge. Loss of ILK expression in these cells resulted in impaired cutaneous wound healing, with substantially decreased wound closure rates. ILK-deficient stem cells produced very few descendants that moved toward the epidermal surface and into the advancing epithelium that covers the wound. Furthermore, those few mutant cells that homed in the regenerated epidermis exhibited a reduced residence time. Paradoxically, ILK-deficient bulge stem cells responded to anagen growth signals and contributed to newly regenerated hair follicles during this phase of hair follicle growth. Thus ILK plays an important modulatory role in the normal contribution of hair follicle stem cell progeny to the regenerating epidermis following injury.

  8. Extrinsic Factors Involved in the Differentiation of Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Y. Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with many debilitating complications. Treatment of diabetes mellitus mainly revolves around conventional oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin replacement therapy. Recently, scientists have turned their attention to the generation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs from stem cells of various sources. To date, many types of stem cells of human and animal origins have been successfully turned into IPCs in vitro and have been shown to exert glucose-lowering effect in vivo. However, scientists are still faced with the challenge of producing a sufficient number of IPCs that can in turn produce sufficient insulin for clinical use. A careful choice of stem cells, methods, and extrinsic factors for induction may all be contributing factors to successful production of functional beta-islet like IPCs. It is also important that the mechanism of differentiation and mechanism by which IPCs correct hyperglycaemia are carefully studied before they are used in human subjects.

  9. Keeping stem cells under control: new insights into the mechanisms that limit niche-stem cell signaling within the reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Inaba, Mayu; Yamashita, Yukiko M.; Buszczak, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments called niches that maintain stem cells in an undifferentiated and self-renewing state. Despite extensive studies on the signaling pathways that operate within stem cells and their niches, the mechanisms that restrict niche signal exclusively to stem cells remained elusive: such a mechanism is crucially important to ensure that stem cells undergo self-renewal while their progeny, often located just one cell diameter away from the niche, ...

  10. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Interleukin-6 Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Acquisition of Epithelial Stem-Like Cell Properties in Ameloblastoma Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Zhang, Qunzhou; Shanti, Rabie M; Shi, Shihong; Chang, Ting-Han; Carrasco, Lee; Alawi, Faizan; Le, Anh D

    2017-09-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a biological process associated with cancer stem-like or cancer-initiating cell formation, contributes to the invasiveness, metastasis, drug resistance, and recurrence of the malignant tumors; it remains to be determined whether similar processes contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of ameloblastoma (AM), a benign but locally invasive odontogenic neoplasm. Here, we demonstrated that EMT- and stem cell-related genes were expressed in the epithelial islands of the most common histologic variant subtype, the follicular AM. Our results revealed elevated interleukin (IL)-6 signals that were differentially expressed in the stromal compartment of the follicular AM. To explore the stromal effect on tumor pathogenesis, we isolated and characterized both mesenchymal stromal cells (AM-MSCs) and epithelial cells (AM-EpiCs) from follicular AM and demonstrated that, in in vitro culture, AM-MSCs secreted a significantly higher level of IL-6 as compared to the counterpart AM-EpiCs. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that exogenous and AM-MSC-derived IL-6 induced the expression of EMT- and stem cell-related genes in AM-EpiCs, whereas such effects were significantly abrogated either by a specific inhibitor of STAT3 or ERK1/2, or by knockdown of Slug gene expression. These findings suggest that AM-MSC-derived IL-6 promotes tumor-stem like cell formation by inducing EMT process in AM-EpiCs through STAT3 and ERK1/2-mediated signaling pathways, implying a role in the etiology and progression of the benign but locally invasive neoplasm. Stem Cells 2017;35:2083-2094. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  11. Stem cell facelift: between reality and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ibrahim, Amir E; Saad, Dibo A

    2013-03-01

    Stem cells are "big business" throughout medical technology, and their potential application in cosmetic procedures is no exception. One of the latest nonsurgical facial treatments (and new catchphrases) in plastic surgery is the "stem cell facelift." It is evident from the currently available scientific literature that the use of stem cell therapy for facial rejuvenation is limited to the theoretical induction of skin tightening and can in no way be equated to a facelift. In fact, what is advertised and promoted as a new and original technique of stem cell facelifting is mostly stem cell-enriched lipofilling. Despite encouraging data suggesting that adult stem cells hold promise for future applications, the data from clinical evidence available today do not substantiate the marketing and promotional claims being made to patients. To claim that the "stem cell facelift" is a complete facial rejuvenation procedure surgery is unethical.

  12. Stem cells in the human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Polyak, Kornelia

    2010-01-01

    The origins of the epithelial cells participating in the development, tissue homeostasis, and cancer of the human breast are poorly understood. However, emerging evidence suggests a role for adult tissue-specific stem cells in these processes. In a hierarchical manner, these generate the two main...... mammary cell lineages, producing an increasing number of cells with distinct properties. Understanding the biological characteristics of human breast stem cells and their progeny is crucial in attempts to compare the features of normal stem cells and cancer precursor cells and distinguish these from...... nonprecursor cells and cells from the bulk of a tumor. A historical overview of research on human breast stem cells in primary tissue and in culture reveals the progress that has been made in this area, whereas a focus on the cell-of-origin and reprogramming that occurs during neoplastic conversion provides...

  13. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  14. Induction of Skin-Derived Precursor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Yoriko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Moriwaki, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The generation of full thickness human skin from dissociated cells is an attractive approach not only for treating skin diseases, but also for treating many systemic disorders. However, it is currently not possible to obtain an unlimited number of skin dermal cells. The goal of this study was to develop a procedure to produce skin dermal stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) were isolated as adult dermal precursors that could differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progenies and could reconstitute the dermis. Thus, we attempted to generate SKPs from iPSCs that could reconstitute the skin dermis. Human iPSCs were initially cultured with recombinant noggin and SB431542, an inhibitor of activin/nodal and TGFβ signaling, to induce neural crest progenitor cells. Those cells were then treated with SKP medium that included CHIR99021, a WNT signal activator. The induction efficacy from neural crest progenitor cells to SKPs was more than 97%. No other modifiers tested were able to induce those cells. Those human iPSC-derived SKPs (hiPSC-SKPs) showed a similar gene expression signature to SKPs isolated from human skin dermis. Human iPSC-SKPs differentiated into neural and mesodermal progenies, including adipocytes, skeletogenic cell types and Schwann cells. Moreover, they could be induced to follicular type keratinization when co-cultured with human epidermal keratinocytes. We here provide a new efficient protocol to create human skin dermal stem cells from hiPSCs that could contribute to the treatment of various skin disorders.

  15. Identification of Abnormal Stem Cells Using Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Novikov, Sergey M; Beermann, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The clinical use of stem cells in cell-based therapeutics for degenerative diseases requires development of criteria for defining normal stem cells to ensure safe transplantation. Currently, identification of abnormal from normal stem cells is based on extensive ex vivo and in vivo testing. Raman...... microscopy is a label-free method for rapid and sensitive detection of changes in cells' bio-molecular composition. Here, we report that by using Raman spectroscopy, we were able to map the distribution of different biomolecules within 2 types of stem cells: adult human bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells...... and human embryonic stem cells and to identify reproducible differences in Raman's spectral characteristics that distinguished genetically abnormal and transformed stem cells from their normal counterparts. Raman microscopy can be prospectively employed as a method for identifying abnormal stem cells in ex...

  16. Development of New Technologies for Stem Cell Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibo Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, the stem cells have been extensively studied including embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. In the recent years, several stem cells have been initially used in the treatment of diseases, such as in bone marrow transplant. At the same time, isolation and culture experimental technologies for stem cell research have been widely developed in recent years. In addition, molecular imaging technologies including optical molecular imaging, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and computed tomography have been developed rapidly in recent the 10 years and have also been used in the research on disease mechanism and evaluation of treatment of disease related with stem cells. This paper will focus on recent typical isolation, culture, and observation techniques of stem cells followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future applications of the new technologies in stem cells are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the paper is then concluded.

