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Sample records for stele phytophtora fragariae

  1. Gene-for-gene relationships between strawberry and the causal agent of red stele root rot, Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weg, van de W.E.

    1997-01-01

    Red stele (red core) root rot is the major soil-borne disease of strawberries (Fragaria spp.) in many areas with cool, moist soil conditions. It is caused by the soil-borne fungus Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae. Red stele

  2. Molecular genetic studies in Fragaria species : agrobacterium-mediated transformation and fine mapping of the Phytophthora fragariae resistance gene Rpfl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haymes, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    The fungus Phytophthora fragariae, is able to cause red stele root rot in the strawberry. Symptoms of the disease is discolouration of the stele of the roots, rotting away of the infected roots, dwarfism, wilting, and finally plant death. Chemical control of red stele

  3. Genes for and molecular markers linked with resistance to Phytophthora fragariae in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weg, van de W.E.; Henken, B.; Haymes, K.M.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    A gene-for-gene model is presented which explains interactions between cultivars of strawberry and races of Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae, the causal agent of red core (red stele) root rot. The model allows the constitution of a universal differential set of strawberry genotypes and the

  4. Detection and identification of Phytophthora fragariae Hickman by the polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonants, P.; Hagenaar-de Weerdt, M.; Gent-Pelzer, van M.; Lacourt, I.; Cooke, D.; Duncan, J.

    1997-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae Hickman, which causes strawberry red stele and raspberry root rot, is a quarantine organism for which specific and sensitive detection methods are required to test the health of planting material. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal gene

  5. A combination of baiting and different PCR formats, including measurement of real-time quantitative fluorescence, for the detection of Phytophthora fragariae in strawberry plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonants, P.J.M.; Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.E.; Hooftman, R.; Cooke, D.E.L.; Guy, D.C.; Duncan, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae, the cause of strawberry red stele disease, is a quarantine pathogen in Europe. Detecting low levels of infection requires sensitive and specific methods. In the past, Dutch and English inspection services have used bait plants to test strawberry propagation stocks destined

  6. Verification of the STELE code within the framework of the CHEMVAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Ph.; Jacquier, Ph.

    1990-07-01

    Phase 3 of the international CHEMVAL exercise has made it possible to devise verification tests for models coupling geochemistry and transport. The STELE model, built at the Centre d'Informatique Geologique, is a two-step coupled model, solving the geochemical and transport equations in two stages. The solution of two of the exercises from phase 3 of CHEMVAL is presented. One has an analytical solution which compares satisfactorily with the results of the calculation by STELE. The other raises numerical problems typical of a two-step algorithm. In its present state the STELE model is nevertheless a calculation tool well suited to systems with weak geochemical contrasts. Future development of STELE should mainly focus on the numerical aspects in order to extend the applicability of the model. (author)

  7. Razlikovanje vrst jagodnjakov (Fragaria L.) v Sloveniji

    OpenAIRE

    Malovrh, Katja

    2017-01-01

    V slovenski naravi uspevajo tri vrste jagodnjakov: Fragaria viridis, Fragaria vesca in Fragaria moschata. Čeprav se vrste med seboj dobro ločijo, jih je po domačem določevalnem ključu Mala flora Slovenije (Martinčič idr., 2007) težko razlikovati. Zato sem na osnovi pregleda tuje literature in lastnih opažanj izdelala določevalni ključ, ki upošteva več razlikovalnih znakov in je uporaben za določanje tako svežih kot herbariziranih primerkov, ki so lahko nabrani tudi brez podzemnih delov in pri...

  8. Rhizosecretion of stele-synthesized glucosinolates and their catabolites requires GTR-mediated import in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Deyang; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Witzel, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Casparian strip-generated apoplastic barriers not only control the radial flow of both water and ions but may also constitute a hindrance for the rhizosecretion of stele-synthesized phytochemicals. Here, we establish root-synthesized glucosinolates (GLS) are in Arabidopsis as a model to study...... via the xylem to the shoot; and (iii) GTR-dependent import to GLS-degrading myrosin cells at the cortex. The study suggests a previously undiscovered role of the import process in the rhizosecretion of root-synthesized phytochemicals....

  9. Gravity induced, asymmetric unloading of indole-3-acetic acid from the stele of Zea mays into the mesocotyl cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated an increase within 3 min in both free and ester indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on the lower side of the mesocotyl cortex of a gravity stimulated Zea mays seedling. Since both free and ester IAA are being transported from endosperm to shoot through the stele these results suggest that the gravity stimulus affects movement of IAA and/or its esters from stele to cortex. To test this postulate they injected 5-( 3 H)-IAA into the endosperm and, after a 30 min period with the plants held vertically, severed the kernel from the shoot and placed the plants in a horizontal position. After 60 min the distribution of radioactivity in the mesocotyl cortex was 55 + 3% in the lower half and 45 + 3% in the upper half. These results support the working theory that a target for the gravity stimulus is the gating mechanism for the movement of hormone from stele to cortex

  10. TOPOISOMERASE1α Acts through Two Distinct Mechanisms to Regulate Stele and Columella Stem Cell Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghong; Zheng, Lanlan; Hong, Jing Han; Gong, Ximing; Zhou, Chun; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Xu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    TOPOISOMERASE1 (TOP1), which releases DNA torsional stress generated during replication through its DNA relaxation activity, plays vital roles in animal and plant development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), TOP1 is encoded by two paralogous genes (TOP1α and TOP1β), of which TOP1α displays specific developmental functions that are critical for the maintenance of shoot and floral stem cells. Here, we show that maintenance of two different populations of root stem cells is also dependent on TOP1α-specific developmental functions, which are exerted through two distinct novel mechanisms. In the proximal root meristem, the DNA relaxation activity of TOP1α is critical to ensure genome integrity and survival of stele stem cells (SSCs). Loss of TOP1α function triggers DNA double-strand breaks in S-phase SSCs and results in their death, which can be partially reversed by the replenishment of SSCs mediated by ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR115 In the quiescent center and root cap meristem, TOP1α is epistatic to RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) in the maintenance of undifferentiated state and the number of columella stem cells (CSCs). Loss of TOP1α function in either wild-type or RBR RNAi plants leads to differentiation of CSCs, whereas overexpression of TOP1α mimics and further enhances the effect of RBR reduction that increases the number of CSCs Taken together, these findings provide important mechanistic insights into understanding stem cell maintenance in plants. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Naar een bemonsteringsmethodiek voor Xanthomonas fragariae in aardbei : verdeling van Xanthomonas fragariae in twee natuurlijk-besmette vermeerderingsgewassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, T.H.; Kastelein, P.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In november 2007 werden twee percelen met aardbeivoortkwekingsmateriaal, natuurlijk geïnfecteerd met X. fragariae, systematisch bemonsterd. Op een plot met een oppervlakte van ca. 100 m2 werden van ca. 120 planten rond een symptomatische plant, de (negen) samengestelde bladeren geanalyseerd op

  12. Validation of molecular markers associated with perpetual flowering in octoploid Fragaria germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpetual flowering (PF) is a highly desirable trait within cultivated strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa) for the commercial and home garden markets. The most widely used source of the PF trait was originally introgressed from a wild Fragaria virginiana subsp. glauca accession collected in the Wasatc...

  13. Molecular characterization of a stable antisense chalcone synthase phenotype in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunkenbein, S.; Coiner, H.; Vos, de C.H.; Schaart, J.G.; Boone, M.J.; Krens, F.A.; Schwab, W.; Salentijn, E.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    An octaploid (Fragaria × ananassa cv. Calypso) genotype of strawberry was transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase (CHS) gene construct using a ripening related CHS cDNA from Fragaria × ananassa cv. Elsanta under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  14. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  15. Epidemiology and Control of Strawberry Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Xanthomonas fragariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ran Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry bacterial angular leaf spot (ALS disease, caused by Xanthomonas fragariae has become increasingly problematic in the strawberry agro-industry. ALS causes small angular water-soaked lesions to develop on the abaxial leaf surface. Studies reported optimum temperature conditions for X. fragariae are 20°C and the pathogen suffers mortality above 32°C. However, at the nursery stage, disease symptoms have been observed under high temperature conditions. In the present study, results showed X. fragariae transmission was via infected maternal plants, precipitation, and sprinkler irrigation systems. Systemic infections were detected using X. fragariae specific primers 245A/B and 295A/B, where 300-bp and 615-bp were respectively amplified. During the nursery stage (from May to August, the pathogen was PCR detected only in maternal plants, but not in soil or irrigation water through the nursery stage. During the cultivation period, from September to March, the pathogen was detected in maternal plants, progeny, and soil, but not in water. Additionally, un-infected plants, when planted with infected plants were positive for X. fragariae via PCR at the late cultivation stage. Chemical control for X. fragariae with oxolinic acid showed 87% control effects against the disease during the nursery period, in contrast to validamycin-A, which exhibited increased efficacy against the disease during the cultivation stage (control effect 95%. To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiological study of X. fragariae in Korean strawberry fields.

  16. A New Perspective on Polyploid Fragaria (Strawberry) Genome Composition Based on Large-Scale, Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yilong; Davis, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The subgenomic compositions of the octoploid (2n = 8× = 56) strawberry (Fragaria) species, including the economically important cultivated species Fragaria x ananassa, have been a topic of long-standing interest. Phylogenomic approaches utilizing next-generation sequencing technologies offer a new window into species relationships and the subgenomic compositions of polyploids. We have conducted a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of Fragaria (strawberry) species using the Fluidigm Ac...

  17. Biological control of Mycosphaerella fragariae in strawberry culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Luis Heling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mycosphaerella spot is one of the main foliar diseases of strawberry, degrating great leaf regions and reducing the photosynthetic area. Its control is mainly by the use of chemical fungicides, but, due the increasing demand for food free of pesticide, alternative control methods have been researched, such as biological control. This work aimed to evaluate the effect on strawberry plants, treated with the biological control agents Bacillus cereus, Saccharomyces boulardii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the severity of Mycosphaerella fragariae, productivity and in the activity of β-1.3 glucanases, peroxidases and chitinases enzymes. It was verified that S. cerevisiae and B. cereus treatments were similar to fungicide for disease control. However, even reducing the severity of the disease, there was no increase in productivity, and the different control agents do not cause changes in the evaluated defense mechanisms.

  18. Controlled atmosphere storage of wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, Eva; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar; Lagarón, José M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2006-01-11

    Controlled atmosphere storage technology to extend the shelf life of "Reina de los Valles" wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.) was studied. Fruits were stored at 3 degrees C for three weeks in different atmosphere compositions: 0.05% CO2/21% O2 (air), 3% CO2/18% O2, 6% CO2/15% O2, 10% CO2/11% O2, and 15% CO2/6% O2. The effect of gas composition on soluble solids content, titrable acidity, pH, off-flavor, aroma volatiles, and consumer preference was monitored. The result showed that the 10% CO2/11% O2 combination can efficiently prolong the shelf life of wild strawberries by maintaining the quality parameters within acceptable values, through inhibiting the development of Botrytis cinerea, without significantly modifying consumer acceptance.

  19. Functional characterization of gynodioecy in Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2012-02-01

    Gynodioecy is a phylogenetically widespread and important sexual system where females coexist with hermaphrodites. Because dioecy can arise from gynodioecy, characterization of gynodioecy in close relatives of dioecious and sub-dioecious species can provide insight into this transition. Thus, we sought to determine whether Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata, a close relative to F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, exhibits the functional and population genetic hallmarks of a gynodioecious species. We compared reproductive allocation of females and hermaphrodites grown in the greenhouse and estimated genetic diversity (allelic diversity, heterozygosity) and inbreeding coefficients for field-collected adults of both sexes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We estimated mating system and early seed fitness from open-pollinated families of both sex morphs. Under greenhouse conditions, females and hermaphrodites allocated similarly to all reproductive traits except flower number, and, as a consequence, females produced 30 % fewer seeds per plant than hermaphrodites. Under natural conditions, hermaphrodites produce seeds by self-fertilization approx. 75 % of the time, and females produced outcrossed seeds with very little biparental inbreeding. Consistent with inbreeding depression, seeds from open-pollinated hermaphrodites were less likely to germinate than those from females, and family-level estimates of hermaphrodite selfing rates were negatively correlated with germination success and speed. Furthermore, estimates of inbreeding depression based on genetic markers and population genetic theory indicate that inbreeding depression in the field could be high. The joint consideration of allocation and mating system suggests that compensation may be sufficient to maintain females given the current understanding of sex determination. Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata exhibited similar sex morph-dependent patterns of mating system and genetic diversity, but less reproductive

  20. The results of intergeneric pollination of Fragaria x ananassa Duch. and Fragaria virginiana Duch. by Potentilla species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Female varieties of Fragaria X ananassa (Sonja, Freja, Mieze Schilndler, Dir. Wallbaum, Reine des Precoces, Pozdnaya Slodkaya and others and, tentatively, one female clone, F. virginiana "Scheldon", were pollinated with nineteen Potentilla species in the course of four years (1977-1980. A total of 99194 seeds was obtained, and from them, 739 seedlings (0.75%. After the first year of growth, a mean 24% of seedlings survived (178 Vegetatively mature plants were obtained from the above named octoploid maternal forms (Reine des Precoces excepted with six Potentilla species (the diploid P. rupestris, P. purpureoides, P. geoides, P. glandulosa and P. fruticosa as well as the hexaploid P. fragiformis. F. X ananassa var. Sonja X P. rupestris was classified as the best combination in producing surviving plants.

  1. Engineering the anthocyanin regulatory complex of strawberry (Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui eLin-Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca is a model fruit for a number of rosaceous crops. We have engineered altered concentrations of anthocyanin in F. vesca, to determine the impact on plant growth and fruit quality. Anthocyanin concentrations were significantly increased by over-expression or decreased by knock-down of the R2R3 MYB activator, MYB10. In contrast, a potential bHLH partner for MYB10 (bHLH33 did not affect the anthocyanin pathway when knocked down using RNAi constructs. Metabolic analysis of fruits revealed that, of all the polyphenolics surveyed, only cyanidin and pelargonidin glucoside, and coumaryl hexose were significantly affected by over-expression and knock down of MYB10. Using the F. vesca genome sequence, members of the MYB, bHLH and WD40 families were examined. Global analysis of gene expression and targeted qPCR analysis of biosynthetic genes and regulators confirmed the effects of altering MYB10 expression, as well as the knock-down of bHLH33. Other members of the MYB transcription factor family were affected by the transgenes. Transient expression of strawberry genes in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that MYB10 can auto-regulate itself, and potential repressors of MYB10. In tobacco, MYB10’s activation of biosynthetic steps is inhibited by the strawberry repressor MYB1.

  2. Whole genome sequences of the raspberry and strawberry pathogens Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities, but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of t...

  3. Insights into phylogeny, sex function and age of Fragaria based on whole chloroplast genome sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambui Njunguna; Aaron Liston; Richard Cronn; Tia-Lynn Ashman; Nahla Bassil

    2013-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry is one of the youngest domesticated plants, developed in France in the 1700s from chance hybridization between two western hemisphere octoploid species. However, little is known about the evolution of the species that gave rise to this important fruit crop. Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast genome sequences of 21 Fragaria...

  4. Comparative analysis of secondary metabolites contents in[i] Fragaria vesca[/i] L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Najda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available [i]Fragaria vesca[/i] (wild strawberry belongs to the Rosaceae family. Besides the leaves ([i]Fragariae folium[/i] and roots ([i]Fragariae radix[/i], the aromatic fruits ([i]Fragariae fructus[/i] of wild strawberry are also herbal materials used in medicine. The aim of this study was to compare the value of phytochemical and antioxidant activity of wild strawberry fruits ([i]Fragaria vesca L[/i].. The fruits were analyzed regarding their secondary metabolites contents (flavonoids, sum of phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, DPPH, depending on the origin of the raw material (from natural habitats vs. cultivation. According to the obtained results, raw material originating from natural habitats contained significantly more flavonoids (0.559 mg∙g [sup]-1[/sup] , compared to fruits harvested from cultivation (0.472 mg∙g [sup]-1[/sup] , on average. Mean concentration of phenolic acids ranged from 1.648 mg∙g[sup] -1[/sup] – 2.348 mg∙g [sup]-1[/sup] , although the wild form was characterized by higher levels of examined substances. Tannins are an important fraction of phenolic compounds; their content in studied fruits ranged from 2.2% (from cultivation – 3.0% (from natural habitats. When comparing the average contents of anthocyanins in the studied materials, it was revealed that remarkably more of these compounds were recorded in wild strawberry fruits harvested from natural habitats vs. those from cultivations: 132 mg∙100 g [sup]-1[/sup] vs. 90 mg∙100 g [sup]-1[/sup] . A difference was indicated with respect to the ability of DPPH radical reduction to diphenylpicrylhydrazine by extracts made of examined fruits.

  5. A New Perspective on Polyploid Fragaria (Strawberry) Genome Composition Based on Large-Scale, Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yilong; Davis, Thomas M

    2017-12-01

    The subgenomic compositions of the octoploid (2n = 8× = 56) strawberry (Fragaria) species, including the economically important cultivated species Fragaria x ananassa, have been a topic of long-standing interest. Phylogenomic approaches utilizing next-generation sequencing technologies offer a new window into species relationships and the subgenomic compositions of polyploids. We have conducted a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of Fragaria (strawberry) species using the Fluidigm Access Array system and 454 sequencing platform. About 24 single-copy or low-copy nuclear genes distributed across the genome were amplified and sequenced from 96 genomic DNA samples representing 16 Fragaria species from diploid (2×) to decaploid (10×), including the most extensive sampling of octoploid taxa yet reported. Individual gene trees were constructed by different tree-building methods. Mosaic genomic structures of diploid Fragaria species consisting of sequences at different phylogenetic positions were observed. Our findings support the presence in octoploid species of genetic signatures from at least five diploid ancestors (F. vesca, F. iinumae, F. bucharica, F. viridis, and at least one additional allele contributor of unknown identity), and questions the extent to which distinct subgenomes are preserved over evolutionary time in the allopolyploid Fragaria species. In addition, our data support divergence between the two wild octoploid species, F. virginiana and F. chiloensis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Multilocus Sex Determination Revealed in Two Populations of Gynodioecious Wild Strawberry, Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Tennessen, Jacob A; Dalton, Rebecca M; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Koski, Matthew H; Liston, Aaron

    2015-10-19

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of females and hermaphrodites, occurs in 20% of angiosperm families and often enables transitions between hermaphroditism and dioecy. Clarifying mechanisms of sex determination in gynodioecious species can thus illuminate sexual system evolution. Genetic determination of gynodioecy, however, can be complex and is not fully characterized in any wild species. We used targeted sequence capture to genetically map a novel nuclear contributor to male sterility in a self-pollinated hermaphrodite of Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata from the southern portion of its range. To understand its interaction with another identified locus and possibly additional loci, we performed crosses within and between two populations separated by 2000 km, phenotyped the progeny and sequenced candidate markers at both sex-determining loci. The newly mapped locus contains a high density of pentatricopeptide repeat genes, a class commonly involved in restoration of fertility caused by cytoplasmic male sterility. Examination of all crosses revealed three unlinked epistatically interacting loci that determine sexual phenotype and vary in frequency between populations. Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata represents the first wild gynodioecious species with genomic evidence of both cytoplasmic and nuclear genes in sex determination. We propose a model for the interactions between these loci and new hypotheses for the evolution of sex determining chromosomes in the subdioecious and dioecious Fragaria. Copyright © 2015 Ashman et al.

  7. The use of nested PCR in the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Phytophthora fragariae and P. cactorum in strawberry,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacourt, I.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.; Cooke, D.E.L.; Hagenaar-de Weerdt, M.; Surplus, L.; Duncan, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae Hickman, which causes red core disease of strawberry, is a quarantine organism on which a nil tolerance is placed. Detection of the fungus is by a root tip bait test which is highly specific and sensitive but time-consuming (5–6 weeks), has to be done at 12°C

  8. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract from cultivated strawberries’ leaves (Fragariae folium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a member of the rose family (Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae, tribe Potentilleae in the genus Fragaria. The cultivated varieties of commercial strawberries usually were designated as Fragaria ananassa. Root, leaf, flower and fruit have the healing properties. The strawberry leaves extract is used for blood cleaning, for treatment of oral inflammation, diarrhea, various gastro-intestinal inflammation, and hemorrhoids, as well as a diuretic. So far, many positive biological effects of strawberries (anticancer, antioxidant and anticoagulant effect have been proven. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract from cultivated strawberries (Fragariae folium, varieties Senga Sengana by using different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, FIC, H2O2 and TBA-MDA. Ethanolic extract from strawberry leaves was obtained by reflux extraction at the boiling temperature. Total phenols and total flavonoids content was determined spectrophotometrically by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu and by method with AlCl3, respectively. In the extract was determined high content of total phenols, while the total flavonoid content is much lower. The concentrations of extract required to neutralize 50% of the initial concentration of DPPH radicals (EC50 after 20 minutes incubation and immediately after adding DPPH radical solution were 7,91 and 19,46 μgcm-3, respectively. Extract was achieved the maximum iron ions chelating ability (67.89% at a concentration of 2 mgcm-3. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation of 70% was achieved by extract concentration of 0.03125 mgcm-3, while the maximum neutralization of H2O2 (30.47% was achieved by extract concentration of 0.5 mgcm-3. FRAP value of the investigated extract is 284.51 mgFe/g of dry extract. Presented results of the antioxidant activity show that the obtained extract from the cultivated strawberry leaves is a potential source of natural antioxidants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  9. PENGARUH CAMPURAN MEDIA TANAM TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN STROBERI (Fragaria vesca L.) SEBAGAI TANAMAN HIAS TAMAN VERTIKAL

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Endah Pratiwi; Bistok Hasiholan Simanjuntak; Dina Banjarnahor

    2017-01-01

    Research on the effects of growing medium mixtures of strawberry’s (Fragaria vesca L.) growth as ornamental plants in vertical garden was implemented from April to July 2016 in anexperimental field in Salaran Getasan Village. The purpose of this study were to 1) investigate the effects of different organic medium mixtures containing soil and rice husk, cocopeat, on compost banana stem on strawberry’s growth and 2) determine the best mixture for strawberry’s vertical system. The study was cond...

  10. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and sample preparation procedure for sensitive detection of Xanthomonas fragariae in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthomonas fragariae is a bacterium that causes angular leaf spot of strawberry. Asymptomatic infections are common and contribute to the difficulties in disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with a bacterial enrichment proced...

  11. The development and mapping of functional markers in Fragaria and their transferability and potential for mapping in other genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, D J; Rys, A; Nier, S; Simpson, D W; Tobutt, K R

    2007-01-01

    We have developed 46 primer pairs from exon sequences flanking polymorphic introns of 23 Fragaria gene sequences and one Malus sequence deposited in the EMBL database. Sequencing of a set of the PCR products amplified with the novel primer pairs in diploid Fragaria showed the products to be homologous to the sequences from which the primers were originally designed. By scoring the segregation of the 24 genes in two diploid Fragaria progenies FV x FN (F. vesca x F. nubicola F(2)) and 815 x 903BC (F. vesca x F. viridis BC(1)) 29 genetic loci at discrete positions on the seven linkage groups previously characterised could be mapped, bringing to 35 the total number of known function genes mapped in Fragaria. Twenty primer pairs, representing 14 genes, amplified a product of the expected size in both Malus and Prunus. To demonstrate the applicability of these gene-specific loci to comparative mapping in Rosaceae, five markers that displayed clear polymorphism between the parents of a Malus and a Prunus mapping population were selected. The markers were then scored and mapped in at least one of the two additional progenies.

  12. An autotetraploid linkage map of rose (Rosa hybrida) validated using the strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome sequence.

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    Gar, Oron; Sargent, Daniel J; Tsai, Ching-Jung; Pleban, Tzili; Shalev, Gil; Byrne, David H; Zamir, Dani

    2011-01-01

    Polyploidy is a pivotal process in plant evolution as it increase gene redundancy and morphological intricacy but due to the complexity of polysomic inheritance we have only few genetic maps of autopolyploid organisms. A robust mapping framework is particularly important in polyploid crop species, rose included (2n = 4x = 28), where the objective is to study multiallelic interactions that control traits of value for plant breeding. From a cross between the garden, peach red and fragrant cultivar Fragrant Cloud (FC) and a cut-rose yellow cultivar Golden Gate (GG), we generated an autotetraploid GGFC mapping population consisting of 132 individuals. For the map we used 128 sequence-based markers, 141 AFLP, 86 SSR and three morphological markers. Seven linkage groups were resolved for FC (Total 632 cM) and GG (616 cM) which were validated by markers that segregated in both parents as well as the diploid integrated consensus map.The release of the Fragaria vesca genome, which also belongs to the Rosoideae, allowed us to place 70 rose sequenced markers on the seven strawberry pseudo-chromosomes. Synteny between Rosa and Fragaria was high with an estimated four major translocations and six inversions required to place the 17 non-collinear markers in the same order. Based on a verified linear order of the rose markers, we could further partition each of the parents into its four homologous groups, thus providing an essential framework to aid the sequencing of an autotetraploid genome.

  13. Chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside content in Fragaria vesca, F. viridis and F. moschata in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, Edita; Jakstas, Valdas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2013-01-01

    In Lithuania, two species of the genus Fragaria L. (Rosaceae), F. vesca L. and F. viridis Weston, occur naturally in the wild and two others, F. moschata Weston and F. × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier are found escaped from cultivation. The main objective of this study was to establish the variation pattern in the content of chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside in leaves and fruits of the native Lithuanian species. In this work, the chemical polymorphisms of different Fragaria species were studied by growing plants side by side under the same cultivated field conditions. F. vesca fruits had the highest rutin (1.38 ± 0.19 mg g(-1) DM), hyperoside (0.69 ± 0.10 mg g(-1) DM) and chlorogenic acid (2.25 ± 0.34 mg g(-1) DM) content, followed by F. viridis and F. moschata. Our results showed that the leaves should be taken into account as important rutin and hyperoside contributors for strawberries.

  14. Propiedades Fisicoquímicas de Fresas (Fragaria sp Cultivadas Bajo Filtros Fotoselectivos Physical and Chemical Properties of Strawberries (Fragaria sp Grown Under Photoselective Filters

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    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento para examinar los efectos de la calidad de luz sobre la calidad de la fruta en fresa (Fragaria sp cv. Chandler, establecida en invernadero. Se probaron cinco filtros de polipropileno de colores diferentes (rojo, amarillo, azul, verde, y transparente, con plantas sin cobertura como control. En los frutos se determinó el peso fresco y seco, longitud y ancho, sólidos solubles totales (SST, pH, acidez titulable (AT e índice de madurez (IM. Todas las variables evaluadas fueron afectadas significativamente por los filtros espectrales, con excepción del pH del jugo. El crecimiento del fruto fue fuertemente influenciado por la cobertura verde. Bajo la cobertura amarilla las plantas incrementaron el peso fresco de los frutos y el IM. La cobertura azul redujo el contenido de SST en los frutos, así como el IM. La longitud y ancho de los frutos aumentaron con la cobertura roja. La cobertura transparente incrementó los SST y la AT. Para ciertas variables los resultados no fueron suficientemente concluyentes como para proponer este nuevo sistema de producción en el cultivo de fresa en los altiplanos tropicales; sin embargo, sería importante evaluar esta técnica de producción en regiones con mayor iluminación que la región donde se desarrolló este estudio.An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of light quality on the fruit quality in strawberry (Fragaria sp cv. Chandler established in glasshouse. Five different colored polypropylene filters (red, blue, yellow, green and clear were tested, with plants growing without cover as control. Fresh and dry weight, length and width, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity (TA and maturity index (MI, were measured on fruits. All evaluated variables were significantly affected by the spectral filters, except the pH of the juice. The fruit growth was strongly reduced by green cover. Under the yellow cover plants enhanced the fresh weight of fruits and the MI

  15. Meristem culture and subsequent micropropagation of Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Karla A; Berríos, Miguel; Carrasco, Basilio; Retamales, Jorge B; Caligari, Peter D S; García-Gonzáles, Rolando

    2017-06-02

    Vegetative propagation of Fragaria sp. is traditionally carried out using stolons. This system of propagation, in addition to being slow, can spread plant diseases, particularly serious being viral. In vitro culture of meristems and the establishment of micropropagation protocols are important tools for solving these problems. In recent years, considerable effort has been made to develop in vitro propagation of the commercial strawberry in order to produce virus-free plants of high quality. These previous results can serve as the basis for developing in vitro-based propagation technologies in the less studied species Fragaria chiloensis. In this context, we studied the cultivation of meristems and establishment of a micropropagation protocol for F. chiloensis. The addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) improved the meristem regeneration efficiency of F. chiloensis accessions. Similarly, the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the culture media increased the average rate of multiplication to 3-6 shoots per plant. In addition, the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), had low levels (near zero) of explant losses due to oxidation. However, plant height as well as number of leaves and roots were higher in media without growth regulators, with average values of 0.5 cm, 9 leaves and 4 roots per plant. For the first time in Chilean strawberry, meristem culture demonstrated to be an efficient tool for eliminating virus from infected plants, giving the possibility to produce disease free propagation material. Also, the addition of PVP into the basal MS medium improved the efficiency of plant recovery from isolated meristems. Farmers can now access to high quality plant material produced by biotech tools which will improve their technological practices.

  16. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Cestaro, Alessandro; Troggio, Michela; Main, Dorrie; Zheng, Ping; Cho, Ilhyung; Folta, Kevin M; Sosinski, Bryon; Abbott, Albert; Celton, Jean-Marc; Arús, Pere; Shulaev, Vladimir; Verde, Ignazio; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel; Velasco, Riccardo; Sargent, Daniel James

    2012-04-04

    Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  17. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies

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    Jung Sook

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  18. The genome sequence and transcriptome of Potentilla micrantha and their comparison to Fragaria vesca (the woodland strawberry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, Matteo; Moretto, Marco; Barghini, Elena; Mascagni, Flavia; Natali, Lucia; Brilli, Matteo; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Sonego, Paolo; Giongo, Lara; Alonge, Michael; Velasco, Riccardo; Varotto, Claudio; Šurbanovski, Nada; Borodovsky, Mark; Ward, Judson A; Engelen, Kristof; Cavallini, Andrea; Cestaro, Alessandro; Sargent, Daniel James

    2018-04-01

    The genus Potentilla is closely related to that of Fragaria, the economically important strawberry genus. Potentilla micrantha is a species that does not develop berries but shares numerous morphological and ecological characteristics with Fragaria vesca. These similarities make P. micrantha an attractive choice for comparative genomics studies with F. vesca. In this study, the P. micrantha genome was sequenced and annotated, and RNA-Seq data from the different developmental stages of flowering and fruiting were used to develop a set of gene predictions. A 327 Mbp sequence and annotation of the genome of P. micrantha, spanning 2674 sequence contigs, with an N50 size of 335,712, estimated to cover 80% of the total genome size of the species was developed. The genus Potentilla has a characteristically larger genome size than Fragaria, but the recovered sequence scaffolds were remarkably collinear at the micro-syntenic level with the genome of F. vesca, its closest sequenced relative. A total of 33,602 genes were predicted, and 95.1% of bench-marking universal single-copy orthologous genes were complete within the presented sequence. Thus, we argue that the majority of the gene-rich regions of the genome have been sequenced. Comparisons of RNA-Seq data from the stages of floral and fruit development revealed genes differentially expressed between P. micrantha and F. vesca.The data presented are a valuable resource for future studies of berry development in Fragaria and the Rosaceae and they also shed light on the evolution of genome size and organization in this family.

  19. Synteny conservation between two distantly-related Rosaceae genomes: Prunus (the stone fruits and Fragaria (the strawberry

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    Sargent Daniel J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rosaceae encompass a large number of economically-important diploid and polyploid fruit and ornamental species in many different genera. The basic chromosome numbers of these genera are x = 7, 8 and 9 and all have compact and relatively similar genome sizes. Comparative mapping between distantly-related genera has been performed to a limited extent in the Rosaceae including a comparison between Malus (subfamily Maloideae and Prunus (subfamily Prunoideae; however no data has been published to date comparing Malus or Prunus to a member of the subfamily Rosoideae. In this paper we compare the genome of Fragaria, a member of the Rosoideae, to Prunus, a member of the Prunoideae. Results The diploid genomes of Prunus (2n = 2x = 16 and Fragaria (2n = 2x = 14 were compared through the mapping of 71 anchor markers – 40 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs, 29 indels or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs and two simple-sequence repeats (SSRs – on the reference maps of both genera. These markers provided good coverage of the Prunus (78% and Fragaria (78% genomes, with maximum gaps and average densities of 22 cM and 7.3 cM/marker in Prunus and 32 cM and 8.0 cM/marker in Fragaria. Conclusion Our results indicate a clear pattern of synteny, with most markers of each chromosome of one of these species mapping to one or two chromosomes of the other. A large number of rearrangements (36, most of which produced by inversions (27 and the rest (9 by translocations or fission/fusion events could also be inferred. We have provided the first framework for the comparison of the position of genes or DNA sequences of these two economically valuable and yet distantly-related genera of the Rosaceae.

  20. Phototropin 2 is involved in blue light-induced anthocyanin accumulation in Fragaria x ananassa fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadomura-Ishikawa, Yasuko; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Noji, Sumihare; Takahashi, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Anthocyanins are widespread, essential secondary metabolites in higher plants during color development in certain flowers and fruits. In strawberries, anthocyanins are also key contributors to fruit antioxidant capacity and nutritional value. However, the effects of different light qualities on anthocyanin accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cv. Sachinoka) fruits remain elusive. In the present study, we showed the most efficient increase in anthocyanin content occurred by blue light irradiation. Light sensing at the molecular level was investigated by isolation of two phototropin (FaPHOT1 and FaPHOT2), two cryptochrome (FaCRY1 and FaCRY2), and two phytochrome (FaPHYA and FaPHYB) homologs. Expression analysis revealed only FaPHOT2 transcripts markedly increased depending on fruit developmental stage, and a corresponding increase in anthocyanin content was detected. FaPHOT2 knockdown resulted in decreased anthocyanin content; however, overexpression increased anthocyanin content. These findings suggested blue light induced anthocyanin accumulation, and FaPHOT2 may play a role in sensing blue light, and mediating anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberry fruits. This is the first report to find a relationship between visible light sensing, and color development in strawberry fruits.

  1. Population genetic analysis of a global collection of Fragaria vesca using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmarsson, Hrannar Smári; Hytönen, Timo; Isobe, Sachiko; Göransson, Magnus; Toivainen, Tuomas; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn

    2017-01-01

    The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, holds great promise as a model organism. It not only represents the important Rosaceae family that includes economically important species such as apples, pears, peaches and roses, but it also complements the well-known model organism Arabidopsis thaliana in key areas such as perennial life cycle and the development of fleshy fruit. Analysis of wild populations of A. thaliana has shed light on several important developmental pathways controlling, for example, flowering time and plant growth, suggesting that a similar approach using F. vesca might add to our understanding on the development of rosaceous species and perennials in general. As a first step, 298 F. vesca plants were analyzed using microsatellite markers with the primary aim of analyzing population structure and distribution of genetic diversity. Of the 68 markers tested, 56 were polymorphic, with an average of 4.46 alleles per locus. Our analysis partly confirms previous classification of F. vesca subspecies in North America and suggests two groups within the subsp. bracteata. In addition, F. vesca subsp. vesca forms a single global population with evidence that the Icelandic group is a separate cluster from the main Eurasian population.

  2. Population genetic analysis of a global collection of Fragaria vesca using microsatellite markers.

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    Hrannar Smári Hilmarsson

    Full Text Available The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, holds great promise as a model organism. It not only represents the important Rosaceae family that includes economically important species such as apples, pears, peaches and roses, but it also complements the well-known model organism Arabidopsis thaliana in key areas such as perennial life cycle and the development of fleshy fruit. Analysis of wild populations of A. thaliana has shed light on several important developmental pathways controlling, for example, flowering time and plant growth, suggesting that a similar approach using F. vesca might add to our understanding on the development of rosaceous species and perennials in general. As a first step, 298 F. vesca plants were analyzed using microsatellite markers with the primary aim of analyzing population structure and distribution of genetic diversity. Of the 68 markers tested, 56 were polymorphic, with an average of 4.46 alleles per locus. Our analysis partly confirms previous classification of F. vesca subspecies in North America and suggests two groups within the subsp. bracteata. In addition, F. vesca subsp. vesca forms a single global population with evidence that the Icelandic group is a separate cluster from the main Eurasian population.

  3. Influence of plasmogenes on the productivity of morphogenesis in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

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    Jadwiga Żebrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmogenes are largely located in mitochondria or plastids and they can influence the inheritance of many plant characteristics. This phenomenon is called cytoplasmic inheritance and can be detected on the basis of the expression of a trait in progeny F1 obtained from single and reciprocal crosses. The aim of this study was to examine the cytoplasmic inheritance of in vitro productivity of morphogenesis in three genotypes of Fragaria x ananassa Duch., i.e. the cultivars 'Dukat', 'Teresa' and the breeding clone no. 590. Single and reciprocal crosses were done according to Griffi ng's method 3. The value of general combining ability (GCA indicated cv. 'Teresa' as the best maternal component for crossing and 'Dukat' as the worst. The negative reciprocal cross effects (rij revealed the cytoplasmic inheritance for cv. 'Dukat' as maternal form and positive rij for the breeding clone no. 590 indicated the nuclear inheritance of morphogenetic ability. Cv. 'Teresa', as maternal component, showed nuclear inheritance of that trait in crossing with cv. 'Dukat' and with 590 cytoplasmic inheritance. The productivity of morphogenesis in strawberry depended on the parental combination and the direction of crossing.

  4. Inhibition of Xanthomonas fragariae, Causative Agent of Angular Leaf Spot of Strawberry, through Iron Deprivation

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    Peter Henry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In commercial production settings, few options exist to prevent or treat angular leaf spot of strawberry, a disease of economic importance and caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae (Xfr. In the process of isolating and identifying Xfr bacteria from symptomatic plants, we observed growth inhibition of Xfr by bacterial isolates from the same leaf macerates. Identified as species of Pseudomonas and Rhizobium, these isolates were confirmed to suppress growth of Xfr in agar overlay plates and in microtiter plate cultures, as did our reference strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Screening of a transposon mutant library of KT2440 revealed that disruption of the biosynthetic pathway for the siderophore pyoverdine resulted in complete loss of Xfr antagonism, suggesting iron competition as a mode of action. Antagonism could be replicated on plate and in culture by addition of purified pyoverdine or by addition of the chelating agents tannic acid and dipyridyl, while supplementing the medium with iron negated the inhibitory effects of pyoverdine, tannic acid and dipyridyl. When co-inoculated with tannic acid onto strawberry plants, Xfr’s ability to cause foliar symptoms was greatly reduced, suggesting a possible opportunity for iron-based management of angular leaf spot. We discuss our findings in the context of ‘nutritional immunity’, the idea that plant hosts restrict pathogens access to iron, either directly, or indirectly through their associated microbiota.

  5. Embryological studies on Fragaria x ananassa Duch. after pollination by three species of Potentilla

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    Katarzyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryological studies were carried out after pollinating four female varieties of Fragaria ananassa Duch. (Freja, Sonja, Mieze Schindler, Reine des Precoce with three species of Poteiatilla (P. geoides, P. rupestris, P. fruticosa. The aim was to elucidate the manner in which matroclinous progeny arises after pollination of the strawberry with Potentilla pollen. In addition to meiotic, apo- and diplosporous embryo sacs were formed in the Freja variety. On the average, in the four studied varieties,, 49% of the ovules contained more than one embryo sac. At the most, five embryo sacs developed, but only two of them attained full maturity. Pollen from Potentilla germinated on the stigma of the strawberry and the pollen tubes grew through the style to the ovule. Symptoms of fertilization were not found in the strawberry ovules after pollination with Potentilla, however, after pollination with the Redgauntlet F. x ananassa variety, extra nucleoli or chromatin grains were found in the ovule. False polyembryony was found in the Mieze Schindler (16 cases, Sonja (2 cases and Freja (1 case varieties. The germination of two plants from one seed was observed, which shows the possibility of full development of twin embryos. The low germination ability of the seeds was caused by abnormalities in the development of the embryos.

  6. The comparison of phenotypic characteristics of current varieties and wild species of Fragaria

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    Skender Azra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the major pomological and antioxidant properties of fruits which are comparatively studied in wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L., taken from natural habitats and commercially important varieties that are grown in the Una - Sana Canton (Bosnia and Herzegovina: Marmolada, Clery, Maya, Arosa and Elsanta. The aim was also to point out the potential superiority of the wild forms, how rich they are in vitamin C, phenol and anthocyanin, in order to be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The results of analyzing the contents of vitamin C and the total phenols of fruit indicate that a wild strawberry has significantly higher antioxidant content of these components than all the commercial varieties tested. The content of vitamin C in fruits of a wild strawberry was 72 mg/100g and the phenol content 94.8 mg/100g. Their inclusion in breeding programs can provide significant potential to create varieties which will possess a better fruit quality with a higher content of antioxidant components. A wild strawberry is a significant genetic potential of particular importance for conservation and biodiversity of certain areas, as well as for the selection and breeding of cultivated fruit trees. The highest content of the total anthocyanin of fruit is registered in Marmolada (134.7 mg/100g.

  7. Characterization and functional analysis of Calmodulin and Calmodulin-like genes in Fragaria vesca

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    Kai Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is a universal messenger that is involved in the modulation of diverse developmental and adaptive processes in response to various stimuli. Calmodulin (CaM and calmodulin-like (CML proteins are major calcium sensors in all eukaryotes, and they have been extensively investigated for many years in plants and animals. However, little is known about CaMs and CMLs in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the strawberry genome and identified 4 CaM and 36 CML genes. Bioinformatics analyses, including gene structure, phylogenetic tree, synteny and three-dimensional model assessments, revealed the conservation and divergence of FvCaMs and FvCMLs, thus providing insight regarding their functions. In addition, the transcript abundance of four FvCaM genes and the four most related FvCML genes were examined in different tissues and in response to multiple stress and hormone treatments. Moreover, we investigated the subcellular localization of several FvCaMs and FvCMLs, revealing their potential interactions based on the localizations and potential functions. Furthermore, overexpression of five FvCaM and FvCML genes could not induce a hypersensitive response, but four of the five genes could increase resistance to Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. This study provides evidence for the biological roles of FvCaM and CML genes, and the results lay the foundation for future functional studies of these genes.

  8. Determinación de la vida útil de fresa (fragaria ananassa duch.) fortificada con vitamina e

    OpenAIRE

    RESTREPO, ANA MARIA; CORTÉS, MISAEL; ROJANO, BENJAMÍN

    2010-01-01

    Las frutas fortificadas por la técnica de impregnación al vacío (IV) representan una expectativa mundial en el desarrollo de productos mínimanente procesados con características funcionales. El presente estudio evalúa el tiempo de vida útil de fresa Fragaria ananassa Duch. fortificada con vitamina E, en función del color, textura y estabilidad de la vitamina E a diferentes condiciones de almacenamiento. El dl-;-tocoferol acetato fue cuantificado por HPLC en extractos hexánicos y sus niveles s...

