WorldWideScience

Sample records for stellar differential rotation

  1. Linear astrophysical dynamos in rotating spheres: Differential rotation, anisotropic turbulent magnetic diffusivity, and solar-stellar cycle magnetic parity

    Yoshimura, H.; Wang, Z.; Wu, F.

    1984-01-01

    Differential rotation dependence of the selection mechanism for magnetic parity of solar and stellar cycles is studied by assuming various differential rotation profiles inn the dynamo equation. The parity selection depends on propagation direction of oscillating magnetic fields in the form of dynamo waves which propagate along isorotation surfaces. When there is any radial gradient in the differential rotation, dynamo waves propagate either equatorward or poleward. In the former case, field systems of the two hemispheres approach each other and collide at the equator. Then, odd parity is selected. In the latter case, field systems of the two hemispheres recede from each other and do not collide at the equator, an even parity is selected. Thus the equatorial migration of wings of the butterfly iagram of the solar cycle and its odd parity are intrinsically related. In the case of purely latitudibnal differential rotation, dynamo waves propagate purely radially and growth rates of odd and even modes are nearly the same even when dynamo strength is weak when the parity selection mechanism should work most efficiently. In this case, anisotropy of turbulent diffusivity is a decisive factor to separate odd and even modes. Unlike in the case of radial-gradient-dominated differential rotation in which any difference between diffusivities for poloidal and toroidal fields enhancess the parity selection without changing the parity, the parity selection in the case of latitudinal-gradient-dominated differential rotation depends on the difference of diffusivities for poloidal and toroidal fields. When diffusivity for poloidal fields iss larger than that for toroidal fields, odd parity is selected; and when diffusivity for toroidal fields is larger, even parity is selected

  2. On rapid rotation in stellarators

    Helander, Per

    2008-01-01

    The conditions under which rapid plasma rotation may occur in a three-dimensional magnetic field, such as that of a stellarator, are investigated. Rotation velocities comparable to the ion thermal speed are found to be attainable only in magnetic fields which are approximately isometric. In an isometric magnetic field the dependence of the magnetic field strength B on the arc length l along the field is the same for all field lines on each flux surface ψ. Only in fields where the departure from exact isometry, B=B(ψ,l), is of the order of the ion gyroradius divided by the macroscopic length scale are rotation speeds comparable to the ion thermal speed possible. Moreover, it is shown that the rotation must be in the direction of the vector ∇ψx∇B. (author)

  3. Investigating stellar surface rotation using observations of starspots

    Korhonen, Heidi Helena

    2011-01-01

    Rapid rotation enhances the dynamo operating in stars, and thus also introduces significantly stronger magnetic activity than is seen in slower rotators. Many young cool stars still have the rapid, primordial rotation rates induced by the interstellar molecular cloud from which they were formed....... Also older stars in close binary systems are often rapid rotators. These types of stars can show strong magnetic activity and large starspots. In the case of large starspots which cause observable changes in the brightness of the star, and even in the shapes of the spectral line profiles, one can get...... information on the rotation of the star. At times even information on the spot rotation at different stellar latitudes can be obtained, similarly to the solar surface differential rotation measurements using magnetic features as tracers. Here, I will review investigations of stellar rotation based...

  4. Differential rotation in magnetic stars

    Moss, D.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility that large-scale magnetic fields in stars are the product of a contemporary dynamo situated in the convective stellar core, rather than being a fossil from an earlier stage in the history of the star, is investigated. It is demonstrated that then the envelope will almost inevitably be in a state of differential rotation. Some simple models are constructed to illustrate the magnitude of the effects on the structure of the envelope and magnetic field. It is found that, for models which are relatively rapidly rotating, a modest differential rotation at the surface of the core may increase considerably the ratio of internal to surface field, but only give rise to a small surface differential rotation. (author)

  5. Time-scales of stellar rotational variability and starspot diagnostics

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Lammer, Helmut; Güdel, Manuel; Lüftinger, Teresa; Johnstone, Colin P.

    2018-01-01

    The difference in stability of starspot distribution on the global and hemispherical scales is studied in the rotational spot variability of 1998 main-sequence stars observed by Kepler mission. It is found that the largest patterns are much more stable than smaller ones for cool, slow rotators, whereas the difference is less pronounced for hotter stars and/or faster rotators. This distinction is interpreted in terms of two mechanisms: (1) the diffusive decay of long-living spots in activity complexes of stars with saturated magnetic dynamos, and (2) the spot emergence, which is modulated by gigantic turbulent flows in convection zones of stars with a weaker magnetism. This opens a way for investigation of stellar deep convection, which is yet inaccessible for asteroseismology. Moreover, a subdiffusion in stellar photospheres was revealed from observations for the first time. A diagnostic diagram was proposed that allows differentiation and selection of stars for more detailed studies of these phenomena.

  6. Inferring probabilistic stellar rotation periods using Gaussian processes

    Angus, Ruth; Morton, Timothy; Aigrain, Suzanne; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Rajpaul, Vinesh

    2018-02-01

    Variability in the light curves of spotted, rotating stars is often non-sinusoidal and quasi-periodic - spots move on the stellar surface and have finite lifetimes, causing stellar flux variations to slowly shift in phase. A strictly periodic sinusoid therefore cannot accurately model a rotationally modulated stellar light curve. Physical models of stellar surfaces have many drawbacks preventing effective inference, such as highly degenerate or high-dimensional parameter spaces. In this work, we test an appropriate effective model: a Gaussian Process with a quasi-periodic covariance kernel function. This highly flexible model allows sampling of the posterior probability density function of the periodic parameter, marginalizing over the other kernel hyperparameters using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. To test the effectiveness of this method, we infer rotation periods from 333 simulated stellar light curves, demonstrating that the Gaussian process method produces periods that are more accurate than both a sine-fitting periodogram and an autocorrelation function method. We also demonstrate that it works well on real data, by inferring rotation periods for 275 Kepler stars with previously measured periods. We provide a table of rotation periods for these and many more, altogether 1102 Kepler objects of interest, and their posterior probability density function samples. Because this method delivers posterior probability density functions, it will enable hierarchical studies involving stellar rotation, particularly those involving population modelling, such as inferring stellar ages, obliquities in exoplanet systems, or characterizing star-planet interactions. The code used to implement this method is available online.

  7. On the dynamics of slowly rotating stellar systems

    Davoust, E.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematical observations are now available for stellar systems which might rotate slowly. The study of periodic orbits in model stellar systems shows that a mean motion in epicyclic or circular orbits contributes to balance the centrifugal force, in addition to the velocity dispersions. Two dynamical models, the generalized Toomre and Plummer models, are adapted to the case of slow rotation. They are applied to two globular clusters, M 3 and 47 Tucanae, and 12 clusters of galaxies. 47 Tucanae is found to rotate, but none of the clusters of galaxies has any significant mean motion, except SC 316-44. 34 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs. (author)

  8. Intrinsic Ambipolarity and Rotation in Stellarators

    Helander, P.; Simakov, A. N.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that collisional plasma transport is intrinsically ambipolar only in quasiaxisymmetric or quasihelically symmetric magnetic configurations. Only in such fields can the plasma rotate freely, and then only in the direction of quasisymmetry. In a non-quasi-symmetric magnetic field, the average radial electric field is determined by parallel viscosity, which in turn is usually governed by collisional processes. Locally, the radial electric field may be affected by turbulent Reynolds stress producing zonal flows, but on a radial average taken over several ion gyroradii, it is determined by parallel viscosity, at least if the turbulence is electrostatic and obeys the conventional gyrokinetic orderings. This differs from the situation in a tokamak, where there is no flow damping by parallel viscosity in the symmetry direction and the turbulent Reynolds stress may affect the global radial electric field

  9. How good a clock is rotation? The stellar rotation-mass-age relationship for old field stars

    Epstein, Courtney R.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    The rotation-mass-age relationship offers a promising avenue for measuring the ages of field stars, assuming the attendant uncertainties to this technique can be well characterized. We model stellar angular momentum evolution starting with a rotation distribution from open cluster M37. Our predicted rotation-mass-age relationship shows significant zero-point offsets compared to an alternative angular momentum loss law and published gyrochronology relations. Systematic errors at the 30% level are permitted by current data, highlighting the need for empirical guidance. We identify two fundamental sources of uncertainty that limit the precision of rotation-based ages and quantify their impact. Stars are born with a range of rotation rates, which leads to an age range at fixed rotation period. We find that the inherent ambiguity from the initial conditions is important for all young stars, and remains large for old stars below 0.6 M ☉ . Latitudinal surface differential rotation also introduces a minimum uncertainty into rotation period measurements and, by extension, rotation-based ages. Both models and the data from binary star systems 61 Cyg and α Cen demonstrate that latitudinal differential rotation is the limiting factor for rotation-based age precision among old field stars, inducing uncertainties at the ∼2 Gyr level. We also examine the relationship between variability amplitude, rotation period, and age. Existing ground-based surveys can detect field populations with ages as old as 1-2 Gyr, while space missions can detect stars as old as the Galactic disk. In comparison with other techniques for measuring the ages of lower main sequence stars, including geometric parallax and asteroseismology, rotation-based ages have the potential to be the most precise chronometer for 0.6-1.0 M ☉ stars.

  10. The metastable dynamo model of stellar rotational evolution

    Brown, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new empirical model for the rotational evolution of Sun-like stars—those with surface convection zones and non-convective interior regions. Previous models do not match the morphology of observed (rotation period)-color diagrams, notably the existence of a relatively long-lived 'C-sequence' of fast rotators first identified by Barnes. This failure motivates the Metastable Dynamo Model (MDM) described here. The MDM posits that stars are born with their magnetic dynamos operating in a mode that couples very weakly to the stellar wind, so their (initially very short) rotation periods at first change little with time. At some point, this mode spontaneously and randomly changes to a strongly coupled mode, the transition occurring with a mass-dependent lifetime that is of the order of 100 Myr. I show that with this assumption, one can obtain good fits to observations of young clusters, particularly for ages of 150-200 Myr. Previous models and the MDM both give qualitative agreement with the morphology of the slower-rotating 'I-sequence' stars, but none of them have been shown to accurately reproduce the stellar-mass-dependent evolution of the I-sequence stars, especially for clusters older than a few hundred million years. I discuss observational experiments that can test aspects of the MDM, and speculate that the physics underlying the MDM may be related to other situations described in the literature, in which stellar dynamos may have a multi-modal character.

  11. Stellar dynamism. Activity and rotation of solar stars observed from the Kepler satellite

    Ceillier, Tugdual

    2015-01-01

    This thesis concerns the study of seismic solar-like stars' rotation and magnetic activity. We use data from the Kepler satellite to study the rotational history of these stars throughout their evolution. This allows to have a more complete picture of stellar rotation and magnetism. In the first part, we present the context of this PhD: astro-seismology, the seismic study of stars. We continue by describing the tool we developed to measure surface rotation of stars using photometric data from Kepler. We compare it to other methodologies used by the community and show that its efficiency is very high. In the second part, we apply this tool to around 500 main-sequence and sub-giant solar-like stars. We measure surface rotation periods and activity levels for 300 of them. We show that the measured periods and the ages from astro-seismology do not agree well with the standard period-age relationships and propose to modify these relationships for stars older than the Sun. We also use the surface rotation as a constraint to estimate the internal rotation of a small number of seismic targets. We demonstrate that these stars have, like the Sun, a very low differential rotation ratio. In the third part, we apply our surface rotation-measuring tool to the most extensive sample of red giants observed by Kepler, comprising more than 17,000 stars. We identify more than 360 fast rotating red giants and compare our detection rates with the ones predicted by theory to better understand the reasons for this rapid rotation. We also use stellar modelling to reproduce the internal rotation profile of a particular red giant. This allows us to emphasize how important implementing new angular momentum transport mechanisms in stellar evolution codes is. This work offers new results that are useful to a very wide community of stellar physicists. It also puts strong constraints on the evolution of solar-like stars' rotation and magnetic activity. (author) [fr

  12. PROBING THE ROSETTE NEBULA STELLAR BUBBLE WITH FARADAY ROTATION

    Savage, Allison H.; Spangler, Steven R.; Fischer, Patrick D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We report the results of Faraday rotation measurements of 23 background radio sources whose lines of sight pass through or close to the Rosette Nebula. We made linear polarization measurements with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at frequencies of 4.4 GHz, 4.9 GHz, and 7.6 GHz. We find the background Galactic contribution to the rotation measure in this part of the sky to be +147 rad m{sup -2}. Sources whose lines of sight pass through the nebula have an excess rotation measure of 50-750 rad m{sup -2}, which we attribute to the plasma shell of the Rosette Nebula. We consider two simple plasma shell models and how they reproduce the magnitude and sign of the rotation measure, and its dependence on distance from the center of the nebula. These two models represent different modes of interaction of the Rosette Nebula star cluster with the surrounding interstellar medium. Both can reproduce the magnitude and spatial extent of the rotation measure enhancement, given plausible free parameters. We contend that the model based on a stellar bubble more closely reproduces the observed dependence of rotation measure on distance from the center of the nebula.

  13. Constraining stellar physics from red-giant stars in binaries – stellar rotation, mixing processes and stellar activity

    Beck P. G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to an improved understanding of stellar structure and evolution - in particular for solar-like oscillators in this context. Binary stars are fascinating objects. Because they were formed together, binary systems provide a set of two stars with very well constrained parameters. Those can be used to study properties and physical processes, such as the stellar rotation, dynamics and rotational mixing of elements and allows us to learn from the differences we find between the two components. In this work, we discussed a detailed study of the binary system KIC 9163796, discovered through Kepler photometry. The ground-based follow-up spectroscopy showed that this system is a double-lined spectroscopic binary, with a mass ratio close to unity. However, the fundamental parameters of the components of this system as well as their lithium abundances differ substantially. Kepler photometry of this system allows to perform a detailed seismic analysis as well as to derive the orbital period and the surface rotation rate of the primary component of the system. Indications of the seismic signature of the secondary are found. The differing parameters are best explained with both components located in the early and the late phase of the first dredge up at the bottom of the red-giant branch. Observed lithium abundances in both components are in good agreement with prediction of stellar models including rotational mixing. By combining observations and theory, a comprehensive picture of the system can be drawn.

  14. Rotating collapse of stellar iron cores in general relativity

    Ott, C D; Dimmelmeier, H; Marek, A; Janka, H-T; Zink, B; Hawke, I; Schnetter, E

    2007-01-01

    We present results from the first 2 + 1 and 3 + 1 simulations of the collapse of rotating stellar iron cores in general relativity employing a finite-temperature equation of state and an approximate treatment of deleptonization during collapse. We compare full 3 + 1 and conformally-flat spacetime evolution methods and find that the conformally-flat treatment is sufficiently accurate for the core-collapse supernova problem. We focus on the gravitational wave (GW) emission from rotating collapse, core bounce and early postbounce phases. Our results indicate that the GW signature of these phases is much more generic than previously estimated. In addition, we track the growth of a nonaxisymmetric instability of dominant m = 1 character in two of our models that leads to prolonged narrow-band GW emission at ∼920-930 Hz over several tens of milliseconds

  15. Stellar Evolution with Rotation: Mixing Processes in AGB Stars

    Driebe, T.; Blöcker, T.

    We included diffusive angular momentum transport and rotationally induced mixing processes in our stellar evolution code and studied the influence of rotation on the evolution of intermediate mass stars (M*=2dots6 Msolar) towards and along the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). The calculations start in the fully convective pre-main sequence phase and the initial angular momentu m was adjusted such that on the zero-age main sequence vrot=200 km/ s is achieved. The diffusion coefficients for the five rotational instabilities considered (dynamical shear, secular shear, Eddington-Sweet (ES) circulation, Solberg-Høiland-instability and Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (GSF) instability) were adopted from Heger et al. (2000, ApJ 528, 368). Mixing efficiency and sensitivity of these processes against molecular weight gradients have been determined by calibration of the main sequence width. In this study we focus on the abundance evolution of carbon. On the one hand, the surface abundance ratios of 12C/13C a nd 12C/16O at the base of the AGB were found to be ≈ 7dots 10 and ≈ 0.1, resp., being a factor of two lower than in non-rotating models. This results from the slow but continuously operating rotationally induced mixing due to the ES-circulation and the GSF-instability during the long main sequence phase. On the other hand, 13C serves as neutron source for interior s-process nucleosynthesis in AGB stars vi a 13C(α,n)16O. Herwig et al. (1997, A&A 324, L81) found that a 13C pocket is forme d in the intershell region of 3 Msolar AGB star if diffusive overshoot is considered. Our calculations show, that mixing processes due to rotation open an alternative channel for the formation of a 13C pocket as found by Langer et al. (1999, A&A 346, L37). Again, ES-circulation and GSF-instability are the predominant rotational mixing processes.

  16. COMBINED EFFECTS OF BINARIES AND STELLAR ROTATION ON THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS

    Li Zhongmu; Mao Caiyan; Chen Li; Zhang Qian

    2012-01-01

    About 70% of intermediate-age star clusters in the Large Magellanic Clouds have been confirmed to have broad main sequence, multiple or extended turnoffs, and dual red giant clumps. The observed result seems to be at odds with the classical idea that such clusters are simple stellar populations. Although many models have been used to explain the results via factors such as prolonged star formation history, metallicity spread, differential reddening, selection effect, observational uncertainty, stellar rotation, and binary interaction, the reason for the special color-magnitude diagrams is still uncertain. We revisit this question via the combination of stellar rotation and binary effects. As a result, it shows 'golf club' color-magnitude diagrams with broad or multiple turnoffs, dual red clumps, blue stragglers, red stragglers, and extended main sequences. Because both binaries and massive rotators are common, our result suggests that most color-magnitude diagrams, including extended turnoff or multiple turnoffs, can be explained using simple stellar populations including both binary and stellar rotation effects, or composite populations with two components.

  17. KIC 9451096: Magnetic Activity, Flares and Differential Rotation

    Özdarcan, O.; Yoldaş, E.; Dal, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    We present a spectroscopic and photometric analysis of KIC 9451096. The combined spectroscopic and photometric modelling shows that the system is a detached eclipsing binary in a circular orbit and composed of F5V + K2V components. Subtracting the best-fitting light curve model from the whole long cadence data reveals additional low (mmag) amplitude light variations in time and occasional flares, suggesting a low, but still remarkable level of magnetic spot activity on the K2V component. Analyzing the rotational modulation of the light curve residuals enables us to estimate the differential rotation coefficient of the K2V component as k = 0.069 ± 0.008, which is 3 times weaker compared with the solar value of k = 0.19, assuming a solar type differential rotation. We find the stellar flare activity frequency for the K2V component as 0.000368411 h-1 indicating a low magnetic activity level.

  18. Stellar rotation, dynamo, electromagnetic braking, age an lithium burning

    Schatzmann, E.

    1989-01-01

    After an introduction describing the problem and the observational tests of the theory a consistant model of the dynamo mechanism in rotating star is presented. This provides for the electromagnetic braking a law Ω ∼ (1.t/t c har) -3 / 4 , in good agreement with the observations. This rests on the hypothesis that the main contribution to the EM braking is due to the magnetic field present in bipolar magnetic spots at the surface of the stellar disk. The premain sequence EM braking provides an initial angular velocity on arrival on the main sequence which is slightly smaller than the angular velocity when the dynamo turns on. Starting the dynamo takes place when the level at which the (αΩ) dynamo number becomes larger than one drops below the ionization level of hydrogen. Before that time, the surface dynamo mechanism would take place in a region of low ionization, where the magnetic Reynods number is so small that dissipation overtakes the building of the magnetic field. Turbulent mixing with a turbulent diffusion coefficient proportional to Ω 2 provides a consistant picture of the time and mass dependance of the surface abundance of Lithium. When the level of Li-burning is sufficiently far from the bottom of the convective zone an asymptotic value of lithium abundance is reached. This can explain the anomalous Li abundance of pop.II stars. (author). 40 refs

  19. Gravitational wave extraction in simulations of rotating stellar core collapse

    Reisswig, C.; Ott, C. D.; Sperhake, U.; Schnetter, E.

    2011-01-01

    We perform simulations of general relativistic rotating stellar core collapse and compute the gravitational waves (GWs) emitted in the core-bounce phase of three representative models via multiple techniques. The simplest technique, the quadrupole formula (QF), estimates the GW content in the spacetime from the mass-quadrupole tensor only. It is strictly valid only in the weak-field and slow-motion approximation. For the first time, we apply GW extraction methods in core collapse that are fully curvature based and valid for strongly radiating and highly relativistic sources. These techniques are not restricted to weak-field and slow-motion assumptions. We employ three extraction methods computing (i) the Newman-Penrose (NP) scalar Ψ 4 , (ii) Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-Moncrief master functions, and (iii) Cauchy-characteristic extraction (CCE) allowing for the extraction of GWs at future null infinity, where the spacetime is asymptotically flat and the GW content is unambiguously defined. The latter technique is the only one not suffering from residual gauge and finite-radius effects. All curvature-based methods suffer from strong nonlinear drifts. We employ the fixed-frequency integration technique as a high-pass waveform filter. Using the CCE results as a benchmark, we find that finite-radius NP extraction yields results that agree nearly perfectly in phase, but differ in amplitude by ∼1%-7% at core bounce, depending on the model. Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-Moncrief waveforms, while, in general, agreeing in phase, contain spurious high-frequency noise of comparable amplitudes to those of the relatively weak GWs emitted in core collapse. We also find remarkably good agreement of the waveforms obtained from the QF with those obtained from CCE. The results from QF agree very well in phase and systematically underpredict peak amplitudes by ∼5%-11%, which is comparable to the NP results and is certainly within the uncertainties associated with core collapse physics.

  20. Rotational stellar structures based on the Lagrangian variational principle

    Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Fujisawa, Kotaro; Yamada, Shoichi

    2017-01-01

    A new method for multi-dimensional stellar structures is proposed in this study. As for stellar evolution calculations, the Heney method is the defacto standard now, but basically assumed to be spherical symmetric. It is one of the difficulties for deformed stellar-evolution calculations to trace the potentially complex movements of each fluid element. On the other hand, our new method is very suitable to follow such movements, since it is based on the Lagrange coordinate. This scheme is also based on the variational principle, which is adopted to the studies for the pasta structures inside of neutron stars. Our scheme could be a major break through for evolution calculations of any types of deformed stars: proto-planets, proto-stars, and proto-neutron stars, etc. (paper)

  1. Rotational stellar structures based on the Lagrangian variational principle

    Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Fujisawa, Kotaro; Yamada, Shoichi

    2017-06-01

    A new method for multi-dimensional stellar structures is proposed in this study. As for stellar evolution calculations, the Heney method is the defacto standard now, but basically assumed to be spherical symmetric. It is one of the difficulties for deformed stellar-evolution calculations to trace the potentially complex movements of each fluid element. On the other hand, our new method is very suitable to follow such movements, since it is based on the Lagrange coordinate. This scheme is also based on the variational principle, which is adopted to the studies for the pasta structures inside of neutron stars. Our scheme could be a major break through for evolution calculations of any types of deformed stars: proto-planets, proto-stars, and proto-neutron stars, etc.

  2. Collapse of differentially rotating neutron stars and cosmic censorship

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Rezzolla, Luciano; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    We present new results on the dynamics and gravitational-wave emission from the collapse of differentially rotating neutron stars. We have considered a number of polytropic stellar models having different values of the dimensionless angular momentum J/M 2 , where J and M are the asymptotic angular momentum and mass of the star, respectively. For neutron stars with J/M 2 2 >1, i.e. 'supra-Kerr' models, on the other hand, we were not able to find models that are dynamically unstable and all of the computed supra-Kerr models were found to be far from the stability threshold. For these models a gravitational collapse is possible only after a very severe and artificial reduction of the pressure, which then leads to a torus developing nonaxisymmetric instabilities and eventually contracting to a stable axisymmetric stellar configuration. While this does not exclude the possibility that a naked singularity can be produced by the collapse of a differentially rotating star, it also suggests that cosmic censorship is not violated and that generic conditions for a supra-Kerr progenitor do not lead to a naked singularity.

  3. Stellarator fields with small PS current at small rotational transform

    Herrnegger, F.

    2001-01-01

    One aspect of the optimization concept of stellarators is the reduction of the normalized Pfirsch-Schlueter current density p arallel 2 / j p erpendikular 2 > 1/2 to a reasonable level but obeying other side conditions, e.g., concerning small bootstrap currents, good stability properties, reasonable aspect ratio, etc. This problem is addressed in the present work. Various stellarator vacuum field are given analytically for M 2, 3, 5, 10, 12 (M is the number of field period around the torus) where the PS-current density is reduced by more than a factor of ten to rather small values around 0.3 even at small i-values

  4. The application of a Bessel transform to the determination of stellar rotational velocities

    Deeming, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method for analysing line profiles by means of a transform using Bessel functions is described. This yields the stellar rotational velocity γ sin i, to an accuracy of about +-1 km s -1 for rotational velocities greater than about 5 km s -1 , provided that rotation is the major source of line broadening. The theory of the method is a special case of a general theory of linear transforms in data analysis, which is outlined in an appendix. (Auth.)

  5. Tides in differentially rotating convective envelopes. II. The tidal coupling

    Scharlemann, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    The tidal coupling between a star with an extended, differentially rotating convective envelope, and its companion in a close binary system, is calculated from the tidal velocity field derived in Paper I. The derived coupling torque can be tested using observations of RS Canum Venaticorum systems, for which a photometric wave in the light curve provides an accurate stellar rotation rate, and for which observed orbital period changes require the stars in the systems to be coupled. The coupling torque is sufficient to explain the nearly synchronous rotation of the active star in RS CVn systems, despite the observed orbital period changes, but may not be able to explain the extreme tightness of the coupling implied by the very long periods for the migration of the photometric waves in the systems. This conclusion depends on the origin of the orbital period changes, but not on the nature of the wave or the wave migration. When the coupling torque vanishes, a specific latitude at the surface of the convective star will exactly corotate with the binary system: this corotation latitude is calculated. Finally, it is shown that the additional viscous terms introduced by tides should not suppress differential rotation in binary systems with RS Cvn parameters

  6. Differential Rotation within the Earth's Outer Core

    Hide, R.; Boggs, D. H.; Dickey, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    Non-steady differential rotation drive by bouyancy forces within the Earth's liquid outer core (OC) plays a key role not only in the generation of the main geomagnetic field by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo process but also in the excitation of irregular fluctuations in the angular speed of rotation of the overlying solid mantle, as evidenced by changes in the length of the day (LOD) on decadal and longer timescales (1-8).

  7. Differential rotation of viscous neutron matter

    Nitsch, J.; Pfarr, J.; Heintzmann, H.

    1976-08-01

    The reaction of homogeneous sphere of neutron matter set in rotational motion under the influence of an external torque acting on its surface is investigated. For neutron matter with a typical neutron star density of 10 15 gcm -3 and a temperature varying between 10 6 and 10 9 K originally in uniform rotation, a time dependent differential motion sets in, which lasts a time scale of hours to some decades, resulting finally in co-rotation. During these times the braking index of a magnetic neutron sphere very sensitively depends on time

  8. Rapidly rotating general relativistic stars. Pt. 2. Differentially rotating polytropes

    Komatsu, Hidemi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Eriguchi, Yoshiharu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Astronomy; Hachisu, Izumi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering

    1989-07-01

    We have applied the numerical method which was developed for Newtonian gravity to general relativistic, differentially rotating bodies including ring-like structures. A number of equilibrium structures are obtained for two different polytropic indices N=1/2 and N=3/2, because the various proposed equations of state for the nuclear density region fall into the range N=1/2 to 3/2 from the viewpoint of its softness. (author).

  9. Additional measurements of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation

    Hartmann, L.; Stauffer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    New rotational-velocity measurements for pre-main-sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud are reported. Rotational velocities or upper limits of 10 km/s are now available for 90 percent of the T Tauri stars with V less than 14.7 in the catalog of Cohen and Kuhi. Measurements of 'continuum emission' stars, thought to be accreting high-angular-momentum material from a circumstellar disk, show that these objects are not especially rapid rotators. The results confirm earlier findings that angular-momentum loss proceeds very efficiently in the earliest stages of star formation, and suggest that stars older than about one million yr contract to the main sequence at nearly constant angular momentum. The slow rotation of T Tauri stars probably requires substantial angular-momentum loss via a magnetically coupled wind. 35 references

  10. Grids of rotating stellar models with masses between 1.0 and 3.0 M⊙

    Yang Wu-Ming; Bi Shao-Lan; Meng Xiang-Cun

    2013-01-01

    We calculated a grid of evolutionary tracks of rotating models with masses between 1.0 and 3.0 M ⊙ and resolution δM ≤ 0.02 M ⊙ , which can be used to study the effects of rotation on stellar evolution and on the characteristics of star clusters. The value of ∼ 2.05 M ⊙ is a critical mass for the effects of rotation on stellar structure and evolution. For stars with M > 2.05 M ⊙ , rotation leads to an increase in the convective core and prolongs their lifetime on the main sequence (MS); rotating models evolve more slowly than non-rotating ones; the effects of rotation on the evolution of these stars are similar to those of convective core overshooting. However for stars with 1.1 < M/M ⊙ < 2.05, rotation results in a decrease in the convective core and shortens the duration of the MS stage; rotating models evolve faster than non-rotating ones. When the mass has values in the range ∼ 1.7–2.0 M ⊙ , the mixing caused by rotationally induced instabilities is not efficient; the hydrostatic effects dominate processes associated with the evolution of these stars. For models with masses between about 1.6 and 2.0 M ⊙ , rotating models always exhibit lower effective temperatures than non-rotating ones at the same age during the MS stage. For a given age, the lower the mass, the smaller the change in the effective temperature. Thus rotations could lead to a color spread near the MS turnoff in the color-magnitude diagram for intermediate-age star clusters

  11. Signature of non-isotropic distribution of stellar rotation inclination angles in the Praesepe cluster

    Kovacs, Geza

    2018-04-01

    The distribution of the stellar rotation axes of 113 main sequence stars in the open cluster Praesepe are examined by using current photometric rotation periods, spectroscopic rotation velocities, and estimated stellar radii. Three different samples of stellar rotation data on spotted stars from the Galactic field and two independent samples of planetary hosts are used as control samples to support the consistency of the analysis. Considering the high completeness of the Praesepe sample and the behavior of the control samples, we find that the main sequence F - K stars in this cluster are susceptible to rotational axis alignment. Using a cone model, the most likely inclination angle is 76° ± 14° with a half opening angle of 47° ± 24°. Non-isotropic distribution of the inclination angles is preferred over the isotropic distribution, except if the rotation velocities used in this work are systematically overestimated. We found no indication of this being the case on the basis of the currently available data. Data are only available at the CDS, together with the other two compiled datasets used in this paper, via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/612/L2

  12. Suppression of vertical instability in elongated current-carrying plasmas by applying stellarator rotational transform

    ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Pandya, M. D.; Traverso, P.

    2014-01-01

    The passive stability of vertically elongated current-carrying toroidal plasmas has been investigated in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid, a stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. In this experiment, the fractional transform f, defined as the ratio of the imposed external rotational transform from stellarator coils to the total rotational transform, was varied from 0.04 to 0.50, and the elongation κ was varied from 1.4 to 2.2. Plasmas that were vertically unstable were evidenced by motion of the plasma in the vertical direction. Vertical drifts are measured with a set of poloidal field pickup coils. A three chord horizontally viewing interferometer and a soft X-ray diode array confirmed the drifts. Plasmas with low fractional transform and high elongation are the most susceptible to vertical instability, consistent with analytic predictions that the vertical mode in elongated plasmas can be stabilized by the poloidal field of a relatively weak stellarator equilibrium

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Compilation of stellar rotation data (Kovacs, 2018)

    Kovacs, G.

    2018-03-01

    The three datasets included in table1-1.dat, table1-2.dat and table1-6.dat respectively, correspond to the type of stars listed in Table 1 in lines 1 [Praesepe], 2 [HJ_host] and 6 [Field(C)]. These data result from the compilation of rotational and other stellar data from the literature. (4 data files).

  14. Nonmodal phenomena in differentially rotating dusty plasmas

    Poedts, Stefaan; Rogava, Andria D.

    2000-10-01

    In this paper the foundation is layed for the nonmodal investigation of velocity shear induced phenomena in a differentially rotating flow of a dusty plasma. The simplest case of nonmagnetized flow is considered. It is shown that, together with the innate properties of the dusty plasma, the presence of differential rotation, Coriolis forces, and self-gravity casts a considerable richness on the nonmodal dynamics of linear perturbations in the flow. In particular: (i) dust-acoustic waves acquire the ability to extract energy from the mean flow and (ii) shear-induced, nonperiodic modes of collective plasma behavior-shear-dust-acoustic vortices-are generated. The presence of self-gravity and the nonzero Coriolis parameter (``epicyclic shaking'') makes these collective modes transiently unstable. .

  15. Nonmodal phenomena in differentially rotating dusty plasmas

    Poedts, Stefaan; Rogava, Andria D.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the foundation is layed for the nonmodal investigation of velocity shear induced phenomena in a differentially rotating flow of a dusty plasma. The simplest case of nonmagnetized flow is considered. It is shown that, together with the innate properties of the dusty plasma, the presence of differential rotation, Coriolis forces, and self-gravity casts a considerable richness on the nonmodal dynamics of linear perturbations in the flow. In particular: (i) dust-acoustic waves acquire the ability to extract energy from the mean flow and (ii) shear-induced, nonperiodic modes of collective plasma behavior--shear-dust-acoustic vortices--are generated. The presence of self-gravity and the nonzero Coriolis parameter ('epicyclic shaking') makes these collective modes transiently unstable

  16. RACE-OC Project: Rotation and variability in young stellar associations within 100 pc

    Messina, S.; Desidera, S.; Turatto, M.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Guinan, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    Our goal is to determine the rotational and magnetic-related activity properties of stars at different stages of evolution. We have focussed our attention on 6 young loose stellar associations within 100 pc and ages in the range 8-70 Myr: TW Hydrae (~8 Myr), beta Pictoris (~10 Myr), Tucana/Horologium, Columba, Carina (~30 Myr), and AB Doradus (~70 Myr). Additional data on alpha Persei and the Pleiades from the literature is also considered. Rotational periods of stars showing rotational modul...

  17. Differential Rotation in Sun-like Stars from Surface Variability and Asteroseismology

    Nielsen, Martin Bo

    2017-03-01

    The Sun and other stars are known to oscillate. Through the study of small perturbations to the frequencies of these oscillations the rotation of the deep interior can be inferred. However, thus far the internal rotation of other Sun-like stars is unknown. The NASA Kepler mission has observed a multitude of Sun-like stars over a period of four years. This has provided high-quality photometric data that can be used to study the rotation of stars with two different techniques: asteroseismology and surface activity. Asteroseismology provides a means of measuring rotation in the stellar interior, while photometric variability from magnetically active regions are sensitive to rotation at the stellar surface. The combination of these two methods can be used to constrain the radial differential rotation in Sun-like stars. First, we developed an automated method for measuring the rotation of stars using surface variability. This method was initially applied to the entire Kepler catalog, out of which we detected signatures of rotation in 12,000 stars across the main sequence, providing robust estimates of the surface rotation rates and the associated errors. Second, we performed an asteroseismic analysis of six Sun-like stars, where we were able to measure the rotational splitting as a function of frequency in the p-mode envelope. This was done by dividing the oscillation spectrum into individual segments, and fitting a model independently to each segment. We found that the measured splittings were all consistent with a constant value, indicating little differential rotation. Third, we compared the asteroseismic rotation rates of five Sun-like stars to their surface rotation rates. We found that the values were in good agreement, again indicating little differential rotation between the regions where the two methods are most sensitive. Finally, we discuss how the surface rotation rates may be used as a prior on the seismic envelope rotation rate in a double-zone model

  18. Evolution of magnetized, differentially rotating neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity

    Duez, Matthew D.; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Stephens, Branson C.; Shibata, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of magnetic fields on the evolution of differentially rotating neutron stars, which can be formed in stellar core collapse or binary neutron star coalescence. Magnetic braking and the magnetorotational instability (MRI) both act on differentially rotating stars to redistribute angular momentum. Simulations of these stars are carried out in axisymmetry using our recently developed codes which integrate the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-MHD equations. We consider stars with two different equations of state (EOS), a gamma-law EOS with Γ=2, and a more realistic hybrid EOS, and we evolve them adiabatically. Our simulations show that the fate of the star depends on its mass and spin. For initial data, we consider three categories of differentially rotating, equilibrium configurations, which we label normal, hypermassive and ultraspinning. Normal configurations have rest masses below the maximum achievable with uniform rotation, and angular momentum below the maximum for uniform rotation at the same rest mass. Hypermassive stars have rest masses exceeding the mass limit for uniform rotation. Ultraspinning stars are not hypermassive, but have angular momentum exceeding the maximum for uniform rotation at the same rest mass. We show that a normal star will evolve to a uniformly rotating equilibrium configuration. An ultraspinning star evolves to an equilibrium state consisting of a nearly uniformly rotating central core, surrounded by a differentially rotating torus with constant angular velocity along magnetic field lines, so that differential rotation ceases to wind the magnetic field. In addition, the final state is stable against the MRI, although it has differential rotation. For a hypermassive neutron star, the MHD-driven angular momentum transport leads to catastrophic collapse of the core. The resulting rotating black hole is surrounded by a hot, massive, magnetized torus undergoing quasistationary accretion, and a magnetic field collimated along

  19. TWO-DIMENSIONAL STELLAR EVOLUTION CODE INCLUDING ARBITRARY MAGNETIC FIELDS. II. PRECISION IMPROVEMENT AND INCLUSION OF TURBULENCE AND ROTATION

    Li Linghuai; Sofia, Sabatino; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Ventura, Paolo; Penza, Valentina; Bi Shaolan

    2009-01-01

    In the second paper of this series we pursue two objectives. First, in order to make the code more sensitive to small effects, we remove many approximations made in Paper I. Second, we include turbulence and rotation in the two-dimensional framework. The stellar equilibrium is described by means of a set of five differential equations, with the introduction of a new dependent variable, namely the perturbation to the radial gravity, that is found when the nonradial effects are considered in the solution of the Poisson equation. Following the scheme of the first paper, we write the equations in such a way that the two-dimensional effects can be easily disentangled. The key concept introduced in this series is the equipotential surface. We use the underlying cause-effect relation to develop a recurrence relation to calculate the equipotential surface functions for uniform rotation, differential rotation, rotation-like toroidal magnetic fields, and turbulence. We also develop a more precise code to numerically solve the two-dimensional stellar structure and evolution equations based on the equipotential surface calculations. We have shown that with this formulation we can achieve the precision required by observations by appropriately selecting the convergence criterion. Several examples are presented to show that the method works well. Since we are interested in modeling the effects of a dynamo-type field on the detailed envelope structure and global properties of the Sun, the code has been optimized for short timescales phenomena (down to 1 yr). The time dependence of the code has so far been tested exclusively to address such problems.

  20. Antisolar differential rotation with surface lithium enrichment on the single K-giant V1192 Orionis

    Kővári, Zs.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Carroll, T. A.; Oláh, K.; Kriskovics, L.; Kővári, E.; Kovács, O.; Vida, K.; Granzer, T.; Weber, M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Stars with about 1-2 solar masses at the red giant branch (RGB) represent an intriguing period of stellar evolution, I.e. when the convective envelope interacts with the fast-rotating core. During these mixing episodes freshly synthesized lithium can come up to the stellar surface along with high angular momentum material. This high angular momentum may alter the surface rotation pattern. Aims: The single rapidly rotating K-giant V1192 Ori is revisited to determine its surface differential rotation, lithium abundance, and basic stellar properties such as a precise rotation period. The aim is to independently verify the antisolar differential rotation of the star and possibly find a connection to the surface lithium abundance. Methods: We applied time-series Doppler imaging to a new multi-epoch data set. Altogether we reconstructed 11 Doppler images from spectroscopic data collected with the STELLA robotic telescope between 2007-2016. We used our inversion code iMap to reconstruct all stellar surface maps. We extracted the differential rotation from these images by tracing systematic spot migration as a function of stellar latitude from consecutive image cross-correlations. Results: The position of V1192 Ori in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram suggests that the star is in the helium core-burning phase just leaving the RGB bump. We measure A(Li)NLTE = 1.27, I.e. a value close to the anticipated transition value of 1.5 from Li-normal to Li-rich giants. Doppler images reveal extended dark areas arranged quasi-evenly along an equatorial belt. No cool polar spot is found during the investigated epoch. Spot displacements clearly suggest antisolar surface differential rotation with α = - 0.11 ± 0.02 shear coefficient. Conclusions: The surface Li enrichment and the peculiar surface rotation pattern may indicate a common origin. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic observatory in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC.

  1. Differential rotation and the solar dynamo

    Stix, M.

    1976-01-01

    A number of numerical models for the generation of mean magnetic fields is examined and the fields are compared with the mean field of the Sun. In particular, αω-dynamos, which are based on differential rotation and cyclonic turbulence, are studied in the case of cylindrical surfaces of isorotation. Such dynamos have an oscillatory antisymmetric field as the most easily excited mode. Only models with an angular velocity which increases with increasing depth appear to be compatible with observations. A search for oscillatory ω x j-dynamos, where the α-effect is replaced by a different mean electric field perpendicular to the rotation vector ω and the mean current density j is also made. Oscillatory modes do exist for models with radial shear. Their migration is equatorwards for inwards increasing angular velocity. (orig./BJ) [de

  2. THE H α EMISSION OF NEARBY M DWARFS AND ITS RELATION TO STELLAR ROTATION

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Mink, Jessica [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The high-energy emission from low-mass stars is mediated by the magnetic dynamo. Although the mechanisms by which fully convective stars generate large-scale magnetic fields are not well understood, it is clear that, as for solar-type stars, stellar rotation plays a pivotal role. We present 270 new optical spectra of low-mass stars in the Solar Neighborhood. Combining our observations with those from the literature, our sample comprises 2202 measurements or non-detections of H α emission in nearby M dwarfs. This includes 466 with photometric rotation periods. Stars with masses between 0.1 and 0.6 M {sub ⊙} are well-represented in our sample, with fast and slow rotators of all masses. We observe a threshold in the mass–period plane that separates active and inactive M dwarfs. The threshold coincides with the fast-period edge of the slowly rotating population, at approximately the rotation period at which an era of rapid rotational evolution appears to cease. The well-defined active/inactive boundary indicates that H α activity is a useful diagnostic for stellar rotation period, e.g., for target selection for exoplanet surveys, and we present a mass-period relation for inactive M dwarfs. We also find a significant, moderate correlation between L{sub Hα} / L{sub bol} and variability amplitude: more active stars display higher levels of photometric variability. Consistent with previous work, our data show that rapid rotators maintain a saturated value of L{sub Hα} / L {sub bol}. Our data also show a clear power-law decay in L{sub Hα} / L{sub bol} with Rossby number for slow rotators, with an index of −1.7 ± 0.1.

  3. THE H α EMISSION OF NEARBY M DWARFS AND ITS RELATION TO STELLAR ROTATION

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Mink, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The high-energy emission from low-mass stars is mediated by the magnetic dynamo. Although the mechanisms by which fully convective stars generate large-scale magnetic fields are not well understood, it is clear that, as for solar-type stars, stellar rotation plays a pivotal role. We present 270 new optical spectra of low-mass stars in the Solar Neighborhood. Combining our observations with those from the literature, our sample comprises 2202 measurements or non-detections of H α emission in nearby M dwarfs. This includes 466 with photometric rotation periods. Stars with masses between 0.1 and 0.6 M ⊙ are well-represented in our sample, with fast and slow rotators of all masses. We observe a threshold in the mass–period plane that separates active and inactive M dwarfs. The threshold coincides with the fast-period edge of the slowly rotating population, at approximately the rotation period at which an era of rapid rotational evolution appears to cease. The well-defined active/inactive boundary indicates that H α activity is a useful diagnostic for stellar rotation period, e.g., for target selection for exoplanet surveys, and we present a mass-period relation for inactive M dwarfs. We also find a significant, moderate correlation between L Hα / L bol and variability amplitude: more active stars display higher levels of photometric variability. Consistent with previous work, our data show that rapid rotators maintain a saturated value of L Hα / L bol . Our data also show a clear power-law decay in L Hα / L bol with Rossby number for slow rotators, with an index of −1.7 ± 0.1.

  4. The Hα Emission of Nearby M Dwarfs and its Relation to Stellar Rotation

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Mink, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The high-energy emission from low-mass stars is mediated by the magnetic dynamo. Although the mechanisms by which fully convective stars generate large-scale magnetic fields are not well understood, it is clear that, as for solar-type stars, stellar rotation plays a pivotal role. We present 270 new optical spectra of low-mass stars in the Solar Neighborhood. Combining our observations with those from the literature, our sample comprises 2202 measurements or non-detections of Hα emission in nearby M dwarfs. This includes 466 with photometric rotation periods. Stars with masses between 0.1 and 0.6 M⊙ are well-represented in our sample, with fast and slow rotators of all masses. We observe a threshold in the mass-period plane that separates active and inactive M dwarfs. The threshold coincides with the fast-period edge of the slowly rotating population, at approximately the rotation period at which an era of rapid rotational evolution appears to cease. The well-defined active/inactive boundary indicates that Hα activity is a useful diagnostic for stellar rotation period, e.g., for target selection for exoplanet surveys, and we present a mass-period relation for inactive M dwarfs. We also find a significant, moderate correlation between LHα/Lbol and variability amplitude: more active stars display higher levels of photometric variability. Consistent with previous work, our data show that rapid rotators maintain a saturated value of LHα/Lbol. Our data also show a clear power-law decay in LHα/Lbol with Rossby number for slow rotators, with an index of -1.7 ± 0.1.

  5. On the stability and maximum mass of differentially rotating relativistic stars

    Weih, Lukas R.; Most, Elias R.; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2018-01-01

    The stability properties of rotating relativistic stars against prompt gravitational collapse to a black hole are rather well understood for uniformly rotating models. This is not the case for differentially rotating neutron stars, which are expected to be produced in catastrophic events such as the merger of binary system of neutron stars or the collapse of a massive stellar core. We consider sequences of differentially rotating equilibrium models using the j-constant law and by combining them with their dynamical evolution, we show that a sufficient stability criterion for differentially rotating neutron stars exists similar to the one of their uniformly rotating counterparts. Namely: along a sequence of constant angular momentum, a dynamical instability sets in for central rest-mass densities slightly below the one of the equilibrium solution at the turning point. In addition, following Breu & Rezzolla, we show that 'quasi-universal' relations can be found when calculating the turning-point mass. In turn, this allows us to compute the maximum mass allowed by differential rotation, Mmax,dr, in terms of the maximum mass of the non-rotating configuration, M_{_TOV}, finding that M_{max, dr} ˜eq (1.54 ± 0.05) M_{_TOV} for all the equations of state we have considered.

  6. Effect of rotation on fingering convection in stellar and planetary interiors

    Sengupta, Sutirtha; Garaud, Pascale

    2018-01-01

    We study the effects of global rotation on the growth and saturation of the fingering (double-diffusive) instability at low Prandtl numbers and estimate the compositional transport rates as a function of the relevant non-dimensional parameters - the Taylor number, Ta^* (defined in terms of the rotation rate, Ω, thermal diffusivity κ_T and associated finger length scale d) and density ratio through direct numerical simulations. Within our explored range of parameters, we find rotation to have very little effect on vertical transport apart for an exceptional case where a cyclonic large scale vortex (LSV) is observed at low density ratio and fairly high Taylor number. The LSV leads to significant enhancement in the fingering transport rates by concentrating high composition fluid at its core which moves downward. The formation of such LSVs is of particular interest for solving the missing mixing problem in the astrophysical context of RGB stars though the parameter regime in which we observe the emergence of this LSV seems to be quite far from the stellar scenario. However, understanding the basic mechanism driving such large scale structures as observed frequently in polar regions of planets (e.g. those seen by Juno near the poles of Jupiter) is important in general for studies of rotating turbulence and its applications to stellar and planetary interior studies, and will be investigated in further detail in a forthcoming work.

  7. RACE-OC project: Rotation and variability of young stellar associations within 100 pc

    Messina, S.; Desidera, S.; Turatto, M.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Guinan, E. F.

    2010-09-01

    Context. Examining the angular momentum of stars and its interplay with their magnetic fields represent a promising way to probe the stellar internal structure and evolution of low-mass stars. Aims: We attempt to determine the rotational and magnetic-related activity properties of stars at different stages of evolution.We focused our attention primarily on members of clusters and young stellar associations of known ages. In this study, our targets are 6 young loose stellar associations within 100 pc and with ages in the range 8-70 Myr: TW Hydrae (~8 Myr), β Pictoris (~10 Myr), Tucana/Horologium, Columba, Carina (~30 Myr), and AB Doradus (~70 Myr). Additional rotational data for α Persei and the Pleiades from the literature are also considered. Methods: Rotational periods of stars exhibiting rotational modulation due to photospheric magnetic activity (i.e., starspots) were determined by applying the Lomb-Scargle periodogram technique to photometric time-series data obtained by the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). The magnetic activity level was derived from the amplitude of the V lightcurves. The statistical significance of the rotational evolution at different ages was inferred by applying a two-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to subsequent age-bins. Results: We detected the rotational modulation and measured the rotation periods of 93 stars for the first time, and confirmed the periods of 41 stars already known from the literature. For an additional 10 stars, we revised the period determinations by other authors. The sample was augmented with periods of 21 additional stars retrieved from the literature. In this way, for the first time we were able to determine the largest set of rotation periods at ages of ~8, ~10 and ~30 Myr, as well as increase by 150% the number of known periodic members of AB Dor. Conclusions: The analysis of the rotation periods in young stellar associations, supplemented by Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and NGC 2264 data from the literature

  8. On the theory of the electrical field and the plasma rotation in the stellarator

    Coronado-Gallardo, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the context of neoclassical transport theory, the macroscopic torque equations for several liquids in toroidal plasmas are used with general geometry. In order to examine plasma rotation and the electrical field in equilibrium and the effect of sources of particles and pulses, the continuity and pulse balance equations are dealt with. In order to use them on the WVII-A stellarator in the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, existing formulae are expanded and the viscosity tensor is calculated in the CGL form in the plateau range. General expressions for plasma speed, electrical field, plasma diffusion and current are obtained, in which the effect of the sources occurs explicitly. The theory is applied to the WVII-A stellarator, in which neutral particle injection represents one pulse source. (orig.) [de

  9. Universal relations for differentially rotating relativistic stars at the threshold to collapse

    Bozzola, Gabriele; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Bauswein, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    A binary neutron star merger produces a rapidly and differentially rotating compact remnant whose lifespan heavily affects the electromagnetic and gravitational emissions. Its stability depends on both the equation of state (EOS) and the rotation law and it is usually investigated through numerical simulations. Nevertheless, by means of a sufficient criterion for secular instability, equilibrium sequences can be used as a computational inexpensive way to estimate the onset of dynamical instability, which, in general, is close to the secular one. This method works well for uniform rotation and relies on the location of turning points: stellar models that are stationary points in a sequence of equilibrium solutions with constant rest mass or angular momentum. Here, we investigate differentially rotating models (using a large number of EOSs and different rotation laws) and find that several universal relations between properly scaled gravitational mass, rest mass and angular momentum of the turning-point models that are valid for uniform rotation are insensitive to the degree of differential rotation, to high accuracy.

  10. First Toroidal Rotation Measurements of Protons and Impurities in the TJ-II Stellarator

    Rapisarda, D.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2006-01-01

    First absolute toroidal rotation measurements in the TJ-II stellarator, by using passive emission spectroscopy, are presented. The wavelength calibration is performed by using a spectral system which combines the spectra coming from the plasma and from a lamp in real time. Measurements have been made both for protons and some impurity ions (C4+, He+), in discharges created by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and in discharges with neutral beam injection heating. In addition, a description of the systems as well as the calibration procedures an data analysis is addressed. (Author) 10 refs

  11. Some aspects of cool main sequence star ages derived from stellar rotation (gyrochronology)

    Barnes, S. A.; Spada, F.; Weingrill, J.

    2016-09-01

    Rotation periods for cool stars can be measured with good precision by monitoring starspot light modulation. Observations have shown that the rotation periods of dwarf stars of roughly solar metallicity have such systematic dependencies on stellar age and mass that they can be used to derive reliable ages, a procedure called gyrochronology. We review the method and show illustrative cases, including recent ground- and space-based data. The age uncertainties approach 10 % in the best cases, making them a valuable complement to, and constraint on, asteroseismic or other ages. Edited, updated, and refereed version of a presentation at the WE-Heraeus-Seminar in Bad Honnef, Germany: Reconstructing the Milky Way's History: Spectroscopic Surveys, Asteroseismology and Chemodynamical Models

  12. Gravitational waves from axisymmetric rotating stellar core collapse to a neutron star in full general relativity

    Shibata, Masaru; Sekiguchi, Yu-ichirou

    2004-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical simulations of rotating stellar core collapse to a neutron star are performed in the framework of full general relativity. The so-called Cartoon method, in which the Einstein field equations are solved in Cartesian coordinates and the axisymmetric condition is imposed around the y=0 plane, is adopted. The hydrodynamic equations are solved in cylindrical coordinates (on the y=0 plane in Cartesian coordinates) using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme with maximum grid size (2500,2500). A parametric equation of state is adopted to model collapsing stellar cores and neutron stars following Dimmelmeier, Font, and Mueller. It is found that the evolution of the central density during the collapse, bounce, and formation of protoneutron stars agrees well with that in the work of Dimmelmeier, Font, and Mueller in which an approximate general relativistic formulation is adopted. This indicates that such an approximation is appropriate for following axisymmetric stellar core collapses and the subsequent formation of protoneutron stars. Gravitational waves are computed using a quadrupole formula. It is found that the waveforms are qualitatively in good agreement with those by Dimmelmeier, Font, and Mueller. However, quantitatively, two waveforms do not agree well. The possible reasons for the disagreement are discussed

  13. 22 Year Periodicity in the Solar Differential Rotation

    tribpo

    1995). Recently, we determined periodicities in the solar differential rotation through the power spectrum analysis of the differential rotation parameters derived from the data on sunspot groups compiled from Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (GPR) during 1879 1976 and from Mt. Wilson velocity data during 1969 1994 ...

  14. Dynamics of local isolated magnetic flux tubes in a fast-rotating stellar atmosphere

    Chou, W.; Tajima, C.T.; Shibata, K.

    1998-01-01

    Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in the fast rotating stellar atmosphere is studied. We focus on the effects and signatures of the instability of the flux tube emergence influenced by the Coriolis force. We present the result from a linear stability analysis and discuss its possible signatures in the course of the evolution of G-type and M-type stars. We present a three dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulation of local isolated magnetic flux tubes under a magnetic buoyancy instability in co-rotating Cartesian coordinates. We find that the combination of the buoyancy instability and the Coriolis effect gives rise to a mechanism, to twist the emerging magnetic flux tube into a helical structure. The tilt angle, east-west asymmetry and magnetic helicity of the Twisted flux tubes in the simulations are studied in detail. The linear and nonlinear analyses provide hints as to what kind of pattern of large spots in young M-type main-sequence stars might be observed. We find that young and old G-type stars may have different distributions of spots while M-type stars may always have low latitudes spots. The size of stellar spots may decrease when a star becomes older, due to the decreasing of magnetic field. A qualitative comparison with solar observations is also presented

  15. Anelastic Models of Fully-Convective Stars: Differential Rotation, Meridional Circulation and Residual Entropy

    Sainsbury-Martinez, Felix; Browning, Matthew; Miesch, Mark; Featherstone, Nicholas A.

    2018-01-01

    Low-Mass stars are typically fully convective, and as such their dynamics may differ significantly from sun-like stars. Here we present a series of 3D anelastic HD and MHD simulations of fully convective stars, designed to investigate how the meridional circulation, the differential rotation, and residual entropy are affected by both varying stellar parameters, such as the luminosity or the rotation rate, and by the presence of a magnetic field. We also investigate, more specifically, a theoretical model in which isorotation contours and residual entropy (σ‧ = σ ‑ σ(r)) are intrinsically linked via the thermal wind equation (as proposed in the Solar context by Balbus in 2009). We have selected our simulation parameters in such as way as to span the transition between Solar-like differential rotation (fast equator + slow poles) and ‘anti-Solar’ differential rotation (slow equator + fast poles), as characterised by the convective Rossby number and △Ω. We illustrate the transition from single-celled to multi-celled MC profiles, and from positive to negative latitudinal entropy gradients. We show that an extrapolation involving both TWB and the σ‧/Ω link provides a reasonable estimate for the interior profile of our fully convective stars. Finally, we also present a selection of MHD simulations which exhibit an almost unsuppressed differential rotation profile, with energy balances remaining dominated by kinetic components.

  16. INTERNAL-CYCLE VARIATION OF SOLAR DIFFERENTIAL ROTATION

    Li, K. J.; Xie, J. L.; Shi, X. J.

    2013-01-01

    The latitudinal distributions of the yearly mean rotation rates measured by Suzuki in 1998 and 2012 and Pulkkinen and Tuominen in 1998 are utilized to investigate internal-cycle variation of solar differential rotation. The rotation rate at the solar equator seems to have decreased since cycle 10 onward. The coefficient B of solar differential rotation, which represents the latitudinal gradient of rotation, is found to be smaller in the several years after the minimum of a solar cycle than in the several years after the maximum time of the cycle, and it peaks several years after the maximum time of the solar cycle. The internal-cycle variation of the solar rotation rates looks similar in profile to that of the coefficient B. A new explanation is proposed to address such a solar-cycle-related variation of the solar rotation rates. Weak magnetic fields may more effectively reflect differentiation at low latitudes with high rotation rates than at high latitudes with low rotation rates, and strong magnetic fields may more effectively repress differentiation at relatively low latitudes than at high latitudes. The internal-cycle variation is inferred as the result of both the latitudinal migration of the surface torsional pattern and the repression of strong magnetic activity in differentiation.