  17. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cells in Tumor Suppressor Mouse Models of Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara Llaguno, Sheila R; Xie, Xuanhua; Parada, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    The cellular origins and the mechanisms of progression, maintenance of tumorigenicity, and therapeutic resistance are central questions in the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) field. Using tumor suppressor mouse models, our group recently reported two independent populations of adult GBM-initiating central nervous system progenitors. We found different functional and molecular subtypes depending on the tumor-initiating cell lineage, indicating that the cell of origin is a driver of GBM subtype diversity. Using an in vivo model, we also showed that GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) or glioma stem cells (GSCs) contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and that genetic ablation of GSCs leads to a delay in tumor progression. These studies are consistent with the cell of origin and CSCs as critical regulators of the pathogenesis of GBM. © 2016 Alcantara Llaguno et al; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  19. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  20. Proliferative capacity of murine hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, S.; Botnick, L.E.; Hannon, E.C.; Vigneulle, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a decrease in self-renewal capacity with serial transfer of murine hematopoietic stem cells. Production of differentiated cell progeny is maintained longer than stem cell self-renewal. In normal animals the capacity for self-renewal is not decreased with increasing donor age. The stem cell compartment in normal animals, both young and old, appears to be proliferatively quiescent. After apparent recovery from the alkylating agent busulfan, the probability of stem cell self-renewal is decreased, there is a permanent defect in the capacity of the bone marrow for serial transplantation, and the stem cells are proliferatively active. These findings support a model of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment as a continuum of cells with decreasing capacities for self-renewal, increasing likelihood for differentiation, and increasing proliferative activity. Cells progress in the continuum in one direction and such progression is not reversible

  1. Does the preference of peripheral versus central venous access in peripheral blood stem cell collection/yield change stem cell kinetics in autologous stem cell transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogu, Mehmet Hilmi; Kaya, Ali Hakan; Berber, Ilhami; Sari, İsmail; Tekgündüz, Emre; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Iskender, Dicle; Kayıkçı, Ömur; Kuku, Irfan; Kaya, Emin; Keskin, Ali; Altuntaş, Fevzi

    2016-02-01

    Central venous access is often used during apheresis procedure in stem cell collection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether central or peripheral venous access has an effect on stem cell yield and the kinetics of the procedure and the product in patients undergoing ASCT after high dose therapy. A total of 327 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The use of peripheral venous access for stem cell yield was significantly more frequent in males compared to females (p = 0.005). Total volume of the product was significantly lower in central venous access group (p = 0.046). As being a less invasive procedure, peripheral venous access can be used for stem cell yield in eligible selected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Setting FIRES to Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Grietz

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this lesson is to present the basic scientific knowledge about stem cells, the promise of stem cell research to medicine, and the ethical considerations and arguments involved. One of the challenges of discussing stem cell research is that the field is constantly evolving and the most current information changes almost daily. Few…

  3. Single Stem Cell Imaging and Analysis Reveals Telomere Length Differences in Diseased Human and Mouse Skeletal Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisia D. Tichy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle stem cells (MuSCs contribute to muscle regeneration following injury. In many muscle disorders, the repeated cycles of damage and repair lead to stem cell dysfunction. While telomere attrition may contribute to aberrant stem cell functions, methods to accurately measure telomere length in stem cells from skeletal muscles have not been demonstrated. Here, we have optimized and validated such a method, named MuQ-FISH, for analyzing telomere length in MuSCs from either mice or humans. Our analysis showed no differences in telomere length between young and aged MuSCs from uninjured wild-type mice, but MuSCs isolated from young dystrophic mice exhibited significantly shortened telomeres. In corroboration, we demonstrated that telomere attrition is present in human dystrophic MuSCs, which underscores its importance in diseased regenerative failure. The robust technique described herein provides analysis at a single-cell resolution and may be utilized for other cell types, especially rare populations of cells.

  4. Engaging Stem Cells for Customized Tendon Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Thaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for a consistent therapeutic approach to tendon injury repair is long overdue. Patients with tendon microtears or full ruptures are eligible for a wide range of invasive and non invasive interventions, often subjectively decided by the physician. Surgery produces the best outcomes, and while studies have been conducted to optimize graft constructs and to track outcomes, the data from these studies have been inconclusive on the whole. What has been established is a clear understanding of healthy tendon architecture and the inherent process of healing. With this knowledge, tissue regeneration efforts have achieved immense progress in scaffold design, cell line selection, and, more recently, the appropriate use of cytokines and growth factors. This paper evaluates the plasticity of bone-marrow-derived stem cells and the elasticity of recently developed biomaterials towards tendon regeneration efforts. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, hematopoietic progenitor cells, and poly(1,8-octanediol co-citrate scaffolds (POC are discussed in the context of established grafting strategies. With POC scaffolds to cradle the growth of MSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells, developing a fibroelastic network guided by cytokines and growth factors may contribute towards consistent graft constructs, enhanced functionality, and better patient outcomes.

  5. Time to Reconsider Stem Cell Induction Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Werner Denker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in stem cell research suggest that it may be time to reconsider the current focus of stem cell induction strategies. During the previous five years, approximately, the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, i.e., the generation of so-called ‘induced pluripotent stem cells’ (iPSCs, has become the focus of ongoing research in many stem cell laboratories, because this technology promises to overcome limitations (both technical and ethical seen in the production and use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs. A rapidly increasing number of publications suggest, however, that it is now possible to choose instead other, alternative ways of generating stem and progenitor cells bypassing pluripotency. These new strategies may offer important advantages with respect to ethics, as well as to safety considerations. The present communication discusses why these strategies may provide possibilities for an escape from the dilemma presented by pluripotent stem cells (self-organization potential, cloning by tetraploid complementation, patenting problems and tumor formation risk.

  6. Clinical grade adult stem cell banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Goebel, W Scott; Woods, Erik J

    2009-07-01

    There has been a great deal of scientific interest recently generated by the potential therapeutic applications of adult stem cells in human care but there are several challenges regarding quality and safety in clinical applications and a number of these challenges relate to the processing and banking of these cells ex-vivo. As the number of clinical trials and the variety of adult cells used in regenerative therapy increases, safety remains a primary concern. This has inspired many nations to formulate guidelines and standards for the quality of stem cell collection, processing, testing, banking, packaging and distribution. Clinically applicable cryopreservation and banking of adult stem cells offers unique opportunities to advance the potential uses and widespread implementation of these cells in clinical applications. Most current cryopreservation protocols include animal serum proteins and potentially toxic cryoprotectant additives (CPAs) that prevent direct use of these cells in human therapeutic applications. Long term cryopreservation of adult stem cells under good manufacturing conditions using animal product free solutions is critical to the widespread clinical implementation of ex-vivo adult stem cell therapies. Furthermore, to avoid any potential cryoprotectant related complications, reduced CPA concentrations and efficient post-thaw washing to remove CPA are also desirable. The present review focuses on the current strategies and important aspects of adult stem cell banking for clinical applications. These include current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs), animal protein free freezing solutions, cryoprotectants, freezing & thawing protocols, viability assays, packaging and distribution. The importance and benefits of banking clinical grade adult stem cells are also discussed.

  7. New Advanced Technologies in Stem Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    James, J. N. Zara , M. Corselli et al., “An abundant perivascular source of stem cells for bone tissue engineering,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine...vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 673–684, 2012. [89] A.W. James, J. N. Zara , X. Zhang et al., “Perivascular stem cells: a prospectively purified mesenchymal stem...1, pp. 54–63, 2009. [176] A. Askarinam, A. W. James, J. N. Zara et al., “Human perivas- cular stem cells show enhanced osteogenesis and

  8. Nanotopography Promotes Pancreatic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Cha, Kyoung Je; Han, Jiyou; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Dong Sung; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2016-03-22

    Although previous studies suggest that nanotopographical features influence properties and behaviors of stem cells, only a few studies have attempted to derive clinically useful somatic cells from human pluripotent stem cells using nanopatterned surfaces. In the present study, we report that polystyrene nanopore-patterned surfaces significantly promote the pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. We compared different diameters of nanopores and showed that 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces highly upregulated the expression of PDX1, a critical transcription factor for pancreatic development, leading to an approximately 3-fold increase in the percentage of differentiating PDX1(+) pancreatic progenitors compared with control flat surfaces. Furthermore, in the presence of biochemical factors, 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces profoundly enhanced the derivation of pancreatic endocrine cells producing insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin. We also demonstrate that nanopore-patterned surface-induced upregulation of PDX1 is associated with downregulation of TAZ, suggesting the potential role of TAZ in nanopore-patterned surface-mediated mechanotransduction. Our study suggests that appropriate cytokine treatments combined with nanotopographical stimulation could be a powerful tool for deriving a high purity of desired cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

  9. Steady advance of stem cell therapies: report from the 2011 World Stem Cell Summit, Pasadena, California, October 3-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Melanie

    2011-12-01

    Stem cell research and related therapies (including regenerative medicine and cellular therapies) could have a significant near-term impact on worldwide public health and aging. One reason is the industry's strong linkage between policy, science, industry, and patient advocacy, as was clear in the attendance and programming at the 7(th) annual World Stem Cell Summit held in Pasadena, California, October 3-5, 2011. A special conference session sponsored by the SENS Foundation discussed how stem cell therapies are being used to extend healthy life span. Stem cells are useful not only in cell-replacement therapies, but also in disease modeling, drug discovery, and drug toxicity screening. Stem cell therapies are currently being applied to over 50 diseases, including heart, lung, neurodegenerative, and eye disease, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dozens of companies are developing therapeutic solutions that are in different stages of clinical use and clinical trials. Some high-profile therapies include Dendreon's Provenge for prostate cancer, Geron's first-ever embryonic stem cell trials for spinal cord injury, Fibrocell's laViv cellular therapy for wrinkles, and well-established commercial skin substitutes (Organogenesis' Apligraf and Advanced BioHealing's Dermagraft). Stem cell policy issues under consideration include medical tourism, standards for large-scale stem cell manufacturing, and lingering ethical debates over the use of embryonic stem cells. Contemporary stem cell science advances include a focus on techniques for the direct reprogramming of cells from one lineage to another without returning to pluripotency as an intermediary step, improved means of generating and characterizing induced pluripotent cells, and progress in approaches to neurodegenerative disease.