  9. An inbred line of the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens for genomic and molecular genetic studies in the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovin, Janet P; Schmitt, Kyle; Folta, Kevin M

    2009-10-31

    The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is an attractive system for functional genomics studies. Its small stature, fast regeneration time, efficient transformability and small genome size, together with substantial EST and genomic sequence resources make it an ideal reference plant for Fragaria and other herbaceous perennials. Most importantly, this species shares gene sequence similarity and genomic microcolinearity with other members of the Rosaceae family, including large-statured tree crops (such as apple, peach and cherry), and brambles and roses as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberry, F. xananassa. F. vesca may be used to quickly address questions of gene function relevant to these valuable crop species. Although some F. vesca lines have been shown to be substantially homozygous, in our hands plants in purportedly homozygous populations exhibited a range of morphological and physiological variation, confounding phenotypic analyses. We also found the genotype of a named variety, thought to be well-characterized and even sold commercially, to be in question. An easy to grow, standardized, inbred diploid Fragaria line with documented genotype that is available to all members of the research community will facilitate comparison of results among laboratories and provide the research community with a necessary tool for functionally testing the large amount of sequence data that will soon be available for peach, apple, and strawberry. A highly inbred line, YW5AF7, of a diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens line called "Yellow Wonder" (Y2) was developed and examined. Botanical descriptors were assessed for morphological characterization of this genotype. The plant line was found to be rapidly transformable using established techniques and media formulations. The development of the documented YW5AF7 line provides an important tool for Rosaceae functional genomic analyses. These day-neutral plants have a small genome, a seed to seed

  10. An inbred line of the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens for genomic and molecular genetic studies in the Rosaceae

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    Folta Kevin M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca is an attractive system for functional genomics studies. Its small stature, fast regeneration time, efficient transformability and small genome size, together with substantial EST and genomic sequence resources make it an ideal reference plant for Fragaria and other herbaceous perennials. Most importantly, this species shares gene sequence similarity and genomic microcolinearity with other members of the Rosaceae family, including large-statured tree crops (such as apple, peach and cherry, and brambles and roses as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberry, F. ×ananassa. F. vesca may be used to quickly address questions of gene function relevant to these valuable crop species. Although some F. vesca lines have been shown to be substantially homozygous, in our hands plants in purportedly homozygous populations exhibited a range of morphological and physiological variation, confounding phenotypic analyses. We also found the genotype of a named variety, thought to be well-characterized and even sold commercially, to be in question. An easy to grow, standardized, inbred diploid Fragaria line with documented genotype that is available to all members of the research community will facilitate comparison of results among laboratories and provide the research community with a necessary tool for functionally testing the large amount of sequence data that will soon be available for peach, apple, and strawberry. Results A highly inbred line, YW5AF7, of a diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens line called "Yellow Wonder" (Y2 was developed and examined. Botanical descriptors were assessed for morphological characterization of this genotype. The plant line was found to be rapidly transformable using established techniques and media formulations. Conclusion The development of the documented YW5AF7 line provides an important tool for Rosaceae functional genomic analyses

  11. Influencia de distintas citocininas en el cultivo in vitro de apices caulinares de Fragaria x ananassa y F. virginiana

    OpenAIRE

    Brutti, Cristina B.; Sánchez, Marcela I.; Caso, Osvaldo H.

    1984-01-01

    p.65-70 Se estudió la respuesta de Fragaria x ananassa (2n igual a 8x) cv. Brighton, de día netro (refloreciente) y cv. Douglas, de día corto, y de F. virginiana clon UC11 (2n igual 8x), de día corto, a distintas citocininas: 6- (4 - hidroxi - 3 metilbuí - 2 - txans - enilamino) purina (Z), 6 - (? -? - dimetil - alil - amimo) purina (2ip), 6 - bencilaminopurina (BAP) y 6 - furfurilaminopurina (Kin), mediante el cultivo in vitro de ápices caulinares. Se empleó el medio básico de Boxus (1974...

  12. Correlation between Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. Productivity and Photosynthesis-related Parameters under Various Growth Conditions

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    Hyo Gil Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic parameters and fruit yields, as well as fruit phytochemical accumulation of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. that had been cultivated in a greenhouse under different combinations of light intensity and temperature. In plants grown with low light (LL photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence was found to increase as compared with those grown under high light (HL. When strawberry plants were grown with temperature higher than 5◦C in addition to LL, they showed decrease in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, photochemical quenching (qP, as well as chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (RFd when compared with other combinations of light and temperature. Moreover, fruit yield of strawberry was closely correlated with chlorophyll fluorescence-related parameters such as NPQ, qP, and RFd, but not with the maximum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm. Although plant groups grown under different combinations of light and temperature showed almost comparable levels of photosynthesis rates (Pr when irradiated with low-intensity light, they displayed clear differences when measured with higher irradiances. Plants grown under HL with temperature above 10◦C showed the highest Pr, in contrast to the plants grown under LL with temperature above 5◦C. When the stomatal conductance and the transpiration rate were measured, plants of each treatment showed clear differences even when analyzed with lower irradiances. We also found that fruit production during winter season was more strongly influenced by growth temperature than light intensity. We suggest that fruit productivity of strawberry is closely associated with chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis-related parameters during cultivation under different regimes of temperature and light.

  13. Gibberellin mediates daylength-controlled differentiation of vegetative meristems in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch

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    Moritz Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of long and short shoots is an important developmental trait in several species of the Rosaceae family. However, the physiological mechanisms controlling this differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the role of gibberellin (GA in regulation of shoot differentiation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Korona. In strawberry, differentiation of axillary buds to runners (long shoot or to crown branches (short shoot is promoted by long-day and short-day conditions, respectively. Formation of crown branches is a prerequisite for satisfactory flowering because inflorescences are formed from the apical meristems of the crown. Results We found that both prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod inhibited runner initiation and consequently led to induction of crown branching. In both cases, this correlated with a similar decline in GA1 level. Exogenous GA3 completely reversed the effect of prohexadione-calcium in a long photoperiod, but was only marginally effective in short-day grown plants. However, transfer of GA3-treated plants from short days to long days restored the normal runner formation. This did not occur in plants that were not treated with GA3. We also studied GA signalling homeostasis and found that the expression levels of several GA biosynthetic, signalling and target genes were similarly affected by prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod in runner tips and axillary buds, respectively. Conclusion GA is needed for runner initiation in strawberry, and the inhibition of GA biosynthesis leads to the formation of crown branches. Our findings of similar changes in GA levels and in GA signalling homeostasis after prohexadione-calcium and short-day treatments, and photoperiod-dependent responsiveness of the axillary buds to GA indicate that GA plays a role also in the photoperiod-regulated differentiation of axillary buds. We propose that tightly regulated GA activity may control

  14. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.

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    Su-Ying eYeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, and a peroxidase (POD27 gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS-, independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR, FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS-/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries.

  15. Efecto de Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole en la producción de fresa (Fragaria sp.

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    Marco Alexander Luis-Ayala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cundinamarca ha sido un gran productor de fresa(Fragaria sp,en comparación con los demás departamentos de Colombia; pero uno de sus mayores limitantes es la pérdida de fruta causada por el moho gris, enfermedad desarrollada por el agente Botritis cinerea; por esta razón, se aplicó Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole® a los cultivos, en tres dosis, y se compararon con un testigo regional, Carbendazim®, teniendo como variables de estudio: producción, calidad, grados Brix, pH, acidez titulable y la incidencia de la enfermedad sobre el cultivo. Los resultados obtenidos y analizados por medio del software SAS y aplicando las pruebas de comparación de Tukey demostraron que la dosis de Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole® de 80cc/200L presentó la mayor producción de fruta de segunda, tercera y total, y la menor cantidad de fruta dañada, junto con la dosis de 120cc/200L. La menor producción total y por calidad se obtuvo con la dosis de Carbendazim® (250cc/200L. En cuanto a los grados Brix, no se encontraron diferencias significativas, pero sí un aumento durante las cuatro semanas de cosecha. Los valores más altos de pH y ATT se obtuvieron con las dosis de Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole®, y los menores valores, con las aplicaciones de Carbendazim® (250cc/200L.Se recomienda hacer aplicaciones de estos ingredientes en el manejo de la enfermedad moho gris.

  16. A Study of the Major Phytocoenotic and Economic Attributes of Fragaria Viridis (Duch.) Weston in Natural Conditions (through the Example of East Kazakhstan Region)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana A. Vdovina; Olga A. Serova; Nina M. Kadantseva

    2014-01-01

    This article provides data on the phytocoenotic and economic - morphological attributes of Fragaria viridis Duch., green strawberry, in various locations. The most sustainable habitat for the existence of this species has been located near the village of Zimoviye. The ratio between the generative and vegetative species in the examined coenopopulations allows us to subsume them under the invasional and normal types.

  17. A Study of the Major Phytocoenotic and Economic Attributes of Fragaria Viridis (Duch. Weston in Natural Conditions (through the Example of East Kazakhstan Region

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    Tatiana A. Vdovina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides data on the phytocoenotic and economic - morphological attributes of Fragaria viridis Duch., green strawberry, in various locations. The most sustainable habitat for the existence of this species has been located near the village of Zimoviye. The ratio between the generative and vegetative species in the examined coenopopulations allows us to subsume them under the invasional and normal types.

  18. Partial demethylation of oligogalacturonides by pectin methyl esterase 1 is required for eliciting defence responses in wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Sonia; Castillejo, Cristina; Quesada, Miguel A; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Brownsey, Geoff J; Suau, Rafael; Heredia, Antonio; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2008-04-01

    In addition to the role of the cell wall as a physical barrier against pathogens, some of its constituents, such as pectin-derived oligogalacturonides (OGA), are essential components for elicitation of defence responses. To investigate how modifications of pectin alter defence responses, we expressed the fruit-specific Fragaria x ananassa pectin methyl esterase FaPE1 in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca. Pectin from transgenic ripe fruits differed from the wild-type with regard to the degree and pattern of methyl esterification, as well as the average size of pectin polymers. Purified oligogalacturonides from the transgenic fruits showed a reduced degree of esterification compared to oligogalacturonides from wild-type fruits. This reduced esterification is necessary to elicit defence responses in strawberry. The transgenic F. vesca lines had constitutively activated pathogen defence responses, resulting in higher resistance to the necrotropic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Further studies in F. vesca and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that the elicitation capacity of the oligogalacturonides is more specific than previously envisaged.

  19. Morphological and cytological evaluation of progeny obtained from pollination of Fragaria x ananassa Duch. with Potentilla spp.

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    Katarzyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second year of growth, 131 (of 159 progeny from pollination of F. X ananassa with Potentilla spp. were examined for morphological characters such as leaf shape and lay-out, the ability to produce runners, flowering, the color of flower petals, sex, ability to develop torus and viability of seeds. On the basis of these characters, among which the ability of expansion of the fleshy receptacle (torus serves to distinguish representatives of the genus Fragaria from Potentilla species, the progeny from this intergeneric pollination was considered matroclinous (850/o produce fleshy fruits and the remaining plants also show Fragaria traits. Matroclinous plants preserve traits of the maternal species, but show a variability of these characters within the species, thus;, they are not identical with the varie.ties from which they arose. Matroclinous plants differ widely in ploidy. Among the 153 examined individuals, tetraploids were most numerously represented (41%, next came penta- and hexaploids (36%, octoploids (8%, mixoploids and aneuploids (6,5%, triploids (5.5% and others. From among 199 matroclinous plants, 77 produce relatively highly viable seeds in open pollination, 33 gave seeds of low viability and 8 produced completely sterile seeds. Preliminary examination of the progeny of matroclinous plants seems to indicate that it is possible to obtain a next fertile generation.

  20. Differential protein accumulations in isolates of the strawberry wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae differing in virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangling; Barbetti, Martin J

    2014-08-28

    This study was conducted to define differences in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof) isolates with different virulence efficiency to strawberry at the proteome level, in combination with their differences in mycelial growth, conidial production and germination. Comparative proteome analyses revealed substantial differences in mycelial proteomes between Fof isolates, where the 54 differentially accumulated protein spots were consistently over-accumulated or exclusively in the highly virulent isolate. These protein spots were identified through MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analyses, and the identified proteins were mainly related to primary and protein metabolism, antioxidation, electron transport, cell cycle and transcription based on their putative functions. Proteins of great potential as Fof virulence factors were those involved in ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated protein degradation and reactive oxygen species detoxification; the hydrolysis-related protein haloacid dehalogenase superfamily hydrolase; 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase associated with riboflavin biosynthesis; and those exclusive to the highly virulent isolate. In addition, post-translational modifications may also make an important contribution to Fof virulence. F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt in strawberry, is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, factors and mechanisms contributing to Fof virulence remained unknown. This study provides knowledge of the molecular basis for the differential expression of virulence in Fof, allowing new possibilities towards developing alternative and more effective strategies to manage Fusarium wilt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrative omic analysis reveals distinctive cold responses in leaves and roots of strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa ‘Korona’

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    Gage eKoehler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess underlying metabolic processes and regulatory mechanisms during cold exposure of strawberry, integrative omic approaches were applied to Fragaria × ananassa Duch. ‘Korona’. Both root and leaf tissues were examined for responses to the cold acclimation processes. Levels of metabolites, proteins, and transcripts in tissues from plants grown at 18°C were compared to those following 1 to 10 days of cold (2°C exposure. Overall, ‘Korona’ showed a modest increase of protective metabolites such as amino acids (aspartic acid, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, pentoses, phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated hexoses, and distinct compounds of the raffinose pathway (galactinol and raffinose. By 2DE proteomics a total of 845 spots were observed in leaves; 4.6% changed significantly in response to cold.Transcript levels in leaves were determined by microarray, where dozens of cold associated transcripts were quantitatively characterized, and levels of several potential key contributors (e.g., the dehydrin COR47 and GADb to cold tolerance were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Cold responses are placed within the existing knowledge base of low temperature stress change in plants, allowing an evaluation of the uniqueness or generality of Fragaria responses in photosynthetic tissues. Overall, the cold response characteristics of ‘Korona’ are consistent with a moderately cold tolerant plant.

  2. RESISTÊNCIA DE Colletotrichum fragariae E C. acutatum AO BENOMYL NA CULTURA DO MORANGO NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO

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    M.A.S. TANAKA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available O fungicida benomyl, utilizado intensivamente na cultura do morango a partir do final da década de 60, tem sido ineficiente para o controle da flor preta, causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, devido ao aparecimento de formas resistentes ao fungicida, já detectadas desde 1984. Para C. fragariae, no entanto, não há registro de ocorrência de resistência no Estado de São Paulo, embora venha se observando há alguns anos que o produto não tem apresentado resultados satisfatórios para o controle da podridão do rizoma ("chocolate". Para verificar a ocorrência de resistência em C. fragariae foram testados 22 isolados, coletados em diversas regiões produtoras de morango do Estado de São Paulo, e 22 isolados de C. acutatum, para comparação. Todos os isolados de C. acutatum foram resistentes, mesmo na concentração de 1000 ppm. Dos 22 isolados de C. fragariae, 10 comportaram-se como resistentes, crescendo em todas as concentrações testadas. Os demais só se desenvolveram até 1 ppm, sendo considerados sensíveis. As porcentagens de inibição do crescimento dos isolados de C. fragariae resistentes variaram de 50,0 a 88,8 (1 ppm, 54,5 a 89,8 (10 ppm, 63,6 a 78,7 (50 ppm, 67,3 a 80,3 (100 ppm, 74,4 a 82,0 (500 ppm e 76,4 a 86,0 (1000 ppm. Inoculando-se isolados resistentes e sensíveis de C. fragariae em plantas da cultivar IAC-Campinas, observou-se que todos foram igualmente patogênicos.The intensive use of benomyl in strawberry fields since the late 60s. resulted in an ineffective control of the flower blight, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum due to the development of resistance to the fungicide by the patogen, detected in 1984. Until recently, the resistance was not demonstrated in C. fragariae although an increasing failure of benomyl to provide satisfactory control of the crown rot ("chocolate" rot has been observed, indicating the possible occurrence of resistance. To verify this evidence, 22 isolates of C. fragariae, collected at

  3. XTHs from Fragaria vesca: genomic structure and transcriptomic analysis in ripening fruit and other tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo, María Cecilia; Lizana, Rodrigo; Stappung, Yazmina; Davis, Thomas M; Herrera, Raúl; Moya-León, María Alejandra

    2017-11-07

    Fragaria vesca or 'woodland strawberry' has emerged as an attractive model for the study of ripening of non-climacteric fruit. It has several advantages, such as its small genome and its diploidy. The recent availability of the complete sequence of its genome opens the possibility for further analysis and its use as a reference species. Fruit softening is a physiological event and involves many biochemical changes that take place at the final stages of fruit development; among them, the remodeling of cell walls by the action of a set of enzymes. Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is a cell wall-associated enzyme, which is encoded by a multigene family. Its action modifies the structure of xyloglucans, a diverse group of polysaccharides that crosslink with cellulose microfibrills, affecting therefore the functional structure of the cell wall. The aim of this work is to identify the XTH-encoding genes present in F. vesca and to determine its transcription level in ripening fruit. The search resulted in identification of 26 XTH-encoding genes named as FvXTHs. Genetic structure and phylogenetic analyses were performed allowing the classification of FvXTH genes into three phylogenetic groups: 17 in group I/II, 2 in group IIIA and 4 in group IIIB. Two sequences were included into the ancestral group. Through a comparative analysis, characteristic structural protein domains were found in FvXTH protein sequences. In complement, expression analyses of FvXTHs by qPCR were performed in fruit at different developmental and ripening stages, as well as, in other tissues. The results showed a diverse expression pattern of FvXTHs in several tissues, although most of them are highly expressed in roots. Their expression patterns are not related to their respective phylogenetic groups. In addition, most FvXTHs are expressed in ripe fruit, and interestingly, some of them (FvXTH 18 and 20, belonging to phylogenic group I/II, and FvXTH 25 and 26 to group IIIB) display an

  4. Fruit quality in strawberry (Fragaria sp. grown on colored plastic mulch

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    Casierra-Posada Fánor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

  5. Aroma Quality of Fruits of Wild and Cultivated Strawberry (FRAGARIA SPP. in Relation to the Flavour-Related Gene Expression

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    Bianchi Giulia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Expression profiles of flavour-related genes and the aroma quality of fruit headspace were investigated in the four strawberry genotypes ‘Reine des Vallées’ (Fragaria vesca, ‘Profumata di Tortona’ (F mos-chata, ‘Onda’ and VR 177 selection (F” x ananassa. Differences in the expression level of genes coding of strawberry alcohol acyltransferase (SAAT, F. x ananassa nerolidol synthase 1 (FaNESl and F vesca monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases (FvPINS and PINS1, respectively were detected among these genotypes. In fruits of F. x ananassa the terpenoid profile was dominated by nerolidol, whereas wild spe–cies produced mainly monoterpenes. It was correlated with the higher induction of FaNES1 in cultivated and PINS gene in the wild Fragaria species. The flavour biogenesis in ripening fruits was determined by the expression of SAAT gene, especially visible for ‘Profumata di Tortona’ and ‘Onda’ strawberries. The fruit solid-phase microextraction (SPME headspace was analysed using the Gas Chromatography-Olfac–tometry (GC-O, that allows for the chromatographic separation of volatiles together with their olfactomet-ric evaluation. ‘Reine des Vallées’ fruits have a peculiar profile characterized by high concentrations of limonene, linalool and mesifurane that resulted in “spiced”, “citrus, floral” and “sweet, baked” descriptors. The character impact compound in ‘Profumata di Tortona’ fruits was ethyl butanoate, responsible for “sweet” and “fruity, strawberry” descriptors. However, it was detected in lower amount in comparison to the data obtained for F. x ananassa strawberries. The sesquiterpene nerolidol was identified in both culti–vated strawberry genotypes.

  6. Transcript Quantification by RNA-Seq Reveals Differentially Expressed Genes in the Red and Yellow Fruits of Fragaria vesca.

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    Yuchao Zhang

    Full Text Available Fragaria vesca (2n = 2x = 14, the woodland strawberry, is a perennial herbaceous plant with a small sequenced genome (240 Mb. It is commonly used as a genetic model plant for the Fragaria genus and the Rosaceae family. Fruit skin color is one of the most important traits for both the commercial and esthetic value of strawberry. Anthocyanins are the most prominent pigments in strawberry that bring red, pink, white, and yellow hues to the fruits in which they accumulate. In this study, we conducted a de novo assembly of the fruit transcriptome of woodland strawberry and compared the gene expression profiles with yellow (Yellow Wonder, YW and red (Ruegen, RG fruits. De novo assembly yielded 75,426 unigenes, 21.3% of which were longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 45,387 (60.2% had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 595 genes, representing 0.79% of total unigenes, were differentially expressed in YW and RG. Among them, 224 genes were up-regulated and 371 genes were down-regulated in the fruit of YW. Particularly, some flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes, including C4H, CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR and ANS, as well as some transcription factors (TFs, including MYB (putative MYB86 and MYB39, WDR and MADS, were down-regulated in YW fruit, concurrent with a reduction in anthocyanin accumulation in the yellow pigment phenotype, whereas a putative transcription repressor MYB1R was up-regulated in YW fruit. The altered expression levels of the genes encoding flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes and TFs were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the yellow pigment phenotype in F. vesca.

  7. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of strawberry (Fragaria  × ananassa Duch.) and comparison with related species of Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui; Li, Jinfeng; Zhang, Hong; Cai, Binhua; Gao, Zhihong; Qiao, Yushan; Mi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Compared with other members of the family Rosaceae, the chloroplast genomes of Fragaria species exhibit low variation, and this situation has limited phylogenetic analyses; thus, complete chloroplast genome sequencing of Fragaria species is needed. In this study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of F . ×  ananassa 'Benihoppe' using the Illumina HiSeq 2500-PE150 platform and then performed a combination of de novo assembly and reference-guided mapping of contigs to generate complete chloroplast genome sequences. The chloroplast genome exhibits a typical quadripartite structure with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 25,936 bp) separated by large (LSC, 85,531 bp) and small (SSC, 18,146 bp) single-copy (SC) regions. The length of the F . ×  ananassa 'Benihoppe' chloroplast genome is 155,549 bp, representing the smallest Fragaria chloroplast genome observed to date. The genome encodes 112 unique genes, comprising 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. Comparative analysis of the overall nucleotide sequence identity among ten complete chloroplast genomes confirmed that for both coding and non-coding regions in Rosaceae, SC regions exhibit higher sequence variation than IRs. The Ka/Ks ratio of most genes was less than 1, suggesting that most genes are under purifying selection. Moreover, the mVISTA results also showed a high degree of conservation in genome structure, gene order and gene content in Fragaria , particularly among three octoploid strawberries which were F . ×  ananassa 'Benihoppe', F . chiloensis (GP33) and F . virginiana (O477). However, when the sequences of the coding and non-coding regions of F . ×  ananassa 'Benihoppe' were compared in detail with those of F . chiloensis (GP33) and F . virginiana (O477), a number of SNPs and InDels were revealed by MEGA 7. Six non-coding regions ( trnK - matK , trnS - trnG , atpF - atpH , trnC - petN , trnT - psbD and trnP - psaJ ) with a percentage of variable sites greater than

  8. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of strawberry (Fragaria  × ananassa Duch. and comparison with related species of Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Compared with other members of the family Rosaceae, the chloroplast genomes of Fragaria species exhibit low variation, and this situation has limited phylogenetic analyses; thus, complete chloroplast genome sequencing of Fragaria species is needed. In this study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of F. × ananassa ‘Benihoppe’ using the Illumina HiSeq 2500-PE150 platform and then performed a combination of de novo assembly and reference-guided mapping of contigs to generate complete chloroplast genome sequences. The chloroplast genome exhibits a typical quadripartite structure with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 25,936 bp separated by large (LSC, 85,531 bp and small (SSC, 18,146 bp single-copy (SC regions. The length of the F. × ananassa ‘Benihoppe’ chloroplast genome is 155,549 bp, representing the smallest Fragaria chloroplast genome observed to date. The genome encodes 112 unique genes, comprising 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. Comparative analysis of the overall nucleotide sequence identity among ten complete chloroplast genomes confirmed that for both coding and non-coding regions in Rosaceae, SC regions exhibit higher sequence variation than IRs. The Ka/Ks ratio of most genes was less than 1, suggesting that most genes are under purifying selection. Moreover, the mVISTA results also showed a high degree of conservation in genome structure, gene order and gene content in Fragaria, particularly among three octoploid strawberries which were F. × ananassa ‘Benihoppe’, F. chiloensis (GP33 and F. virginiana (O477. However, when the sequences of the coding and non-coding regions of F. × ananassa ‘Benihoppe’ were compared in detail with those of F. chiloensis (GP33 and F. virginiana (O477, a number of SNPs and InDels were revealed by MEGA 7. Six non-coding regions (trnK-matK, trnS-trnG, atpF-atpH, trnC-petN, trnT-psbD and trnP-psaJ with a percentage of variable sites greater than 1

  9. The impact of cold chain temperature abuses on the quality of frozen strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa

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    Rui Cruz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of frozen foods can be negatively affected if improper storage and distribution temperatures are allowed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of freeze-thaw cycles, which may occur in the cold chain, on colour (Lab, Total Colour Differences (TCD, chroma and hue angle and vitamin C (ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids content of frozen strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa, Duschesne, cv. Selva. A plan of temperature abuses (TAs was established, based on a real situation, and applied to frozen strawberries during a four month frozen storage period. The results showed that the lightness (L was the only parameter that was not significantly affected by range of TAs studied. The colour showed some variation on the parameters a, b, TCD, chroma and hue angle. During TAs, ascorbic acid decreased about 75% and dehydroascorbic acid increased 73%. The non-abused strawberry samples showed better overall appearance than the abused samples. This work contributes to an understanding of the quality changes of frozen strawberries that might occur during frozen storage and cold chain distribution.

  10. Genomic identification, phylogeny, and expression analysis of MLO genes involved in susceptibility to powdery mildew in Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, L X; Jiang, M; Zhang, Y C; Yang, X F; Zhang, H Q; Zhang, Z F; Wang, Y Z; Jiang, G H

    2016-08-05

    The MLO (powdery mildew locus O) gene family is important in resistance to powdery mildew (PM). In this study, all of the members of the MLO family were identified and analyzed in the strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome. The strawberry contains at least 20 members of the MLO family, and the protein sequence contained between 171 and 1485 amino acids, with 0-34 introns. Chromosomal localization showed that the MLOs were unevenly distributed on each of the chromosomes, except for chromosome 4. The greatest number of MLOs (seven) was found on chromosome 3. A phylogenetic tree showed that the MLOs were divided into seven groups (I-VII), four of which consisted of MLOs from strawberry, Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and maize, suggesting that these genes may have evolved after the divergence of monocots and dicots. Multiple sequence alignment showed that strawberry MLO candidates related to powdery mildew resistance possessed seven highly conserved transmembrane domains, a calmodulin-binding domain, and two conserved regions, all of which are important domains for powdery mildew resistance genes. Expressed sequence tag analysis revealed that the MLOs were induced by multiple abiotic stressors, including low and high temperature, drought, and high salinity. These findings will contribute to the functional characterization of MLOs related to PM susceptibility, and will assist in the development of disease resistance in strawberries.

  11. The Effect of Potassium on Growth and Yield of Strawberry (Fragaria Ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, S; Rhaman, I.; Ijaz, F.; Afzal, A.; Khan, M.; Khan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Fragaria ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston) Duchesne ex-Rozier (Strawberry) variety chandler of Agriculture Research Station (ARS) Baffa, Mansehra was evaluated for different growth and yield parameters under five treatments. In this experiment Potassium was used in 5 different treatments of 3 replications (T0 = Control, T1 = 200 g/6.75m/sup 2/, T2 = 400 g/6.75m/sup 2/, T3 = 600 g/6.75m/sup 2/, T4 = 800 g/6.75m/sup 2/). The results showed maximum value under T3 (405g/6.75m/sup 2/) for characteristics like survival percentage (83.54 percent), plant height (32.05 cm), canopy size (13.62 cm), crown diameter (2.73 cm), number of branches (35.83), number of leaves (67.00), leaf length (5.87 cm), root length (3.51 cm), total number of fruits (43.93), days to 50 percent fruiting (233.67), fruit diameter (3.96 cm), fruit weight (411.40g). Moreover, transplanting date (20 Sep, 2013) is suitable to get maximum yield of strawberry variety Chandler. The findings of this experiment showed that great variations in morphological, physical and agronomic traits of strawberry variety and can be utilized to develop high yield and better quality of strawberry. (author)

  12. Isolation of genes differentially expressed during development and ripening of Fragaria chiloensis fruit by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Paula; Salvatierra, Ariel; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

    2010-09-15

    Fragaria chiloensis, the native Chilean strawberry, is noted for its good fruit quality characters. However, it is a highly perishable fruit due to its rapid softening. With the aim to screen for genes differentially expressed during development and ripening of strawberry fruit, the subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH) methodology was employed. Six libraries were generated contrasting transcripts from four different developmental stages. A set of 1807 genes was isolated and characterized. In our EST collection, approximately 90% of partial cDNAs showed significant similarity to proteins with known or unknown function registered in databases. Among them, proteins related to protein fate were identified in a large green fruit library and protein related with cellular transport, cell wall-related proteins, and transcription regulators were identified in a ripe fruit library. Thirteen genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR during development and ripening of the Chilean strawberry fruit. The information generated in this study provides new clues to aid the understanding of the ripening process in F. chiloensis fruit. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Combining 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, the major flower volatile of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca, with the aggregation pheromone of the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi improves attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibe, Atle; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin; Cross, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil [Anthonomus rubi Herbst (Col.: Curculionidae)], a 1:4:1 blend of Grandlure I, II and racemic lavadulol, has been available for pest monitoring for several years but shows low attractancy. Attempts to control A.rubi using the pheromone alone...... were also unsuccessful. This paper reports the finding that addition of the major flower volatile from wild strawberry flowers [Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae)], 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (comprising 98% of the volatiles emitted from wild strawberry flowers), to the aggregation pheromone increased trap catches...... pest of strawberry....

  14. The WRKY transcription factors in the diploid woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca: Identification and expression analysis under biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Feng, Jia-Yue

    2016-08-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and in plant growth and development. To date, little is known about the WRKY gene family in strawberry. In this study, we identified 62 WRKY genes (FvWRKYs) in the wild diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca, 2n = 2x = 14) accession Heilongjiang-3. According to the phylogenetic analysis and structural features, these identified strawberry FvWRKY genes were classified into three main groups. In addition, eight FvWRKY-GFP fusion proteins showed distinct subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 62 FvWRKY genes in 'Heilongjiang-3' under various conditions, including biotic stress (Podosphaera aphanis), abiotic stresses (drought, salt, cold, and heat), and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid). The expression levels of 33 FvWRKY genes were upregulated, while 12 FvWRKY genes were downregulated during powdery mildew infection. FvWRKY genes responded to drought and salt treatment to a greater extent than to temperature stress. Expression profiles derived from quantitative real-time PCR suggested that 11 FvWRKY genes responded dramatically to various stimuli at the transcriptional level, indicating versatile roles in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Interaction networks revealed that the crucial pathways controlled by WRKY proteins may be involved in the differential response to biotic stress. Taken together, the present work may provide the basis for future studies of the genetic modification of WRKY genes for pathogen resistance and stress tolerance in strawberry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification, Isolation, and Expression Analysis of Heat Shock Transcription Factors in the Diploid Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eHu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs are known to play dominant roles in plant responses to heat, as well as other abiotic or biotic stress stimuli. While the strawberry is an economically important fruit plant, little is known about the Hsf family in the strawberry. To explore the functions of strawberry Hsfs in abiotic and biotic stress responses, this study identified 17 Hsf genes (FvHsfs in a wild diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca, 2n = 2x = 14 and isolated 14 of these genes. Phylogenetic analysis divided the strawberry FvHsfs genes into three main groups. The evolutionary and structural analyses revealed that the FvHsf family is conserved. The promoter sequences of the FvHsf genes contain upstream regulatory elements corresponding to different stress stimuli. In addition, 14 FvHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 17 FvHsf genes in wild diploid woodland strawberries under various conditions, including abiotic stresses (heat, cold, drought, and salt, biotic stress (powdery mildew infection, and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. Fifteen of the 17 FvHsf genes exhibited distinct changes on the transcriptional level during heat treatment. Of these 15 FvHsfs, 8 FvHsfs also exhibited distinct responses to other stimuli on the transcriptional level, indicating versatile roles in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Taken together, the present work may provide the basis for further studies to dissect FvHsf function in response to stress stimuli.

  16. Identifying haplotypes for flowering and QTLs for fruit quality in the RosBREED Michigan and Oregon strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) breeding sets using pedigree-based analysis [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) is consumed for its flavor and health benefits. Over the last two decades, several quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis studies for consumer traits were conducted using low-density genetic maps. The previous studies utilized low-throughput genotyping methodologies. ...

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Expression of WRKY Family Genes in Different Developmental Stages of Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heying Zhou

    Full Text Available WRKY proteins play important regulatory roles in plant developmental processes such as senescence, trichome initiation and embryo morphogenesis. In strawberry, only FaWRKY1 (Fragaria × ananassa has been characterized, leaving numerous WRKY genes to be identified and their function characterized. The publication of the draft genome sequence of the strawberry genome allowed us to conduct a genome-wide search for WRKY proteins in Fragaria vesca, and to compare the identified proteins with their homologs in model plants. Fifty-nine FvWRKY genes were identified and annotated from the F. vesca genome. Detailed analysis, including gene classification, annotation, phylogenetic evaluation, conserved motif determination and expression profiling, based on RNA-seq data, were performed on all members of the family. Additionally, the expression patterns of the WRKY genes in different fruit developmental stages were further investigated using qRT-PCR, to provide a foundation for further comparative genomics and functional studies of this important class of transcriptional regulators in strawberry.

  18. Liquid chromatographic/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric study of polyphenolic composition of four cultivars of Fragaria vesca L. berries and their comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bubba, Massimo; Checchini, Leonardo; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Doumett, Saer; Fibbi, Donatella; Giordani, Edgardo

    2012-09-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion spray mass spectrometry in the tandem mode with both negative and positive ionization was used for investigating a variety of polyphenolic compounds in four genotypes of Fragaria vesca berries. About 60 phenolic compounds belonging to the compound classes of phenolic acids, ellagitannins, ellagic acid derivatives, flavonols, monomeric and oligomeric flavanols, dihydrochalcones and anthocyanins were reported, providing for the first time a quite complete picture of polyphenolic composition of F. vesca berries. Some of the polyphenols herein investigated, such as a tris-galloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-hexose, two castalagin/vescalagin-like isomers and peonidin-malonylglucoside, were described for the first time. Principal component analysis applied on original HPLC-MS/MS data, acquired in multiple reaction monitoring mode, successfully discriminated the four investigated cultivars on the basis of their polyphenolic composition, highlighting the fundamental role of mass spectrometry for food characterization. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effet du nitrate d’ammonium sur le développement et l’activité des enzymes anti-oxydantes du fraisier (Fragaria x ananassa L.) micropropagé

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Druart; Ahmed Jemmali; Karim Ben Hamed; Ahlem Chakroun; Chadly Abdelli

    2007-01-01

    Effect of ammonium nitrate on the development and anti-oxydant enzymes activity of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa L.) propagated in vitro. The addition of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) at different concentrations (500, 1000 and 1500 mg.l-1) to the in vitro multiplication medium improved significantly the vigor and reversed the leaf chlorosis affecting the strawberry shoots when cultivated on Boxus standard medium, which only contains nitrate as source of nitrogen. The analysis performed with bot...

  20. Induction of resistance to phytophtora infestant T1 in tomatoes by mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimundu, Puena; Saccardo.

    1978-01-01

    Neutron irradiation for seeds and gamma irradiation for gametes have been used at 200 Rads to produce tomatoes mutants resistant to phycomycetes. 5% of resistant chlorophylian mutations have been observed on M1 plants and 6 % on M2 plants

  1. Biological control of strawberry Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae using Bacillus velezensis BS87 and RK1 formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myeong Hyeon; Park, Myung Soo; Kim, Hong Gi; Yoo, Sung Joon

    2009-05-01

    Two isolates, Bacillus sp. BS87 and RK1, selected from soil in strawberry fields in Korea, showed high levels of antagonism towards Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in vitro. The isolates were identified as B. velezensis based on the homology of their gyrA sequences to reference strains. BS87 and RK1 were evaluated for control of Fusarium wilt in strawberries in pot trials and field trials conducted in Nonsan, Korea. In the pot trials, the optimum applied concentration of BS87 and RK1 for pre-plant root-dip application to control Fusarium wilt was 10(5) and 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, respectively. Meanwhile, in the 2003 and 2005 field trials, the biological control efficacies of formulations of RK1 were similar to that of a conventional fungicide (copper hydroxide) when compared with a non-treated control. The RK1 formulation was also more effective than BS87 in suppressing Fusarium wilt under field conditions. Therefore, the results indicated that formulation of B.velezensis BS87 and RK1 may have potential to control Fusarium wilt in strawberries.

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Cao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively. According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  3. Changes in polyphenol composition and bioactivity of the native Chilean white strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis spp. chiloensis f. chiloensis) after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Burgos-Edwards, Alberto; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    The Chilean white strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis spp. chiloensis f. chiloensis) is a semi-domesticated strawberry with high polyphenol content and antioxidant activity occurring in southern Chile. The aim of this work was to compare the composition and bioactivity of the polyphenol-enriched fruit extract (PEE) before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Results show a decrease by >50% in the total phenolic (TP) content at the end of the GID, compared to the non-digested PEE. A reduction in the antioxidant capacity of the PEEs was observed after GID by means of DPPH, FRAP, TEAC and anion superoxide assays. After simulated GID the PEE significantly inhibited α-glucosidase with an IC 50 value of 3.13μg/mL. The inhibition of pancreatic lipase was reduced by 95% after GID. All the PEEs did not show inhibitory effect towards α-amylase throughout the GID. In the same way, the PEEs did not significantly protect human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells against H 2 O 2 -induced stress. Thirty eight compounds were tentatively identified in the non-digested PEE. The compounds that were more affected by the simulated GID were simple phenolics. After the GID, only 33 and 25 compounds were detected, in the gastric and intestinal steps, respectively. These results evidence the changes elicited by GID on the bioactivity and polyphenolic composition of the white strawberry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of gamma-ray irradiation to strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) calli on shoot regeneration, achene formation and morphological variations of regenerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasumi, Masakazu

    2002-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa 'Nyoho') calli, derived from anthers, were irradiated with gamma -ray at dosages from 100 to 1,600 Gy (10 Gy · hr - 1) and their effects on callus growth, plant regeneration, and somaclonal variation were analyzed. The growth of callus and percentage of plant regeneration from the callus were reduced slightly at dosages less than 200 Gy, moderately at 400 Gy, and markedly above 800 Gy. Fruit growth associated with seed fertility (>50 % ) was morphologically normal at less than 100 Gy, whereas achene formation was significantly inhibited above 200 Gy. The percentages of morphological variation in regenerants formed from the irradiated callus were:13.7 (no irradiation), 18.6 (100 Gy), 66.0 (200 Gy), 75.7 (400 Gy), and 97.0 (800 Gy). Furthermore, higher dosages yielded wider variations, e.g., thick and small leaf, light leaf color, white flesh, and long fruit. In some regenerants, more than one morphological aberrations developed, some of which were transmissible to daughter plants. These results revealed that the irradiating strawberry callus with gamma - ray resulted in a higher degree and wider spectrum of somaclonal variation than did simple callus culture. (author)

  5. Aplicación de películas comestibles a base de quitosano y mucílago de nopal en fresa (Fragaria ananassa) almacenada en refrigeración

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Hernández, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar un estudio para evaluar la aplicación de películas comestibles a base de quitosano y mucílago de nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) en la calidad de fresas (Fragaria ananassa) variedad "Festival", almacenadas en recipientes plásticos, listas para consumir y almacenadas en refrigeración. La primera etapa del estudio consistió en estandarizar una técnica para la extracción de mucílago de nopal. Se evaluaron varias técnicas reportadas...

  6. Comparison of the Effect of 1-MCP and Low-Pressure Air on Shelflife of Strawberry Fruit (Fragaria ananassa cv. Camarossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Modares

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa has tasteful, fragrant and nutritious fruits. But, because of delicate texture and high metabolic activities of the fruits at maturity, are very sensitive and easily decayed, and thus have short shelflife. Ethylene is one of the main causes of postharvest fruit losses, which could reduce the shelflife of strawberry. Therefore, an experiment was carried out to examine the effect of 1 µL/L 1-MCP treatment and low-pressure air pretreatment at 0.2 atm in 2 hours on apparent and physicochemical characteristics of strawberry fruit, cultivar Camarossa, during storage in cold store. The study was performed as split plots in time, based on complete randomized design with 3 replications. The results showed that the highest marketability (90%, fruit firmness (7.95 N, titrable organic acids (1.15 g/100 cc, vitamin C (78.13 mg/100 cc and total soluble solids (10.48 % and the lowest amount of apparent decay (13.3 %, acidity (3.63 and taste index (9.04 were obtained in 1-MCP and low-pressure air treatments, which shows the effect of treatments on reducing the rate of biochemical variations in fruit texture. Correlation coefficients between all treatments were significant (P≤0.01. Meanwhile, the positive effect of 1-MCP on appearance and studied physicochemical characteristics was more than low-pressure air pretreatment. Even, the combination of these two treatments had no significant difference with 1-MCp treatment alone. In general, this observation depicts the more positive and significant effect of 1-MCP treatment in delaying the maturity and improving the qualitative traits of strawberry fruits after being stored in cold storage.

  7. Implementing reverse genetics in Rosaceae: analysis of T-DNA flanking sequences of insertional mutant lines in the diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosumi, Teruko; Ruiz-Rojas, Juan Jairo; Veilleux, Richard E; Dickerman, Allan; Shulaev, Vladimir

    2010-09-01

    Reverse genetics is used for functional genomics research in model plants. To establish a model system for the systematic reverse genetics research in the Rosaceae family, we analyzed genomic DNA flanking the T-DNA insertions in 191 transgenic plants of the diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca. One hundred and seventy-six T-DNA flanking sequences were amplified from the right border (RB) and 37 from the left border (LB) by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Analysis of the T-DNA nick positions revealed that T-DNA was most frequently nicked at the cleavage sites. Analysis of 11 T-DNA integration sites indicated that T-DNA was integrated into the F. vesca genome by illegitimate recombination, as reported in other model plants: Arabidopsis, rice and tobacco. First, deletion of DNA was found at T-DNA integration target sites in all transgenic plants tested. Second, microsimilarities of a few base pairs between the left and/or right ends of the T-DNA and genomic sites were found in all transgenic plants tested. Finally, filler DNA was identified in four break-points. Out of 191 transgenic plants, T-DNA flanking sequences of 79 plants (41%) showed significant similarity to genes, elements or proteins of other plant species and 67 (35%) of the sequences are still unknown strawberry gene fragments. T-DNA flanking sequences of 126 plants (66%) showed homology to plant ESTs. This is the first report of T-DNA integration in a sizeable population of a rosaceous species. We have shown in this paper that T-DNA integration in strawberry is not random but directed by sequence microsimilarities in the host genome.

  8. Targeted Sequence Capture Provides Insight into Genome Structure and Genetics of Male Sterility in a Gynodioecious Diploid Strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3−5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

  9. Crecimiento y distribución de materia seca en cultivares de fresa (Fragaria sp. bajo estrés salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra-Posada Fánor

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Las sales se acumulan a menudo en el suelo de los cultivos de fresa como consecuencia del agua empleada para fertirrigación. Se realizó un experimento en invernadero con el objeto de estudiar la respuesta de cultivares de fresa (Fragaria sp. a concentraciones crecientes de NaCl. Los cultivares de fresa Sweet Charlie, Camarosa y Chandler se sembraron en materas con suelo en la localidad de Tunja (Colombia. El suelo de las materas se salinizó gradualmente con NaCl mediante la adición de 0, 20, 40, 60 y 80 mM· kg-1 de suelo secado a temperatura ambiente. Las plantas se cosecharon 16 semanas luego de empezados los tratamientos. Se midió la distribución de materia seca en hojas, coronas, flores, raíces y frutos, así como el área foliar total, el área necrótica, el peso específico de las hojas, el peso seco y fresco por fruto, y la relación brote/raíz. Los resultados indicaron que la acumulación de sales en plantas de fresa reduce el vigor, retarda el crecimiento y disminuye la producción de biomasa. Se observaron con frecuencia lesiones de quemado medianas a severas en los bordes de las hojas de acuerdo con la concentración de sales en el suelo. Entre los tres cultivares de fresa evaluados, Sweet Charlie fue más tolerante al estrés por salinidad en comparación con los demás cultivares.