  17. Magneto-rotational instability in differentially rotating liquid metals

    Velikhov, E.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Lakhin, V.P.; Serebrennikov, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    We study the stability of Couette flow between two cylinders in the presence of axial magnetic field in local WKB approximation. We find the analytical expression of the critical angular velocity minimized over the wave number and the imposed magnetic field as a function of the measure of deviation of the rotation law from the Rayleigh line. The result found is in a good agreement with the previously known numerical results based on the global analysis. We perform a minimization of the critical Reynolds number over the wave number at fixed magnetic field both analytically and numerically. We show that a compromise between resistive suppression of magneto-rotational instability at weak magnetic field and the increase of the critical Reynolds number with the increase of magnetic field is possible. It takes place at moderate values of magnetic field of order 3x10 2 gauss giving the critical Reynolds number of order 4x10 4

  18. EVIDENCE FOR CLUSTER TO CLUSTER VARIATIONS IN LOW-MASS STELLAR ROTATIONAL EVOLUTION

    Coker, Carl T.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Terndrup, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    The concordance model for angular momentum evolution postulates that star-forming regions and clusters are an evolutionary sequence that can be modeled with assumptions about protostar–disk coupling, angular momentum loss from magnetized winds that saturates in a mass-dependent fashion at high rotation rates, and core-envelope decoupling for solar analogs. We test this approach by combining established data with the large h Per data set from the MONITOR project and new low-mass Pleiades data. We confirm prior results that young low-mass stars can be used to test star–disk coupling and angular momentum loss independent of the treatment of internal angular momentum transport. For slow rotators, we confirm the need for star–disk interactions to evolve the ONC to older systems, using h Per (age 13 Myr) as our natural post-disk case. There is no evidence for extremely long-lived disks as an alternative to core-envelope decoupling. However, our wind models cannot evolve rapid rotators from h Per to older systems consistently, and we find that this result is robust with respect to the choice of angular momentum loss prescription. We outline two possible solutions: either there is cosmic variance in the distribution of stellar rotation rates in different clusters or there are substantially enhanced torques in low-mass rapid rotators. We favor the former explanation and discuss observational tests that could be used to distinguish them. If the distribution of initial conditions depends on environment, models that test parameters by assuming a universal underlying distribution of initial conditions will need to be re-evaluated.

  19. EVIDENCE FOR CLUSTER TO CLUSTER VARIATIONS IN LOW-MASS STELLAR ROTATIONAL EVOLUTION

    Coker, Carl T.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Terndrup, Donald M., E-mail: coker@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: pinsono@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: terndrup@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    The concordance model for angular momentum evolution postulates that star-forming regions and clusters are an evolutionary sequence that can be modeled with assumptions about protostar–disk coupling, angular momentum loss from magnetized winds that saturates in a mass-dependent fashion at high rotation rates, and core-envelope decoupling for solar analogs. We test this approach by combining established data with the large h Per data set from the MONITOR project and new low-mass Pleiades data. We confirm prior results that young low-mass stars can be used to test star–disk coupling and angular momentum loss independent of the treatment of internal angular momentum transport. For slow rotators, we confirm the need for star–disk interactions to evolve the ONC to older systems, using h Per (age 13 Myr) as our natural post-disk case. There is no evidence for extremely long-lived disks as an alternative to core-envelope decoupling. However, our wind models cannot evolve rapid rotators from h Per to older systems consistently, and we find that this result is robust with respect to the choice of angular momentum loss prescription. We outline two possible solutions: either there is cosmic variance in the distribution of stellar rotation rates in different clusters or there are substantially enhanced torques in low-mass rapid rotators. We favor the former explanation and discuss observational tests that could be used to distinguish them. If the distribution of initial conditions depends on environment, models that test parameters by assuming a universal underlying distribution of initial conditions will need to be re-evaluated.

  20. Differential Rotation via Tracking of Coronal Bright Points.

    McAteer, James; Boucheron, Laura E.; Osorno, Marcy

    2016-05-01

    The accurate computation of solar differential rotation is important both as a constraint for, and evidence towards, support of models of the solar dynamo. As such, the use of Xray and Extreme Ultraviolet bright points to elucidate differential rotation has been studied in recent years. In this work, we propose the automated detection and tracking of coronal bright points (CBPs) in a large set of SDO data for re-evaluation of solar differential rotation and comparison to other results. The big data aspects, and high cadence, of SDO data mitigate a few issues common to detection and tracking of objects in image sequences and allow us to focus on the use of CBPs to determine differential rotation. The high cadence of the data allows to disambiguate individual CBPs between subsequent images by allowing for significant spatial overlap, i.e., by the fact that the CBPs will rotate a short distance relative to their size. The significant spatial overlap minimizes the effects of incorrectly detected CBPs by reducing the occurrence of outlier values of differential rotation. The big data aspects of the data allows to be more conservative in our detection of CBPs (i.e., to err on the side of missing CBPs rather than detecting extraneous CBPs) while still maintaining statistically larger populations over which to study characteristics. The ability to compute solar differential rotation through the automated detection and tracking of a large population of CBPs will allow for further analyses such as the N-S asymmetry of differential rotation, variation of differential rotation over the solar cycle, and a detailed study of the magnetic flux underlying the CBPs.

  1. MODULES FOR EXPERIMENTS IN STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS (MESA): PLANETS, OSCILLATIONS, ROTATION, AND MASSIVE STARS

    Paxton, Bill; Cantiello, Matteo; Bildsten, Lars; Arras, Phil; Brown, Edward F.; Dotter, Aaron; Mankovich, Christopher; Montgomery, M. H.; Stello, Dennis; Timmes, F. X.; Townsend, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We substantially update the capabilities of the open source software package Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), and its one-dimensional stellar evolution module, MESA star. Improvements in MESA star's ability to model the evolution of giant planets now extends its applicability down to masses as low as one-tenth that of Jupiter. The dramatic improvement in asteroseismology enabled by the space-based Kepler and CoRoT missions motivates our full coupling of the ADIPLS adiabatic pulsation code with MESA star. This also motivates a numerical recasting of the Ledoux criterion that is more easily implemented when many nuclei are present at non-negligible abundances. This impacts the way in which MESA star calculates semi-convective and thermohaline mixing. We exhibit the evolution of 3-8 M ☉ stars through the end of core He burning, the onset of He thermal pulses, and arrival on the white dwarf cooling sequence. We implement diffusion of angular momentum and chemical abundances that enable calculations of rotating-star models, which we compare thoroughly with earlier work. We introduce a new treatment of radiation-dominated envelopes that allows the uninterrupted evolution of massive stars to core collapse. This enables the generation of new sets of supernovae, long gamma-ray burst, and pair-instability progenitor models. We substantially modify the way in which MESA star solves the fully coupled stellar structure and composition equations, and we show how this has improved the scaling of MESA's calculational speed on multi-core processors. Updates to the modules for equation of state, opacity, nuclear reaction rates, and atmospheric boundary conditions are also provided. We describe the MESA Software Development Kit that packages all the required components needed to form a unified, maintained, and well-validated build environment for MESA. We also highlight a few tools developed by the community for rapid visualization of MESA star results

  2. MODULES FOR EXPERIMENTS IN STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS (MESA): PLANETS, OSCILLATIONS, ROTATION, AND MASSIVE STARS

    Paxton, Bill; Cantiello, Matteo; Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Arras, Phil [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Brown, Edward F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Dotter, Aaron [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Mankovich, Christopher [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Montgomery, M. H. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Stello, Dennis [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Timmes, F. X. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Townsend, Richard, E-mail: matteo@kitp.ucsb.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    We substantially update the capabilities of the open source software package Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), and its one-dimensional stellar evolution module, MESA star. Improvements in MESA star's ability to model the evolution of giant planets now extends its applicability down to masses as low as one-tenth that of Jupiter. The dramatic improvement in asteroseismology enabled by the space-based Kepler and CoRoT missions motivates our full coupling of the ADIPLS adiabatic pulsation code with MESA star. This also motivates a numerical recasting of the Ledoux criterion that is more easily implemented when many nuclei are present at non-negligible abundances. This impacts the way in which MESA star calculates semi-convective and thermohaline mixing. We exhibit the evolution of 3-8 M{sub Sun} stars through the end of core He burning, the onset of He thermal pulses, and arrival on the white dwarf cooling sequence. We implement diffusion of angular momentum and chemical abundances that enable calculations of rotating-star models, which we compare thoroughly with earlier work. We introduce a new treatment of radiation-dominated envelopes that allows the uninterrupted evolution of massive stars to core collapse. This enables the generation of new sets of supernovae, long gamma-ray burst, and pair-instability progenitor models. We substantially modify the way in which MESA star solves the fully coupled stellar structure and composition equations, and we show how this has improved the scaling of MESA's calculational speed on multi-core processors. Updates to the modules for equation of state, opacity, nuclear reaction rates, and atmospheric boundary conditions are also provided. We describe the MESA Software Development Kit that packages all the required components needed to form a unified, maintained, and well-validated build environment for MESA. We also highlight a few tools developed by the community for rapid visualization of MESA star

  3. Long-term evolution and gravitational wave radiation of neutron stars with differential rotation induced by r-modes

    Yu Yunwei; Cao Xiaofeng; Zheng Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    In a second-order r-mode theory, Sa and Tome found that the r-mode oscillation in neutron stars (NSs) could induce stellar differential rotation, which naturally leads to a saturated state of the oscillation. Based on a consideration of the coupling of the r-modes and the stellar spin and thermal evolution, we carefully investigate the influences of the differential rotation on the long-term evolution of isolated NSs and NSs in low-mass X-ray binaries, where the viscous damping of the r-modes and its resultant effects are taken into account. The numerical results show that, for both kinds of NSs, the differential rotation can significantly prolong the duration of the r-modes. As a result, the stars can keep nearly a constant temperature and constant angular velocity for over a thousand years. Moreover, the persistent radiation of a quasi-monochromatic gravitational wave would also be predicted due to the long-term steady r-mode oscillation and stellar rotation. This increases the detectability of gravitational waves from both young isolated and old accreting NSs. (research papers)

  4. The BANANA Project. V. Misaligned and Precessing Stellar Rotation Axes in CV Velorum

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Triaud, Amaury; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter

    2014-04-01

    As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of βp = -52° ± 6° and βs = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i sstarf) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i sstarf. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary. Based on observations made with ESOs 2.2 m Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1008 and under MPIA guaranteed time.

  5. Magnetic Inflation and Stellar Mass. II. On the Radii of Single, Rapidly Rotating, Fully Convective M-Dwarf Stars

    Kesseli, Aurora Y.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Mann, Andrew W.; Mace, Greg

    2018-06-01

    Main-sequence, fully convective M dwarfs in eclipsing binaries are observed to be larger than stellar evolutionary models predict by as much as 10%–15%. A proposed explanation for this discrepancy involves effects from strong magnetic fields, induced by rapid rotation via the dynamo process. Although, a handful of single, slowly rotating M dwarfs with radius measurements from interferometry also appear to be larger than models predict, suggesting that rotation or binarity specifically may not be the sole cause of the discrepancy. We test whether single, rapidly rotating, fully convective stars are also larger than expected by measuring their R\\sin i distribution. We combine photometric rotation periods from the literature with rotational broadening (v\\sin i) measurements reported in this work for a sample of 88 rapidly rotating M dwarf stars. Using a Bayesian framework, we find that stellar evolutionary models underestimate the radii by 10 % {--}15{ % }-2.5+3, but that at higher masses (0.18 theory is 13%–18%, and we argue that the discrepancy is unlikely to be due to effects from age. Furthermore, we find no statistically significant radius discrepancy between our sample and the handful of M dwarfs with interferometric radii. We conclude that neither rotation nor binarity are responsible for the inflated radii of fully convective M dwarfs, and that all fully convective M dwarfs are larger than models predict.

  6. Evolution of rotating stellar clusters at the stage of inelastic collisions

    Romanova, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of a gas-stellar disk in a dense stellar cluster of small ellipticity (epsilon or approximately 0.2-0.3. Possible existence of a thin stellar disk in a dense stellar cluster is analysed. With epsilon in the above range, collisions between cluster and disk stars are shown to have no effect on the evolution of the disk up to the instability time, provided that the ratio of disk stellar mass to the cluster stellar mass > or approximately 0.04

  7. Differential rotation of stars with multiple transiting planets

    Netto, Yuri; Valio, Adriana

    2017-10-01

    If a star hosts a planet in an orbit such that it eclipses the star periodically, can be estimated the rotation profile of this star. If planets in multiplanetary system occult different stellar areas, spots in more than one latitude of the stellar disc can be detected. The monitored study of theses starspots in different latitudes allow us to infer the rotation profile of the star. We use the model described in Silva (2003) to characterize the starspots of Kepler-210, an active star with two planets. Kepler-210 is a late K star with an estimated age of 350 +/- 50 Myrs, average rotation period of 12.33 days, mass of 0.63 M⊙ and radius of 0.69 R⊙. The planets that eclipses this star have radii of 0.0498 R s and 0.0635 R s with orbital periods of 2.4532 +/- 0.0007 days and 7.9725 +/- 0.0014 days, respectively, where R s is the star radius.

  8. Low edge safety factor operation and passive disruption avoidance in current carrying plasmas by the addition of stellarator rotational transform

    Pandya, M. D.; ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Massidda, S.; Maurer, D. A.; Roberds, N. A.; Traverso, P. J.

    2015-11-01

    Low edge safety factor operation at a value less than two ( q (a )=1 /ι̷tot(a )routine on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid device with the addition of sufficient external rotational transform. Presently, the operational space of this current carrying stellarator extends down to q (a )=1.2 without significant n = 1 kink mode activity after the initial plasma current rise phase of the discharge. The disruption dynamics of these low edge safety factor plasmas depend upon the fraction of helical field rotational transform from external stellarator coils to that generated by the plasma current. We observe that with approximately 10% of the total rotational transform supplied by the stellarator coils, low edge q disruptions are passively suppressed and avoided even though q(a) disrupt, the instability precursors measured and implicated as the cause are internal tearing modes with poloidal, m, and toroidal, n, helical mode numbers of m /n =3 /2 and 4/3 observed on external magnetic sensors and m /n =1 /1 activity observed on core soft x-ray emissivity measurements. Even though the edge safety factor passes through and becomes much less than q(a) disruption phenomenology observed.

  9. Extended Main-sequence Turn-offs in Intermediate-age Star Clusters: Stellar Rotation Diminishes, but Does Not Eliminate, Age Spreads

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Correnti, Matteo [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Girardi, Léo, E-mail: goudfroo@stsci.edu [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2017-09-01

    Extended main-sequence turn-off (eMSTO) regions are a common feature in color–magnitude diagrams of young- and intermediate-age star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds. The nature of eMSTOs remains debated in the literature. The currently most popular scenarios are extended star formation activity and ranges of stellar rotation rates. Here we study details of differences in main-sequence turn-off (MSTO) morphology expected from spreads in age versus spreads in rotation rates, using Monte Carlo simulations with the Geneva syclist isochrone models that include the effects of stellar rotation. We confirm a recent finding of Niederhofer et al. that a distribution of stellar rotation velocities yields an MSTO extent that is proportional to the cluster age, as observed. However, we find that stellar rotation yields MSTO crosscut widths that are generally smaller than observed ones at a given age. We compare the simulations with high-quality Hubble Space Telescope data of NGC 1987 and NGC 2249, which are the two only relatively massive star clusters with an age of ∼1 Gyr for which such data is available. We find that the distribution of stars across the eMSTOs of these clusters cannot be explained solely by a distribution of stellar rotation velocities, unless the orientations of rapidly rotating stars are heavily biased toward an equator-on configuration. Under the assumption of random viewing angles, stellar rotation can account for ∼60% and ∼40% of the observed FWHM widths of the eMSTOs of NGC 1987 and NGC 2249, respectively. In contrast, a combination of distributions of stellar rotation velocities and stellar ages fits the observed eMSTO morphologies very well.

  10. A complex-plane strategy for computing rotating polytropic models - Numerical results for strong and rapid differential rotation

    Geroyannis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical method, called complex-plane strategy, is implemented in the computation of polytropic models distorted by strong and rapid differential rotation. The differential rotation model results from a direct generalization of the classical model, in the framework of the complex-plane strategy; this generalization yields very strong differential rotation. Accordingly, the polytropic models assume extremely distorted interiors, while their boundaries are slightly distorted. For an accurate simulation of differential rotation, a versatile method, called multiple partition technique is developed and implemented. It is shown that the method remains reliable up to rotation states where other elaborate techniques fail to give accurate results. 11 refs

  11. SOLAR CYCLE VARIABILITY AND SURFACE DIFFERENTIAL ROTATION FROM Ca II K-LINE TIME SERIES DATA

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Worden, Simon P. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Keil, Stephen L. [National Solar Observatory, P.O. Box 57, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Analysis of over 36 yr of time series data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program elucidates 5 components of the variation of the 7 measured chromospheric parameters: (a) the solar cycle (period {approx} 11 yr), (b) quasi-periodic variations (periods {approx} 100 days), (c) a broadband stochastic process (wide range of periods), (d) rotational modulation, and (e) random observational errors, independent of (a)-(d). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these parameters. Time-frequency analysis illuminates periodic and quasi-periodic signals, details of frequency modulation due to differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the rather complex harmonic structure (a) and (b) at timescales in the range {approx}0.1-10 yr. These results using only full-disk data suggest that similar analyses will be useful for detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light curves such as those being produced by NASA's Kepler observatory. Component (c) consists of variations over a range of timescales, in the manner of a 1/f random process with a power-law slope index that varies in a systematic way. A time-dependent Wilson-Bappu effect appears to be present in the solar cycle variations (a), but not in the more rapid variations of the stochastic process (c). Component (d) characterizes differential rotation of the active regions. Component (e) is of course not characteristic of solar variability, but the fact that the observational errors are quite small greatly facilitates the analysis of the other components. The data analyzed in this paper can be found at the National Solar Observatory Web site http://nsosp.nso.edu/cak{sub m}on/, or by file transfer protocol at ftp://ftp.nso.edu/idl/cak.parameters.

  12. A LARGE, MASSIVE, ROTATING DISK AROUND AN ISOLATED YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT

    Quanz, Sascha P.; Beuther, Henrik; Steinacker, Juergen; Linz, Hendrik; Krause, Oliver; Henning, Thomas; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Zhang Qizhou

    2010-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations and a radiative transfer model of a newly discovered massive circumstellar disk of gas and dust which is one of the largest disks known today. Seen almost edge-on, the disk is resolved in high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) images and appears as a dark lane of high opacity intersecting a bipolar reflection nebula. Based on molecular line observations, we estimate the distance to the object to be 3.5 kpc. This leads to a size for the dark lane of ∼10,500 AU but due to shadowing effects the true disk size could be smaller. In Spitzer/IRAC 3.6 μm images, the elongated shape of the bipolar reflection nebula is still preserved and the bulk of the flux seems to come from disk regions that can be detected due to the slight inclination of the disk. At longer IRAC wavelengths, the flux is mainly coming from the central regions penetrating directly through the dust lane. Interferometric observations of the dust continuum emission at millimeter wavelengths with the Submillimeter Array confirm this finding as the peak of the unresolved millimeter-emission coincides perfectly with the peak of the Spitzer/IRAC 5.8 μm flux and the center of the dark lane seen in the NIR images. Simultaneously acquired CO data reveal a molecular outflow along the northern part of the reflection nebula which seems to be the outflow cavity. An elongated gaseous disk component is also detected and shows signs of rotation. The emission is perpendicular to the molecular outflow and thus parallel to but even more extended than the dark lane in the NIR images. Based on the dust continuum and the CO observations, we estimate a disk mass of up to a few solar masses depending on the underlying assumptions. Whether the disk-like structure is an actual accretion disk or rather a larger-scale flattened envelope or pseudodisk is difficult to discriminate with the current data set. The existence of HCO + /H 13 CO + emission proves the presence of dense gas in the disk

  13. Coupled tearing modes in plasmas with differential rotation

    Dewar, R.L.; Persson, M.

    1993-08-01

    The global asymptotic matching equations for multiple coupled resistive modes of arbitrary parity in a cylindrical plasma are derived. Three different variational principles are given for the outer region matching data, while the inner-region analysis features a careful treatment of the symmetry-breaking effect of a gradient in the equilibrium current for a zero-β slab model. It is concluded that the usual constant-ψ result remains valid and constrains the matrix matching formalism. The dispersion relation is compared with initial value calculations of a double tearing mode when there are small relative rotation velocities between the rational surfaces. In treating differential rotation within the asymptotic matching formalism, flow is ignored in the outer region and is assumed to affect the inner response solely through a Doppler shift. It is shown that the relative rotation can have a strong stabilizing effect by making all but one rational surface effectively ideal. 40 refs., 6 figs

  14. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA): Giant Planets, Oscillations, Rotation, and Massive Stars

    Paxton, Bill; Cantiello, Matteo; Arras, Phil; Bildsten, Lars; Brown, Edward F.; Dotter, Aaron; Mankovich, Christopher; Montgomery, M. H.; Stello, Dennis; Timmes, F. X.; Townsend, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We substantially update the capabilities of the open source software package Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), and its one-dimensional stellar evolution module, MESA Star. Improvements in MESA Star's ability to model the evolution of giant planets now extends its applicability down to masses as low as one-tenth that of Jupiter. The dramatic improvement in asteroseismology enabled by the space-based Kepler and CoRoT missions motivates our full coupling of the ADIPLS adiab...

  15. Changes in density fluctuations associated with confinement transitions close to a rational edge rotational transform in the W7-AS stellarator

    Zoletnik, S,; Basse, Nils Plesner; Saffman, Mark

    2002-01-01

    At certain values of the edge rotational transform t(a), the confinement quality of plasmas in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator is found to react very sensitively to small modifications of the edge rotational transform t(a). As t(a) can be reproducibly changed, either by external fields o...

  16. Asteroseismology of Red-Giant Stars: Mixed Modes, Differential Rotation, and Eccentric Binaries

    Beck, Paul G.

    2013-12-01

    Astronomers are aware of rotation in stars since Galileo Galilei attributed the movement of sunspots to rotation of the Sun in 1613. In contrast to the Sun, whose surface can be resolved by small telescopes or even the (protected) eye, we detect stars as point sources with no spatial information. Numerous techniques have been developed to derive information about stellar rotation. Unfortunately, most observational data allow only for the surface rotational rate to be inferred. The internal rotational profile, which has a great effect on the stellar structure and evolution, remains hidden below the top layers of the star - the essential is hidden to the eyes. Asteroseismology allows us to "sense" indirectly deep below the stellar surface. Oscillations that propagate through the star provide information about the deep stellar interiors while they also distort the stellar surface in characteristic patterns leading to detectable brightness or velocity variations. Also, certain oscillation modes are sensitive to internal rotation and carry information on how the star is spinning deep inside. Thanks to the unprecedented quality of NASA's space telescope Kepler, numerous detailed observations of stars in various evolutionary stages are available. Such high quality data allow that for many stars, rotation can not only be constrained from surface rotation, but also investigated through seismic studies. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the oscillations and internal rotational gradient of evolved single and binary stars. It is shown that the seismic analysis can reach the cores of oscillating red-giant stars and that these cores are rapidly rotating, while nested in a slowly rotating convective envelope.

  17. Identification of Young Stellar Variables with KELT for K2 . I. Taurus Dippers and Rotators

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Cargile, Phillip A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ansdell, Megan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaií at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Oelkers, Ryan J.; Somers, Garrett; Lund, Michael B.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaií at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Stevens, Daniel J.; Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); James, David [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Kuhn, Rudolf B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    One of the most well-studied young stellar associations, Taurus–Auriga, was observed by the extended Kepler mission, K2 , in the spring of 2017. K2 Campaign 13 (C13) is a unique opportunity to study many stars in this young association at high photometric precision and cadence. Using observations from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey, we identify “dippers,” aperiodic and periodic variables among K2 C13 target stars. This release of the KELT data (light curve data in e-tables) provides the community with long-time baseline observations to assist in the understanding of the more exotic variables in the association. Transient-like phenomena on timescales of months to years are known characteristics in the light curves of young stellar objects, making contextual pre- and post- K2 observations critical to understanding their underlying processes. We are providing a comprehensive set of the KELT light curves for known Taurus–Auriga stars in K2 C13. The combined data sets from K2 and KELT should permit a broad array of investigations related to star formation, stellar variability, and protoplanetary environments.

  18. Identification of Young Stellar Variables with KELT for K2 . I. Taurus Dippers and Rotators

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Ansdell, Megan; Oelkers, Ryan J.; Somers, Garrett; Lund, Michael B.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gaidos, Eric; Cody, Ann Marie; Stevens, Daniel J.; Gaudi, B. Scott; James, David; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Pepper, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    One of the most well-studied young stellar associations, Taurus–Auriga, was observed by the extended Kepler mission, K2 , in the spring of 2017. K2 Campaign 13 (C13) is a unique opportunity to study many stars in this young association at high photometric precision and cadence. Using observations from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey, we identify “dippers,” aperiodic and periodic variables among K2 C13 target stars. This release of the KELT data (light curve data in e-tables) provides the community with long-time baseline observations to assist in the understanding of the more exotic variables in the association. Transient-like phenomena on timescales of months to years are known characteristics in the light curves of young stellar objects, making contextual pre- and post- K2 observations critical to understanding their underlying processes. We are providing a comprehensive set of the KELT light curves for known Taurus–Auriga stars in K2 C13. The combined data sets from K2 and KELT should permit a broad array of investigations related to star formation, stellar variability, and protoplanetary environments.

  19. Stellar magnetic activity

    Schrijver, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The stellar emission in the chromospheric Ca II H+K lines is compared with the coronal soft X-ray emission, measuring the effects of non-radiative heating in the outer atmosphere at temperatures differing two orders of magnitude. The comparison of stellar flux densities in Ca II H+K and X-rays is extended to fluxes from the transition-region and the high-temperature chromosphere. The stellar magnetic field is probably generated in the differentially rotating convective envelope. The relation between rotation rate and the stellar level of activity measured in chromospheric, transition-region, and coronal radiative diagnostics is discovered. X-ray observations of the binary λ Andromedae are discussed. The departure of M-type dwarfs from the main relations, and the implications for the structure of the chromospheres of these stars are discussed. Variations of the average surface flux densities of the Sun during the 11-year activity cycle agree with flux-flux relations derived for other cool stars, suggesting that the interpretation of the stellar relations may be furthered by studying the solar analogue in more detail. (Auth.)

  20. Accretion-induced luminosity spreads in young clusters: evidence from stellar rotation

    Littlefair, S. P.; Naylor, Tim; Mayne, N. J.; Saunders, Eric; Jeffries, R. D.

    2011-05-01

    We present an analysis of the rotation of young stars in the associations Cepheus OB3b, NGC 2264, 2362 and the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We discover a correlation between rotation rate and position in a colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) such that stars which lie above an empirically determined median pre-main sequence rotate more rapidly than stars which lie below this sequence. The same correlation is seen, with a high degree of statistical significance, in each association studied here. If position within the CMD is interpreted as being due to genuine age spreads within a cluster, then the stars above the median pre-main sequence would be the youngest stars. This would in turn imply that the most rapidly rotating stars in an association are the youngest, and hence those with the largest moments of inertia and highest likelihood of ongoing accretion. Such a result does not fit naturally into the existing picture of angular momentum evolution in young stars, where the stars are braked effectively by their accretion discs until the disc disperses. Instead, we argue that, for a given association of young stars, position within the CMD is not primarily a function of age, but of accretion history. We show that this hypothesis could explain the correlation we observe between rotation rate and position within the CMD.

  1. Stellar Rotation with Kepler and Gaia: Evidence for a Bimodal Star Formation History

    Davenport, James

    2018-01-01

    Kepler stars with rotation periods measured via starspot modulations in their light curves have been matched against the astrometric data from Gaia Data Release 1. A total of 1,299 bright rotating stars were recovered, most with temperatures hotter than 5000 K. From these, 894 were selected as being near the main sequence. These main sequence stars show a bimodality in their rotation period distribution, centered around a ~600 Myr rotation-isochrone. This feature matches the bimodal period distribution found in cooler stars with Kepler, but was previously undetected for solar-type stars due to sample contamination by subgiant and binary stars. A tenuous connection between the rotation period and total proper motion is found, suggesting the period bimodality is due to the age distribution of stars within 300pc of the Sun, rather than a phase of rapid angular momentum loss. I will discuss how the combination of Kepler/K2/TESS with Gaia will enable us to map the star formation history of our galactic neighborhood.

  2. Isolating integrals of the motion for stellar orbits in a rotating galactic bar

    Vandervoort, P.O.

    1979-01-01

    The study of the equilibrium of a rotating galactic bar requires an enumeration of the isolating integrals of the motion of a star in the prevailing gravitational field. In general, Jacobi's integral is the only exact isolating integral known. This paper describes a search for an additional isolating integral for orbits confined to a plane perpendicular to the axis of the bar's rotation. It is shown that, in general, the equations of motion admit an additional integral exactly which is a nonhomogeneous quadratic form in the momenta of the star only if (1) the gravitational potential is axisymmetric, (2) the gravitational potential is harmonic, or (3) the bar does not rotate and the gravitational potential is separable in elliptic coordinates. A formal integral of the motion is constructed for orbits in a slightly anharmonic potential. Numerical solutions of the equations of motion for orbits in a slightly anharmonic potential behave as if there were indeed an additional isolating integral, and that behavior is represented very well in terms of the formal integral. If the rotation of the bar is rapid and/or the nonaxisymmetry of the bar is weak, then the additional integral restricts the motion of a star in much the same way that the angular momentum restricts motion in an axisymmetric potential. Conversely, if the rotation of the bar is slow and/or the nonaxisymmetry of the bar is strong, then the additional integral restricts the motion in much the same way that the difference of the separable energies would if the motion were separable in Cartesian coordinates

  3. Overview on the radial electric field, plasma rotation and transport in the stellarator W7-AS

    Baldzuhn, J.; Kick, M.; Maassberg, H.; Ohlendorf, W.

    1998-01-01

    In the advanced stellarator W7-AS the radial electric field E r is measured by active charge exchange recombination spectroscopy CXRS. In parallel, it is calculated by using the neoclassical DKES code. A comparison of calculated and measured solutions reveals in how far the neoclassical model is valid for the description of the radial particle transport and the formation of E r . In general good consistency is found, even for the outer radii where the neoclassical fluxes become much smaller than the experimental ones. In this paper the interplay between the particular E r roots and transport is considered. For strongly positive E r a reduction of χ e is observed in the vicinity of the magnetic axis. The typically negative ion-root in the gradient region strongly influences the local ∇ T i , thus determining the maximum attainable T i (0). (author)

  4. AD Leonis: Radial Velocity Signal of Stellar Rotation or Spin–Orbit Resonance?

    Tuomi, Mikko; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Barnes, John R.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Butler, R. Paul; Kiraga, Marcin; Vogt, Steven S.

    2018-05-01

    AD Leonis is a nearby magnetically active M dwarf. We find Doppler variability with a period of 2.23 days, as well as photometric signals: (1) a short-period signal, which is similar to the radial velocity signal, albeit with considerable variability; and (2) a long-term activity cycle of 4070 ± 120 days. We examine the short-term photometric signal in the available All-Sky Automated Survey and Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) photometry and find that the signal is not consistently present and varies considerably as a function of time. This signal undergoes a phase change of roughly 0.8 rad when considering the first and second halves of the MOST data set, which are separated in median time by 3.38 days. In contrast, the Doppler signal is stable in the combined High-Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher and High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer radial velocities for over 4700 days and does not appear to vary in time in amplitude, phase, period, or as a function of extracted wavelength. We consider a variety of starspot scenarios and find it challenging to simultaneously explain the rapidly varying photometric signal and the stable radial velocity signal as being caused by starspots corotating on the stellar surface. This suggests that the origin of the Doppler periodicity might be the gravitational tug of a planet orbiting the star in spin–orbit resonance. For such a scenario and no spin–orbit misalignment, the measured v\\sin i indicates an inclination angle of 15.°5 ± 2.°5 and a planetary companion mass of 0.237 ± 0.047 M Jup.

  5. Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars

    Maeder, André

    2009-01-01

    Rotation is ubiquitous at each step of stellar evolution, from star formation to the final stages, and it affects the course of evolution, the timescales and nucleosynthesis. Stellar rotation is also an essential prerequisite for the occurrence of Gamma-Ray Bursts. In this book the author thoroughly examines the basic mechanical and thermal effects of rotation, their influence on mass loss by stellar winds, the effects of differential rotation and its associated instabilities, the relation with magnetic fields and the evolution of the internal and surface rotation. Further, he discusses the numerous observational signatures of rotational effects obtained from spectroscopy and interferometric observations, as well as from chemical abundance determinations, helioseismology and asteroseismology, etc. On an introductory level, this book presents in a didactical way the basic concepts of stellar structure and evolution in "track 1" chapters. The other more specialized chapters form an advanced course on the gradua...

  6. First Toroidal Rotation Measurements of Protons and Impurities in the TJ-II Stellarator; Primeras Medidas de Rotacion Toroidal de Protones e Impurezas en el Stellarator TJ-II

    Rapisarda, D.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2006-07-01

    First absolute toroidal rotation measurements in the TJ-II stellarator, by using passive emission spectroscopy, are presented. The wavelength calibration is performed by using a spectral system which combines the spectra coming from the plasma and from a lamp in real time. Measurements have been made both for protons and some impurity ions (C4+, He+), in discharges created by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and in discharges with neutral beam injection heating. In addition, a description of the systems as well as the calibration procedures an data analysis is addressed. (Author) 10 refs.

  7. Operation in low edge safety factor regime and passive disruption avoidance due to stellarator rotational transform in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid

    Pandya, M. D.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Maurer, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Low edge safety factor operation at a value less than two (q (a) = 1 /ttot (a) routine on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid device. Presently, the operational space of this current carrying stellarator extends down to q (a) = 1 . 2 without significant n = 1 kink mode activity after the initial plasma current rise of the discharge. The disruption dynamics of these low q (a) plasmas depend upon the fraction of rotational transform produced by external stellarator coils to that generated by the plasma current. We observe that when about 10% of the total rotational transform is supplied by the stellarator coils, low q (a) disruptions are passively suppressed and avoided even though q (a) disrupt, the instability precursors measured and implicated as the cause are internal tearing modes with poloidal, m, and toroidal, n, mode numbers of m / n = 3 / 2 and 4 / 3 observed by external magnetic sensors, and m / n = 1 / 1 activity observed by core soft x-ray emissivity measurements. Even though q (a) passes through and becomes much less than two, external n = 1 kink mode activity does not appear to play a significant role in the observed disruption phenomenology. This work is supported by US Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  8. Mean-field theory of differential rotation in density stratified turbulent convection

    Rogachevskii, I.

    2018-04-01

    A mean-field theory of differential rotation in a density stratified turbulent convection has been developed. This theory is based on the combined effects of the turbulent heat flux and anisotropy of turbulent convection on the Reynolds stress. A coupled system of dynamical budget equations consisting in the equations for the Reynolds stress, the entropy fluctuations and the turbulent heat flux has been solved. To close the system of these equations, the spectral approach, which is valid for large Reynolds and Péclet numbers, has been applied. The adopted model of the background turbulent convection takes into account an increase of the turbulence anisotropy and a decrease of the turbulent correlation time with the rotation rate. This theory yields the radial profile of the differential rotation which is in agreement with that for the solar differential rotation.

  9. EGR1 induces tenogenic differentiation of tendon stem cells and promotes rabbit rotator cuff repair.

    Tao, Xu; Liu, Junpeng; Chen, Lei; Zhou, You; Tang, Kanglai

    2015-01-01

    The rate of healing failure after surgical repair of chronic rotator cuff tears is considerably high. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of the zinc finger transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) in the differentiation of tendon stem cells (TSCs) and in tendon formation, healing, and tendon tear repair using an animal model of rotator cuff repair. Tenocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, and chondrocyte differentiation as well as the expression of related genes were determined in EGR1-overexpressing TSCs (EGR1-TSCs) using tissue-specific staining, immunofluorescence staining, quantitative PCR, and western blotting. A rabbit rotator cuff repair model was established, and TSCs and EGR1-TSCs in a fibrin glue carrier were applied onto repair sites. The rabbits were sacrificed 8 weeks after repair operation, and tissues were histologically evaluated and tenocyte-related gene expression was determined. EGR1 induced tenogenic differentiation of TSCs and inhibited non-tenocyte differentiation of TSCs. Furthermore, EGR1 promoted tendon repair in a rabbit model of rotator cuff injury. The BMP12/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway was involved in EGR1-induced tenogenic differentiation and rotator cuff tendon repair. EGR1 plays a key role in tendon formation, healing, and repair through BMP12/Smad1/5/8 pathway. EGR1-TSCs is a promising treatment for rotator cuff tendon repair surgeries. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. EGR1 Induces Tenogenic Differentiation of Tendon Stem Cells and Promotes Rabbit Rotator Cuff Repair

    Xu Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The rate of healing failure after surgical repair of chronic rotator cuff tears is considerably high. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of the zinc finger transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1 in the differentiation of tendon stem cells (TSCs and in tendon formation, healing, and tendon tear repair using an animal model of rotator cuff repair. Methods: Tenocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, and chondrocyte differentiation as well as the expression of related genes were determined in EGR1-overexpressing TSCs (EGR1-TSCs using tissue-specific staining, immunofluorescence staining, quantitative PCR, and western blotting. A rabbit rotator cuff repair model was established, and TSCs and EGR1-TSCs in a fibrin glue carrier were applied onto repair sites. The rabbits were sacrificed 8 weeks after repair operation, and tissues were histologically evaluated and tenocyte-related gene expression was determined. Results: EGR1 induced tenogenic differentiation of TSCs and inhibited non-tenocyte differentiation of TSCs. Furthermore, EGR1 promoted tendon repair in a rabbit model of rotator cuff injury. The BMP12/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway was involved in EGR1-induced tenogenic differentiation and rotator cuff tendon repair. Conclusion: EGR1 plays a key role in tendon formation, healing, and repair through BMP12/Smad1/5/8 pathway. EGR1-TSCs is a promising treatment for rotator cuff tendon repair surgeries.

  11. Differential rotation of the Sun and the Maunder minimum of solar activity

    Ikhsanov, R.N.; Vitinskij, Yu.I.

    1980-01-01

    Nature of differential rotation of the Sun is discussed. Investigation of long term changes in differential rotation separately for two phase of 11 year cycle of the Sun activity is carried out. Data on heliographic coordinates for every day of all groups of the Sun spots for the years preceding the epoch of the minimum of the 11 year cycle and the Sun groups for the years of maximum from ''Greenwich Photoheliographic Results'' for 1875-1954 are used as initial material. It is shown that differential rotation of the Sun changes in time from one 11 year cycle of the Sun activity to another. This change is connected with the power of 11 year cycle. During the maximum phase of 11 year cycle differentiality of the rotation increases in the cycles where the cycle maximum is higher. Before the minimum of 11 year cycle rotation differentiability is lower in the cycles for which activity maximum is higher in the next 11 year cycle. Equatorial rate of the Sun rotation increases with the decrease in the cycle power when the maximum Wolf number is less than 110. The mentioned regularities took place both during Maunder minimum and before its beginning [ru

  12. Effects of Rotation on the Differentiation of a terrestrial Magma Ocean

    Maas, C.; Hansen, U.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the Earth experienced several large impacts during its early evolution which led to the formation of one or more magma oceans. Differentiation processes in such a magma ocean are of great importance for the initial conditions of mantle convection and for the subsequent mantle structure. Convection in a magma ocean is most likely very vigorous. Further, rotation of the early Earth is supposed to be very fast. Therefore, and due to the small viscosity, it can be assumed that differentiation is strongly affected by rotation.To study the influence of rotation on the crystallization of a magma ocean, we employed a 3D Cartesian numerical model with low Prandtl number and used a discrete element method to describe silicate crystals.Our results show a crucial dependence on crystal density, rotation rate and latitude. Low rotation at the pole leads to a large fraction of suspended particles. With increasing rotation the particles settle at the bottom and form a stable stratified layer. In contrast to that at the equator at low rotation all particles settle at the bottom, at higher rotation they form a layer of significant thickness and at the highest rotation rate the particles accumulate in the middle of the magma ocean. In addition to that, we observe that due to the Coriolis force silicate crystals with different densities separate from each other. While lighter particles are at the bottom, denser particles accumulate at mid-depth at the same rotation rate. This could result in an unstable stratified mantle in the equatorial region after magma ocean solidification.All in all, rotation could lead to an asymmetrical crystallization of the magma ocean, with a contrary layering at the pole and the equator. This affects the composition of the early mantle and could explain the development of a localized magma ocean at the core-mantle boundary and the development of phase transitions observed in seismology, like the mantle transition zone.

  13. Tokamak turbulence in self-regulated differentially rotating flow and L-H transition dynamics

    Terry, P.W.; Carreras, B.A.; Sidikman, K.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study of turbulence in the presence of turbulently generated differentially rotating flow is presented as a paradigm for fluctuation dynamics in L- and H-mode plasmas. Using a drift wave model, the role of both flow shear and flow curvature (second radial derivative of the poloidal ExB flow) is detailed in linear and saturated turbulence phases. In the strong turbulence saturated state, finite amplitude-induced modification of the fluctuation structure near low order rational surfaces strongly inhibits flow shear suppression. Suppression by curvature is not diminished, but it occurs through a frequency shift. A description of L-H mode transition dynamics based on the self-consistent linking of turbulence suppression by differentially rotating flow and generation of flow by turbulent momentum transport is presented. In this model, rising edge temperature triggers a transition characterized by spontaneous generation of differentially rotating flow and decreasing turbulence intensity

  14. Stellar structure and evolution

    Kippernhahn, R.; Weigert, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book introduces the theory of the internal structure of stars and their evolution in time. It presents the basic physics of stellar interiors, methods for solving the underlying equations, and the most important results necessary for understanding the wide variety of stellar types and phenomena. The evolution of stars is discussed from their birth through normal evolution to possibly spectacular final stages. Chapters on stellar oscillations and rotation are included

  15. Task Rotation: Strategies for Differentiating Activities and Assessments by Learning Style. A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide

    Silver, Harvey; Moirao, Daniel; Jackson, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    One of the hardest jobs in teaching is to differentiate learning activities and assessments to your students' learning styles. But you and your colleagues can learn how to do this together when each of you has this guide to the Task Rotation strategy from our ultimate guide to teaching strategies, "The Strategic Teacher". Use the guide in your…

  16. Bursting and large-scale intermittency in turbulent convection with differential rotation

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    The tilting mechanism, which generates differential rotation in two-dimensional turbulent convection, is shown to produce relaxation oscillations in the mean flow energy integral and bursts in the global fluctuation level, akin to Lotka-Volterra oscillations. The basic reason for such behavior...

  17. The BANANA Project. IV. Two Aligned Stellar Rotation Axes in the Young Eccentric Binary System EP Crucis: Primordial Orientation and Tidal Alignment

    Albrecht, Simon; Setiawan, Johny; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Winn, Joshua N.

    2013-04-01

    With observations of the EP Cru system, we continue our series of measurements of spin-orbit angles in eclipsing binary star systems, the BANANA project (Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned). We find a close alignment between the sky projections of the rotational and orbital angular momentum vectors for both stars (βp = -1.°8 ± 1.°6 and |βs| < 17°). We also derive precise absolute dimensions and stellar ages for this system. The EP Cru and DI Her systems provide an interesting comparison: they have similar stellar types and orbital properties, but DI Her is younger and has major spin-orbit misalignments, raising the question of whether EP Cru also had a large misalignment at an earlier phase of evolution. We show that tidal dissipation is an unlikely explanation for the good alignment observed today, because realignment happens on the same timescale as spin-orbit synchronization, and the stars in EP Cru are far from synchronization (they are spinning nine times too quickly). Therefore it seems that some binaries form with aligned axes, while other superficially similar binaries are formed with misaligned axes. Based on observations made with ESOs 2.2 m Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 084.C-1008 (12.5%) and under MPIA guaranteed time (87.5%).

  18. THE DISCOVERY OF DIFFERENTIAL RADIAL ROTATION IN THE PULSATING SUBDWARF B STAR KIC 3527751

    Foster, H. M.; Reed, M. D. [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Telting, J. H. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez 7, E-38711 Breña Baja (Spain); Østensen, R. H. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Baran, A. S. [Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny, Obserwatorium na Suhorze, ul. Podchorażych 2, 30-084 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-06-01

    We analyze 3 yr of nearly continuous Kepler spacecraft short cadence observations of the pulsating subdwarf B (sdB) star KIC 3527751. We detect a total of 251 periodicities, most in the g-mode domain, but some where p-modes occur, confirming that KIC 3527751 is a hybrid pulsator. We apply seismic tools to the periodicities to characterize the properties of KIC 3527751. Techniques to identify modes include asymptotic period spacing relationships, frequency multiplets, and the separation of multiplet splittings. These techniques allow for 189 (75%) of the 251 periods to be associated with pulsation modes. Included in these are three sets of ℓ = 4 multiplets and possibly an ℓ = 9 multiplet. Period spacing sequences indicate ℓ = 1 and 2 overtone spacings of 266.4 ± 0.2 and 153.2 ± 0.2 s, respectively. We also calculate reduced periods, from which we find evidence of trapped pulsations. Such mode trappings can be used to constrain the core/atmosphere transition layers. Interestingly, frequency multiplets in the g-mode region, which sample deep into the star, indicate a rotation period of 42.6 ± 3.4 days while p-mode multiplets, which sample the outer envelope, indicate a rotation period of 15.3 ± 0.7 days. We interpret this as differential rotation in the radial direction with the core rotating more slowly. This is the first example of differential rotation for a sdB star.

  19. State-to-state differential cross sections for rotationally inelastic scattering of Na2 by He

    Bergmann, K.; Hefter, U.; Witt, J.

    1980-01-01

    State-to-state differential cross sections for rotational transitions of Na 2 in collisions with He are measured in the electronic and vibrational ground state at thermal collision energies using a new laser technique. Single rotational levels j/sub i/ are labelled by modulation of their population via laser optical pumping using a dye laser. The modulation of the fluorescence induced by an Ar + laser tuned to the level j/sub f/=28 is proportional to the cross section for collisional transfer j/sub i/→j/sub f/ and is detected at the scattering angle theta. A single optical fiber and a fiber bundle provide a flexible connection between the detector and the laser and photomultiplier, respectively. Transitions as large as Δj=20 are observed. At small angles elastic scattering is dominant, but rotationally inelastic processes become increasingly important at larger scattering angles. Rotational rainbow structure causing a steep onset of the cross section with the scattering angle theta (at fixed Δj) or a sharp cutoff with Δj (at fixed theta) is found. Preliminary results on rotational energy transfer in v=1 indicates that vibrational motion of the molecule favors larger rotational quantum jumps. semiclassical picture for the scattering of a hard ellipsoid gives a

  20. sunstardb: A Database for the Study of Stellar Magnetism and the Solar-stellar Connection

    Egeland, Ricky

    2018-05-01

    The “solar-stellar connection” began as a relatively small field of research focused on understanding the processes that generate magnetic fields in stars and sometimes lead to a cyclic pattern of long-term variability in activity, as demonstrated by our Sun. This area of study has recently become more broadly pertinent to questions of exoplanet habitability and exo-space weather, as well as stellar evolution. In contrast to other areas of stellar research, individual stars in the solar-stellar connection often have a distinct identity and character in the literature, due primarily to the rarity of the decades-long time-series that are necessary for studying stellar activity cycles. Furthermore, the underlying stellar dynamo is not well understood theoretically, and is thought to be sensitive to several stellar properties, e.g., luminosity, differential rotation, and the depth of the convection zone, which in turn are often parameterized by other more readily available properties. Relevant observations are scattered throughout the literature and existing stellar databases, and consolidating information for new studies is a tedious and laborious exercise. To accelerate research in this area I developed sunstardb, a relational database of stellar properties and magnetic activity proxy time-series keyed by individual named stars. The organization of the data eliminates the need for the problematic catalog cross-matching operations inherent when building an analysis data set from heterogeneous sources. In this article I describe the principles behind sunstardb, the data structures and programming interfaces, as well as use cases from solar-stellar connection research.

  1. Differential rotation and giant cell circulation of the solar Ca+-network

    Schroeter, E.H.; Woehl, H.

    1976-01-01

    High precision computer controlled tracings of bright Ca + -mottles were performed during 1974 and 1975 at the Locarno Observatory of Gottingen to study solar differential rotation and to search for giant cell circulation pattern. The method consists of measuring the position of 5-15 bright Ca + - mottles with respect to the center of the solar disc every 10 to 15 min during 4h every day. From a linear least square fit of the observed positions the solar-latitude and longitude were computed for the beginning and the end of the daily 4h observation period. From this the components in latitude and longitude of the proper motions were derived which result from the differential rotation, possible giant cell circulation and the small scale random walk of these features. (Auth.)

  2. Recurrent star-spot activity and differential rotation in KIC 11560447

    Özavcı, I.; Şenavcı, H. V.; Işık, E.; Hussain, G. A. J.; O'Neal, D.; Yılmaz, M.; Selam, S. O.

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of surface inhomogeneities on the K1-type subgiant component of the rapidly rotating eclipsing binary KIC 11560447, using high-precision Kepler light curves spanning nearly 4 yr, which corresponds to about 2800 orbital revolutions. We determine the system parameters precisely, using high-resolution spectra from the 2.1-m Otto Struve Telescope at the McDonald Observatory. We apply the maximum entropy method to reconstruct the relative longitudinal spot occupancy. Our numerical tests show that the procedure can recover large-scale random distributions of individually unresolved spots, and it can track the phase migration of up to three major spot clusters. By determining the drift rates of various spotted regions in orbital longitude, we suggest a way to constrain surface differential rotation and we show that the results are consistent with periodograms. The K1IV star exhibits two mildly preferred longitudes of emergence, indications of solar-like differential rotation, and a 0.5-1.3-yr recurrence period in star-spot emergence, accompanied by a secular increase in the axisymmetric component of spot occupancy.

  3. Differential regional brain growth and rotation of the prenatal human tentorium cerebelli.

    Jeffery, Nathan

    2002-02-01

    Folds of dura mater, the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli, traverse the vertebrate endocranial cavity and compartmentalize the brain. Previous studies suggest that the tentorial fold has adopted an increasingly important role in supporting the increased load of the cerebrum during human evolution, brought about by encephalization and an adaptation to bipedal posture. Ontogenetic studies of the fetal tentorium suggest that its midline profile rotates inferoposteriorly towards the foramen magnum in response to disproportionate growth of the cerebrum. This study tests the hypothesis that differential growth of the cerebral and cerebellar components of the brain underlies the inferoposterior rotation of the tentorium cerebelli during human fetal development. Brain volumes and tentorial angles were taken from high-resolution magnetic resonance images of 46 human fetuses ranging from 10 to 29 gestational weeks. Apart from the expected increases of both supratentorial and infratentorial brain volumes with age, the results confirm previous studies showing a significant relative enlargement of the supratentorial volume. Correlated with this enlargement was a rotation of the midline section of the tentorium towards the posterior cranial base. These findings support the concept that increases of supratentorial volume relative to infratentorial volume affect an inferoposterior rotation of the human fetal tentorium cerebelli. These results are discussed in the context of the role played by the tentorium cerebelli during human evolution and underline implications for phylogenetic and ontogenetic models of encephalization.

  4. Stellarator-Spheromak

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-03-01

    A novel concept for magnetic plasma confinement, Stellarator-Spheromak (SSP), is proposed. Numerical analysis with the classical-stellarator-type outboard stellarator windings demonstrates a number of potential advantages of SSP for controlled nuclear fusion. Among the main ones are: simple and compact magnet coil configuration, absence of material structures (e.g. magnet coils or conducting walls) in the center of the torus, high rotational transform, and a possibility of MHD equilibria with very high β (pressure/magnetic pressure) of the confined plasma

  5. Double-helix stellarator

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-09-01

    A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A ∼ 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-β MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications

  6. The slow ionized wind and rotating disklike system that are associated with the high-mass young stellar object G345.4938+01.4677

    Guzmán, Andrés E.; Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; Mardones, Diego [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Rodríguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica (UNAM), Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Moran, James [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Brooks, Kate J. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, 1710 NSW (Australia); Nyman, Lars-Åke [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Sanhueza, Patricio [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We report the detection, made using ALMA, of the 92 GHz continuum and hydrogen recombination lines (HRLs) H40α, H42α, and H50β emission toward the ionized wind associated with the high-mass young stellar object G345.4938+01.4677. This is the luminous central dominating source located in the massive and dense molecular clump associated with IRAS 16562–3959. The HRLs exhibit Voigt profiles, which is a strong signature of Stark broadening. We successfully reproduce the observed continuum and HRLs simultaneously using a simple model of a slow ionized wind in local thermodynamic equilibrium, with no need for a high-velocity component. The Lorentzian line wings imply electron densities of 5 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup –3} on average. In addition, we detect SO and SO{sub 2} emission arising from a compact (∼3000 AU) molecular core associated with the central young star. The molecular core exhibits a velocity gradient that is perpendicular to the jet-axis, which we interpret as evidence of rotation. The set of observations toward G345.4938+01.4677 are consistent with it being a young high-mass star associated with a slow photo-ionized wind.

  7. Coherent population trapping magnetometer by differential detecting magneto–optic rotation effect

    Zhang Fan; Tian Yuan; Zhang Yi; Gu Si-Hong

    2016-01-01

    A pocket coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic magnetometer scheme that uses a vertical cavity surface emitting laser as a light source is proposed and experimentally investigated. Using the differential detecting magneto–optic rotation effect, a CPT spectrum with the background canceled and a high signal-to-noise ratio is obtained. The experimental results reveal that the sensitivity of the proposed scheme can be improved by half an order, and the ability to detect weak magnetic fields is extended one-fold. Therefore, the proposed scheme is suited to realize a pocket-size CPT magnetometer. (paper)

  8. On the influence of dissipative effects on instabilities of differentially-rotating plasmas

    Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The stability of differentially-rotating cylindrical plasmas in the axial homogeneous magnetic field is studied in the framework of one-fluid dissipative magnetohydrodynamics. The dispersion relation of small-scale axisymmetric perturbations, taking into account the effects of the plasma thermal stratification, its resistivity and its viscosity, is derived. In the limiting cases of negligible resistivity and of negligible viscosity, the criteria of plasma stability are obtained. It is shown that in the case of small viscosity, the azimuthal flow of resistive plasma in the axial magnetic field is unstable due to the buoyancy effect if both the plasma pressure and its entropy either increase or decrease in the radial direction.

  9. Triple system HD 201433 with a SPB star component seen by BRITE - Constellation: Pulsation, differential rotation, and angular momentum transfer

    Kallinger, T.; Weiss, W. W.; Beck, P. G.; Pigulski, A.; Kuschnig, R.; Tkachenko, A.; Pakhomov, Y.; Ryabchikova, T.; Lüftinger, T.; Palle, , P. L.; Semenko, E.; Handler, G.; Koudelka, O.; Matthews, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Pablo, H.; Popowicz, A.; Rucinski, S.; Wade, G. A.; Zwintz, K.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Stellar rotation affects the transport of chemical elements and angular momentum and is therefore a key process during stellar evolution, which is still not fully understood. This is especially true for massive OB-type stars, which are important for the chemical enrichment of the Universe. It is therefore important to constrain the physical parameters and internal angular momentum distribution of massive OB-type stars to calibrate stellar structure and evolution models. Stellar internal rotation can be probed through asteroseismic studies of rotationally split non radial oscillations but such results are still quite rare, especially for stars more massive than the Sun. The slowly pulsating B9V star HD 201433 is known to be part of a single-lined spectroscopic triple system, with two low-mass companions orbiting with periods of about 3.3 and 154 days. Aims: Our goal is to measure the internal rotation profile of HD 201433 and investigate the tidal interaction with the close companion. Methods: We used probabilistic methods to analyse the BRITE - Constellation photometry and radial velocity measurements, to identify a representative stellar model, and to determine the internal rotation profile of the star. Results: Our results are based on photometric observations made by BRITE - Constellation and the Solar Mass Ejection Imager on board the Coriolis satellite, high-resolution spectroscopy, and more than 96 yr of radial velocity measurements. We identify a sequence of nine frequency doublets in the photometric time series, consistent with rotationally split dipole modes with a period spacing of about 5030 s. We establish that HD 201433 is in principle a solid-body rotator with a very slow rotation period of 297 ± 76 days. Tidal interaction with the inner companion has, however, significantly accelerated the spin of the surface layers by a factor of approximately one hundred. The angular momentum transfer onto the surface of HD 201433 is also reflected by the

  10. Role of Interaction between Magnetic Rossby Waves and Tachocline Differential Rotation in Producing Solar Seasons

    Dikpati, Mausumi; McIntosh, Scott W.; Bothun, Gregory; Cally, Paul S.; Ghosh, Siddhartha S.; Gilman, Peter A.; Umurhan, Orkan M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic shallow-water model for the solar tachocline (MHD-SWT) that generates quasi-periodic tachocline nonlinear oscillations (TNOs) that can be identified with the recently discovered solar “seasons.” We discuss the properties of the hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic Rossby waves that interact with the differential rotation and toroidal fields to sustain these oscillations, which occur due to back-and-forth energy exchanges among potential, kinetic, and magnetic energies. We perform model simulations for a few years, for selected example cases, in both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic regimes and show that the TNOs are robust features of the MHD-SWT model, occurring with periods of 2–20 months. We find that in certain cases multiple unstable shallow-water modes govern the dynamics, and TNO periods vary with time. In hydrodynamically governed TNOs, the energy exchange mechanism is simple, occurring between the Rossby waves and differential rotation. But in MHD cases, energy exchange becomes much more complex, involving energy flow among six energy reservoirs by means of eight different energy conversion processes. For toroidal magnetic bands of 5 and 35 kG peak amplitudes, both placed at 45° latitude and oppositely directed in north and south hemispheres, we show that the energy transfers responsible for TNO, as well as westward phase propagation, are evident in synoptic maps of the flow, magnetic field, and tachocline top-surface deformations. Nonlinear mode–mode interaction is particularly dramatic in the strong-field case. We also find that the TNO period increases with a decrease in rotation rate, implying that the younger Sun had more frequent seasons.