  10. Nine Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Toggle Nav Nine Things To Know About Stem Cell Treatments Home > Stem Cells and Medicine > Nine Things ... Know About Stem Cell Treatments Many clinics offering stem cell treatments make claims that are not supported by ...

  11. Stem Cell Technology for (Epi)genetic Brain Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemens, Renzo J M; Soares, Edilene S; Esteller, Manel; Delgado-Morales, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Despite the enormous efforts of the scientific community over the years, effective therapeutics for many (epi)genetic brain disorders remain unidentified. The common and persistent failures to translate preclinical findings into clinical success are partially attributed to the limited efficiency of current disease models. Although animal and cellular models have substantially improved our knowledge of the pathological processes involved in these disorders, human brain research has generally been hampered by a lack of satisfactory humanized model systems. This, together with our incomplete knowledge of the multifactorial causes in the majority of these disorders, as well as a thorough understanding of associated (epi)genetic alterations, has been impeding progress in gaining more mechanistic insights from translational studies. Over the last years, however, stem cell technology has been offering an alternative approach to study and treat human brain disorders. Owing to this technology, we are now able to obtain a theoretically inexhaustible source of human neural cells and precursors in vitro that offer a platform for disease modeling and the establishment of therapeutic interventions. In addition to the potential to increase our general understanding of how (epi)genetic alterations contribute to the pathology of brain disorders, stem cells and derivatives allow for high-throughput drugs and toxicity testing, and provide a cell source for transplant therapies in regenerative medicine. In the current chapter, we will demonstrate the validity of human stem cell-based models and address the utility of other stem cell-based applications for several human brain disorders with multifactorial and (epi)genetic bases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), fragile X syndrome (FXS), Angelman syndrome (AS), Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), and Rett syndrome (RTT).

  12. Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0644 TITLE: Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chun-Ju...Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0644 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population with acquired perpetuating self-renewal properties which

  13. Cytokine signalling in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Kalisz, Mark; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2006-01-01

    Cytokines play a central role in maintaining self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells through a member of the interleukin-6 type cytokine family termed leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF activates the JAK-STAT3 pathway through the class I cytokine receptor gp130, which forms a trimeric...... pathways seem to converge on c-myc as a common target to promote self-renewal. Whereas LIF does not seem to stimulate self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells it cannot be excluded that other cytokines are involved. The pleiotropic actions of the increasing number of cytokines and receptors signalling...... via JAKs, STATs and SOCS exhibit considerable redundancy, compensation and plasticity in stem cells in accordance with the view that stem cells are governed by quantitative variations in strength and duration of signalling events known from other cell types rather than qualitatively different stem...

  14. Optimizing autologous cell grafts to improve stem cell gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psatha, Nikoletta; Karponi, Garyfalia; Yannaki, Evangelia

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, stem cell gene therapy has achieved unprecedented curative outcomes for several genetic disorders. Despite the unequivocal success, clinical gene therapy still faces challenges. Genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells are particularly vulnerable to attenuation of their repopulating capacity once exposed to culture conditions, ultimately leading to low engraftment levels posttransplant. This becomes of particular importance when transduction rates are low or/and competitive transplant conditions are generated by reduced-intensity conditioning in the absence of a selective advantage of the transduced over the unmodified cells. These limitations could partially be overcome by introducing megadoses of genetically modified CD34(+) cells into conditioned patients or by transplanting hematopoietic stem cells hematopoietic stem cells with high engrafting and repopulating potential. On the basis of the lessons gained from cord blood transplantation, we summarize the most promising approaches to date of increasing either the numbers of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation or/and their engraftability, as a platform toward the optimization of engineered stem cell grafts. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants On This Page What are bone marrow ... Considering becoming a bone marrow or a blood stem cell donor? View this video on YouTube. Follow a ...

  16. Human embryonic stem cells handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent it became imperative to write down the review for a book entirely devoted to human embryonic stem cells (hES, those cells that are a urgent need for researchers, those cells that rekindle the ethical debates and finally, last but not least, those cells whose study paved the way to obtain induced pluripotent stem cells by the OSKC’s Yamanaka method (the OSKC acronim refers, for those not familiar with the topic, to the four stemness genes used to transfect somatic fibroblasts: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc....

  17. Stem cells: limitations and opportunities in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Amiel-Pérez, José; Laboratorio de Cultivos Celulares, Universidad Científica del Sur. Lima, Perú.; Casado, Fanny; Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute, McMaster University. Hamilton, Canadá.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are defined as rare cells that are characterized by asymmetric division, a process known as self-renewal, and the potential to differentiate into more than one type of terminally differentiated cell. There is a diversity of stem cells including embryonic stem cells, which exist only during the first stages of human development, and many adult stem cells depending on the specific tissues from where they derive or the ones derived from mesenchymal or stromal tissues. On the other han...

  18. Prion potency in stem cells biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marilene H; Santos, Tiago G

    2012-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) can be considered a pivotal molecule because it interacts with several partners to perform a diverse range of critical biological functions that might differ in embryonic and adult cells. In recent years, there have been major advances in elucidating the putative role of PrP in the basic biology of stem cells in many different systems. Here, we review the evidence indicating that PrP is a key molecule involved in driving different aspects of the potency of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells in self-perpetuation and differentiation in many cell types. It has been shown that PrP is involved in stem cell self-renewal, controlling pluripotency gene expression, proliferation, and neural and cardiomyocyte differentiation. PrP also has essential roles in distinct processes that regulate tissue-specific stem cell biology in nervous and hematopoietic systems and during muscle regeneration. Results from our own investigations have shown that PrP is able to modulate self-renewal and proliferation in neural stem cells, processes that are enhanced by PrP interactions with stress inducible protein 1 (STI1). Thus, the available data reveal the influence of PrP in acting upon the maintenance of pluripotent status or the differentiation of stem cells from the early embryogenesis through adulthood.

  19. Stem cells: progressions and applications in clinical medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hosseini Bereshneh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated and multi pluripotent cells which can differentiate into a variety of mature cells and tissues such as nervous tissue, muscle tissue, epithelial tissue, skeletal tissue and etc. Stem cells from all different source have three unique features: 1 Proliferative capability: Stem cells are capable of self dividing and self renewing for long periods or more than six months at least that called immortalization. 2 Undifferentiated nature: It’s considered as one of the essential characteristics of stem cell, so it doesn't have any tissue-specific construction. 3 Differentiation to the different cells from all organs: This ability can Induced by tissue specific transcription factors. Because of that, they are so important in prevention and treatment of human disease. Depending on the sources from which they derive, they have different types which can be used to produce special cells and tissues. The most significant types of stem cells are; embryonic stem cells (ESCs which are derived from embryos, adult stem cells (ASCs which are derived from differentiated cells in a specific tissue, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSs which are produced from adult differentiated cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to act resemble to an embryonic stem cell and cord blood stem cells which contains haematopoietic stem cells and derived from the umbilical cord after gestation. By providing a medium containing of special growth factor, it is possible to orientated stem cell differentiation pathway and gained certain cells from them. The important uses of stem cells includes damaged heart tissue cells improvements and bone tissue repairing, cancer treatment, damaged neurological and spinal tissue repairing, improving burns and injuries and the treatment of diabetes, infertility and spermatogenesis dysfunction. Furthermore, the application of them in gene therapy is an important issue in the modern medicine science due to the role

  20. Diploid, but not haploid, human embryonic stem cells can be derived from microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Li, Rong; Huang, Jin; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have shown tremendous potential in regenerative medicine, and the recent progress in haploid embryonic stem cells provides new insights for future applications of embryonic stem cells. Disruption of normal fertilized embryos remains controversial; thus, the development of a new source for human embryonic stem cells is important for their usefulness. Here, we investigated the feasibility of haploid and diploid embryo reconstruction and embryonic stem cell derivation using microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes. Diploid and haploid zygotes were successfully reconstructed, but a large proportion of them still had a tripolar spindle assembly. The reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, although the loss of chromosomes was observed in these zygotes. Finally, triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells were derived from tripronuclear and reconstructed zygotes (from which only one pronucleus was removed), but haploid human embryonic stem cells were not successfully derived from the reconstructed zygotes when two pronuclei were removed. Both triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells showed the general characteristics of human embryonic stem cells. These results indicate that the lower embryo quality resulting from abnormal spindle assembly contributed to the failure of the haploid embryonic stem cell derivation. However, the successful derivation of diploid embryonic stem cells demonstrated that microsurgical tripronuclear zygotes are an alternative source of human embryonic stem cells. In the future, improving spindle assembly will facilitate the application of triploid zygotes to the field of haploid embryonic stem cells. PMID:23255130

  1. Allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation to child with psychomotor retardation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajić Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The consequences of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (stem cells of hematopoiesis, applied in adults and children suffering from leukemia or some other malignant disease, are well-known and sufficiently recognizable in pediatric clinical practice regardless of the indication for the treatment. However, the efficacy of fetal stem cell transplantation is unrecognizable when the indications are psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. Case Outline. With the exception of neurological psychiatric problems, a boy aged 9.5 years was in good general health before transplantation with allogeneic fetal stem cells. The main aim of allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation was treatment of psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. After 13 months of treatment, he was admitted to hospital in a very serious, life-threatening condition due to sepsis and severe pleuropneumonia. The humoral immunity in the boy was adequate, unlike cellular immunity. The immune imbalance in terms of predominance of T-suppressor lymphocytes contributes to delayed and late development of sepsis and severe pleuropneumonia. The boy still shows the same severity of psychomotor retardation, dyslalia, epilepsy, strabismus and amblyopia. Conclusion. Implementation of fetal stem cell therapy for unconfirmed indications abuses the therapeutic approach, harms patients, misleads parents, and brings financial harm to the healthcare system of any country, including Serbia.