  10. INFLUENCIA DEL CLORURO DE CALCIO Y DE UN TIPO DE EMPAQUE SOBRE LAS PROPIEDADES FISICOQUÍMICAS Y LA TEXTURA DE LA FRESA (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH. DURANTE EL ALMACENAMIENTO INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND A PACKING TYPE ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND THE TEXTURE OF THE STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auris Damely García Mendez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de analizar la influencia del cloruro de calcio (CaCl2, sobre la calidad de las fresas (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. de la variedad Capitola para el consumo fresco, se ensayó su aplicación a una concentración de 0,7%, empacando los frutos con y sin este tratamiento en un tipo de envase plástico con y sin cobertura termoplástica (Envoplast®, en condiciones de refrigeración comercial. Como resultado, se encontró que los frutos tratados y envasados con Envoplast®, tuvieron la menor pérdida de peso y cambios en la textura, °Brix acidez, durante un tiempo máximo de siete días de almacenamiento a 5+1 °C y 95+5% HR. Mientras los frutos no tratados, pero envasados sin la cobertura, presentaron un incremento progresivo de su deterioro en el lapso de tres días, atribuido al alto grado perecedero. En conclusión, el uso del CaCl2 al 0,7% y el tipo de envasado con una película de permeabilidad selectiva que promovió una atmósfera modificada pasiva, permitieron reducir las mermas de peso y la deshidratación de las fresas durante el almacenamiento sin que ocurriera daño por frío. Dada la influencia positiva de este tratamiento para mantener las características fisicoquímicas y de frescura en este producto, se recomendó su uso como alternativa de conservación en postcosecha.With the purpose of analyzing the influence of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on quality of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. Capitola variety for fresh consumption, is testing its implement a concentration of 0.7%, packing the fruits with and without this treatment in a type of container and non-coverage thermoplastic (Envoplast® commercial refrigeration conditions. As a result, it was found that processed and packaged fruit with Envoplast® had the least weight loss and changes in texture, acidity and °Brix, for a maximum of seven das time of storage at 5+1 °C and 95+5% RH. While the treated fruits, but packaged without coverage, had a progressive

  11. Evaluation of the use of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated through oxyion® technology in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston Duchesne ex Rozier cv. Monterrey storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Andres Ramirez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a key role in oxidative stress processes at the biological level. In most cases the presence of these chemical species is undesirable due to the impact they have on tissues and cellular structures, however, their effects can be used to control the incidence of microorganisms responsible for deterioration processes in fruits and vegetables. In the present study the feasibility of combining low temperature storage with the presence of reactive oxygen species generated using Oxyion® technology to control the deterioration process in strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa was studied. The treatments used were as follows: control storage (4°C ± 2°C without Oxyion® and ROS storage (4°C ± 2°C with Oxyion®, for two product categories according to weight and maturation state according to NTC 4103 (ICONTEC, 1997. The variables were monitored with measuring points at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after harvest in percentage of loss of mass, soluble solids, respiratory intensity, acidity, resistance, color and ethylene and significant interactions among variables. At the conclusion of the study, Oxyion® technology was found to have statistically significant differences compared to control, and have allowed to less weight loss, higher resistance and lower exogenous ethylene production, extending the life of strawberry cv. Monterrey in a 40% during storage, additionally the losses by action of microorganisms present in strawberries surface were reduced considerably, generating a positive precedent in the processes of storage and conservation of fruits for Colombia.

  12. Quality consumption of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carballo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers increasingly require a food product that preserves their nutritional value; retain fresh colour, flavour and texture.Appearance, texture and flavour are attributes identified as to be key to acceptability of fruit and also for consumers in making purchase of fresh produce.The objective of this work was to investigate the consumer's preference of sensory quality and the commercial aspects of fresh strawberries, harvested in spring time from the south of our country, Uruguay- South America.In this study, seven different strawberries varieties (INIA-Arazá, INIA- Ivapitá, Ventana, Seascape, Camarosa, INIA- Ivahé, Aromas were sensory and physicochemical evaluated.The results obtained showed a high correlation between total soluble solids and sensory attributes (colour, texture, and flavour.Camarosa and Ivahé varieties were prefered for the external and internal aspects of the fruit.Future work should investigate other producer areas of the country and other harvesting time.

  13. Unintended effects of a Phytophtora-resistant cisgenic potato clone on the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and its parasitoid Aphidius ervi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cascone, P.; Radkova, M.; Arpaia, S.; Errico, S.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Magarelli, R.A.; Djilianov, D.; Guerrieri, E.

    2018-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants may show unintended differences compared to the original varieties, due to the modification process. Such differences might in some cases affect non-target organisms linked to the crop into an agro-ecosystem. In this paper, we aimed to study interactions of two

  14. Влияние гипоксии на синтез низкомолекулярных антиоксидантов Fragaria viridis Duch

    OpenAIRE

    Гусев, Николай; Петрова, Галина; Немерешина, Ольга; Бомбела, Татьяна

    2012-01-01

    В статье приведены данные по содержанию низкомолекулярных антиоксидантов (танидов) в тканях Fragaria viridis Duch., произрастающей в различных экологических условиях. Выявлены отличия в содержании антиоксидантов для растений, подвергшихся воздействию гипоксии.

  15. La toxicidad por exceso de Mn y Zn disminuye la producción de materia seca, los pigmentos foliares y la calidad del fruto en fresa (Fragaria sp. cv. Camarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra-Posada Fanor

    2005-12-01

    estudiar la respuesta de plantas de fresa (Fragaria sp. cv. Camarosa a niveles elevados de Zn y Mn en el suelo. Las plantas de fresa crecieron en materas llenas con suelo en un invernadero en Tunja (Colombia. Se le adicionó gradualmente 350 mg de Zn ó 150 mg de Mn, como ZnSO4.7H2O y MnSO4. H2O, respectivamente, por kilogramo de suelo secado al aire. Las plantas se cosecharon 16 semanas luego de empezados los tratamientos. Se determinó: área foliar total; producción de materia seca; contenido de clorofila a, clorofila b y carotenos en hojas; contenido de sólidos solubles totales y diámetro longitudinal en frutos. Los resultados indicaron que altas concentraciones de Zn y Mn reducen el área foliar y la producción de materia seca. La calidad de la fruta se afectó por estos metales en el suelo: en plantas tratadas con altas concentraciones, los sólidos solubles totales de los frutos fueron menores que en los testigos, se les redujo el diámetro y disminuyó el contenido de clorofila y carotenos en las hojas. Se evidenció una mayor toxicidad del Zn para las plantas que del Mn.

  16. Содержаниe витаминов в листьях Fragaria viridis Duch. (Weston) степной зоны оренбургского Предуралья

    OpenAIRE

    Докучаева, Юлия; Гусев, Николай; Немерешина, Ольга

    2015-01-01

    Изучена зависимость содержания витаминов от экологических условий в растении Fragaria viridis Duch. (Weston) землянике зелёной, или клубнике. Результаты исследований показывают, что содержание антиоксидантов аскробиновой кислоты, токоферола и каротина в листьях Fragaria viridis обусловлено фазой развития растений и их местообитанием. Показано повышенное содержание токоферола в листьях растения, произрастающего в зоне влияния промышленных поллютантов, что, возможно, является одним из механизмо...

  17. Active package for wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, Eva; Del Valle, Valeria; Catala, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2007-03-21

    An antimicrobial active package has been developed to improve the safety and quality of wild strawberries, as well as extending their shelf life. The fruits were packed in equilibrium-modified atmosphere packaging (EMAP), and the effect on Botrytis cinerea growth and on the quality parameters of the fruit by the addition of different amounts of 2-nonanone, an antifungal volatile compound naturally present in strawberries, was investigated during storage at 10 and 22 degrees C. The temperature of 10 degrees C was chosen as the temperature used at points of sale, and 22 degrees C was chosen as the control temperature. Fungal growth was inhibited in all cases, possibly due to the synergistic effect of high CO2 partial pressures and the presence of the antifungal compound. Weight, soluble solids, titrable acidity, and anthocyanin losses were retarded by the presence of 2-nonanone. This effect was more pronounced as the 2-nonanone concentration was increased at both temperatures. Therefore, an active package that releases 2-nonanone inhibits fungal decay and delays the senescence of highly perishable wild strawberry fruit.

  18. Seasonal alteration of sugar metabolism in strawberry (Fragaria x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ece TURHAN

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... Environmental stresses affect enzymes involved in both synthesis and ... concentration on low temperature metabolism in straw- beery plant is very ... assayed in apo- plastic extracts and symplastic tissues obtained from both.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of strawberry (Fragaria sp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M; Farah, S [Atomic Energy Commission, Dept. of Agriculture, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1998-02-01

    Despite the increased production of strawberry in Syria, the storability and marketability of fruits were not well studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of Senga sengana strawberry produced in Syria and the effect of gamma irradiation on fungal sp. i.e. Botrytis; Penicillium; Rhizopus. The fruits were treated with 1 , 2 and 3 KGy of gamma rays. Treated and untreated fruits were stored at 2 to 4 centigrade and 80 to 90 % relative humidity (RH). In order to investigate their marketability, the fruits where held at room temperature (25 to 30 centigrade). Weight loss, microbial decay, and total loss, juice production, pH, total soluble solids of the juice and organoleptic qualities were evaluated throughout the different storage and marketing periods. The results indicate that gamma irradiation decreased the microbial decay and increased the storability and marketability of fruits by 50 and 100% after using 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. D10 were 1.8 and 2.4 for Botrytis and Rhizopus respectively. One day after irradiation total soluble solids and its pH values were increased. Fourteen days later, irradiated fruits produced more juice with higher pH, but total soluble solids were less. Gamma irradiation did not have an effect on aroma and colour of fruits, whereas, 3 kGy of gamma irradiation had an adverse negative effect on taste. (author)

  20. Seasonal alteration of sugar metabolism in strawberry ( Fragaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants of strawberry cvs Aromas and Diamante were removed from the field in cold acclimated (CA, January) and non-acclimated (NA, July) stages. Crown parts of the plant were used for analysis. Apoplastic total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars and sucrose contents did not change in both cultivars in both sampling ...

  1. Биохимические особенности и антибактериальное действие препаратов Fragaria viridis

    OpenAIRE

    ГУСЕВ НИКОЛАЙ ФЁДОРОВИЧ; ДОКУЧАЕВА ЮЛИЯ АЛЕКСЕЕВНА; СЫЧЁВА МАРИЯ ВИКТОРОВНА; НЕМЕРЕШИНА ОЛЬГА НИКОЛАЕВНА

    2016-01-01

    Представлены результаты исследования полифенольного комплекса (флавоноиды, таниды и фенолкарбоновые кислоты) в листьях Fragaria viridis Duch. (Weston.) земляники зелёной, произрастающей в степной зоне оренбургского Предуралья. Идентифицированы флавоноиды: кверцетин, рутин, кверцитрин, гиперозид, а из фенолокислот кофейная, хлорогеновая, неохлорогеновая. Показано, что содержание полифенолов зависит от зональности и местообитания растений. Изложены результаты влияния водного экстракта лекарстве...

  2. Physiological role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in cold acclimation of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Dingqun; Luo, Ya; Wang, Xiaorong; Chen, Qing; Sun, Bo; Wang, Yan; Liu, Zejing; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in study of new resistance mechanism in fruit trees. All these regard the climate change and subsequent fruit production. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), and the expression of this enzyme is related to different biotic and abiotic stresses. Under accumulation of low temperature stress, the significant increase in G6PDH activity was found to be closely correlated to the levels of antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, sugar contents as well as changes of superoxide (O2•-). It is suggested that the enhancement of cold resistance of strawberry, which induced by cold acclimation, related to the significant increase in G6PDH activity. On one hand, G6PDH activates NADPH oxidase to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS); on the other hand, it may be involved in the activation of antioxidant enzymes, and accelerates many other important NADPH-dependent enzymatic reactions. Then further result in the elevation of membrane stability and cold resistance of strawberry. Interestingly, even though the plants were placed again under a temperature of 25°C for 1 d, the higher cold resistance, enzyme activities and soluble sugar content acquired.

  3. Abiotic Stress-Related Expressed Sequence Tags from the Diploid Strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo. Rivarola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry ( spp. is a eudicotyledonous plant that belongs to the Rosaceae family, which includes other agronomically important plants such as raspberry ( L. and several tree-fruit species. Despite the vital role played by cultivated strawberry in agriculture, few stress-related gene expression characterizations of this crop are available. To increase the diversity of available transcriptome sequence, we produced 41,430 L. expressed sequence tags (ESTs from plants growing under water-, temperature-, and osmotic-stress conditions as well as a combination of heat and osmotic stresses that is often found in irrigated fields. Clustering and assembling of the ESTs resulted in a total of 11,836 contigs and singletons that were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms. Furthermore, over 1200 sequences with no match to available Rosaceae ESTs were found, including six that were assigned the “response to stress” GO category. Analysis of EST frequency provided an estimate of steady state transcript levels, with 91 sequences exhibiting at least a 20-fold difference between treatments. This EST collection represents a useful resource to advance our understanding of the abiotic stress-response mechanisms in strawberry. The sequence information may be translated to valuable tree crops in the Rosaceae family, where whole-plant treatments are not as simple or practical.

  4. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in berries of Fragaria and Rubus species (family Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä-Riihinen, Kaisu R; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Törrönen, A Riitta

    2004-10-06

    High-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection was used to study soluble and insoluble forms of phenolic compounds in strawberries, raspberries (red and yellow cultivated and red wild), arctic bramble, and cloudberries. Hydroxycinnamic acids were present as free forms in cloudberries and mainly as sugar esters in the other berries. Quercetin 3-glucuronide was the typical flavonol glycoside in all of the berries studied. The composition of the predominant anthocyanins can be used to distinguish the studied red Rubus species from each other since cyanidin was glycosylated typically with 3-sophorose (56%) in cultivated red raspberry, with 3-sophorose (30%) and 3-glucose (27%) in wild red raspberry, and with 3-rutinose (80%) in arctic bramble. Ellagic acid was present as free and glycosylated forms and as ellagitannins of varying degrees of polymerization. Comparable levels of ellagitannins were obtained by the analysis of soluble ellagitannins as gallic acid equivalents and by the analysis of ellagic acid equivalents released by acid hydrolysis of the extracts.

  5. Basic growth analysis in strawberry plants (Fragaria sp. exposed to different radiation environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra Posada Fánor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to understand how quantity and quality of light affect growth and development in strawberry plants. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in Tunja, Colombia, under different light quality regimes provided by polypropylene films (yellow, green, blue, transparent, red, and a control without plastic film cover. These colored filters also provided different shading levels to plants. The authors measured growth parameters and calculated various indices commonly used in basic plant growth analysis. Plastic light filters were placed 1 m above crop foliage and were kept in place from initial transplanting until final harvest. Net assimilation rate was reduced under colored filters, but not under the transparent film or the film-free control. Green cover induced an increase in leaf area ratio, root to shoot ratio, leaf weight ratio, and specific leaf area. Harvest index and absolute and relative growth rate were reduced in plants grown under green film. The growth response of strawberry plants was the consequence of the combined effect of light quantity and quality. Results also showed the striking influence of green light on strawberry growth.

  6. Comparative genetic mapping in Fragaria virginiana reveals autosomal origin of sex chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although most flowering plants are hermaphrodite, separate sexes (dioecy) have evolved repeatedly. The evolution of sex chromosomes from autosomes can often, but not always, accompany this transition. Thus, many have argued that plant genera that contain both hermaphroditic and dioecious members pro...

  7. The Effect of New Developed Fluorescent Greenhouse Films on the Growth of Fragaria x ananassa 'Elsanta'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Os, van E.A.; Hemming, J.; Dieleman, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to optimise light quality and quantity for plant growth, new photoselective greenhouse covering materials were developed containing different fluorescent pigments (Blue, Red1, Red2, Red3) in different concentrations. Excitation of all fluorescent pigments took place around 365 nm. Blue

  8. The Content of Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Wild Strawberry Fruit (Fragaria vesca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Dyduch-Siemińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analyses carried out in 2011–2013 aimed at evaluating the contents of flavonoids, free phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity (% by means of DPPH radical neutralization ability in fresh and air-dried fruits of three wild strawberry cultivars. Examinations revealed differences in contents of biologically active substances determined in raw versus dried material depending on the cultivar. Mean concentrations of flavonoids and tannins were highest in raw fruits of “Baron von Solemacher” cv., which amounted to 1.244 mg·g−1 and 6.09%, respectively. Fresh fruits of “Regina” cv. were characterized by the highest average content of phenolic acids and anthocyanins: 4.987 mg·g−1 and 0.636 mg·100 g−1. The pattern of mean contents of biologically active substances analyzed in air-dried fruits was similar. Significant differences in abilities to neutralize the DPPH radical to diphenylpicrylhydrazine by extracts made of examined wild strawberry fruits were also indicated.

  9. Induction of materials for mutation breeding of strawberry (Fragaria × Ananassa) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc Trieu; Nguyen Tuong Mien; Le Tien Thanh; Huynh Thi Trung; Pham Van Nhi; Vu Thi Trac

    2015-01-01

    From collected New Zealand strawberry runners, micropropagation was executed to establish 500 shoot clusters for investigation effect of Gamma ray irradiation doses on survival rate. LD_5_0 at 52 Gy was recorded 45 days after re-injection and used as base for choosing 5 irradiation doses of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 Gy for creation potentially existent mutant materials. 30 shoot clusters were irradiated at each chosen dose. Irradiated material was propagated by in vitro techniques to achieve 300 plantlets/chosen dose. There was no recorded alteration in survival rate and other morphological characteristics of irradiated materials compared to the control in nursery period. These materials were transplanted to plastic greenhouse to screen the mutant. (author)

  10. Effect of strawberry (Fragaria x ananasa) as antidepresant activity on mice induced by stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Siti; Fitri, Lulu L.

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a physiological disorder on the brain and may induce the reduction levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin and the increased levels of stress hormone, corticosterone. The use of antidepressant drugs causing side effect, therefore natural agents are used as alternative therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the effect of strawberries in the murine experiments in increasing serotonin level as well as decreasing in the immobility time of mice on Forced Swimming Task (FST). Forty-eight male outbreed of 4 weeks old mice strain Swiss Webster with average body weight of 18-22 grams were divided into six groups of eight mice, as follows: (1) non-stressed, (2) Chronic Mild Stressed (CMS), (3) strawberry extract (with dose of 464.1 mg/kg) and CMS, (4) strawberry extract (with dose of 928.2 mg/kg) and CMS, (5) fisetin (with a dose of 10 mg/kg) and CMS, and (6) amitriptyline (an antidepressant, with a dose of 3.25 mg/kg) and CMS as a comparison group. Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) method were used as induction of stress consisted of seven different stressors and assigned randomly for 35 days. Provision of treatment was made during the 14 days preparations on day 22 to day 35. At the end of treatments, all mice were assigned on FST test for immobility time measurements. Next, all mice were decapitated and the brains were isolated. Serotonin levels were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with UV-visible light detector. The results showed that the immobility time of group mice which were given by the strawberries (928.2 mg/kg) and fisetin had shorter duration than the positive control group. Furthermore, the level of serotonin in the test group increased compared to CMS group. Corticosterone levels of treatment mice were increased significantly compared to non-stressed mice. Therefore, it can be concluded that strawberries are able to improve depressive symptoms by decreasing immobility time and increasing levels of serotonin compared with CMS group.

  11. Coating effect of chitosan irradiation on performance of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatot Trimulyadi Rekso; Adjat Sudradjat

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry is a horticultural product which has high economic value, however, strawberries are easily damaged. Therefore, required proper post harvest handling for keep up the appearances of strawberries, one of them is the edible coating technique using chitosan. The purpose of this research was to maintaining the appearance of strawberry. Chitosan is irradiated at a dose of 0 kGy, 5 kGy, and 10 kGy, and then characterized. Observations were carried on for five days at room temperature including: the testing of the performance of the fruit that was observed visually and analysis of fruit weight loss. The results showed that the performance of strawberries is coating with irradiated chitosan of 10 kGy is still good. The percentage of weight loss strawberries coated with irradiated chitosan smaller than the strawberries without coating with chitosan (control). Strawberries coated with irradiated chitosan has a shelf life and weight loss better than control. (author)

  12. Kajian intensitas penaungan dan penjarangan buah terhadap hasil tanaman Arbei fragaria sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwie Retna Suryaningsih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in "Materia Medica", Technical Implementation Unit East Java Health Service Bureau, Batu, East java, from May to December 1995. It has an altitude of approximately 750 m above sea level. This study has the objective of determining light intensity and fruit thinning which maximize strawberry yield of high quality. A three replicate two factors experiment, laid out in a completely randomized design with repeated measurements were. The first factor was shading intensity consisting of three levels: unshaded, shading intensity of 40% and 65%. The second factor was fruit thinning consisting of three levels: no fruit thinning applied, fruit thinning of 40% and 60%. The result indicated that: (1 maximum growth and yield of strawberry was attained at 40% incoming light, (2 removing 40% of fruits in a cluster increased weight of individual fruit, (3 shading which passed 40% of incoming light coupled with fruit thinning of 40% was the best combination, (4 shading increased vitamin C content of strawberry fruit, and (5 yield components might be predicted from tiller number, flower number per plant, and fruit weight average.

  13. Characteristics of growing media mixes and application for open-field production of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogen-free growing media are widely used for strawberry production in protected structures in Europe but not common in the United States. There is a need to investigate the feasibility of producing strawberry fruits in open fields with the pathogen-free media in the U.S. The objective of the stud...

  14. Mycoflore de quelques variétés du fraisier (Fragaria ananassa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    5 et 19,1%, il est ... antagonist and saprophyte which can give indication about the health of the plants growing in this region ...... espèces de mauvaises herbes du genre Rubus ..... compost et les Trichoderma spp. seul ou en.

  15. Conservation of strawberries (fragaria vesca l.) by gamma radiation storaged by refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes R, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fresh strawberries were irradiated with gamma radiation. The optimum dose of irradiation, chemical, microbiological, and sensorial stability of treated product and the conservation time of product during its storage were determined. Dosimetry was calculated according to standardized ASTM method 'Fricke'. Conditioned and pocket in semipermeable polyethylene pocket samples were exposed to 1,0, 2,0, and 3.0 kGy irradiation dose in a gamma-cell irradiator using 60 Co as source. Samples-witness (unirradiated) were prepared with comparatives purpose. Irradiated products and samples were storaged at 5 0 C - 10 0 C temperature, with 90% relative humidity. The physical-organoleptic, chemical-bromatologic and microbiological controls of products were carried out each 7 days. The optimum parameter of irradiation process was 2,0 kGy/h, dose that kept the product in good conditions until 23 days after treatment, storaged at 5 0 C to 10 0 C and 90% relative humidity while alterations in samples-witness were evident from the 5 th day of storage. The irradiated product did not suffer any important loss of its nutritional value; it increased its content of soluble solids and showed less tendency to humidity, organic acids and specially vitamin C diminution. (author). 49 refs.,11 tabs.; 6 figs

  16. EVALUACIÓN SENSORIAL DE FRESA (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) Y UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L.) FORTIFICADAS CON VITAMINA E SENSORY EVALUATION OF STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) AND CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L.) FORTIFIED WITH VITAMIN E

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Restrepo Duque; Misael Cortés Rodríguez; Héctor Suárez Mahecha

    2008-01-01

    El desarrollo de tecnologías como la impregnación al vacío (IV), permite ofrecer al consumidor frutos mínimamente procesados, con alto valor nutricional y calidad sensorial similar al producto fresco. En esta investigación se presenta la evaluación sensorial de fresas y uchuvas fortificadas con vitamina E en función de atributos como: intensidad del color, sabor ácido, sabor dulce, sensación grasa, dureza, jugosidad y aceptación global. La evaluación sensorial se realizó para cada fruto media...

  17. EVALUACIÓN SENSORIAL DE FRESA (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. Y UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L. FORTIFICADAS CON VITAMINA E SENSORY EVALUATION OF STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. AND CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L. FORTIFIED WITH VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Restrepo Duque

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de tecnologías como la impregnación al vacío (IV, permite ofrecer al consumidor frutos mínimamente procesados, con alto valor nutricional y calidad sensorial similar al producto fresco. En esta investigación se presenta la evaluación sensorial de fresas y uchuvas fortificadas con vitamina E en función de atributos como: intensidad del color, sabor ácido, sabor dulce, sensación grasa, dureza, jugosidad y aceptación global. La evaluación sensorial se realizó para cada fruto mediante pruebas descriptivas escalares de 9 bloques, donde el control (fruto fresco fue posicionado en el centro y los jueces evaluaron el grado de intensidad del atributo en comparación con el control. El proceso de IV mejoró la calidad sensorial de los frutos recién impregnados en términos de sabor y aceptación global. Estas muestras fueron evaluadas como más jugosas, más dulces y menos ácidas que las muestras frescas.The development of technologies such as vacuum impregnation (VI, allows the consumer fruits to offer minimally processed, with high nutritional value and similar sensorial quality to the fresh product. In this investigation the sensorial evaluation of strawberries and cape gooseberry fortified with vitamin E is presented in function of attributes like: intensity of the color, sour flavor, sweet flavor, fatty sensation, hardness, juiciness and global acceptance. The sensorial evaluation was carried out for each fruit by means of scalar descriptive tests of 9 blocks, where the control (fresh fruit was positioned in the central part and the judges evaluated the grade of intensity of the attribute in comparison with the control. The process of VI improved the sensorial quality of the fruits recently impregnated in terms of flavor and global acceptance. These samples were evaluated as juicier, sweeter and less acidic that the fresh samples.

  18. PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DE FRUTA EN CULTIVARES DE FRESA (Fragaria sp. AFECTADOS POR ESTRÉS SALINO YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF SALT-STRESSED STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS (Fragaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dado que el agua es muy buen solvente, las aguas que se usan para riego contienen algunas sales disueltas. La salinidad restringe la disponibilidad de este líquido para las plantas mediante la reducción del potencial hídrico en el suelo. La salinidad también tiene un impacto sobre la fisiología de la producción de las plantas. Es posible observar lesiones en plantas expuestas a niveles altos de salinidad. Este ensayo fue realizado para evaluar la relación entre la salinidad por NaCl, la producción y la calidad de fruta, en los cultivares de fresa ‘Chandler’, ‘Sweet Charlie’ y ‘Camarosa’ cultivados en invernadero, en materas con suelo salinizado. Se compararon cinco niveles de la sal (0, 20, 40, 60 y 80 mM de NaCl los cuales indujeron diferentes valores de conductividad eléctrica (EC (2,68; 6,08; 8,24; 9,98 y 12,62 dS.m-1, respectivamente. Los diversos niveles de EC se obtuvieron agregando el NaCl al suelo, progresivamente. La producción y la calidad de la fruta fueron afectadas negativamente, por los tratamientos probados. De igual manera, el contenido de azúcares en los frutos fue influido por los diferentes niveles de sal. Los contenidos de sólidos solubles totales y la acidez titulable en frutas se incrementaron con el aumento en la EC. Mientras que la acumulación de la materia seca en las raíces mostró un aumento proporcional con el nivel del NaCl en el substrato, los frutos presentaron una tendencia opuesta. Aunque los síntomas típicos del estrés tales como retraso del crecimiento y la producción reducida de fruta fueron observados en los cultivares de fresa evaluados, ‘Sweet Charlie’ fue menos sensible a la salinidad.Since water is a very good solvent, all irrigation waters contain some dissolved salts. Salinity restricts the availability of water to plants by lowering the total water potential in the soil. Salinity also has an impact on crop physiology and yield. Visible injury can occur at high salinity levels. This trial was carried out to investigate the relationship between NaCl-salt stress, fruit quality and yield on the strawberries cultivars ‘Sweet Carlie’ ‘Chandler’ and ‘Camarosa’ grown in pots filled with salinized soil in glasshouse. Five salt levels were compared (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM NaCl which induced different electrical conductivity (EC levels (2,68; 6,08; 8,24; 9,98 y 12,62 dS.m-1 respectly. The different EC levels were obtained by adding NaCl progressively to the soil. Fruit yield and quality were negatively influenced by the tested treatments. Sugar content in fruits was influenced by the treatments. Total soluble solids and tritrable acidity in fruits grew as EC levels grew. While the accumulation of dry matter in the roots showed a proportional increase with the level of NaCl in the substrate, the fruits showed an opposite tendency. Although typical stress symptoms such as growth retardation and poor fruit yield were observed in the strawberry tested cultivars, ‘Sweet Charlie’ was less sensitive to the salinity.

  19. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE FRESA (Fragaria ananassa Duch. FORTIFICADA CON VITAMINA E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA RESTREPO

    2009-01-01

    oscuras, mientras que no hubo influencia en el tiempo ni en el tipo de envasado (con y sin vacío. La textura está afectada por la IV (menos duras, mientras que las variaciones con respecto al tiempo de almacenamiento y el tipo de envasado se consideraron más por variaciones propias del fruto fresco. Los niveles de fortificación fueron 19.1 ± 3.0 mg dl-;-tocoferol acetato = 86.9 ± 13,7 %RDC en Colombia, con un tiempo de vida útil de 9 días.

  20. G * E interaction for growth, yield and quality characters of strawberry (fragaria ananassa duch.) under bangladesh conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Rahman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    A multi location trial with five promising strawberry genotypes viz., Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 was conducted under different sub tropical climatic conditions of Bangladesh to study their G * E interaction. Location were Gazipur, Rajshahi and Chittagong during the period from August 2009 to May 2011. Combined analysis of variance indicated significant variation among the genotypes as well as location for almost all the characters studied. Genotype environment studies indicated different response of genotypes over locations for most of the characters suggesting location wise environmental variation. Stability parameter revealed that a particular genotype did not perform consistently for all the characters. The genotype Festival considered as stable for most of the characters except days to flowering and ascorbic acid content of fruits, and considered as stable over different locations. For this reason, the genotype .Festival. could be well thought-out and less receptive to the environmental conditions and might be recommended for all environments. On the other hand, environmental indices indicated that the environment of Rajshahi was found to be most favourable for strawberry cultivation followed by that of Gazipur and Chittagong. (author)

  1. Differential expression of photosynthesis-related genes in pentaploid interspecific hybrid and its decaploid of Fragaria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Dongya; Chen, Baoyu; Mao, Nini; Qiao, Yushan; Ji, Muxiang

    2018-03-01

    Polyploidization always induces a series of changes in genome, transcriptome and epigenetics, of which changes in gene expression are the immediate causes of genotype alterations of polyploid plants. In our previous study on strawberry polyploidization, genes related to photosynthesis were found to undergo changes in gene expression and DNA methylation. Therefore, we chose 11 genes that were closely related to plant photosynthesis and analysed their expression during strawberry hybridization and chromosome doubling. Most genes of pentaploids showed expression levels between parents and were more similar to F. × ananassa. Gene expression levels of decaploids were higher than those of pentaploids and F. × ananassa. Different types of photosynthesis-related genes responded differently to hybridization and chromosome doubling. Chloroplast genes and regulatory genes showed complex responses. Structural genes of the photosynthetic system were expressed at a constant level and displayed a clear dosage effect. The methylation levels of one CG site on SIGE, which regulates expression of chloroplast genes, were negatively correlated with gene expression. In pentaploids and decaploids, more transcripts were from F. × ananassa than from F. viridis. The ratio of transcripts from from F. × ananassa to those from F. viridis was close to the ratio (4:1) of the genome of F. × ananassa to that of F. viridis in pentaploids and decaploids, but there were also some exceptions with obvious deviation.

  2. Cytomorphological and autoradiografical studies on the receptacle of the strawberry (Fragaria grandiflora Eherh. in the initial stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szymański

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume of the cortex and pith cells of strawberries from the cultivar Talizman gradually increased until ripening, especially in the cortex. The volume of the nucleus also increased. The nuclei in the pith were smaller then in the cortex. The volume of the nucleolus increased significantly between days 1 and 5 after pollination, after which it remained unchanged. At the end of the growth period, the volume of the nucleolus in cortical and pith cells in the lower and central part of the fruit increased. Endomitotic polyploidization which was responsible for the growth of the fruit, occurred during the development of the receptacle. The intensity of 3H actinomycin binding reached a maximum in the oldest stages. This is proof for the accumulation of active DNA during mitosis. Saturation with this antibiotic occurred in the early stages of fruit development. No dependence between the volume of cells and the number of nuclei binding 3H actinomycin was observed.

  3. Effect of gamma-irradiation and refrigerated storage on mold growth and keeping quality of strawberry (Fragaria sp) cv 'Confitura'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, P.R.; Meena, R.S.; Dar, M.A.; Wani, A.M.; Mir, M.A.; Shafi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation of fresh matured strawberries at 0.5-2.0 kGy and storage under ambient and refrigerated conditions was tested for delaying the mold appearance and extension of storage life. Radiation dose of 2.0 kGy was effective in extending the storage life of fresh strawberries by 2 days under ambient conditions. Samples irradiated at 1.5 and 2.0 kGy followed by refrigerated storage delayed the mold growth significantly (p≤0.05) and extended the storage life by 8 days. (author)

  4. Effect of irradiation with black light fluorescent lamp on coloration and hardness of strawberry [Fragaria ananassa] fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashio, H.; Hirono, H.; Sato, F.; Tokuda, S.; Uragami, A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of irradiation by black light fluorescent lamp on the coloration and hardness of detached strawberry fruits was studied. Only the coloring of fruits (var. Toyonoka) that had started to pigment was accelerated by lamp irradiation. Maintaining the irradiation distance and ambient temperature after treatment was very important to obtain the maximum effect, and the action of lamps was restricted to the irradiated parts. The accelerating effect of a lamp on coloration was observed in all 3 of other varieties examined, and in some varieties, the level of anthocyanin concentration in fruits was greater than that in ripening stage. However, the lamp did not affect the hardness of fruits

  5. Yield, Quality, and Nutrient Concentrations of Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. cv. 'Sonata') Grown with Different Organic Fertilizer Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Bhaniswor; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2015-06-17

    Four combinations of two solid organic fertilizers (Monterra Malt and chicken manure) applied before planting and two liquid organic fertilizers (broad bean and Pioner Hi-Fruit/K-Max) given through drip irrigation (fertigation) were compared with inorganic fertilization regarding growth, yield, nutrient concentration, and fruit quality of strawberries. Broad bean fertigation combined with Monterra Malt resulted in a similar fruit yield as inorganic fertilizer and a higher yield than Monterra Malt combined with Pioner; however, total soluble solids, firmness, and titratable acid were improved with Pioner fertigation, although these parameters were more affected by harvest time than the applied fertilizers. The concentrations of most nutrients in fruits and leaves were higher in inorganically fertigated plants. The reductions in fruit yield in three of four treatments and fruit weight in all organic treatments may be due to a combination of the following conditions in the root zone: (1) high pH and high NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio; (2) high EC and/or high NaCl concentration; (3) cation imbalance; and (4) nutrient deficiency.

  6. Organic-mineral and organic fertilization in the strawberry (Fragaria x Ananasa Duch. crop under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Osvaldo Romero Romano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A good combination of organic fertilizers and mineral fertilizers may allow a reduction in the use of agrochemicals, to benefit the environment and health of consumers, to obtained crops and safe products with lower content of chemical residues. In this paper, we assess the effect of organic fertilization and organic mineral in the cultivation of strawberries cv. Festival, in a factorial treatment designin 3x23 with 24 treatments in an experimental design in randomized blocks with four replicates under greenhouse conditions in Atlixco, Puebla. The factors and levels of study: chemical fertilization (FQ, three levels of N-P2O5-K2O 0-0-0, 45-20-20 and 90-35-35 kg ha-141 3 con un total de 24 commercial organic nutrient (Activator QFprepared fulvic acid (AF at a concentration of (13.58% with two levels 0 and 450 ml ha-1,growth regulator (RCcommercial vegetable (Biozyme®, whit 78.87% of plant extracts and phytohormones, and 1.86% of microelements at evels of 0 and 20 l ha-1 and vermicompost (V of cattle manure at 50 and 100 g / pot. The experiment was divided into two periods from February to May and June to September 2011. The treatments applications were edafic (FQ and V and foliar (AF and RC in both stages of treatment applications were made at 10, 40 and 60 days after transplantation. The variables analyzed were number of stolons, stolon length, diameter and length fruit, number and weight of fruit per week, period, and the total of the two periods. Two twice a week the number of ripe fruits was counted, the diameter and length fruit and weight was measured. Every eight days after the formation of the first stolons, counted and measured. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS program. In the period from February-May treatment FQ50-AF1-RC1-V50 showedstatistically different (Tukey, p = 0.05 %. for variables length fruit (2.95 cm, diameter fruit (3.76 cm, weight of fruit perweek (11.31 g and period (135.69 g. In the period from June-September FQ50-AF1-RC1-V50 present statistical differences for length fruit (2.93 cm; FQ100-AF0-RC1-V50 and FQ100-AF1-RC1-V100 showed significant differences, respectively, for the weight of fruit per week (7.8 g and length fruit (73.84 g. FQ100-AF0-RC1-V50 achieves higher values for total fruit weight (189.42 g. In both periods, the organic-mineral fertilizer showed better results compared withorganic fertilization.

  7. STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH LEAF ANTIOXIDATIVE RESPONSE TO BIOSTIMULATORS AND REDUCED FERTILIZATION WITH N AND K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Špoljarević

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry cultivar Elsanta was grown in peat based substrate in a green house. Full dose and 50% reduced nitrogen and potassium fertilization were applied during fruit bearing period in spring, along with biostimulators Viva®, Megafol® and their combination. The specific activities of guaiacol peroxidase (GPXs; EC 1.11.1.7, catalase (CATs; EC 1.11.1.6, ascorbate peroxidase (APXs; EC 1.11.1.11 and glutathione reductase (GRs; EC 1.6.4.2 in strawberry leaf were stimulated by biostimulators and reduced fertilization. The strongest link seen here was between the enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle (APXs and GRs, which were positively related to trifoliate leaf fresh mass (TLFM. The highest TLFM was observed in Megafol® treated plants.

  8. Selenium Biofortification in Fragaria × ananassa: Implications on Strawberry Fruits Quality, Content of Bioactive Health Beneficial Compounds and Metabolomic Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mimmo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential nutrient for humans, due to its antioxidant properties, whereas, to date, its essentiality to plants still remains to be demonstrated. Nevertheless, if added to the cultivation substrate, plants growth resulted enhanced. However, the concentration of Se in agricultural soils is very variable, ranging from 0.01 mg kg-1 up to 10 mg kg-1 in seleniferous areas. Therefore several studies have been performed aimed at bio-fortifying crops with Se and the approaches exploited were mainly based on the application of Se fertilizers. The aim of the present research was to assess the biofortification potential of Se in hydroponically grown strawberry fruits and its effects on qualitative parameters and nutraceutical compounds. The supplementation with Se did not negatively affect the growth and the yield of strawberries, and induced an accumulation of Se in fruits. Furthermore, the metabolomic analyses highlighted an increase in flavonoid and polyphenol compounds, which contributes to the organoleptic features and antioxidant capacity of fruits; in addition, an increase in the fruits sweetness also was detected in biofortified strawberries. In conclusion, based on our observations, strawberry plants seem a good target for Se biofortification, thus allowing the increase in the human intake of this essential micronutrient.

  9. Influence of superabsorbent polymers on the chemical composition of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. and biological activity in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiciuk Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By improving the air and water properties of soils, superabsorbent polymers can affect the increase and improvement of the quality of the yield of berry plants, including strawberries. Their presence in the soil has an influence on its biological activity as related to microorganisms. The aim of the research was to assess the influence of superabsorbent polymers added to the soil on the content of macroelements and sodium in the leaves and fruit of strawberry of the ‘Elsanta’ cultivar and changes in the number of soil bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. The superabsorbent polymer (AgroHydroGel was used in two doses: 1.8 and 3.6 g dm-3 of soil. The content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium was assessed using the ASA method, while the content of nitrogen and sulphur was assessed by the elemental analysis method (CHNS analyser. The number of microorganisms was assessed with a BacTrac analyser and the coefficient of microorganism development extent (SR was also determined. AgroHydroGel increased the content of nitrogen and potassium in leaves and fruit but did not affect the content of phosphorus, sulphur and sodium. The addition of the superabsorbent at a dose of 3.6 g dm-3 of soil reduced the magnesium content both in the leaves and fruit of the strawberry. AgroHydroGel decreased the content of calcium in the fruit. The use of AgroHydroGel contributed to the expansion of the K ion ratio to other ions, both in the leaves and fruits. We observed a significant increase in the amount of soil bacteria (1.8 g dm-3 dose and no significant influence on actinomycetes and fungi (irrespective of dose used.

  10. Toward The identification Of candidate genes involved in black pod disease resistance in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing yield, quality and disease resistance are important objectives for cacao breeding programs. Some of the diseases, such as black pod rot (Phytophtora spp), frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri) and witches’ broom (M. perniciosa), produce significant losses in all or in some of the various pro...

  11. Progress in food irradiation: Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Hungarian contribution describes the radiation-chemical behaviour of tomatopulp and bio-chemical alterations connected with this. The radiation microbiology concerns phytophtora infestans. Results of irradiation of several vegetable sorts and of animal food, as well as tolerance studies with rats are described. Higher attention is paid to legal and economical aspects and consumers' questions. (AJ) [de

  12. Determinación del efecto inhibitorio de los polifenoles presentes en la fresa (Fragaria vesca L.) sobre la enzima alfa amilasa

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa N., Miriam; Pernía S., Tibisay; Buitrago B., Diolimar; Pérez L., Jackeline; Araujo, Liliana; Méndez de Corao, Grecia

    2004-01-01

    REVISTA DE LA FACULTAD DE FARMACIA Vol. 43, 2002 UN AÑO DE EXPECTATIVAS El 2002 se nos presenta como de grandes expectativas en todos los órdenes del acontecer de la nación venezolana, y del mundo. No obstante, y muy a pesar de los malos presagios que se ciernen sobre nuestro destino, aguardamos con esperanzas y con optimismo los retos que se nos plantean. Por esta razón la Revista de la Facultad de Farmacia continúa en su empeño por fortalecer las bases que han llevado a alca...

  13. Melatonin treatment attenuates postharvest decay and maintains nutritional quality of strawberry fruits (Fragaria×anannasa cv. Selva) by enhancing GABA shunt activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Fard, Javad Rezapour

    2017-04-15

    Fresh strawberry fruits as perishable commodities have a short postharvest life and are prone to postharvest fungal decay. In this study, the impact of 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000μmol/L melatonin on attenuating fungal decay and maintaining nutritional quality of strawberry fruits was investigated during storage at 4°C for 12days. Melatonin treatment at 100μmol/L triggered H 2 O 2 accumulation, which result from higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, associated with lower catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, leading to fruits with lower decay. Higher H 2 O 2 accumulation was concurrent with higher phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity leading to higher total phenols and anthocyanins accumulation along with higher DPPH scavenging capacity. Also, strawberry fruits treated with melatonin exhibited higher γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) enzyme activity which ensured sufficient ATP supplying leading to higher unsaturated/saturated fatty acids (unSFA/SFA) ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of the differences in the phenolic composition and color characteristics of new strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars by HPLC-MS and Imaging Tristimulus Colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lara, Rebeca; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Lourdes González-Miret, M; Del Villar-Martínez, Alma A; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Heredia, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    The phenolic composition (by HPLC-DAD-MS) and color characteristics (by Imaging Tristimulus Colorimetry) of four strawberry cultivars that have shown good climate adaptation to subtropical area (Nikte, Zamorana, Jacona and Pakal) have been assessed. 24 monomeric phenolics were identified, including 15 anthocyanins, 5 phenolic acids, 1 flavanol and 4 flavonols. Nikte and Zamorana showed the highest phenolic potential mainly due to their higher content of anthocyanins, while Pakal was richer in phenolic acids. Regarding color, Nikte and Zamorana were the more similar cultivars having the lowest values of lightness and hue. On the contrary, the color of Pakal was quite different from all the rest, due to the specific distribution between pelargonidin and cyanidin. The inclusion of both phenolic and colorimetric information in the Linear Discriminant Analysis allowed reaching very good discriminations among cultivars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Apple Fruit Fermentation (AFF) Treatment Improves the Composition of the Rhizosphere Microbial Community and Growth of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch ‘Benihoppe’) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yufen; Shao, Wei; Huang, Weijing; Ji, Qianlong; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth can be promoted by the application of apple fruit fermentation (AFF), despite unclear of the underlying mechanisms, the effects involved in AFF on rhizosphere microorganisms have been hypothesized. We investigated the consequences of applying AFF alone or in combination with Bacillus licheniformis to strawberry tissue culture seedlings in vitro, the analyses of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA were performed to determine AFF effects on rhizosphere. Moreover, the growth index and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined 30 days after treatments. We identified five dominant bacteria in AFF: Coprinus atramentarius, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Weissella and B. subtilis. The greatest number of bacterial species were observed in the rhizosphere of control matrix (water treated), and the lowest diversity appeared in the rhizosphere soil treated with 108 cfu/mL B. licheniformis alone. Combining AFF plus B. licheniformis in one treatment resulted in the largest leaf area, plant height, root length, plant weight, and the markedly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. We conclude that a combination of AFF plus B. licheniformis treatment to matrix can increase antioxidant enzymes activities in strawberry seedlings, optimize the status of rhizosphere microbial, and promote plant growth. PMID:27755580

  16. Storage of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa L. cv. ‘Oso Grande’, subjected to 1-MCP - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.8790

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyanna Alves Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of 1 - methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on the substances involved in the softening of strawberry, cultivar Oso Grande, stored at room temperature, from the municipality of Itutinga, State of Minas Gerais. The parameters evaluated were: firmness, total pectin, percentage of solubilization, activities of the enzymes pectinmethylesterase (PME (EC 3.1.1.11 and polygalacturonase (PG (EC 3.2.1.15. It was concluded that 1-MCP delayed the softening of the fruits, since the fruits that were treated with 1-MCP after storage, have shown greater firmness, lower activities of PG and PME, and lower contents of total pectin, soluble pectin and percentage of solubilization. 