  11. Consequences of high effective Prandtl number on solar differential rotation and convective velocity

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Miesch, Mark; Bekki, Yuto

    2018-04-01

    Observations suggest that the large-scale convective velocities obtained by solar convection simulations might be over-estimated (convective conundrum). One plausible solution to this could be the small-scale dynamo which cannot be fully resolved by global simulations. The small-scale Lorentz force suppresses the convective motions and also the turbulent mixing of entropy between upflows and downflows, leading to a large effective Prandtl number (Pr). We explore this idea in three-dimensional global rotating convection simulations at different thermal conductivity (κ), i.e., at different Pr. In agreement with previous non-rotating simulations, the convective velocity is reduced with the increase of Pr as long as the thermal conductive flux is negligible. A subadiabatic layer is formed near the base of the convection zone due to continuous deposition of low entropy plumes in low-κ simulations. The most interesting result of our low-κ simulations is that the convective motions are accompanied by a change in the convection structure that is increasingly influenced by small-scale plumes. These plumes tend to transport angular momentum radially inward and thus establish an anti-solar differential rotation, in striking contrast to the solar rotation profile. If such low diffusive plumes, driven by the radiative-surface cooling, are present in the Sun, then our results cast doubt on the idea that a high effective Pr may be a viable solution to the solar convective conundrum. Our study also emphasizes that any resolution of the conundrum that relies on the downward plumes must take into account the angular momentum transport and heat transport.

  12. A catalog of stellar spectrophotometry

    Adelman, S. J.; Pyper, D. M.; Shore, S. N.; White, R. E.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A machine-readable catalog of stellar spectrophotometric measurements made with rotating grating scanner is introduced. Consideration is given to the processes by which the stellar data were collected and calibrated with the fluxes of Vega (Hayes and Latham, 1975). A sample page from the spectrophotometric catalog is presented.

  13. Inertial modes and their transition to turbulence in a differentially rotating spherical gap flow

    Hoff, Michael; Harlander, Uwe; Andrés Triana, Santiago; Egbers, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of inertial modes in a spherical shell experiment. Inertial modes are Coriolis-restored linear wave modes, often arise in rapidly-rotating fluids (e.g. in the Earth's liquid outer core [1]). Recent experimental works showed that inertial modes exist in differentially rotating spherical shells. A set of particular inertial modes, characterized by (l,m,ˆω), where l, m is the polar and azimuthal wavenumber and ˆω = ω/Ωout the dimensionless frequency [2], has been found. It is known that they arise due to eruptions in the Ekman boundary layer of the outer shell. But it is an open issue why only a few modes develop and how they get enhanced. Kelley et al. 2010 [3] showed that some modes draw their energy from detached shear layers (e.g. Stewartson layers) via over-reflection. Additionally, Rieutord et al. (2012) [4] found critical layers within the shear layers below which most of the modes cannot exist. In contrast to other spherical shell experiments, we have a full optical access to the flow. Therefore, we present an experimental study of inertial modes, based on Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) data, in a differentially rotating spherical gap flow where the inner sphere is subrotating or counter-rotating at Ωin with respect to the outer spherical shell at Ωout, characterized by the Rossby number Ro = (Ωin - Ωout)/Ωout. The radius ratio of η = 1/3, with rin = 40mm and rout = 120mm, is close to that of the Earth's core. Our apparatus is running at Ekman numbers (E ≈ 10-5, with E = ν/(Ωoutrout2), two orders of magnitude higher than most of the other experiments. Based on a frequency-Rossby number spectrogram, we can partly confirm previous considerations with respect to the onset of inertial modes. In contrast, the behavior of the modes in the counter-rotation regime is different. We found a triad interaction between three dominant inertial modes, where one is a slow axisymmetric Rossby mode [5]. We show that the amplitude of the most

  14. Rotation-Activity Correlations in K and M Dwarfs. I. Stellar Parameters and Compilations of v sin I and P/sin I for a Large Sample of Late-K and M Dwarfs

    Houdebine, E. R.; Mullan, D. J.; Paletou, F.; Gebran, M.

    2016-05-01

    The reliable determination of rotation-activity correlations (RACs) depends on precise measurements of the following stellar parameters: T eff, parallax, radius, metallicity, and rotational speed v sin I. In this paper, our goal is to focus on the determination of these parameters for a sample of K and M dwarfs. In a future paper (Paper II), we will combine our rotational data with activity data in order to construct RACs. Here, we report on a determination of effective temperatures based on the (R-I) C color from the calibrations of Mann et al. and Kenyon & Hartmann for four samples of late-K, dM2, dM3, and dM4 stars. We also determine stellar parameters (T eff, log(g), and [M/H]) using the principal component analysis-based inversion technique for a sample of 105 late-K dwarfs. We compile all effective temperatures from the literature for this sample. We determine empirical radius-[M/H] correlations in our stellar samples. This allows us to propose new effective temperatures, stellar radii, and metallicities for a large sample of 612 late-K and M dwarfs. Our mean radii agree well with those of Boyajian et al. We analyze HARPS and SOPHIE spectra of 105 late-K dwarfs, and we have detected v sin I in 92 stars. In combination with our previous v sin I measurements in M and K dwarfs, we now derive P/sin I measures for a sample of 418 K and M dwarfs. We investigate the distributions of P/sin I, and we show that they are different from one spectral subtype to another at a 99.9% confidence level. Based on observations available at Observatoire de Haute Provence and the European Southern Observatory databases and on Hipparcos parallax measurements.

  15. Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system

    Torgan, C. E.; Burge, S. S.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Truskey, G. A.; Kraus, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight.

  16. Bursting and large-scale intermittency in turbulent convection with differential rotation

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    The tilting mechanism, which generates differential rotation in two-dimensional turbulent convection, is shown to produce relaxation oscillations in the mean flow energy integral and bursts in the global fluctuation level, akin to Lotka-Volterra oscillations. The basic reason for such behavior is the unidirectional and conservative transfer of kinetic energy from the fluctuating motions to the mean component of the flows, and its dissipation at large scales. Results from numerical simulations further demonstrate the intimate relation between these low-frequency modulations and the large-scale intermittency of convective turbulence, as manifested by exponential tails in single-point probability distribution functions. Moreover, the spatio-temporal evolution of convective structures illustrates the mechanism triggering avalanche events in the transport process. The latter involves the overlap of delocalized mixing regions when the barrier to transport, produced by the mean component of the flow, transiently disappears

  17. Stellar astrophysics

    1988-01-01

    Enhanced mass loss occurs at critical stages in the evolution of stars over a wide range of stellar mass. Observationally, these stages are difficult to identify because of their short duration and because the star is often obscured by dust which condenses in the ejecta. A study of a G-type star, of which only the outer envelope was directly visible, was undertaken by the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). The star itself was obscured by dust clouds and its light was only feebly seen by reflection from some of these clouds. Other studies of the galaxy undertaken by the SAAO include observations of the following: the extreme carbon star IRAS 15194-5115; RV Tauri and T Tauri stars; pre-main sequence stars; the properties of circumstellar dust; rotational modulation and flares on RS CVn and BY Dra stars; heavy-element stars; hydrogen-deficient stars; the open cluster NGC6192; stars in Omega Centauri, and lunar occulations of stars. Simultaneous x-ray, radio and optical data of the flare star YZ CMi were also obtained. 1 fig

  18. Temporal Change of Seismic Earth's Inner Core Phases: Inner Core Differential Rotation Or Temporal Change of Inner Core Surface?

    Yao, J.; Tian, D.; Sun, L.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Since Song and Richards [1996] first reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKIKP wave (a compressional wave refracted in the inner core) and proposed inner core differential rotation as its explanation, it has generated enormous interests in the scientific community and the public, and has motivated many studies on the implications of the inner core differential rotation. However, since Wen [2006] reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKiKP wave (a compressional wave reflected from the inner core boundary) that requires temporal change of inner core surface, both interpretations for the temporal change of inner core phases have existed, i.e., inner core rotation and temporal change of inner core surface. In this study, we discuss the issue of the interpretation of the observed temporal changes of those inner core phases and conclude that inner core differential rotation is not only not required but also in contradiction with three lines of seismic evidence from global repeating earthquakes. Firstly, inner core differential rotation provides an implausible explanation for a disappearing inner core scatterer between a doublet in South Sandwich Islands (SSI), which is located to be beneath northern Brazil based on PKIKP and PKiKP coda waves of the earlier event of the doublet. Secondly, temporal change of PKIKP and its coda waves among a cluster in SSI is inconsistent with the interpretation of inner core differential rotation, with one set of the data requiring inner core rotation and the other requiring non-rotation. Thirdly, it's not reasonable to invoke inner core differential rotation to explain travel time change of PKiKP waves in a very small time scale (several months), which is observed for repeating earthquakes in Middle America subduction zone. On the other hand, temporal change of inner core surface could provide a consistent explanation for all the observed temporal changes of PKIKP and PKiKP and their coda waves. We conclude that

  19. Parameters affecting the determination of paraquat at silver rotating electrodes using differential pulse voltammetry

    A. Farahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical determination of aqueous paraquat PQ(II by differential pulse voltammetry at a solid rotating silver electrode (RSE is described. The aim of this work is to optimize all factors that can influence this determination. Potential wave forms, potential scan parameters and deposition time were examined for their effect on the paraquat peak shape and intensity. The best responses were obtained with differential pulse voltammetry in 0.1 mol L−1 Na2SO4 as supporting electrolyte using amplitude 50 mV, scan increment 5 mV, deposition time 120 s, frequency 50 s−1 and step amplitude 0.05 V. Electrochemical and mechanical surface cleaning, aimed at removing the amount of paraquat deposited onto the silver surface, were necessary for obtaining a good performance of the electrode. Response linearity, repeatability, accuracy and detection limit were also evaluated. The obtained detection limits were 7.1 × 10−9 mol L−1 and 2.8 × 10−9 mol L−1 for peak 1 and peak 2 respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD was found to be 1.19% in 1.0 × 10−4 mol L−1 paraquat. The applicability of the RSE for PQ(II determination in milk samples, without any sample pretreatment, was successfully demonstrated.

  20. The Stellar Imager (SI) Mission Concept

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Lyon, Richard G.; Mundy, Lee G.; Allen, Ronald J.; Armstrong, Thomas; Danchi, William C.; Karovska, Margarita; Marzouk, Joe; Mazzuca, Lisa M.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, UV-optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum baseline of 0.5 km. It is designed to image stars and binaries with sufficient resolution to enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also support asteroseismology (acoustic imaging) to probe stellar internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of the magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate these fields, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars. The ultimate goal of the mission is to achieve the best-possible forecasting of solar activity as a driver of climate and space weather on time scales ranging from months up to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on life in the Universe. In this paper we describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address these goals, the "enabling technology" development efforts being pursued, and the design concepts now under study for the full mission and a possible pathfinder mission.

  1. Differential contribution of visual and auditory information to accurately predict the direction and rotational motion of a visual stimulus.

    Park, Seoung Hoon; Kim, Seonjin; Kwon, MinHyuk; Christou, Evangelos A

    2016-03-01

    Vision and auditory information are critical for perception and to enhance the ability of an individual to respond accurately to a stimulus. However, it is unknown whether visual and auditory information contribute differentially to identify the direction and rotational motion of the stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of an individual to accurately predict the direction and rotational motion of the stimulus based on visual and auditory information. In this study, we recruited 9 expert table-tennis players and used table-tennis service as our experimental model. Participants watched recorded services with different levels of visual and auditory information. The goal was to anticipate the direction of the service (left or right) and the rotational motion of service (topspin, sidespin, or cut). We recorded their responses and quantified the following outcomes: (i) directional accuracy and (ii) rotational motion accuracy. The response accuracy was the accurate predictions relative to the total number of trials. The ability of the participants to predict the direction of the service accurately increased with additional visual information but not with auditory information. In contrast, the ability of the participants to predict the rotational motion of the service accurately increased with the addition of auditory information to visual information but not with additional visual information alone. In conclusion, this finding demonstrates that visual information enhances the ability of an individual to accurately predict the direction of the stimulus, whereas additional auditory information enhances the ability of an individual to accurately predict the rotational motion of stimulus.

  2. The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Carpenter, Kenneth G; Schrijver, Carolus J; Karovska, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a 'Landmark/Discovery Mission' in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ('NASA Space Science Vision Missions' (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  3. The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark); Carpenter, Kenneth G [Code 667 NASA-GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schrijver, Carolus J [LMATC 3251 Hanover St., Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Karovska, Margarita, E-mail: jcd@phys.au.d, E-mail: Kenneth.G.Carpenter@nasa.gov, E-mail: schryver@lmsal.com, E-mail: karovska@head.cfa.harvard.edu [60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a 'Landmark/Discovery Mission' in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ('NASA Space Science Vision Missions' (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  4. The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita; Si Team

    2011-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a "Landmark/Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ("NASA Space Science Vision Missions" (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  5. The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magnetohydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a "LandmarklDiscovery Mission" in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ("NASA Space Science Vision Missions" (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission

  6. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlage in entire embryonic mouse limbs cultured in a rotating bioreactor.

    Duke, P.; Oakley, C.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    The embryonic mammalian limb is sensitive both in vivo and in vitro to changes in gravitational force. Hypergravity of centrifugation and microgravity of space decreased size of elements due to precocious or delayed chondrogenesis respectively. In recapitulating spaceflight experiments, premetatarsals were cultured in suspension in a low stress, low sheer rotating bioreactor, and found to be shorter than those cultured in standard culture dishes, and cartilage development was delayed. This study only measured length of the metatarsals, and did not account for possible changes in width and/or in form of the skeletal elements. Shorter cartilage elements in limbbuds cultured in the bioreactor may be due to the ability of the system to reproduce a more in vivo 3D shape than traditional organ cultures. Tissues subjected to traditional organ cultures become flattened by their own weight, attachment to the filter, and restrictions imposed by nutrient diffusion. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if entire limb buds could be successfully cultured in the bioreactor, and to compare the effects on 3D shape with that of culturing in a culture dish system. Fore and hind limbs from E11-E13 ICR mouse embryos were placed either in the bioreactor, in Trowell culture, or fixed as controls. Limbbuds were cultured for six days, fixed, and processed either as whole mounts or embedded for histology. Qualitative analysis revealed that the Trowell culture specimens were flattened, while bioreactor culture specimens had a more in vivo-like 3D limb shape. Sections of limbbuds from both types of cultures had excellent cartilage differentiation, with apparently more cell maturation, and hypertrophy in the specimens cultured in the bioreactor. Morphometric quantitation of the cartilaginous elements for comparisons of the two culture systems was complicated due to some limb buds fusing together during culture. This problem was especially noticeable in the younger limbs, and

  7. Physics of rotation: problems and challenges

    Maeder, Andre; Meynet, Georges

    2015-01-01

    We examine some debated points in current discussions about rotating stars: the shape, the gravity darkening, the critical velocities, the mass loss rates, the hydrodynamical instabilities, the internal mixing and N-enrichments. The study of rotational mixing requires high quality data and careful analysis. From recent studies where such conditions are fulfilled, rotational mixing is well confirmed. Magnetic coupling with stellar winds may produce an apparent contradiction, i.e. stars with a low rotation and a high N-enrichment. We point out that it rather confirms the large role of shears in differentially rotating stars for the transport processes. New models of interacting binaries also show how shears and mixing may be enhanced in close binaries which are either spun up or down by tidal interactions.

  8. Rod rotation and differential rod contouring followed by direct vertebral rotation for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: effect on thoracic and thoracolumbar or lumbar curves assessed with intraoperative computed tomography.

    Seki, Shoji; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Nakano, Masato; Makino, Hiroto; Mine, Hayato; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2016-03-01

    Although direct vertebral rotation (DVR) is now used worldwide for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the benefit of DVR in reducing vertebral body rotation in these patients has not been determined. We investigated a possible additive effect of DVR on further reduction of vertebral body rotation in the axial plane following intraoperative rod rotation or differential rod contouring in patients undergoing surgical treatment for AIS. The study was a prospective computed tomography (CT) image analysis. We analyzed the results of the two intraoperative procedures in 30 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for AIS (Lenke type I or II: 15; Lenke type V: 15). The angle of reduction of vertebral body rotation taken by intraoperative CT scan was measured and analyzed. Pre- and postoperative responses to the Scoliosis Research Society 22 Questionnaire (SRS-22) were also analyzed. To analyze the reduction of vertebral body rotation with rod rotation or DVR, intraoperative cone-beam CT scans of the three apical vertebrae of the major curve of the scoliosis (90 vertebrae) were taken pre-rod rotation (baseline), post-rod rotation with differential rod contouring, and post-DVR in all patients. The angle of vertebral body rotation in these apical vertebrae was measured and analyzed for statistical significance. Additionally, differences between thoracic curve scoliosis (Lenke type I or II; 45 vertebrae) and thoracolumbar or lumbar curve scoliosis (Lenke type V; 45 vertebrae) were analyzed. Pre- and postoperative SRS-22 scores were evaluated in all patients. The mean (90 vertebrae) vertebral body rotation angles at baseline, post-rod rotation or differential rod contouring, and post-rod rotation or differential rod contouring or post-DVR were 17.3°, 11.1°, and 6.9°, respectively. The mean reduction in vertebral body rotation with the rod rotation technique was 6.8° for thoracic curves and 5.7° for thoracolumbar or lumbar curves (pself

  9. Differential detection for measurements of Faraday rotation by means of ac magnetic fields

    Valev, V K; Wouters, J; Verbiest, T

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that by using a combination of a Wollaston prism and two photodiodes the accuracy in the measurements of Faraday rotation with ac magnetic fields can be greatly improved. Our experiments were performed on microscope cover glass plates with thicknesses between 0.13 and 0.16 mm. We show that our setup is capable of distinguishing between the Faraday rotation signals of glass plates having a difference in thickness of a few micrometers, corresponding to Faraday rotations of hundreds of microdegrees per Tesla only

  10. Exploring Algorithms for Stellar Light Curves With TESS

    Buzasi, Derek

    2018-01-01

    The Kepler and K2 missions have produced tens of thousands of stellar light curves, which have been used to measure rotation periods, characterize photometric activity levels, and explore phenomena such as differential rotation. The quasi-periodic nature of rotational light curves, combined with the potential presence of additional periodicities not due to rotation, complicates the analysis of these time series and makes characterization of uncertainties difficult. A variety of algorithms have been used for the extraction of rotational signals, including autocorrelation functions, discrete Fourier transforms, Lomb-Scargle periodograms, wavelet transforms, and the Hilbert-Huang transform. In addition, in the case of K2 a number of different pipelines have been used to produce initial detrended light curves from the raw image frames.In the near future, TESS photometry, particularly that deriving from the full-frame images, will dramatically further expand the number of such light curves, but details of the pipeline to be used to produce photometry from the FFIs remain under development. K2 data offers us an opportunity to explore the utility of different reduction and analysis tool combinations applied to these astrophysically important tasks. In this work, we apply a wide range of algorithms to light curves produced by a number of popular K2 pipeline products to better understand the advantages and limitations of each approach and provide guidance for the most reliable and most efficient analysis of TESS stellar data.

  11. USE OF A NOVEL BOARD GAME IN A CLINICAL ROTATION FOR LEARNING THORACIC DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES IN VETERINARY MEDICAL IMAGING.

    Ober, Christopher P

    2017-03-01

    When confronted with various findings on thoracic radiographs, fourth-year veterinary students often have difficulty generating appropriate lists of differential diagnoses. The purpose of this one-group, pretest, posttest experimental study was to determine if a game could be used as an adjunct teaching method to improve students' understanding of connections between imaging findings and differential diagnoses. A novel board game focusing on differential diagnoses in thoracic radiography was developed. One hundred fourth-year veterinary students took a brief pretest, played the board game, and took a brief posttest as a part of their respective clinical radiology rotations. Pretest results were compared to posttest results using a paired t-test to determine if playing the game impacted student understanding. Students' mean scores on the posttest were significantly higher than mean pretest scores (P game resulted in improved short-term understanding of thoracic differential diagnoses by fourth-year students, and use of the board game on a clinical rotation seems to be a beneficial part of the learning process. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  12. Stellar formation

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  13. Stellar magnetic activity and exoplanets

    Vidotto A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that magnetic activity could be enhanced due to interactions between close-in massive planets and their host stars. In this article, I present a brief overview of the connection between stellar magnetic activity and exoplanets. Stellar activity can be probed in chromospheric lines, coronal emission, surface spot coverage, etc. Since these are manifestations of stellar magnetism, these measurements are often used as proxies for the magnetic field of stars. Here, instead of focusing on the magnetic proxies, I overview some recent results of magnetic field measurements using spectropolarimetric observations. Firstly, I discuss the general trends found between large-scale magnetism, stellar rotation, and coronal emission and show that magnetism seems to be correlated to the internal structure of the star. Secondly, I overview some works that show evidence that exoplanets could (or not act as to enhance the activity of their host stars.

  14. Large scale circulation in the convection zone and solar differential rotation

    Belvedere, G [Instituto di Astronomia dell' Universita di Catania, 95125 Italy; Paterno, L [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, 95125 Italy

    1976-04-01

    In this paper the dependence on depth and latitude of the solar angular velocity produced by a meridian circulation in the convection zone is studied assuming that the main mechanism responsible for setting up and driving the circulation is the interaction of rotation with convection. The first order equations (perturbation of the spherically symmetric state are solved in the Boussinesq approximation and in the steady state for the axissymmetric case. The interaction of convection with rotation is modelled by a convective transport coefficient. The model is consistent with the fact that the interaction of convection with rotation sets up a circulation (driven by the temperature gradient) which carries angular momentum toward the equator against the viscous friction. Unfortunately also a large flux variation at the surface is obtained. Nevertheless it seems that the model has the basic requisites for correct dynamo action.

  15. Stellar remnants

    Kawaler, S D; Srinivasan, G

    1997-01-01

    This volume examines the internal structure, origin and evolution of white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, all objects at the final stage of stellar evolution. It covers topics such as: pulsation of white dwarfs; millisecond pulsars; and the dynamics around black holes.

  16. for the internal rotation evolution of low-mass stars

    Pinçon Charly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler, noteworthy breakthroughs have been made in our understanding of stellar evolution, and in particular about the angular momentum redistribution in stellar interiors. Indeed, the high-precision seismic data provide with the measurement of the mean core rotation rate for thousands of low-mass stars from the subgiant branch to the red giant branch. All these observations exhibit much lower core rotation rates than expected by current stellar evolution codes and they emphasize the need for an additional transport process. In this framework, internal gravity waves (herefater, IGW could play a signifivative role since they are known to be able to transport angular momentum. In this work, we estimate the effciency of the transport by the IGW that are generated by penetrative convection at the interface between the convective and the radiative regions. As a first step, this study is based on the comparison between the timescale for the waves to modify a given rotation profile and the contraction/expansion timescale throughout the radiative zone of 1.3M⊙ stellar models. We show that IGW, on their own, are ineffcient to slow down the core rotation of stars on the red giant branch, where the radiative damping becomes strong enough and prevent the IGW from reaching the innermost layers. However, we find that IGW generated by penetrative convection could effciently modify the core rotation of subgiant stars as soon as the amplitude of the radial differential rotation between the core and the base of the convective zone is high enough, with typical values close to the observed rotation rates in these stars. This result argues for the necessity to account for IGW generated by penetrative convection in stellar modeling and in the angular momentum redistribution issue.

  17. Introduction to stellar astrophysics. V. 1

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1989-01-01

    This textbook introduces basic elements of fundamental astronomy and astrophysics which serve as a foundation for understanding the structure, evolution, and observed properties of stars. The first half of the book explains how stellar motions, distances, luminosities, colours, radii, masses and temperatures are measured or derived. The author then shows how data of these sorts can be arranged to classify stars through their spectra. Stellar rotation and stellar magnetic fields are introduced. Stars with peculiar spectra and pulsating stars also merit special attention. The endpoints of stellar evolutions are briefly described. There is a separate chapter on the Sun and a final one on interstellar absorption. (author)

  18. Solar differential rotation in the period 1964-2016 determined by the Kanzelhohe data set

    Beljan, I.P.; Jurdana-Šepić, R.; Brajša, R.; Sudar, D.; Ruždjak, D.; Hržina, D.; Pötzi, W.; Hanslmeier, A.; Veronig, A.; Skokić, Ivica; Wöhl, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 606, October (2017), A72/1-A72/10 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E13003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312495 - SOLARNET Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * photosphere * rotation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  19. Stellar winds

    Weymann, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored

  20. Benchmarking in a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment: Multiple equilibria in the light of laboratory experiments and simulations

    Vincze, Miklos; Harlander, Uwe; Borchert, Sebastian; Achatz, Ulrich; Baumann, Martin; Egbers, Christoph; Fröhlich, Jochen; Hertel, Claudia; Heuveline, Vincent; Hickel, Stefan; von Larcher, Thomas; Remmler, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the German Science Foundation's (DFG) priority program 'MetStröm' various laboratory experiments have been carried out in a differentially heated rotating annulus configuration in order to test, validate and tune numerical methods to be used for modeling large-scale atmospheric processes. This classic experimental set-up is well known since the late 1940s and is a widely studied minimal model of the general mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. The two most relevant factors of cyclogenesis, namely rotation and meridional temperature gradient are quite well captured in this simple arrangement. The tabletop-size rotating tank is divided into three sections by coaxial cylindrical sidewalls. The innermost section is cooled whereas the outermost annular cavity is heated, therefore the working fluid (de-ionized water) in the middle annular section experiences differential heat flow, which imposes thermal (density) stratification on the fluid. At high enough rotation rates the isothermal surfaces tilt, leading to baroclinic instability. The extra potential energy stored in this unstable configuration is then converted into kinetic energy, exciting drifting wave patterns of temperature and momentum anomalies. The signatures of these baroclinic waves at the free water surface have been analysed via infrared thermography in a wide range of rotation rates (keeping the radial temperature difference constant) and under different initial conditions (namely, initial spin-up and "spin-down"). Paralelly to the laboratory simulations of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, five other groups from the MetStröm collaboration have conducted simulations in the same parameter regime using different numerical approaches and solvers, and applying different initial conditions and perturbations for stability analysis. The obtained baroclinic wave patterns have been evaluated via determining and comparing their Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs), drift rates and dominant wave

  1. Stellarator physics

    1990-07-01

    This document consists of the proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Stellarators, held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 10-14 April, 1989. The document consists of a summary of presentations, an overview of experimental results, and papers presented at the workshop on transport, impurities and divertors, diagnostics, ECH confinement experiments, equilibrium and stability studies, RF heating, confinement, magnetic configurations, and new experiments. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Accelerated and Improved Differentiation of Retinal Organoids from Pluripotent Stem Cells in Rotating-Wall Vessel Bioreactors

    Tyler DiStefano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated into 3D retinal organoids, with major cell types self-patterning into a polarized, laminated architecture. In static cultures, organoid development may be hindered by limitations in diffusion of oxygen and nutrients. Herein, we report a bioprocess using rotating-wall vessel (RWV bioreactors to culture retinal organoids derived from mouse pluripotent stem cells. Organoids in RWV demonstrate enhanced proliferation, with well-defined morphology and improved differentiation of neurons including ganglion cells and S-cone photoreceptors. Furthermore, RWV organoids at day 25 (D25 reveal similar maturation and transcriptome profile as those at D32 in static culture, closely recapitulating spatiotemporal development of postnatal day 6 mouse retina in vivo. Interestingly, however, retinal organoids do not differentiate further under any in vitro condition tested here, suggesting additional requirements for functional maturation. Our studies demonstrate that bioreactors can accelerate and improve organoid growth and differentiation for modeling retinal disease and evaluation of therapies.

  3. Stellar convection and dynamo theory

    Jennings, R L

    1989-10-01

    In considering the large scale stellar convection problem the outer layers of a star are modelled as two co-rotating plane layers coupled at a fluid/fluid interface. Heating from below causes only the upper fluid to convect, although this convection can penetrate into the lower fluid. Stability analysis is then used to find the most unstable mode of convection. With parameters appropriate to the Sun the most unstable mode is steady convection in thin cells (aspect ratio {approx equal} 0.2) filling the convection zone. There is negligible vertical motion in the lower fluid, but considerable thermal penetration, and a large jump in helicity at the interface, which has implications for dynamo theory. An {alpha}{omega} dynamo is investigated in isolation from the convection problem. Complexity is included by allowing both latitudinal and time dependence in the magnetic fields. The nonlinear dynamics of the resulting partial differential equations are analysed in considerable detail. On varying the main control parameter D (the dynamo number), many transitions of behaviour are found involving many forms of time dependence, but not chaos. Further, solutions which break equatorial symmetry are common and provide a theoretical explanation of solar observations which have this symmetry. Overall the behaviour was more complicated than expected. In particular, there were multiple stable solutions at fixed D, meaning that similar stars can have very different magnetic patterns, depending upon their history. (author).

  4. The K2 M67 Study: Establishing the Limits of Stellar Rotation Period Measurements in M67 with K2 Campaign 5 Data

    Esselstein, Rebecca; Aigrain, Suzanne; Vanderburg, Andrew; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Meibom, Soren; Van Saders, Jennifer; Mathieu, Robert

    2018-06-01

    The open cluster M67 offers a unique opportunity to measure rotation periods for solar-age stars across a range of masses, potentially filling a critical gap in the understanding of angular momentum loss in older main sequence stars. The observation of M67 by NASA K2 Campaign 5 provided light curves with high enough precision to make this task possible, albeit challenging, as the pointing instability, 75 day observation window, crowded field, and typically low-amplitude signals mean that determining accurate rotation periods on the order of 25–30 days is inherently difficult. Lingering, non-astrophysical signals with power at ≥25 days found in a set of Campaign 5 A and F stars compounds the problem. To achieve a quantitative understanding of the best-case scenario limits for reliable period detection imposed by these inconveniences, we embarked on a comprehensive set of injection tests, injecting 120,000 sinusoidal signals with periods ranging from 5 to 35 days and amplitudes from 0.05% to 3.0% into real Campaign 5 M67 light curves processed using two different pipelines. We attempted to recover the signals using a normalized version of the Lomb–Scargle periodogram and setting a detection threshold. We find that, while the reliability of detected periods is high, the completeness (sensitivity) drops rapidly with increasing period and decreasing amplitude, maxing at a 15% recovery rate for the solar case (i.e., 25 day period, 0.1% amplitude). This study highlights the need for caution in determining M67 rotation periods from Campaign 5 data, but this can be extended to other clusters observed by K2 (and soon, TESS).

  5. Use of the stellarator expansion to investigate plasma equilibrium in modular stellarators

    Anania, G.; Johnson, J.L.; Weimer, K.E.

    1982-11-01

    A numerical code utilizing a large-aspect ratio, small-helical-distortion expansion is developed and used to investigate the effect of plasma currents on stellarator equilibrium. Application to modular stellarator configurations shows that a large rotational transform, and hence large coil deformation, is needed to achieve high-beta equilibria

  6. Rotating Wavepackets

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  7. Stellar evolution

    Meadows, A J

    2013-01-01

    Stellar Evolution, Second Edition covers the significant advances in the understanding of birth, life, and death of stars.This book is divided into nine chapters and begins with a description of the characteristics of stars according to their brightness, distance, size, mass, age, and chemical composition. The next chapters deal with the families, structure, and birth of stars. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical composition and the evolution of main-sequence stars. A chapter focuses on the unique features of the sun as a star, including its evolution, magnetic fields, act

  8. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlagen in entire embryonic mouse limbs cultured in a rotating bioreactor

    Montufar-Solis, D.; Oakley, C. R.; Jefferson, Y.; Duke, P. J.

    2003-10-01

    Mechanisms involved in development of the embryonic limb have remained the same throughout eons of genetic and environmental evolution under Earth gravity (lg). During the spaceflight era it has been of interest to explore the ancient theory that form of the skeleton develops in response to gravity, and that changes in gravitational forces can change the developmental pattern of the limb. This has been shown in vivo and in vitro, allowing the hypergravity of centrifugation and microgravity of space to be used as tools to increase our knowledge of limb development. In recapitulations of spaceflight experiments, premetatarsals were cultured in suspension in a bioreactor, and found to be shorter and less differentiated than those cultured in standard culture dishes. This study only measured length of the metatarsals, and did not account for possible changes due to the skeletal elements having a more in vivo 3D shape while in suspension vs. flattened tissues compressed by their own weight. A culture system with an outcome closer to in vivo and that supports growth of younger limb buds than traditional systems will allow studies of early Hox gene expression, and contribute to the understanding of very early stages of development. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if entire limb buds could be cultured in the bioreactor, and to compare the growth and differentiation with that of culturing in a culture dish system. Fore and hind limbs from E11-E13 ICR mouse embryos were cultured for six days, either in the bioreactor or in center-well organ culture dishes, fixed, and embedded for histology. E13 specimens grown in culture dishes were flat, while bioreactor culture specimens had a more in vivo-like 3D limb shape. Sections showed excellent cartilage differentiation in both culture systems, with more cell maturation, and hypertrophy in the specimens cultured in the bioreactor. Younger limb buds fused together during culture, so an additional set of El 1

  9. Effect of clinostat rotation on differentiation of embryonic bone in vitro

    Al-Ajmi, N.; Braidman, I. P.; Moore, D.

    We have investigated the effect of changes in the gravity vector on osteoblast behaviour, using the clinostat set at 8 rpm. Two sources of osteoblasts were used: secondary cultures of fetal rat bone cells, and the rat osteosarcoma line 17/2.8 (ROS). Cell number was determined by incubation with 3-(4,dimethyl-2yl)-2,3 diphenyl) tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and measurement of optical density at 570 nm (OD). Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected by standard cytochemical methods. Dividing cells were localised by labelling dividing nuclei with Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), detected by immunofluorescence. Cell culture was initiated at densities between 1-4x10^4 cells ml^-1. Growth rates in all cultures during the first 48 hours exposure to clinostat rotation were less than in stationary controls. After 3 days, ROS cell numbers were 35% lower, and calvarial cells 39% lower than their respective controls. Alkaline phosphatase activity in calvarial control cultures was uniformly present in characteristically polygonal cells, but after culture in the clinostat the enzyme was present sporadically, and the cells were cuboid. There was also no BrdU uptake in nuclei, but it was present in cell cytoplasms. We conclude that the clinostat decreases cell numbers and cell division. Both cell shape and the distribution of alkaline phosphatase activity in calvarial cell cultures were also affected. This implies that changes in the gravity vector can affect osteoblasts directly, without interaction with other cell types.

  10. Effect Of Superfluidity And Differential Rotation Of Quark Matter On Magetic Field Evolution in Neutron Star And Black Hole

    Aurongzeb, Deeder

    2010-11-01

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma-ray repeaters reveal that existence of very strong magnetic field(> 10e15G) from neutron stars. It has been estimated that at the core the magnitude can be even higher at the center. Apart from dynamo mechanism it has been shown that color locked ferromagnetic phase [ Phys. Rev. D. 72,114003(2005)] can be a possible origin of magnetic field. In this study, we explore electric charge of strange quark matter and its effect on forming chirality in the quark-gluon plasma. We show that electromagnetic current induced by chiral magnetic effect [(Phys. Rev. D. 78.07033(2008)] can induce differential rotation in super fluid quark-gluon plasma giving additional boost to the magnetic field. The internal phase and current has no effect from external magnetic field originating from active galactic nuclei due to superconducting phase formation which screens the fields due to Meissner effect. We show that differential motion can create high radial electric field at the surface making all radiation highly polarized and directional including thermal radiation. As the electric field strength can be even stronger for a collapsing neutron star, the implication of this study to detect radiation from black holes will also be discussed. The work was partly completed at the University of Texas at austin

  11. Rotator cuff tear state modulates self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle progenitor cells.

    Thomas, Kelsey A; Gibbons, Michael C; Lane, John G; Singh, Anshuman; Ward, Samuel R; Engler, Adam J

    2017-08-01

    Full thickness rotator cuff tendon (RCT) tears have long-term effects on RC muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, with lasting damage even after surgical tendon repair. Skeletal muscle progenitor cells (SMPs) are critical for muscle repair in response to injury, but the inability of RC muscles to recover from chronic RCT tear indicates possible deficits in repair mechanisms. Here we investigated if muscle injury state was a crucial factor during human SMP expansion and differentiation ex vivo. SMPs were isolated from muscles in patients with no, partial-thickness (PT), or full-thickness (FT) RCT tears. Despite using growth factors, physiological niche stiffness, and muscle-mimetic extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, we found that SMPs isolated from human RC muscle with RCT tears proliferated slower but fused into myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotubes at higher rates than SMPs from untorn RCTs. Proteomic analysis of RC muscle tissue revealed shifts in muscle composition with pathology, as muscle from massive RCT tears had increased ECM deposition compared with no tear RC muscle. Together these data imply that the remodeled niche in a torn RCT primes SMPs not for expansion but for differentiation, thus limiting longer-term self-renewal necessary for regeneration after surgical repair. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1816-1823, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Static magnetic Faraday rotation spectroscopy combined with a differential scheme for OH detection

    Zhao, Weixiong; Deng, Lunhua; Qian, Xiaodong; Fang, Bo; Gai, Yanbo; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Weijun

    2015-04-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) radical plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry due to its high reactivity with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gaseous species. Because of its very short life time and very low concentration in the atmosphere, interference-free high sensitivity in-situ OH monitoring by laser spectroscopy represents a real challenge. Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) relies on the particular magneto-optic effect observed for paramagnetic species, which makes it capable of enhancing the detection sensitivity and mitigation of spectral interferences from diamagnetic species in the atmosphere. When an AC magnetic field is used, the Zeeman splitting of the molecular absorption line (and thus the magnetic circular birefringence) is modulated. This provides an 'internal modulation' of the sample, which permits to suppress the external noise like interference fringes. An alternative FRS detection scheme is to use a static magnetic field (DC-field) associated with laser wavelength modulation to effectively modulate the Zeeman splitting of the absorption lines. In the DC field case, wavelength modulation of the laser frequency can provide excellent performance compared to most of the sensing systems based on direct absorption and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The dimension of the DC solenoid is not limited by the resonant frequency of the RLC circuit, which makes large dimension solenoid coil achievable and the absorption base length could be further increased. By employing a combination of the environmental photochemical reactor or smog chamber with multipass absorption cell, one can lower the minimum detection limit for high accuracy atmospheric chemistry studies. In this paper, we report on the development of a DC field based FRS in conjunction with a balanced detection scheme for OH radical detection at 2.8 μm and the construction of OH chemistry research platform which combined a large dimension superconducting magnetic coil with the

  13. Stellar astrophysics

    1987-01-01

    A number of studies in the field of steller astrophysics were undertaken by the South African Astronomical Observatory in 1986. These studies included; evolutionary effects on the surface abundances of an early-type supergiant; hydrogen deficient stars; t tauri stars; rotational modulation and flares on RS CVn and BY Dra stars; carbon and heavy element stars, and slow variability and circumstellar shells of red variable stars. 4 figs

  14. Helical post stellarator. Part 1: Vacuum configuration

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-08-01

    Results on a novel type of stellarator configuration, the Helical Post Stellarator (HPS), are presented. This configuration is different significantly from all previously known stellarators due to its unique geometrical characteristics and unique physical properties. Among those are: the magnetic field has only one toroidal period (M = 1), the plasma has an extremely low aspect ratio, A ∼ 1, and the variation of the magnetic field, B, along field lines features a helical ripple on the inside of the torus. Among the main advantages of a HPS for a fusion program are extremely compact, modular, and simple design compatible with significant rotational transform, large plasma volume, and improved particle transport characteristics

  15. Rotational velocities of low-mass stars

    Stauffer, J.B.; Hartmann, L.W.; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA)

    1986-01-01

    The rotational velocities of stars provide important clues to how stars form and evolve. Yet until recently, studies of stellar rotation were limited to stars more massive than the sun. This is beginning to change, and an observational outline of the rotational velocity evolution of stars less massive than the sun can now be provided. Low-mass stars rotate slowly during the early stages of premain-sequence evolution, and spin up as they contract to the main sequence. This spin-up culminates in a brief period of very rapid rotation at an age of order 50 million years. Physical interpretation of this increase in rotation and the subsequent main-sequence spin-down are complicated by the possibility of differential internal rotation. The observed rapidity of spin-down among G dwarfs suggests that initially only the outer convective envelopes of these stars are slowed. The data suggest an intrinsic spread in angular momentum among young stars of the same mass and age, a spread which is apparently minimized by the angular-momentum loss mechanism in old low-mass stars. 83 references

  16. The Differential Impact of Clerk Interest and Participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clerkship Rotation upon Psychiatry and Pediatrics Residency Matches

    Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…

  17. Differential and integral cross sections for the rotationally inelastic scattering of methyl radicals with H2 and D2

    Tkáč, Ondřej; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Ma, Qianli; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Rusher, Cassandra A.; Greaves, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons are presented of experimental and theoretical studies of the rotationally inelastic scattering of CD 3 radicals with H 2 and D 2 collision partners at respective collision energies of 680 ± 75 and 640 ± 60 cm −1 . Close-coupling quantum-mechanical calculations performed using a newly constructed ab initio potential energy surface (PES) provide initial-to-final CD 3 rotational level (n, k → n′, k′) integral and differential cross sections (ICSs and DCSs). The DCSs are compared with crossed molecular beam and velocity map imaging measurements of angular scattering distributions, which serve as a critical test of the accuracy of the new PES. In general, there is very good agreement between the experimental measurements and the calculations. The DCSs for CD 3 scattering from both H 2 and D 2 peak in the forward hemisphere for n′ = 2–4 and shift more to sideways and backward scattering for n′ = 5. For n′ = 6–8, the DCSs are dominated by backward scattering. DCSs for a particular CD 3 n → n′ transition have a similar angular dependence with either D 2 or H 2 as collision partner. Any differences between DCSs or ICSs can be attributed to mass effects because the PES is unchanged for CD 3 −H 2 and CD 3 –D 2 collisions. Further comparisons are drawn between the CD 3 –D 2 scattering and results for CD 3 –He presented in our recent paper [O. Tkáč, A. G. Sage, S. J. Greaves, A. J. Orr-Ewing, P. J. Dagdigian, Q. Ma, and M. H. Alexander, Chem. Sci. 4, 4199 (2013)]. These systems have the same reduced mass, but are governed by different PESs

  18. Muscle Weakness in the Empty and Full Can Tests Cannot Differentiate Rotator Cuff Tear from Cervical Spondylotic Amyotrophy: Pain Provocation is a Useful Finding.

    Iwata, Eiichiro; Shigematsu, Hideki; Inoue, Kazuya; Egawa, Takuya; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears and cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA) are often confused as the main symptom in those with difficulty in shoulder elevation. Empty and full can tests are frequently used for the clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the empty and full can test results can help differentiate rotator cuff tears from CSA. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with rotator cuff tears and 25 with CSA were enrolled. We prospectively performed empty and full can tests in patients with rotator cuff tears and CSA. The following signs were considered positive: (a) muscle weakness during the empty can test, (b) muscle weakness during the full can test, (c) pain provocation during the empty can test, and (d) pain provocation during the full can test. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of rotator cuff tears for each positive finding. The sensitivity and specificity of each index were as follows (sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV): (a) 77.8%, 0%, 45.7%, 0%; (b) 66.7%, 4.0%, 42.9%, 10.0%; (c) 88.9%, 96.0%, 96.0%, 88.9%; and (d) 74.1%, 96.0%, 95.2%, 77.4%. There were significant differences for each index. Muscle weakness during the empty and full can tests was not useful in differentiating rotator cuff tears from CSA because of low specificity and PPV. However, pain provocation was useful in differentiating these two conditions because of high specificity and PPV.

  19. macula: Rotational modulations in the photometry of spotted stars

    Kipping, David M.

    2012-09-01

    Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the observations into several basic parameters, such as the rotation period, spot coverage, stellar inclination and differential rotation rate. The most widely used analytic model for this inversion comes from Budding (1977) and Dorren (1987), who considered circular, grey starspots for a linearly limb darkened star. That model is extended to be more suitable in the analysis of high precision photometry such as that by Kepler. Macula, a Fortran 90 code, provides several improvements, such as non-linear limb darkening of the star and spot, a single-domain analytic function, partial derivatives for all input parameters, temporal partial derivatives, diluted light compensation, instrumental offset normalisations, differential rotation, starspot evolution and predictions of transit depth variations due to unocculted spots. The inclusion of non-linear limb darkening means macula has a maximum photometric error an order-of-magnitude less than that of Dorren (1987) for Sun-like stars observed in the Kepler-bandpass. The code executes three orders-of-magnitude faster than comparable numerical codes making it well-suited for inference problems.

  20. Double-diffusive convection and baroclinic instability in a differentially heated and initially stratified rotating system: the barostrat instability

    Vincze, Miklos; Borcia, Ion; Harlander, Uwe [Department of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) Cottbus-Senftenberg, Siemens-Halske-Ring 14, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); Gal, Patrice Le, E-mail: vincze.m@lecso.elte.hu [Institut de Recherche sur les Phénomènes Hors Equilibre, CNRS—Aix-Marseille University—Ecole Centrale Marseille, 49 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13384 Marseille (France)

    2016-12-15

    A water-filled differentially heated rotating annulus with initially prepared stable vertical salinity profiles is studied in the laboratory. Based on two-dimensional horizontal particle image velocimetry data and infrared camera visualizations, we describe the appearance and the characteristics of the baroclinic instability in this original configuration. First, we show that when the salinity profile is linear and confined between two non-stratified layers at top and bottom, only two separate shallow fluid layers can be destabilized. These unstable layers appear nearby the top and the bottom of the tank with a stratified motionless zone between them. This laboratory arrangement is thus particularly interesting to model geophysical or astrophysical situations where stratified regions are often juxtaposed to convective ones. Then, for more general but stable initial density profiles, statistical measures are introduced to quantify the extent of the baroclinic instability at given depths and to analyze the connections between this depth-dependence and the vertical salinity profiles. We find that, although the presence of stable stratification generally hinders full-depth overturning, double-diffusive convection can lead to development of multicellular sideways convection in shallow layers and subsequently to a multilayered baroclinic instability. Therefore we conclude that by decreasing the characteristic vertical scale of the flow, stratification may even enhance the formation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies (and thus, mixing) in a local sense. (paper)

  1. Double-diffusive convection and baroclinic instability in a differentially heated and initially stratified rotating system: the barostrat instability

    Vincze, Miklos; Borcia, Ion; Harlander, Uwe; Gal, Patrice Le

    2016-01-01

    A water-filled differentially heated rotating annulus with initially prepared stable vertical salinity profiles is studied in the laboratory. Based on two-dimensional horizontal particle image velocimetry data and infrared camera visualizations, we describe the appearance and the characteristics of the baroclinic instability in this original configuration. First, we show that when the salinity profile is linear and confined between two non-stratified layers at top and bottom, only two separate shallow fluid layers can be destabilized. These unstable layers appear nearby the top and the bottom of the tank with a stratified motionless zone between them. This laboratory arrangement is thus particularly interesting to model geophysical or astrophysical situations where stratified regions are often juxtaposed to convective ones. Then, for more general but stable initial density profiles, statistical measures are introduced to quantify the extent of the baroclinic instability at given depths and to analyze the connections between this depth-dependence and the vertical salinity profiles. We find that, although the presence of stable stratification generally hinders full-depth overturning, double-diffusive convection can lead to development of multicellular sideways convection in shallow layers and subsequently to a multilayered baroclinic instability. Therefore we conclude that by decreasing the characteristic vertical scale of the flow, stratification may even enhance the formation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies (and thus, mixing) in a local sense. (paper)

  2. Models of hot stellar systems

    Van Albada, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    Elliptical galaxies consist almost entirely of stars. Sites of recent star formation are rare, and most stars are believed to be several billion years old, perhaps as old as the Universe itself (--10/sup 10/ yrs). Stellar motions in ellipticals show a modest amount of circulation about the center of the system, but most support against the force of gravity is provided by random motions; for this reason ellipticals are called 'hot' stellar systems. Spiral galaxies usually also contain an appreciable amount of gas (--10%, mainly atomic hydrogen) and new stars are continually being formed out of this gas, especially in the spiral arms. In contrast to ellipticals, support against gravity in spiral galaxies comes almost entirely from rotation; random motions of the stars with respect to rotation are small. Consequently, spiral galaxies are called 'cold' stellar systems. Other than in hot systems, in cold systems the collective response of stars to variations in the force field is an essential part of the dynamics. The present overview is limited to mathematical models of hot systems. Computational methods are also discussed

  3. Stellar Metamorphosis:

    2002-01-01

    [TOP LEFT AND RIGHT] The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 has captured images of the birth of two planetary nebulae as they emerge from wrappings of gas and dust, like butterflies breaking out of their cocoons. These images highlight a fleeting phase in the stellar burnout process, occurring just before dying stars are transformed into planetary nebulae. The left-hand image is the Cotton Candy nebula, IRAS 17150-3224; the right-hand image, the Silkworm nebula, IRAS 17441-2411. Called proto-planetary nebulae, these dying stars have been caught in a transition phase between a red giant and a planetary nebula. This phase is only about 1,000 years long, very short in comparison to the 1 billion-year lifetime of a star. These images provide the earliest snapshots of the transition process. Studying images of proto-planetary nebulae is important to understanding the process of star death. A star begins to die when it has exhausted its thermonuclear fuel - hydrogen and helium. The star then becomes bright and cool (red giant phase) and swells to several tens of times its normal size. It begins puffing thin shells of gas off into space. These shells become the star's cocoon. In the Hubble images, the shells are the concentric rings seen around each nebula. But the images also reveal the nebulae breaking out from those shells. The butterfly-like wings of gas and dust are a common shape of planetary nebulae. Such butterfly shapes are created by the 'interacting winds' process, in which a more recent 'fast wind' - material propelled by radiation from the hot central star - punches a hole in the cocoon, allowing the nebula to emerge. (This 'interacting wind' theory was first proposed by Dr. Sun Kwok to explain the origin of planetary nebulae, and has been subsequently proven successful in explaining their shapes.) The nebulae are being illuminated by light from the invisible central star, which is then reflected toward us. We are viewing the nebulae

  4. The DEMO Quasisymmetric Stellarator

    Geoffrey B. McFadden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The NSTAB nonlinear stability code solves differential equations in conservation form, and the TRAN Monte Carlo test particle code tracks guiding center orbits in a fixed background, to provide simulations of equilibrium, stability, and transport in tokamaks and stellarators. These codes are well correlated with experimental observations and have been validated by convergence studies. Bifurcated 3D solutions of the 2D tokamak problem have been calculated that model persistent disruptions, neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs and edge localized modes (ELMs occurring in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER, which does not pass the NSTAB simulation test for nonlinear stability. So we have designed a quasiaxially symmetric (QAS stellarator with similar proportions as a candidate for the demonstration (DEMO fusion reactor that does pass the test [1]. The configuration has two field periods and an exceptionally accurate 2D symmetry that furnishes excellent thermal confinement and good control of the prompt loss of alpha particles. Robust coils are found from a filtered form of the Biot-Savart law based on a distribution of current over a control surface for the coils and the current in the plasma defined by the equilibrium calculation. Computational science has addressed the issues of equilibrium, stability, and transport, so it remains to develop an effective plan to construct the coils and build a diverter.

  5. Helical-axis stellarators with noninterlocking planar coils

    Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.

    1983-08-01

    The properties of helical axis stellarator fields generated by unlinked, planar coils are described. It is shown that such fields can have a magnetic well and large rotational transform, implying large equilibrium and stability beta limits

  6. Helical-axis stellarators with noninterlocking planar coils

    Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.

    1983-08-01

    The properties of helical axis stellarator fields generated by unlinked, planar coils are described. It is shown that such fields can have a magnetic well and large rotational transform, implying large equilibrium and stability beta limits.

  7. Internal differential rotation of the Sun: the P-modes frequency splitting in the measurements of brightness oscillations

    Didkovskij, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    a 12-DAY SERIES OF TWO-DIMNIONAL IMAGES OF SOLAR BRIGHTNESS OSCILLATIONS EIGENFREQUENCIES in the range of 6-32 degrees. The rotational frequency splitting of separate modes as a function of inner turn-points radius of acoustic waves is found. The results of the analysis shw fast rotation of the central region of the Sun and non-monotonous trend of angular rotation velocity varitions with radius of the boundary of solar core

  8. A Dream of a Mission: Stellar Imager and Seismic Probe

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Stellar Imager and Seismic Probe (SISP) is a mission to understand the various effects of magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best-possible forecasting of solar activity on times scales ranging up to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on astrobiology and life in the Universe. The road to that goal will revolutionize our understanding of stars and stellar systems, the building blocks of the Universe. SISP will zoom in on what today - with few exceptions - we only know as point sources, revealing processes never before seen, thus providing a tool to astrophysics as fundamental as the microscope is to the study of life on Earth. SISP is an ultraviolet aperture-synthesis imager with 8-10 telescopes with meter-class apertures, and a central hub with focal-plane instrumentation that allows spectrophotometry in passbands as narrow as a few Angstroms up to hundreds of Angstroms. SISP will image stars and binaries with one hundred to one thousand resolution elements on their surface, and sound their interiors through asteroseismology to image internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations; this will provide accurate knowledge of stellar structure and evolution and complex transport processes, and will impact numerous branches of (astro)physics ranging from the Big Bang to the future of the Universe. Fitting naturally within the NASA long-term time line, SISP complements defined missions, and with them will show us entire other solar systems, from the central star to their orbiting planets.

  9. Advanced stellarator power plants

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies

  10. Mixing by shear instabilities in differentially rotating inhomogeneous stars with application to accreting white dwarf models for novae

    MacDonald, J.

    1983-10-01

    The problem of how shear instabilities redistribute matter and angular momentum accreted by a star from a disk is considered. Necessary conditions for stability of the star to nonaxisymmetric perturbations are derived by use of the short wavelength approximation. By considering growth rates, it is shown that freshly accreted material rapidly takes up a quasi-spherical distribution due to dynamical instabilities. However, mixing inward toward the stellar interior occurs on a thermal time scale or longer.