  2. Spermatogonial stem cells: Progress and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Komeya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, the transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs from a mouse to other recipient mice was shown to be feasible, which clearly demonstrated the functional identity of SSCs. Since then, several important new findings and other technical developments have followed, which included a new hypothesis on their cell kinetics and spermatogonial hierarchy in the testis, a culture method allowing their self-renewal and proliferation, a testis tissue organ culture method, which induced their complete differentiation up to sperm, and the in vitro induction of germ cells from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. These advancements reinforced or advanced our understanding of this unique cell. Nonetheless, there are many unresolved questions in the study of spermatogonial stem cells and a long road remains until these cells can be used clinically in reproductive medicine.

  3. Challenges and opportunities for stem cell therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, LaTonya J; Eirin, Alfonso; Lerman, Lilach O

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health care burden affecting billions of individuals worldwide. The kidney has limited regenerative capacity from chronic insults, and for the most common causes of CKD, no effective treatment exists to prevent progression to end-stage kidney failure. Therefore, novel interventions, such as regenerative cell-based therapies, need to be developed for CKD. Given the risk of allosensitization, autologous transplantation of cells to boost regenerative potential is preferred. Therefore, verification of cell function and vitality in CKD patients is imperative. Two cell types have been most commonly applied in regenerative medicine. Endothelial progenitor cells contribute to neovasculogenesis primarily through paracrine angiogenic activity and partly by differentiation into mature endothelial cells in situ. Mesenchymal stem cells also exert paracrine effects, including proangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic activity. However, in CKD, multiple factors may contribute to reduced cell function, including older age, coexisting cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic inflammatory states, and uremia, which may limit the effectiveness of an autologous cell-based therapy approach. This Review highlights current knowledge on stem and progenitor cell function and vitality, aspects of the uremic milieu that may serve as a barrier to therapy, and novel methods to improve stem cell function for potential transplantation. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trounson Alan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but the efficacy data are variable and of mixed benefit. Mechanisms of action of many of these cells are unknown and this raises the concern of unpredictable results in the future. Nevertheless there is considerable optimism that immune suppression and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells will be of benefit for many conditions such as graft versus host disease, solid organ transplants and pulmonary fibrosis. Where bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are being studied for heart disease, stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders, again progress is mixed and mostly without significant benefit. However, correction of multiple sclerosis, at least in the short term is encouraging. Clinical trials on the use of embryonic stem cell derivatives for spinal injury and macular degeneration are beginning and a raft of other clinical trials can be expected soon, for example, the use of neural stem cells for killing inoperable glioma and embryonic stem cells for regenerating β islet cells for diabetes. The change in attitude to embryonic stem cell research with the incoming Obama administration heralds a new co-operative environment for study and evaluation of stem cell therapies. The Californian stem cell initiative (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has engendered global collaboration for this new medicine that will now also be supported by the US Federal Government. The active participation of governments, academia, biotechnology, pharmaceutical companies, and private investment is a powerful consortium for

  5. The evolution of chicken stem cell culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, M; Attari, F; Mozdziak, P E; Khoshnam, S E

    2017-12-01

    1. The avian embryo is an excellent model for studying embryology and the production of pharmaceutical proteins in transgenic chickens. Furthermore, chicken stem cells have the potential for proliferation and differentiation and emerged as an attractive tool for various cell-based technologies. 2. The objective of these studies is the derivation and culture of these stem cells is the production of transgenic birds for recombinant biomaterials and vaccine manufacture, drug and cytotoxicity testing, as well as to gain insight into basic science, including cell tracking. 3. Despite similarities among the established chicken stem cell lines, fundamental differences have been reported between their culture conditions and applications. Recent conventional protocols used for expansion and culture of chicken stem cells mostly depend on feeder cells, serum-containing media and static culture. 4. Utilising chicken stem cells for generation of cell-based transgenic birds and a variety of vaccines requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up the conventional adherent chicken stem cells is challenging and labour intensive. Development of a suspension cell culture process for chicken embryonic stem cells (cESCs), chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and chicken induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) will be an important advance for increasing the growth kinetics of these cells. 6. This review describes various approaches and suggestions to achieve optimal cell growth for defined chicken stem cells cultures and use in future manufacturing applications.

  6. Biochemistry of epidermal stem cells☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Richard L.; Adhikary, Gautam; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A.; Vemuri, Mohan C.; Boucher, Shayne E.; Bickenbach, Jackie R.; Kerr, Candace

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidermis is an important protective barrier that is essential for maintenance of life. Maintaining this barrier requires continuous cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, these processes must be balanced to produce a normal epidermis. The stem cells of the epidermis reside in specific locations in the basal epidermis, hair follicle and sebaceous glands and these cells are responsible for replenishment of this tissue. Scope of review A great deal of effort has gone into identifying protein epitopes that mark stem cells, in identifying stem cell niche locations, and in understanding how stem cell populations are related. We discuss these studies as they apply to understanding normal epidermal homeostasis and skin cancer. Major conclusions An assortment of stem cell markers have been identified that permit assignment of stem cells to specific regions of the epidermis, and progress has been made in understanding the role of these cells in normal epidermal homeostasis and in conditions of tissue stress. A key finding is the multiple stem cell populations exist in epidermis that give rise to different structures, and that multiple stem cell types may contribute to repair in damaged epidermis. General significance Understanding epidermal stem cell biology is likely to lead to important therapies for treating skin diseases and cancer, and will also contribute to our understanding of stem cells in other systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. PMID:22820019

  7. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  8. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mead

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs, MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC, adipose tissues (ADSC and dental pulp (DPSC, together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment.

  9. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Ben; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Scott, Robert A H; Leadbeater, Wendy; Scheven, Ben A

    2015-05-01

    Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs) and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs), MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC), adipose tissues (ADSC) and dental pulp (DPSC), together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The recruitability and cell-cycle state of intestinal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.; Chadwick, C.; Ijiri, K.; Tsubouchi, S.; Hanson, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is presented which suggests that the crypts of the small intestine contain at least two discrete but interdependent classes of stem cells, some with discrete cell kinetic properties and some with discrete radiation responses or radiosensitivities. Very low doses of X rays or gamma rays, or neutrons, kill a few cells in the stem cell regions of the crypt in a sensitive dose-dependent manner. Similar doses generate several different cell kinetic responses within either the clonogenic fraction or the cells at the stem cell position within the crypt. The cell kinetic responses range from apparent recruitment of G0 clonogenic cells into cycle, to a marked shortening of the average cell cycle of the cells at the stem cell position. It is suggested that the cell kinetic changes may be the consequence of the cell destruction

  11. Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke: Challenges and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Oh Young; Kim, Eun Hee; Cha, Jae Min; Moon, Gyeong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and physical disability among adults. It has been 15 years since clinical trials of stem cell therapy in patients with stroke have been conducted using adult stem cells like mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells. Results of randomized controlled trials showed that adult stem cell therapy was safe but its efficacy was modest, underscoring the need for new stem cell therapy strategies. The primary limitations of current stem cell therapies include (a) the limited source of engraftable stem cells, (b) the presence of optimal time window for stem cell therapies, (c) inherited limitation of stem cells in terms of growth, trophic support, and differentiation potential, and (d) possible transplanted cell-mediated adverse effects, such as tumor formation. Here, we discuss recent advances that overcome these hurdles in adult stem cell therapy for stroke. PMID:27733032

  12. Telomere stability and telomerase in mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Graakjaer, Jesper; Kølvrå, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Telomeres are repetitive genetic material that cap and thereby protect the ends of chromosomes. Each time a cell divides, telomeres get shorter. Telomere length is mainly maintained by telomerase. This enzyme is present in high concentrations in the embryonic stem cells and in fast growing...... embryonic cells, and declines with age. It is still unclear to what extent there is telomerase in adult stem cells, but since these are the founder cells of cells of all the tissues in the body, understanding the telomere dynamics and expression of telomerase in adult stem cells is very important....... In the present communication we focus on telomere expression and telomere length in stem cells, with a special focus on mesenchymal stem cells. We consider different mechanisms by which stem cells can maintain telomeres and also focus on the dynamics of telomere length in mesenchymal stem cells, both the overall...