  17. The genetic diversity of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. hybrids based on ISSR markers - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i4.16737

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinéia Ferreira Nunes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is an important agricultural crop in Brazil. However, most of the commercial genotypes currently in cultivation in Brazil were developed in other countries with environmental adaptations often inadequate for the regional conditions. In this work, inter-simple sequence repeat markers were used to determine the genetic variability and the loci segregation profiles of 84 strawberry hybrids obtained from a genetic breeding program at the ‘Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais.’ The hybrids were produced from crosses involving the following progenitors: ‘Toyonoka’ x ‘Sweet Charlie’, ‘Camino Real’ x ‘Sweet Charlie’, ‘Oso Grande’ x ‘Sweet Charlie’, ‘Oso Grande’ x ‘Toyonoka’, ‘Dover’ x ‘Oso Grande’, and ‘Camino Real’ x ‘Toyonoka’. Fourteen genotypes were randomly sampled for each hybrid combination and evaluated. The results showed that the genetic profiles of the hybrids from each test cross were very diverse, most likely due to the high heterozygosity of the genome of each progenitor involved, which might indicate the presence of adequate genetic diversity among the hybrids to allow for the selection of new cultivars with agronomic traits that are more suitable to environmental conditions in Brazil.

  18. Calidad postcosecha de genotipos de fresa (Fragaria × ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston Duchesne ex Rozier según vernalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rossmary Santacruz-Oviedo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available La producción de frutilla en Paraguay es realizada por pequeños productores, usando escasa tecnología y obtención de baja productividad, con la necesidad de ampliar los genotipos y la tecnología utilizada. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la calidad de frutos de genotipos de frutilla en función a la vernalización. El diseño utilizado fue el de bloques completos al azar con arreglo factorial 14x2. Los factores estuvieron constituidos por los genotipos y la vernalización con 15 plantas por tratamiento y tres repeticiones. Las mudas fueron mantenidas en cámara fría a 5°C, con 8 horas luz artificial y 16 de oscuridad por un periodo de 25 días. Se utilizaron cinco frutos por tratamiento y fueron evaluadas la cantidad de sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, relación de sólidos solubles totales con acidez titulable, relación longitud/diámetro, relación: diámetro del cáliz/diámetro del fruto, longitud del pedúnculo y pérdida de masa en postcosecha. Los datos obtenidos fueron sometidos a análisis de varianza en esquema factorial simple y las medias comparadas por el test de Tukey al 5% de probabilidad de error. La vernalización de las mudas no afectó la forma de los frutos de frutilla ni el contenido de sólidos solubles totales, pero aumentó el porcentaje de ácido cítrico. Así mismo, aumentaron la longitud del pedúnculo de la planta y la extensión del cáliz del fruto. Por otro lado, la vernalización disminuyó la pérdida postcosecha de masa fresca, pero no afectó la conservación de frutos a 5ºC. Los genotipos Festival y Florida Eliane pueden ser recomendados para consumo in natura y los genotipos Dover y Oso Grande para industria.

  19. Single-molecule sequencing and optical mapping yields an improved genome of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) with chromosome-scale contiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although draft genomes are available for most agronomically important plant species, the majority are incomplete, highly fragmented, and often riddled with assembly and scaffolding errors. These assembly issues hinder advances in tool development for functional genomics and systems biology. Here we ...

  20. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of four aphid-borne strawberry viruses in Fragaria spp. in combination with a plant mRNA specific internal control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thompson, J. R.; Wetzel, S.; Klerks, M. M.; Vašková, Dana; Schoen, C. D.; Špak, Josef; Jelkmann, W.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 111, - (2003), s. 85-93 ISSN 0166-0934 Grant - others:GA-(EU) QRLT-PL99-1553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : virus diseases * strawberry * detection methods Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2003

  1. Bioecological peculiarities of mid-ripening varieties of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. in the northern part of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Павлюк

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Improvement of a range of strawberry varie­ties based on comprehensive study and introduction of new Ukrainian and West European cultivars. Methods. Cultivars and elite forms were studied using the methods of primary variety studying and state variety testing at three-year strawberry plantations of the Institute of Horticulture of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the city of Kyiv and its variety testing stations. Results. It was found that more frequent spring and summer droughts as well as black frosts in winter adversely affected the strawberry productivity. The best varieties were selected among new ones for the complex of traits, they included ‘Elegance’ from the Great Britain, ‘Gercules’ from Ukraine (both are dessert grapes, ‘Elsanta’ from Holland (for universal use, ‘Alba’ from Italia (as raw material. The highly adaptive and productive ‘Istochnik’ and ‘Festyvalna romashka’ varieties (as raw material are recommended for the north regions. Conclusions. In the context of profound climatic change, high-profitable cultivation of mid-ripening varieties and a strawberry as such in the Northern Forest-Steppe zone is expedient under controlled conditions – in high film tunnels, in hot-houses and under perennial irrigation that already has become the European tendency.

  2. Efecto de la nutrición nítrica y sistemas de riego en el sabor de la fresa (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ojeda-Real

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El sabor de la fresa está dado por el contenido de azúcares, aminoácidos y ácidos orgánicos en el fruto. En la actualidad se desconoce el efecto de la nutrición nítrica y el sistema de riego en cada uno de los compuestos saborizantes de la fresa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar y cuantificar el contenido de carbohidratos, aminoácidos y ácidos orgánicos en la fresa sometida a distintos niveles de fertilización nítrica y a dos sistemas de riego. El N fue aplicado como Ca(NO32 a una dosis de 0, 3, 9 y 20 mM y se emplearon dos sistemas de riego: goteo y gravedad. El contenido de carbohidratos y aminoácidos se incrementó en los niveles de 3 mM para riego por goteo y 9 mM en gravedad, ambos respecto al tratamiento no fertilizado y fertilizado con 20 mM de N. El contenido de los ácidos orgánicos disminuyó su concentración al aumentar el nivel de fertilización nitrogenada. Así que el uso excesivo de fertilizante y agua no se justifica para aumentar el contenido de los compuestos relacionados con la calidad sensorial de la fresa.

  3. Efecto de sustratos orgánicos en plantas de fresa (Fragaria sp. cv ‘Albion’ bajo condiciones de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Samuel Medina-Bolívar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de fresa es una de las opciones productivas para los agricultores, principalmente de los departamentos de Cundinamarca, Antioquia y Boyacá. La tendencia creciente hacia una agricultura cada vez más abierta al comercio mundial determina que las actividades agrícolas nacionales deben ser cada día más productivas y competitivas, esto soportado en nuevas y mejores tecnologías de producción. Dentro de estas, se cuenta el uso de diferentes sustratos con el fin de solucionar problemas como acidez, alta erosión o problemas de tipo fitosanitario que impiden la siembra de forma directa en el suelo. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior el objetivo de la investigación fue la evaluación de diferentes sustratos orgánicos en el crecimiento y desarrollo de plantas de fresa cv ‘Albion’, bajo condiciones de campo abierto. Para la evaluación se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con tres tratamientos siendo S1: suelo 50% + fibra de coco 50% (S:FC, S2: suelo 50% + fibra de coco 25% + cascarilla de arroz 25% (S:FC:CA y S3: suelo 50% + cascarilla de arroz 50% (S:CA, cada uno conto con tres replicaciones. Las variables evaluadas fueron masa fresca y seca de raíz y parte aérea, área foliar, clorofilas totales, numero de frutos/planta y producción g/planta. El tratamiento (S1, mostró diferencias significativas según la prueba de Tukey (P≤0.05 en la mayoría de parámetros evaluados, esto lo convierte en una alternativa para la producción de fresa cv ‘Albión’ bajo las condiciones de estudio.

  4. Different pathways are involved in the enhancement of photosynthetic rate by sodium bisulfite and benzyladenine, a case study with strawberry (Fragaria x Ananassa Duch) plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.P.; Peng, Y.; Lin, M.L.; Guo, D.P.; Hu, M.J.; Shen, Y.K.; Li, D.Y.; Zheng, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the pathway involved in the chemical enhancement of photosynthetic rate, sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) and benzyladenine (BA), a growth regulator, were applied to strawberry plants. The influence of these compounds on gas exchange and millisecond delayed light emission (ms-DLE)

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting pseudomonads increases anthocyanin concentration in strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva) in conditions of reduced fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Guido; Bona, Elisa; Manassero, Paola; Marsano, Francesco; Todeschini, Valeria; Cantamessa, Simone; Copetta, Andrea; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Gamalero, Elisa; Berta, Graziella

    2013-08-06

    Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry.

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonads Increases Anthocyanin Concentration in Strawberry Fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva in Conditions of Reduced Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Gamalero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry.

  7. Estudo reológico da polpa de morango (Fragaria vesca em diferentes temperaturas - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.7833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardoso de Oliveira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O morango é um fruto carnoso, suculento, de sabor levemente ácido, contém várias substâncias essenciais à nutrição humana. Nos últimos anos a indústria de polpas congeladas tem se desenvolvido com bastante rapidez. Logo, o conhecimento dos parâmetros reológicos é de grande apreço para as propostas de engenharia. Neste trabalho, foram determinados os parâmetros reológicos da polpa de morango na faixa de temperatura de 20-35ºC, usando um rêometro de cilindros concêntricos, ajustando os dados aos modelos de Ostwald de Waale, Bingham e Herschell-Buckley usando a metodologia Bayesiana. A polpa de morango exibiu comportamento não newtoniano com características pseudoplásticas. A viscosidade aparente diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura. O modelo de Arrhenius descreve de forma satisfatória o efeito da temperatura sobre a viscosidade aparente.

  8. Aplicaciones de aluminio mantienen el crecimiento de fresa (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. suplementada con roca fosfórica en condiciones de cultivo sin suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Alejandro Tucuch Pérez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estima que en los próximos años a nivel mundial habrá carencia de las fuentes de fósforo (P utilizadas para fabricar los fertilizantes fosforados. Aunque el P puede encontrarse en el suelo, la mayor parte se encuentra en forma no asimilable por las plantas, por lo que para absorberlo éstas exudan ácidos orgánicos (AO para facilitar su solubilización. Por otro lado, se ha reportado que la presencia de aluminio (Al se relaciona con un aumento en la exudación de AO por la raíz. Dado la capacidad solubilizadora de los AO, en el presente estudio se planteó evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de Al sobre la exudación de AO y el uso de P en forma no soluble (roca fosfórica, RF en el crecimiento y rendimiento de plantas de fresa. El experimento constó de ocho tratamientos que resultaron de combinar dos cantidades de RF, mezcladas en el sustrato, con aplicaciones de Al. Los tratamientos con RF se irrigaron con una solución que contenía 0.25 meq L‑1 H2PO4‑. Los resultados mostraron que con aplicaciones de Al vía riego se obtienen mayores rendimientos, hasta 380 g planta-1, lo cual estuvo correlacionado positivamente con la concentración de ácido cítrico y negativamente con la concentración de ácido málico en el sustrato. Se concluye que el citrato exudado por la raíz debido a la aplicación de Al, favorece el rendimiento de plantas de fresa cuando el P se encuentra en forma de RF.

  9. Aplicaciones de aluminio mantienen el crecimiento de fresa (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) suplementada con roca fosfórica en condiciones de cultivo sin suelo

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Alejandro Tucuch Pérez; Armando Hernández Pérez; Luis Alonso Valdez Aguilar; Gloria Alicia Pérez Arias; Juana Cruz García Santiago; Daniela Alvarado Carrillo

    2017-01-01

    Se estima que en los próximos años a nivel mundial habrá carencia de las fuentes de fósforo (P) utilizadas para fabricar los fertilizantes fosforados. Aunque el P puede encontrarse en el suelo, la mayor parte se encuentra en forma no asimilable por las plantas, por lo que para absorberlo éstas exudan ácidos orgánicos (AO) para facilitar su solubilización. Por otro lado, se ha reportado que la presencia de aluminio (Al) se relaciona con un aumento en la exudación de AO por la raíz. Dado la cap...

  10. Morphological, nutraceutical and sensorial properties of cultivated Fragaria vesca L. berries: influence of genotype, plant age, fertilization treatment on the overall fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Del Bubba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose, glucose, fructose, citric, malic, ascorbic (AA and dehydroascorbic (DHAA acids, total polyphenols (TP, radical scavenging activity (RSA, physicochemical and sensorial properties were determined on F. vesca Alpine (ALP and Regina delle Valli (RDV berries in relation to plant age and fertilisation treatment (Effective Microorganism Technology, EMT vs. traditional fertilization, TFT. ALP berries had a sum of AA and DHAA about 20% lower and TPs about 30% higher than RDV. Plant age affected most physicochemical parameters, sugars and organic acids, as well as sensorial appreciation, being them generally higher in berries produced in the second year. TPs were not affected by plant age. EMT produced an increase of 50%, 70% and 20% for TP, organic acids and RSA, respectively. Although changes in berry quality are expected with plant age, EMT cultivation of ALP should be preferred to the growth of RDV under TFT, to obtain fruits more valuable from the nutraceutical viewpoint.

  11. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonads Increases Anthocyanin Concentration in Strawberry Fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva) in Conditions of Reduced Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Guido; Bona, Elisa; Manassero, Paola; Marsano, Francesco; Todeschini, Valeria; Cantamessa, Simone; Copetta, Andrea; D’Agostino, Giovanni; Gamalero, Elisa; Berta, Graziella

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry. PMID:23924942

  12. Identificación y caracterización de especies de Neosartorya aisladas de frutillas (Fragaria spp. frescas y tratadas térmicamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Frisón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Aspergillus es uno de los géneros fúngicos más estudiados y de gran impacto a nivel industrial. La sección Fumigati incluye unas pocas especies anamorfas del género Aspergillus. Las especies que son teleomorfas se encuentran dentro del género Neosartorya. Este es un moho resistente al calor que causan problemas en las industrias alimentarias o enfermedades en los seres humanos. Sus ascosporas han sido aisladas a partir de frutas, pulpas y jugos, ya que pueden sobrevivir a los tratamientos de térmicos industriales pudiendo aparecer la contaminación post-pasteurización. El objetivo fue caracterizar aislados de Neosartorya de frutillas frescas recién cosechadas y tratadas térmicamente, analizando la ornamentación de las ascosporas, toxicidad y resistencia térmica. Se aislaron las colonias, y se identificaron macro y microscópicamente siguiendo la metodología de Pitt y Hocking (2009, de 60 muestras. Se caracterizaron las ascosporas por microscopía electrónica de barrido. Se determinó la capacidad toxicogénica de los extractos por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Se evaluó la resistencia térmica a diferentes temperaturas. Se aislaron 18 cepas de Neosartorya de frutillas recién cosechadas, y otros mohos termorresistentes como Arthrinium phaeospermum, Byssochlamys nivea y Talaromyces macrosporus. En las frutillas tratadas térmicamente no se aislaron mohos termorresistentes. Trece aislados mostraron ascosporascoincidentes con N. fischeri, el resto con N. spinosa. Los aislados de N. fischeri produjeron fumitremorgina A y B y verruculógeno en arroz, pero no lo hicieron en frutillas frescas. Los parámetros de resistencia térmica fueron: D80 ºC: 20 - 22 minutos, D85 ºC: 9 - 11 minutos, D90 ºC: 2 - 3 minutos y z: 10 - 11 ºC para N. fischeri y D80 ºC: > 120 minutos, D85 ºC: 11 - 94 minutos, D90 ºC: 3 - 15 minutos y z: 6 - 9 ºC para N. spinosa. Es indispensable aplicar buenas prácticas agrícolas y buenas prácticas de manufactura porque es muy difícil su eliminación o control.

  13. Identificación y caracterización de especies de Neosartorya aisladas de frutillas (Fragaria spp. frescas y tratadas térmicamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Frisón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Aspergillus es uno de los géneros fúngicos más estudiados y de gran impacto a nivel industrial. La sección Fumigati incluye unas pocas especies anamorfas del género Aspergillus. Las especies que son teleomorfas se encuentran dentro del género Neosartorya. Este es un moho resistente al calor que causan problemas en las industrias alimentarias o enfermedades en los seres humanos. Sus ascosporas han sido aisladas a partir de frutas, pulpas y jugos, ya que pueden sobrevivir a los tratamientos de térmicos industriales pudiendo aparecer la contaminación post-pasteurización. El objetivo fue caracterizar aislados de Neosartorya de frutillas frescas recién cosechadas y tratadas térmicamente, analizando la ornamentación de las ascosporas, toxicidad y resistencia térmica. Se aislaron las colonias, y se identificaron macro y microscópicamente siguiendo la metodología de Pitt y Hocking (2009, de 60 muestras. Se caracterizaron las ascosporas por microscopía electrónica de barrido. Se determinó la capacidad toxicogénica de los extractos por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Se evaluó la resistencia térmica a diferentes temperaturas. Se aislaron 18 cepas de Neosartorya de frutillas recién cosechadas, y otros mohos termorresistentes como Arthrinium phaeospermum, Byssochlamys nivea y Talaromyces macrosporus. En las frutillas tratadas térmicamente no se aislaron mohos termorresistentes. Trece aislados mostraron ascosporas coincidentes con N. fischeri, el resto con N. spinosa. Los aislados de N. fischeri produjeron fumitremorgina A y B y verruculógeno en arroz, pero no lo hicieron en frutillas frescas. Los parámetros de resistencia térmica fueron: D80 ºC: 20 - 22 minutos, D85 ºC: 9 - 11 minutos, D90 ºC: 2 - 3 minutos y z: 10 - 11 ºC para N. fischeri y D80 ºC: > 120 minutos, D85 ºC: 11 - 94 minutos, D90 ºC: 3 - 15 minutos y z: 6 - 9 ºC para N. spinosa. Es indispensable aplicar buenas prácticas agrícolas y buenas prácticas de manufactura porque es muy difícil su eliminación o control.

  14. Identificación y caracterización de especies de Neosartorya aisladas de frutillas (Fragaria spp.) frescas y tratadas térmicamente

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Frisón; Silvina Sobrero; Juan De Jesús; María de Basílico; Juan Basílico

    2012-01-01

    El género Aspergillus es uno de los géneros fúngicos más estudiados y de gran impacto a nivel industrial. La sección Fumigati incluye unas pocas especies anamorfas del género Aspergillus. Las especies que son teleomorfas se encuentran dentro del género Neosartorya. Este es un moho resistente al calor que causan problemas en las industrias alimentarias o enfermedades en los seres humanos. Sus ascosporas han sido aisladas a partir de frutas, pulpas y jugos, ya que pueden sobrevivir a los tratam...

  15. Waterborne Commerce of the United States Calendar Year 1987. Part 2. Waterways and Harbors Gulf Coast, Mississippi River System and Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-31

    8,�,000_ 01857S3’ 387 ,010 038,200’ 3,0 6,610 2,660,639 BIOS CORN... STELE SCSCRA--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61,98 5 1,856 160,367 TENNE3SEE RIVER, 7199., ALA...STEEL PRLARY FORMS-----------------------------------------------------------------------------3 8,33,096---------- 3337 I1O0 AND STELE PIPEI ANDATND E

  16. Tchangské křesťanství („nestoriánství“) v Číně a jeho jesuitská reflexe v 17. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liščák, Vladimír

    -, 9-10 (2016), s. 193-276. ISBN 978-80-87378-84-7. ISSN 1802-8209 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : Christianity in China * Nestorianism * Luminous Religion * Xi’an stele * Jesuit stele Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: Religious studies

  17. On a List of Priests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isager, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The article concerns the fate of an often cited list of priests for Poseidon, which at some point was established and cut into a stele in ancient Halikarnassos. The list could be considered the genealogical table of Halikarnassos: The cult of Poseidon was founded by colonists from Troizen...... and the first priest on the list was a son of the god Poseidon himself. This could be read from the inscription on a new stele to which it was decided to transfer all the names on the first stele in the Late Hellenistic Period. The article presents two new documents for future discussions on when, why...

  18. QTL Information Table: 1043 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inandang Patong B RM262 RM341 jsa Uga, Y., Okuno, K., and Yano, M. (2008). QTLs underlying natural variation in stele and xylem structures of rice root. Breeding Science 58, 7-14. ...

  19. Impacto del abonamiento integral en el rendimiento y calidad de fresa (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Selva bajo sistema de riego por goteo y cobertura plástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laydy Mitsu Mena Chacón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar el efecto del abonamiento integral en la calidad y rendimiento de fresa cv. Selva, su incidencia en la tasa de respiración y fertilidad del suelo; se realizó en el fundo Santa Teresa de Cayma, Arequipa - Perú. Los tratamientos resultaron de integrar 3 niveles de abonamiento químico: 0%; 50% y 100% de la formulación: 200 N, 60 K 2 O y 60 P 2 O 5 y 3 niveles de abonamiento orgánico: 0%; 50% y 100% de la formulación: 100 L de Humega, 12 L de Bioflora Phos y 60 L de Bioflora Potash ; evaluándose 9 tratamientos con 3 repeticiones, en diseño de bloques completos al azar; con arreglo factorial 3 x 3. No hubo efecto estadístico significativo sobre la calidad de frutos . El tr atamiento con 50% de abonamiento químico y 50% orgánico logró el mayor rendimiento de frutos de fresa (17114,63 kg·ha - 1 siendo 13,25% de categoría extra; 57,62% de primera; 25,18% de segunda; 2,06% de tercera y 1,90% de descarte. La tasa de respiración y la fertilidad del suelo no mostraron diferencia estadística significativa; excepto a 80 días del trasplante, donde el abonamiento orgánico al 100% incrementó la tasa de respiración.

  20. Eficiencia de polinización de colonias huérfanas del abejorro nativo Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae en dos cultivares de fresa (Fragaria x ananassa sembrados bajo cubierta en la sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Poveda Coronel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la fresa se ha convertido en un cultivo de interés económico debido a la creciente demanda en el mercado extranjero en la última década. La mayoría de plantaciones son a campo abierto y no usan esquemas de polinización para mejorar la calidad de producción. La polinización con abejorros mejora la calidad de los frutos, aunque estos se producen mediante polinización espontánea. La especie nativa Bombus atratus ha sido reconocida como un polinizador eficiente de cultivos hortofrutícolas colombianos bajo invernadero. El presente estudio evaluó la eficiencia de polinización de dos colonias huérfanas en la calidad de los frutos de las variedades camino real y ventana sembrados bajo invernadero en Cajicá-Colombia. Se embolsaron los botones para obtener los frutos producidos espontáneamente y ser comparados con los frutos provenientes de la visita de obreras de B. atratus. Se encontró que la visita de las obreras mejoró la calidad de los frutos en las variables, calibre (35 % y 31 %, longitud (28 % y 19 %, peso fresco (103 % y 90 %, peso seco (126 % y 145 % y número de semillas (55 % y 81 % para las variedades Camino Real y Ventana respectivamente. A partir de las observaciones realizadas, se determinó que el recurso floral utilizado por las obreras de B. atratus fue el néctar y se hacen recomendaciones sobre su uso en este cultivo.

  1. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of strawberry and other rosids reveals significant microsynteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbott Albert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragaria belongs to the Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes a number of important fruit producing genera such as Malus and Prunus. Using genomic sequences from 50 Fragaria fosmids, we have examined the microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant models. Results In more than half of the strawberry fosmids, we found syntenic regions that are conserved in Populus, Vitis, Medicago and/or Arabidopsis with Populus containing the greatest number of syntenic regions with Fragaria. The longest syntenic region was between LG VIII of the poplar genome and the strawberry fosmid 72E18, where seven out of twelve predicted genes were collinear. We also observed an unexpectedly high level of conserved synteny between Fragaria (rosid I and Vitis (basal rosid. One of the strawberry fosmids, 34E24, contained a cluster of R gene analogs (RGAs with NBS and LRR domains. We detected clusters of RGAs with high sequence similarity to those in 34E24 in all the genomes compared. In the phylogenetic tree we have generated, all the NBS-LRR genes grouped together with Arabidopsis CNL-A type NBS-LRR genes. The Fragaria RGA grouped together with those of Vitis and Populus in the phylogenetic tree. Conclusions Our analysis shows considerable microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant genomes such as Populus, Medicago, Vitis, and Arabidopsis to a lesser degree. We also detected a cluster of NBS-LRR type genes that are conserved in all the genomes compared.

  2. Plant extracts in the control of Phytophthora cryptogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikowski, L B

    2001-01-01

    Grapefruit extract at dose 40 micrograms/cm3 inhibited Phytophtora cryptogea linear growth about 50% and almost completely suppressed zoosporangia formation. Drenching of gerbera plants with the extract at dose 165 micrograms/cm3 reduced population density of the pathogen about 70% and this high efficacy was noted at least one month after application. Treatment of gerberas with grapefruit extract resulted in protection of about 50% of plants against the pathogen. Biological activity of purple coneflower extract was lower than extract from grapefruit. Significant decrease of population density of the pathogen during the first 5 days and increase of gerbera healthy stand was observed, however, in peat treated with that extract.

  3. Storms in Ancient Egypt: the Examples of Historical Natural Disasters Impacts on the Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    Though rain storms are infrequent in Egypt, which is normally a rainless country, some Ancient Egyptian texts give accounts of violent storms and rains. Actually, even small amounts of rain in that area could cause huge impact, as none of the water was absorbed by soil, and, running off, it could create dangerous torrents. The Tempest stele, circa 1550 BC, recounts a highly destructive storm happened during the reign of Ahmose I, the king of Egypt's 18 dynasty. The catastrophy is described in details, including the specific noise, overall darkness, torrent so that no torch could be lit. Many houses were washed into the river, temples, tombs and pyramids damaged and collapsed. The stele commemorates the restoration works made by the king who was able to cope with this great disaster and "re-establish the Two Lands". Some egyptologists believe that this event is related to the Minoan eruption of Thera, but this is unlikely given the description in the stele.

  4. Archaeological Investigations in the Upper Tombigbee Valley, Mississippi: Phase I. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    marshelder (sumpweed) (7va) maygrass (Phalaris carol iniana) maypop (Passi flora Incarnata) milkweed (Asclepiodora viridis ) neftles (Urt ica) Ohio...plum (Prunus) wild potato vine (Tpomoea pandurata) wild rice (Zizania aquatica) wild strawberries ( Fragaria ) DATE, FILMED 15, 8 3 DTIC

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fragaria spp Fruit (b)(5)(i). Liberia Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Mali Pineapple Ananas... free from Coccus moestus, C. viridis, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, Planococcus lilacinus, P. minor, and...

  6. Garrison Dam/Lake Sakakawea Master Plan with Integrated Programmatic Environmental Assessment, Missouri River, Montana: Update of Design Memorandum MGR-107D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    Toxicodendron radicans), wild strawberry ( Fragaria virginiana), violets (Oxalis violacea), and wild parsley (Lomatium orientale) fill in the...prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis ), yellowbelly racers (Coluber constrictor), western hognose snake (Heterdon nasicus), and smooth green snakes

  7. An Ecological Land Survey for Fort Wainwright, Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Nutt. DRYOPTERIS FRAGRANS (L.) Schott ALNUS VIRIDIS Villar ssp. CRISPA (Aiton) A. Loeve & D. Loeve GYMNOCARPIUM DRYOPTERIS (L.) Newman BETULA...OCTOPETALA POLYGONUM AMYHIBIUM L. FRAGARIA VIRGINIANA Duchesne POLYGONUM AVICULARE L. GEUM PERINCISUM Rydb. POLYGONUM CONVOLVULUS L. PENTAPHYLLOIDES

  8. Rend Lake, Illinois (Operation and Maintenance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    Lippia lanc6Tahta Foxtail, Bristly Setaria Faberfi Foxtail, Green Setaria viridis Foxtail, Yellow Setaria lutescens Galingale C Verus strigosus Garlic...Stickseed, Virginian Hackelia virginiana Stink-Grass Lraqrostis cilialensis Strawberry Fragaria virginiana Sunflower, Common Helianthus annuus Swamp

  9. Evaluation of the toxicity of Streptomyces aburaviensis (R9) towards various agricultural pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The culture filtrate fraction extracted with dichloromethane from Streptomyces aburaviensis -R9 strain grown on glucose-peptone-molasses (GPM) broth was bioassayed for its effect on phytopathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, C. gloeosoprioids, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum,...

  10. Glucanase and Chitinase from Some Isolates of Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Sasangka; Sulistyowati, Lilik; Aulanni'am

    2018-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are those fungi that are able to grow in plant tissue without causing symptoms of disease. It is thought that these fungi may confer on the host plants degree of resistance to parasitic invasion. Endophytic fungi have been isolated from stem tissue and these fungi are known to be antagonistic to pathogenic fungi. These endophytes produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase enzymes. Based on the fact that chitin and β-1,3-glucan are the main skeletal polysaccharides of the cell walls of fungal patogen. The aim of this research is to do potential test on some of isolates of Trichoderma’s endophytic (L-1, L-2, Is-1, Is-2 and Is-7) in the chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activity in effort to determine endophytic which be chossen to be gene resource for the next research. The gene will be transformed to citrus plant japanese citroen in effort to make citrus plant transgenic resistance to phytopatogenic invasion. The result of this research is endofit namely L-1 is the most potential endophytic fungi with chitinase activities is 4,8 10-2 Unit and glucanase 24,2. 1012 Unit. The addition of chitin and cell wall of phytophtora causes chitinase activity significantly increase, and also addition of laminarin and cell wall of phytophtora makes glucanase activity increase.

  11. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo; Tester, Mark A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele

  12. Laser Eye Protection Groupware Application Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Q^ Concenlralion ^ Data & Program Res ■>i Excfted Stele Cross-Section ’^> EKtrnction Coefficient ^s Ground Stale Cross-Section ?> Reference...2nd Level (2nd column) 4 Chemical Compound Bio material name 3nd Level (3rd column) 4th Level (4th column) Figure 14A. Reference Date View

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-28

    its difference from bio - logical forms promotes the process of humanization and perfection of the human being. The role of an ideal is immense. Maxim...not mass-produced steles , or obelisks, but with names and empty spaces for those, who have not been found yet. I think that these activities

  14. Naised käsu korras firmade juhatusse! Jah või ei? / Kairi Alt, Aveli Kippari, Karl Koort... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Columbus IT Partner Eesti AS personalijuht Kairi Alt, Stele ja Riveli omanik Aveli Kippari, AS Panaviatic'i turundusjuht Karl Koort, OÜ Tarkvara Tehnoloogia Arenduskeskuse tegevjuht Indrek Vainu, AS PricewaterhouseCoopers auditiosakonna direktor Eva Jansen, Kalev Chocolate Factory tootmisjuht Hardo Reinike

  15. Advancement of High Resolution Radar Polarimetry in Target Verses Clutter Detection, Discrimination, Classification: A. Basic Theory and Modeling of Polarimetric Clutter Phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-15

    Bio . data available upon request) Mr. Brian D. James, Ph.D. (candidate) Computer Data Processing Engineer Responsible for supervising UIC-.EECS/CL DEC...city and surrounding parks such as the Bell Tower, the marvellous Shaanxi Prcvincial Museum with its impressive forest of steles and stone carvings

  16. Algunas precisiones epigráficas sobre la estela de Gualda (Cifuentes, Guadalajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylow, Armin U.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the Gualda stele provides an explanation of its unusual shape and a revised version of its inscriptions.Un estudio pormenorizado de la estela bisoma de Gualda permite explicar su forma singular y presentar una nueva lectura de sus inscripciones.

  17. 76 FR 3012 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material Originating in Italy and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    .... Sculpture 1. Architectural Elements--In marble, limestone, steatite, basalt, tufa and other types of stone...--In marble and other stone. Types include carved slabs with figural, vegetative, floral, or decorative... marble, limestone, and other types of stone. Types include altar and shrine, cippus, funerary stele, and...

  18. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1941-10-29

    (Department of Botany, Presidency College, Calcutta). Received October 29, 1941. (Communicated by Dr. H. Chaudhuri). Introduction. SEVERAL types of steles are found in the vascular plants, but in the earliest of these plants, such as, the Psilophytales, the Psilotales, several fossil and living Lycopodiales and a few of the ...

  19. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Before entering the leaf-base each of these weak traces takes an outward turn within the cortex. Thus, each leaf receives three traces. In P. pectinatus the cortical bundles are independent and they do not join the central stele even in the nodal region. Before the leaf-base separates from the axis each of the cortical bundles.

  20. Особенности накопления микроэлементов в тканях Fragaria viridis (Duch. ) Weston

    OpenAIRE

    Докучаева, Юлия; Филиппова, Ася; Сафонов, Максим

    2014-01-01

    Лекарственные растения и препараты растительного происхождения занимают особое место среди средств профилактики и лечения различных заболеваний. Поэтому поиск новых перспективных растений, необходимых для использования в фитотерапии, является актуальной проблемой биологической науки, медицинской практики и ресурсоведения. Основным источником для поиска новых лекарственных растений является ареал средств народной медицины. Наибольший интерес при этом вызывают растения, обладающие комплексным д...

  1. Mapping the Progression of Phytophthora Ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banh, T.; Li, J.; El-Askary, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    There has been a plant pathogen, Phytophthora Ramorum that has been causing trouble for the plant species in the forests of California and Oregon. Phytophthora is essentially a water mold that infects oak species like California black oak, coast live oak as well as California bay laurel (Lamsal). What this project aims to accomplish is to observe any changes in NDVI values between the years of 2002 and 1994. What the project hopes to observe is a decline of NDVI values between the two years because the infection of Phytophtora Ramorum will cause stress to the plant or kill the plant, which will lower the values of NDVI. The project will utilizes satellite data to create NDVI images over the study area and two types of change detection methods to observe the differences between the NDVI values of the two years. Preliminary results for the project, data obtained from Landsat 7 ETM+ with a resolution of 240 meters, was not able to observe any significant changes. A finer resolution to differentiate the NDVI values would be needed. In addition the best way to keep the pathogen from getting out of control is with ground level management, or complete eradication of the pathogen. These eradication methods include burning the infected host plants and spreading herbicide (Alexander). With that in mind it would be ideal to have an early detection of the pathogen infestation. Therefore another goal of the project is to continue to research if remote sensing could play a role in an early detection method for the presence of Phytophtora Ramorum.

  2. Response to gravity by Zea mays seedlings. I. Time course of the response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.; Dayanandan, P.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    Gravistimulation induces an asymmetric distribution of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the cortex-epidermis of the Zea mays L. cv 'Stowells Evergreen' mesocotyl within 15 minutes, the shortest time tested. IAA was measured by an isotope dilution method as the pentaflurobenzyl ester. The per cent IAA in the lower half of the mescotyl cortex was 56 to 57% at 15, 30, and 90 minutes after stimulus initiation. Curvature is detectable in the mescotyl within 3 minutes after beginning gravitropic stimulation. The rate of curvature of the mesocotyl increases during the first 60 minutes to maximum of about 30 degrees per hour. Thus, the growth asymmetry continues to increase for 45 minutes after hormone asymmetry is established. Free IAA occurs predominantly in the stele of the mesocotyl whereas esterified IAA is mainly in the mesocotyl cortex-epidermis. This compartmentation may permit determining in which tissue the hormone asymmetry arises. Current data suggest the asymmetry originated in the stele.

  3. Un lote de armamento ibérico procedente de la necrópolis del Mas de Barberán (Nogueruelas, Teruel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izquierdo Peraile, Isabel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we publish an Ibenan set of weapons -swords, lances and dagger essentially-, coming from the cemetery of the settlement so-called Mas de Barberán (Nogueruelas, Teruel. An anthropomorphic stele with an inscription recently studied is associated to the same site. This stele represents an armed with disk-cuirass masculine personage.

    En este trabajo presentamos un lote inédito de armamento ibérico espadas, lanzas y puñal esencialmente procedente de la necrópolis correspondiente al poblado del Mas de Barberán (Nogueruelas, Teruel. Al mismo yacimiento se asocia la estela antropomorfa con inscripción que representa un personaje masculino armado con disco-coraza, recientemente estudiada.

  4. Blanking Clearance and Punch Velocity Effects on The Sheared Edge Characteristic in Micro-Blanking of Commercially Pure Copper Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didin Zakaria Lubis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the influences between clearance and punch velocity on the part edge quality of blanked parts. Experiments have been conducted using material copper, punch-die clearance and punch velocity variations. In order to determine the reachable punch-die clearance and punch velocity required for blanking. The quality of the part-edge characteristics shows that higher punch velocity and decreases clearance value can improve the part-edge quality, resulting in smaller burr height and rollover, and a larger shear zone. Furthermore, it could be observed that the part-edge quality improvement when blanking with high punch velocity is much more distinct for stele than for copper. According to blanking theory, this improvement was expected because copper have much higher heat conduction coefficients. Therefore, the heat dissipates faster and the desired stress relief effect does not take place to the same degree as for stele.

  5. Regulation of Neurotransmitter Responses in the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-05

    A~~ C-DSP 6C. ADORtESS tCIY State ad lip CodeA 7b. ADDRESS IYit. Stele end ZIP COO) ~ AJ C 6200 Freeport Centre Boiling Air Force Base P .A1...considered binding (Table 2). significantly different for a p value of :!0.05. Protein concentrations were determined using reagent kits from Bio -Rad (Richmond

  6. Prospective Randomized Trial of the Military Anti-Shock Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-20

    Dillman PA: The bio -physical responses to shock trousers. JEN 21:25, 1977. 13 43. Eddy DM: The kinetics of fluid loss from leaks in arteries tested by an...07793420 85 06 27 N 3 15 16 16 16 .9978 E N 18 -420 0 450 210 9999 521 STELE , BARBARA 13450811 86 07 25 N 3 12 13 16 .9556 E N 083 7.00 19.0 14.0 9999

  7. Interruption of Neural Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    applcbse) University of Colorado I Be. ADDRESS (City. Stele and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NOS. Campus Box B-19 PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT Boulder...rectification, frequency-sensitive phenomena, safety, and some effects on bio - logical systems," invited review, Charles Polk, Ed., CRC Handbook of Biological...experimental test", Mathematical Bio - Sciences, Vol. 29, pp. 235-253, 1978. [131 Kuf1er. S. WV., J. G. Nicholls, and A. R. Martin, "From Nettron to Brain

  8. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME) SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica BERCU

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf) and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blad...

  9. The Role of Mycorrhizal Fungi in Ecosystem Energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    do not pene- trate the stele . They are the main organ of exchange between the plant and the mycorrhizal fungus. Intercellular hyphae are in direct...processes. Energy flow through the grazing and detritus pathways involves bio - chemical transformation of photosynthate to cellular biomass within...seedlings. 3. Measurement of Annual Production of Aboveground Plant Production and Partitioning Between Stems, Needles, and Branches. Volumes of bio - mass

  10. From Hades to Hel and from Elysium to Valhǫll : A Comparative Research about Death and Afterlife in ancient Greek and Viking society

    OpenAIRE

    Karagianni, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis is a comparative research about death and afterlife in ancient Greek and Viking society making use of both literary sources such as the Eddas and the Homeric epic poems and archaeological evidence including ship burials, rune stones, grave steles and vase paintings. I start applying the subject of death and afterlife individually on each civilization and for this purpose the two first chapters consist of two parts; the first part deals with beliefs about death and afterlife...

  11. Lenticels as indicators of atmospheric smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesek, F.

    1960-01-01

    The invasion of smoke pollution gets from the atmosphere into the plants only by lenticels and stomata. The most toxic smoke constituents penetrating into the stele are SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/, H/sub 3/AsO/sub 4/, HCl and C/sub 6/H/sub 5/OH. Lenticels are bark stomata filled with merenchym tissue, which hinders the entrance of mechanical smoke particles into the interior tissues of the stele. In autumn, the lenticels are packed by cork slabs formed by the cork cambium. In spring, this cork slab is broken by a new mechanical tissue. Sambucus nigra L. has a merenchym sensitive to the presence of smoke pollution, and the lenticels may serve, therefore, as indicators of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The intensity of damage caused by smoke constituents penetrating into the plants through lenticels depends upon a series of exterior and interior factors. They are the number of lenticels per area unit of bark surface in the whole circumference, the pH of the biocomplex near the lenticel in the interior tissues of stele, and the concentration of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The most effective way of preventing smoke damage is to install pollution control equipment in the industrial works.

  12. 3D analysis of mitosis distribution highlights the longitudinal zonation and diarch symmetry in proliferation activity of the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrekha, Viktoriya V; Pasternak, Taras; Ivanov, Victor B; Palme, Klaus; Mironova, Victoria V

    2017-12-01

    To date CYCB1;1 marker and cortex cell lengths have been conventionally used to determine the proliferation activity of the Arabidopsis root meristem. By creating a 3D map of mitosis distribution we showed that these markers overlooked that stele and endodermis save their potency to divide longer than the cortex and epidermis. Cessation of cell divisions is not a random process, so that mitotic activity within the endodermis and stele shows a diarch pattern. Mitotic activity of all root tissues peaked at the same distance from the quiescent center (QC); however, different tissues stopped dividing at different distances, with cells of the protophloem exiting the cell cycle first and the procambial cells being the last. The robust profile of mitotic activity in the root tip defines the longitudinal zonation in the meristem with the proliferation domain, where all cells are able to divide; and the transition domain, where the cell files cease to divide. 3D analysis of cytokinin deficient and cytokinin signaling mutants showed that their proliferation domain is similar to that of the wild type, but the transition domain is much longer. Our data suggest a strong inhibitory effect of cytokinin on anticlinal cell divisions in the stele. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  14. Diaporthe species on Rosaceae with descriptions of D. pyracanthae sp. nov. and D. malorum sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, L.; Phillips, A.J.L.; Crous, P.W.; Alves, A.

    2017-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes a large number of species ranging from herbaceous (Fragaria) to ornamental plants (Rosa and Pyracantha) and fruit trees (Malus and Pyrus). Diaporthe species have been associated with twig canker, shoot blight, dieback, wood decay and fruit rot on members of the Rosaceae.

  15. Antioxidant Capacity and Antioxidants of Strawberry, Blackberry, and Raspberry Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buřičová, Lucie; Andjelkovic, M.; Čermáková, A.; Réblová, Z.; Jurček, Ondřej; Kolehmainen, E. T.; Verhé, R.; Kvasnička, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2011), s. 181-189 ISSN 1212-1800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : DPPH * Folin-Ciocalteau method * Fragaria vesca Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2011 www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/37219.pdf

  16. QTL list: bV-M.2 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT96630 Fragaria x ananassa Rosaceae bV-M.2 fruit color external fruit color, meas...ured by Minolta chromameter using CIELAB color space values: b* (blue-yellow spectrum) 1 ... 1 3.86 ... 10.1007/s00122-011-1624-6 21667037

  17. QTL list: aV-M.2 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT96624 Fragaria x ananassa Rosaceae aV-M.2 fruit color external fruit color, meas...ured by Minolta chromameter using CIELAB color space values: a* (green-red spectrum) 1 ... 1 4.68 ... 10.1007/s00122-011-1624-6 21667037

  18. QTL list: aV-M.2 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT96622 Fragaria x ananassa Rosaceae aV-M.2 fruit color external fruit color, meas...ured by Minolta chromameter using CIELAB color space values: a* (green-red spectrum) 1 ... 2 2.11 ... 10.1007/s00122-011-1624-6 21667037

  19. Defence activation in strawberry and pine- Epigenetic changes in treated plants

    OpenAIRE

    Komajda, Ludwika

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent species, withinagriculture and forestry respectively, that are traditionally protected by utilization of pesticidesincluding neurotoxic insecticides. More environmentally friendly protection strategies are thereforehighly desirable. Treating plants with specific metabolites naturally occurring in their tissues might alterepigenetic mechanisms, which in turn may strengthen plants self-defense against diseases a...