  11. Stellar Dynamics

    Binney, James

    Gröninger was dissatisfied with his approximate treatment of (141) since it gave poor estimates of the fundamental lines in the waterstuff spectrum. We have even less reason to be satisfied with the Lin-Shu-Kalnajs analysis of (140) which, unaided, is unable to give an adequate account of even the high-frequency normal modes; Personne's programme turns out to involve loosely-wound waves for which the LsK-dispersion relation is not really valid. Obviously more powerful techniques need to be developed for the solution of (140). Meanwhile, is the TWA theory of spiral structure worth bothering with? Quantitatively the TWA theory is not a success. Yet it has played an important role in the study of galaxies by introducing a widely employed conceptual framework. Only after effective machinery for the evaluation of normal modes of disks is available will we know for certain whether this role has been beneficial. In any event one must not underestimate the con- and de-structuve influence on progress in science of the conceptual frameworks that simple models introduce. Two examples will illustrate this point: (i) High-energy physicists think always in terms of particles and interactions and yet these are really just elements (propagators and vertices) introduced during the iterative solution of a set of coupled non-linear integro-differential equations. (ii) Isaac Newton spent vastly more time, thought and experimental effort on chemistry than on either physics or mathematics. Yet his incomparable mind, which both before and after his period as a chemist revolutionized mathematics and first demonstrated the possibility of exact science, achieved nothing of lasting value in Chemistry, whose foundations were to be laid by men of much smaller stature in the mid 18thc. Why did he fail so miserably? Because his conceptual framework was pre-Newtonian; brought up in the mystical, pre-Enlightenment mid 17thc. he thought in terms of the ancient alchemical concepts of corruption and

  12. Models of large-scale magnetic fields in stellar interiors. Application to solar and ap stars

    Duez, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Stellar astrophysics needs today new models of large-scale magnetic fields, which are observed through spectropolarimetry at the surface of Ap/Bp stars, and thought to be an explanation for the uniform rotation of the solar radiation zone, deduced from helio seismic inversions. During my PhD, I focused on describing the possible magnetic equilibria in stellar interiors. The found configurations are mixed poloidal-toroidal, and minimize the energy for a given helicity, in analogy with Taylor states encountered in spheromaks. Taking into account the self-gravity leads us to the 'non force-free' equilibria family, that will thus influence the stellar structure. I derived all the physical quantities associated with the magnetic field; then I evaluated the perturbations they induce on gravity, thermodynamic quantities as well as energetic ones, for a solar model and an Ap star. 3D MHD simulations allowed me to show that these equilibria form a first stable states family, the generalization of such states remaining an open question. It has been shown that a large-scale magnetic field confined in the solar radiation zone can induce an oblateness comparable to a high core rotation law. I also studied the secular interaction between the magnetic field, the differential rotation and the meridional circulation in the aim of implementing their effects in a next generation stellar evolution code. The influence of the magnetism on convection has also been studied. Finally, hydrodynamic processes responsible for the mixing have been compared with diffusion and a change of convection's efficiency in the case of a CoRoT star target. (author) [fr

  13. Comparative studies of stellarator and tokamak transport

    Stroth, U; Burhenn, R; Geiger, J; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H J; Kuehner, G; Ledl, L; Simmet, E E; Walter, H [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-Euratom Association, Garching (Germany); ECRH Team; W7-AS Team

    1997-09-01

    Transport properties in the W7-AS stellarator and in tokamaks are compared. The parameter dependences and the absolute values of the energy confinement time are similar. Indications are found that the density dependence, which is usually observed in stellarator confinement, can vanish above a critical density. The density dependence in stellarators seems to be similar to that in the linear ohmic confinement regime, which, in small tokamaks, extends to high density values, too. Because of the similarity in the gross confinement properties, transport in stellarators and tokamaks should not be dominated by the parameters which are very different in the two concepts, i.e. magnetic shear, major rational values of the rotational transform and plasma current. A difference in confinement is that there exists evidence for pinches in the particle and, possibly, energy transport channels in tokamaks whereas in stellarators no pinches have been observed, so far. In order to study the effect of plasma current and toroidal electric fields, stellarator discharges were carried out with an increasing amount of plasma current. From these experiments, no clear evidence of a connection of pinches with these parameters is found. The transient response in W7-AS plasmas can be described in terms of a non-local model. As in tokamaks, also cold pulse experiments in W7-AS indicate the importance of non-local transport. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs.

  14. Models for stellar flares

    Cram, L.E.; Woods, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    We study the response of certain spectral signatures of stellar flares (such as Balmer line profiles and the broad-band continuum) to changes in atmospheric structure which might result from physical processes akin to those thought to occur in solar flares. While each physical process does not have a unique signature, we can show that some of the observed properties of stellar flares can be explained by a model which involves increased pressures and temperatures in the flaring stellar chromosphere. We suggest that changes in stellar flare area, both with time and with depth in the atmosphere, may play an important role in producing the observed flare spectrum

  15. Stellar Physics 2: Stellar Evolution and Stability

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennady S

    2011-01-01

    "Stellar Physics" is a an outstanding book in the growing body of literature on star formation and evolution. Not only does the author, a leading expert in the field, very thoroughly present the current state of knowledge on stellar physics, but he handles with equal care the many problems that this field of research still faces. A bibliography with well over 1000 entries makes this book an unparalleled reference source. "Stellar Evolution and Stability" is the second of two volumes and can be read, as can the first volume "Fundamental Concepts and Stellar Equilibrium," as a largely independent work. It traces in great detail the evolution of protostars towards the main sequence and beyond this to the last stage of stellar evolution, with the corresponding vast range from white dwarfs to supernovae explosions, gamma-ray bursts and black hole formation. The book concludes with special chapters on the dynamical, thermal and pulsing stability of stars. This second edition is carefully updated in the areas of pre...

  16. Three-dimensional solutions of the magnetohydrostatic equations for rigidly rotating magnetospheres in cylindrical coordinates

    Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present new analytical three-dimensional solutions of the magnetohydrostatic equations, which are applicable to the co-rotating frame of reference outside a rigidly rotating cylindrical body, and have potential applications to planetary magnetospheres and stellar coronae. We consider the case with centrifugal force only, and use a transformation method in which the governing equation for the "pseudo-potential" (from which the magnetic field can be calculated) becomes the Laplace partial differential equation. The new solutions extend the set of previously found solutions to those of a "fractional multipole" nature, and offer wider possibilities for modelling than before. We consider some special cases, and present example solutions.

  17. Stellar photometry and polarimetry

    Golay, M.; Serkowski, K.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of progress made in stellar photometry and polarimetry over the period 1973-1975 is presented. Reports of photometric measurements from various observatories throughout the world are summarized. The summary of work on stellar polarimetry lists the review papers, the catalogues and lists of standard stars, and descriptions of new observing techniques. (B.R.H.)

  18. Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model

    Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.

    1985-02-01

    An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift

  19. Compact stellarators as reactors

    Lyon, J.F.; Valanju, P.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Hirshman, S.; Spong, D.A.; Strickler, D.; Williamson, D.E.; Ware, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of compact stellarators are examined as reactors: two- and three-field-period (M=2 and 3) quasi-axisymmetric devices with volume-average =4-5% and M=2 and 3 quasi-poloidal devices with =10-15%. These low-aspect-ratio stellarator-tokamak hybrids differ from conventional stellarators in their use of the plasma-generated bootstrap current to supplement the poloidal field from external coils. Using the ARIES-AT model with B max =12T on the coils gives Compact Stellarator reactors with R=7.3-8.2m, a factor of 2-3 smaller R than other stellarator reactors for the same assumptions, and neutron wall loadings up to 3.7MWm -2 . (author)

  20. MACULA: Fast Modeling of Rotational Modulations of Spotty Stars

    Kipping, David

    2015-08-01

    Rotational modulations are frequently observed on stars observed by photometry surveys such as Kepler, with periodicities ranging from days to months and amplitudes of sub-parts-per-million to several percent. These variations may be studied to reveal important stellar properties such as rotational periods, inclinations and gradients of differential rotation. However, inverting the disk-integrated flux into a solution for spot number, sizes, contrasts, etc is highly degenerate and thereby necessitating an exhaustive search of the parameter space. In recognition of this, the software MACULA is designed to be a fast forward model of circular, grey spots on rotating stars, including effects such as differential rotation, spot evolution and even spot penumbra/umbra. MACULA seeks to achieve computational efficiency by using a wholly analytic description of the disk-integrated flux, which is described in Kipping (2012), leading to a computational improvement of three orders-of-magnitude over its numerical counterparts. As part of the hack day, I'll show how to simulate light curves with MACULA and provide examples with visualizations. I will also discuss the on-going development of the code, which will head towards modeling spot crossing events and radial velocity jitter and I encourage discussions amongst the participants on analytic methods to this end.

  1. Final phases of stellar evolution and the supernova phenomenon

    Gallino, R [Torino, Universita, Turin, Italy; Masani, A [CNR, Laboratorio di Cosmo-geofisica, Turin, Italy

    1977-12-01

    Various theoretical aspects of the final stages of stellar evolution are reviewed in the framework of gravitational collapse and thermonuclear reactions (C-12 and O-16) in degenerate electron conditions. Attention is given to the evolution of supermassive stars, massive stars, and low-mass stars and to such topics as neutrino emission in intermediate-mass stars, white-dwarf supernovae, rotational instability, and stellar collisions and eclipsing binary systems.

  2. New Classes of Quasi-helically Symmetric Stellarators

    Ku, L.P.; Boozer, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    New classes of quasi-helically symmetric stellarators with aspect ratios (le) 10 have been found which are stable to the perturbation of magnetohydrodynamic modes at plasma pressures of practical interest. These configurations have large rotational transform and good quality of flux surfaces. Characteristics of some selected examples are discussed in detail. The feasibility of using modular coils for these stellarators has been investigated. It is shown that practical designs for modular coils can be achieved.

  3. Physics of Compact Advanced Stellarators

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Berry, L.A.; Brooks, A.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.-Y.; Hirshman, S.; Hudson, S.; Ku, L.-P.; Lazarus, E.; Mikkelsen, D.; Monticello, D.; Neilson, G.H.; Pomphrey, N.; Reiman, A.; Spong, D.; Strickler, D.; Boozer, A.; Cooper, W.A.; Goldston, R.; Hatcher, R.; Isaev, M.; Kessel, C.; Lewandowski, J.; Lyon, J.; Merkel, P.; Mynick, H.; Nelson, B.E.; Nuehrenberg, C.; Redi, M.; Reiersen, W.; Rutherford, P.; Sanchez, R.; Schmidt, J.; White, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Compact optimized stellarators offer novel solutions for confining high-beta plasmas and developing magnetic confinement fusion. The 3-D plasma shape can be designed to enhance the MHD stability without feedback or nearby conducting structures and provide drift-orbit confinement similar to tokamaks. These configurations offer the possibility of combining the steady-state low-recirculating power, external control, and disruption resilience of previous stellarators with the low-aspect ratio, high beta-limit, and good confinement of advanced tokamaks. Quasi-axisymmetric equilibria have been developed for the proposed National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) with average aspect ratio 4-4.4 and average elongation of approximately 1.8. Even with bootstrap-current consistent profiles, they are passively stable to the ballooning, kink, vertical, Mercier, and neoclassical-tearing modes for beta > 4%, without the need for external feedback or conducting walls. The bootstrap current generates only 1/4 of the magnetic rotational transform at beta = 4% (the rest is from the coils), thus the equilibrium is much less nonlinear and is more controllable than similar advanced tokamaks. The enhanced stability is a result of ''reversed'' global shear, the spatial distribution of local shear, and the large fraction of externally generated transform. Transport simulations show adequate fast-ion confinement and thermal neoclassical transport similar to equivalent tokamaks. Modular coils have been designed which reproduce the physics properties, provide good flux surfaces, and allow flexible variation of the plasma shape to control the predicted MHD stability and transport properties

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in a stellarator

    Matsuoka, K.; Miyamoto, K.; Ohasa, K.; Wakatani, M.

    1977-05-01

    Numerical studies of stability on kink and resistive tearing modes in a linear stellarator are presented for various current profiles and helical fields. In the case of an l = 2 helical field, a magnetic shear vanishes and the stability diagram is given by the straight lines with iota sup(σ) + iota sup(delta) = const., where iota sup(σ) is a rotational transform due to the plasma current and iota sup(delta) is due to the helical field. In the l = 2 stellarator with chi sup(delta) > 0.5, the m.h.d. stability against kink and tearing modes is improved compared with that in tokamaks. While an l = 3 helical component exists, the magnetic shear plays an important role in the stability properties. The stability diagrams become fairly complex; however, they can be explained by properties of the Euler equation. It should be noted that the internal kink modes become more unstable than in tokamaks by the l = 3 helical field. (auth.)

  5. Stellarmak a hybrid stellarator: Spheromak

    Hartman, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses hybridization of modified Stellarator-like transform windings (T-windings) with a Spheromak or Field-Reversed-Mirror configuration. This configuration, Stellarmak, retains the important topological advantage of the Spheromak or FRM of having no plasma linking conductors or blankets. The T-windings provide rotational transformation in toroidal angle of the outer poloidal field lines, in effect creating a reversed B/sub Toroidal/ Spheromak or adding average B/sub T/ to the FRM producing higher shear, increased limiting β, and possibly greater stability to kinks and tilt. The presence of field ripple in the toroidal direction may be sufficient to inhibit cancellation of directed ion current by electron drag to allow steady state operation with the toroidal as well as poloidal current maintained by neutral beams

  6. Magnetohydodynamics stability of compact stellarators

    Fu, G.Y.; Ku, L.P.; Cooper, W.A.; Hirshman, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Recent stability results of external kink modes and vertical modes in compact stellarators are presented. The vertical mode is found to be stabilized by externally generated poloidal flux. A simple stability criterion is derived in the limit of large aspect ratio and constant current density. For a wall at infinite distance from the plasma, the amount of external flux needed for stabilization is given by Fi = (k2 minus k)=(k2 + 1), where k is the axisymmetric elongation and Fi is the fraction of the external rotational transform. A systematic parameter study shows that the external kink mode in QAS can be stabilized at high beta (approximately 5%) without a conducting wall by magnetic shear via 3D shaping. It is found that external kinks are driven by both parallel current and pressure gradient. The pressure contributes significantly to the overall drive through the curvature term and the Pfirsch-Schluter current

  7. STELLAR EVIDENCE THAT THE SOLAR DYNAMO MAY BE IN TRANSITION

    Metcalfe, Travis S.; Egeland, Ricky; Van Saders, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Precise photometry from the Kepler space telescope allows not only the measurement of rotation in solar-type field stars, but also the determination of reliable masses and ages from asteroseismology. These critical data have recently provided the first opportunity to calibrate rotation–age relations for stars older than the Sun. The evolutionary picture that emerges is surprising: beyond middle-age the efficiency of magnetic braking is dramatically reduced, implying a fundamental change in angular momentum loss beyond a critical Rossby number (Ro ∼ 2). We compile published chromospheric activity measurements for the sample of Kepler asteroseismic targets that were used to establish the new rotation–age relations. We use these data along with a sample of well-characterized solar analogs from the Mount Wilson HK survey to develop a qualitative scenario connecting the evolution of chromospheric activity to a fundamental shift in the character of differential rotation. We conclude that the Sun may be in a transitional evolutionary phase, and that its magnetic cycle might represent a special case of stellar dynamo theory.

  8. STELLAR EVIDENCE THAT THE SOLAR DYNAMO MAY BE IN TRANSITION

    Metcalfe, Travis S. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder CO 80301 (United States); Egeland, Ricky [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder CO 80307 (United States); Van Saders, Jennifer [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena CA 91101 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Precise photometry from the Kepler space telescope allows not only the measurement of rotation in solar-type field stars, but also the determination of reliable masses and ages from asteroseismology. These critical data have recently provided the first opportunity to calibrate rotation–age relations for stars older than the Sun. The evolutionary picture that emerges is surprising: beyond middle-age the efficiency of magnetic braking is dramatically reduced, implying a fundamental change in angular momentum loss beyond a critical Rossby number (Ro ∼ 2). We compile published chromospheric activity measurements for the sample of Kepler asteroseismic targets that were used to establish the new rotation–age relations. We use these data along with a sample of well-characterized solar analogs from the Mount Wilson HK survey to develop a qualitative scenario connecting the evolution of chromospheric activity to a fundamental shift in the character of differential rotation. We conclude that the Sun may be in a transitional evolutionary phase, and that its magnetic cycle might represent a special case of stellar dynamo theory.

  9. Wimps and stellar structure

    Bouquet, A.; Salati, P.

    1988-01-01

    We present the results of an analytic approximation to compute the effects of WIMPs on stellar structures in a self-consistent way. We examine in particular the case of the Sun and of horizontal branch stars

  10. Principles of Stellar Interferometry

    Glindemann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...

  11. Convection and stellar oscillations

    Aarslev, Magnus Johan

    2017-01-01

    for asteroseismology, because of the challenges inherent in modelling turbulent convection in 1D stellar models. As a result of oversimplifying the physics near the surface, theoretical calculations systematically overestimate the oscillation frequencies. This has become known as the asteroseismic surface effect. Due...... to lacking better options, this frequency difference is typically corrected for with ad-hoc formulae. The topic of this thesis is the improvement of 1D stellar convection models and the effects this has on asteroseismic properties. The source of improvements is 3D simulations of radiation...... atmospheres to replace the outer layers of stellar models. The additional turbulent pressure and asymmetrical opacity effects in the atmosphere model, compared to convection in stellar evolution models, serve to expand the atmosphere. The enlarged acoustic cavity lowers the pulsation frequencies bringing them...

  12. Oscillations in stellar atmospheres

    Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A.E.; Fontenla, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized. 7 refs

  13. Spaceborne profiling of atmospheric temperature and particle extinction with pure rotational Raman lidar and of relative humidity in combination with differential absorption lidar: performance simulations

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2006-01-01

    The performance of a spaceborne temperature lidar based on the pure rotational Raman (RR) technique in the UV has been simulated. Results show that such a system deployed onboard a low-Earth-orbit satellite would provide global-scale clear-sky temperature measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with precisions that satisfy World Meteorological Organization (WMO) threshold observational requirements for numerical weather prediction and climate research applications. Furthermore, nighttime temperature measurements would still be within the WMO threshold observational requirements in the presence of several cloud structures. The performance of aerosol extinction measurements from space, which can be carried out simultaneously with temperature measurements by RR lidar, is also assessed. Furthermore, we discuss simulations of relative humidity measurements from space obtained from RR temperature measurements and water-vapor data measured with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique

  14. Perturbation of a slowly rotating black hole by a stationary axisymmetric ring of matter. II. Penrose processes, circular orbits, and differential mass formulae

    Will, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the phenomenon of energy extraction (''Penrose'') from a slowly rotating black hole perturbed by a stationary axisymmetric ring of matter, and show that the gravitational interaction between the ring and the particles used in the Penrose process must be taken into account. For the case of a black-hole-ring configuration of ''minimum enregy'' we show that a Penrose process can extract further energy, but that by measns of their gravitational forces, the particles used in the process cause the radius of the ring to change, releasing precisely sufficient gravitational potential energy to make up for that extracted. By analyzing the properties of circular test-particle orbits in black-hole-ring spacetimes, we show quantitatively how this change in radius is produced. A ''differential mass formula'' relating the total masses of neighboring black-hole-ring configurations is also derived

  15. On the universal stellar law

    Krot, Alexander

    In this work, we consider a statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies to derive and develop the universal stellar law for extrasolar systems. Previously, the statistical theory for a cosmogonic body forming (so-called spheroidal body)has been proposed [1-3]. This theory starts from the conception for forming a spheroidal body inside a gas-dust protoplanetary nebula; it permits us to derive the form of distribution functions, mass density, gravitational potentials and strengths both for immovable and rotating spheroidal bodies as well as to find the distribution function of specific angular momentum[1-3]. If we start from the conception for forming a spheroidal body as a protostar (in particular, proto-Sun) inside a prestellar (presolar) nebula then the derived distribution functions of particle (as well as the mass density of an immovable spheroidal body) characterizes the first stage of evolution: from a prestellar molecular cloud (the presolar nebula) to the forming core of protostar (the proto-Sun) together with its shell as a stellar nebula (the solar nebula). This work derives the equation of state of an ideal stellar substance based on conception of gravitating spheroidal body. Using this equation, we obtain the universal stellar law (USL) for the planetary systems connecting temperature, size and mass of each of stars. This work also considers the Solar corona in the connection with USL. Then it is accounting under calculation of the ratio of temperature of the Solar corona to effective temperature of the Sun’ surfaceand modification of USL. To test justice of the modified USLfor different types of stars, the temperature of stellar corona is estimated. The prediction of parameters of stars is carrying out by means of the modified USL,as well as the Hertzsprung-Russell’s dependence [5-7]is derivedby means of USL directly. This paper also shows that knowledge of some characteristics for multi-planet extrasolar systems refines own parameters of

  16. The doubling of stellar black hole nuclei

    Kazandjian, Mher V.; Touma, J. R.

    2013-04-01

    It is strongly believed that Andromeda's double nucleus signals a disc of stars revolving around its central supermassive black hole on eccentric Keplerian orbits with nearly aligned apsides. A self-consistent stellar dynamical origin for such apparently long-lived alignment has so far been lacking, with indications that cluster self-gravity is capable of sustaining such lopsided configurations if and when stimulated by external perturbations. Here, we present results of N-body simulations which show unstable counter-rotating stellar clusters around supermassive black holes saturating into uniformly precessing lopsided nuclei. The double nucleus in our featured experiment decomposes naturally into a thick eccentric disc of apo-apse aligned stars which is embedded in a lighter triaxial cluster. The eccentric disc reproduces key features of Keplerian disc models of Andromeda's double nucleus; the triaxial cluster has a distinctive kinematic signature which is evident in Hubble Space Telescope observations of Andromeda's double nucleus, and has been difficult to reproduce with Keplerian discs alone. Our simulations demonstrate how the combination of an eccentric disc and a triaxial cluster arises naturally when a star cluster accreted over a preexisting and counter-rotating disc of stars drives disc and cluster into a mutually destabilizing dance. Such accretion events are inherent to standard galaxy formation scenarios. They are here shown to double stellar black hole nuclei as they feed them.

  17. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    Asplund, M.

    2008-10-01

    The conference A Stellar Journey was held in Uppsala, Sweden, 23 27June 2008, in honour of Professor Bengt Gustafsson's 65th birthday. The choice of Uppsala as the location for this event was obvious given Bengt's long-standing association with the city stemming back to his school days. With the exception of a two-year postdoc stint in Copenhagen, five years as professor at Stockholm University and two years as director of the Sigtuna foundation, Bengt has forged his illustrious professional career at Uppsala University. The symposium venue was Museum Gustavianum, once the main building of the oldest university in Scandinavia. The title of the symposium is a paraphrasing of Bengt's popular astronomy book Kosmisk Resa (in English: Cosmic Journey) written in the early eighties. I think this aptly symbolizes his career that has been an astronomical voyage from near to far, from the distant past to the present. The original book title was modified slightly to reflect that most of his work to date has dealt with stars in one way or another. In addition it also gives credit to Bengt's important role as a guiding light for a very large number of students, colleagues and collaborators, indeed for several generations of astronomers. For me personally, the book Kosmisk Resa bears particular significance as it has shaped my life rather profoundly. Although I had already decided to become an astronomer, when I first read the book as a 14-year-old I made up my mind then and there that I would study under Bengt Gustafsson and work on stars. Indeed I have remained true to this somewhat audacious resolution. I suspect that a great number of us have similar stories how Bengt has had a major influence on our lives, whether on the professional or personal level. Perhaps Bengt's most outstanding characteristic is his enthralling enthusiasm. This is equally true whether he is pondering some scientific conundrum, supervising students or performing in front of an audience, be it an

  18. Analytical calculations of the rotational transform angles in the torsatron systems with different plasma pressure profiles

    Kuznetsov, Yu.K.; Pinos, I.B.; Tyupa, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    With formulas for averaging over magnetic surfaces general analytical expressions are here deduced to determine the rotational transform angles in stellarator systems having different plasma pressure profiles

  19. Introduction to stellar structure

    Maciel, Walter J

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of this book, the author presents the basic properties of the stellar interior and describes them thoroughly, along with deriving the main stellar structure equations of temperature, density, pressure and luminosity, among others. The process and application of solving these equations is explained, as well as linking these results with actual observations.  The second part of the text describes what happens to a star over time, and how to determine this by solving the same equations at different points during a star’s lifetime. The fate of various stars is quite different depending on their masses, and this is described in the final parts of the book. This text can be used for an upper level undergraduate course or an introductory graduate course on stellar physics.

  20. The Galactic stellar disc

    Feltzing, S; Bensby, T

    2008-01-01

    The study of the Milky Way stellar discs in the context of galaxy formation is discussed. In particular, we explore the properties of the Milky Way disc using a new sample of about 550 dwarf stars for which we have recently obtained elemental abundances and ages based on high-resolution spectroscopy. For all the stars we also have full kinematic information as well as information about their stellar orbits. We confirm results from previous studies that the thin and the thick discs have distinct abundance patterns. But we also explore a larger range of orbital parameters than what has been possible in our previous studies. Several new results are presented. We find that stars that reach high above the Galactic plane and have eccentric orbits show remarkably tight abundance trends. This implies that these stars formed out of well-mixed gas that had been homogenized over large volumes. We find some evidence that suggest that the event that most likely caused the heating of this stellar population happened a few billion years ago. Through a simple, kinematic exploration of stars with super-solar [Fe/H], we show that the solar neighbourhood contains metal-rich, high velocity stars that are very likely associated with the thick disc. Additionally, the HR1614 moving group and the Hercules and Arcturus stellar streams are discussed and it is concluded that, probably, a large fraction of the groups and streams so far identified in the disc are the result of evolution and interactions within the stellar disc rather than being dissolved stellar clusters or engulfed dwarf galaxies.

  1. Transport in stellarators

    Maassberg, H.; Brakel, R.; Burhenn, R.; Gasparino, U.; Grigull, P.; Kick, M.; Kuehner, G.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Stroth, U.; Weller, A.

    1993-01-01

    The local electron and ion heat transport as well as the particle and impurity transport properties in stellarators are reviewed. In this context, neoclassical theory is used as a guideline for the comparison of the experimental results of the quite different confinement concepts. At sufficiently high temperatures depending on the specific magnetic configuration, neoclassical predictions are confirmed by experimental findings. The confinement properties in the LMFP collisionality regime are discussed with respect to the next stellarator generation, for which at higher temperatures the neoclassical transport is expected to become more important. (orig.)

  2. Solar and stellar oscillations

    Fossat, E.

    1981-01-01

    We try to explain in simple words what a stellar oscillation is, what kind of restoring forces and excitation mechanisms can be responsible for its occurence, what kind of questions the theoretician asks to the observer and what kind of tools the latter is using to look for the answers. A selected review of the most striking results obtained in the last few years in solar seismology and the present status of their consequences on solar models is presented. A brief discussion on the expected extension towards stellar seismology will end the paper. A selected bibliography on theory as well as observations and recent papers is also included. (orig.)

  3. Influence of large-scale zonal flows on the evolution of stellar and planetary magnetic fields

    Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel; ENS Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection in planetary interiors may lead to secondary instabilities. We showed that a simple, modified version of the MagnetoRotational Instability, i.e., the MS-MRI can develop in planteray interiors. The weak shear yields an instability by its constructive interaction with the much larger rotation rate of planets. We present results from 3D simulations and show that 3D MS-MRI modes can generate wave pattern at the surface of the spherical numerical domain. Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection

  4. Recent Progress in MHD Stability Calculations of Compact Stellarators

    Fu, G.Y.; Ku, L.P.; Redi, M.H.; Kessel, C.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.; Cooper, W.A.; Nuehrenberg, C.; Sanchez, R.; Ware, A.; Hirshman, S.P.; Spong, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    A key issue for compact stellarators is the stability of beta-limiting MHD modes, such as external kink modes driven by bootstrap current and pressure gradient. We report here recent progress in MHD stability studies for low-aspect-ratio Quasi-Axisymmetric Stellarators (QAS) and Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarators (QOS). We find that the N = 0 periodicity-preserving vertical mode is significantly more stable in stellarators than in tokamaks because of the externally generated rotational transform. It is shown that both low-n external kink modes and high-n ballooning modes can be stabilized at high beta by appropriate 3D shaping without a conducting wall. The stabilization mechanism for external kink modes in QAS appears to be an enhancement of local magnetic shear due to 3D shaping. The stabilization of ballooning mode in QOS is related to a shortening of the normal curvature connection length

  5. Two novel compact toroidal concepts with Stellarator features

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-07-01

    Two novel compact toroidal concepts are presented. One is the Stellarator-Spheromak (SSP) and another is the Extreme-Low-Aspect-Ratio Stellarator (ELARS). An SSP device represents a hybrid between a spherical stellarator (SS) and a spheromak. This configuration retains the main advantages of spheromaks ans has a potential for improving the spheromak concept regarding its main problems. The MHD equilibrium in an SSP with very high β of the confined plasma is demonstrated. Another concept, ELARS, represents an extreme limit of the SS approach, and considers devices with stellarator features and aspect ratios A ∼ 1. We have succeeded in finding ELARS configurations with extremely compact, modular, and simple design compatible with significant rotational transform, large plasma volume, and good particle transport characteristics

  6. Structure of stellar hydroxyl masers

    Reid, M.J.; Muhleman, D.O.; Moran, J.M.; Johnston, K.J.; Schwartz, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two spectral-line very long baseline (VLB) interferometric experiments on stellar OH masers. These masers are usually associated with long-period variable stars, and exhibit a characteristic double-peaked 1612 MHz OH spectrum. The sources IRC +10011, R Aql, and U Ori were carefully studied in order to determine the spatial structure of their masers. Maser components in these sources exhibited a complex structure which can be interpreted in terms of ''core-halo'' models. For these sources, the emission at any velocity appears to originate from a small (approximately-less-than0.''03) region of brightness approximately-greater-than10 9 K, and from a large (approximately-greater-than0.''5) region of brightness approximately-less-than10 8 K. In IRC+10011, ''core'' components in the two OH peaks probably are separated by less than the apparent size of the ''halos.'' A map of the low-velocity emission of U Ori with a resolution of 0.''01 indicates that the ''cores'' are distributed over a region of only 0.''2. This region is smaller than the apparent sizes of the ''halos.'' Other sources surveyed to determine apparent maser sizes include IRC+50137, OH 1821--12, OH 1837--05, OH 26.5+0.6, W43 A, and VX Sgr at 1612 MHz; and W Hya, R Aql, and IRC--10529 at 1667 MHz. The results of all VLB observations of 1612 MHz stellar OH masers are summarized.The apparent sizes of the strongest components (''halos'') of stellar OH masers typically are approximately-greater-than0.''5, corresponding to linear dimensions of approximately-greater-than3 x 10 15 cm. These surprisingly large sizes imply brightness temperatures much lower than those observed in most other types of astronomical masers. The large sizes rule out models of the 1612 MHz OH masers that require contracting or rotating circumstellar envelopes to explain the double-peaked OH spectra, or that try to explain the apparent maser sizes in terms of interstellar or interplanetary scattering

  7. The fundamentals of stellar astrophysics

    Collins, G.W. II.

    1989-01-01

    A broad overview of theoretical stellar astrophysics is presented in a textbook intended for graduate students. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, assumptions, theorems, and polytropes; energy sources and sinks; the flow of energy through the star and the construction of stellar models; the theory of stellar evolution; relativistic stellar structure; the structure of distorted stars; stellar pulsation and oscillation. Also discussed are the flow of radiation through the stellar atmosphere, the solution of the radiative-transfer equation, the environment of the radiation field, the construction of a stellar model atmosphere, the formation and shape of spectral lines, LTE breakdown, illuminated and extended stellar atmospheres, and the transfer of polarized radiation. Diagrams, graphs, and sample problems are provided. 164 refs

  8. Progress Toward Attractive Stellarators

    Neilson, G.H.; Bromberg, L.; Brown, T.G.; Gates, D.A.; Ku, L.P.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Boozer, A.H.; Harris, J.H.; Meneghini, O.; Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.; Reiman, A.H.; Xanthopoulos, P.

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-axisymmetric stellarator (QAS) concept offers a promising path to a more compact stellarator reactor, closer in linear dimensions to tokamak reactors than previous stellarator designs. Concept improvements are needed, however, to make it more maintainable and more compatible with high plant availability. Using the ARIES-CS design as a starting point, compact stellarator designs with improved maintenance characteristics have been developed. While the ARIES-CS features a through-the-port maintenance scheme, we have investigated configuration changes to enable a sector-maintenance approach, as envisioned for example in ARIES AT. Three approaches are reported. The first is to make tradeoffs within the QAS design space, giving greater emphasis to maintainability criteria. The second approach is to improve the optimization tools to more accurately and efficiently target the physics properties of importance. The third is to employ a hybrid coil topology, so that the plasma shaping functions of the main coils are shared more optimally, either with passive conductors made of high-temperature superconductor or with local compensation coils, allowing the main coils to become simpler. Optimization tools are being improved to test these approaches.

  9. Stellar population synthesis

    Pickles, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The techniques used to derive astrophysically useful information from observations of the integrated light of composite stellar systems are briefly reviewed. A synthesis technique, designed to separate and describe on a standard system the competing effects of age and metallicity variations is introduced, and illustrated by its application to the study of the history of star formation in bright elliptical galaxies in clusters. (author)

  10. Relativistic stellar dynamics

    Contopoulos, G.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, three main areas of relativistic stellar dynamics are reviewed: (a) The dynamics of clusters, or nuclei of galaxies, of very high density; (b) The dynamics of systems containing a massive black hole; and (c) The dynamics of particles (and photons) in an expanding Universe. The emphasis is on the use of orbit perturbations. (Auth.)

  11. Compact stellarator coils

    Pomphrey, N.; Berry, L.A.; Boozer, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental devices to study the physics of high-beta (β>∼4%), low aspect ratio (A<∼4.5) stellarator plasmas require coils that will produce plasmas satisfying a set of physics goals, provide experimental flexibility, and be practical to construct. In the course of designing a flexible coil set for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, we have made several innovations that may be useful in future stellarator design efforts. These include: the use of Singular Value Decomposition methods for obtaining families of smooth current potentials on distant coil winding surfaces from which low current density solutions may be identified; the use of a Control Matrix Method for identifying which few of the many detailed elements of the stellarator boundary must be targeted if a coil set is to provide fields to control the essential physics of the plasma; the use of Genetic Algorithms for choosing an optimal set of discrete coils from a continuum of potential contours; the evaluation of alternate coil topologies for balancing the tradeoff between physics objective and engineering constraints; the development of a new coil optimization code for designing modular coils, and the identification of a 'natural' basis for describing current sheet distributions. (author)

  12. Stellar Structure and Evolution

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf; Weiss, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This long-awaited second edition of the classical textbook on Stellar Structure and Evolution by Kippenhahn and Weigert is a thoroughly revised version of the original text. Taking into account modern observational constraints as well as additional physical effects such as mass loss and diffusion, Achim Weiss and Rudolf Kippenhahn have succeeded in bringing the book up to the state-of-the-art with respect to both the presentation of stellar physics and the presentation and interpretation of current sophisticated stellar models. The well-received and proven pedagogical approach of the first edition has been retained. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of the physics of the stellar interior and the underlying fundamental processes and parameters. The models developed to explain the stability, dynamics and evolution of the stars are presented and great care is taken to detail the various stages in a star’s life. Just as the first edition, which remained a standard work for more than 20 years after its...

  13. 8. stellarator workshop

    1991-07-01

    The technical reports in this collection of papers were presented at the 8th International Workshop on Stellarators, and International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Committee Meeting. They include presentations on transport, magnetic configurations, fluctuations, equilibrium, stability, edge plasma and wall aspects, heating, diagnostics, new concepts and reactor studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Stellar wind theory

    Summers, D.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of stellar winds as given by the equations of classical fluid dynamics is considered. The equations of momentum and energy describing a steady, spherically symmetric, heat-conducting, viscous stellar wind are cast in a dimensionless form which involves a thermal conduction parameter E and a viscosity parameter γ. An asymptotic analysis is carried out, for fixed γ, in the cases E→O and E→infinity (corresponding to small and large thermal conductivity, respectively), and it is found that it is possible to construct critical solutions for the wind velocity and temperature over the entire flow. The E→O solution represents a wind which emanates from the star at low, subsonic speeds, accelerates through a sonic point, and then approaches a constant asymptotic speed, with its temperature varying as r/sup -4/3/ at large distances r from the star; the E→infinity solution represents a wind which, after reaching an approximately constant speed, with temperature varying as r/sup -2/7/, decelerates through a diffuse shock and approaches a finite pressure at infinity. A categorization is made of all critical stellar wind solutions for given values of γ and E, and actual numerical examples are given. Numerical solutions are obtained by integrating upstream 'from infinity' from initial values of the flow parameters given by appropriate asymptotic expansions. The role of viscosity in stellar wind theory is discussed, viscous and inviscid stellar wind solutions are compared, and it is suggested that with certain limitations, the theory presented may be useful in analyzing winds from solar-type stars

  15. Effects of rotation on the evolution of primordial stars

    Ekström, S.; Meynet, G.; Chiappini, C.; Hirschi, R.; Maeder, A.

    2008-10-01

    Context: Although still beyond our observational abilities, Population III stars are interesting objects from many perspectives. They are responsible for the re-ionisation of the inter-galactic medium. They also left their chemical imprint in the early Universe, which can be deciphered in the most metal-poor stars in the halo of our Galaxy. Aims: Rotation has been shown to play a determinant role at very low metallicity, bringing heavy mass loss where almost none was expected. Is this still true when the metallicity strictly equals zero? The aim of our study is to answer this question, and to determine how rotation changes the evolution and the chemical signature of the primordial stars. Methods: We have calculated seven differentially-rotating stellar models at zero metallicity, with masses between 9 and 200 M⊙. For each mass, we also calculated a corresponding model without rotation. The evolution is followed up to the pre-supernova stage. Results: We find that Z=0 models rotate with an internal profile Ω(r) close to local angular momentum conservation, because of a very weak core-envelope coupling. Rotational mixing drives an H-shell boost due to a sudden onset of the CNO cycle in the shell. This boost leads to a high 14N production, which can be as much as 106 times higher than the production of the non-rotating models. Generally, the rotating models produce much more metal than their non-rotating counterparts. The mass loss is very low, even for the models that reach critical velocity during the main sequence. It may however have an impact on the chemical enrichment of the Universe, because some of the stars are supposed to collapse directly into black holes. They would contribute to the enrichment only through their winds. While in that case non-rotating stars would not contribute at all, rotating stars may leave an imprint on their surrounding. Due to the low mass loss and the weak coupling, the core retains a high angular momentum at the end of the

  16. Ion transport in stellarators

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Stellarator ion transport in the low-collisionality regime with a radial electric field is calculated by a systematic expansion of the drift-Boltzmann equation. The shape of the helical well is taken into account in this calculation. It is found that the barely trapped ions with three to four times the thermal energy give the dominant contribution to the diffusion. Expressions for the ion particle and energy fluxes are derived

  17. A relation between the characteristic stellar ages of galaxies and their intrinsic shapes

    van de Sande, Jesse; Scott, Nicholas; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Colless, Matthew; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; d'Eugenio, Francesco; Foster, Caroline; Goodwin, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; McDermid, Richard M.; Medling, Anne M.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel N.; Sharp, Rob

    2018-04-01

    Stellar population and stellar kinematic studies provide unique but complementary insights into how galaxies build-up their stellar mass and angular momentum1-3. A galaxy's mean stellar age reveals when stars were formed, but provides little constraint on how the galaxy's mass was assembled. Resolved stellar dynamics4 trace the change in angular momentum due to mergers, but major mergers tend to obscure the effect of earlier interactions5. With the rise of large multi-object integral field spectroscopic surveys, such as SAMI6 and MaNGA7, and single-object integral field spectroscopic surveys (for example, ATLAS3D (ref. 8), CALIFA9, MASSIVE10), it is now feasible to connect a galaxy's star formation and merger history on the same resolved physical scales, over a large range in galaxy mass, morphology and environment4,11,12. Using the SAMI Galaxy Survey, here we present a combined study of spatially resolved stellar kinematics and global stellar populations. We find a strong correlation of stellar population age with location in the (V/σ, ɛe) diagram that links the ratio of ordered rotation to random motions in a galaxy to its observed ellipticity. For the large majority of galaxies that are oblate rotating spheroids, we find that characteristic stellar age follows the intrinsic ellipticity of galaxies remarkably well.

  18. A relation between the characteristic stellar ages of galaxies and their intrinsic shapes

    van de Sande, Jesse; Scott, Nicholas; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Colless, Matthew; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; d'Eugenio, Francesco; Foster, Caroline; Goodwin, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; McDermid, Richard M.; Medling, Anne M.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel N.; Sharp, Rob

    2018-06-01

    Stellar population and stellar kinematic studies provide unique but complementary insights into how galaxies build-up their stellar mass and angular momentum1-3. A galaxy's mean stellar age reveals when stars were formed, but provides little constraint on how the galaxy's mass was assembled. Resolved stellar dynamics4 trace the change in angular momentum due to mergers, but major mergers tend to obscure the effect of earlier interactions5. With the rise of large multi-object integral field spectroscopic surveys, such as SAMI6 and MaNGA7, and single-object integral field spectroscopic surveys (for example, ATLAS3D (ref. 8), CALIFA9, MASSIVE10), it is now feasible to connect a galaxy's star formation and merger history on the same resolved physical scales, over a large range in galaxy mass, morphology and environment4,11,12. Using the SAMI Galaxy Survey, here we present a combined study of spatially resolved stellar kinematics and global stellar populations. We find a strong correlation of stellar population age with location in the (V/σ, ɛe) diagram that links the ratio of ordered rotation to random motions in a galaxy to its observed ellipticity. For the large majority of galaxies that are oblate rotating spheroids, we find that characteristic stellar age follows the intrinsic ellipticity of galaxies remarkably well.

  19. Status of stellarator research

    Wobig, H.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years main activities in stellarator research were focussed on production and investigation of currentless plasmas. Several heating methods have been applied: electron cyclotron heating, ion cyclotron heating and neutral beam injection. The parameters achieved in HELIOTRON E and W VII-A are: antin 20 m 3 , Tsub(i) <= 1 keV. The confinement is improved as compared with ohmically heated discharges. By ECRH (P = 200 kW) it is possible to heat electrons up to 1.4 keV, confinement in this regime is dominated already by trapped particle effects. Toroidal currents up to 2 kA - either bootstrap currents or externally driven currents - were observed. High β-values (antiβ = 2%) have been obtained in HELIOTRON E, in this regime already pressure driven MHD-modes were observed. Future experiments (ATF-1 and W VII-AS) will extend the parameter regime to temperatures of several keV. These experiments will give important information about critical problems of the stellarator line (β-limit, neoclassical confinement impurity transport). A few reactor studies of stellarators exist, attention is mainly concentrated on technical problems of the modular coil system

  20. The Resolved Stellar Population of Leo A

    Tolstoy, Eline

    1996-05-01

    New observations of the resolved stellar population of the extremely metal-poor Magellanic dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A in Thuan-Gunn r, g, i, and narrowband Hα filters are presented. Using the recent Cepheid variable star distance determination to Leo A by Hoessel et al., we are able to create an accurate color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We have used the Bavesian inference method described by Tolstoy & Saha to calculate the likelihood of a Monte Carlo simulation of the stellar population of Leo A being a good match to the data within the well understood errors in the data. The magnitude limits on our data are sensitive enough to look back at ~1 Gyr of star formation history at the distance of Leo A. To explain the observed ratio of red to blue stars in the observed CMD, it is necessary to invoke either a steadily decreasing star formation rate toward the present time or gaps in the star formation history. We also compare the properties of the observed stellar population with the known spatial distribution of the H I gas and H II regions to support the conclusions from CMD modeling. We consider the possibility that currently there is a period of diminished star formation in Leo A, as evidenced by the lack of very young stars in the CMD and the faint H II regions. How the chaotic H I distribution, with no observable rotation, fits into our picture of the evolution of Leo A is as yet unclear.

  1. Plasma equilibrium and stability in stellarators

    Pustovitov, V.D.; Shafranov, V.D.

    1987-01-01

    A review of theoretical methods of investigating plasma equilibrium and stability in stellarators is given. Principles forming the basis of toroidal plasma equilibrium and its stabilization, and the main results of analytical theory and numerical calculations are presented. Configurations with spiral symmetry and usual stellarators with plane axis and spiral fields are considered in detail. Derivation of scalar two-dimensional equations, describing equilibrium in these systems is given. These equations were used to obtain one-dimensional equations for displacement and ellipticity of magnetic surfaces. The model of weak-elliptic displaced surfaces was used to consider the evolution of plasma equilibrium in stellarators after elevation of its pressure: change of profile of rotational transformation after change of plasma pressure, current generation during its fast heating and its successive damping due to finite plasma conductivity were described. The derivation of equations of small oscillations in the form, suitable for local disturbance investigation is presented. These equations were used to obtain Mercier criteria and ballon model equations. General sufficient conditions of plasma stability in systems with magnetic confinement were derived

  2. Specific features of plasma equilibrium in closed mixed-type stellarators

    Shafranov, V.D.; Mikhajlov, M.I.

    1992-01-01

    High values of rotational transformation (i/2π>1) are studied in terms of their usefulness for plasma equilibrium using stellarators with spatial magnetic axis and circular cross section of averaged magnetic surfaces. It is shown that, in contrast to a conventional stellarator with circular magnetic axis, where ultimate equilibrium pressure grows proportionally (i/2π) 2 equilibrium in lost in more complex stellarators consisting of heterogeneous sections as rotational transformation approaches, over period of the system, whole-number values. At the same time, in case when the transformation approaches a whole-number value of i/2π, short-circuit of secondary currents occurs within one of the periods of the system and ultimate equilibrium pressure value can exceed that in a conventional stellarator having the same length of the system and rotational transformation value

  3. STELLTRANS: A Transport Analysis Suite for Stellarators

    Mittelstaedt, Joseph; Lazerson, Samuel; Pablant, Novimir; Weir, Gavin; W7-X Team

    2016-10-01

    The stellarator transport code STELLTRANS allows us to better analyze the power balance in W7-X. Although profiles of temperature and density are measured experimentally, geometrical factors are needed in conjunction with these measurements to properly analyze heat flux densities in stellarators. The STELLTRANS code interfaces with VMEC to find an equilibrium flux surface configuration and with TRAVIS to determine the RF heating and current drive in the plasma. Stationary transport equations are then considered which are solved using a boundary value differential equation solver. The equations and quantities considered are averaged over flux surfaces to reduce the system to an essentially one dimensional problem. We have applied this code to data from W-7X and were able to calculate the heat flux coefficients. We will also present extensions of the code to a predictive capacity which would utilize DKES to find neoclassical transport coefficients to update the temperature and density profiles.

  4. Velocity structure of protostellar envelopes: gravitational collapse and rotation

    Belloche, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    Stars form from the gravitational collapse of pre-stellar condensations in molecular clouds. The major aim of this thesis is to compare the predictions of collapse models with observations of both very young (class 0) protostars and starless condensations in millimeter molecular lines. We wish to understand what determines the masses of forming stars and whether the initial conditions have an effect on the dynamical evolution of a condensation. Using a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, we analyze rotation and infall spectroscopic signatures to study the velocity structure of a sample of protostellar condensations. We show that the envelope of the class 0 protostar IRAM 04191 in the Taurus molecular cloud is undergoing both extended, subsonic infall and fast, differential rotation. We propose that the inner part of the envelope is a magnetically supercritical core in the process of decoupling from the ambient cloud still supported by the magnetic field. We suggest that the kinematical properties observed for IRAM 04191 are representative of the physical conditions characterizing isolated protostars shortly after point mass formation. On the other hand, a similar study for the pre-stellar condensations of the Rho Ophiuchi proto-cluster yields mass accretion rates that are an order of magnitude higher than in IRAM 04191. This suggests that individual protostellar collapse in clusters is induced by external disturbances. Moreover, we show that the condensations do not have time to orbit significantly through the proto-cluster gas before evolving into protostars and pre-main-sequence stars. This seems inconsistent with models which resort to dynamical interactions and competitive accretion to build up a mass spectrum comparable to the stellar initial mass function. We conclude that protostellar collapse is nearly spontaneous in regions of isolated star formation such as the Taurus cloud but probably strongly induced in proto-clusters. (author) [fr

  5. Local Stellar Kinematics from RAVE data - V. Kinematic Investigation of the Galaxy with Red Clump Stars

    Karaali, S.; Bilir, S.; Ak, S.; Gökçe, E. Yaz; Önal, Ö.; Ak, T.

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the space velocity components of 6 610 red clump (RC) stars in terms of vertical distance, Galactocentric radial distance and Galactic longitude. Stellar velocity vectors are corrected for differential rotation of the Galaxy which is taken into account using photometric distances of RC stars. The space velocity components estimated for the sample stars above and below the Galactic plane are compatible only for the space velocity component in the direction to the Galactic rotation of the thin disc stars. The space velocity component in the direction to the Galactic rotation (V lsr) shows a smooth variation relative to the mean Galactocentric radial distance (Rm ), while it attains its maximum at the Galactic plane. The space velocity components in the direction to the Galactic centre (U lsr) and in the vertical direction (W lsr) show almost flat distributions relative to Rm , with small changes in their trends at Rm ~ 7.5 kpc. U lsr values estimated for the RC stars in quadrant 180° RC stars above the Galactic plane move towards the North Galactic Pole, whereas those below the Galactic plane move in the opposite direction. In the case of quadrant 180° RC stars above and below the Galactic plane move towards the Galactic plane. We stated that the Galactic long bar is the probable origin of many, but not all, of the detected features.

  6. Future prospects for stellar intensity interferometry

    Lake, R.J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The technique of Stellar Intensity lnterferometry (SII) was first successfully demonstrated by Hanbury-Brown in 1956 at Jodrell Bank. SII uses the correlation in intensity fluctuations of starlight as a function of observational baseline to determine angular diameters and other gross features of main sequence stars. In 1962 an observatory was established by Hanbury-Brown in Narrabri NSW. Between 1965 and 1972 the angular diameters of 32 stars covering the spectral range O to F were measured. Orbital parameters of several unresolved binary stars were also determined and attempts were made by the author to directly measure the limb darkening of Sirius and the rotational distortion of Altair. Following the success of the Narrabri SII the Australian Federal Government provided a grant to Sydney University to develop a Very Large SII capable of making observational measurements on about a thousand stars. The development of this VLSII was however shelved in preference to the development of a potentially more sensitive long baseline Michelson Stellar Interferometer. This latter instrument known as SUSI (Sydney University Stellar Interferometer) has been in operation at Narrabri since 1995. Encouraged by the early results of SUSI and their own efforts in the use of active optics to reduce the effects of atmospheric scintillation a number of international observatories are now active in the development of long baseline or large aperture Michelson Stellar Interferometers. However SII while sacrificing sensitivity has a number of technical advantages over MSI as SII is far less sensitive to atmospheric effects and can be readily developed to work over very long baselines. This paper through technical review and theoretical modeling examines how a modern VLSII could be constructed and operated and addresses the limitations to its sensitivity. In particular it examines how existing Australian industry could contribute to the development of a VLSII with sufficient

  7. Rotating flow

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics titles offer the essential background but generally include very sparse coverage of rotating flows-which is where this book comes in. Beginning with an accessible introduction to rotating flow, recognized expert Peter Childs takes you through fundamental equations, vorticity and vortices, rotating disc flow, flow around rotating cylinders and flow in rotating cavities, with an introduction to atmospheric and oceanic circul...

  8. Rotational seismology

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    Rotational seismology is an emerging study of all aspects of rotational motions induced by earthquakes, explosions, and ambient vibrations. It is of interest to several disciplines, including seismology, earthquake engineering, geodesy, and earth-based detection of Einstein’s gravitation waves.Rotational effects of seismic waves, together with rotations caused by soil–structure interaction, have been observed for centuries (e.g., rotated chimneys, monuments, and tombstones). Figure 1a shows the rotated monument to George Inglis observed after the 1897 Great Shillong earthquake. This monument had the form of an obelisk rising over 19 metres high from a 4 metre base. During the earthquake, the top part broke off and the remnant of some 6 metres rotated about 15° relative to the base. The study of rotational seismology began only recently when sensitive rotational sensors became available due to advances in aeronautical and astronomical instrumentations.

  9. Nonlinear mode coupling in rotating stars and the r-mode instability in neutron stars

    Schenk, A.K.; Arras, P.; Flanagan, E.E.; Teukolsky, S.A.; Wasserman, I.

    2002-01-01

    We develop the formalism required to study the nonlinear interaction of modes in rotating Newtonian stars, assuming that the mode amplitudes are only mildly nonlinear. The formalism is simpler than previous treatments of mode-mode interactions for spherical stars, and simplifies and corrects previous treatments for rotating stars. At linear order, we elucidate and extend slightly a formalism due to Schutz, show how to decompose a general motion of a rotating star into a sum over modes, and obtain uncoupled equations of motion for the mode amplitudes under the influence of an external force. Nonlinear effects are added perturbatively via three-mode couplings, which suffices for moderate amplitude modal excitations; the formalism is easy to extend to higher order couplings. We describe a new, efficient way to compute the modal coupling coefficients, to zeroth order in the stellar rotation rate, using spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The formalism is general enough to allow computation of the initial trends in the evolution of the spin frequency and differential rotation of the background star. We apply this formalism to derive some properties of the coupling coefficients relevant to the nonlinear interactions of unstable r modes in neutron stars, postponing numerical integrations of the coupled equations of motion to a later paper. First, we clarify some aspects of the expansion in stellar rotation frequency Ω that is often used to compute approximate mode functions. We show that, in zero-buoyancy stars, the rotational modes (those modes whose frequencies vanish as Ω→0) are orthogonal to zeroth order in Ω. From an astrophysical viewpoint, the most interesting result of this paper is that many couplings of r modes to other rotational modes are small: either they vanish altogether because of various selection rules, or they vanish to lowest order in Ω or in compressibility. In particular, in zero-buoyancy stars, the coupling of three r modes is forbidden

  10. THE ADVANCED STELLAR COMPASS

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1997-01-01

    The science objective of the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite "Ørsted" is to map the magnetic field of the Earth, with a vector precision of a fraction of a nanotesla. This necessitates an attitude reference instrument with a precision of a few arcseconds onboard the satellite. To meet...... this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...

  11. Physics of Stellar Convection

    Arnett, W. David

    2009-05-01

    We review recent progress using numerical simulations as a testbed for development of a theory of stellar convection, much as envisaged by John von Newmann. Necessary features of the theory, non-locality and fluctuations, are illustrated by computer movies. It is found that the common approximation of convection as a diffusive process presents the wrong physical picture, and improvements are suggested. New observational results discussed at the conference are gratifying in their validation of some of our theoretical ideas, especially the idea that SNIb and SNIc events are related to the explosion of massive star cores which have been stripped by mass loss and binary interactions [1

  12. Stellar axion models

    Nowakowski, Daniel; Kuster, Markus; Meister, Claudia V.; Fuelbert, Florian; Hoffmann, Dieter H.H. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Kernphysik; Weiss, Achim [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    An axion helioscope is typically operated to observe the sun as an axion source. Additional pointings at celestial sources, e.g. stars in other galaxies, result in possible detections of axions from distant galactic objects. For the observation of supplementary axion sources we therefore calculate the thereotical axion flux from distant stars by extending axionic flux models for the axion Primakoff effect in the sun to other main sequence stars. The main sequence star models used for our calculations are based on full stellar structure calculations. To deduce the effective axion flux of stellar objects incident on the Earth the All-Sky catalogue was used to obtain the spectral class and distance of the stars treated. Our calculations of the axion flux in the galactic plane show that for a zero age main sequence star an maximum axion flux of {phi}{sub a}=303.43 cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} could be expected. Furthermore we present estimates of axion fluxes from time-evolved stars.

  13. Single rotating stars and the formation of bipolar planetary nebula

    García-Segura, G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Villaver, E. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Langer, N. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Yoon, S.-C. [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Manchado, A., E-mail: ggs@astrosen.unam.mx [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Via Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-03-10

    We have computed new stellar evolution models that include the effects of rotation and magnetic torques under different hypotheses. The goal is to test whether a single star can sustain the rotational velocities needed in the envelope for magnetohydrodynamical(MHD) simulations to shape bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) when high mass-loss rates take place. Stellar evolution models with main sequence masses of 2.5 and 5 M {sub ☉} and initial rotational velocities of 250 km s{sup –1} have been followed through the PNe formation phase. We find that stellar cores have to be spun down using magnetic torques in order to reproduce the rotation rates observed for white dwarfs. During the asymptotic giant branch phase and beyond, the magnetic braking of the core has a practically null effect on increasing the rotational velocity of the envelope since the stellar angular momentum is efficiently removed by the wind. We have also tested the best possible case scenarios in rather non-physical contexts to give enough angular momentum to the envelope. We find that we cannot get the envelope of a single star to rotate at the speeds needed for MHD simulations to form bipolar PNe. We conclude that single stellar rotators are unlikely to be the progenitors of bipolar PNe under the current MHD model paradigm.

  14. Stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in a current-carrying stellarator

    Matsuoka, K.; Miyamoto, K.

    1979-02-01

    Stable profiles against MHD instabilities are given in a cylindrical current-carrying stellarator. The comparison theorem, i.e., guiding principle for stabilization, is obtained in the same way as in a tokamak. As the external rotational transform due to an l = 2 helical field increases, MHD properties in a stellarator are improved than in a tokamak and the minimum value of q(a) which provides simultaneous stabilization of MHD modes can be lowered less than 2 even without a conducting shell. In an l = 3 stellarator, however, as shown from the Euler equation, the configuration becomes more unstable than in a tokamak and strong tailoring of the current profile is necessary in order to stabilize MHD modes. (author)

  15. Differential effects of voluntary wheel running and toy rotation on the mRNA expression of neurotrophic factors and FKBP5 in a post-traumatic stress disorder rat model with the shuttle-box task.

    Tanichi, Masaaki; Toda, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Kunio; Koga, Minori; Saito, Taku; Enomoto, Shingo; Boku, Shuken; Asai, Fumiho; Mitsui, Yumi; Nagamine, Masanori; Fujita, Masanori; Yoshino, Aihide

    2018-06-18

    Life-threatening experiences can result in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. We have developed an animal model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using a shuttle box in rats. In this paradigm, the rats were exposed to inescapable foot-shock stress (IS) in a shuttle box, and then an avoidance/escape task was performed in the same box 2 weeks after IS. A previous study using this paradigm revealed that environmental enrichment (EE) ameliorated avoidance/numbing-like behaviors, but not hyperarousal-like behaviors, and EE also elevated hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. However, the differential effects of EE components, i.e., running wheel (RW) or toy rotation, on PTSD-like behaviors has remained unclear. In this experiment, we demonstrated that RW, toy rotation, and EE (containing RW and toy rotation) ameliorated avoidance/numbing-like behaviors, induced learning of avoidance responses, and improved depressive-like behaviors in traumatized rats. The RW increased the hippocampal mRNA expression of neurotrophic factors, especially BDNF and glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor. Toy rotation influenced FK506 binding protein 5 mRNA expression, which is believed to be a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis system, in the hippocampus and amygdala. This is the first report to elucidate the differential mechanistic effects of RW and toy rotation. The former appears to exert its effects via neurotrophic factors, while the latter exerts its effects via the HPA axis. Further studies will lead to a better understanding of the influence of environmental factors on PTSD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exact solutions for rotating charged dust

    Islam, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Earlier work by the author on rotating charged dust is summarized. An incomplete class of exact solutions for differentially rotating charged dust in Newton-Maxwell theory for the equal mass and charge case that was found earlier is completed. A new global exact solution for cylindrically symmetric differentially rotating charged dust in Newton-Maxwell theory is presented. Lastly, a new exact solution for cylindrically symmetric rigidly rotating charged dust in general relativity is given. (author)

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Stellarator and Heliotron Devices

    Johnson, John L.