  13. Combination stem cell therapy for heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichim Thomas E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF that are not eligible for transplantation have limited therapeutic options. Stem cell therapy such as autologous bone marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, or purified cells thereof has been used clinically since 2001. To date over 1000 patients have received cellular therapy as part of randomized trials, with the general consensus being that a moderate but statistically significant benefit occurs. Therefore, one of the important next steps in the field is optimization. In this paper we discuss three ways to approach this issue: a increasing stem cell migration to the heart; b augmenting stem cell activity; and c combining existing stem cell therapies to recapitulate a "therapeutic niche". We conclude by describing a case report of a heart failure patient treated with a combination stem cell protocol in an attempt to augment beneficial aspects of cord blood CD34 cells and mesenchymal-like stem cells.

  14. Cellular Mechanisms of Somatic Stem Cell Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yunjoon

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity rely on rare populations of somatic stem cells endowed with the potential to self-renew and differentiate. During aging, many tissues show a decline in regenerative potential coupled with a loss of stem cell function. Cells including somatic stem cells have evolved a series of checks and balances to sense and repair cellular damage to maximize tissue function. However, during aging the mechanisms that protect normal cell function begin to fail. In this review, we will discuss how common cellular mechanisms that maintain tissue fidelity and organismal lifespan impact somatic stem cell function. We will highlight context-dependent changes and commonalities that define aging, by focusing on three age-sensitive stem cell compartments: blood, neural, and muscle. Understanding the interaction between extrinsic regulators and intrinsic effectors that operate within different stem cell compartments is likely to have important implications for identifying strategies to improve health span and treat age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24439814

  15. Sox17-Mediated XEN Cell Conversion Identifies Dynamic Networks Controlling Cell-Fate Decisions in Embryo-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela C.H. McDonald

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the gene regulatory networks (GRNs distinguishing extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn stem (XEN cells from those that maintain the extensively characterized embryonic stem cell (ESC. An intriguing network candidate is Sox17, an essential transcription factor for XEN derivation and self-renewal. Here, we show that forced Sox17 expression drives ESCs toward ExEn, generating XEN cells that contribute to ExEn when placed back into early mouse embryos. Transient Sox17 expression is sufficient to drive this fate change during which time cells transit through distinct intermediate states prior to the generation of functional XEN-like cells. To orchestrate this conversion process, Sox17 acts in autoregulatory and feedforward network motifs, regulating dynamic GRNs directing cell fate. Sox17-mediated XEN conversion helps to explain the regulation of cell-fate changes and reveals GRNs regulating lineage decisions in the mouse embryo.

  16. HMGA1 silencing reduces stemness and temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colamaio, Marianna; Tosti, Nadia; Puca, Francesca; Mari, Alessia; Gattordo, Rosaria; Kuzay, Yalçın; Federico, Antonella; Pepe, Anna; Sarnataro, Daniela; Ragozzino, Elvira; Raia, Maddalena; Hirata, Hidenari; Gemei, Marica; Mimori, Koshi; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Battista, Sabrina; Fusco, Alfredo

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) develops from a small subpopulation of stem-like cells, which are endowed with the ability to self-renew, proliferate and give rise to progeny of multiple neuroepithelial lineages. These cells are resistant to conventional chemo- and radiotherapy and are hence also responsible for tumor recurrence. HMGA1 overexpression has been shown to correlate with proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis of GBMs and to affect self-renewal of cancer stem cells from colon cancer. The role of HMGA1 in GBM tumor stem cells is not completely understood. We have investigated the role of HMGA1 in brain tumor stem cell (BTSC) self-renewal, stemness and resistance to temozolomide by shRNA- mediated HMGA1 silencing. We first report that HMGA1 is overexpressed in a subset of BTSC lines from human GBMs. Then, we show that HMGA1 knockdown reduces self-renewal, sphere forming efficiency and stemness, and sensitizes BTSCs to temozolomide. Interestingly, HMGA1 silencing also leads to reduced tumor initiation ability in vivo. These results demonstrate a pivotal role of HMGA1 in cancer stem cell gliomagenesis and endorse HMGA1 as a suitable target for CSC-specific GBM therapy.

  17. Use of genome editing tools in human stem cell-based disease modeling and precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-da; Li, Shuang; Liu, Gai-gai; Zhang, Yong-xian; Ding, Qiu-rong

    2015-10-01

    Precision medicine emerges as a new approach that takes into account individual variability. The successful conduct of precision medicine requires the use of precise disease models. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), as well as adult stem cells, can be differentiated into a variety of human somatic cell types that can be used for research and drug screening. The development of genome editing technology over the past few years, especially the CRISPR/Cas system, has made it feasible to precisely and efficiently edit the genetic background. Therefore, disease modeling by using a combination of human stem cells and genome editing technology has offered a new platform to generate " personalized " disease models, which allow the study of the contribution of individual genetic variabilities to disease progression and the development of precise treatments. In this review, recent advances in the use of genome editing in human stem cells and the generation of stem cell models for rare diseases and cancers are discussed.

  18. Peripheral blood stem cell collection for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Practical implications after 200 consequent transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren Sahin, Deniz; Arat, Mutlu

    2017-12-01

    Proper stem cell mobilization is one of the most important steps in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this paper is to share our 6 years' experience and provide practical clinical approaches particularly for stem cell mobilization and collection within the series of more than 200 successive allogeneic HSCT at our transplant center. Two hundred and seven consecutive patients who underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were included in this study. Age, sex, weight, complete blood counts, CD34 + cell counts, total collected amount of CD34 + cells, CD34 + cells per 10l processed, mobilization failure and adverse events were reviewed. Median age was 40.2±12.9 (21-68) years and 46.4±13.4 (17-67) years for donors and patients, respectively. The number of donors who had undergone adequate CD34 + cell harvesting and completed the procedure on the fourth day was 67 (32.8% of all patients). Only 12 patients required cell apheresis both on day 5 and 6. Apheresis was completed on day 4 and/or day 5 in 94.2% of all our donors. There was no significant association between CD34 + stem cell volume and age, gender and weight values of donors. Mobilization failure was not seen in our series. G-CSF is highly effective in 1/3 of the donors on the 4th day in order to collect enough number of stem cells. We propose that peripheral stem cell collection might start on day 4th of G-CSF treatment for avoiding G-CSF related side effects and complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Infrapatellar Fat Pad Stem Cells: From Developmental Biology to Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo J. F. C. do Amaral

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal cell type to be used for cartilage therapy should possess a proven chondrogenic capacity, not cause donor-site morbidity, and should be readily expandable in culture without losing their phenotype. There are several cell sources being investigated to promote cartilage regeneration: mature articular chondrocytes, chondrocyte progenitors, and various stem cells. Most recently, stem cells isolated from joint tissue, such as chondrogenic stem/progenitors from cartilage itself, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and infrapatellar fat pad (IFP have gained great attention due to their increased chondrogenic capacity over the bone marrow and subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells. In this review, we first describe the IFP anatomy and compare and contrast it with other adipose tissues, with a particular focus on the embryological and developmental aspects of the tissue. We then discuss the recent advances in IFP stem cells for regenerative medicine. We compare their properties with other stem cell types and discuss an ontogeny relationship with other joint cells and their role on in vivo cartilage repair. We conclude with a perspective for future clinical trials using IFP stem cells.

  20. Infrapatellar Fat Pad Stem Cells: From Developmental Biology to Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Ronaldo J F C; Almeida, Henrique V; Kelly, Daniel J; O'Brien, Fergal J; Kearney, Cathal J

    2017-01-01

    The ideal cell type to be used for cartilage therapy should possess a proven chondrogenic capacity, not cause donor-site morbidity, and should be readily expandable in culture without losing their phenotype. There are several cell sources being investigated to promote cartilage regeneration: mature articular chondrocytes, chondrocyte progenitors, and various stem cells. Most recently, stem cells isolated from joint tissue, such as chondrogenic stem/progenitors from cartilage itself, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have gained great attention due to their increased chondrogenic capacity over the bone marrow and subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells. In this review, we first describe the IFP anatomy and compare and contrast it with other adipose tissues, with a particular focus on the embryological and developmental aspects of the tissue. We then discuss the recent advances in IFP stem cells for regenerative medicine. We compare their properties with other stem cell types and discuss an ontogeny relationship with other joint cells and their role on in vivo cartilage repair. We conclude with a perspective for future clinical trials using IFP stem cells.