  20. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  1. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  2. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    ROSACEAE Acaena californica: C-S, CPI Adenostoma fasciculctmm: CH-, CS, C-L Aichemilla arvensis: CP Fragaria vesca ssp. cabjfomica: NP, LO, M-LI Hetermeles...Thamnophis elegans * Western Aquatic Garter Snake T. couchi * Common Garter Snake T. sinalis * Western Rattlesnake Crotalus viridis TOTAL 22 8 3 3 BIRDS

  3. Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management System (ECAMP), U.S. Air Force - German Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    lizard *Lacerta parva Zwerg-Zaumeidecbse dwad sand lizard *Lacerta. princeps Zagros-Eidecbse Zagros’ lizard *Lacerta viridis Smaragdeidechse green...Moschusbock musk beetle oak beetle Agrilus viridis Buchenprachtkaefer beech beetle (Lsubholzprachtksefer) deciduous tree beetles Anthaxia quadiipunctata...meadow sulfur -all European species not individually listed *Coistra. fragariae Erdbeereule strawberry moth *Consta. veronicae Rotbraune Wintereule red

  4. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    grass P Poa pratensis Blue grass Setaria viridis Green foxtail P P P P D Setaria sp. Bristly foxtail P Spartina pectinata Prairie cord grass P...Agrimonia pubescens Cocklebur Alchemilla sp. Lady’s mantle P Fragaria vesca Wild strawberry Oewn canadense White avens Gewn laciniatun Avens Geum

  5. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement. Supersonic Flight Operations in the Reserve Military Operations Area, Holloman AFB, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    tailed Rattlesnake Crotalus molossus Western Rattlesnake Crotalus viridis CAUTION Most snake bites occur to people who are trying to kill or catch snakes...Strawberry Fragaria bracteata Yarrow Achillea lanulosa Yellow Sweetclover Melilotus indicus IX L-2 List of Preparers Jim Battis; AFGL/LWH, Ha’-com

  6. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, St. Croix River Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Poa palustris Fowl meadow-grass P Poa pratensis Blue grass Setaria viridis Green foxtail P P P P D Setaria sp. Bristly foxtail P Spartina pectinata...Juneberry) Crataegus spp. (Thorn-Apple) Fragaria vesca (Wild Strawberry) Geum canadense (White Avens) Geum laciniatum (Avens) Geum triflorum (Three

  7. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Setaria viridis Green foxtail P P P P D Setaria sp. Bristly foxtail P Spartina pectinata Prairie cord grass P Unidentified sp. D P P 1YDROCHARITACEAE...americanus New Jersey tea ROSACEAE Agrimonia pubescens Cocklebur Alchemilla sp. Lady’s mantle P Fragaria oesca Wild strawberry Cewn canadense White avens

  8. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    glyptosperma ribseed sandmat 0 Euphorbia maculata Spotted Spurge 0 Euthamia graminifolia Flat-top Goldentop 6 Fragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry 4...Foxtail UK Setaria viridis Pennisetum viridis Green Foxtail 0 Silene sp. Catchfly UK Sisyrinchium campestre White-eyed Grass 10 Sium suave

  9. Environmental Impact Study of The Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota River Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Setaria viridis I Green foxtail P P P P D Setaria sp. I Bristly foxtail P Spartina pectinata Prairie cord grass P Unidentified sp. D P P...Thalictrn sp. Meadow-rue P P RPAMNACEAE Ceanothus omericanus New Jersey tea ROSACEAE Agrimonia pubescens Cocklebur AZchemilla sp. Lady’s mantle P Fragaria

  10. LED Light to improve Strawberry Flavour, Quality and Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanenberg, M.A.A.; Janse, J.; Verkerke, W.

    2016-01-01

    A current demonstration in the greenhouses of Wageningen UR in Bleiswijk (the Netherlands) shows positive results of LED light on the quality and production of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa). In this demonstration two strawberry cultivars, Elsanta and Sonata, are exposed to three different light

  11. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  12. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  13. Genomics tools available for unravelling mechanisms underlying agronomical traits in strawberry with more to come

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last few years, high-throughput genomics promised to bridge the gap between plant physiology and plant sciences. In addition, high-throughput genotyping technologies facilitate marker-based selection for better performing genotypes. In strawberry, Fragaria vesca was the first reference sequen...

  14. Behavioural response of Heterorhabditis megidis towards plant roots and insect larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, M.I.C.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Smits, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    The behavioural response of infective juveniles (IJs) of Heterorhabditis megidis (strain NLH-E87.3) to cues from roots of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), thuja (Thuja occidentalis L.) and to larvae of the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, was studied. Choice assays were conducted in

  15. A comparison of bioactive compounds of strawberry fruit from Europe affected by genotype and latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josuttis, M.; Carlen, C.; Nestby, R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four different growing locations from Stjørdal, Norway (63°36'N) to Conthey, Switzerland (46°12'N) on the composition of bioactives in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) of three genotypes (cvs Clery, Elsanta and Korona) was evaluated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used...

  16. CATT as a sustainable method for disinfestation of strawberry mother planting stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Hoek, H.; Verschoor, J.; Molendijk, L.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    From 2009 Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment (CATT) is scaled up to a commercial level and widely applied by Dutch producers of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) mother planting stock. CATT is a non-chemical and sustainable method to disinfest plant material from insect pests. Frigo plants

  17. Surface sterilization method for reducing microbial contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective disinfection method for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Senga Sengana micropropagation using runner tips and nodal segments as explants was developed. The explants were surface sterilized with different sterilants for different durations. The present studies on the effect of different regimes of ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 193 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2001), Effect of Bioregulators on Apple Yield and ... Storage Life and Quality of Spinach (Spinacea oleracea L) Leaves ... fertilizers on growth, flowering and yield of strawberry (Fragaria X ... No 2 (2012), Effect of rain water harvesting and drip irrigation on crop ... B Kaunda-Arara, MJ Ntiba.

  19. The role of petals in development of grey mould in strawberries = Importância das pétalas no desenvolvimento do mofo-cinzento do morangueiro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, P.; Kraker, de J.; Gerlagh, de M.; Köhl, J.

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted in annual crops of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) (cv. Elsanta to assess the relative importance of petals as an inoculum source of grey mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea and to identify during which period of flower and fruit development the presence of petals has a

  20. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medina-Puche, L.; Molina-Hidalgo, F.J.; Boersma, M.; Schuurink, R.C.; López-Vidriero, I.; Solano, R.; Franco-Zorrilla, J.M.; Caballero, J.L.; Blanco-Portales, R.; Muñoz-Blanco, J.

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and

  1. 'Florida Beauty' strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Florida Beauty’ strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) originated from a 2012 cross made by the Queensland breeding program between Queensland Australia selection 2010-119 (female parent) and ‘Florida Radiance’ (male parent). Selection 2010-119 was chosen as a parent for its excellent fruit shape and fl...

  2. Environmental Compliance Assessment System Army National Guard (ECAS- ARNG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Piopory A PucaI Officer (USP&Ro) (6) Stele Sary Odffiar (7) Suace Ahkuteaece MaMnagr (SW!O (9) Comad Lopam Officer (CLO) (00) 0ampoicnai Heaft Nuame...Tment PIM Operators (15) P A O O (20) Hetallmon Respone Teen ( BIO (OSQ (21) Sure Judge Avomw (SIA) (29) S•ate Aviation Officer 2 - 107 COMPLIANCE...eliminate damage to the environment and bio - sphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man (42 USC 4321). Under NEPA, the continuing policy of the

  3. Methods for Solving the Viscoelasticity Equations for Cylinder and Sphere Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-22

    iEA~Q:t~). Z: 1:40i p .2.. * 4// 4 4) DISPLALEMENT- INLIEPENCEANr POTENTIAL AýELArO: 4) iPAL~T NDEIJUNCF’!r. IoorENTAL .qELATiOW5 bIO GkERAL...A t) STELE .8) Q~SP...]’e- $3~bp "j6 I1+MDV2(E.. -E.L~ REAL2. Ot Jr *l f.Ji) 4_NV Z 4 i.’ v THE rzOXM EPRlON CAN BE GIVE N PVAU IN DNA ANY LANf

  4. La estela de Retugenos (K.12.1 y el imperativo celtibérico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Arenas

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available New reading and interpretation of a Celtiberian stele from the second half of the 2nd century BC found in Langa de Duero (Soria: retukeno esto eltis, “of Retugenos be it the stele”. The archaic inscription, itself apparently shaped as an axe, features an axe at the beginning of the word ke.l.ti.s ‘stele’ (*kel-ti-s and may have been commemorating the famous Numantian leader Ρητογένης, called Καραύνιος ‘Lovable’. Note the imperative without suffixed subject pronoun and its still preserved -ō#.

  5. 福建福鼎市太姥山宋代国兴寺遗址的发掘%Excavation of the Guoxingsi Temple-site of the Song Period at Tailaoshan in Fuding City,Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    福建博物院; 福鼎市文体局; 福鼎市旅游局; 太姥山风景区管理局

    2003-01-01

    In September-November 2001,the Fujian Provincial Museum and other institutions excavated the site of Guoxingsi Temple at Tailaoshan in Fuding City.They revealed the vestiges of pavilions,side rooms,passages,small yards and a stupa in this Song period temple and dug out large quantities of ceramic articles,structural members and inscribed steles.The excavation indicates that the temple was first built in the fourth year of the Qianfu reign,Tang Dynasty,and reached its prosperity atthe turn from the Northern Song to the Southern Song period.The unearthed material contributes to studying the history of architecture and Buddhism in ancient China.

  6. Power, identity and antiquarian approaches in modern Chinese art

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chia-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of antiquity was important for scholarly artists in constructing their knowledge of history and cultural identity in late Imperial China. Following various publications by Bi Yuan 畢沅 (1730-1797), Wu Yi 武億 (1745-1799) and Qian Daxin 錢大昕 (1728-1804) in the 18th century, the study and collecting of rubbings of Northern Wei stone inscriptions and steles was popular. Such spread of interest in jinshi, inscriptions on metal and stone, also formed a base for studying seal carving, epigra...

  7. Análisis comparativo entre la iconografía de dos vasos celtibéricos y estelas funerarias de tradición indígena

    OpenAIRE

    San Vicente González de Aspuru, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Two celtiberian vessels, “Vaso de Arcobriga” and “Vaso de Toros” of Numancia are analyzed and compared to funerary items appeared on gravestones of indigenous tradition from Álava and Navarra, as well as a stele found in Martos (Jaén). It concludes with a new interpretation of the studied Celtic ceramics and various contributions relating to the ivy plant decorating the architectural beams cover of the Arcobriga Glass, the fish and the rectangular object of Vaso de los Toros are made. The lat...

  8. Pollen flora of pakistan-lxxi. rosaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, A.; Qaiser, M.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria-type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma-type, Cotoneaster affinis-type, Fragaria nubicola-type, Geum roylei-type, Malus pumila-type, Potentilla pamirica-type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level. (author)

  9. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P antioxidant activity. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Untersuchungen zur Erdbeerfruchtreifung : Biosynthese von 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanon und Enzymaktivitäten während des Reifungsprozesses

    OpenAIRE

    Raab, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Die Fruchtreifung stellt einen hochkomplexen Prozess dar, der durch eine Reihe von biochemischen und physiologischen Veränderungen gekennzeichnet ist. Dies umfasst bedeutende Veränderungen von Textur, Farbe sowie die Bildung von geschmacks- und geruchsaktiven Verbindungen. Die vorliegende Arbeit präsentiert neue Erkenntnisse zur Biosynthese von 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanon (Furaneol®, HDMF), einer Schlüssel-Aromakomponente der Erdbeere (Fragaria x ananassa). Daneben lieferten die durc...

  11. An Inventory of the Vascular Flora of Fort Greely, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Alnus tenuifolia Nutt. [= Alnus incana (L.) Moench ssp. tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung] Alnus viridis Vill. ssp. crispa (Ait.) A. Love & D. Love...Festuca rubra L., in part] Festuca saximontana Rydb. *Festuca vivipara (L.) Smith [= “Festuca vivipara”] Fragaria virginiana Duchesne ssp. glauca...tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung] Alnus viridis Vill. ssp. crispa (Ait.) A. Love & D. Love [= Alnus crispa (Ait.) Pursh ssp. crispa] Betula glandulosa Michx. Betula

  12. Terrestrial Biological Inventory, Hillview Drainage and Levee District, Greene and Scott Counties, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Timothy) Setaria faberi ’derrm. (Giant Foxtail) Setaria u-tescens (Weigel) Hubb. (Yellow Foxtail) Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Green Foxtail) Spartina...Potamore toa nodosus Poir. (Long-leaved Poadveed) PRIMU]L&CEAE Lysimachia nummalaria L.. (Moneywort) &OSACEAE *Crataegus viridis L. (Southern Thorn... Fragaria vi-riniana Duchesne. (Cultivated Strawberry) Potentilla simplex 1uichx. (Common Cinquef oil) *Prunus americans Marsh. (Wild Plum) *Prunus

  13. Management of Soilborne Diseases in Strawberry Using Vegetable Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Subbarao, Krishna V

    2007-01-01

    The influence of crop rotation on soilborne diseases and yield of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) was determined at a site infested with Verticillium dahliae microsclerotia and at another with no known history of V. dahliae infestation during 1997 to 2000. The rotations studied at the V. dahliae-infested site were (i) broccoli-broccoli-strawberry, (ii) Brussels sproutsstrawberry, and (iii) lettuce-lettuce-strawberry; the treatments at the site with no history of V. dahliae were (i) broccoli-...

  14. Etudes comparatives de différents processus de séchage de fraise par air chaud, lyophilisation et autovaporisation instantanée : application à la préservation des contenus biologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Alonzo Macias , Maritza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hot air drying (HAD), freeze-drying (FD) and swell drying (SD), which is a coupling of hot air drying to instant controlled pressure drop, (DIC) on the strawberry (Fragaria var. Camarosa) to compare and to contrast its quality in terms of drying and rehydration kinetics, bioactive compounds and its antioxidant activity, and texture parameters as crunchy and crispy features. The obtained results shown that SD method helped to reduce the dryin...

  15. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    Hedychiums have been reported to possess antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities [4,5]. Strawberry anthracnose, caused by the plant...pathogens Colletotrichum species is one of the most important diseases affecting strawberries worldwide [6]. Colletotrichum fragariae Brooks is most...often associated with anthracnose crown rot of strawberries grown in hot, humid areas such as the southeastern United States [7]. The azalea lace bug

  16. Detection and isolation of nepoviruses on strawberry in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honetslegrová, J; Spak, J

    1995-06-01

    Arabis mosaic, strawberry latent ringspot, tomato black ring and raspberry ringspot nepoviruses were monitored using double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) in 18 cultivars of strawberry Fragaria x ananassa Duch. in the Czech Republic. Arabis mosaic and strawberry latent ringspot viruses were detected, isolated and characterized on differential host plants and by electron microscopy. Both viruses were purified and antisera to them were prepared.

  17. Compilation of 1990 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 2. Tabs C thru F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    maculosa has increased since 1983 until it is now the most abundant flowering plant on the hill. Also abundant are Cirsium palustre Fragaria virginiana...two Megachile species under study, Sespecially for M. inermis. They were Hieracium aurantiacum Cirsium palustre and Centaurea maculosa . Further...site in 1988 because of a substantial population of Centaurea maculosa that bloomed in late July, in spite of the drought and hot temperatures. This

  18. Comparative analysis of rosaceous genomes and the reconstruction of a putative ancestral genome for the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Eudald; Sargent, Daniel J; Lopez Girona, Elena; Bushakra, Jill; Cestaro, Alessandro; Crowhurst, Ross; Pindo, Massimo; Cabrera, Antonio; van der Knaap, Esther; Iezzoni, Amy; Gardiner, Susan; Velasco, Riccardo; Arús, Pere; Chagné, David; Troggio, Michela

    2011-01-12

    Comparative genome mapping studies in Rosaceae have been conducted until now by aligning genetic maps within the same genus, or closely related genera and using a limited number of common markers. The growing body of genomics resources and sequence data for both Prunus and Fragaria permits detailed comparisons between these genera and the recently released Malus × domestica genome sequence. We generated a comparative analysis using 806 molecular markers that are anchored genetically to the Prunus and/or Fragaria reference maps, and physically to the Malus genome sequence. Markers in common for Malus and Prunus, and Malus and Fragaria, respectively were 784 and 148. The correspondence between marker positions was high and conserved syntenic blocks were identified among the three genera in the Rosaceae. We reconstructed a proposed ancestral genome for the Rosaceae. A genome containing nine chromosomes is the most likely candidate for the ancestral Rosaceae progenitor. The number of chromosomal translocations observed between the three genera investigated was low. However, the number of inversions identified among Malus and Prunus was much higher than any reported genome comparisons in plants, suggesting that small inversions have played an important role in the evolution of these two genera or of the Rosaceae.

  19. Comparative analysis of rosaceous genomes and the reconstruction of a putative ancestral genome for the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genome mapping studies in Rosaceae have been conducted until now by aligning genetic maps within the same genus, or closely related genera and using a limited number of common markers. The growing body of genomics resources and sequence data for both Prunus and Fragaria permits detailed comparisons between these genera and the recently released Malus × domestica genome sequence. Results We generated a comparative analysis using 806 molecular markers that are anchored genetically to the Prunus and/or Fragaria reference maps, and physically to the Malus genome sequence. Markers in common for Malus and Prunus, and Malus and Fragaria, respectively were 784 and 148. The correspondence between marker positions was high and conserved syntenic blocks were identified among the three genera in the Rosaceae. We reconstructed a proposed ancestral genome for the Rosaceae. Conclusions A genome containing nine chromosomes is the most likely candidate for the ancestral Rosaceae progenitor. The number of chromosomal translocations observed between the three genera investigated was low. However, the number of inversions identified among Malus and Prunus was much higher than any reported genome comparisons in plants, suggesting that small inversions have played an important role in the evolution of these two genera or of the Rosaceae.

  20. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts; preliminary screening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Taschereau, Pierre; Belland, René J; Sand, Crystal; Rennie, Robert P

    2008-01-04

    In the setting of HIV and organ transplantation, opportunistic fungal infections have become a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus antifungal therapy is playing a greater role in health care. Traditional plants are a valuable source of novel antifungals. To assess in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous plant extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for each extract in the setting of human pathogenic fungal isolates. Plants were harvested and identification verified. Aqueous extracts were obtained and antifungal susceptibilities determined using serial dilutional extracts with a standardized microdilution broth methodology. Twenty-three fungal isolates were cultured and exposed to the plant extracts. Five known antifungals were used as positive controls. Results were read at 48 and 72 h. Of the 14 plants analyzed, Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Potentilla simplex Michx. demonstrated strong antifungal potential overall. Fragaria virginiana had some degree of activity against all of the fungal pathogens. Alnus viridis DC., Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and Solidago gigantea Ait. also demonstrated a significant degree of activity against many of the yeast isolates. Fragaria virginiana, Epilobium angustifolium and Potentilla simplex demonstrate promising antifungal potential.

  1. Differentiation of Colletotrichum species responsible for anthracnose of strawberry by arbitrarily primed PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of 39 isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides, which cause anthracnose on strawberry, was grouped into species based on the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR). All isolates used had previously been identified according to classical taxonomic morphology. Ap-PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of C. acutatum, C. fragariae and two genotypes of C. gloeosporioides. Fifteen of the 18 C. acutatum isolates were very similar, although three isolates which produced a red pigment had distinctly different banding patterns. Nearly identical banding patterns were observed for all nine isolates of C. fragariae. The 12 C. gloeosporioides isolates were more diverse and two separate genotypes, Cgl-1 (six isolates) and Cgl-2 (five isolates) were distinguished by ap-PCR. An additional isolate did not conform to either the Cgl-1 or Cgl-2 genotypes. The utility of ap-PCR compared with other molecular techniques for reliable identification of Colletotrichum isolates pathogenic on strawberry is discussed.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Gene Family in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wei-Ping; Snyder, John C; Wang, Shu-Bin; Liu, Jin-Bing; Pan, Bao-Gui; Guo, Guang-Jun; Wei, Ge

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating multiple biological processes, especially in regulating defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little information is available about WRKYs in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The recent release of completely assembled genome sequences of pepper allowed us to perform a genome-wide investigation for pepper WRKY proteins. In the present study, a total of 71 WRKY genes were identified in the pepper genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins, the pepper WRKY genes (CaWRKY) were classified into three main groups, with the second group further divided into five subgroups. Genome mapping analysis revealed that CaWRKY were enriched on four chromosomes, especially on chromosome 1, and 15.5% of the family members were tandemly duplicated genes. A phylogenetic tree was constructed depending on WRKY domain' sequences derived from pepper and Arabidopsis. The expression of 21 selected CaWRKY genes in response to seven different biotic and abiotic stresses (salt, heat shock, drought, Phytophtora capsici, SA, MeJA, and ABA) was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR; Some CaWRKYs were highly expressed and up-regulated by stress treatment. Our results will provide a platform for functional identification and molecular breeding studies of WRKY genes in pepper.

  3. High-throughput sequencing of black pepper root transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is one of the most popular spices in the world. It is used in cooking and the preservation of food and even has medicinal properties. Losses in production from disease are a major limitation in the culture of this crop. The major diseases are root rot and foot rot, which are results of root infection by Fusarium solani and Phytophtora capsici, respectively. Understanding the molecular interaction between the pathogens and the host’s root region is important for obtaining resistant cultivars by biotechnological breeding. Genetic and molecular data for this species, though, are limited. In this paper, RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the root transcriptome of black pepper. Results The root transcriptome of black pepper was sequenced by the NGS SOLiD platform and assembled using the multiple-k method. Blast2Go and orthoMCL methods were used to annotate 10338 unigenes. The 4472 predicted proteins showed about 52% homology with the Arabidopsis proteome. Two root proteomes identified 615 proteins, which seem to define the plant’s root pattern. Simple-sequence repeats were identified that may be useful in studies of genetic diversity and may have applications in biotechnology and ecology. Conclusions This dataset of 10338 unigenes is crucially important for the biotechnological breeding of black pepper and the ecogenomics of the Magnoliids, a major group of basal angiosperms. PMID:22984782

  4. Biocontrol Activity of Myxococcus sp. KYC 1126 against Phytophthora Blight on Hot Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Yun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriolytic myxobacteria have been known to secrete various antifungal metabolites against several soilborne phytopathogens including Phytophthora. Among the three isolates of Myxococcus spp., KYC 1126 and KYC 1136 perfectly inhibited the mycelial growth of Phytophtora capsici in vitro. In order to show the biocontrol activity on Phytophthora blight of hot pepper, we tried to find the best way of application of myxobacterial isolate. Although KYC 1126 fruiting body was easily grown on the colony of Escherichia coli as a nutrient source, it did not control the disease when it was pre-applied in soil. Before the bioassay of a liquid culture filtrate of KYC 1126 was conducted, its antifungal activity was confirmed on the seedlings applying with the mixture of the pathogen`s zoospore suspension and KYC 1126 filtrate. On greenhouse experiments with five and four replications, the control value of KYC 1126 on phyllosphere and rhizosphere was 88% and 36%, respectively. Whereas, the control value of dimetnomorph+propineb on phyllosphere was 100% and that of propamorcarb on rhizosphere was 44%. There was a phytotoxicity of the myxobacterial filtrate when seedlings were washed and soaked for 24 hours. Gummy materials were covered with roots. And stem and petiole were constricted, then a whole seedling was eventually blighted.

  5. Variation in capsidiol sensitivity between Phytophthora infestans and Phytophthora capsici is consistent with their host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Artemis; Schornack, Sebastian; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Haart, Dave; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Faraldos, Juan A; Kamoun, Sophien; O'Maille, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    Plants protect themselves against a variety of invading pathogenic organisms via sophisticated defence mechanisms. These responses include deployment of specialized antimicrobial compounds, such as phytoalexins, that rapidly accumulate at pathogen infection sites. However, the extent to which these compounds contribute to species-level resistance and their spectrum of action remain poorly understood. Capsidiol, a defense related phytoalexin, is produced by several solanaceous plants including pepper and tobacco during microbial attack. Interestingly, capsidiol differentially affects growth and germination of the oomycete pathogens Phytophthora infestans and Phytophthora capsici, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study we revisited the differential effect of capsidiol on P. infestans and P. capsici, using highly pure capsidiol preparations obtained from yeast engineered to express the capsidiol biosynthetic pathway. Taking advantage of transgenic Phytophthora strains expressing fluorescent markers, we developed a fluorescence-based method to determine the differential effect of capsidiol on Phytophtora growth. Using these assays, we confirm major differences in capsidiol sensitivity between P. infestans and P. capsici and demonstrate that capsidiol alters the growth behaviour of both Phytophthora species. Finally, we report intraspecific variation within P. infestans isolates towards capsidiol tolerance pointing to an arms race between the plant and the pathogens in deployment of defence related phytoalexins.

  6. Pretreatment of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) Suspension Cultures with Methyl Jasmonate Enhances Elicitation of Activated Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauss, H.; Jeblick, W.; Ziegler, J.; Krabler, W.

    1994-01-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) were used to demonstrate an influence of jasmonic acid methyl ester (JAME) on the elicitation of activated oxygen species. Preincubation of the cell cultures for 1 d with JAME greatly enhanced the subsequent induction by an elicitor preparation from cell walls of Phytophtora megasperma f. sp. glycinea (Pmg elicitor) and by the polycation chitosan. Shorter preincubation times with JAME were less efficient, and the effect was saturated at about 5 [mu]M JAME. Treatment of the crude Pmg elicitor with trypsin abolished induction of activated oxygen species, an effect similar to that seen with elicitation of coumarin secretion. These results suggest that JAME conditioned the parsley suspension cells in a time-dependent manner to become more responsive to elicitation, reminiscent of developmental effects caused by JAME in whole plants. It is interesting that pretreatment of the parsley cultures with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic and 5-chlorosalicylic acid only slightly enhanced the elicitation of activated oxygen species, whereas these substances greatly enhanced the elicitation of coumarin secretion. Therefore, these presumed inducers of systemic acquired resistance exhibit a specificity different from JAME. PMID:12232189

  7. High-throughput sequencing of black pepper root transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordo Sheila MC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is one of the most popular spices in the world. It is used in cooking and the preservation of food and even has medicinal properties. Losses in production from disease are a major limitation in the culture of this crop. The major diseases are root rot and foot rot, which are results of root infection by Fusarium solani and Phytophtora capsici, respectively. Understanding the molecular interaction between the pathogens and the host’s root region is important for obtaining resistant cultivars by biotechnological breeding. Genetic and molecular data for this species, though, are limited. In this paper, RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the root transcriptome of black pepper. Results The root transcriptome of black pepper was sequenced by the NGS SOLiD platform and assembled using the multiple-k method. Blast2Go and orthoMCL methods were used to annotate 10338 unigenes. The 4472 predicted proteins showed about 52% homology with the Arabidopsis proteome. Two root proteomes identified 615 proteins, which seem to define the plant’s root pattern. Simple-sequence repeats were identified that may be useful in studies of genetic diversity and may have applications in biotechnology and ecology. Conclusions This dataset of 10338 unigenes is crucially important for the biotechnological breeding of black pepper and the ecogenomics of the Magnoliids, a major group of basal angiosperms.

  8. Radiomutagenesis and an in vitro conductimetric bioassay: it's application to avocado improvement for Phytophthora spp. resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, A.; Santiago, L.; Coto, O.; Machado, M.; Ramos, M.

    2009-01-01

    Avocado root-rot, caused by Phytophtora cinnamomi is among the main biotic stresses causing important economic losses to the crop. Therefore, development and identification of new genotypes resistant to the pathogen is important for an integrated disease management. However, limitations to avocado breeding and production are also related to the long juvenile period, large cultivation areas and extensive natural cross-pollination. In this sense, radiomutagenesis has proven to be a valuable tool to improve disease resistance in fruit trees. For this, the determination of mutagenic doses, combined with in vitro selection and conductimetric bioassays are necessary to accelerate the mutation breeding schemes. In avocado, the measurement of electrical conductivity, based on the release of microelectrolytes to the medium due to cell permeability damage, has been performed on inoculated roots and leaves. In the present work is showed a report of mutagenic doses against gamma rays (LD50 and LD20) determined for in vitro propagated zygotic embryos of three avocado cultivars. Additionally, electric conductivity was measured in leaf discs and root segments from zygotic embryos of Catalina cv. challenged with culture filtrates of isolates from different regions of the country. The results indicated a differential response of the genotype depending on the strain used. Also, differential response was observed, depending on tissue type

  9. Apoplastic domains and sub-domains in the shoots of etiolated corn seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, B. L.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Light Green, an apoplastic probe, was applied to the cut mesocotyl base or to the cut coleoptile apex of etiolated seedlings of Zea mays L. cv. Silver Queen. Probe transport was measured and its tissue distribution determined. In the mesocotyl, there is an apoplastic barrier between cortex and stele. This barrier creates two apoplastic domains which are non-communicating. A kinetic barrier exists between the apoplast of the mesocotyl stele and that of the coleoptile. This kinetic barrier is not absolute and there is limited communication between the apoplasts of the two regions. This kinetic barrier effectively creates two sub-domains. In the coleoptile, there is communication between the apoplast of the vascular strands and that of the surrounding cortical tissue. No apoplastic communication was observed between the coleoptile cortex and the mesocotyl cortex. Thus, the apoplastic space of the coleoptile cortex is a sub-domain of the integrated coleoptile domain and is separate from that of the apoplastic domain of the mesocotyl cortex.

  10. Integration of hormonal signaling networks and mobile microRNAs is required for vascular patterning in Arabidopsis roots

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.

    2013-12-31

    As multicellular organisms grow, positional information is continually needed to regulate the pattern in which cells are arranged. In the Arabidopsis root, most cell types are organized in a radially symmetric pattern; however, a symmetry-breaking event generates bisymmetric auxin and cytokinin signaling domains in the stele. Bidirectional cross-talk between the stele and the surrounding tissues involving a mobile transcription factor, SHORT ROOT (SHR), and mobile microRNA species also determines vascular pattern, but it is currently unclear how these signals integrate. We use a multicellular model to determine a minimal set of components necessary for maintaining a stable vascular pattern. Simulations perturbing the signaling network show that, in addition to the mutually inhibitory interaction between auxin and cytokinin, signaling through SHR, microRNA165/6, and PHABULOSA is required to maintain a stable bisymmetric pattern. We have verified this prediction by observing loss of bisymmetry in shr mutants. The model reveals the importance of several features of the network, namely the mutual degradation of microRNA165/6 and PHABULOSA and the existence of an additional negative regulator of cytokinin signaling. These components form a plausible mechanism capable of patterning vascular tissues in the absence of positional inputs provided by the transport of hormones from the shoot.

  11. Defenders and Conquerors: The Rhetoric of Royal Power in Korean Inscriptions from the Fifth to Seventh Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-gyu Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the rhetoric of three inscriptions from the Three Kingdoms period of Korea: the Gwanggaeto inscription, which was carved in 414 on the tomb stele of King Gwanggaeto of Goguryeo; the inscriptions on the monument stones raised between 550 and 568 to record the tours of King Jinheung of Silla; and the King Munmu inscription on the funerary stele of King Munmu of Silla, which was completed in 682. Notably, although all three monarchs were successful warriors, only the Gwanggaeto inscription is characterized by the martial rhetoric of conquest, while the two Silla examples employ the cautious rhetoric of peacemaking. The author analyzes this difference by understanding the inscriptions as situated speech acts, and he suggests that these inscriptions should be understood within the particular political circumstances in which they were situated. Whereas the Gwanggaeto inscription was produced by a powerful Goguryeo acting within a Northeast Asia in which no one state could claim dominance, the Silla inscriptions were produced by a Silla Kingdom that had to struggle first against established Korean rivals and then against an enormously powerful Tang empire.

  12. Role of phi cells and the endodermis under salt stress in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, N; Lopez-Perez, L; Hernandez, M; Olmos, E

    2009-01-01

    Phi cell layers were discovered in the 19th century in a small number of species, including members of the Brassicaceae family. A mechanical role was first suggested for this structure; however, this has never been demonstrated. The main objective of the present work was to analyse the ultrastructure of phi cells, their influence on ion movement from the cortex to the stele, and their contribution to salt stress tolerance in Brassica oleracea. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis studies were used to analyse the subcellular structure and distribution of ions in phi cells and the endodermis under salt stress. Ion movement was analysed using lanthanum as an apoplastic tracer. The ultrastructural results confirm that phi cells are specialized cells showing cell wall ingrowths in the inner tangential cell walls. X-ray microanalysis confirmed a build-up of sodium. Phi thickenings were lignified and lanthanum moved periplasmically at this level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the possible role of the phi cells as a barrier controlling the movement of ions from the cortex to the stele. Therefore, the phi cell layer and endodermis seem to be regulating ion transport in Brassica oleracea under salt stress.

  13. A Structural and Histochemical Study of Actinorhizal Nodules of Casuarina equisetifolia Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Athar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Casuarina equisetifolia Linn. is an introduced actinorhizal plant grown as roadside ornamental tree and as forest plantation in Pakistan. Actinorhizal nodules are formed on the roots of C. equisetifolia as a response to infection by Frankia. Structure of C. equisetifolia nodules is described using histochemical methods to elucidate the nature of micro-symbiont within the nodules. C. equisetifolia nodules were similar to a root in general anatomical structure and resembled with Myrica-type nodules. The nodule consisted of a distinct periderm enclosing the cortex. The cortex showed patches of infected cells interspersed among uninfected ones. Inside the cortex there was a stele bounded by an endodermis, which contained tannins. The phloem-xylem relationship was amphicribral. A poorly defined meristem was also observed. Apart from simple nodules, dichotomously branched and coralloid nodules were also observed. The stele in simple and branched nodules reached up to the tip of the nodules. The micro-symbiont was observed in the nodule tissues in hyphal form only. The histochemical tests revealed absence of vacuoles and starch grains, and presence of tannins and lignin.

  14. Integration of hormonal signaling networks and mobile microRNAs is required for vascular patterning in Arabidopsis roots

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.; Mellor, N.; Pound, M. P.; Help, H.; Lucas, M.; Chopard, J.; Byrne, H. M.; Godin, C.; Hodgman, T. C.; King, J. R.; Pridmore, T. P.; Helariutta, Y.; Bennett, M. J.; Bishopp, A.

    2013-01-01

    As multicellular organisms grow, positional information is continually needed to regulate the pattern in which cells are arranged. In the Arabidopsis root, most cell types are organized in a radially symmetric pattern; however, a symmetry-breaking event generates bisymmetric auxin and cytokinin signaling domains in the stele. Bidirectional cross-talk between the stele and the surrounding tissues involving a mobile transcription factor, SHORT ROOT (SHR), and mobile microRNA species also determines vascular pattern, but it is currently unclear how these signals integrate. We use a multicellular model to determine a minimal set of components necessary for maintaining a stable vascular pattern. Simulations perturbing the signaling network show that, in addition to the mutually inhibitory interaction between auxin and cytokinin, signaling through SHR, microRNA165/6, and PHABULOSA is required to maintain a stable bisymmetric pattern. We have verified this prediction by observing loss of bisymmetry in shr mutants. The model reveals the importance of several features of the network, namely the mutual degradation of microRNA165/6 and PHABULOSA and the existence of an additional negative regulator of cytokinin signaling. These components form a plausible mechanism capable of patterning vascular tissues in the absence of positional inputs provided by the transport of hormones from the shoot.

  15. Insights into the Mechanisms Underlying Boron Homeostasis in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yoshinari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential element for plants but is toxic in excess. Therefore, plants must adapt to both limiting and excess boron conditions for normal growth. Boron transport in plants is primarily based on three transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane: passive diffusion of boric acid, facilitated diffusion of boric acid via channels, and export of borate anion via transporters. Under boron -limiting conditions, boric acid channels and borate exporters function in the uptake and translocation of boron to support growth of various plant species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, NIP5;1 and BOR1 are located in the plasma membrane and polarized toward soil and stele, respectively, in various root cells, for efficient transport of boron from the soil to the stele. Importantly, sufficient levels of boron induce downregulation of NIP5;1 and BOR1 through mRNA degradation and proteolysis through endocytosis, respectively. In addition, borate exporters, such as Arabidopsis BOR4 and barley Bot1, function in boron exclusion from tissues and cells under conditions of excess boron. Thus, plants actively regulate intracellular localization and abundance of transport proteins to maintain boron homeostasis. In this review, the physiological roles and regulatory mechanisms of intracellular localization and abundance of boron transport proteins are discussed.

  16. Genetic evidence that two independent S-loci control RNase-based self-incompatibility in diploid strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, Radovan I; Sargent, Daniel J; Tobutt, Kenneth R

    2010-03-01

    The self-incompatibility mechanism that reduces inbreeding in many plants of the Rosaceae is attributed to a multi-allelic S locus which, in the Prunoideae and Maloideae subfamilies, comprises two complementary genes, a stylar-expressed S-RNase and a pollen-expressed SFB. To elucidate incompatibility in the subfamily Rosoideae, stylar-specific RNases and self-(in)compatibility status were analysed in various diploid strawberries, especially Fragaria nubicola and F. viridis, both self-incompatible, and F. vesca, self-compatible, and in various progenies derived from them. Unexpectedly, two unlinked RNase loci, S and T, were found, encoding peptides distinct from Prunoideae and Maloideae S-RNases; the presence of a single active allele at either is sufficient to confer self-incompatibility. By contrast, in diploid Maloideae and Prunoideae a single locus encodes S-RNases that share several conserved regions and two active alleles are required for self-incompatibility. Our evidence implicates the S locus in unilateral inter-specific incompatibility and shows that S and T RNases can, remarkably, confer not only allele-specific rejection of cognate pollen but also unspecific rejection of Sn Tn pollen, where n indicates a null allele, consistent with the the presence of the pollen component, SFB, activating the cognitive function of these RNases. Comparison of relevant linkage groups between Fragaria and Prunus suggests that Prunus S-RNases, unique in having two introns, may have resulted from gene conversion in an ancestor of Prunus. In addition, it is shown that there is a non-S locus that is essential for self-incompatibility in diploid Fragaria.

  17. Diseases of the Date Palm: Present Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Djerbi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available While date palm is affected by many diseases, bayoud remains the most serious one. It is caused by a soil born pathogen, Fusarium oxyspurum f .sp. albedinis. It has affected practically all Moroccan palm groves as well as those of western and central Algerian sahara, where it has respectively killed more than 12 million in Morocco and three million in Algeria and has accelerated the desertification phenomenon. External and internal symptoms as well as identification methods of F.o. f. sp. albedinis by pathogenicity test, cultural characteristics, and vegetative compatibility were reviewed and discussed. Small distance contamination occurs by root contact between diseased trees and healthy ones, and at large distances through the movement of contaminated planting material (offshoots, symptomless carriers and infested soil and irrigation water. Prophylactic measures as well as chemical, cultural, biological and genetic controls were reviewed. It appears that the most productive mean lies in research into resistant cultivars. Hundreds of genotypes have been selected and introduced for micro-propagation and planted in infested areas to rehabilitate date palm oasis ravaged by bayoud. Among other date palm diseases Khamedj (Mauginiella scaettae, fruit rot (due to numerous fungi, Black scorch (Thielaviopsis paradoxa, Belaat (Phytophtora sp. are of minor importance and of sporadic occurrence. However, they become serious and cause heavy losses under favorable conditions and when proper sanitation is not applied. Two serious and fatal diseases of unknown causes (AI Wijam and the Brittle leaf disease as well as many other diseases and physiological disorders of minor importance were also reviewed.

  18. Integrating data to acquire new knowledge: Three modes of integration in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses what it means and what it takes to integrate data in order to acquire new knowledge about biological entities and processes. Maureen O'Malley and Orkun Soyer have pointed to the scientific work involved in data integration as important and distinct from the work required by other forms of integration, such as methodological and explanatory integration, which have been more successful in captivating the attention of philosophers of science. Here I explore what data integration involves in more detail and with a focus on the role of data-sharing tools, like online databases, in facilitating this process; and I point to the philosophical implications of focusing on data as a unit of analysis. I then analyse three cases of data integration in the field of plant science, each of which highlights a different mode of integration: (1) inter-level integration, which involves data documenting different features of the same species, aims to acquire an interdisciplinary understanding of organisms as complex wholes and is exemplified by research on Arabidopsis thaliana; (2) cross-species integration, which involves data acquired on different species, aims to understand plant biology in all its different manifestations and is exemplified by research on Miscanthus giganteus; and (3) translational integration, which involves data acquired from sources within as well as outside academia, aims at the provision of interventions to improve human health (e.g. by sustaining the environment in which humans thrive) and is exemplified by research on Phytophtora ramorum. Recognising the differences between these efforts sheds light on the dynamics and diverse outcomes of data dissemination and integrative research; and the relations between the social and institutional roles of science, the development of data-sharing infrastructures and the production of scientific knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mutation breeding in Ajonjoli (Sesamum indicum, L.) for adaptation to the cropping system in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropeza, F.; Murty, B.R.; Bravo, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Sesame, the main edible oil crop in Venezuela, is grown in a cropping system under peculiar ecological conditions after rice, sorghum or maize on residual moisture. The yields are variable with 350 to 500 Kg/Ha. The available varieties are not synchronous in flowering, have poor root development, and are susceptible to Fusarium sp, Phytophtora and Macrophomina. Some are very late (more than 115 days) with 1-3 capsules of variable size and unpredictable yield. A mutational rectification program using locally adapted varieties was started in 1981, to develop material suitable for the above ecological conditions. The main characteristics for improvement are: earliness, with maturity of 75 to 90 days, synchronous flowering, uniform ripening, indehiscence at harvesting but easy threshing, suitable plant type for mechanical harvesting, resistance specially to Macrophomina spp, without adverse effect on oil content, quality and yield and improved productivity and stability under moisture stress and improved fertilizer utilization. Eight varieties were treated with gamma radiation from Csub(o) 60 at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 KR to determine varietal responses. The results show marked varietal differences in germination, growth and survival. The other three varieties: Aceitera, Arawaca, Turen were the most susceptible to radiation, while Glauca was the most resistant. Probit analysis of data for germination, vigor seedling height and survival revealed that no single character is adequate to determine LD 50 dose in mutation breeding. The need for taking all the parameters of regression analysis like b-tilde, and σ-circumflex to characterize varietal responses is discussed along with plans for the next stage of work. (author)

  20. Development of Environmental Guidelines for Multipurpose Range Complexes. Volume 2. Description of Field Tests, Sediment Yields, and Option Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    0.5 O.6 11.0 2.6 1.7 13.0 3.3 2.201C199t11 tuberosi Ascleplas viridi flora Aster Pricoides Aster piloaus Aster 19. Aitraqi1ui crIsitcar~n. 9arbarea...strigosus 4.0 1.0 0.5 15.0 3.11 7.1 19.0 4.9 2.9 Eujohoofii so. ’estuca etltior Festqci xctofloea 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.9 1.0 3.0 0.8 1.0 Fragaria virginiani

  1. Compilation of 1984 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 1. TABS A-E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    parviforus 4.0 Trientalis borealis --- 7.9 Vaccinium membranaceum 4.2 3.3 Viburnum acerfolium --- 11.1 Waldsteinia fragaria --- 1.6 I ". r h m li mm...Templeton) Pseudachorutes spp. complex Isotoridae: Isotoma (Tesoria) nigrifrons Folsom 1. (Isotona) viridis Bourlet * FEntomobryidae: Tomocerus...67.1 66.4 66.9 71.9 Z 0. hexfasciata 16.4 13.2 17.6 14.2 N Isotomidae 50 36 84 67 % I. niarifrons 50.0 55.6 57.1 76.1 %I. viridis 50.0 44.4 42.9 23.9 N

  2. [Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Siberian plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Iu V; Povet'eva, T N; Aksinenko, S G; Suslov, N I; Gaĭdamovich, N N; Nagorniak, Iu G; Popova, E V; Kravtsova, S S; Andreeva, T I

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigations have shown that water-alcohol extracts from plants containing alkaloids (Aconitum baikalense, Aconitum septentrionale, Delphinium elatum L., Conium maculatum) and salicylic acid (Filipendula ulmaria, Salix viminalis, Fragaria vesca, Rubus idaeus) inhibited the development of main symptoms of inflammation, viz. exudation, pain, fever, to the same extent as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. The substances studied in this work may be used to develop new efficient pharmacological preparations for the treatment of different inflammatory conditions associated with severe pain syndrome.