    1999-02-01

    ground for students without detracting from the usefulness of the book for knowledgeable fusion physicists. After a short, somewhat historical, introduction, Chapter 2 contains a good treatment of the basic properties of a toroidal magnetic configuration (the concepts of magnetic surfaces, rotational transform, shear and magnetic wells), averaging techniques which can often be used to simplify the calculations, helically invariant configurations, magnetic islands and line tracing techniques. Derivations and discussions of the basic tools of plasma theory, including the Vlasov equation, magnetohydrodynamic equations and their reduced form for low-β, large aspect ratio systems, properties of MHD waves, the drift kinetic equation and transport equations, are given in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 contains a good treatment of MHD equilibria, including a derivation of the three dimensional Grad-Shafranov equation, a discussion of the calculation of equilibria with a planar magnetic axis with both averaged equations and a variational approach, a comparison of the results of the two techniques, a formulation for stellarators with a helical magnetic axis and a good discussion of the Pfirsch-Schlüter current. The treatment of MHD instabilities in Chapter 5 is also excellent. It starts with a good derivation and discussion of the energy principle, gives a detailed treatment of ballooning modes where the wavelengths of the perturbation perpendicular to the field are short while those along B are long and derives the Mercier criterion from the ballooning mode equation. I personally prefer to obtain this criterion by making the low mode number assumption that dξ/dΨ>>dξ/dθ approx dξ/dζ, since non-ideal effects such as finite gyration radius corrections may provide less stabilization to these modes. A careful treatment of the resistive interchange mode is followed by a discussion of the role of localized stability criteria in the analysis of experiment and design studies, a study of

  18. Global rotation

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  19. Quasisymmetry equations for conventional stellarators

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    1994-11-01

    General quasisymmetry condition, which demands the independence of B 2 on one of the angular Boozer coordinates, is reduced to two equations containing only geometrical characteristics and helical field of a stellarator. The analysis is performed for conventional stellarators with a planar circular axis using standard stellarator expansion. As a basis, the invariant quasisymmetry condition is used. The quasisymmetry equations for stellarators are obtained from this condition also in an invariant form. Simplified analogs of these equations are given for the case when averaged magnetic surfaces are circular shifted torii. It is shown that quasisymmetry condition can be satisfied, in principle, in a conventional stellarator by a proper choice of two satellite harmonics of the helical field in addition to the main harmonic. Besides, there appears a restriction on the shift of magnetic surfaces. Thus, in general, the problem is closely related with that of self-consistent description of a configuration. (author)

  20. Solar and stellar flares and their impact on planets

    Shibata, Kazunari

    Recent observations of the Sun revealed that the solar atmosphere is full of flares and flare-like phenomena, which affect terrestrial environment and our civilization. It has been established that flares are caused by the release of magnetic energy through magnetic reconnection. Many stars show flares similar to solar flares, and such stellar flares especially in stars with fast rotation are much more energetic than solar flares. These are called superflares. The total energy of a solar flare is 1029 - 1032 erg, while that of a superflare is 1033 - 1038 erg. Recently, it was found that superflares (with 1034 - 1035 erg) occur on Sun-like stars with slow rotation with frequency once in 800 - 5000 years. This suggests the possibility of superflares on the Sun. We review recent development of solar and stellar flare research, and briefly discuss possible impacts of superflares on the Earth and exoplanets.

  1. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  2. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10 6 M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints

  3. Remarks on stellar clusters

    Teller, E.

    1985-01-01

    In the following, a few simple remarks on the evolution and properties of stellar clusters will be collected. In particular, globular clusters will be considered. Though details of such clusters are often not known, a few questions can be clarified with the help of primitive arguments. These are:- why are spherical clusters spherical, why do they have high densities, why do they consist of approximately a million stars, how may a black hole of great mass form within them, may they be the origin of gamma-ray bursts, may their invisible remnants account for the missing mass of our galaxy. The available data do not warrant a detailed evaluation. However, it is remarkable that exceedingly simple models can shed some light on the questions enumerated above. (author)

  4. L = ± 1 stellarator

    Kikuchi, T.; Shiina, S.; Saito, K.; Gesso, H.; Aizawa, M.; Kawakami, I.

    1985-01-01

    We report the magnetic field configuration of helical magnetic axis stellarator. The magnetic field configuration is composed of large l=1 field and small l=-1 and l=0(bumpy) fields. The large l=1 field (combined with the small l=-1 field) is used to form helical magnetic axis with the helical curvature much larger than the toroidal curvature, which provides the high limiting values of β. The small l=-1 field, furthermore, as well as the large l=1 field reduces the Pfirsch-Schlueter currents by combining with l=0 field. Therefore, the large l=1 field and the combination of three field components may be favourable for the increase of limiting β value

  5. GRAND MINIMA AND EQUATORWARD PROPAGATION IN A CYCLING STELLAR CONVECTIVE DYNAMO

    Augustson, Kyle; Miesch, Mark [High Altitude Observatory, Center Green 1, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Brun, Allan Sacha [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM–CNRS–Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Toomre, Juri [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The 3D MHD Anelastic Spherical Harmonic code, using slope-limited diffusion, is employed to capture convective and dynamo processes achieved in a global-scale stellar convection simulation for a model solar-mass star rotating at three times the solar rate. The dynamo-generated magnetic fields possesses many timescales, with a prominent polarity cycle occurring roughly every 6.2 years. The magnetic field forms large-scale toroidal wreaths, whose formation is tied to the low Rossby number of the convection in this simulation. The polarity reversals are linked to the weakened differential rotation and a resistive collapse of the large-scale magnetic field. An equatorial migration of the magnetic field is seen, which is due to the strong modulation of the differential rotation rather than a dynamo wave. A poleward migration of magnetic flux from the equator eventually leads to the reversal of the polarity of the high-latitude magnetic field. This simulation also enters an interval with reduced magnetic energy at low latitudes lasting roughly 16 years (about 2.5 polarity cycles), during which the polarity cycles are disrupted and after which the dynamo recovers its regular polarity cycles. An analysis of this grand minimum reveals that it likely arises through the interplay of symmetric and antisymmetric dynamo families. This intermittent dynamo state potentially results from the simulation’s relatively low magnetic Prandtl number. A mean-field-based analysis of this dynamo simulation demonstrates that it is of the α-Ω type. The timescales that appear to be relevant to the magnetic polarity reversal are also identified.

  6. Configuration studies for a small-aspect-ratio tokamak stellarator hybrid

    Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Ware, A.

    1996-08-01

    The use of modulated toroidal coils offers a new path to the tokamak-stellarator hybrids. Low-aspect-ratio configurations can be found with robust vacuum flux surfaces and rotational transform close to the transform of a reverse-shear tokamak. These configurations have clear advantages in minimizing disruptions and their effect and in reducing tokamak current drive needs. They also allow the study of low-aspect-ratio effects on stellarator confinement in small devices

  7. Simulation of the poloidal rotation shear layer for stellarators

    Maassberg, H.; Dyabilin, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    In the neoclassical theory based on the first order expansion of the distribution function, the radial electric field, E r , is calculated by the roots of the ambipolarity condition of the local particle fluxes: Γ e = Z i Γ i with Γ α = -n α · [D 11 α (n α , /n α - q α E r /T α ) + D 12 α T α , /T α ] with α = e, i (impurity ion fluxes are disregarded), q α being the particle charge. In the particle flux densities, Γ α , the Ware pinch term is omitted. In this context, additional 'anomalous' contributions are assumed to be intrinsically ambipolar. For given density and temperature profiles, E r is estimated separately for each flux surface. As the neoclassical particle transport coefficients depend on E r (and quite differently for ion and electrons in the different regimes of collisionality), multiple roots of the ambipolarity condition can exist. Especially when both the electrons and the ions are in the LMFP regime three roots can appear: the 'ion root', E r i , at small E r values, and the strongly positive 'electron root', E r e . An unstable root of the ambipolarity condition exists in between, while both the 'ion' and the 'electron root' are stable. At outer radii with higher collisionality, typically only the 'ion root' with typically E r i <0 can exist. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs

  8. 26Al yields from rotating Wolf--Rayet star models

    Vuissoz, C.; Meynet, G.; Knoedlseder, J.; Cervino, M.; Schaerer, D.; Palacios, A.; Mowlavi, N.

    2003-01-01

    We present new $^{26}$Al stellar yields from rotating Wolf--Rayet stellar models which, at solar metallicity, well reproduce the observed properties of the Wolf-Rayet populations. These new yields are enhanced with respect to non--rotating models, even with respect to non--rotating models computed with enhanced mass loss rates. We briefly discuss some implications of the use of these new yields for estimating the global contribution of Wolf-Rayet stars to the quantity of $^{26}$Al now present...

  9. Visualization and spectral synthesis of rotationally distorted stars

    Dall, T H; Sbordone, L

    2011-01-01

    Simple spherical, non-rotating stellar models are inadequate when describing real stars in the limit of very fast rotation: Both the observable spectrum and the geometrical shape of the star deviate strongly from simple models. We attempt to approach the problem of modeling geometrically distorted, rapidly rotating stars from a new angle: By constructing distorted geometrical models and integrating standard stellar models with varying temperature, gravity, and abundances, over the entire surface, we attempt a semi-empirical approach to modeling. Here we present our methodology, and present simple examples of applications.

  10. Quasiaxially symmetric stellarators with three field periods

    Garabedian, P.; Ku, L.

    1999-01-01

    Compact hybrid configurations with two field periods have been studied recently as candidates for a proof of principle experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This project has led us to the discovery of a family of quasiaxially symmetric stellarators with three field periods that have significant advantages, although their aspect ratios are a little larger. They have reversed shear and perform better in a local analysis of ballooning modes. Nonlinear equilibrium and stability calculations predict that the average beta limit will be at least as high as 4% if the bootstrap current turns out to be as big as that expected in comparable tokamaks. The concept relies on a combination of helical fields and bootstrap current to achieve adequate rotational transform at low aspect ratio. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  11. Physics issues of compact drift optimized stellarators

    Spong, D.A.; Hirshman, S.; Berry, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Physics issues are discussed for compact stellarator configurations which achieve good confinement by the fact that the magnetic field modulus, vertical bar B vertical bar, in magnetic coordinates is dominated by poloidally symmetric components. Two distinct configuration types are considered: (1) those which achieve their drift optimization and rotational transform at low β and low bootstrap current by appropriate plasma shaping; and (2) those which have a greater reliance on plasma β and bootstrap currents for supplying the transform and obtaining quasi poloidal symmetry. Stability analysis of the latter group of devices against ballooning, kink and vertical displacement modes has indicated that stable 's on the order of 15% are possible. The first class of devices is being considered for a low β near-term experiment that could explore some of the confinement features of the high beta configurations. (author)

  12. SUN-LIKE MAGNETIC CYCLES IN THE RAPIDLY ROTATING YOUNG SOLAR ANALOG HD 30495

    Egeland, Ricky; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that multiple dynamo mechanisms can drive magnetic variability on different timescales, not only in the Sun but also in other stars. Many solar activity proxies exhibit a quasi-biennial (∼2 year) variation, which is superimposed upon the dominant 11 year cycle. A well-characterized stellar sample suggests at least two different relationships between rotation period and cycle period, with some stars exhibiting long and short cycles simultaneously. Within this sample, the solar cycle periods are typical of a more rapidly rotating star, implying that the Sun might be in a transitional state or that it has an unusual evolutionary history. In this work, we present new and archival observations of dual magnetic cycles in the young solar analog HD 30495, a ∼1 Gyr old G1.5 V star with a rotation period near 11 days. This star falls squarely on the relationships established by the broader stellar sample, with short-period variations at ∼1.7 years and a long cycle of ∼12 years. We measure three individual long-period cycles and find durations ranging from 9.6 to 15.5 years. We find the short-term variability to be intermittent, but present throughout the majority of the time series, though its occurrence and amplitude are uncorrelated with the longer cycle. These essentially solar-like variations occur in a Sun-like star with more rapid rotation, though surface differential rotation measurements leave open the possibility of a solar equivalence

  13. Evolution of stellar systems

    Vader, P.

    1981-01-01

    The stellar systems of which the evolution will be considered in this thesis, are either galaxies, which contain about 10 11 stars, or binary systems, which consist of only two stars. It is seen that binary systems can give us some insight into the relative age of the nucleus of M31. The positive correlation between the metal content of a galaxy and its mass, first noted for elliptical galaxies, seems to be a general property of galaxies of all types. The observed increase of metallicity with galaxy mass is too large to be accounted for by differences in the evolutionary stage of galaxies. To explain the observed correlation it is proposed that a relatively larger proportion of massive stars is formed in more massive galaxies. The physical basis is that the formation of massive stars seems to be tied to the enhanced gas-dynamical activity in more massive galaxies. A specific aspect of the production of heavy elements by massive stars is investigated in some detail. In 1979 a cluster of 18 point X-ray sources within 400 pc of the centre of M31 was detected with the Einstein satellite. This is a remarkable result since no equivalent of this cluster has been observed in the nucleus of our own Galaxy, which otherwise is very similar to that of M31. An explanation for this phenomenon is proposed, suggesting that X-ray binaries are the products of the long-term evolution of nova systems. (Auth.)

  14. Stellar extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    Cash, W.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The design, calibration, and launch of a rocket-borne imaging telescope for extreme ultraviolet astronomy are described. The telescope, which employed diamond-turned grazing incidence optics and a ranicon detector, was launched November 19, 1976, from the White Sands Missile Range. The telescope performed well and returned data on several potential stellar sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation. Upper limits ten to twenty times more sensitive than previously available were obtained for the extreme ultraviolet flux from the white dwarf Sirius B. These limits fall a factor of seven below the flux predicted for the star and demonstrate that the temperature of Sirius B is not 32,000 K as previously measured, but is below 30,000 K. The new upper limits also rule out the photosphere of the white dwarf as the source of the recently reported soft x-rays from Sirius. Two other white dwarf stars, Feige 24 and G191-B2B, were observed. Upper limits on the flux at 300 A were interpreted as lower limits on the interstellar hydrogen column densities to these stars. The lower limits indicate interstellar hydrogen densitites of greater than .02 cm -3 . Four nearby stars (Sirius, Procyon, Capella, and Mirzam) were observed in a search for intense low temperature coronae or extended chromospheres. No extreme ultraviolet radiation from these stars was detected, and upper limits to their coronal emisson measures are derived

  15. Mapping stellar surface features

    Noah, P.V.

    1987-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the RS Canum Venaticorum binaries Sigma Geminorum and UX Arietis are reported along with details of the Doppler-imaging program SPOTPROF. The observations suggest that the starspot activity on Sigma Gem has decreased to 0.05 magnitude in two years. A photometric spot model for September 1984 to January 1985 found that a single spot covering 2% of the surface and 1000 K cooler than the surrounding photosphere could model the light variations. Equivalent-width observations contemporaneous with the photometric observations did not show any significant variations. Line-profile models from SPOTPROF predict that the variation of the equivalent width of the 6393 A Fe I line should be ∼ 1mA. Photometric observations of UX Ari from January 1984 to March 1985 show an 0.3 magnitude variation indicating a large spot group must cover the surface. Contemporaneous spectroscopic observations show asymmetric line profiles. The Doppler imaging and the photometric light-curve models were used in an iterative method to describe the stellar surface-spot distribution and successfully model both the photometric and the spectroscopic variations

  16. SI: The Stellar Imager

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager (SI) will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: The 0.1 milliarcsec resolution of this deep-space telescope will transform point sources into extended sources, and simple snapshots into spellbinding evolving views. SI s science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI s prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era by imaging a sample of magnetically active stars with enough resolution to map their evolving dynamo patterns and their internal flows. By exploring the Universe at ultra-high resolution, SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magnetohydrodynamically controlled structures and processes in the Universe.

  17. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  18. Rotating dryer

    Noe, C.

    1984-01-01

    Products to dry are introduced inside a rotating tube placed in an oven, the cross section of the tube is an arc of spiral. During clockwise rotation of the tube products are maintained inside and mixed, during anticlockwise products are removed. Application is made to drying of radioactive wastes [fr

  19. Turbulence optimisation in stellarator experiments

    Proll, Josefine H.E. [Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Faber, Benjamin J. [HSX Plasma Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Helander, Per; Xanthopoulos, Pavlos [Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics (Germany); Lazerson, Samuel A.; Mynick, Harry E. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451 Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Stellarators, the twisted siblings of the axisymmetric fusion experiments called tokamaks, have historically suffered from confining the heat of the plasma insufficiently compared with tokamaks and were therefore considered to be less promising candidates for a fusion reactor. This has changed, however, with the advent of stellarators in which the laminar transport is reduced to levels below that of tokamaks by shaping the magnetic field accordingly. As in tokamaks, the turbulent transport remains as the now dominant transport channel. Recent analytical theory suggests that the large configuration space of stellarators allows for an additional optimisation of the magnetic field to also reduce the turbulent transport. In this talk, the idea behind the turbulence optimisation is explained. We also present how an optimised equilibrium is obtained and how it might differ from the equilibrium field of an already existing device, and we compare experimental turbulence measurements in different configurations of the HSX stellarator in order to test the optimisation procedure.

  20. Optimizing Stellarators for Turbulent Transport

    Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, the term 'transport-optimized' stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations, and stellarator optimization codes. A first proof-of-principle configuration is obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the NCSX baseline design by a factor of about 2.5.

  1. Superbanana orbits in stellarator geometries

    Derr, J.A.; Shohet, J.L.

    1979-04-01

    The presence of superbanana orbit types localized to either the interior or the exterior of stellarators and torsatrons is numerically investigated for 3.5 MeV alpha particles. The absence of the interior superbanana in both geometries is found to be due to non-conservation of the action. Exterior superbananas are found in the stellarator only, as a consequence of the existence of closed helical magnetic wells. No superbananas of either type are found in the torsatron

  2. On origin of stellar clusters

    Tovmasyan, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    The ratios of the gas component of the mass of young stellar clusters to their stellar mass are considered. They change by more than four orders from one cluster to another. The results are in direct contradiction with the hypothesis of formation of cluster stars from a preliminarily existing gas cloud by its condensation, and they favour the Ambartsumian hypothesis of the joint origin of stars and gas clouds from superdense protostellar matter

  3. Modeling tracers of young stellar population age in star-forming galaxies

    Levesque, Emily M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Leitherer, Claus, E-mail: Emily.Levesque@colorado.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The young stellar population of a star-forming galaxy is the primary engine driving its radiative properties. As a result, the age of a galaxy's youngest generation of stars is critical for a detailed understanding of its star formation history, stellar content, and evolutionary state. Here we present predicted equivalent widths for the Hβ, Hα, and Brγ recombination lines as a function of stellar population age. The equivalent widths are produced by the latest generations of stellar evolutionary tracks and the Starburst99 stellar population synthesis code, and are the first to fully account for the combined effects of both nebular emission and continuum absorption produced by the synthetic stellar population. Our grid of model stellar populations spans six metallicities (0.001 < Z < 0.04), two treatments of star formation history (a 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} instantaneous burst and a continuous star formation rate of 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), and two different treatments of initial rotation rate (v {sub rot} = 0.0v {sub crit} and 0.4v {sub crit}). We also investigate the effects of varying the initial mass function. Given constraints on galaxy metallicity, our predicted equivalent widths can be applied to observations of star-forming galaxies to approximate the age of their young stellar populations.

  4. A STELLAR-MASS-DEPENDENT DROP IN PLANET OCCURRENCE RATES

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler spacecraft has discovered a large number of planets with up to one-year periods and down to terrestrial sizes. While the majority of the target stars are main-sequence dwarfs of spectral type F, G, and K, Kepler covers stars with effective temperatures as low as 2500 K, which corresponds to M stars. These cooler stars allow characterization of small planets near the habitable zone, yet it is not clear if this population is representative of that around FGK stars. In this paper, we calculate the occurrence of planets around stars of different spectral types as a function of planet radius and distance from the star and show that they are significantly different from each other. We further identify two trends. First, the occurrence of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets (1-4 R ⊕ ) is successively higher toward later spectral types at all orbital periods probed by Kepler; planets around M stars occur twice as frequently as around G stars, and thrice as frequently as around F stars. Second, a drop in planet occurrence is evident at all spectral types inward of a ∼10 day orbital period, with a plateau further out. By assigning to each spectral type a median stellar mass, we show that the distance from the star where this drop occurs is stellar mass dependent, and scales with semi-major axis as the cube root of stellar mass. By comparing different mechanisms of planet formation, trapping, and destruction, we find that this scaling best matches the location of the pre-main-sequence co-rotation radius, indicating efficient trapping of migrating planets or planetary building blocks close to the star. These results demonstrate the stellar-mass dependence of the planet population, both in terms of occurrence rate and of orbital distribution. The prominent stellar-mass dependence of the inner boundary of the planet population shows that the formation or migration of planets is sensitive to the stellar parameters

  5. Stellar streams and the galaxies they reside in

    Pearson, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    As galaxies collide, as smaller galaxies are disrupted by larger galaxies, or as clusters of stars orbit a galaxy, a gravitational tidal interaction unfolds and the systems tear apart into distinct morphological and kinematic structures. In my thesis, I have exploited these structures to understand various components of galaxies, such as the baryon cycle in dwarf galaxy interactions (Pearson et al. 2016, Pearson et al. 2017b). In this talk, I will focus on my thesis work related to the stellar stream emerging from the old, globular cluster, Palomar 5 (Pal 5), orbiting our own Milky Way. As the stellar stream members were once closely tied together in energy and angular momentum space, we can use their distribution in phase space to trace back where they were once located and what affected them along their paths. In particular, I will show that the mere existence of Pal 5’s thin stream can rule out a moderately triaxial potential model of our Galaxy (Pearson et al. 2015) and that the debris of Pal 5-like streams will spread much further in space in a triaxial potential (a mechanism which I dubbed “stream fanning”) . Additionally, I will show that the Milky Way's Galactic bar, can punch holes in stellar streams and explain the recently discovered length asymmetry between Pal 5’s leading and trailing arm (Pearson et al. 2017a). These holes grow and have locations along stellar streams dependent on the Galactic bar orientation, mass and rotational speed, which provides an intriguing methodology for studying our own Milky Way’s Galactic bar in more detail. The fact that the bar can create under densities in stellar streams, further demonstrates that we should be careful when interpreting gaps in stellar streams as indirect evidence of the existence of dark matter subhalos in our Galaxy.

  6. Motions on a rotating planet

    Schröer, H.

    In chapter 1 we want to describe the motion of a falling body on a rotating planet. The planet rotates with an arbitrary changable angular velocity and has a translational acceleration. We obtain 3 differential equations. For the general gravitational field an exact solution is possible, when the differential equation system is explicit solvable. Then we consider the case, if the angular velocity and the translational acceleration is constant. With a special transformation we get 3 partial differential equations of first order. Instead of a planet sphere we can choose a general body of rotation. Even general bodies are possible. Chapter 2 contains the motion in a local coordinate system on planet's surface. We have an inhomogeneous linear differential equation of first order. If the angular velocity is constant, we get a system with constant coefficients. There is an english and a german edition.

  7. Stellar and wind parameters of massive stars from spectral analysis

    Araya, Ignacio; Curé, Michel

    2017-11-01

    The only way to deduce information from stars is to decode the radiation it emits in an appropriate way. Spectroscopy can solve this and derive many properties of stars. In this work we seek to derive simultaneously the stellar and wind characteristics of a wide range of massive stars. Our stellar properties encompass the effective temperature, the surface gravity, the stellar radius, the micro-turbulence velocity, the rotational velocity and the Si abundance. For wind properties we consider the mass-loss rate, the terminal velocity and the line-force parameters α, k and δ (from the line-driven wind theory). To model the data we use the radiative transport code Fastwind considering the newest hydrodynamical solutions derived with Hydwind code, which needs stellar and line-force parameters to obtain a wind solution. A grid of spectral models of massive stars is created and together with the observed spectra their physical properties are determined through spectral line fittings. These fittings provide an estimation about the line-force parameters, whose theoretical calculations are extremely complex. Furthermore, we expect to confirm that the hydrodynamical solutions obtained with a value of δ slightly larger than ~ 0.25, called δ-slow solutions, describe quite reliable the radiation line-driven winds of A and late B supergiant stars and at the same time explain disagreements between observational data and theoretical models for the Wind-Momentum Luminosity Relationship (WLR).

  8. Nebular Continuum and Line Emission in Stellar Population Synthesis Models

    Byler, Nell; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Conroy, Charlie; Johnson, Benjamin D., E-mail: ebyler@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Accounting for nebular emission when modeling galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) is important, as both line and continuum emissions can contribute significantly to the total observed flux. In this work, we present a new nebular emission model integrated within the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis code that computes the line and continuum emission for complex stellar populations using the photoionization code Cloudy. The self-consistent coupling of the nebular emission to the matched ionizing spectrum produces emission line intensities that correctly scale with the stellar population as a function of age and metallicity. This more complete model of galaxy SEDs will improve estimates of global gas properties derived with diagnostic diagrams, star formation rates based on H α , and physical properties derived from broadband photometry. Our models agree well with results from other photoionization models and are able to reproduce observed emission from H ii regions and star-forming galaxies. Our models show improved agreement with the observed H ii regions in the Ne iii/O ii plane and show satisfactory agreement with He ii emission from z = 2 galaxies, when including rotating stellar models. Models including post-asymptotic giant branch stars are able to reproduce line ratios consistent with low-ionization emission regions. The models are integrated into current versions of FSPS and include self-consistent nebular emission predictions for MIST and Padova+Geneva evolutionary tracks.

  9. The sun as a star: Solar phenomena and stellar applications

    Noyes, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Our Sun is a run-of-the-mill star, having no obvious extremes of stellar properties. For this reason it is perhaps more, rather than less, interesting as an astrophysical object, for its sameness to other stars suggests that in studying the Sun, we are studying at close hand common, rather than unusual stellar phenomena. Conversely, comparative study of the Sun and other solar-type stars is an invaluable tool for solar physics, for two reasons: First, it allows us to explore how solar properties and phenomena depend on parameters we cannot vary on the Sun - most fundamentally, rotation rate and mass. Second, study of solar-like stars of different ages allows us to see how stellar and solar phenomena depend on age; study of other stars may be one of the best ways to infer the earlier history of the Sun, as well as its future history. In this review we shall concentrate on phenomena common to the Sun and solar-type (main sequence) stars with different fundamental properties such as mass, age, and rotation. (orig.)

  10. Engineering aspects of compact stellarators

    Nelson, B.E.; Benson, R.D.; Brooks, A.

    2003-01-01

    Compact stellarators could combine the good confinement and high beta of a tokamak with the inherently steady state, disruption-free characteristics of a stellarator. Two U.S. compact stellarator facilities are now in the conceptual design phase: the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and the Quasi- Poloidal Stellarator (QPS). NCSX has a major radius of 1.4 m and a toroidal field up to 2 T. The primary feature of both NCSX and QPS is the set of modular coils that provide the basic magnetic configuration. These coils represent a major engineering challenge due to the complex shape, precise geometric accuracy, and high current density of the windings. The winding geometry is too complex for conventional hollow copper conductor construction. Instead, the modular coils will be wound with flexible, multi strand cable conductor that has been compacted to a 75% copper packing fraction. Inside the NCSX coil set and surrounding the plasma is a highly contoured vacuum vessel. The vessel consists of three identical, 120 deg. segments that are bolted together at double sealed joints. The QPS device has a major radius of 0.9 m, a toroidal field of 1 T, and an aspect ratio of only 2.7. Instead of an internal vacuum vessel, the QPS modular coils will operate in an external vacuum tank. (author)

  11. Stellar Oxygen Abundances

    King, Jeremy

    1994-04-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues concerning stellar oxygen abundances. The 7774 {\\AA} O I triplet equivalent widths of Abia & Rebolo [1989, AJ, 347, 186] for metal-poor dwarfs are found to be systematically too high. I also argue that current effective temperatures used in halo star abundance studies may be ~150 K too low. New color-Teff relations are derived for metal-poor stars. Using the revised Teff values and improved equivalent widths for the 7774A O I triplet, the mean [O/Fe] ratio for a handful of halo stars is found to be +0.52 with no dependence on Teff or [Fe/H]. Possible cosmological implications of the hotter Teff scale are discussed along with additional evidence supporting the need for a higher temperature scale for metal-poor stars. Our Teff scale leads to a Spite Li plateau value of N(Li)=2.28 +/- 0.09. A conservative minimal primordial value of N(Li)=2.35 is inferred. If errors in the observations and models are considered, consistency with standard models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis is still achieved with this larger Li abundance. The revised Teff scale raises the observed B/Be ratio of HD 140283 from 10 to 12, making its value more comfortably consistent with the production of the observed B and Be by ordinary spallation. Our Teff values are found to be in good agreement with values predicted from both the Victoria and Yale isochrone color-Teff relations. Thus, it appears likely that no changes in globular cluster ages would result. Next, we examine the location of the break in the [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] plane in a quantitative fashion. Analysis of a relatively homogeneous data set does not favor any unique break point in the range -1.7 /= -3), in agreement with the new results for halo dwarfs. We find that the gap in the observed [O/H] distribution, noted by Wheeler et al. [1989, ARAA, 27, 279], persists despite the addition of more O data and may betray the occurrence of a hiatus in star formation between the end of halo formation and

  12. Waldmeier's Rules in the Solar and Stellar Dynamos

    Pipin, Valery; Kosovichev, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    The Waldmeier's rules [1] establish important empirical relations between the general parameters of magnetic cycles (such as the amplitude, period, growth rate and time profile) on the Sun and solar-type stars [2]. Variations of the magnetic cycle parameters depend on properties of the global dynamo processes operating in the stellar convection zones. We employ nonlinear mean-field axisymmetric dynamo models [3] and calculate of the magnetic cycle parameters, such as the dynamo cycle period, total magnetic and Poynting fluxes for the Sun and solar-type stars with rotational periods from 15 to 30 days. We consider two types of the dynamo models: 1) distributed (D-type) models employing the standard α - effect distributed in the whole convection zone, and 2) Babcock-Leighton (BL-type) models with a non-local α - effect. The dynamo models take into account the principal mechanisms of the nonlinear dynamo generation and saturation, including the magnetic helicity conservation, magnetic buoyancy effects, and the feedback on the angular momentum balance inside the convection zones. Both types of models show that the dynamo generated magnetic flux increases with the increase of the rotation rate. This corresponds to stronger brightness variations. The distributed dynamo model reproduces the observed dependence of the cycle period on the rotation rate for the Sun analogs better than the BL-type model. For the solar-type stars rotating more rapidly than the Sun we find dynamo regimes with multiple periods. Such stars with multiple cycles form a separate branch in the variability-rotation diagram.1. Waldmeier, M., Prognose für das nächste Sonnenfleckenmaximum, 1936, Astron. Nachrichten, 259,262. Soon,W.H., Baliunas,S.L., Zhang,Q.,An interpretation of cycle periods of stellar chromospheric activity, 1993, ApJ, 414,333. Pipin,V.V., Dependence of magnetic cycle parameters on period of rotation in nonlinear solar-type dynamos, 2015, astro-ph: 14125284

  13. Towards age/rotation/magnetic activity relation with seismology

    Mathur Savita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of stellar ages directly impacts the characterization of a planetary system as it puts strong constraints on the moment when the system was born. Unfortunately, the determination of precise stellar ages is a very difficult task. Different methods can be used to do so (based on isochrones or chemical element abundances but they usually provide large uncertainties. During its evolution a star goes through processes leading to loss of angular momentum but also changes in its magnetic activity. Building rotation, magnetic, age relations would be an asset to infer stellar ages model independently. Several attempts to build empirical relations between rotation and age (namely gyrochronology were made with a focus on cluster stars where the age determination is easier and for young stars on the main sequence. For field stars, we can now take advantage of high-precision photometric observations where we can perform asteroseismic analyses to improve the accuracy of stellar ages. Furthermore, the variability in the light curves allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar rotation and magnetic activity. By combining these precise measurements, we are on the way of understanding and improving relations between magnetic activity, rotation, and age, in particular at different stages of stellar evolution. I will review the status on gyrochronology relationships based on observations of young cluster stars. Then I will focus on solar-like stars and describe the inferences on stellar ages, rotation, and magnetism that can be provided by high-quality photometric observations such as the ones of the Kepler mission, in particular through asteroseismic analyses.

  14. Planets, stars and stellar systems

    Bond, Howard; McLean, Ian; Barstow, Martin; Gilmore, Gerard; Keel, William; French, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This is volume 3 of Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems, a six-volume compendium of modern astronomical research covering subjects of key interest to the main fields of contemporary astronomy. This volume on “Solar and Stellar Planetary Systems” edited by Linda French and Paul Kalas presents accessible review chapters From Disks to Planets, Dynamical Evolution of Planetary Systems, The Terrestrial Planets, Gas and Ice Giant Interiors, Atmospheres of Jovian Planets, Planetary Magnetospheres, Planetary Rings, An Overview of the Asteroids and Meteorites, Dusty Planetary Systems and Exoplanet Detection Methods. All chapters of the handbook were written by practicing professionals. They include sufficient background material and references to the current literature to allow readers to learn enough about a specialty within astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology to get started on their own practical research projects. In the spirit of the series Stars and Stellar Systems published by Chicago University Press in...

  15. Kinematics and stellar populations of 17 dwarf early-type galaxies

    Thomas, D.; Bender, R.; Hopp, U.; Maraston, C.; Greggio, L.

    2002-01-01

    We present kinematics and stellar population properties of 17 dwarf early-type galaxies in the luminosity range -14> M_B> -19. Our sample fills the gap between the intensively studied giant elliptical and Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The dwarf ellipticals of the present sample have constant velocity dispersion profiles within their effective radii and do not show significant rotation, hence are clearly anisotropic. The dwarf lenticulars, instead, rotate faster and are, at least part...

  16. Stellar CME candidates: towards a stellar CME-flare relation

    Paraskevi Moschou, Sofia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Alvarado-Gomez, Julian D.; Garraffo, Cecilia

    2018-06-01

    For decades the Sun has been the only star that allowed for direct CME observations. Recently, with the discovery of multiple extrasolar systems, it has become imperative that the role of stellar CMEs be assessed in the context of exoplanetary habitability. Solar CMEs and flares show a higher association with increasing flaring energy, with strong flares corresponding to large and fast CMEs. As argued in earlier studies, extrasolar environments around active stars are potentially dominated by CMEs, as a result of their extreme flaring activity. This has strong implications for the energy budget of the system and the atmospheric erosion of orbiting planets.Nevertheless, with current instrumentation we are unable to directly observe CMEs in even the closest stars, and thus we have to look for indirect techniques and observational evidence and signatures for the eruption of stellar CMEs. There are three major observational techniques for tracing CME signatures in other stellar systems, namely measuring Type II radio bursts, Doppler shifts in UV/optical lines or transient absorption in the X-ray spectrum. We present observations of the most probable stellar CME candidates captured so far and examine the different observational techniques used together with their levels of uncertainty. Assuming that they were CMEs, we try to asses their kinematic and energetic characteristics and place them in an extension of the well-established solar CME-flare energy scaling law. We finish by discussing future observations for direct measurements.

  17. Stellar photospheric abundances as a probe of discs and planets

    Jermyn, Adam S.; Kama, Mihkel

    2018-06-01

    Protoplanetary discs, debris discs, and disrupted or evaporating planets can all feed accretion on to stars. The photospheric abundances of such stars may then reveal the composition of the accreted material. This is especially likely in B to mid-F type stars, which have radiative envelopes and hence less bulk-photosphere mixing. We present a theoretical framework (CAM), considering diffusion, rotation, and other stellar mixing mechanisms to describe how the accreted material interacts with the bulk of the star. This allows the abundance pattern of the circumstellar material to be calculated from measured stellar abundances and parameters (vrot, Teff). We discuss the λ Boötis phenomenon and the application of CAM on stars hosting protoplanetary discs (HD 100546, HD 163296), debris discs (HD 141569, HD 21997), and evaporating planets (HD 195689/KELT-9).

  18. A general comparison between tokamak and stellarator plasmas

    Yuhong Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper generally compares the essential features between tokamaks and stellarators, based on previous review work individually made by authors on several specific topics, such as theories, bulk plasma transport and edge divertor physics, along with some recent results. It aims at summarizing the main results and conclusions with regard to the advantages and disadvantages in these two types of magnetic fusion devices. The comparison includes basic magnetic configurations, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD instabilities, operational limits and disruptions, neoclassical and turbulent transport, confinement scaling and isotopic effects, plasma rotation, and edge and divertor physics. Finally, a concept of quasi-symmetric stellarators is briefly referred along with a comparison of future application for fusion reactors.

  19. Stellar Variability at the Main-sequence Turnoff of the Intermediate-age LMC Cluster NGC 1846

    Salinas, R.; Pajkos, M. A.; Vivas, A. K.; Strader, J.; Contreras Ramos, R.

    2018-04-01

    Intermediate-age (IA) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) present extended main-sequence turn-offs (MSTO) that have been attributed to either multiple stellar populations or an effect of stellar rotation. Recently it has been proposed that these extended main sequences can also be produced by ill-characterized stellar variability. Here we present Gemini-S/Gemini Multi-Object Spectrometer (GMOS) time series observations of the IA cluster NGC 1846. Using differential image analysis, we identified 73 new variable stars, with 55 of those being of the Delta Scuti type, that is, pulsating variables close the MSTO for the cluster age. Considering completeness and background contamination effects, we estimate the number of δ Sct belonging to the cluster between 40 and 60 members, although this number is based on the detection of a single δ Sct within the cluster half-light radius. This amount of variable stars at the MSTO level will not produce significant broadening of the MSTO, albeit higher-resolution imaging will be needed to rule out variable stars as a major contributor to the extended MSTO phenomenon. Though modest, this amount of δ Sct makes NGC 1846 the star cluster with the highest number of these variables ever discovered. Lastly, our results present a cautionary tale about the adequacy of shallow variability surveys in the LMC (like OGLE) to derive properties of its δ Sct population. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  20. Rotating preventers

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  1. Earth Rotation

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  2. Some kinematics and dynamics from a superposition of two axisymmetric stellar systems

    Cubarsi i Morera, R.

    1990-01-01

    Some kinematic and dynamic implications of a superposition of two stellar systems are studied. In the general case of a stellar system in nonsteady states, Chandrasekhar's axially symmetrical model has been adopted for each one of the subsystems. The solution obtained for the potential function provides some kinematical constraints between the subsystems. These relationships are derived using the partial centered moments of the velocity distribution and the subcentroid velocities in order to study the velocity distribution. These relationships are used to prove that, only in a stellar system where the potential function is assumed to be stationary, the relative movement of the local subcentroids (not only in rotation), the vertex deviation phenomenon, and the whole set of the second-order-centered moments may be explained. A qualitative verification with three stellar samples in the solar neighborhood is carried out. 41 refs

  3. NH3 (10-00) in the pre-stellar core L1544

    Caselli, P.; Bizzocchi, L.; Keto, E.

    2017-01-01

    GHz and study the abundance profile of ammonia across the pre-stellar core L1544 to test current theories of its physical and chemical structure. Recently calculated collisional coefficients have been included in our non-LTE radiative transfer code to reproduce Herschel observations. A gas......Pre-stellar cores represent the initial conditions in the process of star and planet formation, therefore it is important to study their physical and chemical structure. Because of their volatility, nitrogen-bearing molecules are key to study the dense and cold gas present in pre-stellar cores....... The NH3 rotational transition detected with Herschel-HIFI provides a unique combination of sensitivity and spectral resolution to further investigate physical and chemical processes in pre-stellar cores. Here we present the velocity-resolved Herschel-HIFI observations of the ortho-NH3(10-00) line at 572...

  4. Introducing galactic structure finder: the multiple stellar kinematic structures of a simulated Milky Way mass galaxy

    Obreja, Aura; Macciò, Andrea V.; Moster, Benjamin; Dutton, Aaron A.; Buck, Tobias; Wang, Gregory S. Stinson Liang

    2018-04-01

    We present the first results of applying Gaussian Mixture Models in the stellar kinematic space of normalized angular momentum and binding energy on NIHAO high resolution galaxies to separate the stars into multiple components. We exemplify this method using a simulated Milky Way analogue, whose stellar component hosts: thin and thick discs, classical and pseudo bulges, and a stellar halo. The properties of these stellar structures are in good agreement with observational expectations in terms of sizes, shapes and rotational support. Interestingly, the two kinematic discs show surface mass density profiles more centrally concentrated than exponentials, while the bulges and the stellar halo are purely exponential. We trace back in time the Lagrangian mass of each component separately to study their formation history. Between z ˜ 3 and the end of halo virialization, z ˜ 1.3, all components lose a fraction of their angular momentum. The classical bulge loses the most (˜95%) and the thin disc the least (˜60%). Both bulges formed their stars in-situ at high redshift, while the thin disc formed ˜98% in-situ, but with a constant SFR ˜ 1.5M⊙yr-1 over the last ˜ 11 Gyr. Accreted stars (6% of total stellar mass) are mainly incorporated to the thick disc or the stellar halo, which formed ex-situ 8% and 45% of their respective masses. Our analysis pipeline is freely available at https://github.com/aobr/gsf.

  5. High Energy Emissions from Young Stellar Objects A. C. Das1 ...

    ... for the generation of emissions from a YSO on the basis of a simple interaction between the ... important role in generating intense radiation, bipolar flows, stellar winds and many ... Even in the case of a non-rotating compact object, the motion .... The change in energy of the particle due to this electric field is given by. 〈1.

  6. Evolution of rotating stars. III. Predicted surface rotation velocities for stars which conserve total angular momentum

    Endal, A.S.; Sofia, S.

    1979-01-01

    Predicted surface rotation velocities are presented for Population I stars at 10, 7, 5, 3, and 1.5M/sub sun/. The surface velocities have been computed for three different cases of angular momentum redistribution: no radial redistribution (rotation on decoupled shells), complete redistribution (rigid-body rotation), and partial redistribution as predicted by detailed consideration of circulation currents in rotation stars. The velocities for these cases are compared to each other and to observed stellar rotation rates (upsilon sin i).Near the main sequence, rotational effects can substantially reduce the moment of inertia of a star, so nonrotating models consistently underestimate the expected velocities for evolving stars. The magnitude of these effects is sufficient to explain the large numbers of Be stars and, perhaps, to explain the bimodal distribution of velocities observed for the O stars.On the red giant branch, angular momentum redistribution reduces the surface velocity by a factor of 2 or more, relative to the velocity expected for no radial redistribution. This removes the discrepancy between predicted and observed rotation rates for the K giants and makes it unlikely that these stars lose significant amounts of angular momentum by stellar winds. Our calculations indicate that improved observations (by the Fourier-transform technique) of the red giants in the Hyades cluster can be used to determine how angular momentum is redistributed by convection

  7. Science with Synthetic Stellar Surveys

    Sanderson, Robyn Ellyn

    2018-04-01

    A new generation of observational projects is poised to revolutionize our understanding of the resolved stellar populations of Milky-Way-like galaxies at an unprecedented level of detail, ushering in an era of precision studies of galaxy formation. In the Milky Way itself, astrometric, spectroscopic and photometric surveys will measure three-dimensional positions and velocities and numerous chemical abundances for stars from the disk to the halo, as well as for many satellite dwarf galaxies. In the Local Group and beyond, HST, JWST and eventually WFIRST will deliver pristine views of resolved stars. The groundbreaking scale and dimensionality of this new view of resolved stellar populations in galaxies challenge us to develop new theoretical tools to robustly compare these surveys to simulated galaxies, in order to take full advantage of our new ability to make detailed predictions for stellar populations within a cosmological context. I will describe a framework for generating realistic synthetic star catalogs and mock surveys from state-of-the-art cosmological-hydrodynamical simulations, and present several early scientific results from, and predictions for, resolved stellar surveys of our Galaxy and its neighbors.

  8. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly ...

  9. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  10. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  11. Stellar dynamics and black holes

    Chandrasekhar's most important contribution to stellar dynamics was the concept of dynamical friction. I briefly review that work, then discuss some implications of Chandrasekhar's theory of gravitational encounters for motion in galactic nuclei. Author Affiliations. David Merritt1. Department of Physics, Rochester Institute ...

  12. TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators

    Proll, J. H. E.; Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Lazerson, S. A.; Faber, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is addressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X (Beidler et al 1990 Fusion Technol. 17 148) and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT (Spong et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 711) code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stellarator experiment HSX (Anderson et al 1995 Fusion Technol. 27 273) is presented for which a reduction of the linear growth rates is achieved over a broad range of the operational parameter space. As an important consequence of this property, the turbulent heat flux levels are reduced compared with the initial configuration.

  13. Distinguishing the albedo of exoplanets from stellar activity

    Serrano, L. M.; Barros, S. C. C.; Oshagh, M.; Santos, N. C.; Faria, J. P.; Demangeon, O.; Sousa, S. G.; Lendl, M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Light curves show the flux variation from the target star and its orbiting planets as a function of time. In addition to the transit features created by the planets, the flux also includes the reflected light component of each planet, which depends on the planetary albedo. This signal is typically referred to as phase curve and could be easily identified if there were no additional noise. As well as instrumental noise, stellar activity, such as spots, can create a modulation in the data, which may be very difficult to distinguish from the planetary signal. Aims: We analyze the limitations imposed by the stellar activity on the detection of the planetary albedo, considering the limitations imposed by the predicted level of instrumental noise and the short duration of the obervations planned in the context of the CHEOPS mission. Methods: As initial condition, we have assumed that each star is characterized by just one orbiting planet. We built mock light curves that included a realistic stellar activity pattern, the reflected light component of the planet and an instrumental noise level, which we have chosen to be at the same level as predicted for CHEOPS. We then fit these light curves to try to recover the reflected light component, assuming the activity patterns can be modeled with a Gaussian process. Results: We estimate that at least one full stellar rotation is necessary to obtain a reliable detection of the planetary albedo. This result is independent of the level of noise, but it depends on the limitation of the Gaussian process to describe the stellar activity when the light curve time-span is shorter than the stellar rotation. As an additional result, we found that with a 6.5 magnitude star and the noise level of CHEOPS, it is possible to detect the planetary albedo up to a lower limit of Rp = 0.03 R*. Finally, in presence of typical CHEOPS gaps in the simulations, we confirm that it is still possible to obtain a reliable albedo.

  14. USING CLOSE WHITE DWARF + M DWARF STELLAR PAIRS TO CONSTRAIN THE FLARE RATES IN CLOSE STELLAR BINARIES

    Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Becker, Andrew C., E-mail: dpmorg@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We present a study of the statistical flare rates of M dwarfs (dMs) with close white dwarf (WD) companions (WD+dM; typical separations <1 au). Our previous analysis demonstrated that dMs with close WD companions are more magnetically active than their field counterparts. One likely implication of having a close binary companion is increased stellar rotation through disk-disruption, tidal effects, and/or angular momentum exchange; increased stellar rotation has long been associated with an increase in stellar activity. Previous studies show a strong correlation between dMs that are magnetically active (showing H α in emission) and the frequency of stellar flare rates. We examine the difference between the flare rates observed in close WD+dM binary systems and field dMs. Our sample consists of a subset of 181 close WD+dM pairs from Morgan et al. observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, where we obtain multi-epoch observations in the Sloan ugriz -bands. We find an increase in the overall flaring fraction in the close WD+dM pairs (0.09 ± 0.03%) compared to the field dMs (0.0108 ± 0.0007%) and a lower flaring fraction for active WD+dMs (0.05 ± 0.03%) compared to active dMs (0.28 ± 0.05%). We discuss how our results constrain both the single and binary dM flare rates. Our results also constrain dM multiplicity, our knowledge of the Galactic transient background, and may be important for the habitability of attending planets around dMs with close companions.

  15. Stellar Parameters for Trappist-1

    Van Grootel, Valérie; Fernandes, Catarina S.; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel; Manfroid, Jean; Scuflaire, Richard; Burgasser, Adam J.; Barkaoui, Khalid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Burdanov, Artem; Delrez, Laetitia; Demory, Brice-Olivier; de Wit, Julien; Queloz, Didier; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2018-01-01

    TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star transited by seven Earth-sized planets, for which thorough characterization of atmospheric properties, surface conditions encompassing habitability, and internal compositions is possible with current and next-generation telescopes. Accurate modeling of the star is essential to achieve this goal. We aim to obtain updated stellar parameters for TRAPPIST-1 based on new measurements and evolutionary models, compared to those used in discovery studies. We present a new measurement for the parallax of TRAPPIST-1, 82.4 ± 0.8 mas, based on 188 epochs of observations with the TRAPPIST and Liverpool Telescopes from 2013 to 2016. This revised parallax yields an updated luminosity of {L}* =(5.22+/- 0.19)× {10}-4 {L}ȯ , which is very close to the previous estimate but almost two times more precise. We next present an updated estimate for TRAPPIST-1 stellar mass, based on two approaches: mass from stellar evolution modeling, and empirical mass derived from dynamical masses of equivalently classified ultracool dwarfs in astrometric binaries. We combine them using a Monte-Carlo approach to derive a semi-empirical estimate for the mass of TRAPPIST-1. We also derive estimate for the radius by combining this mass with stellar density inferred from transits, as well as an estimate for the effective temperature from our revised luminosity and radius. Our final results are {M}* =0.089+/- 0.006 {M}ȯ , {R}* =0.121+/- 0.003 {R}ȯ , and {T}{eff} = 2516 ± 41 K. Considering the degree to which the TRAPPIST-1 system will be scrutinized in coming years, these revised and more precise stellar parameters should be considered when assessing the properties of TRAPPIST-1 planets.

  16. Targeted Optimization of Quasi-Symmetric Stellarators

    Hegna, Chris C.; Talmadge, J. N.

    2016-01-01

    The proposed research focuses on targeted areas of plasma physics dedicated to improving the stellarator concept. Research was pursued in the technical areas of edge/divertor physics in 3D configurations, magnetic island physics in stellarators, the role of 3D shaping on microinstabilities and turbulent transport and energetic ion confinement in stellarators.

  17. Targeted Optimization of Quasi-Symmetric Stellarators

    Hegna, Chris C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Anderson, D. T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Talmadge, J. N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-10-06

    The proposed research focuses on targeted areas of plasma physics dedicated to improving the stellarator concept. Research was pursued in the technical areas of edge/divertor physics in 3D configurations, magnetic island physics in stellarators, the role of 3D shaping on microinstabilities and turbulent transport and energetic ion confinement in stellarators.

  18. Confinement studies in the TJ-II stellarator

    Alejaldre, C.; Alonso, J.; Almoguera, L.; Ascasibar, E.; Baciero, A.; Balbin, R.; Blaumoser, M.; Botija, J.; Branas, B.; Cal, E. de la; Cappa, A.; Carrasco, R.; Castejon, F.; Cepero, J.R.; Cremy, C.; Delgado, J.M.; Doncel, J.; Dulya, C.; Estrada, T.; Fernandez, A.; Fuentes, C.; Garcia, A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Guasp, J.; Herranz, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Jimenez, J.A.; Kirpitchev, I.; Krivenski, V.; Labrador, I.; Lapayese, F.; Likin, K.; Linier, M.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; Luna, E. de la; Martin, R.; Martinez, A.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Medrano, M.; Mendez, P.; McCarthy, K.J.; Medina, F.; Milligen, B. van; Ochando, M.; Pacios, L.; Pastor, I.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Pena, A. de la; Portas, A.; Qin, J.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.; Salas, A.; Sanchez, E.; Sanchez, J.; Tabares, F.; Tafalla, D.; Tribaldos, V.; Vega, J.; Zurro, B.; Akulina, D.; Fedyanin, O.I.; Grebenshchikov, S.; Kharchev, N.; Meshcheryakov, A.; Sarksian, K.A.; Barth, R.; Dijk, G. van; Meiden, H. van der

    1999-01-01

    ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) heated plasmas have been studied in the low magnetic shear TJ-II stellarator (R = 1.5 m, a ECRH = 300 kW, power density = 1-25 W cm -3 ). Recent experiments have explored the flexibility of the TJ-II across a wide range of plasma volumes with different rotational transforms and rational surface densities. In this paper, the main results of this campaign are presented and, in particular, the influence of iota and rational surfaces on plasma profiles is discussed. (author)

  19. Equilibrium of current driven rotating liquid metal

    Velikhov, E.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Zakharov, S.V.; Zakharov, V.S.; Livadny, A.O.; Serebrennikov, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    In view of great importance of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) as a fundamental mechanism for angular momentum transfer in magnetized stellar accretion disks, several research centers are involved in experimental study of MRI under laboratory conditions. The idea of the experiment is to investigate the rotation dynamics of well conducting liquid (liquid metal) between two cylinders in axial magnetic field. In this Letter, an experimental scheme with immovable cylinders and fluid rotation driven by radial current is considered. The analytical solution of a stationary flow was found taking into account the external current. Results of axially symmetric numerical simulations of current driven fluid dynamics in experimental setup geometry are presented. The analytical solution and numerical simulations show that the current driven fluid rotation in axial magnetic field provides the axially homogeneous velocity profile suitable for MRI study in classical statement

  20. Exploration of Stellarator Configuration Space with Global Search Methods

    Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.; Ethier, S.

    2001-01-01

    An exploration of stellarator configuration space z for quasi-axisymmetric stellarator (QAS) designs is discussed, using methods which provide a more global view of that space. To this end, we have implemented a ''differential evolution'' (DE) search algorithm in an existing stellarator optimizer, which is much less prone to become trapped in local, suboptimal minima of the cost function chi than the local search methods used previously. This search algorithm is complemented by mapping studies of chi over z aimed at gaining insight into the results of the automated searches. We find that a wide range of the attractive QAS configurations previously found fall into a small number of classes, with each class corresponding to a basin of chi(z). We develop maps on which these earlier stellarators can be placed, the relations among them seen, and understanding gained into the physics differences between them. It is also found that, while still large, the region of z space containing practically realizable QAS configurations is much smaller than earlier supposed

  1. Phase synchronization of baroclinic waves in a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment subject to periodic forcing with a variable duty cycle.

    Read, P L; Morice-Atkinson, X; Allen, E J; Castrejón-Pita, A A

    2017-12-01

    A series of laboratory experiments in a thermally driven, rotating fluid annulus are presented that investigate the onset and characteristics of phase synchronization and frequency entrainment between the intrinsic, chaotic, oscillatory amplitude modulation of travelling baroclinic waves and a periodic modulation of the (axisymmetric) thermal boundary conditions, subject to time-dependent coupling. The time-dependence is in the form of a prescribed duty cycle in which the periodic forcing of the boundary conditions is applied for only a fraction δ of each oscillation. For the rest of the oscillation, the boundary conditions are held fixed. Two profiles of forcing were investigated that capture different parts of the sinusoidal variation and δ was varied over the range 0.1≤δ≤1. Reducing δ was found to act in a similar way to a reduction in a constant coupling coefficient in reducing the width of the interval in forcing frequency or period over which complete synchronization was observed (the "Arnol'd tongue") with respect to the detuning, although for the strongest pulse-like forcing profile some degree of synchronization was discernible even at δ=0.1. Complete phase synchronization was obtained within the Arnol'd tongue itself, although the strength of the amplitude modulation of the baroclinic wave was not significantly affected. These experiments demonstrate a possible mechanism for intraseasonal and/or interannual "teleconnections" within the climate system of the Earth and other planets that does not rely on Rossby wave propagation across the planet along great circles.

  2. Students Excited by Stellar Discovery

    2011-02-01

    In the constellation of Ophiuchus, above the disk of our Milky Way Galaxy, there lurks a stellar corpse spinning 30 times per second -- an exotic star known as a radio pulsar. This object was unknown until it was discovered last week by three high school students. These students are part of the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) project, run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, and West Virginia University (WVU). The pulsar, which may be a rare kind of neutron star called a recycled pulsar, was discovered independently by Virginia students Alexander Snider and Casey Thompson, on January 20, and a day later by Kentucky student Hannah Mabry. "Every day, I told myself, 'I have to find a pulsar. I better find a pulsar before this class ends,'" said Mabry. When she actually made the discovery, she could barely contain her excitement. "I started screaming and jumping up and down." Thompson was similarly expressive. "After three years of searching, I hadn't found a single thing," he said, "but when I did, I threw my hands up in the air and said, 'Yes!'." Snider said, "It actually feels really neat to be the first person to ever see something like that. It's an uplifting feeling." As part of the PSC, the students analyze real data from NRAO's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to find pulsars. The students' teachers -- Debra Edwards of Sherando High School, Leah Lorton of James River High School, and Jennifer Carter of Rowan County Senior High School -- all introduced the PSC in their classes, and interested students formed teams to continue the work. Even before the discovery, Mabry simply enjoyed the search. "It just feels like you're actually doing something," she said. "It's a good feeling." Once the pulsar candidate was reported to NRAO, Project Director Rachel Rosen took a look and agreed with the young scientists. A followup observing session was scheduled on the GBT. Snider and Mabry traveled to West Virginia to assist in the

  3. SPIN EVOLUTION OF ACCRETING YOUNG STARS. II. EFFECT OF ACCRETION-POWERED STELLAR WINDS

    Matt, Sean P.; Pinzón, Giovanni; Greene, Thomas P.; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a model for the rotational evolution of a young, solar-mass star interacting magnetically with an accretion disk. As in a previous paper (Paper I), the model includes changes in the star's mass and radius as it descends the Hayashi track, a decreasing accretion rate, and a prescription for the angular momentum transfer between the star and disk. Paper I concluded that, for the relatively strong magnetic coupling expected in real systems, additional processes are necessary to explain the existence of slowly rotating pre-main-sequence stars. In the present paper, we extend the stellar spin model to include the effect of a spin-down torque that arises from an accretion-powered stellar wind (APSW). For a range of magnetic field strengths, accretion rates, initial spin rates, and mass outflow rates, the modeled stars exhibit rotation periods within the range of 1-10 days in the age range of 1-3 Myr. This range coincides with the bulk of the observed rotation periods, with the slow rotators corresponding to stars with the lowest accretion rates, strongest magnetic fields, and/or highest stellar wind mass outflow rates. We also make a direct, quantitative comparison between the APSW scenario and the two types of disk-locking models (namely, the X-wind and Ghosh and Lamb type models) and identify some remaining theoretical issues for understanding young star spins.