  1. A population of serumdeprivation-induced bone marrow stem cells (SD-BMSC) expresses marker typical for embryonic and neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerzweig, Steven; Munsch, Thomas; Lessmann, Volkmar; Reymann, Klaus G.; Braun, Holger

    2009-01-01

    The bone marrow represents an easy accessible source of adult stem cells suitable for various cell based therapies. Several studies in recent years suggested the existence of pluripotent stem cells within bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) expressing marker proteins of both embryonic and tissue committed stem cells. These subpopulations were referred to as MAPC, MIAMI and VSEL-cells. Here we describe SD-BMSC (serumdeprivation-induced BMSC) which are induced as a distinct subpopulation after complete serumdeprivation. SD-BMSC are generated from small-sized nestin-positive BMSC (S-BMSC) organized as round-shaped cells in the top layer of BMSC-cultures. The generation of SD-BMSC is caused by a selective proliferation of S-BMSC and accompanied by changes in both morphology and gene expression. SD-BMSC up-regulate not only markers typical for neural stem cells like nestin and GFAP, but also proteins characteristic for embryonic cells like Oct4 and SOX2. We hypothesize, that SD-BMSC like MAPC, MIAMI and VSEL-cells represent derivatives from a single pluripotent stem cell fraction within BMSC exhibiting characteristics of embryonic and tissue committed stem cells. The complete removal of serum might offer a simple way to specifically enrich this fraction of pluripotent embryonic like stem cells in BMSC cultures

  2. Potential Use of Stem Cells for Kidney Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yokoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in stem cell research over the past decade. A number of nonhematopoietic sources of stem cells (or progenitor cells have been identified, including endothelial stem cells and neural stem cells. These discoveries have been a major step toward the use of stem cells for potential clinical applications of organ regeneration. Accordingly, kidney regeneration is currently gaining considerable attention to replace kidney dialysis as the ultimate therapeutic strategy for renal failure. However, due to anatomic complications, the kidney is believed to be the hardest organ to regenerate; it is virtually impossible to imagine such a complicated organ being completely rebuilt from pluripotent stem cells by gene or chemical manipulation. Nevertheless, several groups are taking on this big challenge. In this manuscript, current advances in renal stem cell research are reviewed and their usefulness for kidney regeneration discussed. We also reviewed the current knowledge of the emerging field of renal stem cell biology.

  3. Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Polyglutamine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Liliana S; Onofre, Isabel; Miranda, Catarina Oliveira; Perfeito, Rita; Nóbrega, Clévio; de Almeida, Luís Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a family of neurodegenerative disorders with very heterogeneous clinical presentations, although with common features such as progressive neuronal death. Thus, at the time of diagnosis patients might present an extensive and irreversible neuronal death demanding cell replacement or support provided by cell-based therapies. For this purpose stem cells, which include diverse populations ranging from embryonic stem cells (ESCs), to fetal stem cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have remarkable potential to promote extensive brain regeneration and recovery in neurodegenerative disorders. This regenerative potential has been demonstrated in exciting pre and clinical assays. However, despite these promising results, several drawbacks are hampering their successful clinical implementation. Problems related to ethical issues, quality control of the cells used and the lack of reliable models for the efficacy assessment of human stem cells. In this chapter the main advantages and disadvantages of the available sources of stem cells as well as their efficacy and potential to improve disease outcomes are discussed.

  4. In vivo stem cell tracking with imageable nanoparticles that bind bioorthogonal chemical receptors on the stem cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Yoon, Hwa In; Na, Jin Hee; Jeon, Sangmin; Lim, Seungho; Koo, Heebeom; Han, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sun-Woong; Park, Soon-Jung; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung; Cho, Yong Woo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Sang Kyoon; Lee, Taekwan; Kim, Dongkyu; Lee, Seulki; Pomper, Martin G; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2017-09-01

    It is urgently necessary to develop reliable non-invasive stem cell imaging technology for tracking the in vivo fate of transplanted stem cells in living subjects. Herein, we developed a simple and well controlled stem cell imaging method through a combination of metabolic glycoengineering and bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry. Firstly, the exogenous chemical receptors containing azide (-N 3 ) groups were generated on the surfaces of stem cells through metabolic glycoengineering using metabolic precursor, tetra-acetylated N-azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine(Ac 4 ManNAz). Next, bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne-modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles (BCN-CNPs) were prepared as imageable nanoparticles to deliver different imaging agents. Cy5.5, iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles were conjugated or encapsulated to BCN-CNPs for optical, MR and CT imaging, respectively. These imageable nanoparticles bound chemical receptors on the Ac 4 ManNAz-treated stem cell surface specifically via bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry. Then they were rapidly taken up by the cell membrane turn-over mechanism resulting in higher endocytic capacity compared non-specific uptake of nanoparticles. During in vivo animal test, BCN-CNP-Cy5.5-labeled stem cells could be continuously tracked by non-invasive optical imaging over 15 days. Furthermore, BCN-CNP-IRON- and BCN-CNP-GOLD-labeled stem cells could be efficiently visualized using in vivo MR and CT imaging demonstrating utility of our stem cell labeling method using chemical receptors. These results conclude that our method based on metabolic glycoengineering and bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry can stably label stem cells with diverse imageable nanoparticles representing great potential as new stem cell imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0115 TITLE: Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kyuson Yun...CA130273 - Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0115 5c. PROGRAM...hypothesis, we originally proposed to transform neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vivo by expressing an activated form

  6. Imaging of Human Hepatic Stem Cells In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Report on progress in MRI and PET of stem cell tracking. Human hepatic stem cell imaging for both MRI and PET have been accomplished within SCID/nod mice, and succeeded in cell specificity labeling with in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo image tracking. For MRI, stem cell labeling was accomplished by two methods: (1) in vitro labeling the stem cells just prior to in vivo transplantation, and/or (2) transplanting the stem cells into SCID/nod mice and in vivo specificity labeling the cells just prior to MRI. For labeling techniques 1 and 2, multiple image controls were utilized and include: (A) stem cells(-) and contrast label(-), (B) stem cells(+) and contrast label(-), and (C) stem cells(-) and contrast label(+) help to confirm signal noise background interference, which is a result of slight nonspecific cell labeling. Contrast labeled stem cells are directly transplanted into liver tissues, the tissues excised, and immediately MR imaged to determine cell dispersion dynamics. In this method, the contrast labeled cells appear as void foci throughout the organs. The images are imported into Metamorph imaging software and analyzed for foci radii, diameter, and to discern spheroid volumes. Then, cell numbers are extrapolated to understand ''imaged'' cell aggregate requirements using this technique. For this ex vivo method, a cell aggregate of ∼100 stem cells is required to MRI monitor signal activities. For in vivo imaging, contrast labeled human stem cells within SCID/nod mice are also confirmed as small foci voids and are evident within liver tissues. Initially, these short-term studies where accomplished by in vitro labeling stem cells, transplanting the cells, then in vivo imaging the tissues between days 3-15. Next and to avoid imaged time limitations of detaching contrast agents, the proliferative stem cells were labeled after transplantation, and before MR imaging. This was accomplished to confirm the ability to specifically label unique cell subsets after the

  7. A CORN STEM AS BIOMATERIAL FOR SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE CELLS IMMOBILIZATION FOR THE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučurović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a preliminary contribution to the development of a bioprocess for the production of ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto a corn stem. For this purpose, the yeast cells were submitted to the batch tests in situ adsorption onto 0.5 cm long corn stem. Cells immobilization was analyzed by optical microscopy. The number of the yeast cells, fermentation kinetics, the ethanol yield in the presence or the absence of the support in the fermentation medium was investigated. It was determined that the addition of the corn stem led to the abrupt increase of the yeast cells number in substrate, ethanol yield, pH value, a total dissolved salts content and substrate conductivity. The addition of 5 and 10g of the corn stem pith per liter of the medium decreased the amount of residual sugar. The results indicate that a corn stem might be a good carrier for the yeast cell immobilization, and also a cheap alternative recourse of mineral components with the possibility of application for improving ethanol productivities.

  8. Advanced research on separating prostate cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yumei; He Xin; Song Naling

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in male urinary system,and may easily develop into the hormone refractory prostate cancer which can hardly be cured. Recent studies had found that the prostate cancer stem cells may be the source of the prostate cancer's occurrence,development, metastasis and recurrence. The therapy targeting the prostate cancer stem cells may be the effective way to cure prostate cancer. But these cells is too low to be detected. The difficulty lies in the low separation efficiency of prostate cancer stem cell, so the effectively separating prostate cancer stem cells occupied the main position for the more in-depth research of prostate cancer stem cells. This paper reviews the research progress and existing problems on the several main separating methods of prostate cancer stem cells, includes the fluorescence activated cells sorting and magnetic activated cells sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell surface markers, the side-population sorting and serum-free medium sphere forming sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell's biology. (authors)

  9. Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Epidermolysis Bullosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    of human hematopoietic cells for extracellular matrix protein deficiency in epidermolysis bullosa. Stem Cells 2011, 29:900–906. 18. Di Nicola M...promotes cardiogenic gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cell Res Ther 2013, 4:43. 57. Herrmann JL, Wang Y, Abarbanell AM, Weil BR, Tan J

  10. Human Papillomavirus Infections and Cancer Stem Cells of Tumors from the Uterine Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jacqueline; Ruíz, Graciela; Organista-Nava, Jorge; Gariglio, Patricio; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Different rate of development of productive infections (as low grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias), or high grade lesions and cervical malignant tumors associated with infections of the Transformation zone (TZ) by High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV), could suggest that different epithelial host target cells could exist. If there is more than one target cell, their differential infection by HR-HPV may play a central role in the development of cervical cancer. Recently, the concept that cancer might arise from a rare population of cells with stem cell-like properties has received support in several solid tumors, including cervical cancer (CC). According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, CC can now be considered a disease in which stem cells of the TZ are converted to cervical cancer stem cells by the interplay between HR-HPV viral oncogenes and cellular alterations that are thought to be finally responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Current studies of CSC could provide novel insights regarding tumor initiation and progression, their relation with viral proteins and interplay with the tumor micro-environment. This review will focus on the biology of cervical cancer stem cells, which might contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for cervical tumor development. PMID:23341858

  11. Some Ethical Concerns About Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue Liang

    2016-10-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells can be obtained from somatic cells, and their derivation does not require destruction of embryos, thus avoiding ethical problems arising from the destruction of human embryos. This type of stem cell may provide an important tool for stem cell therapy, but it also results in some ethical concerns. It is likely that abnormal reprogramming occurs in the induction of human induced pluripotent stem cells, and that the stem cells generate tumors in the process of stem cell therapy. Human induced pluripotent stem cells should not be used to clone human beings, to produce human germ cells, nor to make human embryos. Informed consent should be obtained from patients in stem cell therapy.