  3. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  4. The Fra Allergens and their Role in the Control of Flavonoid Biosynthesis in Strawberry Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Casañal Seoane, Ana

    2014-01-01

    La fresa (Fragaria xananassa) es un fruto altamente consumido y apreciado por su delicado sabor, aroma y valor nutritivo (Tulipani et al., 2008; Giampieri et al., 2012). El cultivo de fresa se ha extendido por todo el mundo ocupando en la actualidad una superficie de 254.000 hectáreas y una producción aproximada de 4 millones de toneladas con una distribución global del 42.8%, 29.2%, 18.4%, 8.8% and 0.8% en América, Europa, Asia, África y Oceanía, respectivamente (FAOSTAT, 2012; http://faosta...

  5. Desarrollo y evaluación de tratamientos con microondas de fresas

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Rojas, Rossana

    2010-01-01

    En el presente estudio se desarrollaron protocolos para tratamientos hidrotérmicos asistidos con microondas (MO) como tratamientos postcosecha potenciales para fresas. Los tratamientos consistieron en la inmersión de fresas (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Festival) en agua para posteriormente ser expuestas a microondas a una frecuencia de 2450 Hz por 3 min a 70% de la potencia (514.3 W) ó por 1 min 50 s a 90% de la potencia (762.8W) para alcanzar una temperatura promedio en el...

  6. BASIC ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES of Ammannia auriculata var. arenaria (LYTHRACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define some anatomical characteristics of Ammannia auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth Koehne (Lythraceae to ensure a proper identification of the species and prevent confusion with other plants. Roots, leaves and stems of the plants were fixed in Formalin-Aceto-Alcohol (FAA, stained with various dyes, examined under a microscope and their photos were taken. The microscopic investigations of the plant parts revealed that 1 the leaf anatomy showed partly mezophyte character, the stem and roots beared aquatic characters with a wide aeranchymatic cortex and 2 thick lignified secondary xylem tissue in the roots and stems were located outwards of the stele. The results were compared with those of similar studies.

  7. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blade presents a heterogenous and hypostomatic mesophyll and a number of vascular bundles in the midrib zone. Remarkable is the presence of the filamentous, uniseriate non-glandular hairs in the stem, petiole and leaf blade. The mechanical tissue is present in the stem, petiole and blade as well.

  8. Multi-omics analysis identifies genes mediating the extension of cell walls in the Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Michael H; Holman, Tara J; Sørensen, Iben

    2015-01-01

    Plant cell wall composition is important for regulating growth rates, especially in roots. However, neither analyses of cell wall composition nor transcriptomes on their own can comprehensively reveal which genes and processes are mediating growth and cell elongation rates. This study reveals...... the benefits of carrying out multiple analyses in combination. Sections of roots from five anatomically and functionally defined zones in Arabidopsis thaliana were prepared and divided into three biological replicates. We used glycan microarrays and antibodies to identify the major classes of glycans......)cellular localization of many epitopes. Extensins were localized in epidermal and cortex cell walls, while AGP glycans were specific to different tissues from root-hair cells to the stele. The transcriptome analysis found several gene families peaking in the REZ. These included a large family of peroxidases (which...

  9. [The cult of Asklepios and the doctors in Greek epigraphical evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Cécile

    2007-01-01

    Greek inscriptions afford several examples of the relationship between Asklepios, the god of medicine, and human doctors in Graeco-Roman Antiquity. Many dedications of steles, statues, altars and even sanctuaries were consecrated to Asklepios by physicians. Other physicians have undertaken the offices of zacorate or priesthood in the worship of Asklepios. In some cities, notably at Athens and Ephesos, the doctors sacrificed collectively to the physician-god. The aim of this paper is to explain these cult relations between Asklepios and the doctors. After the Asklepiads, doctors at Kos and Knidos, who were believed to be the descendants of Asklepios, all the ancient doctors were connected with Asklepios by their techne; the physician-god was the divine patron of the physicians. Furthermore although the doctors rejected the divine origin of the diseases, they acknowledged the healing power of the gods, especially Asklepios, and could seek his help.

  10. Biology of Meloidogyne platani Hirschmann Parasitic on Sycamore, Platanus occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazmi, A S; Sasser, J N

    1982-04-01

    The development of Meloidogyne platani on sycamore was followed for 40 days (22-28 C). Juveniles penetrated the feeder roots behind the root cap and invaded the vascular cylinder within 3 days after inoculation. All subsequent development of the nematodes and host effects occurred only within the stele. The second juvenile molt and sex differentiation occurred by the 17th day. Young females were observed by the 26th day. Eggs were observed inside the roots by the 35th day and were exposed to the surface of galls by the 40th day. In pathogenicity studies, a significant negative correlation was shown to exist between fresh shoot and root weights and inoculum density. Besides sycamore, white ash was the only hardwood species tested to become infected. Of the herbacious plants tested, tobacco was heavily galled, tomato and watermelon moderately galled, and pepper only slightly galled. Egg production was moderate on tobacco, slight on tomato and watermelon, and absent on pepper.

  11. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  12. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-12-01

    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. New mechanism for the control of sodium transport in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.; Munns, R.; Huang, C.X.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Durum and other tetraploid wheats are typically very salt-sensitive compared to hexaploid bread wheats. This is primarily due to high rates of Na + accumulation in the leaves in tetraploid wheat. Recently, we have discovered a durum landrace with low Na + accumulation and enhanced K + /Na + discrimination, much lower than current durum cultivars and similar to bread wheat. We have identified 3 different mechanisms for the control of Na + transport to the leaves in this landrace, 1) control of Na + uptake at the epidermis of the root, 2) control of Na + loading into the xylem and 3) partitioning of Na + into the leaf sheath. The low Na + durum landrace had 3-4 fold lower Na + uptake rates than durum cultivars. Using X ray microanalysis on snap-frozen root sections, we found Na + to be high in the epidermis, a decreasing gradient through the cortex, low in the endodermis and again high in the stele (pencycle and xylem parenchyma), indicative of control points at the epidermis and in the stele. Partitioning of Na + between shoot and root was at least 5 times lower in the durum landrace, suggestive of greater control of Na + transport at the site of xylem loading. A third and novel control mechanism was found in the leaf sheath. Short and long term salinity treatments showed that Na + was partitioned preferentially into the sheaths of the low Na + durum landrace, keeping leaf blade Na + levels very low and similar to that of bread wheat Na + partitioned in the leaf sheath was stored primarily in the parenchyma cells and Cl - in the epidermal cells. Collectively, these data show that we have identified germplasm that has the potential to increase the salt tolerance of durum wheat. Additionally, as bread wheat does not contain the mechanism for partitioning Na + into the sheath, this trait may be useful for further increasing the salt tolerance of this species

  14. Cadmium stabilization with nursery stocks through transplantation: A new approach to phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bin; Liang, Yongchao; Fu, Qinglin; Ding, Nengfei; Liu, Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Li, Hua; Li, Ningyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cupressus Blue Ice was tolerant to 100 mg kg −1 Cd exposure. ► Cd was mainly stabilized in epidermis other than cortex plus stele of root. ► Negligible Cd in transplanted roots was released into bulk soil. ► Usefulness and limitations of the new approach were evaluated. - Abstract: Disposal of heavy metal contaminated biomass after phytoremediation is still unfeasible. This paper presents a viable phyto-extraction approach in which metals in contaminated soils are stabilized by nursery stocks before transplantation for greening. In this respect, two pot-experiments are reported comparing seven nursery stocks species exposed to different Cd levels. The first experiment revealed that Cd was mainly stabilized in the roots of all species studied. Greater amounts of Cd were accumulated in the epidermis than cortex plus stele. Cupressus Blue Ice showed greatest tolerance to the 100 and 200 mg kg −1 Cd stresses. The second experiment additionally evaluated the possible risk of Cd release after transplanting the Cd treated plants into uncontaminated soil. After 120 days of transplantation, the relatively trace amounts of Cd in the roots of Euonymus japonicus, Pittosporum tobira and C. Blue Ice had either been partially transferred into the shoots or released into the soil. The highest Cd concentration increase in bulk soil (0.428 mg kg −1 ), however, was much lower than the environmental quality standard for soils of China (1 mg kg −1 ). The potential effectiveness of this technique in the use of Cd-contaminated soil and further investigation needed in the field trials were also evaluated.

  15. Cadmium stabilization with nursery stocks through transplantation: A new approach to phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bin [Institute of Environment, Resource, Soil and Fertilizer, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou (China); Liang, Yongchao [Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Fu, Qinglin, E-mail: fuql161@yahoo.com.cn [Institute of Environment, Resource, Soil and Fertilizer, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou (China); Ding, Nengfei; Liu, Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Li, Hua; Li, Ningyu [Institute of Environment, Resource, Soil and Fertilizer, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cupressus Blue Ice was tolerant to 100 mg kg{sup -1} Cd exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd was mainly stabilized in epidermis other than cortex plus stele of root. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Negligible Cd in transplanted roots was released into bulk soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Usefulness and limitations of the new approach were evaluated. - Abstract: Disposal of heavy metal contaminated biomass after phytoremediation is still unfeasible. This paper presents a viable phyto-extraction approach in which metals in contaminated soils are stabilized by nursery stocks before transplantation for greening. In this respect, two pot-experiments are reported comparing seven nursery stocks species exposed to different Cd levels. The first experiment revealed that Cd was mainly stabilized in the roots of all species studied. Greater amounts of Cd were accumulated in the epidermis than cortex plus stele. Cupressus Blue Ice showed greatest tolerance to the 100 and 200 mg kg{sup -1} Cd stresses. The second experiment additionally evaluated the possible risk of Cd release after transplanting the Cd treated plants into uncontaminated soil. After 120 days of transplantation, the relatively trace amounts of Cd in the roots of Euonymus japonicus, Pittosporum tobira and C. Blue Ice had either been partially transferred into the shoots or released into the soil. The highest Cd concentration increase in bulk soil (0.428 mg kg{sup -1}), however, was much lower than the environmental quality standard for soils of China (1 mg kg{sup -1}). The potential effectiveness of this technique in the use of Cd-contaminated soil and further investigation needed in the field trials were also evaluated.

  16. Patterns of low temperature induced accumulation of dehydrins in Rosaceae crops-Evidence for post-translational modification in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimi, Perttu; Vinskienė, Jurgita; Stepulaitienė, Inga; Baniulis, Danas; Stanienė, Gražina; Šikšnianienė, Jūratė Bronė; Rugienius, Rytis

    2017-11-01

    Important crop plants of Rosaceae family are often damaged during winter due to the lack of acclimation and cold hardiness. One of the cellular responses of plants to cold stress is the accumulation of dehydrin proteins. We studied the expression of dehydrins in several Rosaceae species during low temperature treatment in vitro. Microshoots of Pyrus communis, Malus×domestica, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria×ananassa, Prunus cerasus and Prunus avium cultivars were grown in low temperature conditions. Genotype -specific accumulation of dehydrins was detected by immunoblot analysis of the extracted proteins. Untargeted difference gel electrophoresis of Malus x domestica microshoots revealed an extensive accumulation of three dehydrins. In a protein phosphatase assay, MdDHN2 and MdDHN4, but not MdDHN6 proteins were found to be extensively phosphorylated. In terms of the amount of protein synthesized, dehydrins are a major protein-level adaptation mechanism to low temperature in M. x domestica. In addition to dehydrins, the induction of proteins involved in the response for oxidative stress were observed. Additionally, a Xero2 -like dehydrin of F. vesca was detected by difference gel electrophoresis and identified by nano LC-MS/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

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    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  18. Comparative evaluation of post-column free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays for screening of antioxidants in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudonis, Raimondas; Raudone, Lina; Jakstas, Valdas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2012-04-13

    ABTS and FRAP post-column techniques evaluate the antioxidant characteristics of HPLC separated compounds with specific reagents. ABTS characterize their ability to scavenge free radicals by electron-donating antioxidants, resulting in the absorbance decrease of the chromophoric radical. FRAP - is based on the reduction of Fe(III)-tripyridyltriazine complex to Fe(II)-tripyridyltriazine at low pH by electron-donating antioxidants, resulting in an absorbance increase. Both post-column assays were evaluated and compared according to the following validation parameters: specificity, precision, limit of detection (LoD), limit of quantitation (LoQ) and linearity. ABTS and FRAP post-column assays were specific, repeatable and sensitive and thus can be used for the evaluation of antioxidant active compounds. Antioxidant active compounds were quantified according to TEAC for each assay and ABTS/FRAP ratio was derived. No previous records of antioxidative activity of leaves and fruits of strawberries (Fragaria viridis, Fragaria moschata) research have been found. The research results confirm the reliability of ABTS and FRAP post-column assays for screening of antioxidants in complex mixtures and the determination of radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability by their TEAC values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  20. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

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    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  1. Molecular interaction between Methylobacterium extorquens and seedlings: growth promotion, methanol consumption, and localization of the methanol emission site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanda-Nkpwatt, Daniel; Müsch, Martina; Tschiersch, Jochen; Boettner, Mewes; Schwab, Wilfried

    2006-01-01

    Four Methylobacterium extorquens strains were isolated from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Elsanta) leaves, and one strain, called ME4, was tested for its ability to promote the growth of various plant seedlings. Seedling weight and shoot length of Nicotiana tabacum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Sinapis alba, and Fragaria vesca increased significantly in the presence of the pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph (PPFM), but the germination behaviour of seeds from six other plants was not affected. The cell-free supernatant of the bacterial culture stimulated germination, suggesting the production of a growth-promoting agent by the methylotroph. Methanol emitted from N. tabacum seedlings, as determined by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ppbv (parts per billion by volume), while significantly lower levels (0.005 to 0.01 ppbv) of the volatile alcohol were measured when the seedlings were co-cultivated with M. extorquens ME4, demonstrating the consumption of the gaseous methanol by the bacteria. Additionally, by using cells of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris transformed with the pPICHS/GFP vector harbouring a methanol-sensitive promoter in combination with the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene, stomata were identified as the main source of the methanol emission on tobacco cotyledons. Methylobacterium extorquens strains can nourish themselves using the methanol released by the stomata and release an agent promoting the growth of the seedlings of some crop plants.

  2. Introduced pathogens found on ornamentals, strawberry and trees in Finland over the past 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LILJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative ease and speed of international trade and travel have enabled or enhanced the spread of pests around the globe. For example, trade in ornamental plants has bolstered the spread of alien Oomycetes such as pathogenic species of Phytophthora. To date, four Phytophthora species have been identified in Finland: P. cactorum on Fragaria x ananassa, Betula pendula and Rhododendron spp., P. plurivora on Rhododendron spp. and Syringa vulgaris, and P. pini and P. ramorum on Rhododendron spp. The ascomycete Colletotrichum acutatum, which was listed as a quarantine pathogen by the European Union until 2009, was introduced in 2000 and can survive in plant debris over two winters in Finland. Positive PCR results have also been obtained from bait plants grown in soil collected from locations where diseased Fragaria x ananassa plants had earlier been destroyed. In the mid-1990s, there was an epidemic of foliar rust caused by the Asian basidiomycete Melampsoridium hiratsukanum on Alnus glutinosa and A. incana. Recently, two ascomycetes that have been introduced are Dothistroma septosporum (responsible for red band needle blight on Pinus sylvestris and Chalara fraxinea (causing ash decline on Fraxinus excelsior.;

  3. Antifungal activity against plant pathogens of metabolites from the endophytic fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Radwan, Mohamed M; Taráwneh, Amer H; Gao, Jiangtao; Wedge, David E; Rosa, Luiz H; Cutler, Horace G; Cutler, Stephen J

    2013-05-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) de Vries extracts led to the isolation of four compounds, including cladosporin, 1; isocladosporin, 2; 5'-hydroxyasperentin, 3; and cladosporin-8-methyl ether, 4. An additional compound, 5',6-diacetylcladosporin, 5, was synthesized by acetylation of compound 3. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for antifungal activity against plant pathogens. Phomopsis viticola was the most sensitive fungus to the tested compounds. At 30 μM, compound 1 exhibited 92.7, 90.1, 95.4, and 79.9% growth inhibition against Colletotrichum acutatum , Colletotrichum fragariae , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , and P. viticola, respectively. Compound 2 showed 50.4, 60.2, and 83.0% growth inhibition at 30 μM against Co. fragariae, Co. gloeosporioides, and P. viticola, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 were isolated for the first time from Cl. cladosporioides. Moreover, the identification of essential structural features of the cladosporin nuclei has also been evaluated. These structures provide new templates for the potential treatment and management of plant diseases.

  4. Relationships between root respiration rate and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy in Larix gmelinii and Fraxinus mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuxia; McLaughlin, Neil B; Gu, Jiacun; Li, Xingpeng; Wang, Zhengquan

    2013-06-01

    Tree roots are highly heterogeneous in form and function. Previous studies revealed that fine root respiration was related to root morphology, tissue nitrogen (N) concentration and temperature, and varied with both soil depth and season. The underlying mechanisms governing the relationship between root respiration and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy along the root branch order have not been addressed. Here, we examined these relationships of the first- to fifth-order roots for near surface roots (0-10 cm) of 22-year-old larch (Larix gmelinii L.) and ash (Fraxinus mandshurica L.) plantations. Root respiration rate at 18 °C was measured by gas phase O2 electrodes across the first five branching order roots (the distal roots numbered as first order) at three times of the year. Root parameters of root diameter, specific root length (SRL), tissue N concentration, total non-structural carbohydrates (starch and soluble sugar) concentration (TNC), cortical thickness and stele diameter were also measured concurrently. With increasing root order, root diameter, TNC and the ratio of root TNC to tissue N concentration increased, while the SRL, tissue N concentration and cortical proportion decreased. Root respiration rate also monotonically decreased with increasing root order in both species. Cortical tissue (including exodermis, cortical parenchyma and endodermis) was present in the first three order roots, and cross sections of the cortex for the first-order root accounted for 68% (larch) and 86% (ash) of the total cross section of the root. Root respiration was closely related to root traits such as diameter, SRL, tissue N concentration, root TNC : tissue N ratio and stele-to-root diameter proportion among the first five orders, which explained up to 81-94% of variation in the rate of root respiration for larch and up to 83-93% for ash. These results suggest that the systematic variations of root respiration rate within tree fine root system are possibly due to the

  5. On the Babylonian Origin of Symbolic Logic

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    Schumann Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The logical reasoning first appeared within the Babylonian legal tradition established by the Sumerians in the law codes which were first over the world: Ur-Nammu (ca. 2047 – 2030 B.C.; Lipit-Ishtar (ca. 1900 – 1850 B.C., and later by their successors, the Akkadians: Hammurabi (1728 – 1686 B.C.. In these codes the casuistic law formulation began first to be used: “If/when (Akkadian: šumma this or that occurs, this or that must be done” allowed the Akkadians to build up a theory of logical connectives: “... or…”, “… and…”, “if…, then…”, “not…” that must have been applied in their jurisprudence. So, a trial decision looked like an inference by modus pones and modus tollens or by other logical rules from (i some facts and (ii an appropriate article in the law code represented by an ever true implication. The law code was announced by erecting a stele with the code or by engraving the code on a stone wall. It was considered a set of axioms announced for all. Then the trial decisions are regarded as claims logically inferred from the law code on the stones. The only law code of the Greeks that was excavated is the Code of Gortyn (Crete, the 5th century B.C.. It is so similar to the Babylonian codes by its law formulations; therefore, we can suppose that the Greeks developed their codes under a direct influence of the Semitic legal tradition: the code was represented as the words of the stele and the court was a logic application from these words. In this way the Greek logic was established within a Babylonian legal tradition, as well. Hence, we can conclude that, first, logic appeared in Babylonia and, second, it appeared within a unique legal tradition where all trial decisions must have been transparent, obvious, and provable. The symbolic logic appeared first not in Greece, but in Mesopotamia and this tradition was grounded in the Sumerian/Akkadian jurisprudence.

  6. Engineering high Zn in tomato shoots through expression of AtHMA4 involves tissue-specific modification of endogenous genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziorek, Maria; Klimecka, Maria; Barabasz, Anna; Borg, Sören; Rudzka, Justyna; Szczęsny, Paweł; Antosiewicz, Danuta Maria

    2016-08-12

    To increase the Zn level in shoots, AtHMA4 was ectopically expressed in tomato under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. However, the Zn concentration in the shoots of transgenic plants failed to increase at all tested Zn levels in the medium. Modification of Zn root/shoot distribution in tomato expressing 35S::AtHMA4 depended on the concentration of Zn in the medium, thus indicating involvement of unknown endogenous metal-homeostasis mechanisms. To determine these mechanisms, those metal-homeostasis genes that were expressed differently in transgenic and wild-type plants were identified by microarray and RT-qPCR analysis using laser-assisted microdissected RNA isolated from two root sectors: (epidermis + cortex and stele), and leaf sectors (upper epidermis + palisade parenchyma and lower epidermis + spongy parenchyma). Zn-supply-dependent modification of Zn root/shoot distribution in AtHMA4-tomato (increase at 5 μM Zn, no change at 0.5 μM Zn) involved tissue-specific, distinct from that in the wild type, expression of tomato endogenous genes. First, it is suggested that an ethylene-dependent pathway underlies the detected changes in Zn root/shoot partitioning, as it was induced in transgenic plants in a distinct way depending on Zn exposure. Upon exposure to 5 or 0.5 μM Zn, in the epidermis + cortex of the transgenics' roots the expression of the Strategy I Fe-uptake system (ethylene-dependent LeIRT1 and LeFER) was respectively lower or higher than in the wild type and was accompanied by respectively lower or higher expression of the identified ethylene genes (LeNR, LeACO4, LeACO5) and of LeChln. Second, the contribution of LeNRAMP2 expression in the stele is shown to be distinct for wild-type and transgenic plants at both Zn exposures. Ethylene was also suggested as an important factor in a pathway induced in the leaves of transgenic plants by high Zn in the apoplast, which results in the initiation of loading of the excess Zn into the

  7. Power, identity and antiquarian approaches in modern Chinese art’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of antiquity was important for scholarly artists in constructing their knowledge of history and cultural identity in late Imperial China. Following various publications by Bi Yuan 畢沅 (1730-1797, Wu Yi 武億 (1745-1799 and Qian Daxin 錢大昕 (1728-1804 in the 18th century, the study and collecting of rubbings of Northern Wei stone inscriptions and steles was popular. Such spread of interest in jinshi, inscriptions on metal and stone, also formed a base for studying seal carving, epigraphy and archaic painting. While traditional antiquarians would cherish inscriptions which enabled them to correct mistakes in the transmitted historical texts and the Classics, however, much of the antiquarian activity was adapted to mere literary exercise or connoisseurship, for instance, to supplying materials which could provide models for seal-carving and calligraphy. Examples could be seen in the calligraphy works and seal carvings of the Xiling bajia 西泠八家 (Eight Masters of Xiling, i.e. Hangzhou, also known as Zhe School of Calligraphy and Carving. Their keen interest in seeking inspiration from steles for their artistic presentations has been recorded in their writing and painting. In addition, the way the scholar-collector of the 19th and early 20th centuries mounted the rubbings, seals, inscriptions, paintings, letters and textual evidence studies into one album shows a changing ideology: rubbings were not only for scholarly study in classical learning, but were regarded as part of the art form and were appreciated on various social occasions. The antiquarian movement ultimately served as a tool for re-writing art historiography in modern China. This paper aims to address the phenomenon and formation of the jinshi painting that dominated in late Imperial and early modern China. Through case studies of three important jinshi societies in Shanghai, I will investigate in what way literary taste from the southern region gradually

  8. Spatial root distribution of plants growing in vertical media for use in living walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: For plants growing in living walls, the growth potential is correlated to the roots ability to utilize resources in all parts of the growing medium and thereby to the spatial root distribution. The aim of the study was to test how spatial root distribution was affected...... root growth was limited for plants in the middle or lower parts of the medium and 15N measurements confirmed that only plants in the bottom of the box had active roots in the bottom of the medium. The species differed in root architecture and spatial root distribution. Conclusions: The choice...... by growing medium, planting position and competition from other plants. Methods: Five species (Campanula poscharskyana cv. 'Stella', Fragaria vesca cv. 'Småland', Geranium sanguineum cv. 'Max Frei', Sesleria heufleriana and Veronica officinalis cv. 'Allgrün') were grown in three growing media (coir and two...

  9. The regulation of seasonal flowering in the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokura, Takeshi; Mimida, Naozumi; Battey, Nicholas H; Hytönen, Timo

    2013-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms regulating the flowering process have been extensively studied in model annual plants; in perennials, however, understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering has just started to emerge. Here we review the current state of flowering research in perennial plants of the rose family (Rosaceae), which is one of the most economically important families of horticultural plants. Strawberry (Fragaria spp.), raspberry (Rubus spp.), rose (Rosa spp.), and apple (Malus spp.) are used to illustrate how photoperiod and temperature control seasonal flowering in rosaceous crops. We highlight recent molecular studies which have revealed homologues of terminal flower1 (TFL1) to be major regulators of both the juvenile to adult, and the vegetative to reproductive transitions in various rosaceous species. Additionally, recent advances in understanding of the regulation of TFL1 are discussed.

  10. Somatic embryo-like structures of strawberry regenerated in vitro on media supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Genesia F; Mohamed, Fouad H; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Sarg, Sawsan H; Morsey, Mohamed M

    2013-09-01

    Somatic embryo-like structures (SELS) were produced in vitro from leaf disk and petiole explants of two cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and sucrose to check the embryonic nature of these structures histologically. A large number of SELS could be regenerated in both cultivars on media with 2-4 mg L(-1) 2,4-D in combination with 0.5 -1 mg L(-1) BAP and 50 g x L(-1) sucrose. Histological examination of SELS revealed the absence of a root pole. Therefore these structures cannot be strictly classified as somatic embryos. The SELS formed under the tested culture conditions represent malformed shoot-like and leaf-like structures. The importance of these results for the propagation of strawberries via somatic embryogenesis is discussed.

  11. Gut-targeted immunonutrition boosting natural killer cell activity using Saccharomyces boulardii lysates in immuno-compromised healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yasuhiro; Marotta, Francesco; Kantah, Makoto K; Zerbinati, Nicola; Kushugulova, Almagul; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Illuzzi, Nicola; Sapienza, Chiara; Takadanohara, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Riyichi; Catanzaro, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effect of KC-1317 (a symbiotic mixture containing Saccharomyces boulardii lysate in a cranberry, colostrum-derived lactoferrin, fragaria, and lactose mixture) supplementation in immune-compromised but otherwise healthy elderly subjects. A liquid formulation of KC-1317 was administered in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) fashion to healthy volunteers (65-79 years) previously selected for low natural killer (NK) cell activity, and this parameter was checked at the completion of the study. A significant improvement in NK cell activity of KC-1317 consumers was observed as compared to placebo at the end of 2 months. Although preliminary, these beneficial immune-modulatory effects of KC-1317 in aged individuals might indicate its employment within a wider age-management strategy.

  12. Root growth of perennials in vertical growing media for use in green walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The vertical orientation of green walls causes a risk of uneven water distribution within the growing medium, and thereby stress on the plant roots. Therefore it was studied how the root and top growth of different species were affected by the water holding characteristics of the growing media....... Five species of hardy perennials (Campanula poscharskyana ‘Stella’, Fragaria vesca ‘Småland’, Geranium sanguineum ‘Max Frei’, Sesleria heufleriana and Veronica officinalis ‘Allgrün’) were grown in 3 types of growing media (coir and 2 of rockwool) in vertical boxes under greenhouse conditions. Root...... distribution was registered over 52 days and the activity of individual root systems was studied via 15N uptake and plant parameters were measured. The water holding characteristics of the growing media was determined on a sandbox. From day 21 and throughout the experiment, the plants growing in the coir...

  13. Effect of freezing and processing technologies on the antioxidant capacity of fruit pulp and jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Maso Jeusti Bof

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of freezing and processing technology on the antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera, apple (Malus domestica, strawberry (Fragaria x Anassa, pear (Pyrus communis L., guava (Psidium guajava L., and fig (Ficus carica L. was evaluated for 90 days. Under a storage temperature of -15 º C, there was no significant difference in the antioxidant capacity of grape and fig pulp, and a higher antioxidant capacity was found for guava pulp (27 µmol/g. While the technological processing did not affect the antioxidant capacity of pear and apple jellies, all other jellies studied showed a reduced antioxidant capacity. The processing reduced the antioxidant capacity of grapes in 45%. Among the fruit products, the highest antioxidant activities were found for guava pulp and jelly (27 and 25 µmol/g, respectively, followed by grape pulp (22 µmol/g.

  14. Down-regulation of the strawberry Bet v 1-homologous allergen in concert with the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in colorless strawberry mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin; Alm, Rikard; Canbäck, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Proteomic screening of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) yielded a 58% success rate in protein identification in spite of the fact that no genomic sequence is available for this species. This was achieved by a combination of MALDI-MS/MS de novo sequencing of double-derivatized peptides and indel......-tolerant searching against local protein databases built on both EST and full-length nucleotide sequences. The amino acid sequence of a strawberry allergen, homologous to the well-known major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, was partially determined. This strawberry allergen, named Fra a 1 according...... to the nomenclature for allergen proteins, showed sequence identity of 54 and 77%, respectively, with corresponding allergens from birch and apple. Differential expression, as evaluated by 2-D DIGE, occurred in 10% of protein spots when red strawberries were compared to a colorless (white) strawberry mutant. White...

  15. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used...... to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae...... buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per...

  16. Shallot aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish...... other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited...... to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopi-dae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza...

  17. Statement on the dossier for a derogation request of the US authorities concerning cold-treated strawberry plants intended for planting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2009-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health examined the report “Evaluation of Strawberry Nursery Plant Cold Treatments on Survival of the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci”, submitted to the European Commission by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA...... the effectiveness of the cold treatment proposed for the elimination of B. tabaci from strawberry plant consignments prepared for shipment to the EU. In addition, the Panel conducted a preliminary review of the available literature on viruses of strawberry and concluded that no B. tabaci-transmitted viruses...... are currently known to infect strawberry and that no viruses of Fragaria listed in European Council Directive 2000/29/EC are known to be transmitted by B. tabaci. However, adult whiteflies of B. tabaci on strawberry consignments can carry plant viruses irrespective of whether strawberry is a host plant...

  18. Effect of molybdenum on yield and nutrient content of the strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, R.J.; Barros, I.B.I. de

    1984-01-01

    The cultivation of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Campinas in nutrient solution using five fields levels of molybdenum (MO), 0.010 ppm, 0.010 ppm, 0.10 ppm, 1.0 ppm and control (Without applying molybdenum). The experiment was carried out in greenhouse and phytothron to evaluate the changes in the mineral status of the leaves and the quality of the berries. The concentration of Mo in the leaves, at the beginning of fruiting stage, varied from 0.5 ppm to 64 ppm. The total N in the levels was affected significantly by Mo. Average weight of the berries were affected by treatments and presented a quadratic regression response. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  20. Nontargeted metabolite profiles and sensory properties of strawberry cultivars grown both organically and conventionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Sandell, Mari

    2015-01-28

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) contains many secondary metabolites potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds contribute to strawberry sensory properties, as well. In this study, three strawberry cultivars grown both conventionally and organically were subjected to nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis with LC-qTOF-ESI-MS and to descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained panel. Combined metabolome and sensory data (PLS model) revealed that 79% variation in the metabolome explained 88% variation in the sensory profiles. Flavonoids and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins determined the orosensory properties, and fatty acids contributed to the odor attributes of strawberry. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical composition and sensory quality of strawberries grown in different cultivation systems vary mostly according to cultivar. Organic farming practices may enhance the accumulation of some plant metabolites in specific strawberry genotypes. Careful cultivar selection is a key factor for the improvement of nutritional quality and marketing value of organic strawberries.

  1. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STRAWBERRY FRUITS DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivna Štolfa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper postharvest storage is an effective way to maintain the quality and nutritional values of fruits. The aim of this study was to determine how environmentally friendly postharvest treatments with salicylic acid solution, colloidal silver solution and ozone, affect the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Albion during 7 days of storage at 4°C. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits were determined spec-trophotometrically. After 7 days of storage in strawberry fruits treated with all three treatments separately, the contents of ascorbic acid were higher than in the control fruits, supporting the usefulness of these treatments for preserving fruit quality and nutritional value during storage. The treatment with salicylic acid solution showed the most beneficial effect during storage causing a significant increase in the content of ascorbic acid, phenols and antioxidant activity at the end of the storage period.

  2. The Physiology of Adventitious Roots1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Bianka; Rasmussen, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious roots are plant roots that form from any nonroot tissue and are produced both during normal development (crown roots on cereals and nodal roots on strawberry [Fragaria spp.]) and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. They are important economically (for cuttings and food production), ecologically (environmental stress response), and for human existence (food production). To improve sustainable food production under environmentally extreme conditions, it is important to understand the adventitious root development of crops both in normal and stressed conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and physiology of adventitious root formation is critical for breeding programs. Recent work shows that different adventitious root types are regulated differently, and here, we propose clear definitions of these classes. We use three case studies to summarize the physiology of adventitious root development in response to flooding (case study 1), nutrient deficiency (case study 2), and wounding (case study 3). PMID:26697895

  3. FaQR, required for the biosynthesis of the strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, encodes an enone oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio; Klein, Dorothée; Caballero, Jose Luis; Moyano, Enriqueta; Schwab, Wilfried; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2006-04-01

    The flavor of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit is dominated by an uncommon group of aroma compounds with a 2,5-dimethyl-3(H)-furanone structure. We report the characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF; Furaneol), the key flavor compound in strawberries. Protein extracts were partially purified, and the observed distribution of enzymatic activity correlated with the presence of a single polypeptide of approximately 37 kD. Sequence analysis of two peptide fragments showed total identity with the protein sequence of a strongly ripening-induced, auxin-dependent putative quinone oxidoreductase, Fragaria x ananassa quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The open reading frame of the FaQR cDNA consists of 969 bp encoding a 322-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kD. Laser capture microdissection followed by RNA extraction and amplification demonstrated the presence of FaQR mRNA in parenchyma tissue of the strawberry fruit. The FaQR protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the monomer catalyzed the formation of HDMF. After chemical synthesis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone was confirmed as a substrate of FaQR and the natural precursor of HDMF. This study demonstrates the function of the FaQR enzyme in the biosynthesis of HDMF as enone oxidoreductase and provides a foundation for the improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF.

  4. Содержание холина в растениях земляники зелёной Южного Предуралья

    OpenAIRE

    Гусев, Николай; Петрова, Галина; Докучаева, Юлия; Немерешина, Ольга

    2013-01-01

    Изучено содержание азотсодержащих веществ основного характера в листьях Fragaria viridis ( Duch. ) Weston. Южного Предуралья. Установлено, что алкалоидность Fragaria viridis ( Duch. ) Weston. обусловлена присутствием азотистого вещества холина (2оксиэтилтриметилааммоний), относящегося к витаминам группы В. Более высокое содержание холина установлено на участках с повышенной инсоляцией....

  5. Prospective bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors from Indian medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, B K; Ghosh, R; Moktan, S; Ranjan, V K; Dey, P; Choudhury, D; Dutta, S; Deb, D; Das, A P; Chakraborty, R

    2017-07-01

    As virulence of many pathogenic bacteria is regulated by the phenomenon of quorum sensing (QS), the present study aimed to find the QS-inhibiting (QS-I) property (if any) in 61 Indian medicinal plants. The presence of QS-I compound in the leaf extract was evaluated by its ability to inhibit production of pigment in Chromobacterium violaceum MTCC 2656 (violacein) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297 (pyocyanin) or swarming of P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297. Extracts of three plants, Astilbe rivularis, Fragaria nubicola and Osbeckia nepalensis, have shown a dose-dependent inhibition of violacein production with no negative effect on bacterial growth. Inhibition of pyocyanin pigment production and swarming motility in P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297 was also shown. Based on the results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and thin-layer chromatography-direct bioautography (TLC-DB), it was concluded that triterpenes and flavonoid compounds found in the three plant extracts could have QS-I activity. A novel alternative prospect to prevent bacterial infections without inhibiting the growth is to apply chemicals that inhibit quorum sensing mechanism of the pathogens. Antiquorum property of 61 medicinal plants was evaluated by the ability of their leaf extract(s) to inhibit production of pigment (violacein in Chromobacterium violaceum MTCC 2656, pyocyanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297) or swarming in P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297. The most prospective plants (for the development of quorum sensing inhibitor), showing inhibition of violacein production without affecting bacterial growth, were Astilbe rivularis, Fragaria nubicola and Osbeckia nepalensis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. PCR Amplification of Ribosomal DNA for Species Identification in the Plant Pathogen Genus Phytophthora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristaino, Jean B.; Madritch, Michael; Trout, Carol L.; Parra, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a PCR procedure to amplify DNA for quick identification of the economically important species from each of the six taxonomic groups in the plant pathogen genus Phytophthora. This procedure involves amplification of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) with the ITS primers ITS 5 and ITS 4. Restriction digests of the amplified DNA products were conducted with the restriction enzymes RsaI, MspI, and HaeIII. Restriction fragment patterns were similar after digestions with RsaI for the following species: P. capsici and P. citricola; P. infestans, P. cactorum, and P. mirabilis; P. fragariae, P. cinnamomi, and P. megasperma from peach; P. palmivora, P. citrophthora, P. erythroseptica, and P. cryptogea; and P. megasperma from raspberry and P. sojae. Restriction digests with MspI separated P. capsici from P. citricola and separated P. cactorum from P. infestans and P. mirabilis. Restriction digests with HaeIII separated P. citrophthora from P. cryptogea, P. cinnamomi from P. fragariae and P. megasperma on peach, P. palmivora from P. citrophthora, and P. megasperma on raspberry from P. sojae. P. infestans and P. mirabilis digests were identical and P. cryptogea and P. erythroseptica digests were identical with all restriction enzymes tested. A unique DNA sequence from the ITS region I in P. capsici was used to develop a primer called PCAP. The PCAP primer was used in PCRs with ITS 1 and amplified only isolates of P. capsici, P. citricola, and P. citrophthora and not 13 other species in the genus. Restriction digests with MspI separated P. capsici from the other two species. PCR was superior to traditional isolation methods for detection of P. capsici in infected bell pepper tissue in field samples. The techniques described will provide a powerful tool for identification of the major species in the genus Phytophthora. PMID:9501434

  7. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Navarro-Retamal

    Full Text Available Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT (EC 2.3.1.84 catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This

  8. Assessment of the influence of different sample processing and cold storage duration on plant free proline content analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklić, Tihana; Spoljarević, Marija; Stanisavljević, Aleksandar; Lisjak, Miroslav; Vinković, Tomislav; Parađiković, Nada; Andrić, Luka; Hancock, John T

    2010-01-01

    A method which is widely accepted for the analysis of free proline content in plant tissues is based on the use of 3% sulfosalicylic acid as an extractant, followed by spectrophotometric quantification of a proline-ninhydrin complex in toluene. However, sample preparation and storage may influence the proline actually measured. This may give misleading or difficult to compare data. To evaluate free proline levels fresh and frozen strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) leaves and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] hypocotyl tissues were used. These were ground with or without liquid nitrogen and proline extracted with sulfosalicylic acid. A particular focus was the influence of plant sample cold storage duration (1, 4 and 12 weeks at -20°C) on tissue proline levels measured. The free proline content analyses, carried out in leaves of Fragaria × ananassa Duch. as well as in hypocotyls of Glycine max (L.) Merr., showed a significant influence of the sample preparation method and cold storage period. Long-term storage of up to 12 weeks at -20°C led to a significant increase in the measured proline in all samples analysed. The observed changes in proline content in plant tissue samples stored at -20°C indicate the likelihood of the over-estimation of the proline content if the proline analyses are delayed. Plant sample processing and cold storage duration seem to have an important influence on results of proline analyses. Therefore it is recommended that samples should be ground fresh and analysed immediately. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Transcriptomic and anatomical complexity of primary, seminal, and crown roots highlight root type-specific functional diversity in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huanhuan; Lu, Xin; Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Maize develops a complex root system composed of embryonic and post-embryonic roots. Spatio-temporal differences in the formation of these root types imply specific functions during maize development. A comparative transcriptomic study of embryonic primary and seminal, and post-embryonic crown roots of the maize inbred line B73 by RNA sequencing along with anatomical studies were conducted early in development. Seminal roots displayed unique anatomical features, whereas the organization of primary and crown roots was similar. For instance, seminal roots displayed fewer cortical cell files and their stele contained more meta-xylem vessels. Global expression profiling revealed diverse patterns of gene activity across all root types and highlighted the unique transcriptome of seminal roots. While functions in cell remodeling and cell wall formation were prominent in primary and crown roots, stress-related genes and transcriptional regulators were over-represented in seminal roots, suggesting functional specialization of the different root types. Dynamic expression of lignin biosynthesis genes and histochemical staining suggested diversification of cell wall lignification among the three root types. Our findings highlight a cost-efficient anatomical structure and a unique expression profile of seminal roots of the maize inbred line B73 different from primary and crown roots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Arabidopsis N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE1, a positive regulator of auxin transport in a G protein-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Uhrig, Joachm F; Zhou, Jiping; Temple, Brenda; Jiang, Kun; Jones, Alan M

    2009-11-01

    Root architecture results from coordinated cell division and expansion in spatially distinct cells of the root and is established and maintained by gradients of auxin and nutrients such as sugars. Auxin is transported acropetally through the root within the central stele and then, upon reaching the root apex, auxin is transported basipetally through the outer cortical and epidermal cells. The two Gbetagamma dimers of the Arabidopsis thaliana heterotrimeric G protein complex are differentially localized to the central and cortical tissues of the Arabidopsis roots. A null mutation in either the single beta (AGB1) or the two gamma (AGG1 and AGG2) subunits confers phenotypes that disrupt the proper architecture of Arabidopsis roots and are consistent with altered auxin transport. Here, we describe an evolutionarily conserved interaction between AGB1/AGG dimers and a protein designated N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE1 (NDL1). The Arabidopsis genome encodes two homologs of NDL1 (NDL2 and NDL3), which also interact with AGB1/AGG1 and AGB1/AGG2 dimers. We show that NDL proteins act in a signaling pathway that modulates root auxin transport and auxin gradients in part by affecting the levels of at least two auxin transport facilitators. Reduction of NDL family gene expression and overexpression of NDL1 alter root architecture, auxin transport, and auxin maxima. AGB1, auxin, and sugars are required for NDL1 protein stability in regions of the root where auxin gradients are established; thus, the signaling mechanism contains feedback loops.

  11. Attempts to Localize and Identify the Gravity-sensing Device of Plant Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.; Momonoki, Y.; Desrosiers, M.; Fearn-Desrosiers, D.

    1985-01-01

    The growth hormone asymmetry develops within three minutes following the initiation of the gravitational asymmetry and radio-labeled compounds being transported from the seed to the shoot also show asymmetric distribution. It is found that the target of the gravity stimulus resides primarily in the permability of the vascular tissue that regulates the supply of hormone to the surrounding tissues. It is hypothesized that the gravitational stimulus induces an asymmetric change in the rate of secretion of the growth hormone, IAA, from the vascular tissue into the surrounding cortical cells. More hormone would be secreted from the vascular stele proximal to the lower side of a horizontally placed plant shoot than from the upper side. This results in more growth hormone in the lower cortical (plus epidermal) cells, and ultimately more growth, such that the plant grows asymmetrically and, ultimately attain its normal vertical orientation. A theory was developed of how plants respond to the gravitational stimulus. The theory is based upon the analytical results concerning the effects of gravity on the distribution of the plant growth hormone, IAA, in both its free and conjugated forms, and upon the effect of the growth stimulis on the distribution of externally applied radio-labeled compounds. Its advantage is that it is testable and that it is built upon solid knowledge of the effects of the gravitational stimulus upon the endogenous growth hormone, IAA, and upon the distribution of externally applied radio-labeled compounds.