  4. Theoretical and observational studies of stellar activity

    Schmitt, J.H.M.M.

    1984-01-01

    In the theoretical part of this thesis, doubly-diffusive MHD instabilities are studied as a means of breaking up a diffuse magnetic field at the bottom of the solar convection zone. The analysis is linear and local, and assumes short meridional wavelengths; the effects of rotation and diffusion of vorticity, magnetic fields and heat are included. Results show that the instability depends sensitively on the temperature stratification, but rather insensitively on the assumed magnetic field configuration; instability time scales considerably less than the solar cycle period can be easily obtained. In the observational part of the thesis, results are reported of a survey of the x-ray emission of stars with shallow connection zones to study the onset of convection and dynamo activity along the main sequence. Complications arising from stellar multiplicity are discussed extensively; it is demonstrated that binaries have statistically higher x-ray luminosities; and it is shown that physical parameters can only be deduced from single stars. It is further shown that the x-ray luminosities of stars with spectral type in the color range 0.1 less than or equal to B. V less than or equal to 0.5 increase rapidly, whereas stars with B. V approx. 0.0 appear to have no intrinsic x-ray emission at presently detectable levels

  5. Technological aspects of the Wega stellarator

    Fritsch, R.; Ohlendorf, W.; Pacher, G.W.; Pacher, H.D.; Wegrowe, J.G.; Lipa, M.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1976-01-01

    Wega, an ohmically heated Stellarator at Grenoble for the study of R.F. heating at high power. On the vacuum vessel are mounted helical windings with periods l=2, m=5, designed to produce a rotational transform of 0.3 at a main field of 2.5T. Calculations to simulate the effect of the stray flux of the transformer yokes show that a vertical field variation of the same periodicity as the helical windings (five-fold symmetry) does not affect the magnetic surfaces. Accordingly five transformer yokes are used. To assemble internal R.F. structures, it was required that the two halves of the device be separable, therefore electrically and mechanically distinct. The 14 helical conductors of the 4 windings of each of the device are placed in series by means of end connections magnetically compensated. To facilitate further the separability of the two halves, one of them, weighing 5 tons (vacuum vessel, toroidal field coils, supporting structures) is supported at three points, and can be displaced horizontally by 3m using an air cushion system [fr

  6. Secular instabilities of Keplerian stellar discs

    Kaur, Karamveer; Kazandjian, Mher V.; Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.

    2018-05-01

    We present idealized models of a razor-thin, axisymmetric, Keplerian stellar disc around a massive black hole, and study non-axisymmetric secular instabilities in the absence of either counter-rotation or loss cones. These discs are prograde mono-energetic waterbags, whose phase-space distribution functions are constant for orbits within a range of eccentricities (e) and zero outside this range. The linear normal modes of waterbags are composed of sinusoidal disturbances of the edges of distribution function in phase space. Waterbags that include circular orbits (polarcaps) have one stable linear normal mode for each azimuthal wavenumber m. The m = 1 mode always has positive pattern speed and, for polarcaps consisting of orbits with e normal modes for each m, which can be stable or unstable. We derive analytical expressions for the instability condition, pattern speeds, growth rates, and normal mode structure. Narrow bands are unstable to modes with a wide range in m. Numerical simulations confirm linear theory and follow the non-linear evolution of instabilities. Long-time integration suggests that instabilities of different m grow, interact non-linearly, and relax collisionlessly to a coarse-grained equilibrium with a wide range of eccentricities.

  7. Characterizing stellar and exoplanetary environments

    Khodachenko, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    In this book an international group of specialists discusses studies of exoplanets subjected to extreme stellar radiation and plasma conditions. It is shown that such studies will help us to understand how terrestrial planets and their atmospheres, including the early Venus, Earth and Mars, evolved during the host star’s active early phase. The book presents an analysis of findings from Hubble Space Telescope observations of transiting exoplanets, as well as applications of advanced numerical models for characterizing the upper atmosphere structure and stellar environments of exoplanets. The authors also address detections of atoms and molecules in the atmosphere of “hot Jupiters” by NASA’s Spitzer telescope. The observational and theoretical investigations and discoveries presented are both timely and important in the context of the next generation of space telescopes. 
 The book is divided into four main parts, grouping chapters on exoplanet host star radiation and plasma environments, exoplanet u...

  8. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR

  9. Hydromagnetic instability in a stellarator

    Kruskal, M D; Gottlieb, M B; Johnson, J L; Goldman, L M [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    It was noted that when there is a uniform externally imposed longitudinal field much larger than the field of the discharge current, one should expect instabilities in the form of a lateral displacement of the plasma column into a helix of large pitch. At the wavelength of fastest growth the e-folding time approximates the time it takes a sound wave in the plasma to traverse the radius of the plasma column. This problem has been re-examines under the conditions which might be expected to occur in the stellarator during ohmic heating, including the presence of external conductors. The theory is applied to the stellarator; and it is shown that the external conductors are in fact unimportant. The important effects due to the finite length of the Machine are discussed and the effects of more general current distributions are considered. The results from the experiments are given.

  10. ACCELERATED FITTING OF STELLAR SPECTRA

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-20

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.

  11. Grigori Kuzmin and Stellar Dynamics

    Zeeuw P. Tim de

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Grigori Kuzmin was a very gifted dynamicist and one of the towering figures in the distinguished history of the Tartu Observatory. He obtained a number of important results in relative isolation which were later rediscovered in the West. This work laid the foundation for further advances in the theory of stellar systems in dynamical equilibrium, thereby substantially increasing our understanding of galaxy dynamics.

  12. Geometry Dependence of Stellarator Turbulence

    Mynick, H.E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Boozer, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST, we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry-dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the 2D structure of the microturbulence over that surface, and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrodinger-like equation governing linear drift modes

  13. Einstein X-ray survey of the Pleiades - The dependence of X-ray emission on stellar age

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Serio, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Bookbinder, J.; Golub, L.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1985-01-01

    The data obtained with two pointed observations of 1 deg by 1 deg fields of the Pleiades region have been analyzed, and the results are presented. The maximum-likelihood X-ray luminosity functions for the Pleiades G and K stars in the cluster are derived, and it is shown that, for the G stars, the Pleiades X-ray luminosity function is significantly brighter than the corresponding function for Hyades G dwarf stars. This finding indicates a dependence of X-ray luminosity on stellar age, which is confirmed by comparison of the same data with median X-ray luminosities of pre-main sequence and local disk population dwarf G stars. It is suggested that the significantly larger number of bright X-ray sources associated with G stars than with K stars, the lack of detection of M stars, and the relatively rapid rotation of the Pleiades K stars can be explained in terms of the onset of internal differential rotation near the convective envelope-radidative core interface after the spin-up phase during evolution to the main sequence.

  14. Reduction of Islands in Full-pressure Stellarator Equilibria

    Hudson, S.R.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    The control of magnetic islands is a crucial issue in designing Stellarators. Islands are associated with resonant radial magnetic fields at rational rotational-transform surfaces and can lead to chaos and poor plasma confinement. In this article, we show that variations in the resonant fields of a full-pressure stellarator equilibrium can be related to variations in the boundary via a coupling matrix, and inversion of this matrix determines a boundary modification for which the island content is significantly reduced. The numerical procedure is described and the results of island optimization are presented. Equilibria with islands are computed using the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver, and resonant radial fields are calculated via construction of quadratic-flux-minimizing surfaces. A design candidate for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2001], which has a large island, is used to illustrate the technique. Small variations in the boundary shape are used to reduce island size and to reverse the phase of a major island chain

  15. The Resilience of Kepler Multi-systems to Stellar Obliquity

    Spalding, Christopher; Marx, Noah W.; Batygin, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    The Kepler mission and its successor K2 have brought forth a cascade of transiting planets. Many of these planetary systems exhibit multiple transiting members. However, a large fraction possesses only a single transiting planet. This high abundance of singles, dubbed the "Kepler Dichotomy," has been hypothesized to arise from significant mutual inclinations between orbits in multi-planet systems. Alternatively, the single-transiting population truly possesses no other planets in the system, but the true origin of the overabundance of single systems remains unresolved. In this work, we propose that planetary systems typically form with a coplanar, multiple-planetary architecture, but that quadrupolar gravitational perturbations from their rapidly-rotating host star subsequently disrupt this primordial coplanarity. We demonstrate that, given sufficient stellar obliquity, even systems beginning with 2 planetary constituents are susceptible to dynamical instability soon after planet formation, as a result of the stellar quadrupole moment. This mechanism stands as a widespread, yet poorly explored pathway toward planetary system instability. Moreover, by requiring that observed multi-systems remain coplanar on Gyr timescales, we are able to place upper limits on the stellar obliquity in systems such as K2-38 (obliquity < 20 degrees), where other methods of measuring spin-orbit misalignment are not currently available.

  16. Plasma flow healing of magnetic islands in stellarators

    Hegna, C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments from the large helical device (LHD) demonstrate a correlation between the “healing” of vacuum magnetic islands in stellarators and changes in the plasma flow. A model explaining this phenomenon is developed based on self-consistent torque balance and island evolution equations. In conventional stellarators, neoclassical flow damping physics plays an important role in establishing the flow profiles. The balance of neoclassical damping and cross-field viscosity produces a radial boundary layer for the plasma rotation profile outside the separatrix of a locked magnetic island. The width of this boundary layer decreases as the plasma becomes less collisional. Associated with these flow effects are plasma currents flowing in the island region that attempt to suppress island formation. These currents are enhanced as the collisionality drops making magnetic island healing occur more readily in high temperature conventional stellarators. The analytic theory produces a critical β for healing that scales monotonically with collisionality and is in qualitative agreement with LHD observations.

  17. Physics Design of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    Neilson, G.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Lyon, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    Compact quasi-axisymmetric stellarators offer the possibility of combining the steady-state low-recirculating power, external control, and disruption resilience of previous stellarators with the low-aspect ratio, high beta-limit, and good confinement of advanced tokamaks. Quasi-axisymmetric equilibria have been developed for the proposed National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) with average aspect ratio approximately 4.4 and average elongation approximately 1.8. Even with bootstrap-current consistent profiles, they are passively stable to the ballooning, kink, vertical, Mercier, and neoclassical-tearing modes for b > 4%, without the need for external feedback or conducting walls. The bootstrap current generates only 1/4 of the magnetic rotational transform at b = 4% (the rest is from the coils). Transport simulations show adequate fast-ion confinement and thermal neoclassical transport similar to equivalent tokamaks. Modular coils have been designed which reproduce the physics properties, provide good flux surfaces, and allow flexible variation of the plasma shape to control the predicted MHD stability and transport properties

  18. Relativistic rotation and the anholonomic object

    Corum, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to call attention to the conceptual economy provided by the object of anholonomity for the theory of relativity. This geometric object expresses certain consequences of relativity theory and provides a single, simple framework for discussing a variety of phenomena. It particularly clarifies the description of relativistic rotation. The relativistic rotational transformation of the four coordinate differentials of flat space--time generates a set of anholonomic, or inexact differentials, whose duals are an orthogonal set of basis vectors. How should a rotating observer interpret physical events referred to such orthogonal, but anholonomic frames The answer to this question rests upon the origin and physical significance of the object of anholonomity. It is demonstrated that not only is the rotational Lorentz transformation an anholonomic transformation, but that the intrinsic anholonomic effects are essential to interpreting rotational phenomena. In particular, the Sagnac effect may be interpreted as the physical manifestation of temporal anholonomity under rotation. The Thomas precession of a reference axis may be interpreted as a consequence of the spatial anholonomity of the rotating frame. Further, the full four-dimensional covariance of Maxwellian electrodynamics, under a relativistic Lorentz rotation, is possible only with the inclusion of anholonomic effects. The anholonomic approach clarifies the distinction between the physically different operations of source rotation and observer rotation in a flat space--time. It is finally concluded that a consistant theory of relativistic rotation, satisfying the principle of general covariance, inherently requires the presence of the object of anholonomity

  19. Results of Compact Stellarator Engineering Trade Studies

    Brown, Tom; Bromberg, L.; Cole, M.

    2009-01-01

    A number of technical requirements and performance criteria can drive stellarator costs, e.g., tight tolerances, accurate coil positioning, low aspect ratio (compactness), choice of assembly strategy, metrology, and complexity of the stellarator coil geometry. With the completion of a seven-year design and construction effort of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) it is useful to interject the NCSX experience along with the collective experiences of the NCSX stellarator community to improving the stellarator configuration. Can improvements in maintenance be achieved by altering the stellarator magnet configuration with changes in the coil shape or with the combination of trim coils? Can a mechanical configuration be identified that incorporates a partial set of shaped fixed stellarator coils along with some removable coil set to enhance the overall machine maintenance? Are there other approaches that will simplify the concepts, improve access for maintenance, reduce overall cost and improve the reliability of a stellarator based power plant? Using ARIES-CS and NCSX as reference cases, alternative approaches have been studied and developed to show how these modifications would favorably impact the stellarator power plant and experimental projects. The current status of the alternate stellarator configurations being developed will be described and a comparison made to the recently designed and partially built NCSX device and the ARIES-CS reactor design study

  20. Results of Compact Stellarator Engineering Trade Studies

    Brown, T.; Bromberg, L.; Cole, M.

    2009-01-01

    A number of technical requirements and performance criteria can drive stellarator costs, e.g., tight tolerances, accurate coil positioning, low aspect ratio (compactness), choice of assembly strategy, metrology, and complexity of the stellarator coil geometry. With the completion of a seven-year design and construction effort of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) it is useful to interject the NCSX experience along with the collective experiences of the NCSX stellarator community to improving the stellarator configuration. Can improvements in maintenance be achieved by altering the stellarator magnet configuration with changes in the coil shape or with the combination of trim coils? Can a mechanical configuration be identified that incorporates a partial set of shaped fixed stellarator coils along with some removable coil set to enhance the overall machine maintenance? Are there other approaches that will simplify the concepts, improve access for maintenance, reduce overall cost and improve the reliability of a stellarator based power plant? Using ARIES-CS and NCSX as reference cases, alternative approaches have been studied and developed to show how these modifications would favorably impact the stellarator power plant and experimental projects. The current status of the alternate stellarator configurations being developed will be described and a comparison made to the recently designed and partially built NCSX device and the ARIES-CS reactor design study.

  1. Spectroscopic characterisation of the stellar content of ultra diffuse galaxies

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Beasley, M. A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Román, J.; Pinna, F.; Brook, C.; Di Cintio, A.; Martín-Navarro, I.; Trujillo, I.; Vazdekis, A.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the peculiar properties of Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) via spectroscopic analysis is a challenging task requiring very deep observations and exquisite data reduction. In this work we perform one of the most complete characterisations of the stellar component of UDGs to date using deep optical spectroscopic data from OSIRIS at GTC. We measure radial and rotation velocities, star formation histories (SFH) and mean population parameters, such as ages and metallicities, for a sample of five UDG candidates in the Coma cluster. From the radial velocities, we confirm the Coma membership of these galaxies. We find that their rotation properties, if detected at all, are compatible with dwarf-like galaxies. The SFHs of the UDG are dominated by old (˜ 7 Gyr), metal-poor ([M/H] ˜ -1.1) and α-enhanced ([Mg/Fe] ˜ 0.4) populations followed by a smooth or episodic decline which halted ˜ 2 Gyr ago, possibly a sign of cluster-induced quenching. We find no obvious correlation between individual SFH shapes and any UDG morphological properties. The recovered stellar properties for UDGs are similar to those found for DDO 44, a local UDG analogue resolved into stars. We conclude that the UDGs in our sample are extended dwarfs whose properties are likely the outcome of both internal processes, such as bursty SFHs and/or high-spin haloes, as well as environmental effects within the Coma cluster.

  2. Mathematical Minute: Rotating a Function Graph

    Bravo, Daniel; Fera, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Using calculus only, we find the angles you can rotate the graph of a differentiable function about the origin and still obtain a function graph. We then apply the solution to odd and even degree polynomials.

  3. Dynamics of a stellar bar

    Miller, R.H.; Smith, B.F.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamical properties of a prolate bar have been studied by means of a three-dimensional computer model. The bar pattern rotates in the sense of the total angular momentum. The mean particle motion is a rapid streaming in the direction of pattern rotation as seen from a frame that rotates with the bar. Rotation rates that would be inferred from observation are significantly (2--3 times) faster than the pattern rotation speed. Velocity dispersions are anisotropic with the largest component along the bar. Particles oscillate in the bar potential significantly faster than pattern rotation: typical oscillation frequencies are around ω/sub z/=ω/sub y/=6Ω and ω/sub x/=3Ω where z is the direction of angular momentum, x lies along the bar, and Ω is the pattern angular velocity. About 25% of the star orbits are near 2:2:1 resonance with the slow motion along the bar. Particle motion is highly ordered in the bar:the ratio t=T/sub mean//vertical-barWvertical-bar is 0.21--0.24. Observable properties are described; where comparisons can be made, observable properties are in agreement with observations of brightness contours, velocity fields, and velocity dispersions. The bar has nearly exponential density profiles

  4. Carbon Abundances In The Light Of 3D Model Stellar Atmospheres

    Collet, Remo

    Classical spectroscopic analyses of late-type stars generally rely on the interpretation of observations with the use of stationary, one-dimensional (1D), hydrostatic model stellar atmospheres. In recent years, however, there has been significant development in the field of three-dimensional (3D......) hydrodynamic modelling of stellar atmospheres and stellar spectra. In this contribution, I describe quantitatively the impact of realistic, time-dependent, 3D hydrodynamic model atmospheres on the spectroscopic determination of carbon abundances from CH molecular lines for stars with a wide range of stellar...... parameters and compositions. I show that the differences with respect to classical analyses based on 1D models can be significant in very metal-poor stars and of the order of -0.5 to -1 dex in terms of logarithmic abundances of these important elements. I also examine the dependence of differential 3D-1D...

  5. Stellarator fusion neutronics research in Australia

    Zimin, S.; Cross, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    The new status of the H-INF Heliac Stellaralor as a National Facility and the signed international Implementing Agreement on 'Collaboration in the Development of the Stellarator Concept' represents a significant encouragement for further fusion research in Australia. In this report the future of fusion research in Australia is discussed with special attention being paid to the importance of Stellarator power plant studies and in particular stellarator fusion neutronics. The main differences between tokamak and stellarator neutronics analyses are identified, namely the neutron wall loading, geometrical modelling and total heating in in-vessel reactor components including toroidal field (TF) coils. Due to the more complicated nature of stellarator neutronics analyses, simplified approaches to fusion neutronics already developed for tokamaks are expected to be even more important and widely used for designing a Conceptual Stellarator Power Plant

  6. The link between the baryonic mass distribution and the rotation curve shape

    Swaters, R. A.; Sancisi, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; van Albada, T. S.

    The observed rotation curves of disc galaxies, ranging from late-type dwarf galaxies to early-type spirals, can be fitted remarkably well simply by scaling up the contributions of the stellar and H?i discs. This baryonic scaling model can explain the full breadth of observed rotation curves with

  7. Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution

    Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.

    Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.

  8. STELLAR MASS DEPENDENT DISK DISPERSAL

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    We use published optical spectral and infrared (IR) excess data from nine young clusters and associations to study the stellar mass dependent dispersal of circumstellar disks. All clusters older than ∼3 Myr show a decrease in disk fraction with increasing stellar mass for solar to higher mass stars. This result is significant at about the 1σ level in each cluster. For the complete set of clusters we reject the null hypothesis-that solar and intermediate-mass stars lose their disks at the same rate-with 95%-99.9% confidence. To interpret this behavior, we investigate the impact of grain growth, binary companions, and photoevaporation on the evolution of disk signatures. Changes in grain growth timescales at fixed disk temperature may explain why early-type stars with IR excesses appear to evolve faster than their later-type counterparts. Little evidence that binary companions affect disk evolution suggests that photoevaporation is the more likely mechanism for disk dispersal. A simple photoevaporation model provides a good fit to the observed disk fractions for solar and intermediate-mass stars. Although the current mass-dependent disk dispersal signal is not strong, larger and more complete samples of clusters with ages of 3-5 Myr can improve the significance and provide better tests of theoretical models. In addition, the orbits of extra-solar planets can constrain models of disk dispersal and migration. We suggest that the signature of stellar mass dependent disk dispersal due to photoevaporation may be present in the orbits of observed extra-solar planets. Planets orbiting hosts more massive than ∼1.6 M sun may have larger orbits because the disks in which they formed were dispersed before they could migrate.

  9. The effect of stellar evolution uncertainties on the rest-frame ultraviolet stellar lines of C IV and He II in high-redshift Lyman-break galaxies

    Eldridge, John J.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Young, massive stars dominate the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra of star-forming galaxies. At high redshifts (z > 2), these rest-frame UV features are shifted into the observed-frame optical and a combination of gravitational lensing, deep spectroscopy and spectral stacking analysis allows the stellar population characteristics of these sources to be investigated. We use our stellar population synthesis code Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (BPASS) to fit two strong rest-frame UV spectral features in published Lyman-break galaxy spectra, taking into account the effects of binary evolution on the stellar spectrum. In particular, we consider the effects of quasi-homogeneous evolution (arising from the rotational mixing of rapidly rotating stars), metallicity and the relative abundance of carbon and oxygen on the observed strengths of He IIλ1640 Å and C IVλ1548, 1551 Å spectral lines. We find that Lyman-break galaxy spectra at z ˜ 2-3 are best fitted with moderately sub-solar metallicities, and with a depleted carbon-to-oxygen ratio. We also find that the spectra of the lowest metallicity sources are best fitted with model spectra in which the He II emission line is boosted by the inclusion of the effect of massive stars being spun-up during binary mass transfer so these rapidly rotating stars experience quasi-homogeneous evolution.

  10. Radiation transfer and stellar atmospheres

    Swihart, T. L.

    This is a revised and expanded version of the author's Basic Physics of Stellar Atmospheres, published in 1971. The equation of transfer is considered, taking into account the intensity and derived quantities, the absorption coefficient, the emission coefficient, the source function, and special integrals for plane media. The gray atmosphere is discussed along with the nongray atmosphere, and aspects of line formation. Topics related to polarization are explored, giving attention to pure polarized radiation, general polarized radiation, transfer in a magnetic plasma, and Rayleigh scattering and the sunlit sky. Physical and astronomical constants, and a number of problems related to the subjects of the book are presented in an appendix.

  11. Drift waves in a stellarator

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Sedlak, J.E.; Similon, P.L.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Ross, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    We investigate the eigenmode structure of drift waves in a straight stellarator using the ballooning mode formalism. The electrons are assumed to be adiabatic and the ions constitute a cold, magnetized fluid. The effective potential has an overall parabolic envelope but is modulated strongly by helical ripples along B. We have found two classes of solutions: those that are strongly localized in local helical wells, and those that are weakly localized and have broad spatial extent. The weakly localized modes decay spatially due to the existence of Mathieu resonances between the periods of the eigenfunction and the effective potential

  12. Neutrino transport in stellar matter

    Basdevant, J.L.

    1985-09-01

    We reconsider the neutrino transport problem in dense stellar matter which has a variety of applications among which the participation of neutrinos to the dynamics of type II supernova explosions. We describe the position of the problem and make some critiscism of previously used approximation methods. We then propose a method which is capable of handling simultaneously the optically thick, optically thin, and intermediate regimes, which is of crucial importance in such problems. The method consists in a simulation of the transport process and can be considered exact within numerical accuracy. We, finally exhibit some sample calculations which show the efficiency of the method, and present interesting qualitative physical features

  13. Characterizing Convection in Stellar Atmospheres

    Tanner, Joel; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Robinson, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We perform 3D radiative hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of convection in the superadiabatic layer of stars. The simulations show differences in both the stratification and turbulent quantities for different types of stars. We extract turbulent pressure and eddy sizes, as well as the T-τ relation for different stars and find that they are sensitive to the energy flux and gravity. We also show that contrary to what is usually assumed in the field of stellar atmospheres, the structure and gas dynamics of simulations of turbulent atmospheres cannot be parameterized with T eff and log(g) alone.

  14. On modular stellarator reactor coils

    Rau, F.; Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Wobig, H.

    1985-01-01

    Modular twisted coils are discussed which produce magnetic fields of the Advanced Stellarator WENDELSTEIN VII-AS type. Reducing the number coils/FP offers advantage for maintenance of coils, but increases the magnetic ripple and B m /B o . Computation of force densities within the coils of ASR and ASB yield local maximum values of about 80 and 180 MN/m 3 , respectively. A system of mutual coil support is being developed. Twisted coils in helical arrangement provide a reactor-sized HELIAC system. In order to reduce the magnetic ripple, a large number of 14 coils/FP in special arrangement is used

  15. Stellar orbits around Sgr A*

    Trippe, S; Gillessen, S; Ott, T; Eisenhauer, F; Paumard, T; Martins, F; Genzel, R; Schoedel, R; Eckart, A; Alexander, T

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present and discuss the latest results from the observations of stars (''S-stars'') orbiting Sgr A* . With improving data quality the number of observed S-stars has increased substantially in the last years. The combination of radial velocity and proper motion information allows an ever more precise determination of orbital parameters and of the mass of and the distance to the supermassive black hole in the centre of the Milky Way. Additionally, the orbital solutions allow us to verify an agreement between the NIR source Sgr A* and the dynamical centre of the stellar orbits to within 2 mas

  16. Recent advances in stellarator optimization

    Gates, D. A.; Boozer, A. H.; Brown, T.; Breslau, J.; Curreli, D.; Landreman, M.; Lazerson, S. A.; Lore, J.; Mynick, H.; Neilson, G. H.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Zolfaghari, A.

    2017-12-01

    Computational optimization has revolutionized the field of stellarator design. To date, optimizations have focused primarily on optimization of neoclassical confinement and ideal MHD stability, although limited optimization of other parameters has also been performed. The purpose of this paper is to outline a select set of new concepts for stellarator optimization that, when taken as a group, present a significant step forward in the stellarator concept. One of the criticisms that has been leveled at existing methods of design is the complexity of the resultant field coils. Recently, a new coil optimization code—COILOPT++, which uses a spline instead of a Fourier representation of the coils,—was written and included in the STELLOPT suite of codes. The advantage of this method is that it allows the addition of real space constraints on the locations of the coils. The code has been tested by generating coil designs for optimized quasi-axisymmetric stellarator plasma configurations of different aspect ratios. As an initial exercise, a constraint that the windings be vertical was placed on large major radius half of the non-planar coils. Further constraints were also imposed that guaranteed that sector blanket modules could be removed from between the coils, enabling a sector maintenance scheme. Results of this exercise will be presented. New ideas on methods for the optimization of turbulent transport have garnered much attention since these methods have led to design concepts that are calculated to have reduced turbulent heat loss. We have explored possibilities for generating an experimental database to test whether the reduction in transport that is predicted is consistent with experimental observations. To this end, a series of equilibria that can be made in the now latent QUASAR experiment have been identified that will test the predicted transport scalings. Fast particle confinement studies aimed at developing a generalized optimization algorithm are also

  17. Disruption of circumstellar discs by large-scale stellar magnetic fields

    ud-Doula, Asif; Owocki, Stanley P.; Kee, Nathaniel Dylan

    2018-05-01

    Spectropolarimetric surveys reveal that 8-10% of OBA stars harbor large-scale magnetic fields, but thus far no such fields have been detected in any classical Be stars. Motivated by this, we present here MHD simulations for how a pre-existing Keplerian disc - like that inferred to form from decretion of material from rapidly rotating Be stars - can be disrupted by a rotation-aligned stellar dipole field. For characteristic stellar and disc parameters of a near-critically rotating B2e star, we find that a polar surface field strength of just 10 G can significantly disrupt the disc, while a field of 100 G, near the observational upper limit inferred for most Be stars, completely destroys the disc over just a few days. Our parameter study shows that the efficacy of this magnetic disruption of a disc scales with the characteristic plasma beta (defined as the ratio between thermal and magnetic pressure) in the disc, but is surprisingly insensitive to other variations, e.g. in stellar rotation speed, or the mass loss rate of the star's radiatively driven wind. The disc disruption seen here for even a modest field strength suggests that the presumed formation of such Be discs by decretion of material from the star would likely be strongly inhibited by such fields; this provides an attractive explanation for why no large-scale fields are detected from such Be stars.

  18. Stellar activity with LAMOST - II. Chromospheric activity in open clusters

    Fang, Xiang-Song; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jing-Kun; Bharat Kumar, Yerra

    2018-05-01

    We use the LAMOST spectra of member stars in Pleiades, M34, Praesepe, and Hyades to study how chromospheric activity varies as a function of mass and rotation at different age. We measured excess equivalent widths of H α, H β, and Ca II K based on estimated chromospheric contributions from old and inactive field dwarfs, and excess luminosities are obtained by normalizing bolometric luminosity, for more than 700 late-type stars in these open clusters. Results indicate two activity sequences in cool spot coverage and H α excess emission among GK dwarfs in Pleiades and M dwarfs in Praesepe and Hyades, paralleling with well-known rotation sequences. A weak dependence of chromospheric emission on rotation exists among ultrafast rotators in saturated regime with Rossby number Ro ≲ 0.1. In the unsaturated regime, chromospheric and coronal emission show similar dependence on Ro, but with a shift towards larger Ro, indicating chromospheric emission gets easily saturated than coronal emission, and/or convective turnover time-scales based on X-ray data do not work well with chromospheric emission. More interestingly, our analysis shows fully convective slow rotators obey the rotation-chromospheric activity relation similar to hotter stars, confirming the previous finding. We found correlations among H α, H β, and Ca II K emissions, in which H α losses are more important than Ca II K for cooler and more active stars. In addition, a weak correlation is seen between chromospheric emission and photospheric activity that shows dependence on stellar spectral type and activity level, which provides some clues on how spot configuration varies as a function of mass and activity level.

  19. Dynamics of Tidally Locked, Ultrafast Rotating Atmospheres

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-10-01

    Tidally locked gas giants, which exhibit a novel regime of day-night thermal forcing and extreme stellar irradiation, are typically in several-day orbits, implying slow rotation and a modest role for rotation in the atmospheric circulation. Nevertheless, there exist a class of gas-giant, highly irradiated objects - brown dwarfs orbiting white dwarfs in extremely tight orbits - whose orbital and hence rotation periods are as short as 1-2 hours. Spitzer phase curves and other observations have already been obtained for this fascinating class of objects, which raise fundamental questions about the role of rotation in controlling the circulation. So far, most modeling studies have investigated rotation periods exceeding a day, as appropriate for typical hot Jupiters. In this work we investigate the dynamics of tidally locked atmospheres in shorter rotation periods down to about two hours. With increasing rotation rate (decreasing rotation period), we show that the width of the equatorial eastward jet decreases, consistent with the narrowing of wave-mean-flow interacting region due to decrease of the equatorial deformation radius. The eastward-shifted equatorial hot spot offset decreases accordingly, and the westward-shifted hot regions poleward of the equatorial jet associated with Rossby gyres become increasingly distinctive. At high latitudes, winds becomes weaker and more geostrophic. The day-night temperature contrast becomes larger due to the stronger influence of rotation. Our simulated atmospheres exhibit small-scale variability, presumably caused by shear instability. Unlike typical hot Jupiters, phase curves of fast-rotating models show an alignment of peak flux to secondary eclipse. Our results have important implications for phase curve observations of brown dwarfs orbiting white dwarfs in ultra tight orbits.

  20. Surprisingly different star-spot distributions on the near equal-mass equal-rotation-rate stars in the M dwarf binary GJ 65 AB

    Barnes, J. R.; Jeffers, S. V.; Haswell, C. A.; Jones, H. R. A.; Shulyak, D.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Jenkins, J. S.

    2017-10-01

    We aim to understand how stellar parameters such as mass and rotation impact the distribution of star-spots on the stellar surface. To this purpose, we have used Doppler imaging to reconstruct the surface brightness distributions of three fully convective M dwarfs with similar rotation rates. We secured high cadence spectral time series observations of the 5.5 au separation binary GJ 65, comprising GJ 65A (M5.5V, Prot = 0.24 d) and GJ 65B (M6V, Prot = 0.23 d). We also present new observations of GJ 791.2A (M4.5V, Prot = 0.31 d). Observations of each star were made on two nights with UVES, covering a wavelength range from 0.64 - 1.03μm. The time series spectra reveal multiple line distortions that we interpret as cool star-spots and which are persistent on both nights suggesting stability on the time-scale of 3 d. Spots are recovered with resolutions down to 8.3° at the equator. The global spot distributions for GJ 791.2A are similar to observations made a year earlier. Similar high latitude and circumpolar spot structure is seen on GJ 791.2A and GJ 65A. However, they are surprisingly absent on GJ 65B, which instead reveals more extensive, larger, spots concentrated at intermediate latitudes. All three stars show small amplitude latitude-dependent rotation that is consistent with solid body rotation. We compare our measurements of differential rotation with previous Doppler imaging studies and discuss the results in the wider context of other observational estimates and recent theoretical predictions.

  1. Neoclassical transport simulations for stellarators

    Turkin, Y.; Beidler, C. D.; Maassberg, H.; Murakami, S.; Wakasa, A.; Tribaldos, V.

    2011-01-01

    The benchmarking of the thermal neoclassical transport coefficients is described using examples of the Large Helical Device (LHD) and TJ-II stellarators. The thermal coefficients are evaluated by energy convolution of the monoenergetic coefficients obtained by direct interpolation or neural network techniques from the databases precalculated by different codes. The temperature profiles are calculated by a predictive transport code from the energy balance equations with the ambipolar radial electric field estimated from a diffusion equation to guarantee a unique and smooth solution, although several solutions of the ambipolarity condition may exist when root-finding is invoked; the density profiles are fixed. The thermal transport coefficients as well as the ambipolar radial electric field are compared and very reasonable agreement is found for both configurations. Together with an additional W7-X case, these configurations represent very different degrees of neoclassical confinement at low collisionalities. The impact of the neoclassical optimization on the energy confinement time is evaluated and the confinement times for different devices predicted by transport modeling are compared with the standard scaling for stellarators. Finally, all configurations are scaled to the same volume for a direct comparison of the volume-averaged pressure and the neoclassical degree of optimization.

  2. Self-consistent simulations of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics and profile evolution in stellarator configurations

    Schlutt, M. G.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Held, E. D. [Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States); Kruger, S. E. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Self-consistent extended MHD framework is used to investigate nonlinear macroscopic dynamics of stellarator configurations. In these calculations, initial conditions are given by analytical 3-D vacuum solutions. Finite beta discharges in a straight stellarator are simulated. Vacuum magnetic fields are applied to produce stellarator-like rotational transform profiles with iota(0) ≤ 0.5 and iota(0) ≥ 0.5. The vacuum magnetic fields are either helically symmetric or spoiled by the presence of magnetic harmonics of incommensurate helicity. As heat is added to the system, pressure-driven instabilities are excited when a critical β is exceeded. These instabilities may grow to large amplitude and effectively terminate the discharge, or they may saturate nonlinearly as the configuration evolves. In all of these studies, anisotropic heat conduction is allowed with κ{sub ∥}/κ{sub ⊥}=10{sup 4}−10{sup 7}.

  3. BinMag: Widget for comparing stellar observed with theoretical spectra

    Kochukhov, O.

    2018-05-01

    BinMag examines theoretical stellar spectra computed with Synth/SynthMag/Synmast/Synth3/SME spectrum synthesis codes and compare them to observations. An IDL widget program, BinMag applies radial velocity shift and broadening to the theoretical spectra to account for the effects of stellar rotation, radial-tangential macroturbulence, instrumental smearing. The code can also simulate spectra of spectroscopic binary stars by appropriate coaddition of two synthetic spectra. Additionally, BinMag can be used to measure equivalent width, fit line profile shapes with analytical functions, and to automatically determine radial velocity and broadening parameters. BinMag interfaces with the Synth3 (ascl:1212.010) and SME (ascl:1202.013) codes, allowing the user to determine chemical abundances and stellar atmospheric parameters from the observed spectra.

  4. Hydrostatic Equilibria of Rotating Stars with Realistic Equation of State

    Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Fujisawa, Kotaro; Okawa, Hirotada; Yamada, Shoichi

    Stars rotate generally, but it is a non-trivial issue to obtain hydrostatic equilibria for rapidly rotating stars theoretically, especially for baroclinic cases, in which the pressure depends not only on the density, but also on the temperature and compositions. It is clear that the stellar structures with realistic equation of state are the baroclinic cases, but there are not so many studies for such equilibria. In this study, we propose two methods to obtain hydrostatic equilibria considering rotation and baroclinicity, namely the weak-solution method and the strong-solution method. The former method is based on the variational principle, which is also applied to the calculation of the inhomogeneous phases, known as the pasta structures, in crust of neutron stars. We found this method might break the balance equation locally, then introduce the strong-solution method. Note that our method is formulated in the mass coordinate, and it is hence appropriated for the stellar evolution calculations.

  5. Proteomics perspectives in rotator cuff research

    Sejersen, Maria Hee Jung; Frost, Poul; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy including tears is a cause of significant morbidity. The molecular pathogenesis of the disorder is largely unknown. This review aimed to present an overview of the literature on gene expression and protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other...... studies on objectively quantified differential gene expression and/or protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies as compared to control tissue. Results We identified 2199 studies, of which 54 were included; 25 studies focussed on rotator cuff or biceps tendinopathy......, which only allowed simultaneous quantification of a limited number of prespecified mRNA molecules or proteins, several proteins appeared to be differentially expressed/represented in rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies. No proteomics studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria, although...

  6. INTEGRAL-FIELD STELLAR AND IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS OF PECULIAR VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Cortés, Juan R.; Hardy, Eduardo; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion σ, and the ionized gas velocity (Hβ and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter λ R . An evaluation of the galaxies in the λ R ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact Hα morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects

  7. Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections ...

    With the help of computer tools and algorithms, automatic stellar spectral classification has become an area of current interest. The process of stellar spectral classification mainly includes two steps: dimension reduction and classification. As a popular dimensionality reduction technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) ...

  8. Enhanced-confinement class of stellarators

    Mynick, H.E.; Chu, T.K.; Boozer, A.H.

    1981-08-01

    A class of stellarators has been found in which the transport is reduced by an order of magnitude from transport in conventional stellarators, by localizing the helical ripple to the inside of the torus. The reduction is observed in numerical experiments and explained theoretically

  9. Theories for convection in stellar atmospheres

    Nordlund, Aa.

    1976-02-01

    A discussion of the fundamental differences between laboratory convection in a stellar atmosphere is presented. The shortcomings of laterally homogeneous model atmospheres are analysed, and the extent to which these shortcoming are avoided in the two-component representation is discussed. Finally a qualitative discussion on the scaling properties of stellar granulation is presented. (Auth.)

  10. MEASUREMENT OF THE MASS AND STELLAR POPULATION DISTRIBUTION IN M82 WITH THE LBT

    Greco, Johnny P.; Martini, Paul; Thompson, Todd A., E-mail: greco.40@buckeyemail.osu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We present a K-band spectroscopic study of the stellar and gas kinematics, mass distribution, and stellar populations of the archetypical starburst galaxy M82. Our results are based on a single spectrum at a position angle of 67.{sup 0}5 through the K-band nucleus. We used the {sup 12}CO stellar absorption band head at 2.29 {mu}m (CO{sub 2.29}) to measure the rotation curve out to nearly 4 kpc radius on both the eastern and western sides of the galaxy. Our data show that the rotation curve is flat from 1 to 4 kpc. This stands in sharp contrast to some previous studies, which have interpreted H I and CO emission-line position-velocity diagrams as evidence for a declining rotation curve. The kinematics of the Br{gamma}, H{sub 2}, and He I emission lines are consistent with, although characterized by slightly higher velocities than, the stellar kinematics. We derived M82's mass distribution from our stellar kinematic measurements and estimate that its total dynamical mass is {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. We measured the equivalent width of CO{sub 2.29} (W{sub 2.29}) as a function of distance from the center of the galaxy to investigate the spatial extent of the red supergiant (RSG) population. The variation in W{sub 2.29} with radius clearly shows that RSGs dominate the light inside 500 pc radius. M82's superwind is likely launched from this region, where we estimate that the enclosed mass is {approx}<2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }.

  11. Wisconsin torsatron/stellarator program, FY 1989

    Shohet, J.L.; Anderson, D.T.; Anderson, F.S.B.; Talmadge, J.N.

    1988-07-01

    This proposal documents recent activities within the University of Wisconsin-Madison Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory and presents plans for future research activities for a three year period. Research efforts have focused on fundamental stellarator physics issues through experimental investigations on the Interchangeable Module Stellarator (IMS) and the Proto-Cleo Stellarator. Theoretical activities and studies of new configurations are being undertaken to support and broaden the experimental program. Experimental research at the Torsatron Stellarator Laboratory has been primarily concerned with effects induced through electron-cyclotron resonant frequency plasma production and heating in the IMS device. Plasma electric fields have been shown to play a major role in particle transport and confinement in IMS. ECRF heating at 6 kG has produced electron tail populations in agreement with Monte-Carlo models. Electric and magnetic fields have been shown to alter the particle flows to the IMS modular divertors. 48 refs

  12. Astrospheres and Solar-like Stellar Winds

    Wood Brian E.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Stellar analogs for the solar wind have proven to be frustratingly difficult to detect directly. However, these stellar winds can be studied indirectly by observing the interaction regions carved out by the collisions between these winds and the interstellar medium (ISM. These interaction regions are called "astrospheres", analogous to the "heliosphere" surrounding the Sun. The heliosphere and astrospheres contain a population of hydrogen heated by charge exchange processes that can produce enough H I Ly alpha absorption to be detectable in UV spectra of nearby stars from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST. The amount of astrospheric absorption is a diagnostic for the strength of the stellar wind, so these observations have provided the first measurements of solar-like stellar winds. Results from these stellar wind studies and their implications for our understanding of the solar wind are reviewed here. Of particular interest are results concerning the past history of the solar wind and its impact on planetary atmospheres.

  13. A MODEL FOR (QUASI-)PERIODIC MULTIWAVELENGTH PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY IN YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    Kesseli, Aurora Y. [Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Petkova, Maya A.; Wood, Kenneth; Gregory, Scott G. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9AD (United Kingdom); Whitney, Barbara A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter St, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stauffer, J. R.; Morales-Calderon, M.; Rebull, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, CA 91125 (United States); Alencar, S. H. P., E-mail: aurorak@bu.com [Departamento de Física—ICEx—UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-09-01

    We present radiation transfer models of rotating young stellar objects (YSOs) with hot spots in their atmospheres, inner disk warps, and other three-dimensional effects in the nearby circumstellar environment. Our models are based on the geometry expected from magneto-accretion theory, where material moving inward in the disk flows along magnetic field lines to the star and creates stellar hot spots upon impact. Due to rotation of the star and magnetosphere, the disk is variably illuminated. We compare our model light curves to data from the Spitzer YSOVAR project to determine if these processes can explain the variability observed at optical and mid-infrared wavelengths in young stars. We focus on those variables exhibiting “dipper” behavior that may be periodic, quasi-periodic, or aperiodic. We find that the stellar hot-spot size and temperature affects the optical and near-infrared light curves, while the shape and vertical extent of the inner disk warp affects the mid-IR light curve variations. Clumpy disk distributions with non-uniform fractal density structure produce more stochastic light curves. We conclude that magneto-accretion theory is consistent with certain aspects of the multiwavelength photometric variability exhibited by low-mass YSOs. More detailed modeling of individual sources can be used to better determine the stellar hot-spot and inner disk geometries of particular sources.

  14. The SWELLS survey - IV. Precision measurements of the stellar and dark matter distributions in a spiral lens galaxy

    Barnabè, Matteo; Dutton, Aaron A.; Marshall, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.; Brewer, Brendon J.; Treu, Tommaso; Bolton, Adam S.; Koo, David C.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.

    We construct a fully self-consistent mass model for the lens galaxy SDSS J2141 at redshift 0.14, and use it to improve on previous studies by modelling its gravitational lensing effect, gas rotation curve and stellar kinematics simultaneously. We adopt a very flexible axisymmetric mass model

  15. Stellar Equilibrium in Semiclassical Gravity.

    Carballo-Rubio, Raúl

    2018-02-09

    The phenomenon of quantum vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational field is well understood and is expected to have a physical reality, but studies of its backreaction on the dynamics of spacetime are practically nonexistent outside of the specific context of homogeneous cosmologies. Building on previous results of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, in this Letter we first derive the semiclassical equations of stellar equilibrium in the s-wave Polyakov approximation. It is highlighted that incorporating the polarization of the quantum vacuum leads to a generalization of the classical Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. Despite the complexity of the resulting field equations, it is possible to find exact solutions. Aside from being the first known exact solutions that describe relativistic stars including the nonperturbative backreaction of semiclassical effects, these are identified as a nontrivial combination of the black star and gravastar proposals.

  16. NEMO: A Stellar Dynamics Toolbox

    Barnes, Joshua; Hut, Piet; Teuben, Peter

    2010-10-01

    NEMO is an extendible Stellar Dynamics Toolbox, following an Open-Source Software model. It has various programs to create, integrate, analyze and visualize N-body and SPH like systems, following the pipe and filter architecture. In addition there are various tools to operate on images, tables and orbits, including FITS files to export/import to/from other astronomical data reduction packages. A large growing fraction of NEMO has been contributed by a growing list of authors. The source code consist of a little over 4000 files and a little under 1,000,000 lines of code and documentation, mostly C, and some C++ and Fortran. NEMO development started in 1986 in Princeton (USA) by Barnes, Hut and Teuben. See also ZENO (ascl:1102.027) for the version that Barnes maintains.

  17. The dependence of halo mass on galaxy size at fixed stellar mass using weak lensing

    Charlton, Paul J. L.; Hudson, Michael J.; Balogh, Michael L.; Khatri, Sumeet

    2017-12-01

    Stellar mass has been shown to correlate with halo mass, with non-negligible scatter. The stellar mass-size and luminosity-size relationships of galaxies also show significant scatter in galaxy size at fixed stellar mass. It is possible that, at fixed stellar mass and galaxy colour, the halo mass is correlated with galaxy size. Galaxy-galaxy lensing allows us to measure the mean masses of dark matter haloes for stacked samples of galaxies. We extend the analysis of the galaxies in the CFHTLenS catalogue by fitting single Sérsic surface brightness profiles to the lens galaxies in order to recover half-light radius values, allowing us to determine halo masses for lenses according to their size. Comparing our halo masses and sizes to baselines for that stellar mass yields a differential measurement of the halo mass-galaxy size relationship at fixed stellar mass, defined as Mh(M_{*}) ∝ r_{eff}^{η }(M_{*}). We find that, on average, our lens galaxies have an η = 0.42 ± 0.12, i.e. larger galaxies live in more massive dark matter haloes. The η is strongest for high-mass luminous red galaxies. Investigation of this relationship in hydrodynamical simulations suggests that, at a fixed M*, satellite galaxies have a larger η and greater scatter in the Mh and reff relationship compared to central galaxies.

  18. Rotator cuff exercises

    ... 25560729 . Read More Frozen shoulder Rotator cuff problems Rotator cuff repair Shoulder arthroscopy Shoulder CT scan Shoulder MRI scan Shoulder pain Patient Instructions Rotator cuff - self-care Shoulder surgery - discharge Using your ...

  19. Stationary spiral flow in polytropic stellar models

    Pekeris, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that, in addition to the static Emden solution, a self-gravitating polytropic gas has a dynamic option in which there is stationary flow along spiral trajectories wound around the surfaces of concentric tori. The motion is obtained as a solution of a partial differential equation which is satisfied by the meridional stream function, coupled with Poisson's equation and a Bernoulli-type equation for the pressure (density). The pressure is affected by the whole of the Bernoulli term rather than by the centrifugal part only, which acts for a rotating model, and it may be reduced down to zero at the center. The spiral type of flow is illustrated for an incompressible fluid (n = 0), for which an exact solution is obtained. The features of the dynamic constant-density model are discussed as a basis for future comparison with the solution for compressible models. PMID:16592825

  20. The next generation of galaxy evolution models: A symbiosis of stellar populations and chemical abundances

    Kotulla, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    Over its lifespan Hubble has invested significant effort into detailed observations of galaxies both in the local and distant universe. To extract the physical information from the observed {spectro-}photometry requires detailed and accurate models. Stellar population synthesis models are frequently used to obtain stellar masses, star formation rate, galaxy ages and star formation histories. Chemical evolution models offer another valuable and complementary approach to gain insight into many of the same aspects, yet these two methods have rarely been used in combination.Our proposed next generation of galaxy evolution models will help us improve our understanding of how galaxies form and evolve. Building on GALEV evolutionary synthesis models we incorporate state-of-the-art input physics for stellar evolution of binaries and rotating stars as well as new spectral libraries well matched to the modern observational capabilities. Our improved chemical evolution model allows us to self-consistently trace abundances of individual elements, fully accounting for the increasing initial abundances of successive stellar generations. GALEV will support variable Initial Mass Functions {IMF}, enabling us to test recent observational findings of a non-universal IMF by predicting chemical properties and integrated spectra in an integrated and consistent manner.HST is the perfect instrument for testing this approach. Its wide wavelength coverage from UV to NIR enables precise SED fitting, and with its spatial resolution we can compare the inferred chemical evolution to studies of star clusters and resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies.

  1. Not-so-simple stellar populations in nearby, resolved massive star clusters

    de Grijs, Richard; Li, Chengyuan

    2018-02-01

    Around the turn of the last century, star clusters of all kinds were considered ‘simple’ stellar populations. Over the past decade, this situation has changed dramatically. At the same time, star clusters are among the brightest stellar population components and, as such, they are visible out to much greater distances than individual stars, even the brightest, so that understanding the intricacies of star cluster composition and their evolution is imperative for understanding stellar populations and the evolution of galaxies as a whole. In this review of where the field has moved to in recent years, we place particular emphasis on the properties and importance of binary systems, the effects of rapid stellar rotation, and the presence of multiple populations in Magellanic Cloud star clusters across the full age range. Our most recent results imply a reverse paradigm shift, back to the old simple stellar population picture for at least some intermediate-age (˜1-3 Gyr old) star clusters, opening up exciting avenues for future research efforts.

  2. LLAMA: nuclear stellar properties of Swift-BAT AGN and matched inactive galaxies

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Davies, R. I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Koss, M.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    In a complete sample of local 14-195 keV selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and inactive galaxies, matched by their host galaxy properties, we study the spatially resolved stellar kinematics and luminosity distributions at near-infrared wavelengths on scales of 10-150 pc, using SINFONI on the VLT. In this paper, we present the first half of the sample, which comprises 13 galaxies, eight AGNs and five inactive galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show a disc-like rotating pattern, for which the kinematic position angle is in agreement with the photometric position angle obtained from large scale images. For this set of galaxies, the stellar surface brightness of the inactive galaxy sample is generally comparable to the matched sample of AGN, but extends to lower surface brightness. After removal of the bulge contribution, we find a nuclear stellar light excess with an extended nuclear disc structure, which exhibits a size-luminosity relation. While we expect the excess luminosity to be associated with a dynamically cooler young stellar population, we do not typically see a matching drop in dispersion. This may be because these galaxies have pseudo-bulges in which the intrinsic dispersion increases towards the centre. And although the young stars may have an impact in the observed kinematics, their fraction is too small to dominate over the bulge and compensate the increase in dispersion at small radii, so no dispersion drop is seen. Finally, we find no evidence for a difference in the stellar kinematics and nuclear stellar luminosity excess between these active and inactive galaxies.

  3. The SLUGGS survey: wide-field stellar kinematics of early-type galaxies

    Arnold, Jacob A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Foster, Caroline, E-mail: romanow@ucolick.org [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2014-08-20

    We present stellar kinematics of 22 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), based on two-dimensional (2D) absorption line stellar spectroscopy out to ∼2-4 R {sub e} (effective radii), as part of the ongoing SLUGGS Survey. The galaxies span a factor of 20 in intrinsic luminosity, as well as a full range of environment and ETG morphology. Our data consist of good velocity resolution (σ{sub inst} ∼ 25 km s{sup –1}) integrated stellar-light spectra extracted from the individual slitlets of custom made Keck/DEIMOS slitmasks. We extract stellar kinematics measurements (V, σ, h {sub 3}, and h {sub 4}) for each galaxy. Combining with literature values from smaller radii, we present 2D spatially resolved maps of the large-scale kinematic structure in each galaxy. We find that the kinematic homogeneity found inside 1 R {sub e} often breaks down at larger radii, where a variety of kinematic behaviors are observed. While central slow rotators remain slowly rotating in their halos, central fast rotators show more diversity, ranging from rapidly increasing to rapidly declining specific angular momentum profiles in the outer regions. There are indications that the outer trends depend on morphological type, raising questions about the proposed unification of the elliptical and lenticular (S0) galaxy families in the ATLAS{sup 3D} survey. Several galaxies in our sample show multiple lines of evidence for distinct disk components embedded in more slowly rotating spheroids, and we suggest a joint photometric-kinematic approach for robust bulge-disk decomposition. Our observational results appear generally consistent with a picture of two-phase (in-situ plus accretion) galaxy formation.

  4. Neoclassical transport in stellarators - a comparison of conventional stellarator/torsatrons with the advanced stellarator, Wendelstein 7X

    Beidler, C D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1991-01-01

    A general expression for the magnitude of a stellarator's magnetic field, in terms of a Fourier decomposition, is too complicated to lend itself easily to analytic transport calculations. The great majority of stellarator-type devices, however, may be accurately described if one retains only those harmonics with m=0 and m=1. In the long-mean-free-path regime an analytical approximation to the particle's bounce-averaged kinetic equation can then be found. Using a numerical solution of this equation, it is possible to calculate the particle and heat fluxes due to helical-ripple transport in stellarators throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime. 3 figs.