  12. Culture of Mouse Neural Stem Cell Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Currle, D. Spencer; Hu, Jia Sheng; Kolski-Andreaco, Aaron; Monuki, Edwin S.

    2007-01-01

    Primary neural stem cell cultures are useful for studying the mechanisms underlying central nervous system development. Stem cell research will increase our understanding of the nervous system and may allow us to develop treatments for currently incurable brain diseases and injuries. In addition, stem cells should be used for stem cell research aimed at the detailed study of mechanisms of neural differentiation and transdifferentiation and the genetic and environmental signals that direct the...

  13. Skin appendage-derived stem cells: cell biology and potential for wound repair

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jiangfan; Yao, Bin; Han, Yutong; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells residing in the epidermis and skin appendages are imperative for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also participate in the repair of the epidermis after injuries, inducing restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unlike epidermis-derived stem cells, comprehensive knowledge about skin appendage-derived stem cells remains limited. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of skin appendage-derived stem cells, including their fundament...

  14. Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Normal and Dysplastic Hematopoiesis—Masters of Survival and Clonality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleyer, Lisa; Valent, Peter; Greil, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are malignant hematopoietic stem cell disorders that have the capacity to progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Accumulating evidence suggests that the altered bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in general, and in particular the components of the stem cell niche, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their progeny, play a pivotal role in the evolution and propagation of MDS. We here present an overview of the role of MSCs in the pathogenesis of MDS, with emphasis on cellular interactions in the BM microenvironment and related stem cell niche concepts. MSCs have potent immunomodulatory capacities and communicate with diverse immune cells, but also interact with various other cellular components of the microenvironment as well as with normal and leukemic stem and progenitor cells. Moreover, compared to normal MSCs, MSCs in MDS and AML often exhibit altered gene expression profiles, an aberrant phenotype, and abnormal functional properties. These alterations supposedly contribute to the “reprogramming” of the stem cell niche into a disease-permissive microenvironment where an altered immune system, abnormal stem cell niche interactions, and an impaired growth control lead to disease progression. The current article also reviews molecular targets that play a role in such cellular interactions and possibilities to interfere with abnormal stem cell niche interactions by using specific targeted drugs. PMID:27355944

  15. Propagation of human spermatogonial stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; Mizrak, Sefika C; van Daalen, Saskia K M; Korver, Cindy M; Roepers-Gajadien, Hermien L; Koruji, Morteza; Hovingh, Suzanne; de Reijke, Theo M; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; van der Veen, Fulco; de Rooij, Dirk G; Repping, Sjoerd; van Pelt, Ans M M

    2009-11-18

    Young boys treated with high-dose chemotherapy are often confronted with infertility once they reach adulthood. Cryopreserving testicular tissue before chemotherapy and autotransplantation of spermatogonial stem cells at a later stage could theoretically allow for restoration of fertility. To establish in vitro propagation of human spermatogonial stem cells from small testicular biopsies to obtain an adequate number of cells for successful transplantation. Study performed from April 2007 to July 2009 using testis material donated by 6 adult men who underwent orchidectomy as part of prostate cancer treatment. Testicular cells were isolated and cultured in supplemented StemPro medium; germline stem cell clusters that arose were subcultured on human placental laminin-coated dishes in the same medium. Presence of spermatogonia was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence for spermatogonial markers. To test for the presence of functional spermatogonial stem cells in culture, xenotransplantation to testes of immunodeficient mice was performed, and migrated human spermatogonial stem cells after transplantation were detected by COT-1 fluorescence in situ hybridization. The number of colonized spermatogonial stem cells transplanted at early and later points during culture were counted to determine propagation. Propagation of spermatogonial stem cells over time. Testicular cells could be cultured and propagated up to 15 weeks. Germline stem cell clusters arose in the testicular cell cultures from all 6 men and could be subcultured and propagated up to 28 weeks. Expression of spermatogonial markers on both the RNA and protein level was maintained throughout the entire culture period. In 4 of 6 men, xenotransplantation to mice demonstrated the presence of functional spermatogonial stem cells, even after prolonged in vitro culture. Spermatogonial stem cell numbers increased 53-fold within 19 days in the testicular cell culture and

  16. Droplet Microarray Based on Patterned Superhydrophobic Surfaces Prevents Stem Cell Differentiation and Enables High-Throughput Stem Cell Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronser, Tina; Popova, Anna A; Jaggy, Mona; Bastmeyer, Martin; Levkin, Pavel A

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decades, stem cells have attracted growing interest in fundamental biological and biomedical research as well as in regenerative medicine, due to their unique ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types. Long-term maintenance of the self-renewal ability and inhibition of spontaneous differentiation, however, still remain challenging and are not fully understood. Uncontrolled spontaneous differentiation of stem cells makes high-throughput screening of stem cells also difficult. This further hinders investigation of the underlying mechanisms of stem cell differentiation and the factors that might affect it. In this work, a dual functionality of nanoporous superhydrophobic-hydrophilic micropatterns is demonstrated in their ability to inhibit differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and at the same time enable formation of arrays of microdroplets (droplet microarray) via the effect of discontinuous dewetting. Such combination makes high-throughput screening of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells possible. The droplet microarray is used to investigate the development, differentiation, and maintenance of stemness of mESC, revealing the dependence of stem cell behavior on droplet volume in nano- and microliter scale. The inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of mESCs cultured on the droplet microarray for up to 72 h is observed. In addition, up to fourfold increased cell growth rate of mESCs cultured on our platform has been observed. The difference in the behavior of mESCs is attributed to the porosity and roughness of the polymer surface. This work demonstrates that the droplet microarray possesses the potential for the screening of mESCs under conditions of prolonged inhibition of stem cells' spontaneous differentiation. Such a platform can be useful for applications in the field of stem cell research, pharmacological testing of drug efficacy and toxicity, biomedical research as well as in the field of

  17. Cancer cell-soluble factors reprogram mesenchymal stromal cells to slow cycling, chemoresistant cells with a more stem-like state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Badawy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs play different roles in modulating tumor progression, growth, and metastasis. MSCs are recruited to the tumor site in large numbers and subsequently have an important microenvironmental role in modulating tumor progression and drug sensitivity. However, the effect of the tumor microenvironment on MSC plasticity remains poorly understood. Herein, we report a paracrine effect of cancer cells, in which they secrete soluble factors that promote a more stem-like state in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Methods The effect of soluble factors secreted from MCF7, Hela, and HepG2 cancer cell lines on BM-MSCs was assessed using a Transwell indirect coculture system. After 5 days of coculture, BM-MSCs were characterized by flow cytometry for surface marker expression, by qPCR for gene expression profile, and by confocal immunofluorescence for marker expression. We then measured the sensitivity of cocultured BM-MSCs to chemotherapeutic agents, their cell cycle profile, and their response to DNA damage. The sphere formation, invasive properties, and in-vivo performance of BM-MSCs after coculture with cancer cells were also measured. Results Indirect coculture of cancer cells and BM-MSCs, without direct cell contact, generated slow cycling, chemoresistant spheroid stem cells that highly expressed markers of pluripotency, cancer cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs. They also displayed properties of a side population and enhanced sphere formation in culture. Accordingly, these cells were termed cancer-induced stem cells (CiSCs. CiSCs showed a more mesenchymal phenotype that was further augmented upon TGF-β stimulation and demonstrated a high expression of the β-catenin pathway and ALDH1A1. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that MSCs, recruited to the tumor microenvironment in large numbers, may display cellular plasticity, acquire a more stem-like state, and acquire some properties of CSCs upon

  18. Immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Vasconcellos Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bone marrow is the main source, mesenchymal stem cells have already been isolated from various other tissues, such as the liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, peripheral blood and dental pulp. These plastic adherent cells are morphologically similar to fibroblasts and have a high proliferative potential. This special group of cells possesses two essential characteristics: self-renewal and differentiation, with appropriate stimuli, into various cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered immunologically privileged, since they do not express costimulatory molecules, required for complete T cell activation, on their surface. Several studies have shown that these cells exert an immunosuppressive effect on cells from both innate and acquired immunity systems. Mesenchymal stem cells can regulate the immune response in vitro by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells, as well as by suppressing the proliferation and function of T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. These special properties of mesenchymal stem cells make them a promising strategy in the treatment of immune mediated disorders, such as graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells, and also those involved in the differentiation of these cells in various lineages is primordial for their successful and safe application in different areas of medicine.