  12. X-ray analysis of pigments on ancient Egyptian monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Yoshioka, T.

    1999-01-01

    Ancient pigments were analyzed using PIXE and XRD methods in the laboratory, which were painted on ancient Egyptian monuments. On the other hand, those on monuments remaining with entire shape were investigated using the hand-held type of an XRF spectrometer and an X-ray diffractometer in the field. For the laboratory experiment, several wall fragments of the Malqata palace in ancient Egypt (18th Dynasty, ca. 1390 B.C.) were investigated. In the field experiment, the block of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty, ca. 1270 B.C.), the Wooden Coffin of Neb-sny (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.), the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (11th Dynasty, ca. 2000 B.C.), and the painted walls of the Tomb of Userhat (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.) were investigated. From white and blue colored parts, huntite and Egyptian blue were found, respectively, which are a very rare mineral and an artificial pigment prepared only in ancient Egypt, respectively. (author)

  13. X-ray analysis of pigments on ancient Egyptian monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Yoshioka, T. [Waseda Univ., Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tokyo (JP)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    Ancient pigments were analyzed using PIXE and XRD methods in the laboratory, which were painted on ancient Egyptian monuments. On the other hand, those on monuments remaining with entire shape were investigated using the hand-held type of an XRF spectrometer and an X-ray diffractometer in the field. For the laboratory experiment, several wall fragments of the Malqata palace in ancient Egypt (18th Dynasty, ca. 1390 B.C.) were investigated. In the field experiment, the block of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty, ca. 1270 B.C.), the Wooden Coffin of Neb-sny (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.), the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (11th Dynasty, ca. 2000 B.C.), and the painted walls of the Tomb of Userhat (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.) were investigated. From white and blue colored parts, huntite and Egyptian blue were found, respectively, which are a very rare mineral and an artificial pigment prepared only in ancient Egypt, respectively. (author)

  14. Label Distribution in Tissues of Wheat Seedlings Cultivated with Tritium-Labeled Leonardite Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Natalia A.; Abroskin, Dmitry P.; Badun, Gennady A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Korobkov, Viktor I.; Beer, Anton S.; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A.; Senik, Svetlana V.; Klein, Olga I.; Perminova, Irina V.

    2016-06-01

    Humic substances (HS) play important roles in the biotic-abiotic interactions of the root plant and soil contributing to plant adaptation to external environments. However, their mode of action on plants remains largely unknown. In this study the HS distribution in tissues of wheat seedlings was examined using tritium-labeled humic acid (HA) derived from leonardite (a variety of lignites) and microautoradiography (MAR). Preferential accumulation of labeled products from tritiated HA was found in the roots as compared to the shoots, and endodermis was shown to be the major control point for radial transport of label into vascular system of plant. Tritium was also found in the stele and xylem tissues indicating that labeled products from tritiated HA could be transported to shoot tissues via the transpiration stream. Treatment with HA lead to an increase in the content of polar lipids of photosynthetic membranes. The observed accumulation of labeled HA products in root endodermis and positive impact on lipid synthesis are consistent with prior reported observations on physiological effects of HS on plants such as enhanced growth and development of lateral roots and improvement/repairs of the photosynthetic status of plants under stress conditions.

  15. Comprehensive Characterization for Ginsenosides Biosynthesis in Ginseng Root by Integration Analysis of Chemical and Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbgenomics provides a global platform to explore the genetics and biology of herbs on the genome level. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is an important medicinal plant with numerous pharmaceutical effects. Previous reports mainly discussed the transcriptome of ginseng at the organ level. However, based on mass spectrometry imaging analyses, the ginsenosides varied among different tissues. In this work, ginseng root was separated into three tissues—periderm, cortex and stele—each for five duplicates. The chemical analysis and transcriptome analysis were conducted simultaneously. Gene-encoding enzymes involved in ginsenosides biosynthesis and modification were studied based on gene and molecule data. Eight widely-used ginsenosides were distributed unevenly in ginseng roots. A total of 182,881 unigenes were assembled with an N50 contig size of 1374 bp. About 21,000 of these unigenes were positively correlated with the content of ginsenosides. Additionally, we identified 192 transcripts encoding enzymes involved in two triterpenoid biosynthesis pathways and 290 transcripts encoding UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs. Of these UGTs, 195 UGTs (67.2% were more highly expressed in the periderm, and that seven UGTs and one UGT were specifically expressed in the periderm and stele, respectively. This genetic resource will help to improve the interpretation on complex mechanisms of ginsenosides biosynthesis, accumulation, and transportation.

  16. Effect of a longitudinally applied voltage upon the growth of Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical parameters that affect young seedling growth were investigated. Voltages ranging from 5 to 40 volts were applied longitudinally along the mesocotyl region of 4-day old Zea mays L. (cv Silver Queen) seedlings for periods of 3 or 4 hours. It was determined that: (a) making the tips of the seedlings electrically positive relative to the base strongly inhibited shoot growth at 5 volts, whereas the reverse polarity had no effect; (b) at higher voltages, making the tip of the seedlings negative caused less growth inhibition than the reverse polarity at each voltage level; (c) the higher the applied voltage the greater the degree of inhibition; and, (d) the more growth inhibition experienced by the plants the poorer, and slower, their recovery. Previous observations of a relationship between the amount of free indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl cortex and the growth rate of the mesocotyl and of gravitropism-induced movement of labeled indole-3-acetic acid from the seed to the shoot lead to the prediction of a voltage-dependent gating of the movement of indole-3-acetic acid from the stele to the cortex. This provided the basis for attempting to alter the growth rate of seedlings by means of an applied voltage.

  17. Alterations in carbon and nitrogen metabolism induced by water deficit in the stems and leaves of Lupinus albus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C; Chaves, M M; Ricardo, C P

    2001-05-01

    Water deficit (WD) in Lupinus albus L. brings about tissue-specific responses that are dependent on stress intensity. Carbohydrate metabolism is very sensitive to changes in plant water status. Six days from withholding water (DAW), sucrose, glucose and fructose levels of the leaf blade had already increased over 5-fold, and the activities of SS and INV(A) had increased c. 1.5-2 times. From 9 DAW on, when stress intensity was more pronounced, these effects were reversed with fructose and glucose concentrations as well as INV(A) activity dropping in parallel. The stem (specifically the stele) responded to the stress intensification with striking increases in the concentration of sugars, N and S, and in the induction of thaumatin-like-protein and an increase in chitinase and peroxidase. At 13 DAW, the plants lost most of the leaves but on rewatering they fully recovered. Thus, the observed changes appear to contribute to a general mechanism of survival under drought, the stem playing a key role in that process.

  18. Rhizophores in Rhizophora mangle L: an alternative interpretation of so-called ''aerial roots''

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Nanuza L. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle L., one of the most common mangrove species, has an aerial structure system that gives it stability in permanently swampy soils. In fact, these structures, known as "aerial roots" or "stilt roots", have proven to be peculiar branches with positive geotropism, which form a large number of roots when in contact with swampy soils. These organs have a sympodial branching system, wide pith, slightly thickened cortex, collateral vascular bundles, polyarch stele and endarch protoxylem, as in the stem, and a periderm produced by a phellogen at the apex similar to a root cap. They also have the same type of trichosclereid that occurs in the stem, with negative geotropism, unlike true Rhizophora roots, which do not form trichosclereids at all. On the other hand, these branches do not form leaves and in this respect they are similar to roots. These peculiar branches are rhizophores or special root-bearing branches, analogous to those found in Lepidodendrales and other Carboniferous tree ferns that grew in swampy soils.

  19. Una nueva estela funeraria de época romana descubierta en Malpartida de Cáceres = A new Roman funerary stela from Malpartida de Cáceres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ángel Hidalgo Martín

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos aquí uno de los hallazgos más relevantes de la intervención arqueológica desarrollada durante el año 2007 en el paraje de la «Dehesa de Los Estantes», dentro del término municipal de Malpartida de Cáceres: una «esbelta» estela granítica de cabecera triangular que contiene el epitafio de una mujer y la dedicatoria de su esposo, ambos de extracción indígena. Además, el mensaje textual va reforzado por un rico conjunto de elementos iconográficos. La cronología que proponemos para el monumentum es el siglo III d.C.We present one of the most important findings of the archaeological developments in 2007 on the site of the «Dehesa de Los Estantes», in the municipality of Malpartida de Cáceres: A tall granite stele with a triangular pediment containing the epitaph of a woman, dedicated to her by her husband, both of indigenous origin. In addition, the inscribed message is surrounded by a rich set of iconographic elements. The chronology proposed for this monumentum is the third century AD.

  20. Eucalypt NADP-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiffin, Vincent; Hodges, Michael; Gálvez, Susana; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Gadal, Pierre; Martin, Francis

    1998-01-01

    NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) activity is increased in roots of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata ex Maiden Kirkp. during colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius Coker and Couch. To investigate the regulation of the enzyme expression, a cDNA (EgIcdh) encoding the NADP-ICDH was isolated from a cDNA library of E. globulus-P. tinctorius ectomycorrhizae. The putative polypeptide sequence of EgIcdh showed a high amino acid similarity with plant NADP-ICDHs. Because the deduced EgICDH protein lacks an amino-terminal targeting sequence and shows highest similarity to plant cytosolic ICDHs, it probably represents a cytoplasmic isoform. RNA analysis showed that the steady-state level of EgIcdh transcripts was enhanced nearly 2-fold in ectomycorrhizal roots compared with nonmycorrhizal roots. Increased accumulation of NADP-ICDH transcripts occurred as early as 2 d after contact and likely led to the observed increased enzyme activity. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that NADP-ICDH was preferentially accumulated in the epidermis and stele parenchyma of nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal lateral roots. The putative role of cytosolic NADP-ICDH in ectomycorrhizae is discussed. PMID:9662536

  1. Composite Transport Model and Water and Solute Transport across Plant Roots: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmin X. Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines recent experimental findings in root transport phenomena in terms of the composite transport model (CTM. It has been a well-accepted conceptual model to explain the complex water and solute flows across the root that has been related to the composite anatomical structure. There are three parallel pathways involved in the transport of water and solutes in roots – apoplast, symplast, and transcellular paths. The role of aquaporins (AQPs, which facilitate water flows through the transcellular path, and root apoplast is examined in terms of the CTM. The contribution of the plasma membrane bound AQPs for the overall water transport in the whole plant level was varying depending on the plant species, age of roots with varying developmental stages of apoplastic barriers, and driving forces (hydrostatic vs. osmotic. Many studies have demonstrated that the apoplastic barriers, such as Casparian bands in the primary anticlinal walls and suberin lamellae in the secondary cell walls, in the endo- and exodermis are not perfect barriers and unable to completely block the transport of water and some solute transport into the stele. Recent research on water and solute transport of roots with and without exodermis triggered the importance of the extension of conventional CTM adding resistances that arrange in series (epidermis, exodermis, mid-cortex, endodermis, and pericycle. The extension of the model may answer current questions about the applicability of CTM for composite water and solute transport of roots that contain complex anatomical structures with heterogeneous cell layers.

  2. Promising role of plant hormones in translocation of lead in Sesbania drummondii shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israr, Mohd; Sahi, Shivendra V.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) accumulation in Sesbania drummondii shoots was enhanced by 654 and 415% in the presence of 100 μM IAA and 100 μM NAA, respectively, compared to control plants (Pb alone). However, when IAA or NAA was added along with EDTA, Pb accumulation further increased in shoots by 1349% and 1252%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that Pb particles in both leaf and stem of Pb + EDTA + IAA and Pb + EDTA + NAA treated plants were concentrated in the region of vascular bundles. In root tissue, Pb particles were present between epidermis to stele region. Plant growth in both treatments (Pb + 100 μM IAA and Pb + 100 μM NAA) was comparable to control plants; however, it was significantly inhibited in the treatments containing Pb + EDTA and EDTA at concentrations of 10 μM of IAA or NAA. Moreover, the photosynthetic efficiency and strength of the treated plants were not affected in the presence of IAA or NAA and EDTA. - Plant hormones (IAA and NAA) enhance the accumulation of lead in shoots of Sesbania drummondii

  3. The Enigmatic Mushtikas and the Associated Triangular Terracotta Cakes: Some Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For over four decades, now, mushtikas and its common associate, the triangular terracotta cakes have been believed to be part of ‘fire altars’. This is, in spite of the fact that, either or both of these have been found from hearths, ovens, kilns, as flooring material, on walls, in passages, streets, bathrooms and therefore obviously near commodes. Further, the great variety of central stele and construction material, size and shape, materials found within ‘fire altars’ suggest that, all the above were devoid of religious symbolism and used to achieve domestic or industrial objectives. The cakes being primarily associated with run of the mill economic activities ended up in diverse and defiling contexts. However, like many cultures across time and space Harappans may also have used the medium of fire for offering sacrifices. Therefore the existence of ‘fire altars’ is not denied as such, but these then should not have the ubiquitous cakes, at the least.

  4. The geology, hydrogeology and geochemistry of the Needle's Eye natural analogue site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The British Geological Survey has been carrying out a research investigation of the Needle's Eye site at Southwick on the Solway coast in south-western Scotland. This study of a naturally radioactive geochemical system has the aim of improving our confidence in using predictive models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This summary report describes results from the integrated use of hydrogeological, mineralogical and geochemical techniques applied to the study of the transport and distribution of uranium. Pitchblende veins exposed in the cliffs are a major source of soluble uranium in ground-waters flowing into organic-rich post-glacial flood plain and intertidal mudflat deposits. Organic matter both living and dead has played a key role in the retardation of uranium in these sediments. Chemical transport modelling of the uranium dispersion/retardation is described and the implications for performance assessment work are discussed. Computer codes used: CHEMVAL (thermodynamic data base constants). CHIMERE (chemical equilibrium code). METIS (flow code). PHREEQE (chemical equilibrium code). STELE (coupled chemical transport code)

  5. Anatomical and morphological features of seedlings of some Cactoideae Eaton (Cactaceae Juss. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Kalashnyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-month-old seedlings of 11 species of the subfamily Cactoideae (Melocactus bahiensis, Melocactus curvispinus, Echinopsis eyriesii, E. mirablis, E. peruviana, Oreocereus celsianus, Rebutia flavistyla, Rebutia minuscula, Astrophytum myriostigma, Mamillaria columbiana, and M. prolifera have been studied. These plants exhibit a uniseriate epidermis, covered by a thin cuticle. Except for E. peruviana and A. myriostigma, no hypodermis could be detected. The shoots of all studied specimens consist mainly of cortex parenchyma with large thin-walled cells. The pith parenchyma is composed of much smaller cells. Due to the fact that the cortex parenchyma comprises the largest portion of the cross-sectional area, it can be concluded that it is the main water-storing tissue. The extent of vascular tissue development varies. Collateral vascular bundles are present in the stele. The studied seedlings contain various ergastic substances, in particular inclusions of calcium oxalate (all studied species, starch (Mammillaria prolifera, E. mirabilis, and the genus Melocactus, inulin-like inclusions, and occasionally lipid drops (some Echinopsis species. Thus, it was found that all studied plants have a highly specialized anatomical and morphological structure. At the same time, the epidermis and hypodermis are poorly developed. Accordingly, the adaptation to arid conditions of the examined seedlings involves an increased growth of the water-storing tissue and the production of ergastic substances.

  6. RootAnalyzer: A Cross-Section Image Analysis Tool for Automated Characterization of Root Cells and Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chopin

    Full Text Available The morphology of plant root anatomical features is a key factor in effective water and nutrient uptake. Existing techniques for phenotyping root anatomical traits are often based on manual or semi-automatic segmentation and annotation of microscopic images of root cross sections. In this article, we propose a fully automated tool, hereinafter referred to as RootAnalyzer, for efficiently extracting and analyzing anatomical traits from root-cross section images. Using a range of image processing techniques such as local thresholding and nearest neighbor identification, RootAnalyzer segments the plant root from the image's background, classifies and characterizes the cortex, stele, endodermis and epidermis, and subsequently produces statistics about the morphological properties of the root cells and tissues. We use RootAnalyzer to analyze 15 images of wheat plants and one maize plant image and evaluate its performance against manually-obtained ground truth data. The comparison shows that RootAnalyzer can fully characterize most root tissue regions with over 90% accuracy.

  7. Xylem sap proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernonville, Thomas Dugé; Albenne, Cécile; Arlat, Matthieu; Hoffmann, Laurent; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of xylem sap has recently become a major field of interest to understand several biological questions related to plant development and responses to environmental clues. The xylem sap appears as a dynamic fluid undergoing changes in its proteome upon abiotic and biotic stresses. Unlike cell compartments which are amenable to purification in sufficient amount prior to proteomic analysis, the xylem sap has to be collected in particular conditions to avoid contamination by intracellular proteins and to obtain enough material. A model plant like Arabidopsis thaliana is not suitable for such an analysis because efficient harvesting of xylem sap is difficult. The analysis of the xylem sap proteome also requires specific procedures to concentrate proteins and to focus on proteins predicted to be secreted. Indeed, xylem sap proteins appear to be synthesized and secreted in the root stele or to originate from dying differentiated xylem cells. This chapter describes protocols to collect xylem sap from Brassica species and to prepare total and N-glycoprotein extracts for identification of proteins by mass spectrometry analyses and bioinformatics.

  8. Genetic and Phenotypic Analysis of Lateral Root Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2018-01-01

    Root system formation to a great extent depends on lateral root (LR) formation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, LRs are initiated within a parent root in pericycle that is an external tissue of the stele. LR initiation takes place in a strictly acropetal pattern, whereas posterior lateral root primordium (LRP) formation is asynchronous. In this chapter, we focus on methods of genetic and phenotypic analysis of LR initiation, LRP morphogenesis, and LR emergence in Arabidopsis. We provide details on how to make cleared root preparations and how to identify the LRP stages. We also pay attention to the categorization of the LRP developmental stages and their variations and to the normalization of the number of LRs and LRPs formed, per length of the primary root, and per number of cells produced within a root. Hormonal misbalances and mutations affect LRP morphogenesis significantly, and the evaluation of LRP abnormalities is addressed as well. Finally, we deal with various molecular markers that can be used for genetic and phenotypic analyses of LR development.

  9. The Early Entry of Al into Cells of Intact Soybean Roots (A Comparison of Three Developmental Root Regions Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazof, D. B.; Goldsmith, J. G.; Rufty, T. W.; Linton, R. W.

    1996-11-01

    Al localization was compared in three developmental regions of primary root of an Al-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype using secondary ion mass spectrometry. In cryosections obtained after a 4-h exposure to 38 [mu]M [Al3+], Al had penetrated across the root and into the stele in all three regions. Although the greatest localized Al concentration was consistently at the root periphery, the majority of the Al in each region had accumulated in cortical cells. It was apparent that the secondary ion mass spectrometry 27Al+ mass signal was spread throughout the intracellular area and was not particularly intense in the cell wall. Inclusion of some cell wall in determinations of the Al levels across the root radius necessitated that these serve as minimal estimates for intracellular Al. Total accumulation of intracellular Al for each region was 60, 73, and 210 nmol g-1 fresh weight after 4 h, increasing with root development. Early metabolic responses to external Al, including those that have been reported deep inside the root and in mature regions, might result directly from intracellular Al. These responses might include ion transport events at the endodermis of mature roots or events associated with lateral root emergence, as well as events within the root tip.

  10. OsORC3 is required for lateral root development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinai; Shi, Jing; Hao, Xi; Liu, Huili; Shi, Jianghua; Wu, Yunrong; Wu, Zhongchang; Chen, Mingxiu; Wu, Ping; Mao, Chuanzao

    2013-04-01

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a pivotal element in DNA replication, heterochromatin assembly, checkpoint regulation and chromosome assembly. Although the functions of the ORC have been determined in yeast and model animals, they remain largely unknown in the plant kingdom. In this study, Oryza sativa Origin Recognition Complex subunit 3 (OsORC3) was cloned using map-based cloning procedures, and functionally characterized using a rice (Oryza sativa) orc3 mutant. The mutant showed a temperature-dependent defect in lateral root (LR) development. Map-based cloning showed that a G→A mutation in the 9th exon of OsORC3 was responsible for the mutant phenotype. OsORC3 was strongly expressed in regions of active cell proliferation, including the primary root tip, stem base, lateral root primordium, emerged lateral root primordium, lateral root tip, young shoot, anther and ovary. OsORC3 knockdown plants lacked lateral roots and had a dwarf phenotype. The root meristematic zone of ORC3 knockdown plants exhibited increased cell death and reduced vital activity compared to the wild-type. CYCB1;1::GUS activity and methylene blue staining showed that lateral root primordia initiated normally in the orc3 mutant, but stopped growing before formation of the stele and ground tissue. Our results indicate that OsORC3 plays a crucial role in the emergence of lateral root primordia. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Proteomics of Maize Root Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochholdinger, Frank; Marcon, Caroline; Baldauf, Jutta A; Yu, Peng; Frey, Felix P

    2018-01-01

    Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  12. 3D MODELING OF HEADSTONES OF THE 2ND AND 3RD CENTURY BY LOW COST PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Landes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a dozen headstones have been discovered during excavations in south Alsace, archaeologists stored them in the Regional Directorate of Cultural Affairs in Strasbourg. In order to complete the survey they are used to practice by hand on the steles, they asked the INSA Strasbourg to reconstruct at least the 7 figured sandstones in 3D. The high accuracy required by the archaeologists can be reached by an expensive technique using laserscanning system. Aim of the current work is to look for an alternative method and (if appropriate low cost software allowing to provide a similar quality and a sufficient level of details. The 3D reconstruction of the headstones based exclusively on multiple images processing is presented. The step of point cloud generation is detailed because it determines the final product quality. Therefore, an assessment of the produced point cloud has been performed through comparison to a reference point cloud obtained by laser scanning technique. The steps leading to the photo-realistic textured 3D models of the headstones are presented and the software used for that are evaluated. The final product respects the accuracy requirement of 1 mm desired by the archaeologists.

  13. The comparative study of anatomical structure of stem and ovule development of four cultivars of Glycine max L. merr in water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Jonoubi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the most important limiting factors that affect different aspects of plants vegetative and reproductive growth. It is one of the most important limiting factors of crop productivity. Regarding to the importance of soybean as an oilseed plant, and in order to identify the drought tolerant cultivars as well as evaluating of the effects of drought stress on anatomical structureof four soybean cultivars (Clin, Clark, M9 and L17, two series of experiments were carried out as randomized complete design. In the first experiment, at optimum conditions, plants were irrigated after 50 mm evaporation from germination to the end of growing period, whereas the second experiment was irrigated after 150 mm (sever stress evaporation from evaporation pan. The results showed that the effect of water deficit stress on cortex thickness and number of layers, Phloem and xylem thickness, diameter of vessel elements, number of vessel element rows, number of vessel elements in stem, pith and stele thickness, stem diameter and number of trichomes were significant. Relative acceleration of embryo sac development was observed in all plants under water deficit stress except for Clark cultivar. Evaluation of anatomical factors on these cultivars showed that Clin cultivar was more tolerant to water deficit stress compared to other cultivars.

  14. Proteomics of Maize Root Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hochholdinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  15. Composite Transport Model and Water and Solute Transport across Plant Roots: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangmin X; Ranathunge, Kosala; Lee, Seulbi; Lee, Yejin; Lee, Deogbae; Sung, Jwakyung

    2018-01-01

    The present review examines recent experimental findings in root transport phenomena in terms of the composite transport model (CTM). It has been a well-accepted conceptual model to explain the complex water and solute flows across the root that has been related to the composite anatomical structure. There are three parallel pathways involved in the transport of water and solutes in roots - apoplast, symplast, and transcellular paths. The role of aquaporins (AQPs), which facilitate water flows through the transcellular path, and root apoplast is examined in terms of the CTM. The contribution of the plasma membrane bound AQPs for the overall water transport in the whole plant level was varying depending on the plant species, age of roots with varying developmental stages of apoplastic barriers, and driving forces (hydrostatic vs. osmotic). Many studies have demonstrated that the apoplastic barriers, such as Casparian bands in the primary anticlinal walls and suberin lamellae in the secondary cell walls, in the endo- and exodermis are not perfect barriers and unable to completely block the transport of water and some solute transport into the stele. Recent research on water and solute transport of roots with and without exodermis triggered the importance of the extension of conventional CTM adding resistances that arrange in series (epidermis, exodermis, mid-cortex, endodermis, and pericycle). The extension of the model may answer current questions about the applicability of CTM for composite water and solute transport of roots that contain complex anatomical structures with heterogeneous cell layers.

  16. Evidence for biotrophic lifestyle and biocontrol potential of dark septate endophyte Harpophora oryzae to rice blast disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhu Su

    Full Text Available The mutualism pattern of the dark septate endophyte (DSE Harpophora oryzae in rice roots and its biocontrol potential in rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae were investigated. Fluorescent protein-expressing H. oryzae was used to monitor the colonization pattern. Hyphae invaded from the epidermis to the inner cortex, but not into the root stele. Fungal colonization increased with root tissue maturation, showing no colonization in the meristematic zone, slight colonization in the elongation zone, and heavy colonization in the differentiation zone. H. oryzae adopted a biotrophic lifestyle in roots accompanied by programmed cell death. Real-time PCR facilitated the accurate quantification of fungal growth and the respective plant response. The biocontrol potential of H. oryzae was visualized by inoculation with eGFP-tagged M. oryzae in rice. H. oryzae protected rice from M. oryzae root invasion by the accumulation of H2O2 and elevated antioxidative capacity. H. oryzae also induced systemic resistance against rice blast. This systemic resistance was mediated by the OsWRKY45-dependent salicylic acid (SA signaling pathway, as indicated by the strongly upregulated expression of OsWRKY45. The colonization pattern of H. oryzae was consistent with the typical characteristics of DSEs. H. oryzae enhanced local resistance by reactive oxygen species (ROS and high antioxidative level and induced OsWRKY45-dependent SA-mediated systemic resistance against rice blast.

  17. Knock-down of a tonoplast localized low-affinity nitrate transporter OsNPF7.2 affects rice growth under high nitrate ssupply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The large nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family (NPF has been shown to transport diverse substrates, including nitrate, amino acids, peptides, phytohormones, and glucosinolates. However, the rice (Oryza sativa root-specific expressed member OsNPF7.2 has not been characterized. Here, our data show that OsNPF7.2 is a tonoplast localized low-affinity nitrate transporter, and affects rice growth under high nitrate supply. The expression analysis showed that OsNPF7.2 was mainly expressed in the elongation and maturation zones of roots, especially in the root sclerenchyma, cortex and stele. It was also induced by high concentrations of nitrate. Subcellular localization analysis showed that OsNPF7.2 was localized on the tonoplast of large and small vacuoles. Heterogenous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggested that OsNPF7.2 was a low-affinity nitrate transporter. Knock-down of OsNPF7.2 retarded rice growth under high concentrations of nitrate. Therefore, we deduce that OsNPF7.2 plays a role in intracellular allocation of nitrate in roots, and thus influences rice growth under high nitrate supply.

  18. PHIV-RootCell: a supervised image analysis tool for rice root anatomical parameter quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eLartaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed the PHIV-RootCell software to quantify anatomical traits of rice roots transverse section images. Combined with an efficient root sample processing method for image acquisition, this program permits supervised measurements of areas (those of whole root section, stele, cortex and central metaxylem vessels, number of cell layers and number of cells per cell layer. The PHIV-RootCell toolset runs under ImageJ, an independent operating system that has a license-free status. To demonstrate the usefulness of PHIV-RootCell, we conducted a genetic diversity study and an analysis of salt-stress responses of root anatomical parameters in rice (Oryza sativa L.. Using 16 cultivars, we showed that we could discriminate between some of the varieties even at the 6 day-old stage, and that tropical japonica varieties had larger root sections due to an increase in cell number. We observed, as described previously, that root sections become enlarged under salt stress. However, our results show an increase in cell number in ground tissues (endodermis and cortex but a decrease in external (peripheral tissues (sclerenchyma, exodermis and epidermis. Thus, the PHIV-RootCell program is a user-friendly tool that will be helpful for future genetic and physiological studies that investigate root anatomical trait variations.

  19. La iconografía del Nefesh en la plástica púnica: A propósito de las representaciones del monumento funerario y su significado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prados Martínez, Fernando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, we approach to the knowledge of Phoenician and Punic religious iconography. The artistic representation of an architectonic model called “Nefesh” had very significance in the Semitic cultures. For that, whith many examples, we studied the representation of the Punic towermonuments in some funerary steles, inside the graved and in the charms. This work can be of utility for meet the signification that these representations had in to the religiosity and believes.En el presente trabajo vamos a aproximarnos a una cuestión fundamental en el campo de la iconografía feniciopúnica, dada la relevancia que la representación artística del modelo arquitectónico turriforme conocido como “Nefesh” tuvo en las culturas semitas. Para ello, siguiendo un orden meramente cronológico y a través de algunos ejemplos, estudiaremos la representación de los monumentos en algunas estelas funerarias, en el interior de los sepulcros y en los amuletos, así como el significado que estas representaciones pudieron tener en el marco de la religiosidad y las creencias.

  20. Identification of a Stelar-Localized Transport Protein That Facilitates Root-to-Shoot Transfer of Chloride in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2015-12-11

    Under saline conditions, higher plants restrict the accumulation of chloride ions (Cl–) in the shoot by regulating their transfer from the root symplast into the xylem-associated apoplast. To identify molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon, we undertook a transcriptional screen of salt stressed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Microarrays, quantitative RT-PCR, and promoter-GUS fusions identified a candidate gene involved in Cl– xylem loading from the Nitrate transporter 1/Peptide Transporter family (NPF2.4). This gene was highly expressed in the root stele compared to the cortex, and its expression decreased after exposure to NaCl or abscisic acid. NPF2.4 fused to fluorescent proteins, expressed either transiently or stably, was targeted to the plasma membrane. Electrophysiological analysis of NPF2.4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggested that NPF2.4 catalyzed passive Cl– efflux out of cells and was much less permeable to NO3−. Shoot Cl– accumulation was decreased following NPF2.4 artificial microRNA knockdown, whereas it was increased by overexpression of NPF2.4. Taken together, these results suggest that NPF2.4 is involved in long-distance transport of Cl– in plants, playing a role in the loading and the regulation of Cl– loading into the xylem of Arabidopsis roots during salinity stress.

  1. Identification of a Stelar-Localized Transport Protein That Facilitates Root-to-Shoot Transfer of Chloride in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo; Byrt, Caitlin; Qiu, Jiaen; Baumann, Ute; Hrmova, Maria; Evrard, Aurelie; Johnson, Alexander A T; Birnbaum, Kenneth D.; Mayo, Gwenda M.; Jha, Deepa; Henderson, Sam W.; Tester, Mark A.; Gilliham, Mathew; Roy, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Under saline conditions, higher plants restrict the accumulation of chloride ions (Cl–) in the shoot by regulating their transfer from the root symplast into the xylem-associated apoplast. To identify molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon, we undertook a transcriptional screen of salt stressed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Microarrays, quantitative RT-PCR, and promoter-GUS fusions identified a candidate gene involved in Cl– xylem loading from the Nitrate transporter 1/Peptide Transporter family (NPF2.4). This gene was highly expressed in the root stele compared to the cortex, and its expression decreased after exposure to NaCl or abscisic acid. NPF2.4 fused to fluorescent proteins, expressed either transiently or stably, was targeted to the plasma membrane. Electrophysiological analysis of NPF2.4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggested that NPF2.4 catalyzed passive Cl– efflux out of cells and was much less permeable to NO3−. Shoot Cl– accumulation was decreased following NPF2.4 artificial microRNA knockdown, whereas it was increased by overexpression of NPF2.4. Taken together, these results suggest that NPF2.4 is involved in long-distance transport of Cl– in plants, playing a role in the loading and the regulation of Cl– loading into the xylem of Arabidopsis roots during salinity stress.

  2. Infection and colonization of rice seedlings by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Euan K; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Mathan, Natarajan; Barraquio, Wilfredo L; Reddy, Pallavolu M; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Olivares, Fabio L; Ladha, Jagdish K

    2002-09-01

    A beta-glucoronidase (GUS)-marked strain of Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 was inoculated onto rice seedling cvs. IR42 and IR72. Internal populations peaked at over 10(6) log CFU per gram of fresh weight by 5 to 7 days after inoculation (DAI) but declined to 10(3) to 10(4) log CFU per gram of fresh weight by 28 DAI. GUS staining was most intense on coleoptiles, lateral roots, and at the junctions of some of the main and lateral roots. Bacteria entered the roots via cracks at the points of lateral root emergence, with cv. IR72 appearing to be more aggressively infected than cv. IR42. H. seropedicae subsequently colonized the root intercellular spaces, aerenchyma, and cortical cells, with a few penetrating the stele to enter the vascular tissue. Xylem vessels in leaves and stems were extensively colonized at 2 DAI but, in later harvests (7 and 13 DAI), a host defense reaction was often observed. Dense colonies of H. seropedicae with some bacteria expressing nitrogenase Fe-protein were seen within leaf and stem epidermal cells, intercellular spaces, and substomatal cavities up until 28 DAI. Epiphytic bacteria were also seen. Both varieties showed nitrogenase activity but only with added C, and the dry weights of the inoculated plants were significantly increased. Only cv. IR42 showed a significant (approximately 30%) increase in N content above that of the uninoculated controls, and it also incorporated a significant amount of 15N2.

  3. Teorie del tutto la ricerca della spiegazione ultima

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    1992-01-01

    «Come, quando e perché l’universo ha avuto origine? Questi interrogativi di carattere fondamentale sono stati fuori moda per secoli: gli scienziati ne diffidavano, teologi e filosofi se ne erano stancati. Poi, d’improvviso, gli scienziati hanno cominciato a porseli con la massima serietà, e i teologi si sono trovati, scavalcati, a dover tenere dietro alle teorizzazioni matematiche della nuova generazione di scienziati... Oggi i fisici credono di essersi imbattuti in una chiave capace di guidarci al segreto matematico che sta al cuore dell’universo: una scoperta che punta verso una “teoria del tutto”, una sorta di quadro onnicomprensivo di tutte le leggi di natura dal quale deve derivare, in modo logicamente ineccepibile, l’inevitabilità di tutto ciò che ci circonda. Una volta in possesso di questa stele di Rosetta cosmica, potremmo leggere il libro della natura in tutta la sua estensione temporale, e intendere ogni cosa che sia stata, che è e che sarà. Di questa possibilità si è sempre fa...

  4. Label Distribution in Tissues of Wheat Seedlings Cultivated with Tritium-Labeled Leonardite Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Natalia A.; Abroskin, Dmitry P.; Badun, Gennady A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Korobkov, Viktor I.; Beer, Anton S.; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A.; Senik, Svetlana V.; Klein, Olga I.; Perminova, Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) play important roles in the biotic-abiotic interactions of the root plant and soil contributing to plant adaptation to external environments. However, their mode of action on plants remains largely unknown. In this study the HS distribution in tissues of wheat seedlings was examined using tritium-labeled humic acid (HA) derived from leonardite (a variety of lignites) and microautoradiography (MAR). Preferential accumulation of labeled products from tritiated HA was found in the roots as compared to the shoots, and endodermis was shown to be the major control point for radial transport of label into vascular system of plant. Tritium was also found in the stele and xylem tissues indicating that labeled products from tritiated HA could be transported to shoot tissues via the transpiration stream. Treatment with HA lead to an increase in the content of polar lipids of photosynthetic membranes. The observed accumulation of labeled HA products in root endodermis and positive impact on lipid synthesis are consistent with prior reported observations on physiological effects of HS on plants such as enhanced growth and development of lateral roots and improvement/repairs of the photosynthetic status of plants under stress conditions. PMID:27350412

  5. Coupling between a geochemical model and a transport model of dissolved elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, P.

    1988-10-01

    In order to assess the safety analysis of an underground repository, the transport of radioelements in groundwater and their interactions with the geological medium are modelled. The objective of this work is the setting up and experimental validation of the coupling of a geochemical model with a transport model of dissolved elements. A laboratory experiment was developed at the CEA center of Cadarache. Flow-through experiments were carried out on columns filled with crushed limestone, where several inflow conditions were taken into account as the temperature, the presence of a pollutant (strontium chloride) at different concentrations. The results consist of the evolution of the chemical composition of the water at the outlet of the column. The final aim of the study is to explain these results with a coupled model where geochemical and transport phenomena are modelled in a two-step procedure. This code, called STELE, was built by introducing a geochemical code, CHIMERE, into an existing transport code, METIS. At this stage, the code CHIMERE can take into account: any chemical reaction in aqueous phase (complexation, acid-base reaction, redox equilibrium), dissolution-precipitation of minerals and solid phases, dissolution-degassing of gas. The paper intends to describe the whole process leading to the coupling which can be forecasted over the next years between geochemical and transport models

  6. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  7. Physical and Chemical Barriers in Root Tissues Contribute to Quantitative Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi in Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Bani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop is one of the most destructive diseases of pea worldwide. Control of this disease is difficult and it is mainly based on the use of resistant cultivars. While monogenic resistance has been successfully used in the field, it is at risk of breakdown by the constant evolution of the pathogen. New sources of quantitative resistance have been recently identified from a wild relative Pisum spp. collection. Here, we characterize histologically the resistance mechanisms occurring in these sources of quantitative resistance. Detailed comparison, of the reaction at cellular level, of eight pea accessions with differential responses to Fop race 2, showed that resistant accessions established several barriers at the epidermis, exodermis, cortex, endodermis and vascular stele efficiently impeding fungal progression. The main components of these different barriers were carbohydrates and phenolic compounds including lignin. We found that these barriers were mainly based on three defense mechanisms including cell wall strengthening, formation of papilla-like structures at penetration sites and accumulation of different substances within and between cells. These defense reactions varied in intensity and localization between resistant accessions. Our results also clarify some steps of the infection process of F. oxysporum in plant and support the important role of cell wall-degrading enzymes in F. oxysporum pathogenicity.

  8. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ponert

    Full Text Available A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macromorphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy, assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis, determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences. Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma.

  9. Biological control of Phytophthora root rot of avocato with microorganisms grown in organic mulches Controle biológico da podridão radicular de Phytophthora no abacateiro utilizando substratos orgânicos colonizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson L. da S. Costa

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic mulches colonized with microbial biocontrol agents, termed bioenhanced mulches, were tested for their ability to reduce Phytophthora root rot of avocado (Persea americana Mill.. Benomyl-resistant mutants of Gliocladium virens (KA 230-1 and Trichoderma harzianum (KA 159.2 isolated from suppressive soils and selected as efficient antagonists of P. cinnamomi were evaluated for their ability to colonize different mulches under controlled laboratory conditions. Sudangrass and a coarse yardwaste were found to be better substrates than a fine yardwaste, woodwaste or rice hulls for biocontrol agents propagules production. The most suitable conditions for colonization were an optimum temperature of 24°C, a moisture content of 20% for sudangrass and 30% for the coarse yardwaste, and a continuous light exposure during a 15-day incubation period. In the greenhouse, fresh sudangrass and a coarse yardwaste colonized with G. virens and used as a surface mulch proved to be the best combination for reducing the population of P. cinnamomi in 4-liter pots containing artificially-infested soil. Healthy avocado roots made up 31-37% of the roots in the G. virens-mulch combinations compared to 0% healthy in infested controls after two months.Compostos orgânicos colonizados com agentes de controle microbiológico, então denominados compostos bioativados, foram testados quanto a sua habilidadade controlar à podridão radicular de Phytophtora no abacateiro (Persea americana Mill. Mutantes de Gliocladium virens (KA 230-1 e Trichoderma harzianun (KA 159-2 resistentes a benomyl recuperados de solos supressivos e selecionados como eficientes antagonistas à P. cinnamoni foram avaliados quanto à sua capacidade de colonizar diversos compostos orgânicos em condições de laboratório. O Capim Sudão e um Composto de Jardim de alta granulação demonstraram quanto à sua capacidade de multiplicar propágulos de agentes de biocontrole, serem superiores à um

  10. Tamanho e forma de parcela em experimentos com morangueiro cultivado em solo ou em hidroponia Plot size and shape in trials using strawberry cultivated with soil or using hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Cocco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a forma e o tamanho de parcela ótimos para ensaios com a cultura do morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa em cultivo hidropônico e em solo. Foram conduzidos dois, experimentos, um em cultivo convencional no solo, em túneis baixos, e outro em cultivo hidropônico. Em cada experimento, avaliaram-se os efeitos do tamanho e do formato das parcelas sobre a precisão experimental. Cada planta foi considerada uma unidade básica, e o número de unidades básicas por parcela variou de 1 (48 parcelas a 24 (duas parcelas. Foram ajustadas funções para a determinação do coeficiente de variação entre as parcelas e para a determinação da variância por unidade básica entre as parcelas. O cultivo no solo apresentou maior variabilidade experimental que o cultivo hidropônico. O aumento no número de plantas por parcela causou redução acentuada na variabilidade experimental, especialmente quando se usou o formato de parcela retangular. O tamanho ótimo estimado das parcelas é de dez plantas, no cultivo com solo, e de seis plantas, no cultivo hidropônico.The objective of this work was to estimate the optimal size and shape of plots to be used in experiments of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cultivation in soil or using hydroponics. Two experiments were conducted, one in soil in low tunnels, and another in a hydroponic system. In each experiment, the effects of plot sizes and shapes on experimental accuracy were evaluated. Each plant was considered an experimental basic unit, and the number of plants per plot varied from 1 (48 plots to 24 (two plots. Functions were adjusted to determine the coefficient of variation among plots and the variance per basic unit between plots. Plants grown in soil had higher experimental variability than the plants grown in hydroponics. Increasing the number of plants per plot caused strong reduction in the experimental variability, especially when a rectangular plot shape was used

  11. Avaliação da biomassa foliar de morangueiro hidropônico em diferentes ambientes protegidos Leaf biomass evaluation of hydroponic strawberry in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se experimentos na Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola na Universidade Estadual de Campinas, utilizando quatro cultivares de morangueiro [Fragaria x ananassa (Weston Duchesne ex Rozier], quatro sistemas de produção hidropônica (canal de 100mm, canal de 150mm, canal de 150mm, com vaso contendo fibra de coco e tubo vertical contendo casca de arroz carbonizada e três ambientes protegidos (casa-de-vegetação sem resfriamento evaporativo do ar e sem injeção aérea de CO2, casa-de-vegetação com injeção aérea de CO2 e sem resfriamento evaporativo do ar e casa-de-vegetação com injeção aérea de CO2 e resfriamento evaporativo do ar. Foram avaliados os parâmetros foliares massa fresca foliar (MFF e massa seca foliar (MSF em gramas e área foliar (AF em mm², correlacionando à biomassa da planta. O melhor sistema foi o de canais de 150mm com vaso contendo fibra de coco. O melhor ambiente foi o de resfriamento evaporativo do ar e injeção aérea de CO2.Analyses were made in the experimental field of the Agricultural Engineering College at State University of Campinas (Unicamp. Four varieties of strawberry [Fragaria x ananassa (Weston Duchesne ex Rozier] were tested in four hydroponics production systems (100mm and 150mm channels and 150mm channel with a vase containing coconut fiber and a vertical pipe containing carbonized rice rusk. Three greenhouses were tested: i a greenhouse without air evaporative cooling nor CO2 aerial injection, ii a greenhouse with CO2 aerial injection and without air evaporative cooling and iii a greenhouse with CO2 aerial injection and air evaporative cooling. It was analyzed the leaf fresh (MFF and dry mass in gram (MSF and the leaf area in mm² (AF. The best hydroponics system was 150mm channel with a vase containing coconut fiber. The best environment condition was the one with air evaporative cooling and aerial injection of CO2.

  12. Влияние настоев листа земляники зеленой на рост золотистого стафилококка

    OpenAIRE

    ГУСЕВ НИКОЛАЙ ФЕДОРОВИЧ; ДОКУЧАЕВА ЮЛИЯ АЛЕКСАНДРОВНА; НЕМЕРЕШИНА ОЛЬГА НИКОЛАЕВНА

    2016-01-01

    В последние годы значительно повысился интерес к исследованиям в области фитомедицины. В статье изложены экспериментальные данные о содержании низкомолекулярных антиоксидантов в листьях земляники зеленой Fragaria viridis Duch. (Weston.). Авторами проведена оценка влияния настоя Fragaria viridis на рост колоний золотистого стафилококка Staphylococcus aureus. Результаты исследования свидетельствуют о перспективности использования травы растения для разработки биологически активных добавок, а та...