  5. Activity cycles in members of young loose stellar associations

    Distefano, E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Lanza, A. F.; Messina, S.; Spada, F.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Magnetic cycles analogous to the solar cycle have been detected in tens of solar-like stars by analyzing long-term time series of different magnetic activity indexes. The relationship between the cycle properties and global stellar parameters is not fully understood yet. One reason for this is the lack of long-term time series for stars covering a wide range of stellar parameters. Aims: We searched for activity cycles in a sample of 90 young solar-like stars with ages between 4 and 95 Myr with the aim to investigate the properties of activity cycles in this age range. Methods: We measured the length Pcyc of a given cycle by analyzing the long-term time series of three different activity indexes: the period of rotational modulation, the amplitude of the rotational modulation and the median magnitude in the V band. For each star, we also computed the global magnetic activity index ⟨ IQR ⟩ that is proportional to the amplitude of the rotational modulation and can be regarded as a proxy of the mean level of the surface magnetic activity. Results: We detected activity cycles in 67 stars. Secondary cycles were also detected in 32 stars of the sample. The lack of correlation between Pcyc and Prot and the position of our targets in the Pcyc/Prot-Ro-1 diagram suggest that these stars belong to the so-called transitional branch and that the dynamo acting in these stars is different from the solar dynamo and from that acting in the older Mt. Wilson stars. This statement is also supported by the analysis of the butterfly diagrams whose patterns are very different from those seen in the solar case. We computed the Spearman correlation coefficient rS between Pcyc, ⟨ IQR ⟩ and various stellar parameters. We found that Pcyc in our sample is uncorrelated with all the investigated parameters. The ⟨ IQR ⟩ index is positively correlated with the convective turnover timescale, the magnetic diffusivity timescale τdiff, and the dynamo number DN, whereas it is anti

  6. Constructing a small modular stellarator in Latin America

    Vargas, V I; Mora, J; Asenjo, J; Zamora, E; Otárola, C; Barillas, L; Carvajal-Godínez, J; González-Gómez, J; Soto-Soto, C; Piedras, C

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at briefly describing the design and construction issues of the stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). The SCR-1 is a small modular stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma developed by the Plasma Laboratory for Fusion Energy and Applications of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR). SCR-1 will be a 2-field period small modular stellarator with an aspect ratio > 4.4; low shear configuration with core and edge rotational transform equal to 0.32 and 0.28; it will hold plasma in a 6061-T6 aluminum torus shaped vacuum vessel with an minor plasma radius 54.11 mm, a volume of 13.76 liters (0.01 m3), and major radius R = 238 mm. Plasma will be confined in the volume by on axis magnetic field 43.8 mT generated by 12 modular coils with 6 turns each, carrying a current of 767.8 A per turn providing a total toroidal field (TF) current of 4.6 kA-turn per coil. The coils will be supplied by a bank of cell batteries of 120 V. Typical length of the plasma pulse will be between 4 s to 10 s. The SCR-1 plasmas will be heated by ECH second harmonic at 2.45 GHz with a plasma density cut-off value of 7.45 × 10 16 m -3 . Two magnetrons with a maximum output power of 2 kW and 3 kW will be used. (paper)

  7. Stellar observations with the Voyager EUV objective grating spectrograph

    Holberg, J.B.; Polidan, R.S.; Barry, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    During the periods of interplanetary cruise the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers are used to provide unique and otherwise unobtainable observations in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 500 to 1200) and the far ultraviolet (FUV, 912 to 1220 A). These observations include the spectra of hot stellar sources as well as emission from the interplanetary medium. Recent results of note include: (1) extensive spectrophotometric coverage of a superoutburst of the dwarf nova VW Hydri, which showed a clear 1/2 day delay in the outburst at 1000 A relative to that observed in the optical and a curious dip in the FUV light curve near maximum light. The Voyager observations were part of a comprehensive and highly successful campaign involving EXOSAT, IUE and ground based observations of this dwarf nova; (2) a comprehensive study of Be star spectra and variability. These results show the critical importance of FUV observations in the study of the effects of stellar rotation in hot stars; (3) the detection of a strong O VI absorption feature in the spectrum of the PG 1159-like object H1504+65. This detection along with the optical identification of weak O IV lines was a key to the interpretation of this object; which is of extremely high (>150,000K) temperature and appears to be a unique example of a stellar atmosphere devoid of H and He; (4) an analysis of an extremely long duration spectrum of the EUV and FUV sky background, which establishes important new upper limits on both continuum and line emission. This result also provide the first detection of interplanetary Lyman gamma

  8. Magnetism, dynamo action and the solar-stellar connection

    Allan Sacha Brun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sun and other stars are magnetic: magnetism pervades their interiors and affects their evolution in a variety of ways. In the Sun, both the fields themselves and their influence on other phenomena can be uncovered in exquisite detail, but these observations sample only a moment in a single star’s life. By turning to observations of other stars, and to theory and simulation, we may infer other aspects of the magnetism—e.g., its dependence on stellar age, mass, or rotation rate—that would be invisible from close study of the Sun alone. Here, we review observations and theory of magnetism in the Sun and other stars, with a partial focus on the “Solar-stellar connection”: i.e., ways in which studies of other stars have influenced our understanding of the Sun and vice versa. We briefly review techniques by which magnetic fields can be measured (or their presence otherwise inferred in stars, and then highlight some key observational findings uncovered by such measurements, focusing (in many cases on those that offer particularly direct constraints on theories of how the fields are built and maintained. We turn then to a discussion of how the fields arise in different objects: first, we summarize some essential elements of convection and dynamo theory, including a very brief discussion of mean-field theory and related concepts. Next we turn to simulations of convection and magnetism in stellar interiors, highlighting both some peculiarities of field generation in different types of stars and some unifying physical processes that likely influence dynamo action in general. We conclude with a brief summary of what we have learned, and a sampling of issues that remain uncertain or unsolved.

  9. Systematics of injuries of the rotator cuff and biceps tendon

    Breitenseher, M.J.; Pones, M.; Breitenseher, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries of the rotator cuff and the biceps tendon demonstrate different patterns, which can be recognized clinically and radiologically. These patterns are impingement syndrome with additional trauma, isolated trauma of the rotator cuff and shoulder dislocation causing rotator cuff tears. Furthermore, it is clinically crucial to evaluate the extent of a rotator cuff injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to differentiate these patterns. (orig.) [de

  10. Hydrodynamics and stellar winds an introduction

    Maciel, Walter J

    2014-01-01

    Stellar winds are a common phenomenon in the life of stars, from the dwarfs like the Sun to the red giants and hot supergiants, constituting one of the basic aspects of modern astrophysics. Stellar winds are a hydrodynamic phenomenon in which circumstellar gases expand towards the interstellar medium. This book presents an elementary introduction to the fundamentals of hydrodynamics with an application to the study of stellar winds. The principles of hydrodynamics have many other applications, so that the book can be used as an introduction to hydrodynamics for students of physics, astrophysics and other related areas.

  11. Ultraviolet photometry of stellar populations in galaxies

    Deharveng, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The UV flux of stellar populations, which is essentially emitted by young stars, conveys information on the process of star formation and its recent history. However, the evaluation of the flux arising from the young stellar component may be difficult. In the case of late type galaxies it is hampered by the extinction and the effect of scattered stellar radiation. In the case of early type galaxies, the star formation, if any, has to be disentangled from the contribution of hot evolved stars and of a possible 'active' phenomenon. A review of observations and results relevant two cases is presented [fr

  12. Influence of magnetic topology on transport and stability in stellarators

    Castejon, F [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion. Asociacion Euratom/Ciemat, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Fujisawa, A [National Institute for Fusion Science Oroshi-cho, Toki-shi, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Ida, K [National Institute for Fusion Science Oroshi-cho, Toki-shi, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Talmadge, J N [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Estrada, T [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion. Asociacion Euratom/Ciemat, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Bruna, D [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion. Asociacion Euratom/Ciemat, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Hidalgo, C [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion. Asociacion Euratom/Ciemat, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Krupnik, L [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC ' KIPT' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Melnikov, A [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-12-15

    The influence of the magnetic topology on transport and stability has been investigated in four stellarators: an almost shearless medium size flexible heliac (TJ-II), a medium size and a large heliotron (CHS and LHD) with shear, and a quasihelically symmetric device (HSX) with moderate shear. All of these have variable rotational transform profiles and magnetic ripples. Using these capabilities, bifurcated states can appear and plasma can jump from one to another with subsequent changes in the transport properties. Low rational values of {iota}/2{pi} can create transport barriers in LHD and TJ-II when they are located close to the plasma core or at the edge. The key ingredient for transport barriers is a positive and sheared electric field. Internal transport barriers also appear in CHS, but the role of rationals is not clear yet in this device. The time evolution of the electric field shows the onset of a bifurcation triggered either by the rational or by the presence of the ion and electron roots. The electric potential inside ITBs follows the ECE-temperature profile in a fast time scale. The plasma stability properties and its effect on the viscosity are also studied in the HSX, and the influence of the dynamics of rational surface is studied in the LHD and TJ-II stellarators.

  13. Influence of magnetic topology on transport and stability in stellarators

    Castejon, F; Fujisawa, A; Ida, K; Talmadge, J N; Estrada, T; Lopez-Bruna, D; Hidalgo, C; Krupnik, L; Melnikov, A

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the magnetic topology on transport and stability has been investigated in four stellarators: an almost shearless medium size flexible heliac (TJ-II), a medium size and a large heliotron (CHS and LHD) with shear, and a quasihelically symmetric device (HSX) with moderate shear. All of these have variable rotational transform profiles and magnetic ripples. Using these capabilities, bifurcated states can appear and plasma can jump from one to another with subsequent changes in the transport properties. Low rational values of ι/2π can create transport barriers in LHD and TJ-II when they are located close to the plasma core or at the edge. The key ingredient for transport barriers is a positive and sheared electric field. Internal transport barriers also appear in CHS, but the role of rationals is not clear yet in this device. The time evolution of the electric field shows the onset of a bifurcation triggered either by the rational or by the presence of the ion and electron roots. The electric potential inside ITBs follows the ECE-temperature profile in a fast time scale. The plasma stability properties and its effect on the viscosity are also studied in the HSX, and the influence of the dynamics of rational surface is studied in the LHD and TJ-II stellarators

  14. UWTOR-M, a stellarator power reactor utilizing modular coils

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Van Sciver, S.W.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1981-10-01

    We briefly describe the parametric considerations which led to the UWTOR-M reference design point. The design has 18 twisted coils utilizing a multipolarity of 3, a major radius of 24 m, a coil radius of 4.77 m and a plasma aspect ratio of 14. An assumed β of 5% was used. This configuration leads to a rotational transform on the edge of 1.125 giving favorable plasma physics conditions. The natural stellarator divertor is used for impurity control in conjunction with innovative high performance divertor targets. A unique blanket design is proposed which minimizes tritium inventory in the reactor. Finally, since maintainability is a prime consideration, we describe a scheme for servicing the first wall/blanket and other reactor components

  15. Laboratory demonstration of Stellar Intensity Interferometry using a software correlator

    Matthews, Nolan; Kieda, David

    2017-06-01

    In this talk I will present measurements of the spatial coherence function of laboratory thermal (black-body) sources using Hanbury-Brown and Twiss interferometry with a digital off-line correlator. Correlations in the intensity fluctuations of a thermal source, such as a star, allow retrieval of the second order coherence function which can be used to perform high resolution imaging and source geometry characterization. We also demonstrate that intensity fluctuations between orthogonal polarization states are uncorrelated but can be used to reduce systematic noise. The work performed here can readily be applied to existing and future Imaging Air-Cherenkov telescopes to measure spatial properties of stellar sources. Some possible candidates for astronomy applications include close binary star systems, fast rotators, Cepheid variables, and potentially even exoplanet characterization.

  16. Stability of Stellar Periods in the Hyades and Taurus

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Stauffer, John R.; K2 Clusters Team

    2018-06-01

    K2 has opened to us the study of high-precision light curves from which we can derive stellar rotation periods. We have presented period distributions for the Pleiades, Praesepe, Upper Sco and Rho Oph. But, how stable are the periods we are deriving from them? Early ground-based work in Orion (Rebull 2001) suggested that, for the youngest stars, about half the stars had sufficiently different spot distributions in two consecutive years such that periods could not be recovered in the second year. However, now that we have K2, precision and diurnal windowing functions are no longer really much of a concern. For a handful of stars in Hyades and Taurus, the K2 spacecraft monitored them for two non-consecutive 70d windows (campaigns 4, 2015 Feb and 13, 2017 Mar). In this poster, we examine whether or not the light curves are similar in the two epochs, and how accurately the same period can be recovered.

  17. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C. [Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Matsakos, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lima, J. J. G., E-mail: veronique.cayatte@obspm.fr [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  18. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  19. Stellar recipes for axion hunters

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Physical Sciences, Barry University, 11300 NE 2nd Ave., Miami Shores, FL 33161 (United States); Irastorza, Igor G.; Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Ringwald, Andreas; Saikawa, Ken' ichi, E-mail: mgiannotti@barry.edu, E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de, E-mail: kenichi.saikawa@desy.de [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    There are a number of observational hints from astrophysics which point to the existence of stellar energy losses beyond the ones accounted for by neutrino emission. These excessive energy losses may be explained by the existence of a new sub-keV mass pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone boson with tiny couplings to photons, electrons, and nucleons. An attractive possibility is to identify this particle with the axion—the hypothetical pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson predicted by the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem. We explore this possibility in terms of a DFSZ-type axion and of a KSVZ-type axion/majoron, respectively. Both models allow a good global fit to the data, prefering an axion mass around 10 meV. We show that future axion experiments—the fifth force experiment ARIADNE and the helioscope IAXO—can attack the preferred mass range from the lower and higher end, respectively. An axion in this mass range can also be the main constituent of dark matter.

  20. Stellar recipes for axion hunters

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Barry Univ., Miami Shores, FL (United States). Physical Sciences; Irastorza, Igor G. [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas; Saikawa, Ken' ichi [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2017-08-15

    There are a number of observational hints from astrophysics which point to the existence of stellar energy losses beyond the ones accounted for by neutrino emission. These excessive energy losses may be explained by the existence of a new sub-keV mass pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone boson with tiny couplings to photons, electrons, and nucleons. An attractive possibility is to identify this particle with the axion - the hypothetical pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson predicted by the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem. We explore this possibility in terms of a DFSZ-type axion and of a KSVZ-type axion/majoron, respectively. Both models allow a good global fit to the data, prefering an axion mass around 10 meV. We show that future axion experiments - the fifth force experiment ARIADNE and the helioscope IAXO - can attack the preferred mass range from the lower and higher end, respectively. An axion in this mass range can also be the main constituent of dark matter.

  1. Stellar recipes for axion hunters

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Ringwald, Andreas; Saikawa, Ken'ichi

    2017-08-01

    There are a number of observational hints from astrophysics which point to the existence of stellar energy losses beyond the ones accounted for by neutrino emission. These excessive energy losses may be explained by the existence of a new sub-keV mass pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone boson with tiny couplings to photons, electrons, and nucleons. An attractive possibility is to identify this particle with the axion - the hypothetical pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson predicted by the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem. We explore this possibility in terms of a DFSZ-type axion and of a KSVZ-type axion/majoron, respectively. Both models allow a good global fit to the data, prefering an axion mass around 10 meV. We show that future axion experiments - the fifth force experiment ARIADNE and the helioscope IAXO - can attack the preferred mass range from the lower and higher end, respectively. An axion in this mass range can also be the main constituent of dark matter.

  2. Stellar core collapse and supernova

    Wilson, J.R.; Mayle, R.; Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.

    1985-04-01

    Massive stars that end their stable evolution as their iron cores collapse to a neutron star or black hole long been considered good candidates for producing Type II supernovae. For many years the outward propagation of the shock wave produced by the bounce of these iron cores has been studied as a possible mechanism for the explosion. For the most part, the results of these studies have not been particularly encouraging, except, perhaps, in the case of very low mass iron cores or very soft nuclear equations of state. The shock stalls, overwhelmed by photodisintegration and neutrino losses, and the star does not explode. More recently, slow late time heating of the envelope of the incipient neutron star has been found to be capable of rejuvenating the stalled shock and producing an explosion after all. The present paper discusses this late time heating and presents results from numerical calculations of the evolution, core collapse, and subsequent explosion of a number of recent stellar models. For the first time they all, except perhaps the most massive, explode with reasonable choices of input physics. 39 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  3. Collapsing stellar cores and supernovae

    Epstein, R J [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Noorgaard, H [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.); Bond, J R [Niels Bohr Institutet, Copenhagen (Denmark); California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.)

    1979-05-01

    The evolution of a stellar core is studied during its final quasi-hydrostatic contraction. The core structure and the (poorly known) properties of neutron rich matter are parametrized to include most plausible cases. It is found that the density-temperature trajectory of the material in the central part of the core (the core-center) is insensitive to nearly all reasonable parameter variations. The central density at the onset of the dynamic phase of the collapse (when the core-center begins to fall away from the rest of the star) and the fraction of the emitted neutrinos which are trapped in the collapsing core-center depend quite sensitively on the properties of neutron rich matter. We estimate that the amount of energy Ecm which is imparted to the core-mantle by the neutrinos which escape from the imploded core-center can span a large range of values. For plausible choices of nuclear and model parameters Ecm can be large enough to yield a supernova event.

  4. Rotational motion in nuclei

    Bohr, A.

    1977-01-01

    History is surveyed of the development of the theory of rotational states in nuclei. The situation in the 40's when ideas formed of the collective states of a nucleus is evoked. The general rotation theory and the relation between the single-particle and rotational motion are briefly discussed. Future prospects of the rotation theory development are indicated. (I.W.)

  5. THE STELLAR STRUCTURE AND KINEMATICS OF DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES FORMED BY TIDAL STIRRING

    Lokas, Ewa L.; Klimentowski, Jaroslaw; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Using high-resolution N-body simulations, we study the stellar properties of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies resulting from the tidally induced morphological transformation of disky dwarfs on a cosmologically motivated eccentric orbit around the Milky Way. The dwarf galaxy models initially consist of an exponential stellar disk embedded in an extended spherical dark matter halo. Depending on the initial orientation of the disk with respect to the orbital plane, different final configurations are obtained. The least evolved dwarf is triaxial and retains a significant amount of rotation. The more evolved dwarfs are prolate spheroids with little rotation. We show that in this scenario the final density distribution of stars can be approximated by a simple modification of the Plummer law. The kinematics of the dwarfs is significantly different depending on the line of sight which has important implications for mapping the observed stellar velocity dispersions of dwarfs to subhalo circular velocities. When the dwarfs are observed along the long axis, the measured velocity dispersion is higher and decreases faster with radius. In the case where rotation is significant, when viewed perpendicular to the long axis, the effect of minor axis rotation is detected, as expected for triaxial systems. We model the velocity dispersion profiles and rotation curves of the dwarfs under the assumption of constant mass-to-light ratio by solving the Jeans equations for spherical and axisymmetric systems and adjusting different sets of free parameters, including the total mass. We find that the mass is typically overestimated when the dwarf is seen along the long axis and underestimated when the observation is along the short or intermediate axis. For the studied cases, the effect of non-sphericity cannot, however, bias the inferred mass by more than 60% in either direction, even for the most strongly stripped dwarf which is close to disruption.

  6. Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    Stratton, B.C.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Neilson, H.; Takahashi, H.; Zarnstorf, M.; Cole, M.; Goranson, P.; Lazarus, E.; Nelson, B.

    2003-01-01

    The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation

  7. Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections ...

    School of Computer and Control Engineering, North University of China,. Taiyuan 030051 ... (2013) was used to mine the association rules of a stellar ... of the graph, we then compute a transformation matrix which maps the data points to.

  8. The relation between stellar evolution and cosmology

    Tayler, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of star clusters combined with the theory of stellar evolution enable us to estimate the ages of stars while cosmological observations and theories give us a value for the age of the Universe. This is the most important interaction between cosmology and stellar evolution because it is clearly necessary that stars are younger than the Universe. Stellar evolution also plays an important role in relating the present chemical composition of the Universe to its original composition. The author restricts the review to a discussion of the relation between stellar evolution and the big bang cosmological theory because there is such a good qualitative agreement between the hot big bang theory and observations. (Auth.)

  9. Evaluating Stellarator Divertor Designs with EMC3

    Bader, Aaron; Anderson, D. T.; Feng, Y.; Hegna, C. C.; Talmadge, J. N.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper various improvements of stellarator divertor design are explored. Next step stellarator devices require innovative divertor solutions to handle heat flux loads and impurity control. One avenue is to enhance magnetic flux expansion near strike points, somewhat akin to the X-Divertor concept in Tokamaks. The effect of judiciously placed external coils on flux deposition is calculated for configurations based on the HSX stellarator. In addition, we attempt to optimize divertor plate location to facilitate the external coil placement. Alternate areas of focus involve altering edge island size to elucidate the driving physics in the edge. The 3-D nature of stellarators complicates design and necessitates analysis of new divertor structures with appropriate simulation tools. We evaluate the various configurations with the coupled codes EMC3-EIRENE, allowing us to benchmark configurations based on target heat flux, impurity behavior, radiated power, and transitions to high recycling and detached regimes. Work supported by DOE-SC0006103.

  10. Development of the stellarator/heliotron research

    Iiyoshi, A.

    1991-05-01

    The author reviewed the history of the development of the stellarator/heliotron system, and pointed out the important role of the radial electric field in plasma transport in helical devices. (J.P.N.)

  11. Radiative otacity tables for 40 stellar mixtures

    Cox, A.N.; Tabor, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Using improved methods, radiative opacities for 40 mixtures of elements are given for use in calculations of stellar structure, stellar evolution, and stellar pulsation. The major improvements over previous Los Alamos data are increased iron abundance in the composition, better allowance for the continuum depression for bound electrons, and corrections in some bound-electron energy levels. These opacities have already been widely used, and represent a relatively homogeneous set of data for stellar structures. Further improvements to include more bound-bound (line) transitions by a smearing technique and to include molecular absorptions are becoming available, and in a few years these tables, as well as all previous tables, will be outdated. At high densities the conduction of energy will dominate radiation flow, and this effect must be added separately

  12. Rotational motion in nuclei

    Bohr, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  13. Starspots on the fastest rotators in the β Pictoris moving group

    García-Alvarez, D.; Lanza, A. F.; Messina, S.; Drake, J. J.; van Wyk, F.; Shobbrook, R. R.; Butler, C. J.; Kilkenny, D.; Doyle, J. G.; Kashyap, V. L.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: We carried out high-resolution spectroscopy and BV(I)C photometric monitoring of the two fastest late-type rotators in the nearby β Pictoris moving group, HD 199143 (F7V) and CD-64°1208 (K7V). The motivation for this work is to investigate the rotation periods and photospheric spot patterns of these very young stars, with a longer term view to probing the evolution of rotation and magnetic activity during the early phases of main-sequence evolution. We also aim to derive information on key physical parameters, such as rotational velocity and rotation period. Methods: We applied maximum entropy (ME) and Tikhonov regularizing (TR) criteria to derive the surface spot map distributions of the optical modulation observed in HD 199143 (F7 V) and CD-64°1208 (K7 V). We also used cross-correlation techniques to determine stellar parameters such as radial velocities and rotational velocities. Lomb-Scargle periodograms were used to obtain the rotational periods from differential magnitude time series. Results: We find periods and inclinations of 0.356 days and 21.5 deg for HD 199143, and 0.355 days and 50.1 deg for CD-64°1208. The spot maps of HD 199143 obtained from the ME and TR methods are very similar, although the latter gives a smoother distribution of the filling factor. Maps obtained at two different epochs three weeks apart show a remarkable increase in spot coverage amounting to ~7% of the surface of the photosphere over a time period of only ~20 days. The spot maps of CD-64°1208 from the two methods show good longitudinal agreement, whereas the latitude range of the spots is extended to cover the whole visible hemisphere in the TR map. The distributions obtained from the first light curve of HD 199143 show the presence of an extended and asymmetric active longitude with the maximum filling factor at longitude ~325°. A secondary active longitude is present at ~100°. The spotted area distributions on CD-64°1208 show two active longitudes separated by

  14. STELLAR ATMOSPHERES, ATMOSPHERIC EXTENSION, AND FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS: WEIGHING STARS USING THE STELLAR MASS INDEX

    Neilson, Hilding R.; Lester, John B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Baron, Fabien; Norris, Ryan; Kloppenborg, Brian, E-mail: neilson@astro.utoronto.ca [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    One of the great challenges of understanding stars is measuring their masses. The best methods for measuring stellar masses include binary interaction, asteroseismology, and stellar evolution models, but these methods are not ideal for red giant and supergiant stars. In this work, we propose a novel method for inferring stellar masses of evolved red giant and supergiant stars using interferometric and spectrophotometric observations combined with spherical model stellar atmospheres to measure what we call the stellar mass index, defined as the ratio between the stellar radius and mass. The method is based on the correlation between different measurements of angular diameter, used as a proxy for atmospheric extension, and fundamental stellar parameters. For a given star, spectrophotometry measures the Rosseland angular diameter while interferometric observations generally probe a larger limb-darkened angular diameter. The ratio of these two angular diameters is proportional to the relative extension of the stellar atmosphere, which is strongly correlated to the star’s effective temperature, radius, and mass. We show that these correlations are strong and can lead to precise measurements of stellar masses.

  15. Does the stellar distribution flare? A comparison of stellar scale heights with LAB H I data

    Kalberla, P. M. W.; Kerp, J.; Dedes, L. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Haud, U., E-mail: pkalberla@astro.uni-bonn.de [Tartu Observatory, 61602 Tõravere (Estonia)

    2014-10-10

    The question of whether the stellar populations in the Milky Way take part in the flaring of scale heights as observed for the H I gas is a matter of debate. Standard mass models for the Milky Way assume a constant scale height for each of the different stellar distributions. However, there is mounting evidence that at least some of the stellar distributions reach, at large galactocentric distances, high altitudes, which are incompatible with a constant scale height. We discuss recent observational evidence for stellar flaring and compare it with H I data from the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn survey. Within the systemic and statistical uncertainties we find a good agreement between both.

  16. The WEGA Stellarator: Results and Prospects

    Otte, M.; Andruczyk, D.; Koenig, R.; Laqua, H. P.; Lischtschenko, O.; Marsen, S.; Schacht, J.; Podoba, Y. Y.; Wagner, F.; Warr, G. B.; Holzhauer, E.; Howard, J.; Krupnik, L.; Zhezhera, A.; Urban, J.; Preinhalter, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article an overview is given on results from magnetic flux surface measurements, applied ECR heating scenarios for 2.45 GHz and 28 GHz, fluctuation and transport studies and plasma edge biasing experiments performed in the WEGA stellarator. Examples for the development of new diagnostics and the machine control system are given that will be used at Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, which is currently under construction in Greifswald

  17. Cosmic abundances: The impact of stellar duplicity

    Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.

    2004-01-01

    The mass-transfer scenario links chemical peculiarities with stellar duplicity for an increasing number of stellar classes (classical and dwarf barium stars, subgiant and giant CH stars, S stars without technetium, yellow symbiotic stars, WIRRING stars, Abell-35-like nuclei of planetary nebulae...). Despite these successes, the mass-transfer scenario still faces several problems: What is the mass-transfer mode? Why orbital elements of dwarf barium stars do not fully match those of the classic...

  18. The Stellar-Dynamical Oeuvre James Binney

    tribpo

    of the eigenvalues of M. The variation of the stellar density from point to point .... of Σ,(ΔΕ)2 , where ∆ Ε is the change in energy that a star suffers during a binary ... could use these results to calculate the relaxation time in a stellar system if he .... the region of enhanced density that tails behind it like a wake behind a ship. By.

  19. Weakly interacting massive particles and stellar structure

    Bouquet, A.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) may solve both the dark matter problem and the solar neutrino problem. Such particles affect the energy transport in the stellar cores and change the stellar structure. We present the results of an analytic approximation to compute these effects in a self-consistent way. These results can be applied to many different stars, but we focus on the decrease of the 8 B neutrino flux in the case of the Sun

  20. Close stellar encounters in globular clusters

    Bailyn, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Stellar encounters are expected to produce a variety of interesting objects in the cores of globular clusters, either through the formation of binaries by tidal capture, or direct collisions. Here, I describe several attempts to observe the products of stellar encounters. In particular, the use of color maps has demonstrated the existence of a color gradient in the core of M15, which seems to be caused by a population of faint blue objects concentrated towards the cluster center. (author)

  1. FITspec: A New Algorithm for the Automated Fit of Synthetic Stellar Spectra for OB Stars

    Fierro-Santillán, Celia R.; Zsargó, Janos; Klapp, Jaime; Díaz-Azuara, Santiago A.; Arrieta, Anabel; Arias, Lorena; Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we describe the FITspec code, a data mining tool for the automatic fitting of synthetic stellar spectra. The program uses a database of 27,000 CMFGEN models of stellar atmospheres arranged in a six-dimensional (6D) space, where each dimension corresponds to one model parameter. From these models a library of 2,835,000 synthetic spectra were generated covering the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Using FITspec we adjust the effective temperature and the surface gravity. From the 6D array we also get the luminosity, the metallicity, and three parameters for the stellar wind: the terminal velocity ({v}∞ ), the β exponent of the velocity law, and the clumping filling factor (F cl). Finally, the projected rotational velocity (v\\cdot \\sin i) can be obtained from the library of stellar spectra. Validation of the algorithm was performed by analyzing the spectra of a sample of eight O-type stars taken from the IACOB spectroscopic survey of Northern Galactic OB stars. The spectral lines used for the adjustment of the analyzed stars are reproduced with good accuracy. In particular, the effective temperatures calculated with the FITspec are in good agreement with those derived from spectral type and other calibrations for the same stars. The stellar luminosities and projected rotational velocities are also in good agreement with previous quantitative spectroscopic analyses in the literature. An important advantage of FITspec over traditional codes is that the time required for spectral analyses is reduced from months to a few hours.

  2. On plasma radiative properties in stellar conditions

    Turck-Chieze, S.; Delahaye, F.; Gilles, D.; Loisel, G.; Piau, L.; Loisel, G.

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of stellar evolution is evolving quickly thanks to an increased number of opportunities to scrutinize the stellar internal plasma properties by stellar seismology and by 1D and 3D simulations. These new tools help us to introduce the internal dynamical phenomena in stellar modeling. A proper inclusion of these processes supposes a real confidence in the microscopic physics used, partly checked by solar or stellar acoustic modes. In the present paper we first recall which fundamental physics has been recently verified by helioseismology. Then we recall that opacity is an important ingredient of the secular evolution of stars and we point out why it is necessary to measure absorption coefficients and degrees of ionization in the laboratory for some well identified astrophysical conditions. We examine two specific experimental conditions which are accessible to large laser facilities and are suitable to solve some interesting questions of the stellar community: are the solar internal radiative interactions properly estimated and what is the proper role of the opacity in the excitation of the non-radial modes in the envelop of the β Cepheids and the Be stars? At the end of the paper we point out the difficulties of the experimental approach that we need to overcome. (authors)

  3. WHY ARE RAPIDLY ROTATING M DWARFS IN THE PLEIADES SO (INFRA)RED? NEW PERIOD MEASUREMENTS CONFIRM ROTATION-DEPENDENT COLOR OFFSETS FROM THE CLUSTER SEQUENCE

    Covey, Kevin R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, Bellingham WA 98225-9164 (United States); Agüeros, Marcel A.; Liu, Jiyu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Ahmadi, Aida [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levitan, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sesar, Branimir, E-mail: kevin.covey@wwu.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-10

    Stellar rotation periods ( P {sub rot}) measured in open clusters have proved to be extremely useful for studying stars’ angular momentum content and rotationally driven magnetic activity, which are both age- and mass-dependent processes. While P {sub rot} measurements have been obtained for hundreds of solar-mass members of the Pleiades, measurements exist for only a few low-mass (<0.5 M {sub ⊙}) members of this key laboratory for stellar evolution theory. To fill this gap, we report P {sub rot} for 132 low-mass Pleiades members (including nearly 100 with M ≤ 0.45 M {sub ⊙}), measured from photometric monitoring of the cluster conducted by the Palomar Transient Factory in late 2011 and early 2012. These periods extend the portrait of stellar rotation at 125 Myr to the lowest-mass stars and re-establish the Pleiades as a key benchmark for models of the transport and evolution of stellar angular momentum. Combining our new P {sub rot} with precise BVIJHK photometry reported by Stauffer et al. and Kamai et al., we investigate known anomalies in the photometric properties of K and M Pleiades members. We confirm the correlation detected by Kamai et al. between a star's P {sub rot} and position relative to the main sequence in the cluster's color–magnitude diagram. We find that rapid rotators have redder ( V − K ) colors than slower rotators at the same V , indicating that rapid and slow rotators have different binary frequencies and/or photospheric properties. We find no difference in the photometric amplitudes of rapid and slow rotators, indicating that asymmetries in the longitudinal distribution of starspots do not scale grossly with rotation rate.

  4. Collapse and equilibrium of rotating, adiabatic clouds

    Boss, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical hydrodynamics computer code has been used to follow the collapse and establishment of equilibrium of adiabatic gas clouds restricted to axial symmetry. The clouds are initially uniform in density and rotation, with adiabatic exponents γ=5/3 and 7/5. The numerical technique allows, for the first time, a direct comparison to be made between the dynamic collapse and approach to equilibrium of unconstrained clouds on the one hand, and the results for incompressible, uniformly rotating equilibrium clouds, and the equilibrium structures of differentially rotating polytropes, on the other hand

  5. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  6. The Influence of Stellar Spin on Ignition of Thermonuclear Runaways

    Galloway, Duncan K.; in ’t Zand, Jean J. M.; Chenevez, Jérôme; Keek, Laurens; Sanchez-Fernandez, Celia; Worpel, Hauke; Lampe, Nathanael; Kuulkers, Erik; Watts, Anna; Ootes, Laura; The MINBAR collaboration

    2018-04-01

    Runaway thermonuclear burning of a layer of accumulated fuel on the surface of a compact star provides a brief but intense display of stellar nuclear processes. For neutron stars accreting from a binary companion, these events manifest as thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts, and recur on typical timescales of hours to days. We measured the burst rate as a function of accretion rate, from seven neutron stars with known spin rates, using a burst sample accumulated over several decades. At the highest accretion rates, the burst rate is lower for faster spinning stars. The observations imply that fast (>400 Hz) rotation encourages stabilization of nuclear burning, suggesting a dynamical dependence of nuclear ignition on the spin rate. This dependence is unexpected, because faster rotation entails less shear between the surrounding accretion disk and the star. Large-scale circulation in the fuel layer, leading to enhanced mixing of the burst ashes into the fuel layer, may explain this behavior; further numerical simulations are required to confirm this.

  7. Relativistic MHD simulations of stellar core collapse and magnetars

    Font, Jose A; Gabler, Michael [Departamento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Cerda-Duran, Pablo; Mueller, Ewald [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Stergioulas, Nikolaos, E-mail: j.antonio.font@uv.es [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2011-02-01

    We present results from simulations of magneto-rotational stellar core collapse along with Alfven oscillations in magnetars. These simulations are performed with the CoCoA/CoCoNuT code, which is able to handle ideal MHD flows in dynamical spacetimes in general relativity. Our core collapse simulations highlight the importance of genuine magnetic effects, like the magneto-rotational instability, for the dynamics of the flow. For the modelling of magnetars we use the anelastic approximation to general relativistic MHD, which allows for an effective suppression of fluid modes and an accurate description of Alfven waves. We further compute Alfven oscillation frequencies along individual magnetic field lines with a semi-analytic approach. Our work confirms previous results based on perturbative approaches regarding the existence of two families of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), with harmonics at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. Additional material is presented in the accompanying contribution by Gabler et al (2010b) in these proceedings.

  8. Stellar Firework in a Whirlwind

    2007-09-01

    VLT Image of Supernova in Beautiful Spiral Galaxy NGC 1288 Stars do not like to be alone. Indeed, most stars are members of a binary system, in which two stars circle around each other in an apparently never-ending cosmic ballet. But sometimes, things can go wrong. When the dancing stars are too close to each other, one of them can start devouring its partner. If the vampire star is a white dwarf - a burned-out star that was once like our Sun - this greed can lead to a cosmic catastrophe: the white dwarf explodes as a Type Ia supernova. In July 2006, ESO's Very Large Telescope took images of such a stellar firework in the galaxy NGC 1288. The supernova - designated SN 2006dr - was at its peak brightness, shining as bright as the entire galaxy itself, bearing witness to the amount of energy released. ESO PR Photo 39/07 ESO PR Photo 39/07 SN 2006dr in NGC 1288 NGC 1288 is a rather spectacular spiral galaxy, seen almost face-on and showing multiple spiral arms pirouetting around the centre. Bearing a strong resemblance to the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1232, it is located 200 million light-years away from our home Galaxy, the Milky Way. Two main arms emerge from the central regions and then progressively split into other arms when moving further away. A small bar of stars and gas runs across the centre of the galaxy. The first images of NGC 1288, obtained during the commissioning period of the FORS instrument on ESO's VLT in 1998, were of such high quality that they have allowed astronomers [1] to carry out a quantitative analysis of the morphology of the galaxy. They found that NGC 1288 is most probably surrounded by a large dark matter halo. The appearance and number of spiral arms are indeed directly related to the amount of dark matter in the galaxy's halo. The supernova was first spotted by amateur astronomer Berto Monard. On the night of 17 July 2006, Monard used his 30-cm telescope in the suburbs of Pretoria in South Africa and discovered the supernova as an

  9. Electromagnetic fields of rotating magnetized NUT stars

    Ahmedov, B.J.; Khugaev, A.V.; Ahmedov, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Analytic general relativistic expressions for the electromagnetic fields external to a slowly-rotating magnetized NUT star with nonvanishing gravitomagnetic charge have been presented. Solutions for the electric and magnetic fields have been found after separating the Maxwell equations in the external background spacetime of a slowly rotating NUT star into angular and radial parts in the lowest order approximation. The star is considered isolated and in vacuum, with different models for stellar magnetic field: i) monopolar magnetic field and II) dipolar magnetic field aligned with the axis of rotation. We have shown that the general relativistic corrections due to the dragging of reference frames and gravitomagnetic charge are not present in the form of the magnetic fields but emerge only in the form of the electric fields. In particular, we have shown that the frame-dragging and gravitomagnetic charge provide an additional induced electric field which is analogous to the one introduced by the rotation of the star in the flat spacetime limit

  10. Atmospheric stellar parameters for large surveys using FASMA, a new spectral synthesis package

    Tsantaki, M.; Andreasen, D. T.; Teixeira, G. D. C.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Bruzual, G.

    2018-02-01

    In the era of vast spectroscopic surveys focusing on Galactic stellar populations, astronomers want to exploit the large quantity and good quality of data to derive their atmospheric parameters without losing precision from automatic procedures. In this work, we developed a new spectral package, FASMA, to estimate the stellar atmospheric parameters (namely effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity) in a fast and robust way. This method is suitable for spectra of FGK-type stars in medium and high resolution. The spectroscopic analysis is based on the spectral synthesis technique using the radiative transfer code, MOOG. The line list is comprised of mainly iron lines in the optical spectrum. The atomic data are calibrated after the Sun and Arcturus. We use two comparison samples to test our method, (i) a sample of 451 FGK-type dwarfs from the high-resolution HARPS spectrograph; and (ii) the Gaia-ESO benchmark stars using both high and medium resolution spectra. We explore biases in our method from the analysis of synthetic spectra covering the parameter space of our interest. We show that our spectral package is able to provide reliable results for a wide range of stellar parameters, different rotational velocities, different instrumental resolutions and for different spectral regions of the VLT-GIRAFFE spectrographs, used amongst others for the Gaia-ESO survey. FASMA estimates stellar parameters in less than 15 m for high-resolution and 3 m for medium-resolution spectra. The complete package is publicly available to the community.

  11. Complete suppression of Pfirsch-Schlueter current in a toroidal l=3 stellarator

    Sato, Yasuhiko; Wakatani, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Pustovitov, V.D.

    1999-10-01

    Pfirsch-Schlueter (P-S) current is an inherent property of a finite pressure toroidal equilibrium of tokamak and stellarator. However, it was pointed out recently (V.D. Pustovitov, Nuclear Fusion 36 (1996) 583) that the P-S current would be suppressed completely if the external vertical field could be adjusted to satisfy the condition Ω= in an l=3 stellarator. Here Ω= 2 >/B 0 2 -2ε cosθ, l is a pole number, |B tilde| the vacuum helical magnetic field, B 0 the toroidal field, ε the inverse aspect ratio, θ the poloidal angle and denotes the average over the toroidal angle. An example of such a stellarator equilibrium is presented in this paper. For this stellarator equilibrium, behavior of rotational transform and Boozer magnetic spectrum is clarified when the pressure is increased. Both formation of helical magnetic axis and reduction of toroidal curvature are important ingredients to reduce the P-S current. However, the collisionless particle confinement is not improved in this example. (author)

  12. Soap, A Free-code Tool To Study The Impact Of Stellar Activity

    Boisse, Isabelle; Bonfils, X.; Santos, N.

    2011-09-01

    Dark spots and bright plages are present on the surface of all stars, even low-active stars (like the Sun in its low-active phase). Their appearance and disappearance on the stellar photosphere, combined with the stellar rotation, may lead to errors and uncertainties in the characterization of planets both in radial velocimetry and photometry. SOAP is a tool offered to the community (Boisse, Bonfils and Santos, in prep.) that enables to simulate spots and plages on rotating stars and computes their impact on RV and photometric measurements. This talk will discuss the challenges related to the knowledge of stellar activity for the next decade: detect telluric planets in the habitable zone of their stars (from G to M dwarfs), understand the activity in the low-mass end of M dwarf (on which will focus future projects like Elektra, SPIRou or CARMENES), limitation to the sum of different transit observations in order to characterize the atmospheric components (from the ground or with Spitzer, JWST), planets around young stars,... and how this can be simulated with SOAP in order to search for indices and corrections. IB and NCS would like to thank the support by the European Research Council/European Community under the FP7 through a Starting Grant, as well from Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal.

  13. SOAP: A Tool for the Fast Computation of Photometry and Radial Velocity Induced by Stellar Spots

    Boisse, I.; Bonfils, X.; Santos, N. C.; Figueira, P.

    2013-04-01

    Dark spots and bright plages are present on the surface of dwarf stars from spectral types F to M, even in their low-active phase (like the Sun). Their appearance and disappearance on the stellar photosphere, combined with the stellar rotation, may lead to errors and uncertainties in the characterization of planets both in radial velocity (RV) and photometry. Spot Oscillation and Planet (SOAP) is a tool offered to the community that enables to simulate spots and plages on rotating stars and computes their impact on RV and photometric measurements. This tool will help to understand the challenges related to the knowledge of stellar activity for the next decade: detect telluric planets in the habitable zone of their stars (from G to M dwarfs), understand the activity in the low-mass end of M dwarf (on which future projects, like SPIRou or CARMENES, will focus), limitation to the characterization of the exoplanetary atmosphere (from the ground or with Spitzer, JWST), search for planets around young stars. These can be simulated with SOAP in order to search for indices and corrections to the effect of activity.

  14. ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES FOR M DWARFS

    Jenkins, J. S.; Ramsey, L. W.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pavlenko, Y.; Barnes, J. R.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gallardo, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present spectroscopic rotation velocities (v sin i) for 56 M dwarf stars using high-resolution Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph red spectroscopy. In addition, we have also determined photometric effective temperatures, masses, and metallicities ([Fe/H]) for some stars observed here and in the literature where we could acquire accurate parallax measurements and relevant photometry. We have increased the number of known v sin i values for mid M stars by around 80% and can confirm a weakly increasing rotation velocity with decreasing effective temperature. Our sample of v sin is peak at low velocities (∼3 km s -1 ). We find a change in the rotational velocity distribution between early M and late M stars, which is likely due to the changing field topology between partially and fully convective stars. There is also a possible further change in the rotational distribution toward the late M dwarfs where dust begins to play a role in the stellar atmospheres. We also link v sin i to age and show how it can be used to provide mid-M star age limits. When all literature velocities for M dwarfs are added to our sample, there are 198 with v sin i ≤ 10 km s -1 and 124 in the mid-to-late M star regime (M3.0-M9.5) where measuring precision optical radial velocities is difficult. In addition, we also search the spectra for any significant Hα emission or absorption. Forty three percent were found to exhibit such emission and could represent young, active objects with high levels of radial-velocity noise. We acquired two epochs of spectra for the star GJ1253 spread by almost one month and the Hα profile changed from showing no clear signs of emission, to exhibiting a clear emission peak. Four stars in our sample appear to be low-mass binaries (GJ1080, GJ3129, Gl802, and LHS3080), with both GJ3129 and Gl802 exhibiting double Hα emission features. The tables presented here will aid any future M star planet search target selection to extract stars with low v

  15. Indicators of Mass in Spherical Stellar Atmospheres

    Lester, John B.; Dinshaw, Rayomond; Neilson, Hilding R.

    2013-04-01

    Mass is the most important stellar parameter, but it is not directly observable for a single star. Spherical model stellar atmospheres are explicitly characterized by their luminosity ( L⋆), mass ( M⋆), and radius ( R⋆), and observations can now determine directly L⋆ and R⋆. We computed spherical model atmospheres for red giants and for red supergiants holding L⋆ and R⋆ constant at characteristic values for each type of star but varying M⋆, and we searched the predicted flux spectra and surface-brightness distributions for features that changed with mass. For both stellar classes we found similar signatures of the stars’ mass in both the surface-brightness distribution and the flux spectrum. The spectral features have been use previously to determine log 10(g), and now that the luminosity and radius of a non-binary red giant or red supergiant can be observed, spherical model stellar atmospheres can be used to determine a star’s mass from currently achievable spectroscopy. The surface-brightness variations of mass are slightly smaller than can be resolved by current stellar imaging, but they offer the advantage of being less sensitive to the detailed chemical composition of the atmosphere.

  16. Stellarator Coil Design and Plasma Sensitivity

    Ku, Long-Poe; Boozer, Allen H.

    2010-01-01

    The rich information contained in the plasma response to external magnetic perturbations can be used to help design stellarator coils more effectively. We demonstrate the feasibility by first devel oping a simple, direct method to study perturbations in stellarators that do not break stellarator symmetry and periodicity. The method applies a small perturbation to the plasma boundary and evaluates the resulting perturbed free-boundary equilibrium to build up a sensitivity matrix for the important physics attributes of the underlying configuration. Using this sensitivity information, design methods for better stellarator coils are then developed. The procedure and a proof-of-principle application are given that (1) determine the spatial distributions of external normal magnetic field at the location of the unperturbed plasma boundary to which the plasma properties are most sen- sitive, (2) determine the distributions of external normal magnetic field that can be produced most efficiently by distant coils, (3) choose the ratios of the magnitudes of the the efficiently produced magnetic distributions so the sensitive plasma properties can be controlled. Using these methods, sets of modular coils are found for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) that are either smoother or can be located much farther from the plasma boundary than those of the present design.

  17. Development of code PRETOR for stellarator simulation

    Dies, J.; Fontanet, J.; Fontdecaba, J.M.; Castejon, F.; Alejandre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Department de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear (DFEN) of the UPC has some experience in the development of the transport code PRETOR. This code has been validated with shots of DIII-D, JET and TFTR, it has also been used in the simulation of operational scenarios of ITER fast burnt termination. Recently, the association EURATOM-CIEMAT has started the operation of the TJ-II stellarator. Due to the need of validating the results given by others transport codes applied to stellarators and because all of them made some approximations, as a averaging magnitudes in each magnetic surface, it was thought suitable to adapt the PRETOR code to devices without axial symmetry, like stellarators, which is very suitable for the specific needs of the study of TJ-II. Several modifications are required in PRETOR; the main concerns to the models of: magnetic equilibrium, geometry and transport of energy and particles. In order to solve the complex magnetic equilibrium geometry the powerful numerical code VMEC has been used. This code gives the magnetic surface shape as a Fourier series in terms of the harmonics (m,n). Most of the geometric magnitudes are also obtained from the VMEC results file. The energy and particle transport models will be replaced by other phenomenological models that are better adapted to stellarator simulation. Using the proposed models, it is pretended to reproduce experimental data available from present stellarators, given especial attention to the TJ-II of the association EURATOM-CIEMAT. (Author)

  18. ON THE ORIGIN OF STELLAR MASSES

    Krumholz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    It has been a longstanding problem to determine, as far as possible, the characteristic masses of stars in terms of fundamental constants; the almost complete invariance of this mass as a function of the star-forming environment suggests that this should be possible. Here I provide such a calculation. The typical stellar mass is set by the characteristic fragment mass in a star-forming cloud, which depends on the cloud's density and temperature structure. Except in the very early universe, the latter is determined mainly by the radiation released as matter falls onto seed protostars. The energy yield from this process is ultimately set by the properties of deuterium burning in protostellar cores, which determines the stars' radii. I show that it is possible to combine these considerations to compute a characteristic stellar mass almost entirely in terms of fundamental constants, with an extremely weak residual dependence on the interstellar pressure and metallicity. This result not only explains the invariance of stellar masses, it resolves a second mystery: why fragmentation of a cold, low-density interstellar cloud, a process with no obvious dependence on the properties of nuclear reactions, happens to select a stellar mass scale such that stellar cores can ignite hydrogen. Finally, the weak residual dependence on the interstellar pressure and metallicity may explain recent observational hints of a smaller characteristic mass in the high-pressure, high-metallicity cores of giant elliptical galaxies.

  19. Collisionless microinstabilities in stellarators. II. Numerical simulations

    Proll, J. H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Helander, P.

    2013-01-01

    Microinstabilities exhibit a rich variety of behavior in stellarators due to the many degrees of freedom in the magnetic geometry. It has recently been found that certain stellarators (quasi-isodynamic ones with maximum-J geometry) are partly resilient to trapped-particle instabilities, because fast-bouncing particles tend to extract energy from these modes near marginal stability. In reality, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here, the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with the National Compact Stellarator Experiment and the DIII-D tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, ion-temperature-gradient modes, trapped-electron modes, and mixed-type instabilities are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduced growth rates for all simulations that include kinetic electrons, and the latter are indeed found to be stabilizing in the energy budget. These results suggest that imperfectly optimized stellarators can retain most of the stabilizing properties predicted for perfect maximum-J configurations

  20. Review of stellarator research world wide

    Shonet, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The world-wide effort in stellarators has evolved considerably during the past few years. Stellarator facilities are located in the Australia, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. Dimensions of stellarators range from less than 20 centimeters in major radius to more than 2 meters, and magnetic field values between 0.2 Tesla to more than 3.0 Tesla. Stellarators are made in a variety of magnetic configurations with wide ranges of toroidal aspect ratios and methods of generating the stellarator magnetic surfaces. In particular, continuous helical coils, twisted modular coils, or twisted vacuum chambers all provide different means to generate nested toroidal magnetic surfaces without the need for currents flowing in the plasma. The goal of present day experiments is to accumulate a physics data base. This is being done by increasing electron and ion temperatures with non-ohmic heating, by transport and scaling studies considering neoclassical scaling, global scaling, effects of electric fields, the bootstrap current and magnetic islands. Higher betas are being attempted by designing suitable magnetic configurations, pellet injection and/or minimizing transport losses. Plasma-wall interactions and particle control are being examined by divertor, pumped-limiter and carbonization experiments

  1. The Stellar Imager (SI)"Vision Mission"

    Carpenter, Ken; Danchi, W.; Leitner, J.; Liu, A.; Lyon, R.; Mazzuca, L.; Moe, R.; Chenette, D.; Karovska, M.; Allen, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a "Vision" mission in the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) Roadmap, conceived for the purpose of understanding the effects of stellar magnetic fields, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar/stellar magnetic activity and its impact on life in the Universe. The science goals of SI require an ultra-high angular resolution, at ultraviolet wavelengths, on the order of 100 micro-arcsec and thus baselines on the order of 0.5 km. These requirements call for a large, multi-spacecraft (less than 20) imaging interferometer, utilizing precision formation flying in a stable environment, such as in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point. SI's resolution will make it an invaluable resource for many other areas of astrophysics, including studies of AGN s, supernovae, cataclysmic variables, young stellar objects, QSO's, and stellar black holes. ongoing mission concept and technology development studies for SI. These studies are designed to refine the mission requirements for the science goals, define a Design Reference Mission, perform trade studies of selected major technical and architectural issues, improve the existing technology roadmap, and explore the details of deployment and operations, as well as the possible roles of astronauts and/or robots in construction and servicing of the facility.

  2. Geometric phase modulation for stellar interferometry

    Roy, M.; Boschung, B.; Tango, W.J.; Davis, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In a long baseline optical interferometer, the fringe visibility is normally measured by modulation of the optical path difference between the two arms of the instruments. To obtain accurate measurements, the spectral bandwidth must be narrow, limiting the sensitivity of the technique. The application of geometric phase modulation technique to stellar interferometry has been proposed by Tango and Davis. Modulation of the geometric phase has the potential for improving the sensitivity of optical interferometers, and specially the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI), by allowing broad band modulation of the light signals. This is because a modulator that changes the geometric phase of the signal is, in principle, achromatic. Another advantage of using such a phase modulator is that it can be placed in the common path traversed by the two orthogonally polarized beams emerging from the beam combiner in a stellar interferometer. Thus the optical components of the modulator do not have to be interferometric quality and could be relatively easily introduced into SUSI. We have investigated the proposed application in a laboratory-based experiment using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with white-light source. This can be seen as a small model of an amplitude stellar interferometer where the light source takes the place of the distant star and two corner mirrors replaces the entrance pupils of the stellar interferometer

  3. Parameterization of rotational spectra

    Zhou Chunmei; Liu Tong

    1992-01-01

    The rotational spectra of the strongly deformed nuclei with low rotational frequencies and weak band mixture are analyzed. The strongly deformed nuclei are commonly encountered in the rare-earth region (e. g., 150 220). A lot of rotational band knowledge are presented

  4. Rotating reactors : a review

    Visscher, F.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This review-perspective paper describes the current state-of-the-art in the field of rotating reactors. The paper has a focus on rotating reactor technology with applications at lab scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. Rotating reactors are classified and discussed according to their geometry:

  5. Stellar Wakes from Dark Matter Subhalos.

    Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Safdi, Benjamin R; Wu, Chih-Liang

    2018-05-25

    We propose a novel method utilizing stellar kinematic data to detect low-mass substructure in the Milky Way's dark matter halo. By probing characteristic wakes that a passing dark matter subhalo leaves in the phase-space distribution of ambient halo stars, we estimate sensitivities down to subhalo masses of ∼10^{7}  M_{⊙} or below. The detection of such subhalos would have implications for dark matter and cosmological models that predict modifications to the halo-mass function at low halo masses. We develop an analytic formalism for describing the perturbed stellar phase-space distributions, and we demonstrate through idealized simulations the ability to detect subhalos using the phase-space model and a likelihood framework. Our method complements existing methods for low-mass subhalo searches, such as searches for gaps in stellar streams, in that we can localize the positions and velocities of the subhalos today.

  6. Stellar Wakes from Dark Matter Subhalos

    Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Wu, Chih-Liang

    2018-05-01

    We propose a novel method utilizing stellar kinematic data to detect low-mass substructure in the Milky Way's dark matter halo. By probing characteristic wakes that a passing dark matter subhalo leaves in the phase-space distribution of ambient halo stars, we estimate sensitivities down to subhalo masses of ˜107 M⊙ or below. The detection of such subhalos would have implications for dark matter and cosmological models that predict modifications to the halo-mass function at low halo masses. We develop an analytic formalism for describing the perturbed stellar phase-space distributions, and we demonstrate through idealized simulations the ability to detect subhalos using the phase-space model and a likelihood framework. Our method complements existing methods for low-mass subhalo searches, such as searches for gaps in stellar streams, in that we can localize the positions and velocities of the subhalos today.

  7. Effect of finite β on stellarator transport

    Mynick, H.E.

    1984-04-01

    A theory of the modification of stellarator transport due to the presence of finite plasma pressure is developed, and applied to a range of stellarator configurations. For many configurations of interest, plasma transport can change by more than an order of magnitude in the progression from zero pressure to the equilibrium β limit of the device. Thus, a stellarator with transport-optimized vacuum fields can have poor confinement at the desired operating β. Without an external compensating field, increasing β tends to degrade confinement, unless the initial field structure is very carefully chosen. The theory permits one to correctly determine this vacuum structure, in terms of the desired structure of the field at a prescribed operating β. With a compensating external field, the deleterious effect of finite β on transport can be partially eliminated

  8. Recent advances in modeling stellar interiors (u)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stellar interior modeling are being driven by new data from large-scale surveys and high-precision photometric and spectroscopic observations. Here we focus on single stars in normal evolutionary phases; we will not discuss the many advances in modeling star formation, interacting binaries, supernovae, or neutron stars. We review briefly: (1) updates to input physics of stellar models; (2) progress in two and three-dimensional evolution and hydrodynamic models; (3) insights from oscillation data used to infer stellar interior structure and validate model predictions (asteroseismology). We close by highlighting a few outstanding problems, e.g., the driving mechanisms for hybrid {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct star pulsations, the cause of giant eruptions seen in luminous blue variables such as {eta} Car and P Cyg, and the solar abundance problem.

  9. Electron Capture Cross Sections for Stellar Nucleosynthesis

    P. G. Giannaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the abovementioned e--capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the 66Zn isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  10. Equilibrium reconstruction in stellarators: V3FIT

    Hanson, J.D.; Knowlton, S.F. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Hirshman, S.P.; Lazarus, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lao, L.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The first section describes a general response function formalism for computing stellarator magnetic diagnostic signals, which is the first step in developing a reconstruction capability. The approach parallels that used in the EFIT two-dimensional (2-D) equilibrium reconstruction code. The second section describes the two codes we have written, V3RFUN and V3POST. V3RFUN computes the response functions for a specified magnetic diagnostic coil, and V3POST uses the response functions calculated by V3RFUN, along with the plasma current information supplied by the equilibrium code VMEC, to compute the expected magnetic diagnostic signals. These two codes are currently being used to design magnetic diagnostic for the NCSX stellarator (at PPPL) and the CTH toroidal hybrid stellarator (at Auburn University). The last section of the paper describes plans for the V3FIT code. (orig.)