  19. Nanotechnology in the regulation of stem cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, King-Chuen; Tseng, Ching-Li; Wu, Chi-Chang; Wang, Yang-Kao; Kao, Feng-Chen; Tu, Yuan-Kun; C So, Edmund

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are known for their potential to repair damaged tissues. The adhesion, growth and differentiation of stem cells are likely controlled by the surrounding microenvironment which contains both chemical and physical cues. Physical cues in the microenvironment, for example, nanotopography, were shown to play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. Thus, controlling stem cell behavior by nanoscale topography has become an important issue in stem cell biology. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field and research from this field has greatly advanced. Nanotechnology allows the manipulation of sophisticated surfaces/scaffolds which can mimic the cellular environment for regulating cellular behaviors. Thus, we summarize recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology, including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanomaterials with stem cells may provide the knowledge to apply to cell–scaffold combinations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. (review)

  20. Pancreatic stellate cells enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Takikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa; Hamada, Hirofumi; Kobune, Masayoshi; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. ► Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed enhanced spheroid formation. ► Expression of stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28 was increased. ► Co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. ► This study suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Recent studies have identified that a portion of cancer cells, called “cancer stem cells”, within the entire cancer tissue harbor highly tumorigenic and chemo-resistant phenotypes, which lead to the recurrence after surgery or re-growth of the tumor. The mechanisms that maintain the “stemness” of these cells remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that PSCs might enhance the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. Indirect co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells with PSCs enhanced the spheroid-forming ability of cancer cells and induced the expression of cancer stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28. In addition, co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. These results suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche.

  1. Stem cell technology for drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Lilian A

    2012-04-01

    Stem cells have enormous potential to revolutionise the drug discovery process at all stages, from target identification through to toxicology studies. Their ability to generate physiologically relevant cells in limitless supply makes them an attractive alternative to currently used recombinant cell lines or primary cells. However, realisation of the full potential of stem cells is currently hampered by the difficulty in routinely directing stem cell differentiation to reproducibly and cost effectively generate pure populations of specific cell types. In this article we discuss how stem cells have already been used in the drug discovery process and how novel technologies, particularly in relation to stem cell differentiation, can be applied to attain widespread adoption of stem cell technology by the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonclinical safety strategies for stem cell therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Michaela E., E-mail: michaela_sharpe@yahoo.com [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom); Morton, Daniel [Exploratory Drug Safety, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, 02140 (United States); Rossi, Annamaria [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology, especially the development of the induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, have generated tremendous enthusiasm and efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies are being considered for the treatment of degenerative diseases, inflammatory conditions, cancer and repair of damaged tissue. The safety of a stem cell therapy depends on many factors including the type of cell therapy, the differentiation status and proliferation capacity of the cells, the route of administration, the intended clinical location, long term survival of the product and/or engraftment, the need for repeated administration, the disease to be treated and the age of the population. Understanding the product profile of the intended therapy is crucial to the development of the nonclinical safety study design.

  3. Nonclinical safety strategies for stem cell therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Michaela E.; Morton, Daniel; Rossi, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology, especially the development of the induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, have generated tremendous enthusiasm and efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies are being considered for the treatment of degenerative diseases, inflammatory conditions, cancer and repair of damaged tissue. The safety of a stem cell therapy depends on many factors including the type of cell therapy, the differentiation status and proliferation capacity of the cells, the route of administration, the intended clinical location, long term survival of the product and/or engraftment, the need for repeated administration, the disease to be treated and the age of the population. Understanding the product profile of the intended therapy is crucial to the development of the nonclinical safety study design.

  4. Simultaneous detection of mRNA and protein stem cell markers in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Gang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological studies and medical application of stem cells often require the isolation of stem cells from a mixed cell population, including the detection of cancer stem cells in tumor tissue, and isolation of induced pluripotent stem cells after eliciting the expression of specific genes in adult cells. Here we report the detection of Oct-4 mRNA and SSEA-1 protein in live carcinoma stem cells using respectively molecular beacon and dye-labeled antibody, aiming to establish a new method for stem cells detection and isolation. Results Quantification of Oct-4 mRNA and protein in P19 mouse carcinoma stem cells using respectively RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry confirmed that their levels drastically decreased after differentiation. To visualize Oct-4 mRNA in live stem cells, molecular beacons were designed, synthesized and validated, and the detection specificity was confirmed using control studies. We found that the fluorescence signal from Oct-4-targeting molecular beacons provides a clear discrimination between undifferentiated and retinoic acid-induced differentiated cells. Using deconvolution fluorescence microscopy, Oct-4 mRNAs were found to reside on one side of the cytosol. We demonstrated that, using a combination of Oct-4 mRNA-targeting molecular beacon with SSEA-1 antibody in flow cytometric analysis, undifferentiated stem cells can be clearly distinguished from differentiated cells. We revealed that Oct-4 targeting molecular beacons do not seem to affect stem cell biology. Conclusion Molecular beacons have the potential to provide a powerful tool for highly specific detection and isolation of stem cells, including cancer stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells without disturbing cell physiology. It is advantageous to perform simultaneous detection of intracellular (mRNA and cell-surface (protein stem cell markers in flow cytometric analysis, which may lead to high detection sensitivity and efficiency.

  5. Primer and interviews: The dynamic stem cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Julie C

    2011-03-01

    A stem cell niche is a microenvironment that supports self-renewal of a population of stem cells, and their production of differentiated cells. While the definition evokes images of a stem cell Shangri-La-where a serene stem cell pool nestles within a niche that shelters and sustains it-the reality is much more tumultuous. Niches are subject to an ever-changing maelstrom of environmental factors, the ravages of old age, and the sly tactics of disease. Presented here is a basic overview of the different ways in which stem cell niches respond to local and systemic environments, and their impact on stem cell behavior. The primer culminates with a discussion of the topic with stem cell and niche biologists D. Leanne Jones, Ph.D., and Tudorita Tumbar, Ph.D. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Different Effects of BORIS/CTCFL on Stemness Gene Expression, Sphere Formation and Cell Survival in Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Alberti

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells are cancer cells characterized by stem cell properties and represent a small population of tumor cells that drives tumor development, progression, metastasis and drug resistance. To date, the molecular mechanisms that generate and regulate cancer stem cells are not well defined. BORIS (Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites or CTCFL (CTCF-like is a DNA-binding protein that is expressed in normal tissues only in germ cells and is re-activated in tumors. Recent evidences have highlighted the correlation of BORIS/CTCFL expression with poor overall survival of different cancer patients. We have previously shown an association of BORIS-expressing cells with stemness gene expression in embryonic cancer cells. Here, we studied the role of BORIS in epithelial tumor cells. Using BORIS-molecular beacon that was already validated, we were able to show the presence of BORIS mRNA in cancer stem cell-enriched populations (side population and spheres of cervical, colon and breast tumor cells. BORIS silencing studies showed a decrease of sphere formation capacity in breast and colon tumor cells. Importantly, BORIS-silencing led to down-regulation of hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1 and cancer stem cell markers (ABCG2, CD44 and ALDH1 genes. Conversely, BORIS-induction led to up-regulation of the same genes. These phenotypes were observed in cervical, colon and invasive breast tumor cells. However, a completely different behavior was observed in the non-invasive breast tumor cells (MCF7. Indeed, these cells acquired an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype after BORIS silencing. Our results demonstrate that BORIS is associated with cancer stem cell-enriched populations of several epithelial tumor cells and the different phenotypes depend on the origin of tumor cells.

  7. The Stem Cell Hypothesis of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is probably no single way to age. Indeed, so far there is no single accepted explanation or mechanisms of aging (although more than 300 theories have been proposed. There is an overall decline in tissue regenerative potential with age, and the question arises as to whether this is due to the intrinsic aging of stem cells or rather to the impairment of stem cell function in the aged tissue environment. CONTENT: Recent data suggest that we age, in part, because our self-renewing stem cells grow old as a result of heritable intrinsic events, such as DNA damage, as well as extrinsic forces, such as changes in their supporting niches. Mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer, such as senescence and apoptosis, which rely on telomere shortening and the activities of p53 and p16INK4a may also induce an unwanted consequence: a decline in the replicative function of certain stem cells types with advancing age. This decrease regenerative capacity appears to pointing to the stem cell hypothesis of aging. SUMMARY: Recent evidence suggested that we grow old partly because of our stem cells grow old as a result of mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer over a lifetime. We believe that a further, more precise mechanistic understanding of this process will be required before this knowledge can be translated into human anti-aging therapies. KEYWORDS: stem cells, senescence, telomere, DNA damage, epigenetic, aging.