  11. The low-luminosity stellar mass function

    Kroupa, Pavel; Tout, C.A.; Gilmore, Gerard

    1990-01-01

    The stellar mass function for low-mass stars is constrained using the stellar luminosity function and the slope of the mass-luminosity relation. We investigate the range of mass functions for stars with absolute visual magnitude fainter than M V ≅ +5 which are consistent with both the local luminosity function and the rather poorly determined mass-absolute visual magnitude relation. Points of inflexion in the mass-luminosity relation exist because of the effects of H - , H 2 and of other molecules on the opacity and equation of state. The first two of these correspond to absolute magnitudes M V ≅ +7 and M V ≅ +12, respectively, at which structure is evident in the stellar luminosity function (a flattening and a maximum, respectively). Combining the mass-luminosity relation which shows these inflexion points with a peaked luminosity function, we test smooth mass functions in the mass range 0.9-0.1 the solar mass. (author)

  12. Young and Exotic Stellar Zoo

    2005-03-01

    Summary Super star clusters are groups of hundreds of thousands of very young stars packed into an unbelievably small volume. They represent the most extreme environments in which stars and planets can form. Until now, super star clusters were only known to exist very far away, mostly in pairs or groups of interacting galaxies. Now, however, a team of European astronomers [1] have used ESO's telescopes to uncover such a monster object within our own Galaxy, the Milky Way, almost, but not quite, in our own backyard! The newly found massive structure is hidden behind a large cloud of dust and gas and this is why it took so long to unveil its true nature. It is known as "Westerlund 1" and is a thousand times closer than any other super star cluster known so far. It is close enough that astronomers may now probe its structure in some detail. Westerlund 1 contains hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two-thousand times larger than the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn)! Indeed, if the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon. Westerlund 1 is a most unique natural laboratory for the study of extreme stellar physics, helping astronomers to find out how the most massive stars in our Galaxy live and die. From their observations, the astronomers conclude that this extreme cluster most probably contains no less than 100,000 times the mass of the Sun, and all of its stars are located within a region less than 6 light-years across. Westerlund 1 thus appears to be the most massive compact young cluster yet identified in the Milky Way Galaxy. PR Photo 09a/05: The Super Star Cluster Westerlund 1 (2.2m MPG/ESO + WFI) PR Photo 09b/05: Properties of Young Massive Clusters Super Star Clusters Stars are generally born in small groups, mostly in so-called "open clusters" that typically contain a few hundred stars. From a wide range of

  13. The Stellar IMF from Isothermal MHD Turbulence

    Haugbølle, Troels; Padoan, Paolo; Nordlund, Åke

    2018-02-01

    We address the turbulent fragmentation scenario for the origin of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), using a large set of numerical simulations of randomly driven supersonic MHD turbulence. The turbulent fragmentation model successfully predicts the main features of the observed stellar IMF assuming an isothermal equation of state without any stellar feedback. As a test of the model, we focus on the case of a magnetized isothermal gas, neglecting stellar feedback, while pursuing a large dynamic range in both space and timescales covering the full spectrum of stellar masses from brown dwarfs to massive stars. Our simulations represent a generic 4 pc region within a typical Galactic molecular cloud, with a mass of 3000 M ⊙ and an rms velocity 10 times the isothermal sound speed and 5 times the average Alfvén velocity, in agreement with observations. We achieve a maximum resolution of 50 au and a maximum duration of star formation of 4.0 Myr, forming up to a thousand sink particles whose mass distribution closely matches the observed stellar IMF. A large set of medium-size simulations is used to test the sink particle algorithm, while larger simulations are used to test the numerical convergence of the IMF and the dependence of the IMF turnover on physical parameters predicted by the turbulent fragmentation model. We find a clear trend toward numerical convergence and strong support for the model predictions, including the initial time evolution of the IMF. We conclude that the physics of isothermal MHD turbulence is sufficient to explain the origin of the IMF.

  14. IN-SYNC I: Homogeneous stellar parameters from high-resolution apogee spectra for thousands of pre-main sequence stars

    Cottaar, Michiel; Meyer, Michael R.; Covey, Kevin R.; Nidever, David L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Da Rio, Nicola; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Skrutskie, Michael; Majewski, Steven R.; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Over two years, 8859 high-resolution H-band spectra of 3493 young (1-10 Myr) stars were gathered by the multi-object spectrograph of the APOGEE project as part of the IN-SYNC ancillary program of the SDSS-III survey. Here we present the forward modeling approach used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and H-band veiling from these near-infrared spectra. We discuss in detail the statistical and systematic uncertainties in these stellar parameters. In addition, we present accurate extinctions by measuring the E(J – H) of these young stars with respect to the single-star photometric locus in the Pleiades. Finally, we identify an intrinsic stellar radius spread of about 25% for late-type stars in IC 348 using three (nearly) independent measures of stellar radius, namely, the extinction-corrected J-band magnitude, the surface gravity, and the Rsin i from the rotational velocities and literature rotation periods. We exclude that this spread is caused by uncertainties in the stellar parameters by showing that the three estimators of stellar radius are correlated, so that brighter stars tend to have lower surface gravities and larger Rsin i than fainter stars at the same effective temperature. Tables providing the spectral and photometric parameters for the Pleiades and IC 348 have been provided online.

  15. Exoplanet detection. Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581.

    Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Endl, Michael; Roy, Arpita

    2014-07-25

    The M dwarf star Gliese 581 is believed to host four planets, including one (GJ 581d) near the habitable zone that could possibly support liquid water on its surface if it is a rocky planet. The detection of another habitable-zone planet--GJ 581g--is disputed, as its significance depends on the eccentricity assumed for d. Analyzing stellar activity using the Hα line, we measure a stellar rotation period of 130 ± 2 days and a correlation for Hα modulation with radial velocity. Correcting for activity greatly diminishes the signal of GJ 581d (to 1.5 standard deviations) while significantly boosting the signals of the other known super-Earth planets. GJ 581d does not exist, but is an artifact of stellar activity which, when incompletely corrected, causes the false detection of planet g. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. ROTATIONAL SYNCHRONIZATION MAY ENHANCE HABITABILITY FOR CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: KEPLER BINARY CASE STUDIES

    Mason, Paul A. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A. [FACom-Instituto de Fisica-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellin (Colombia); Clark, Joni M. [Department of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, New Mexico State University-DACC, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    We report a mechanism capable of reducing (or increasing) stellar activity in binary stars, thereby potentially enhancing (or destroying) circumbinary habitability. In single stars, stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres causes mass-loss, which is especially detrimental for late-type stars, because habitable zones are very close and activity is long lasting. In binaries, tidal rotational breaking reduces magnetic activity, thus reducing harmful levels of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and stellar mass-loss that are able to erode planetary atmospheres. We study this mechanism for all confirmed circumbinary (p-type) planets. We find that main sequence twins provide minimal flux variation and in some cases improved environments if the stars rotationally synchronize within the first Gyr. Solar-like twins, like Kepler 34 and Kepler 35, provide low habitable zone XUV fluxes and stellar wind pressures. These wide, moist, habitable zones may potentially support multiple habitable planets. Solar-type stars with lower mass companions, like Kepler 47, allow for protected planets over a wide range of secondary masses and binary periods. Kepler 38 and related binaries are marginal cases. Kepler 64 and analogs have dramatically reduced stellar aggression due to synchronization of the primary, but are limited by the short lifetime. Kepler 16 appears to be inhospitable to planets due to extreme XUV flux. These results have important implications for estimates of the number of stellar systems containing habitable planets in the Galaxy and allow for the selection of binaries suitable for follow-up searches for habitable planets.

  17. ROTATIONAL SYNCHRONIZATION MAY ENHANCE HABITABILITY FOR CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: KEPLER BINARY CASE STUDIES

    Mason, Paul A.; Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.; Clark, Joni M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a mechanism capable of reducing (or increasing) stellar activity in binary stars, thereby potentially enhancing (or destroying) circumbinary habitability. In single stars, stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres causes mass-loss, which is especially detrimental for late-type stars, because habitable zones are very close and activity is long lasting. In binaries, tidal rotational breaking reduces magnetic activity, thus reducing harmful levels of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and stellar mass-loss that are able to erode planetary atmospheres. We study this mechanism for all confirmed circumbinary (p-type) planets. We find that main sequence twins provide minimal flux variation and in some cases improved environments if the stars rotationally synchronize within the first Gyr. Solar-like twins, like Kepler 34 and Kepler 35, provide low habitable zone XUV fluxes and stellar wind pressures. These wide, moist, habitable zones may potentially support multiple habitable planets. Solar-type stars with lower mass companions, like Kepler 47, allow for protected planets over a wide range of secondary masses and binary periods. Kepler 38 and related binaries are marginal cases. Kepler 64 and analogs have dramatically reduced stellar aggression due to synchronization of the primary, but are limited by the short lifetime. Kepler 16 appears to be inhospitable to planets due to extreme XUV flux. These results have important implications for estimates of the number of stellar systems containing habitable planets in the Galaxy and allow for the selection of binaries suitable for follow-up searches for habitable planets

  18. Near-Field Cosmology with Resolved Stellar Populations Around Local Volume LMC Stellar-Mass Galaxies

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sand, David J.; Willman, Beth; Brodie, Jean P.; Crnojevic, Denija; Forbes, Duncan; Hargis, Jonathan R.; Peter, Annika; Pucha, Ragadeepika; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Spekkens, Kristine; Strader, Jay

    2018-06-01

    We discuss our ongoing observational program to comprehensively map the entire virial volumes of roughly LMC stellar mass galaxies at distances of ~2-4 Mpc. The MADCASH (Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos) survey will deliver the first census of the dwarf satellite populations and stellar halo properties within LMC-like environments in the Local Volume. Our results will inform our understanding of the recent DES discoveries of dwarf satellites tentatively affiliated with the LMC/SMC system. This program has already yielded the discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of an LMC stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group, based on deep Subaru+HyperSuprimeCam imaging reaching ~2 magnitudes below its TRGB, and at least two additional candidate satellites. We will summarize the survey results and status to date, highlighting some challenges encountered and lessons learned as we process the data for this program through a prototype LSST pipeline. Our program will examine whether LMC stellar mass dwarfs have extended stellar halos, allowing us to assess the relative contributions of in-situ stars vs. merger debris to their stellar populations and halo density profiles. We outline the constraints on galaxy formation models that will be provided by our observations of low-mass galaxy halos and their satellites.

  19. Optimisation of stellarator systems: Possible ways

    Cooper, W.A.; Isaev, M.; Leneva, A.E.; Mikhailov, M.; Shafranov, V.D.; Subbotin, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of our search for advanced helical (stellarator) systems with a small number of field periods over the last five years are presented. The comparison of stellarator systems with toroidal (helical or axial) and poloidal directions of the contours with B = constant on the magnetic surface as well as systems with Helias and Heliac-like orientation of the magnetic surfaces cross-sections with respect to the principal normal to the magnetic axis is undertaken. Particular attention is paid to some attractive features of the systems with constant B-lines in the poloidal direction. (author)

  20. Optimisation of stellarator systems: Possible ways

    Cooper, W.A.; Isaev, M.Yu.; Leneva, A.E.; Mikhailov, M.I.; Sharfranov, V.D.; Subbotin, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of our search for advanced helical (stellarator) systems with a small number of field periods over the last five years are presented. The comparison of stellarator systems with toroidal (helical or axial) and poloidal directions of the contours with B = constant on the magnetic surface as well as systems with Helias and Heliac-like orientation of the magnetic surfaces cross-sections with respect to the principal normal to the magnetic axis is undertaken. Particular attention is paid to some attractive features of the systems with constant B-lines in the poloidal direction. (author)

  1. 3D radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres

    Carlsson, M

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres is reviewed with special emphasis on the atmospheres of cool stars and applications. A short review of methods in 3D radiative transfer shows that mature methods exist, both for taking into account radiation as an energy transport mechanism in 3D (magneto-) hydrodynamical simulations of stellar atmospheres and for the diagnostic problem of calculating the emergent spectrum in more detail from such models, both assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and in non-LTE. Such methods have been implemented in several codes, and examples of applications are given.

  2. Stellar compass for the Clementine Mission

    Wilson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    A CCD sensor with 42 x 28 degrees FOV and 576 x 384 pixels was built by the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) in the Physics Department at LLNL. That sensor, called the StarTracker camera, is used on the Clementine Lunar Mapping mission between January and May, 1994. Together with the Stellar Compass software, the StarTracker camera provided a way of identifying its orientation to within about 150 microradians in camera body pitch and yaw. This presentation will be an overview of basically how the Stellar Compass software works, along with showing some of its performance results.

  3. Overdense Plasma Operation in the WEGA Stellarator

    Otte, M.; Laqua, H.P.; Marsen, S.; Podoba, Y.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Stange, T.; Urban, Jakub; Wagner, F.; Zhang, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 8 (2010), s. 785-789 ISSN 0863-1042. [International Stellarator/Heliotron Workshop/17th./. Princeton, 12.10.2009-16.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0419; GA MŠk 7G09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Stellarator * Bernstein waves * overdense plasma * supra -thermal electrons Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2010 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctpp.200900053

  4. 176Lu: Cosmic clock or stellar thermometer

    Ward, R.A.; Beer, H.; Kaeppeler, F.; Wisshak, K.

    1980-12-01

    We quantitatively examine the various experimental and theoretical aspects of the stellar synthesis of the long-lived ground state of 176 Lu (3.6 x 10 10 y). We discuss the various regimes of stellar temperature and free-neutron density in which either: (i) the internal electromagnetic couplings between 176 Lusup(o) and 176 Lusup(m) (3.68 hours) are sufficiently slow that they may be treated as separate nuclei, or (ii) the internal couplings are rapidly able to establish thermal equilibrium between 176 Lusup(o) and 176 Lusup(m). (orig.)

  5. Marginal Stability Boundaries for Infinite-n Ballooning Modes in a Quasi-axisymmetric Stellarator

    Hudson, S.R.; Hegna, C.C.

    2003-01-01

    A method for computing the ideal-MHD stability boundaries in three-dimensional equilibria is employed. Following Hegna and Nakajima [Phys. Plasmas 5 (May 1998) 1336], a two-dimensional family of equilibria are constructed by perturbing the pressure and rotational-transform profiles in the vicinity of a flux surface for a given stellarator equilibrium. The perturbations are constrained to preserve the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium condition. For each perturbed equilibrium, the infinite-n ballooning stability is calculated. Marginal stability diagrams are thus constructed that are analogous to (s; a) diagrams for axisymmetric configurations. A quasi-axisymmetric stellarator is considered. Calculations of stability boundaries generally show regions of instability can occur for either sign of the average magnetic shear. Additionally, regions of second-stability are present

  6. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  7. Determination of the axial rotation rate using apsidal motion for early-type eclipsing binaries

    Khaliullin, Kh. F.; Khaliullina, A. I.

    2007-11-01

    Because the modern theory of stellar structure and evolution has a sound observational basis, we can consider that the apsidal parameters k2 computed in terms of this theory correctly reflect the radial density distribution in stars of different masses and spectral types. This allows us to address the problem of apsidal motion in close binary systems in a new way. Unlike the traditional approach, in this paper we use the observed apsidal periods Uobs to estimate the angular axial velocities of components, ωr, at fixed model values of k2. We use this approach to analyse the observational data for 28 eclipsing systems with known Uobs and early-type primaries (M >= 1.6 Msolar or Te >= 6000 K). We measure the age of the system in units of the synchronization time, t/tsyn. Our analysis yielded the following results. (i) There is a clear correlation between ωr/ωsyn and t/tsyn: the younger a star, the higher the angular velocity of its axial rotation in units of ωsyn, the angular velocity at pseudo-synchronization. This correlation is more significant and obvious if the synchronization time, tsyn, is computed in terms of the Zahn theory. (ii) This observational fact implies that the synchronization of early-type components in close binary systems continues on the main sequence. The synchronization times for the inner layers of the components (i.e. those that are responsible for apsidal motion) are about 1.6 and 3.1 dex longer than those predicted by the theories of Zahn and Tassoul, respectively. The average initial angular velocities (for the zero-age main sequence) are equal to ω0/ωsyn ~ 2.0. The dependence of the parameter E2 on stellar mass probably needs to be refined in the Zahn theory. (iii) Some components of the eclipsing systems of the sample studied show radially differential axial rotation. This is consistent with the Zahn theory, which predicts that the synchronization starts at the surface, where radiative damping of dynamical tides occurs, and

  8. On Averaging Rotations

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belo...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion......In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  9. SECOND-GENERATION STELLAR DISKS IN DENSE STAR CLUSTERS AND CLUSTER ELLIPTICITIES

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) and nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are typically composed of several stellar populations, characterized by different chemical compositions. Different populations show different ages in NSCs, but not necessarily in GCs. The youngest populations in NSCs appear to reside in disk-like structures as observed in our Galaxy and in M31. Gas infall followed by formation of second-generation (SG) stars in GCs may similarly form disk-like structures in the clusters nuclei. Here we explore this possibility and follow the long-term evolution of stellar disks embedded in GCs, and study their effects on the evolution of the clusters. We study disks with different masses by means of detailed N-body simulations and explore their morphological and kinematic signatures on the GC structures. We find that as a SG disk relaxes, the old, first-generation stellar population flattens and becomes more radially anisotropic, making the GC structure become more elliptical. The SG stellar population is characterized by a lower velocity dispersion and a higher rotational velocity compared with the primordial older population. The strength of these kinematic signatures depends both on the relaxation time of the system and on the fractional mass of the SG disk. We therefore conclude that SG populations formed in flattened configurations will give rise to two systematic trends: (1) a positive correlation between GC ellipticity and fraction of SG population and (2) a positive correlation between GC relaxation time and ellipticity. Therefore, GC ellipticities and rotation could be related to the formation of SG stars and their initial configuration.

  10. Reliability of stellar inclination estimated from asteroseismology: analytical criteria, mock simulations and Kepler data analysis

    Kamiaka, Shoya; Benomar, Othman; Suto, Yasushi

    2018-05-01

    Advances in asteroseismology of solar-like stars, now provide a unique method to estimate the stellar inclination i⋆. This enables to evaluate the spin-orbit angle of transiting planetary systems, in a complementary fashion to the Rossiter-McLaughlineffect, a well-established method to estimate the projected spin-orbit angle λ. Although the asteroseismic method has been broadly applied to the Kepler data, its reliability has yet to be assessed intensively. In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of i⋆ from asteroseismology of solar-like stars using 3000 simulated power spectra. We find that the low signal-to-noise ratio of the power spectra induces a systematic under-estimate (over-estimate) bias for stars with high (low) inclinations. We derive analytical criteria for the reliable asteroseismic estimate, which indicates that reliable measurements are possible in the range of 20° ≲ i⋆ ≲ 80° only for stars with high signal-to-noise ratio. We also analyse and measure the stellar inclination of 94 Kepler main-sequence solar-like stars, among which 33 are planetary hosts. According to our reliability criteria, a third of them (9 with planets, 22 without) have accurate stellar inclination. Comparison of our asteroseismic estimate of vsin i⋆ against spectroscopic measurements indicates that the latter suffers from a large uncertainty possibly due to the modeling of macro-turbulence, especially for stars with projected rotation speed vsin i⋆ ≲ 5km/s. This reinforces earlier claims, and the stellar inclination estimated from the combination of measurements from spectroscopy and photometric variation for slowly rotating stars needs to be interpreted with caution.

  11. Rotation and magnetism in intermediate-mass stars

    Quentin, Léo G.; Tout, Christopher A.

    2018-06-01

    Rotation and magnetism are increasingly recognized as important phenomena in stellar evolution. Surface magnetic fields from a few to 20 000 G have been observed and models have suggested that magnetohydrodynamic transport of angular momentum and chemical composition could explain the peculiar composition of some stars. Stellar remnants such as white dwarfs have been observed with fields from a few to more than 109 G. We investigate the origin of and the evolution, on thermal and nuclear rather than dynamical time-scales, of an averaged large-scale magnetic field throughout a star's life and its coupling to stellar rotation. Large-scale magnetic fields sustained until late stages of stellar evolution with conservation of magnetic flux could explain the very high fields observed in white dwarfs. We include these effects in the Cambridge stellar evolution code using three time-dependant advection-diffusion equations coupled to the structural and composition equations of stars to model the evolution of angular momentum and the two components of the magnetic field. We present the evolution in various cases for a 3 M_{⊙} star from the beginning to the late stages of its life. Our particular model assumes that turbulent motions, including convection, favour small-scale field at the expense of large-scale field. As a result, the large-scale field concentrates in radiative zones of the star and so is exchanged between the core and the envelope of the star as it evolves. The field is sustained until the end of the asymptotic giant branch, when it concentrates in the degenerate core.

  12. Ambitious Survey Spots Stellar Nurseries

    2010-08-01

    -dimensional geometry of the Magellanic system. Chris Evans from the VMC team adds: "The VISTA images will allow us to extend our studies beyond the inner regions of the Tarantula into the multitude of smaller stellar nurseries nearby, which also harbour a rich population of young and massive stars. Armed with the new, exquisite infrared images, we will be able to probe the cocoons in which massive stars are still forming today, while also looking at their interaction with older stars in the wider region." The wide-field image shows a host of different objects. The bright area above the centre is the Tarantula Nebula itself, with the RMC 136 cluster of massive stars in its core. To the left is the NGC 2100 star cluster. To the right is the tiny remnant of the supernova SN1987A (eso1032). Below the centre are a series of star-forming regions including NGC 2080 - nicknamed the "Ghost Head Nebula" - and the NGC 2083 star cluster. The VISTA Magellanic Cloud Survey is one of six huge near-infrared surveys of the southern sky that will take up most of the first five years of operations of VISTA. Notes [1] VISTA ― the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy ― is the newest telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile. VISTA is a survey telescope working at near-infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest survey telescope. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. The telescope is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 m across. In photographic terms it can be thought of as a 67-megapixel digital camera with a 13 000 mm f/3.25 mirror lens. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries

  13. Nonlinear calculation of the M=1 internal kink instability in current carrying stellarators

    Wakatani, M.

    1978-02-01

    Nonlinear properties of the m = 1 internal kink mode are shown in a low β current carrying stellarator. The effects of the external helical magnetic fields are considered through a rotational transform and the magnetic surface is assumed to be circular. Magnetic surfaces inside the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 surface shift and deform non-circularly, while magnetic surfaces outside the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 are not disturbed, where iota sub(h) is a rotational transform due to helical magnetic fields and iota sub(σ) is due to a plasma current. Many higher harmonics are excited after the fundamental mode saturates. When the external helical magnetic fields are lowered, the m = 1 tearing mode similar to that in a low β tokamak grows and magnetic islands appear near the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 surface. For adequate helical magnetic fields, the current carrying stellarator becomes stable against both the m = 1 internal kink mode and the m = 1 tearing mode, without lowering the rotational transform. (auth.)

  14. SDSS-IV MaNGA: global stellar population and gradients for about 2000 early-type and spiral galaxies on the mass-size plane

    Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Ge, Junqiang; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Mo, H. J.; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Brownstein, Joel R.; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Law, David R.; Drory, Niv

    2018-05-01

    We perform full spectrum fitting stellar population analysis and Jeans Anisotropic modelling of the stellar kinematics for about 2000 early-type galaxies (ETGs) and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR14 sample. Galaxies with different morphologies are found to be located on a remarkably tight mass plane which is close to the prediction of the virial theorem, extending previous results for ETGs. By examining an inclined projection (`the mass-size' plane), we find that spiral and early-type galaxies occupy different regions on the plane, and their stellar population properties (i.e. age, metallicity, and stellar mass-to-light ratio) vary systematically along roughly the direction of velocity dispersion, which is a proxy for the bulge fraction. Galaxies with higher velocity dispersions have typically older ages, larger stellar mass-to-light ratios and are more metal rich, which indicates that galaxies increase their bulge fractions as their stellar populations age and become enriched chemically. The age and stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients for low-mass galaxies in our sample tend to be positive (centre Spiral galaxies with large mass and size have the steepest gradients, while the most massive ETGs, especially above the critical mass Mcrit ≳ 2 × 1011 M⊙, where slow rotator ETGs start dominating, have much flatter gradients. This may be due to differences in their evolution histories, e.g. mergers.

  15. The “Building Blocks” of Stellar Halos

    Kyle A. Oman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The stellar halos of galaxies encode their accretion histories. In particular, the median metallicity of a halo is determined primarily by the mass of the most massive accreted object. We use hydrodynamical cosmological simulations from the apostle project to study the connection between the stellar mass, the metallicity distribution, and the stellar age distribution of a halo and the identity of its most massive progenitor. We find that the stellar populations in an accreted halo typically resemble the old stellar populations in a present-day dwarf galaxy with a stellar mass ∼0.2–0.5 dex greater than that of the stellar halo. This suggests that had they not been accreted, the primary progenitors of stellar halos would have evolved to resemble typical nearby dwarf irregulars.

  16. Deriving stellar parameters with the SME software package

    Piskunov, N.

    2017-09-01

    Photometry and spectroscopy are complementary tools for deriving accurate stellar parameters. Here I present one of the popular packages for stellar spectroscopy called SME with the emphasis on the latest developments and error assessment for the derived parameters.

  17. Stellar chemical signatures and hierarchical galaxy formation

    Venn, KA; Irwin, M; Shetrone, MD; Tout, CA; Hill, [No Value; Tolstoy, E

    To compare the chemistries of stars in the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxies with stars in the Galaxy, we have compiled a large sample of Galactic stellar abundances from the literature. When kinematic information is available, we have assigned the stars to standard Galactic

  18. Equilibrium 𝛽-limits in classical stellarators

    Loizu, J.; Hudson, S. R.; Nührenberg, C.; Geiger, J.; Helander, P.

    2017-12-01

    A numerical investigation is carried out to understand the equilibrium -limit in a classical stellarator. The stepped-pressure equilibrium code (Hudson et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 19 (11), 2012) is used in order to assess whether or not magnetic islands and stochastic field-lines can emerge at high . Two modes of operation are considered: a zero-net-current stellarator and a fixed-iota stellarator. Despite the fact that relaxation is allowed (Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 58 (3), 1986, pp. 741-763), the former is shown to maintain good flux surfaces up to the equilibrium -limit predicted by ideal-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), above which a separatrix forms. The latter, which has no ideal equilibrium -limit, is shown to develop regions of magnetic islands and chaos at sufficiently high , thereby providing a `non-ideal -limit'. Perhaps surprisingly, however, the value of at which the Shafranov shift of the axis reaches a fraction of the minor radius follows in all cases the scaling laws predicted by ideal-MHD. We compare our results to the High-Beta-Stellarator theory of Freidberg (Ideal MHD, 2014, Cambridge University Press) and derive a new prediction for the non-ideal equilibrium -limit above which chaos emerges.

  19. Stellar Sources of Gamma-ray Bursts

    Luchkov, B. I.

    2011-01-01

    Correlation analysis of Swift gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby star locations (catalog Gliese) reveals 4 coincidences with good angular accuracy. The random probability is 4\\times 10^{-5}, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. Some additional search of stellar gamma-ray bursts is discussed.

  20. Benchmarking the Multidimensional Stellar Implicit Code MUSIC

    Goffrey, T.; Pratt, J.; Viallet, M.; Baraffe, I.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Folini, D.; Geroux, C.; Constantino, T.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of a numerical benchmark study for the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC) based on widely applicable two- and three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics problems relevant to stellar interiors. MUSIC is an implicit large eddy simulation code that uses implicit time integration, implemented as a Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method. A physics based preconditioning technique which can be adjusted to target varying physics is used to improve the performance of the solver. The problems used for this benchmark study include the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and the decay of the Taylor-Green vortex. Additionally we show a test of hydrostatic equilibrium, in a stellar environment which is dominated by radiative effects. In this setting the flexibility of the preconditioning technique is demonstrated. This work aims to bridge the gap between the hydrodynamic test problems typically used during development of numerical methods and the complex flows of stellar interiors. A series of multidimensional tests were performed and analysed. Each of these test cases was analysed with a simple, scalar diagnostic, with the aim of enabling direct code comparisons. As the tests performed do not have analytic solutions, we verify MUSIC by comparing it to established codes including ATHENA and the PENCIL code. MUSIC is able to both reproduce behaviour from established and widely-used codes as well as results expected from theoretical predictions. This benchmarking study concludes a series of papers describing the development of the MUSIC code and provides confidence in future applications.

  1. Microlensing and the physics of stellar atmospheres

    Sackett, PD; Menzies, JW; Sackett, PD

    2001-01-01

    The simple physics of microlensing provides a well understood tool with which to probe the atmospheres of distant stars in the Galaxy and Local Group with high magnification and resolution. Recent results in measuring stellar surface structure through broad band photometry and spectroscopy of high

  2. Evolution and seismic tools for stellar astrophysics

    Monteiro, Mario JPFG

    2008-01-01

    A collection of articles published by the journal "Astrophysics and Space Science, Volume 316, Number 1-4", August 2008. This work covers 10 evolution codes and 9 oscillation codes. It is suitable for researchers and research students working on the modeling of stars and on the implementation of seismic test of stellar models.

  3. STELLAR TRANSITS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Béky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 10 6 solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or ∼10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

  4. Robust Modeling of Stellar Triples in PHOEBE

    Conroy, Kyle E.; Prsa, Andrej; Horvat, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-01-01

    The number of known mutually-eclipsing stellar triple and multiple systems has increased greatly during the Kepler era. These systems provide significant opportunities to both determine fundamental stellar parameters of benchmark systems to unprecedented precision as well as to study the dynamical interaction and formation mechanisms of stellar and planetary systems. Modeling these systems to their full potential, however, has not been feasible until recently. Most existing available codes are restricted to the two-body binary case and those that do provide N-body support for more components make sacrifices in precision by assuming no stellar surface distortion. We have completely redesigned and rewritten the PHOEBE binary modeling code to incorporate support for triple and higher-order systems while also robustly modeling data with Kepler precision. Here we present our approach, demonstrate several test cases based on real data, and discuss the current status of PHOEBE's support for modeling these types of systems. PHOEBE is funded in part by NSF grant #1517474.

  5. On the collapse of iron stellar cores

    Barkat, Z.; Rakavy, G.; Reiss, Y.; Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The collapse of iron stellar cores is investigated to see whether the outward shock produced by the bounce at neutron star density is sufficient to burn appreciable amounts of the envelope around the iron core. Several models were tried, and in all cases no appreciable burn took place; hence no explosion results from the collapse of these models

  6. Modular Stellarator Reactor conceptual design study

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment

  7. Summary of the Advanced Stellar Compass

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1997-01-01

    The current version of the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) is an improved implementation of the instrument developed for the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite Ørsted. The Ørsted version was successfully tested in space on the NASA sounding rocket "Thunderstorm III", that was launched September 2...

  8. Neutrino confinement in collapsing stellar cores

    Chung, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Neutrino confinement is expected to occur in the core of highly evolved stars, leading to the formation of a degenerate neutrino gas. The main neutrino sources are briefly reviewed and the neutrino processes relevant to the neutrino opacity in the stellar matter are discussed. Implications for the equation of state of neutrino-trapped matter are examined. (author) [pt

  9. Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History -- SMASH

    Nidever, David; Olsen, Knut; Besla, Gurtina; Gruendl, Robert; Saha, Abhijit; Gallart, Carme; Olszewski, Edward W.; Munoz, Ricardo; Monelli, Matteo; Kunder, Andrea; Kaleida, Catherine; Walker, Alistair; Stringfellow, Guy; Zaritsky, Dennis; van der Marel, Roeland; Blum, Robert; Vivas, Kathy; Chu, You-Hua; Martin, Nicolas; Conn, Blair; Noel, Noelia; Majewski, Steven; Jin, Shoko; Kim, Hwihyun; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; Bell, Eric; Monachesi, Antonela; de Boer, Thomas

    Over the last several years, various discoveries have drastically altered our view of the iconic Magellanic Clouds (MCs), the nearest interacting galaxy system. The best evidence is now that they are on first infall into the Milky Way, that their stellar populations extend much further than

  10. The evolution of stellar exponential discs

    Ferguson, AMN; Clarke, CJ

    2001-01-01

    Models of disc galaxies which invoke viscosity-driven radial flows have long been known to provide a natural explanation for the origin of stellar exponential discs, under the assumption that the star formation and viscous time-scales are comparable. We present models which invoke simultaneous star

  11. Modular stellarator reactor conceptual design study

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment

  12. The Space Stellar Photometry Mission COROT: Asteroseismology ...

    tribpo

    detect giant extra solar planets (detectable by spectroscopy from the ground) and determine their albedo. As COROT is devoted to stellar photometry, aiming at both a high precision and a long observation time, the search for exoplanets by the transit method can easily be integrated in the payload and in the mission profile.

  13. Teaching stellar interferometry with polymer optical fibers

    Illarramendi, M. A.; Arregui, L.; Zubia, J.; Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this manuscript we show the design of a simple experiment that reproduces the operation of the Michelson stellar interferometer by using step-index polymer optical fibers. The emission of stellar sources, single or binary stars, has been simulated by the laser light emerging from the output surface of the 2 meter-long polymer optical fiber. This light has an emission pattern that is similar to the emission pattern of stellar sources - circular, uniform, spatially incoherent, and quasi-monochromatic. Light coming from the fiber end faces passes through two identical pinholes located on a lid covering the objective of a small telescope, thus producing interference. Interference fringes have been acquired using a camera that is coupled to a telescope. The experiments have been carried out both outdoors in the daytime and indoors. By measuring the fringe visibilities, we have determined the size of our artificial stellar sources and the distance between them, when placing them at distances of 54 m from the telescope in the indoor measurements and of 75 m in the outdoor ones.

  14. Investigating the Magnetospheres of Rapidly Rotating B-type Stars

    Fletcher, C. L.; Petit, V.; Nazé, Y.; Wade, G. A.; Townsend, R. H.; Owocki, S. P.; Cohen, D. H.; David-Uraz, A.; Shultz, M.

    2017-11-01

    Recent spectropolarimetric surveys of bright, hot stars have found that ~10% of OB-type stars contain strong (mostly dipolar) surface magnetic fields (~kG). The prominent paradigm describing the interaction between the stellar winds and the surface magnetic field is the magnetically confined wind shock (MCWS) model. In this model, the stellar wind plasma is forced to move along the closed field loops of the magnetic field, colliding at the magnetic equator, and creating a shock. As the shocked material cools radiatively it will emit X-rays. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in detecting and characterizing the hot wind material confined by the magnetic fields of these stars. Some B-type stars are found to have very short rotational periods. The effects of the rapid rotation on the X-ray production within the magnetosphere have yet to be explored in detail. The added centrifugal force due to rapid rotation is predicted to cause faster wind outflows along the field lines, leading to higher shock temperatures and harder X-rays. However, this is not observed in all rapidly rotating magnetic B-type stars. In order to address this from a theoretical point of view, we use the X-ray Analytical Dynamical Magnetosphere (XADM) model, originally developed for slow rotators, with an implementation of new rapid rotational physics. Using X-ray spectroscopy from ESA's XMM-Newton space telescope, we observed 5 rapidly rotating B-types stars to add to the previous list of observations. Comparing the observed X-ray luminosity and hardness ratio to that predicted by the XADM allows us to determine the role the added centrifugal force plays in the magnetospheric X-ray emission of these stars.

  15. The Diversity of Chemical Composition and the Effects on Stellar Evolution and Planetary Habitability

    Truitt, Amanda R.

    2017-08-01

    I present a catalog of 1,794 stellar evolution models for solar-type and low-mass stars, which is intended to help characterize real host-stars of interest during the ongoing search for potentially habitable exoplanets. The main grid is composed of 904 tracks, for 0.5-1.2 M solar masses at scaled metallicity values of 0.1-1.5 Z solar masses and specific elemental abundance ratio values of 0.44-2.28 O/Fe solar masses, 0.58-1.72 C/Fe solar masses, 0.54-1.84 Mg/Fe solar masses, and 0.5-2.0 Ne/Fe solar masses. The catalog includes a small grid of late stage evolutionary tracks (25 models), as well as a grid of M-dwarf stars for 0.1-0.45 M solar masses (856 models). The time-dependent habitable zone evolution is calculated for each track, and is strongly dependent on stellar mass, effective temperature, and luminosity parameterizations. I have also developed a subroutine for the stellar evolution code TYCHO that implements a minimalist coupled model for estimating changes in the stellar X-ray luminosity, mass loss, rotational velocity, and magnetic activity over time; to test the utility of the updated code, I created a small grid (9 models) for solar-mass stars, with variations in rotational velocity and scaled metallicity. Including this kind of information in the catalog will ultimately allow for a more robust consideration of the long-term conditions that orbiting planets may experience. In order to gauge the true habitability potential of a given planetary system, it is extremely important to characterize the host-star's mass, specific chemical composition, and thus the timescale over which the star will evolve. It is also necessary to assess the likelihood that a planet found in the "instantaneous" habitable zone has actually had sufficient time to become "detectably" habitable. This catalog provides accurate stellar evolution predictions for a large collection of theoretical host-stars; the models are of particular utility in that they represent the real

  16. Imaging of stellar surfaces with the Occamian approach and the least-squares deconvolution technique

    Järvinen, S. P.; Berdyugina, S. V.

    2010-10-01

    Context. We present in this paper a new technique for the indirect imaging of stellar surfaces (Doppler imaging, DI), when low signal-to-noise spectral data have been improved by the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) method and inverted into temperature maps with the Occamian approach. We apply this technique to both simulated and real data and investigate its applicability for different stellar rotation rates and noise levels in data. Aims: Our goal is to boost the signal of spots in spectral lines and to reduce the effect of photon noise without loosing the temperature information in the lines. Methods: We simulated data from a test star, to which we added different amounts of noise, and employed the inversion technique based on the Occamian approach with and without LSD. In order to be able to infer a temperature map from LSD profiles, we applied the LSD technique for the first time to both the simulated observations and theoretical local line profiles, which remain dependent on temperature and limb angles. We also investigated how the excitation energy of individual lines effects the obtained solution by using three submasks that have lines with low, medium, and high excitation energy levels. Results: We show that our novel approach enables us to overcome the limitations of the two-temperature approximation, which was previously employed for LSD profiles, and to obtain true temperature maps with stellar atmosphere models. The resulting maps agree well with those obtained using the inversion code without LSD, provided the data are noiseless. However, using LSD is only advisable for poor signal-to-noise data. Further, we show that the Occamian technique, both with and without LSD, approaches the surface temperature distribution reasonably well for an adequate spatial resolution. Thus, the stellar rotation rate has a great influence on the result. For instance, in a slowly rotating star, closely situated spots are usually recovered blurred and unresolved, which

  17. Calibrated Tully-fisher Relations For Improved Photometric Estimates Of Disk Rotation Velocities

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, R.; Gunn, J. E.; Pizagno II, Jim

    We present calibrated scaling relations (also referred to as Tully-Fisher relations or TFRs) between rotation velocity and photometric quantities-- absolute magnitude, stellar mass, and synthetic magnitude (a linear combination of absolute magnitude and color)-- of disk galaxies at z 0.1. First, we

  18. Plea for stellarator funding raps tokamaks

    Blake, M.

    1992-01-01

    The funding crunch in magnetic confinement fusion development has moved the editor of a largely technical publication to speak out on a policy issue. James A. Rome, who edits Stellarator News from the Fusion Energy Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, wrote an editorial that appeared on the front page of the May 1992 issue. It was titled open-quotes The US Stellarator Program: A Time for Renewal,close quotes and while it focused chiefly on that subject (and lamented the lack of funding for the operation of the existing ATF stellarator at Oak Ridge), it also cited some of the problems inherent in the mainline MCF approach--the tokamak--and stated that if the money can be found for further tokamak design upgrades, it should also be found for stellarators. Rome wrote, open-quotes There is growing recognition in the US, and elsewhere, that the conventional tokamak does not extrapolate to a commercially competitive energy source except with very high field coils ( 1000 MWe).close quotes He pointed up open-quotes the difficulty of simultaneously satisfying conflicting tokamak requirements for efficient current drive, high bootstrap-current fraction, complete avoidance of disruptions, adequate beta limits, and edge-plasma properties compatible with improved (H-mode) confinement and acceptable erosion of divertor plates.close quotes He then called for support for the stellarator as open-quotes the only concept that has performance comparable to that achieved in tokamaks without the plasma-current-related limitations listed above.close quotes

  19. STELLAR ACTIVITY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR EXOPLANET DETECTION ON GJ 176

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    We present an in-depth analysis of stellar activity and its effects on radial velocity (RV) for the M2 dwarf GJ 176 based on spectra taken over 10 yr from the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. These data are supplemented with spectra from previous observations with the HIRES and HARPS spectrographs, and V- and R-band photometry taken over six years at the Dyer and Fairborn observatories. Previous studies of GJ 176 revealed a super-Earth exoplanet in an 8.8-day orbit. However, the velocities of this star are also known to be contaminated by activity, particularly at the 39-day stellar rotation period. We have examined the magnetic activity of GJ 176 using the sodium I D lines, which have been shown to be a sensitive activity tracer in cool stars. In addition to rotational modulation, we see evidence of a long-term trend in our Na I D index, which may be part of a long-period activity cycle. The sodium index is well correlated with our RVs, and we show that this activity trend drives a corresponding slope in RV. Interestingly, the rotation signal remains in phase in photometry, but not in the spectral activity indicators. We interpret this phenomenon as the result of one or more large spot complexes or active regions which dominate the photometric variability, while the spectral indices are driven by the overall magnetic activity across the stellar surface. In light of these results, we discuss the potential for correcting activity signals in the RVs of M dwarfs

  20. The Quasi-Toroidal Stellarator: An Innovative Confinement Experiment

    Knowlton, S. F.

    2001-01-01

    To develop a new class of stellarators that exhibit improved confinement compared to conventional stellarators. This approach generally makes use of a designed symmetry of the magnetic field strength along a particular coordinate axis in the toroidal geometry of the stellarator, and is referred to as quasi-symmetry

  1. Constraining the Stellar Mass Function in the Galactic Center via Mass Loss from Stellar Collisions

    Douglas Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dense concentration of stars and high-velocity dispersions in the Galactic center imply that stellar collisions frequently occur. Stellar collisions could therefore result in significant mass loss rates. We calculate the amount of stellar mass lost due to indirect and direct stellar collisions and find its dependence on the present-day mass function of stars. We find that the total mass loss rate in the Galactic center due to stellar collisions is sensitive to the present-day mass function adopted. We use the observed diffuse X-ray luminosity in the Galactic center to preclude any present-day mass functions that result in mass loss rates >10-5M⨀yr−1 in the vicinity of ~1″. For present-day mass functions of the form, dN/dM∝M-α, we constrain the present-day mass function to have a minimum stellar mass ≲7M⨀ and a power-law slope ≳1.25. We also use this result to constrain the initial mass function in the Galactic center by considering different star formation scenarios.

  2. Rotations with Rodrigues' vector

    Pina, E

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.

  3. On Averaging Rotations

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong ...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation.......In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  4. Seismology of rapidly rotating and solar-like stars

    Reese, Daniel Roy

    2018-05-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in stellar physics thanks to asteroseismology, the study of pulsating stars. Indeed, asteroseismology is currently the only way to probe the internal structure of stars. The work presented here focuses on some of the theoretical aspects of this domain and addresses two broad categories of stars, namely solar-like pulsators (including red giants), and rapidly rotating pulsating stars. The work on solar-like pulsators focuses on setting up methods for efficiently characterising a large number of stars, in preparation for space missions like TESS and PLATO 2.0. In particular, the AIMS code applies an MCMC algorithm to find stellar properties and a sample of stellar models which fit a set of seismic and classic observational constraints. In order to reduce computation time, this code interpolates within a precalculated grid of models, using a Delaunay tessellation which allows a greater flexibility on the construction of the grid. Using interpolated models based on the outputs from this code or models from other forward modelling codes, it is possible to obtain refined estimates of various stellar properties such as the mean density thanks to inversion methods put together by me and G. Buldgen, my former PhD student. Finally, I show how inversion-type methods can also be used to test more qualitative information such as whether a decreasing rotation profile is compatible with a set of observed rotational splittings and a given reference model. In contrast to solar-like pulsators, the pulsation modes of rapidly rotating stars remain much more difficult to interpret due to the complexity of the numerical calculations needed to calculate such modes, the lack of simple frequency patterns, and the fact that it is difficult to predict mode amplitudes. The work described here therefore focuses on addressing the above difficulties one at a time in the hopes that it will one day be possible to carry out detailed asteroseismology in these

  5. Low Mach and Peclet number limit for a model of stellar tachocline and upper radiative zones

    Donatella Donatelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study a hydrodynamical model describing the motion of internal stellar layers based on compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system. We suppose that the medium is electrically charged, we include energy exchanges through radiative transfer and we assume that the system is rotating. We analyze the singular limit of this system when the Mach number, the Alfven number, the Peclet number and the Froude number approache zero in a certain way and prove convergence to a 3D incompressible MHD system with a stationary linear transport equation for transport of radiation intensity. Finally, we show that the energy equation reduces to a steady equation for the temperature corrector.

  6. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    Markarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0 +/- 1.4, B=13.1 +/- 1.2, K=1.1 +/- 1.8, and C=2.9 +/- 1.4 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at approximately -20 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z greater than 1 kpc

  7. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars

    Kaspi, V M [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University St, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2008-03-07

    Pulsar astrophysics has come a long way in the 40 years since the discovery of the first pulsar by Bell and Hewish. From humble beginnings as bits of 'scruff' on the Cambridge University group's chart recorder paper, the field of pulsars has blossomed into a major area of mainstream astrophysics, with an unparalleled diversity of astrophysical applications. These range from Nobel-celebrated testing of general relativity in the strong-field regime to constraining the equation-of-state of ultradense matter; from probing the winds of massive stars to globular cluster evolution. Previous notable books on the subject of pulsars have tended to focus on some particular topic in the field. The classic text Pulsars by Manchester and Taylor (1977 San Francisco, CA: Freeman) targeted almost exclusively rotation-powered radio pulsars, while the Meszaros book High-Energy Radiation from Magnetized Neutron Stars (1992 Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) considered both rotation- and accretion-powered neutron stars, but focused on their radiation at x-ray energies and above. The recent book Neutron Stars 1 by Haensel et al (2007 Berlin: Springer) considers only the equation of state and neutron-star structure. Into this context appears Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars, by Pranab Ghosh. In contrast to other books, here the author takes an encyclopedic approach and attempts to synthesize practically all of the major aspects of the two main types of neutron star. This is ambitious. The only comparable undertaking is the useful but more elementary Lyne and Graham-Smith text Pulsar Astronomy (1998 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), or Compact Stellar X-ray Sources (eds Lewin and van der Klis, 2006 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), an anthology of technical review articles that also includes black hole topics. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars thus fills a clear void in the field, providing a readable, graduate-level book that covers nearly

  8. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars

    Kaspi, V M

    2008-01-01

    Pulsar astrophysics has come a long way in the 40 years since the discovery of the first pulsar by Bell and Hewish. From humble beginnings as bits of 'scruff' on the Cambridge University group's chart recorder paper, the field of pulsars has blossomed into a major area of mainstream astrophysics, with an unparalleled diversity of astrophysical applications. These range from Nobel-celebrated testing of general relativity in the strong-field regime to constraining the equation-of-state of ultradense matter; from probing the winds of massive stars to globular cluster evolution. Previous notable books on the subject of pulsars have tended to focus on some particular topic in the field. The classic text Pulsars by Manchester and Taylor (1977 San Francisco, CA: Freeman) targeted almost exclusively rotation-powered radio pulsars, while the Meszaros book High-Energy Radiation from Magnetized Neutron Stars (1992 Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) considered both rotation- and accretion-powered neutron stars, but focused on their radiation at x-ray energies and above. The recent book Neutron Stars 1 by Haensel et al (2007 Berlin: Springer) considers only the equation of state and neutron-star structure. Into this context appears Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars, by Pranab Ghosh. In contrast to other books, here the author takes an encyclopedic approach and attempts to synthesize practically all of the major aspects of the two main types of neutron star. This is ambitious. The only comparable undertaking is the useful but more elementary Lyne and Graham-Smith text Pulsar Astronomy (1998 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), or Compact Stellar X-ray Sources (eds Lewin and van der Klis, 2006 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), an anthology of technical review articles that also includes black hole topics. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars thus fills a clear void in the field, providing a readable, graduate-level book that covers nearly everything you

  9. Stellar Streams Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey

    Shipp, N.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    We perform a search for stellar streams around the Milky Way using the first three years of multi-band optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We use DES data covering $\\sim 5000$ sq. deg. to a depth of $g > 23.5$ with a relative photometric calibration uncertainty of $< 1 \\%$. This data set yields unprecedented sensitivity to the stellar density field in the southern celestial hemisphere, enabling the detection of faint stellar streams to a heliocentric distance of $\\sim 50$ kpc. We search for stellar streams using a matched-filter in color-magnitude space derived from a synthetic isochrone of an old, metal-poor stellar population. Our detection technique recovers four previously known thin stellar streams: Phoenix, ATLAS, Tucana III, and a possible extension of Molonglo. In addition, we report the discovery of eleven new stellar streams. In general, the new streams detected by DES are fainter, more distant, and lower surface brightness than streams detected by similar techniques in previous photometric surveys. As a by-product of our stellar stream search, we find evidence for extra-tidal stellar structure associated with four globular clusters: NGC 288, NGC 1261, NGC 1851, and NGC 1904. The ever-growing sample of stellar streams will provide insight into the formation of the Galactic stellar halo, the Milky Way gravitational potential, as well as the large- and small-scale distribution of dark matter around the Milky Way.

  10. AN ACTIVITY–ROTATION RELATIONSHIP AND KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF NEARBY MID-TO-LATE-TYPE M DWARFS

    West, Andrew A.; Weisenburger, Kolby L.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Dittmann, Jason; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Pineda, J. Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Using spectroscopic observations and photometric light curves of 238 nearby M dwarfs from the MEarth exoplanet transit survey, we examine the relationships between magnetic activity (quantified by Hα emission), rotation period, and stellar age. Previous attempts to investigate the relationship between magnetic activity and rotation in these stars were hampered by the limited number of M dwarfs with measured rotation periods (and the fact that v sin i measurements probe only rapid rotation). However, the photometric data from MEarth allows us to probe a wide range of rotation periods for hundreds of M dwarf stars (from shorter than one to longer than 100 days). Over all M spectral types that we probe, we find that the presence of magnetic activity is tied to rotation, including for late-type, fully convective M dwarfs. We also find evidence that the fraction of late-type M dwarfs that are active may be higher at longer rotation periods compared to their early-type counterparts, with several active, late-type, slowly rotating stars present in our sample. Additionally, we find that all M dwarfs with rotation periods shorter than 26 days (early-type; M1–M4) and 86 days (late-type; M5–M8) are magnetically active. This potential mismatch suggests that the physical mechanisms that connect stellar rotation to chromospheric heating may be different in fully convective stars. A kinematic analysis suggests that the magnetically active, rapidly rotating stars are consistent with a kinematically young population, while slow-rotators are less active or inactive and appear to belong to an older, dynamically heated stellar population

  11. AN ACTIVITY–ROTATION RELATIONSHIP AND KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF NEARBY MID-TO-LATE-TYPE M DWARFS

    West, Andrew A.; Weisenburger, Kolby L. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Dittmann, Jason [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Berta-Thompson, Zachory K. [MIT, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Bldg. 37, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pineda, J. Sebastian, E-mail: aawest@bu.edu [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, 1200 E. California Ave, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-10

    Using spectroscopic observations and photometric light curves of 238 nearby M dwarfs from the MEarth exoplanet transit survey, we examine the relationships between magnetic activity (quantified by Hα emission), rotation period, and stellar age. Previous attempts to investigate the relationship between magnetic activity and rotation in these stars were hampered by the limited number of M dwarfs with measured rotation periods (and the fact that v sin i measurements probe only rapid rotation). However, the photometric data from MEarth allows us to probe a wide range of rotation periods for hundreds of M dwarf stars (from shorter than one to longer than 100 days). Over all M spectral types that we probe, we find that the presence of magnetic activity is tied to rotation, including for late-type, fully convective M dwarfs. We also find evidence that the fraction of late-type M dwarfs that are active may be higher at longer rotation periods compared to their early-type counterparts, with several active, late-type, slowly rotating stars present in our sample. Additionally, we find that all M dwarfs with rotation periods shorter than 26 days (early-type; M1–M4) and 86 days (late-type; M5–M8) are magnetically active. This potential mismatch suggests that the physical mechanisms that connect stellar rotation to chromospheric heating may be different in fully convective stars. A kinematic analysis suggests that the magnetically active, rapidly rotating stars are consistent with a kinematically young population, while slow-rotators are less active or inactive and appear to belong to an older, dynamically heated stellar population.

  12. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor (MSR) concept

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual study has been made of the Modulator Stellarator Reactor (MSR) as a stedy-state, ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor. The MSR concept combines the physics of classic stellarator confinement with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4.8-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. Neither an economic analysis nor a detailed conceptual engineering design is presented here, as the primary intent of this scoping study is the elucidation of key physics tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties for the ultimate power-reactor embodiment

  13. Time variations of stellar water masers

    Cox, G.G.; Parker, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The 22-GHz H 2 O spectra of the stars RS Vir, RT Vir, R Aql, W Hya, U Her, S Cr B, Rx Boo, R Crt and VY CMa have been observed at intervals during the period 1974 September -1977 May. Optical and infrared measurements have also been made. New components have been observed in the H 2 O spectra of most of the stars, and the flux density of W Hya reached 2000 Jy near Jd 2442700. The intensities of the three main groups of components in VY CMa varied in phase consistent with a central pump source. In several stars the intensities were very different from those found by earlier observers, showing that stellar H 2 O masers are often not stable for more than a few cycles of the stellar luminosity. For part of the time the H 2 O and infrared intensities of R Aql and RS Vir were anticorrelated. (author)

  14. A Compact Quasi-axisymmetric Stellarator Reactor

    Ku, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    We report the progress made in assessing the potential of compact, quasi-axisymmetric stellarators as power-producing reactors. Using an aspect ratio A=4.5 configuration derived from NCSX and optimized with respect to the quasi-axisymmetry and MHD stability in the linear regime as an example, we show that a reactor of 1 GW(e) maybe realizable with a major radius *8 m. This is significantly smaller than the designs of stellarator reactors attempted before. We further show the design of modular coils and discuss the optimization of coil aspect ratios in order to accommodate the blanket for tritium breeding and radiation shielding for coil protection. In addition, we discuss the effects of coil aspect ratio on the peak magnetic field in the coils

  15. Excitation of solar and stellar oscillations

    Baudin, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    In this report for an Accreditation to Supervise Research (HDR), and after an introduction which outlines the potential of helio-seismology, the author addresses the problem of excitation and amplitude of stellar oscillations with respect to their most important aspects, i.e. the theoretical framework of the present understanding of excitation mechanisms, and instrumental influences on measurements which are used to assess excitation rates, the difficulty to perform these measurements, and their analysis in some various cases. Thus, the author addresses excitation mechanisms of stellar oscillation (stochastic excitation, opacity- related excitation, and other excitation mechanisms), the excitation of solar modes (observation and theoretical predictions, influence of magnetic phenomena, solar g modes), and the excitation of modes in other stars (solar-type pulsators, red giants, and not so conventional pulsators such as HD180642 and Be stars like HD49330)

  16. Stellar evolution as seen by mixed modes

    Mosser Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of mixed modes in subgiants and red giants allows us to monitor stellar evolution from the main sequence to the asymptotic giant branch and draw seismic evolutionary tracks. Quantified asteroseismic definitions that characterize the change in the evolutionary stages have been defined. This seismic information can now be used for stellar modelling, especially for studying the energy transport in the helium burning core or for specifying the inner properties of stars all along their evolution. Modelling will also allow us to study stars identified in the helium subflash stage, high-mass stars either arriving or quitting the secondary clump, or stars that could be in the blue-loop stage.

  17. Physics of stellar evolution and cosmology

    Goldberg, H.S.; Scadron, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Astrophysical phenomena are examined on a fundamental level, stressing basic physical laws, in a textbook suitable for a one-semester intermediate course. The ideal gas law, the meaning of temperature, black-body radiation, discrete spectra, and the Doppler effect are introduced and used to study such features of the interstellar medium as 21-cm radiation, nebulae and dust, and the galactic magnetic field. The phases of stellar evolution are discussed, including stellar collapse, quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium, the main sequence, red giants, white dwarves, neutron stars, supernovae, pulsars, and black holes. Among the cosmological topics covered are the implications of Hubble's constant, the red-shift curve, the steady-state universe, the evolution of the big bang (thermal equilibrium, hadron era, lepton era, primordial nucleosynthesis, hydrogen recombination, galaxy formation, and the cosmic fireball), and the future (cold end or big crunch). 72 references

  18. Stellar physics with the ALHAMBRA photometric system

    Villegas, T Aparicio; Alfaro, E J; Moles, M; Benítez, N; Perea, J; Olmo, A del; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Cervio, M; Delgado, R M González; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Prada, F; Cabrera-Caño, J; Fernández-Soto, A; Aguerri, J A L; Cepa, J; Broadhurst, T; Castander, F J; Infante, L; Martínez, V J

    2011-01-01

    The ALHAMBRA photometric system was specifically designed to perform a tomography of the Universe in some selected areas. Although mainly designed for extragalactic purposes, its 20 contiguous, equal-width, medium-band photometric system in the optical wavelength range, shows a great capacity for stellar classification. In this contribution we propose a methodology for stellar classification and physical parameter estimation (T eff , log g, [Fe/H], and color excess E(B – V)) based on 18 independent reddening-free Q-values from the ALHAMBRA photometry. Based on the theoretical Spectral library BaSeL 2.2, and applied to 288 stars from the Next Generation spectral Library (NGSL), we discuss the reliability of the method and its dependence on the extinction law used.

  19. Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis

    Barbuy, B.L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12 C: 13 C and 24 Mg: 25 Mg: 26 Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author) [pt

  20. Energetic Particle Estimates for Stellar Flares

    Youngblood, Allison; Chamberlin, Phil; Woods, Tom

    2018-01-01

    In the heliosphere, energetic particles are accelerated away from the Sun during solar flares and/or coronal mass ejections where they frequently impact the Earth and other solar system bodies. Solar (or stellar) energetic particles (SEPs) not only affect technological assets, but also influence mass loss and chemistry in planetary atmospheres (e.g., depletion of ozone). SEPs are increasingly recognized as an important factor in assessing exoplanet habitability, but we do not yet have constraints on SEP emission from any stars other than the Sun. Until indirect measurements are available, we must assume solar-like particle production and apply correlations between solar flares and SEPs detected near Earth to stellar flares. We present improved scaling relations between solar far-UV flare flux and >10 MeV proton flux near Earth. We apply these solar scaling relations to far-UV flares from exoplanet host stars and discuss the implications for modeling chemistry and mass loss in exoplanet atmospheres.