  13. Evolution of the Rdr1 TNL-cluster in roses and other Rosaceous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terefe-Ayana Diro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The resistance of plants to pathogens relies on two lines of defense: a basal defense response and a pathogen-specific system, in which resistance (R genes induce defense reactions after detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS. In the specific system, a so-called arms race has developed in which the emergence of new races of a pathogen leads to the diversification of plant resistance genes to counteract the pathogens’ effect. The mechanism of resistance gene diversification has been elucidated well for short-lived annual species, but data are mostly lacking for long-lived perennial and clonally propagated plants, such as roses. We analyzed the rose black spot resistance gene, Rdr1, in five members of the Rosaceae: Rosa multiflora, Rosa rugosa, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, Malus x domestica (apple and Prunus persica (peach, and we present the deduced possible mechanism of R-gene diversification. Results We sequenced a 340.4-kb region from R. rugosa orthologous to the Rdr1 locus in R. multiflora. Apart from some deletions and rearrangements, the two loci display a high degree of synteny. Additionally, less pronounced synteny is found with an orthologous locus in strawberry but is absent in peach and apple, where genes from the Rdr1 locus are distributed on two different chromosomes. An analysis of 20 TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL genes obtained from R. rugosa and R. multiflora revealed illegitimate recombination, gene conversion, unequal crossing over, indels, point mutations and transposable elements as mechanisms of diversification. A phylogenetic analysis of 53 complete TNL genes from the five Rosaceae species revealed that with the exception of some genes from apple and peach, most of the genes occur in species-specific clusters, indicating that recent TNL gene diversification began prior to the split of Rosa from Fragaria in the Rosoideae and peach from apple in the Spiraeoideae and continued after the split in

  14. An Intergenic Region Shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Tissue Specific and Stress Inducible Bidirectional Promoter Analyzed in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Joydeep; Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Houtz, Robert L.; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985) are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS) in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85) showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold) compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87). The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold) under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications. PMID:24260266

  15. Arabidopsis N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE1, a Positive Regulator of Auxin Transport in a G Protein–Mediated Pathway[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Uhrig, Joachm F.; Zhou, Jiping; Temple, Brenda; Jiang, Kun; Jones, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Root architecture results from coordinated cell division and expansion in spatially distinct cells of the root and is established and maintained by gradients of auxin and nutrients such as sugars. Auxin is transported acropetally through the root within the central stele and then, upon reaching the root apex, auxin is transported basipetally through the outer cortical and epidermal cells. The two Gβγ dimers of the Arabidopsis thaliana heterotrimeric G protein complex are differentially localized to the central and cortical tissues of the Arabidopsis roots. A null mutation in either the single β (AGB1) or the two γ (AGG1 and AGG2) subunits confers phenotypes that disrupt the proper architecture of Arabidopsis roots and are consistent with altered auxin transport. Here, we describe an evolutionarily conserved interaction between AGB1/AGG dimers and a protein designated N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE1 (NDL1). The Arabidopsis genome encodes two homologs of NDL1 (NDL2 and NDL3), which also interact with AGB1/AGG1 and AGB1/AGG2 dimers. We show that NDL proteins act in a signaling pathway that modulates root auxin transport and auxin gradients in part by affecting the levels of at least two auxin transport facilitators. Reduction of NDL family gene expression and overexpression of NDL1 alter root architecture, auxin transport, and auxin maxima. AGB1, auxin, and sugars are required for NDL1 protein stability in regions of the root where auxin gradients are established; thus, the signaling mechanism contains feedback loops. PMID:19948787

  16. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment.

  17. Effects of exogenous glutathione and cysteine on growth, lead accumulation, and tolerance of Iris lactea var. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongxia; Huang, Suzhen; Yang, Yongheng; Gu, Chunsun

    2015-02-01

    Effects of exogenous reduced glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) on growth, lead (Pb) accumulation, and nonprotein thiol (NPT) contents of Iris lactea var. chinensis under 100 and 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress were studied. Our results showed that 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress caused a dramatical decline in fresh weights, while the reduction of aboveground biomass was alleviated by exogenous GSH and Cys even though keeping higher Pb contents in roots and shoots. Exogenous GSH and Cys could enhance Pb accumulation in the shoots and roots compared with single Pb treatment. The promoting effect of GSH to Pb accumulation was larger than the effect of Cys, and the Pb contents in the shoots and roots treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH reached 1,712 and 14,603 mg kg(-1), about 4.19 and 2.78 times of single 500 mg L(-1) Pb treatment, respectively. Microscopic imaging of Pb in roots and leaves showed that higher intensive fluorescence was observed in cell wall of root epidermis, stele, vascular tissues of the roots, and sclerenchyma cells of leaves treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH and treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + Cys. Exogenous GSH had an apparent promoting effect on root and shoot GSH synthesis, while exogenous Cys reduced the synthesis of cellular GSH in shoot and increased Cys contents. Pb only induced the synthesis of phytochelatin (PC)2 in roots, and the PC2 content declined in GSH- and Cys-treated plant roots. These results suggested that GSH synthesis was a more effective approach to improve Pb accumulation and translocation of I. lactea var. chinensis. Further analysis of protein expression in plants by exogenous GSH and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) application showed that the proteins regulated by GSH and BSO may constitute various enzymes involved in GSH biosynthesis and play certain roles in Pb accumulation and tolerance of I. lactea var. chinensis.

  18. Memory provisions for the Manche Surface Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Jean-Noel; Espiet-Subert, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The French La Manche repository site received its last radioactive waste package in 1994. In 2003, the official surveillance phase of the closed repository started under the supervision of Andra (the national industrial operator), the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) and society (e.g. the local municipalities). Florence Espiet explained that information on the existence of the repository, its content, how it was operated and how it works needs to be preserved. It also is planned to review the information periodically for a minimum of 300 years. She described the creation of two documents on memory (a detailed and a summary one), both on permanent paper, and the preservation of the land registration. The latter constitutes 'passive' provisions for preserving memory. In addition, a number of 'active' provisions are and will be put in place: guided visits, exhibitions, partnerships with organisations dealing with memory preservation, and the creation of a think tank. The latter consists of local citizens and politicians, retired employees from Andra and artists that meet several times a year and reflect on memory preservation from the perspective of, for instance, local history, education, arts and rituals. Finally, two types of markers will be used to preserve the repository's memory: i) three herbaria cataloguing the plants growing on the site of the repository, including a very short description of the repository, will be stored at different sites in France; ii) a stele indicating the main characteristics of the repository, potentially linked to an art work, will be erected at the repository

  19. Morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated the potential of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Weitao; Lv, Sulian; Feng, Juanjuan; Li, Jihong; Li, Yinxin; Li, Shizhong

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a worldwide environmental problem, and remediation of Cd pollution is of great significance for food production as well as human health. Here, the responses of sweet sorghum cv. 'M-81E' to cadmium stress were studied for its potential as an energy plant in restoring soils contaminated by cadmium. In hydroponic experiments, the biomass of 'M-81E' showed no obvious change under 10 μM cadmium treatment. Cadmium concentration was the highest in roots of seedlings as well as mature plants, but in agricultural practice, the valuable and harvested parts of sweet sorghum are shoots, so promoting the translocation of cadmium to shoots is of great importance in order to improve its phytoremediation capacity. Further histochemical assays with dithizone staining revealed that cadmium was mainly concentrated in the stele of roots and scattered in intercellular space of caulicles. Moreover, the correlation analysis showed that Cd had a negative relationship with iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) in caulicles and leaves and a positive relationship with Fe in roots. These results implied that cadmium might compete with Fe, Zn, and Mn for the transport binding sites and further prevent their translocation to shoots. In addition, transmission electron microscopic observations showed that under 100 μM cadmium treatment, the structure of chloroplast was impaired and the cell wall of vascular bundle cells in leaves and xylem and phloem cells in roots turned thicker compared to control. In summary, morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated sweet sorghum can absorb cadmium and the growth is not negatively affected by mild level cadmium stress; thus, it is a promising material for the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils considering its economic benefit. This study also points out potential strategies to improve the phytoremediation capacity of sweet sorghum through genetic modification of transporters and cell wall

  20. Seasonal dynamics of structure and functional activity of ectomycorrhizal roots of the Siberian fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Sizonenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to study seasonal dynamics of the Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. ectomycorrhizal morpho-anatomical structure, respiration rate and fluorescence. The study was carried out in the bilberry-sphagnum spruce forest in the middle taiga of the Komi Republic, Russia. The morpho-anatomical structure and fluorescence parameters were studied by light and luminescence microscopy. Thin root respiration was studied in intact fine roots in the field using an infrared gas analyzer. 12 subtypes of fungal mantels were revealed in ectomycorrhizal fir roots; their amount and composition demonstrated seasonal dynamic changes. At the beginning vegetation stage, the diversity and proportion of pseudoparenchymatous and double covers were maximal. Plant component of ectomycorrhizae that includes cortical parenchyma and stele had high activity of fluorescence during the entire vegetation period. The dynamics of staining of fungal component (fungal mantel and Hartig net was more contrasting. The highest fluorescence intensity of cortical parenchyma was found in ectomycorrhizae with maximal fungal mantel thickness. High proportion of tannin cells in cortical parenchyma was related with low intensity of fungal mantel and Hartig net fluorescence. During vegetation season, maximal amount of intensively strained ectomycorrhizal elements occurred in July and unstrained – in June and August. Relation between fine roots respiration and an increase of brightly strained ectomycorrhizal structural elements in fir roots was not statistically significant. Root CO2-emission was lower in May and September in comparison with summer months. For respiration rate of fir fine roots we found its strong positive correlation with the litter temperature.

  1. DRP1-Dependent Endocytosis is Essential for Polar Localization and Boron-Induced Degradation of the Borate Transporter BOR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Akira; Fujimoto, Masaru; Ueda, Takashi; Inada, Noriko; Naito, Satoshi; Takano, Junpei

    2016-09-01

    Boron (B) is essential for plants but toxic in excess. The borate efflux transporter BOR1 is expressed in various root cells and localized to the inner/stele-side domain of the plasma membrane (PM) under low-B conditions. BOR1 is rapidly degraded through endocytosis upon sufficient B supply. The polar localization and degradation of BOR1 are considered important for efficient B translocation and avoidance of B toxicity, respectively. In this study, we first analyzed the subcellular localization of BOR1 in roots, cotyledons and hypocotyls, and revealed a polar localization in various cell types. We also found that the inner polarity of BOR1 is established after completion of cytokinesis in the root meristem. Moreover, variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy visualized BOR1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) as particles in the PM with significant lateral movements but in restricted areas. Importantly, a portion of BOR1-GFP particles co-localized with DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN 1A (DRP1A), which is involved in scission of the clathrin-coated vesicles, and they disappeared together from the PM. To examine the contribution of DRP1A-mediated endocytosis to BOR1 localization and degradation, we developed an inducible expression system of the DRP1A K47A variant. The DRP1A variant prolonged the residence time of clathrin on the PM and inhibited endocytosis of membrane lipids. The dominant-negative DRP1A blocked endocytosis of BOR1 and disturbed its polar localization and B-induced degradation. Our results provided insight into the endocytic mechanisms that modulate the subcellular localization and abundance of a mineral transporter for nutrient homeostasis in plant cells. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Analysis of AtGUS1 and AtGUS2 in Arabidopsis root apex by a highly sensitive TSA-MISH method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Leonardo; Ronchini, Matteo; Gagliardi, Olimpia; Corinti, Tamara; Chiappetta, Adriana; Gerola, Paolo; Bitonti, Maria B

    2015-01-01

    A new highly sensitive whole-mount in situ hybridization method, based on tyramide signal amplification (TSA-MISH) was developed and a combined GFP detection and TSA-MISH procedure was applied for the first time in plants, to precisely define the spatial pattern of AtGUS1 and AtGUS2 expression in the root apex. β-glucuronidases (GUSs) belonging to the glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) 79 family, are widely distributed in plants, but their functional role has not yet been fully investigated. In the model system Arabidopsis Thaliana, three different AtGUS genes have been identified which encode proteins with putative different fates. Endogenous GUS expression has been detected in different organs and tissues, but the cyto-histological domains of gene expression remain unclear. The results here reported show co-expression of AtGUS1 and AtGUS2 in different functional zones of the root apex (the cap central zone, the root cap meristem, the staminal cell niche and the cortical cell layers of the proximal meristem), while AtGUS2 is exclusively expressed in the cap peripheral layer and in the epidermis in the elongation zone. Interestingly, both genes are not expressed in the stelar portion of the proximal meristem. A spatial (cortex vs. stele) and temporal (proximal meristem vs. transition zone) regulation of AtGUS1 and AtGUS2 expression is therefore active in the root apex. This expression pattern, although globally consistent with the involvement of GUS activity in both cell proliferation and elongation, clearly indicates that AtGUS1 and AtGUS2 could control distinct downstream process depending on the developmental context and the interaction with other players of root growth control. In the future, the newly developed approaches may well be very useful to dissect such interactions.

  3. Sul sostrato tirrenico nell’area egeo-anatolica

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    Claudio de Palma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The progress of studies on the Tyrrhenian substratum in the Mediterranean and the recent decipherment of the Kaminia stele and other epygraphical monuments from the Aegean area, all written in ‘tyrrhenic’, that is a language which appears to be a very archaic form of Etruscan, seems to lead to the conclusion that Herodotus’ theory of an oriental origin of the Etruscans has an undoubtedly sound basis in historical facts. Such facts come now to light chiefly due to the information we get from the texts of the Lemnos documents, of which the writer has offered translations in his recent publications, during the last six years. The historical consequences may be summarized as follows: a the island was inhabited by Tyrrhenians in the 8th, 7th and 6th centuries, but probably already long before that, judging from the archaeological evidence; b a Tyrrhenian substratum was present in the Anatolian-Aegean area already before the arrival of the first Indoeuropean tribes: Depending upon the acceptance of one or the other theory maintained by scholars in the field, this may mean anywhere between the 13th and the 3rd millennium Another relevant hypothesis is maintained by the eminent Spanish linguist, F. R. Adrados. On purely linguistic basis he judges tyrrhenic to be a very primitive anatolian indoeuropean language. Its formation is attributed to such a remote antiquity, much older than the first nesic texts, to justify its many discrepancies respect to these texts. The second part of this work is dedicated to the ethnic of the Pelasgians, with the conclusion that they were a people distinct from the Tyrrhenians, probably belonging to the indo-european family of languages, but in the course of time largely amalgamated with them, to a point to form a koiné which appeared to strangers as expression of a unique population.

  4. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

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    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  5. Effects of the inoculation of Burkholderia vietnamensis and related endophytic diazotrophic bacteria on grain yield of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Munusamy; Balandreau, Jacques; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Lakshminarasimhan, Cunthipuram

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria associated with different rice varieties in Tamilnadu, some "endophytes" were obtained. Thirteen bacterial isolates from surface-sterilized roots and shoots were obtained in pure culture, which produced indole acetic acid (IAA) and reduced acetylene to ethylene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification confirmed the presence of nif-H gene in all the isolates. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular characteristics indicated that all of them belonged to the genus Burkholderia One of them, MGK3, was consistently more active in reducing acetylene, and 16S rDNA sequences of isolate MGK3 confirmed its identification as Burkholderia vietnamiensis. Colonization of rice root was confirmed by strain MGK3 marked with gusA gene. The inoculated roots showed a blue color, which was most intense at the points of lateral root emergence and at the root tip. Transverse sections of roots, 15 days after inoculation, revealed beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity within many of the cortical intercellular spaces next to the stele and within the aerenchyma. Nitrogen fixation was quantified by using (15)N isotope dilution method with two different cultivars grown in pot and field experiments. Higher nitrogen fixation was observed in variety Ponni than in ADT-43, where nearly 42% (field) and 40% (pot) of the nitrogen was derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa). Isolate MGK3 was used to inoculate rice seedlings in a comparison with four other diazotrophs, viz., Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus LMG7603, Herbaspirillum seropedicae LMG6513, Azospirillum lipoferum 4B LMG4348, and B. vietnamiensis LMG10929. They were used to conduct two pot and four field inoculation experiments. MGK3 alone, and combined with other diazotrophs, performed best under both pot and field conditions: combined inoculation produced yield increases between 9.5 and 23.6%, while MGK3 alone increased yield by 5.6 to 12.16% over the uninoculated control treatment.

  6. Las representaciones de alabardas en los grabados rupestres gallegos

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    Antonio de la PEÑA SANTOS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se estudian en este trabajo las representaciones de alabardas localizadas hasta el presente en los grabados rupestres gallegos de la Edad del Bronce. El autor comienza analizando la diferente tipología de las alabardas de la Península Ibérica, pasando luego a describir los seis complejos de arte rupestre (Castriño de Conxo, Primadorno I, Xan de Deus, Montecelo, Laxe da Chan y Poza da Lagoa en los que se han localizado representaciones de este tipo de arma; a continuación describe diferentes paralelos en las estelas portuguesas y en los grabados rupestres alpinos y norteafricanos, para finalizar estableciendo los caracteres tipológicos de las alabardas representadas en los grabados rupesttes gallegos, clasifincado las más claras como ejemplares del tipo Carrapatas o Nortportugués, característico de la Primera Edad del Bronce y con evidentes relaciones con las Islas Británicas.ABSTRACT: In this work are studied the representations of halberds localized until now in the Galicia's rock carvings of the Bronze-age. The author begins by analyzing the different typology of the halberds of the Ibetic Peninsula; he passes later to describe the six main complexes of prehistoric art (Castriño de Conxo, Primadorno L, Xan de Deus, Montecelo, Laxe da Chan and Poza da Lagoa where has been localized representations of that kind of weapon; later on, he describes the différents parallels with the steles of Portugal and with the rock carvings of the Alps and north Africa, and he finishs by describing the typological characters of the halberds represented in the Galicia's rock carvings, and he classified the ones perfect as examples of the type «Carrapatas» or «Nortportugués», that is characteristic of the early bronze-age and it has great relations with the Btitish Isles.

  7. The Na+ transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na+ accumulation in bread wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan

    2014-10-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na+-selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na+ concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na+ from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na+ from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na+ exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  8. The Na+ transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na+ accumulation in bread wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan; Xu, Bo; Krishnan, Mahima; Lightfoot, Damien; Athman, Asmini; Jacobs, Andrew Keith; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S.; Plett, Darren; Munns, Rana; Tester, Mark A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na+-selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na+ concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na+ from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na+ from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na+ exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  9. La estela de la confusión : CIL II 6338v y los fantasmas

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    Ana Mª Vázquez Hoys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos aquí la estela funeraria CIL II 6338v de Peña Amaya, en tres partes: en primer lugar examinando la inscripción y las variadas lecturas que de ella se han realizado, así como las líneas falsas de investigación o «fantasma» generadas por algunas de dichas lecturas; en segundo lugar qué significa en ella la fórmula ex visu y qué otras inscripciones se conocen en Hispania con esta fórmula; y finalmente, en tercer lugar, de qué clase de fantasma se trata, el posible carácter apotropaico de la figura representada por el posible fascinum con que se le representa, y el rito de la incubatio por el que parece haber sido convocado, terminando con unas conclusiones sobre los fantasmas y la inmortalidad del amor y las obras humanas. Los objetivos últimos son, resaltar la pervivencia de ritos de necromancia e incubatio en el siglo III d. C. en el occidente de Hispania, la coincidencia de este caso puntual de «ayuda fantasmal» a un familiar, con algún ejemplo citado por las fuentes clásicas, así como la utilización del fascinum en dicha figura, representa. Asimismo, recordar el papel de un fantasma en el comienzo de la línea literaria de la inmortalidad del amor.We discuss here the funerary stele CIL II 6338v of Peña Amaya, Burgos (Conventus Cluniensis, Hispania Citerior, bringing together numerous interpretations of the Latin inscription on the monument, dedicated by a widow to her husband, whose shadow or ghost visited her in her sleep as indicated by the formula ex visu. Also, the possible apotropaic meaning of the figure of the deceased.

  10. Mimmo Paladino: every realization is imperfection

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    Marta Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a site-specific work made by Mimmo Paladino for the piazza Santa Croce in Florence in 2012 stands as an important testimony to a possible relationship between urban space and sacred symbols. The installation, commissioned by the International Biennal of Cultural and Landscape Heritage of Florence, is a monumental work: a giant cross made by arranging huge blocks of marble in front of the magnificent Franciscan cathedral of Florence. With this urban installation Mimmo Paladino faces once again the limit and the possibility of communication through symbols and images in contemporary art, exploring the vitality of figurative archetypes, including Christian ones. “The stones” - says the artist - “come from Carrara as they were dug out. Some will carry engravings and signs, others will become a sort of base for three metal sculptures: acircle and a star, that is two of the mazzocchi studied by Paolo Uccello, and an anthropomorphic stele that arises in dialogue with the statue of Dante. The passer-by cannot take in with a glance the form in its entirety: to discover it he will have to approach it and pass through it”. It’s an archaic work that changes the perception of the square: it suggests and requires new perspectives, it balances the space inviting the viewer to take action and to experience a new urban place, recreating a Renaissance cantiere. The symbol of the cross, in the artist’s poetic vision, is an ancient sign with an “orthodox” meaning. It’s the cross of Jesus, it’s an ancient and modern sign that rewrites and generates a new public space, like a square: a place of civil life.

  11. ROOT ANATOMICAL PLASTICITY IN RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS UNDER REAL AND FULL-SEASON FIELD CONDITIONS AND DETERMINATION OF NEW ANATOMIC SELECTION CHARACTERS FOR BREEDING SALT-RESISTANT RICE (Oryza sativa L.

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    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific understanding of root anatomy plasticity under salt stress is lacking and requires creation of efficient screening techniques for stress condition s. To fill this gap, this study aimed to determine the anatomical plasticity in root chracteristics of 31 different rice cultivars (from ‘Best’ to ‘Low’ yielding grown under real field conditions (saline and non-saline from planting to harvesting and to reveal detailed root anatomical parameters that can be used to select and breed salt-tolerant rice. Anatomical and histochemical features of all cultivars and thin structures of the apoplastic barriers were investigated. The amount of silica (Si, 35 different anatomical characteristics, anatomical plasticity characteristics, plasticity rates, plasticity trends and changes and strategies of each group under saline and non-saline conditions were compared. The results showed that protective anatomical characters improved/remained equal to, and worsened/remained equal to those of the controls, in the ‘Best’ and other groups, respectively, from non-saline to saline conditions. Anatomical plasticity is essentially directly related to apoplastic barrier features. High genotypic variation was observed in root anatomy in all cultivars, but foremost traits were as follows: (1 cell size, (2 Si presence, (3 Si accumulation shape, (4 Si distribution towards root stele, (5 xylem arch features, (6 lignification-suberization properties in apoplastic barriers and their degrees, (7 presence/absence of idioblast cells filled with gummic and phenolic substances and (8 moderate anatomical plasticity. Cultivars with the most stabile anatomy under saline and non-saline conditions should be used to select and breed salt-resistant rice.

  12. Assessing the utility of photoswitchable fluorescent proteins for tracking intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root.

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    Shuang Wu

    Full Text Available One way in which cells communicate is through the direct transfer of proteins. In plants, many of these proteins are transcription factors, which are made by one cell type and traffic into another. In order to understand how this movement occurs and its role in development, we would like to track this movement in live, intact plants in real-time. Here we examine the utility of the photoconvertible proteins, Dendra2 and (to a lesser extent EosFP as tags for studying intracellular and intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root. To this end, we made fusions between Dendra2 and six mobile transcription factors. Our results show that Dendra2 is an effective tool for studying protein movement between plant cells. Interestingly, we found that Dendra2 could not simply be swapped into existing constructs that had originally contained GFP. Most of the fusions made in this way failed to produce a fluorescent fusion. In addition we found that the optimal settings for photoconversion of Dendra2 in stably transformed roots were different from what has been published for photoconversion in transient assays in plants or in animal cells. By modifying the confocal setting, we were able to photoconvert Dendra2 in all cell layers in the root. However the efficiency of photoconversion was affected by the position of the cell layer within the root, with more internal tissues requiring more energy. By examining the Dendra2 fusions, we confirmed the mobility of the SHORT-ROOT (SHR and CAPRICE (CPC transcription factors between cells and we further discovered that SHR movement in stele and CPC movement in the epidermis are non-directional.

  13. Waste materials derived bio-effectors used as growth promoters for strawberry plants. An agronomic and metabolomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Brankica; Chami, Ziad Al; De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a novel concept of bio-effectors has emerged to describe a group of products that are able to improve plant performance more than fertilizers. In this study, three different agro-industrial residues, i.e. brewers' spent grain (BSG), fennel processing residues (FPR) and lemon processing residues (LPR) were chosen as potential bio-effectors. A greenhouse soilless pot experiment was conducted on strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa var. Festival) in order to study the effect of BSG, FPR and LPR water extracts, at different concentrations, on plant growth and fruit quality. Their effect was compared with humic-like substances as a positive/reference control (Ctrl+) and with Hoagland solution as a negative control (Ctrl-). Agronomic parameters and the nutrient uptake were measured on shoots, roots and fruits. Metabolomic profiling tests were carried out on leaves, roots and fruit juices through the NMR technique. Plants treated with the FPR extract showed better vegetative growth, while plants treated with the BSG extract gave higher yield and better fruit size. Metabolomic profiling showed that fruits and roots of plants treated with FPR and LPR extracts had higher concentrations of sucrose, malate and acetate, while BSG treated plants had higher concentrations of citrate and β-glucose. In conclusion, according to the results achieved, the bio-effectors used in this study promote plant growth and fruit quality regardless of their nutritional content. Keywords: bio-effectors, agro-industrial waste, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), strawberry, growth promotion, fruit quality.

  14. Determination of free amino acids and 18 elements in freeze-dried strawberry and blueberry fruit using an Amino Acid Analyzer and ICP-MS with micro-wave digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Hai-Tian; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Dong, Ai-Jun; Jing, Jing; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the level of 18 trace elements of two freeze-dried samples from the Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and the Strawberry (Fragaria × Ananassa). The total free amino acid composition in the blueberry and strawberry was determined by an Amino Acid Analyzer. Eleven free amino acids were found in both berries. The trace elements in each dried fruit sample were determined by ICP-MS with microwave digestion. The linearity range of the standard curves was 0-1250.0 μg L(-1) (Mg, P, K, Ca),while in all cases, except for B, Na, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Pb, Ge and As, which was 125.0 μg mL(-1), all related coefficients were above 0.9999; recovery was in the range of 79.0-106.8%. Minor concentrations of nutritional elements were found in each freeze-dried berry. In sum, the toxic trace element analysis found the content of toxic trace elements in each freeze-dried berry sample was safe for human consumption and that the overall quality of the blueberry surpassed that of the strawberry. The results certify that the two freeze-dried berries have potential for human consumption in value-added products and have a certain theoretical and practical significance. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Presence of the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, on strawberry in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cédola, Claudia; Grecob, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal abundance of the strawberry aphid complex under different agronomic practices in the outskirts of La Plata, Argentina was studied on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Aphid densities were low in strawberry fields in which insecticides and fungicides were used. In addition to Aphis gossypii, Aphis fabae, Mysus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was recorded for the first time in this horticultural area. Life history and some demographic parameters were calculated for C. fragaefolii. The mean duration of nymphal stages was 10.44 days, the oviposition period was 11.8 days, and the mean number of nymph/female/day was 2.4 +/- 0.3. Demographic parameters analyzed included the net reproductive rate R(o) = 14.55 +/- 0.096 nymph/female, generation time T=16.91 +/- 0.035 days, and the intrinsic rate of increase r(m) = 0.158 +/- (0.004). No parasites were found associated with C. fragaefolli. The pathogenic fungus, Entomophthora planchoniana Cornu (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) was the main mortality factor. Although aphids are not the main pests in strawberry fields, C. fragaefolii can be a serious problem because it can transmit several virus diseases of strawberry. Greater knowledge of life history traits and mortality factors of this species is needed in order to design appropriate control strategies.

  16. Genome-wide SNP identification by high-throughput sequencing and selective mapping allows sequence assembly positioning using a framework genetic linkage map

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    Xu Xiangming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the position and order of contigs and scaffolds from a genome assembly within an organism's genome remains a technical challenge in a majority of sequencing projects. In order to exploit contemporary technologies for DNA sequencing, we developed a strategy for whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism sequencing allowing the positioning of sequence contigs onto a linkage map using the bin mapping method. Results The strategy was tested on a draft genome of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab, and further validated using sequence contigs derived from the diploid plant genome Fragaria vesca. Using our novel method we were able to anchor 70% and 92% of sequences assemblies for V. inaequalis and F. vesca, respectively, to genetic linkage maps. Conclusions We demonstrated the utility of this approach by accurately determining the bin map positions of the majority of the large sequence contigs from each genome sequence and validated our method by mapping single sequence repeat markers derived from sequence contigs on a full mapping population.

  17. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family.

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    Michele Perazzolli

    Full Text Available The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80% of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15, and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera.

  18. Polyphenolic glycoconjugates from medical plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family protect human lymphocytes against γ-radiation-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szejk, Magdalena; Poplawski, Tomasz; Sarnik, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Czechowski, Franciszek; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia; Gancarz, Roman; Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Radioprotective effects of the water-soluble polyphenolic glycoconjugates, isolated from flowers of Sanguisorba officinalis L.(SO) and Erigeron canadensis L.(EC), and from leaves of Fragaria vesca L. (FV) and Rubus plicatus Whe. Et N. E. (RP), against γ-radiation-induced toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. Cell treatment with glycoconjugates (1, 5 and 25μg/mL) prior exposure to 10/15Gy radiation resulted in concentration-dependent reduction of DNA damage including oxidative DNA lesions (comet assay), substantial inhibition of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and restoration of superoxide dismutase and S-glutathione transferase activities. Glycoconjugates isolated from SO and EC ensured better protection versus these from RP and FV, with the SO product potential comparable to that of the reference quercetin. Strong antioxidant/radioprotective activity of the SO and EC glycoconjugates could be attributed to high abundance of syringol-type and ferulic acid units in their matrices, respectively. Moreover, polyphenolic glycoconjugates (25μg/mL), including RP and FV products, significantly decreased DNA damage when applied post-radiation suggesting their modulating effects on DNA repair pathways. Preliminary data on the glycoconjugate phenolic structural units, based on GLC/MS of the products of pyrolysis and in situ methylation, in relation to application of plant products as potential radioprotectors is promising and deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Divergence of the bZIP Gene Family in Strawberry, Peach, and Apple Suggests Multiple Modes of Gene Evolution after Duplication

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    Xiao-Long Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic leucine zipper (bZIP transcription factors are the most diverse members of dimerizing transcription factors. In the present study, 50, 116, and 47 bZIP genes were identified in Malus domestica (apple, Prunus persica (peach, and Fragaria vesca (strawberry, respectively. Species-specific duplication was the main contributor to the large number of bZIPs observed in apple. After WGD in apple genome, orthologous bZIP genes corresponding to strawberry on duplicated regions in apple genome were retained. However, in peach ancestor, these syntenic regions were quickly lost or deleted. Maybe the positive selection contributed to the expansion of clade S to adapt to the development and environment stresses. In addition, purifying selection was mainly responsible for bZIP sequence-specific DNA binding. The analysis of orthologous pairs between chromosomes indicates that these orthologs derived from one gene duplication located on one of the nine ancient chromosomes in the Rosaceae. The comparative analysis of bZIP genes in three species provides information on the evolutionary fate of bZIP genes in apple and peach after they diverged from strawberry.

  20. Multiple models for Rosaceae genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaev, Vladimir; Korban, Schuyler S; Sosinski, Bryon; Abbott, Albert G; Aldwinckle, Herb S; Folta, Kevin M; Iezzoni, Amy; Main, Dorrie; Arús, Pere; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Lewers, Kim; Brown, Susan K; Davis, Thomas M; Gardiner, Susan E; Potter, Daniel; Veilleux, Richard E

    2008-07-01

    The plant family Rosaceae consists of over 100 genera and 3,000 species that include many important fruit, nut, ornamental, and wood crops. Members of this family provide high-value nutritional foods and contribute desirable aesthetic and industrial products. Most rosaceous crops have been enhanced by human intervention through sexual hybridization, asexual propagation, and genetic improvement since ancient times, 4,000 to 5,000 B.C. Modern breeding programs have contributed to the selection and release of numerous cultivars having significant economic impact on the U.S. and world markets. In recent years, the Rosaceae community, both in the United States and internationally, has benefited from newfound organization and collaboration that have hastened progress in developing genetic and genomic resources for representative crops such as apple (Malus spp.), peach (Prunus spp.), and strawberry (Fragaria spp.). These resources, including expressed sequence tags, bacterial artificial chromosome libraries, physical and genetic maps, and molecular markers, combined with genetic transformation protocols and bioinformatics tools, have rendered various rosaceous crops highly amenable to comparative and functional genomics studies. This report serves as a synopsis of the resources and initiatives of the Rosaceae community, recent developments in Rosaceae genomics, and plans to apply newly accumulated knowledge and resources toward breeding and crop improvement.

  1. Characterization of the lipoxygenase (LOX) gene family in the Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) and comparison with other members of the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Li, Leiting; Dunwell, Jim M; Qiao, Xin; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Shaoling

    2014-06-07

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs), a type of non-haem iron-containing dioxygenase, are ubiquitous enzymes in plants and participate in the formation of fruit aroma which is a very important aspect of fruit quality. Amongst the various aroma volatiles, saturated and unsaturated alcohols and aldehydes provide the characteristic aroma of the fruit. These compounds are formed from unsaturated fatty acids through oxidation, pyrolysis and reduction steps. This biosynthetic pathway involves at least four enzymes, including LOX, the enzyme responsible for lipid oxidation. Although some studies have been conducted on the LOX gene family in several species including Arabidopsis, soybean, cucumber and apple, there is no information from pear; and the evolutionary history of this gene family in the Rosaceae is still not resolved. In this study we identified 107 LOX homologous genes from five Rosaceous species (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus × domestica, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume and Prunus persica); 23 of these sequences were from pear. By using structure analysis, phylogenic analysis and collinearity analysis, we identified variation in gene structure and revealed the phylogenetic evolutionary relationship of this gene family. Expression of certain pear LOX genes during fruit development was verified by analysis of transcriptome data. 23 LOX genes were identified in pear and these genes were found to have undergone a duplication 30-45 MYA; most of these 23 genes are functional. Specific gene duplication was found on chromosome4 in the pear genome. Useful information was provided for future research on the evolutionary history and transgenic research on LOX genes.

  2. Using RNA-Seq to assemble a rose transcriptome with more than 13,000 full-length expressed genes and to develop the WagRhSNP 68k Axiom SNP array for rose (Rosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole F S Koning-Boucoiran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a versatile and large SNP array for rose, we set out to mine ESTs from diverse sets of rose germplasm. For this RNA-Seq libraries containing about 700 million reads were generated from tetraploid cut and garden roses using Illumina paired-end sequencing, and from diploid Rosa multiflora using 454 sequencing. Separate de novo assemblies were performed in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within and between rose varieties. SNPs among tetraploid roses were selected for constructing a genotyping array that can be employed for genetic mapping and marker-trait association discovery in breeding programs based on tetraploid germplasm, both from cut roses and from garden roses. In total 68,893 SNPs were included on the WagRhSNP Axiom array.Next, an orthology-guided assembly was performed for the construction of a non-redundant rose transcriptome database. A total of 21,740 transcripts had significant hits with orthologous genes in the strawberry (Fragaria vesca L. genome. Of these 13,390 appeared to contain the full-length coding regions. This newly established transcriptome resource adds considerably to the currently available sequence resources for the Rosaceae family in general and the genus Rosa in particular.

  3. Genome-wide identification and characterization of R2R3MYB family in Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Máximo; Carrasco, Basilio; Salazar, Erika

    2016-09-01

    Transcription factors R2R3MYB family have been associated with the control of secondary metabolites, development of structures, cold tolerance and response to biotic and abiotic stress, among others. In recent years, genomes of Rosaceae botanical family are available. Although this information has been used to study the karyotype evolution of these species from an ancestral genome, there are no studies that treat the evolution and diversity of gene families present in these species or in the botanical family. Here we present the first comparative study of the R2R3MYB subfamily of transcription factors in three species of Rosaceae family (Malus domestica, Prunus persica and Fragaria vesca). We described 186, 98 and 86 non-redundant gene models for apple, peach and strawberry, respectively. In this research, we analyzed the intron-exon structure and genomic distribution of R2R3MYB families mentioned above. The phylogenetic comparisons revealed putative functions of some R2R3MYB transcription factors. This analysis found 44 functional subgroups, seven of which were unique for Rosaceae. In addition, our results showed a highly collinearity among some genes revealing the existence of conserved gene models between the three species studied. Although some gene models in these species have been validated under several approaches, more research in the Rosaceae family is necessary to determine gene expression patterns in specific tissues and development stages to facilitate understanding of the regulatory and biochemical mechanism in this botanical family.

  4. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species.

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    Riccardo Baroncelli

    Full Text Available Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l. is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production.

  5. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of the cation proton antiporters family in pear and four other Rosaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongsheng; Qi, Kaijie; Liu, Xing; Yin, Hao; Wang, Peng; Chen, Jianqing; Wu, Juyou; Zhang, Shaoling

    2016-08-01

    The monovalent cation proton antiporters (CPAs) play essential roles in plant nutrition, development, and signal transduction by regulating ion and pH homeostasis of the cell. The CPAs of plants include the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, K(+) efflux antiporter, and cation/H(+) exchanger families. However, currently, little is known about the CPA genes in Rosaceae species. In this study, 220 CPA genes were identified from five Rosaceae species (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus domestica, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, and Prunus mume), and 53 of which came from P. bretschneideri. Phylogenetic, structure, collinearity, and gene expression analyses were conducted on the entire CPA genes of pear. Gene expression data showed that 35 and 37 CPA genes were expressed in pear fruit and pollen tubes, respectively. The transcript analysis of some CPA genes under abiotic stress conditions revealed that CPAs may play an important role in pollen tubes growth. The results presented here will be useful in improving understanding of the complexity of the CPA gene family and will promote functional characterization in future studies.

  6. Genotyping-by-sequencing in an orphan plant species Physocarpus opulifolius helps identify the evolutionary origins of the genus Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, Matteo; Sargent, Daniel J; Mhelembe, Khethani G; Delfino, Pietro; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Velasco, Riccardo

    2016-05-11

    The Rosaceae family encompasses numerous genera exhibiting morphological diversification in fruit types and plant habit as well as a wide variety of chromosome numbers. Comparative genomics between various Rosaceous genera has led to the hypothesis that the ancestral genome of the family contained nine chromosomes, however, the synteny studies performed in the Rosaceae to date encompass species with base chromosome numbers x = 7 (Fragaria), x = 8 (Prunus), and x = 17 (Malus), and no study has included species from one of the many Rosaceous genera containing a base chromosome number of x = 9. A genetic linkage map of the species Physocarpus opulifolius (x = 9) was populated with sequence characterised SNP markers using genotyping by sequencing. This allowed for the first time, the extent of the genome diversification of a Rosaceous genus with a base chromosome number of x = 9 to be performed. Orthologous loci distributed throughout the nine chromosomes of Physocarpus and the eight chromosomes of Prunus were identified which permitted a meaningful comparison of the genomes of these two genera to be made. The study revealed a high level of macro-synteny between the two genomes, and relatively few chromosomal rearrangements, as has been observed in studies of other Rosaceous genomes, lending further support for a relatively simple model of genomic evolution in Rosaceae.

  7. Transient transformation meets gene function discovery: the strawberry fruit case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela eGuidarelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Beside the well known nutritional and health benefits, strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa crop draws increasing attention as plant model system for the Rosaceae family, due to the short generation time, the rapid in vitro regeneration, and to the availability of the genome sequence of F. X ananassa and of the closely related F. vesca species. In the last years, the use of high-throughput sequence technologies provided large amounts of molecular information on the genes possibly related to several biological processes of this crop. Nevertheless, the function of most genes or gene products is still poorly understood and needs investigation. Transient transformation technology provides a powerful tool to study gene function in vivo, avoiding difficult drawbacks that typically affect the stable transformation protocols, such as transformation efficiency, transformants selection and regeneration. In this review we provide an overview of the use of transient expression in the investigation of the function of genes important for strawberry fruit development, defence and nutritional properties. The technical aspects related to an efficient use of this technique are described, and the possible impact and application in strawberry crop improvement are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of predatory mites and Acramite for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries in north central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E

    2006-08-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of two predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, Acramite 50 WP (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). In greenhouse tests, three treatments consisting of releases of P. persimilis, N. californicus, and an untreated control were evaluated. Both species of predatory mites significantly reduced twospotted spider mite numbers below those found in the control during the first 3 wk of evaluation. However, during week 4, twospotted spider mite numbers on the plants treated with P. persimilis increased and did not differ significantly from the control. Field studies used releases of P. persimilis and N. californicus, applications of Acramite, and untreated control plots. Both N. californicus and P. persimilis significantly reduced populations of twospotted spider mite below numbers recorded in the control plots. During the 2003-2004 field season P. persimilis took longer than N. californicus to bring the twospotted spider mite population under control (< 10 mites per leaflet). Acramite was effective in reducing twospotted spider mite populations below 10 mites per leaflet during the 2003-2004 field season but not during the 2004-2005 field season, possibly because of a late application. These findings indicate that N. californicus releases and properly timed Acramite applications are promising options for twospotted spider mite control in strawberries for growers in north Florida and other areas of the southeast.

  9. Cytoprotective Mechanisms Mediated by Polyphenols from Chilean Native Berries against Free Radical-Induced Damage on AGS Cells

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    Felipe Ávila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of cytoprotective mechanisms induced by polyphenols such as activation of intracellular antioxidant responses (ICM and direct free radical scavenging was investigated in native Chilean species of strawberries, raspberries, and currants. Human gastric epithelial cells were co- and preincubated with polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs from Chilean raspberries (Rubus geoides, strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f. chiloensis, and currants (Ribes magellanicum and challenged with peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Cellular protection was determined in terms of cell viability, glyoxalase I and glutathione s-transferases activities, and carboxymethyl lysine (CML and malondialdehyde levels. Our results indicate that cytoprotection induced by ICM was the prevalent mechanism for Rubus geoides and F. chiloensis. This agreed with increased levels of glyoxalase I and glutathione S-transferase activities in cells preincubated with PEEs. ORAC index indicated that F. chiloensis was the most efficient peroxyl radical scavenger. Moreover, ICM mediated by F. chiloensis was effective in protecting cells from CML accumulation in contrast to the protective effects induced by free radical scavenging. Our results indicate that although both polyphenol-mediated mechanisms can exert protective effects, ICM was the most prevalent in AGS cells. These results suggest a potential use of these native berries as functional food.

  10. Cytoprotective Mechanisms Mediated by Polyphenols from Chilean Native Berries against Free Radical-Induced Damage on AGS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Dorta, Eva; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of cytoprotective mechanisms induced by polyphenols such as activation of intracellular antioxidant responses (ICM) and direct free radical scavenging was investigated in native Chilean species of strawberries, raspberries, and currants. Human gastric epithelial cells were co- and preincubated with polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) from Chilean raspberries ( Rubus geoides ), strawberries ( Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f . chiloensis ), and currants ( Ribes magellanicum ) and challenged with peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Cellular protection was determined in terms of cell viability, glyoxalase I and glutathione s-transferases activities, and carboxymethyl lysine (CML) and malondialdehyde levels. Our results indicate that cytoprotection induced by ICM was the prevalent mechanism for Rubus geoides and F. chiloensis . This agreed with increased levels of glyoxalase I and glutathione S-transferase activities in cells preincubated with PEEs. ORAC index indicated that F. chiloensis was the most efficient peroxyl radical scavenger. Moreover, ICM mediated by F. chiloensis was effective in protecting cells from CML accumulation in contrast to the protective effects induced by free radical scavenging. Our results indicate that although both polyphenol-mediated mechanisms can exert protective effects, ICM was the most prevalent in AGS cells. These results suggest a potential use of these native berries as functional food.

  11. Optimisation of trans-cinnamic acid and hydrocinnamyl alcohol production with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of cinnamyl methyl ketone as a by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Manuela; Grün, Peter; Bode, Helge B; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried; Oreb, Mislav; Boles, Eckhard

    2017-12-01

    Trans-cinnamic acid (tCA) and hydrocinnamyl alcohol (HcinOH) are valuable aromatic compounds with applications in the flavour, fragrance and cosmetic industry. They can be produced with recombinant yeasts from sugars via phenylalanine after expression of a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and an aryl carboxylic acid reductase. Here, we show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae a PAL enzyme from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens was superior to a previously used plant PAL enzyme for the production of tCA. Moreover, after expression of a UDP-glucose:cinnamate glucosyltransferase (FaGT2) from Fragaria x ananassa, tCA could be converted to cinnamoyl-D-glucose which is expected to be less toxic to the yeast cells. Production of tCA and HcinOH from glucose could be increased by eliminating feedback-regulated steps of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and diminishing the decarboxylation step of the competing Ehrlich pathway. Finally, an unknown by-product resulting from further metabolisation of a carboligation product of cinnamaldehyde (cinALD) with activated acetaldehyde, mediated by pyruvate decarboxylases, could be identified as cinnamyl methyl ketone providing a new route for the biosynthesis of precursors, such as (2S,3R) 5-phenylpent-4-ene-2,3-diol, necessary for the chemical synthesis of specific biologically active drugs such as daunomycin. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Isolation, Characterization, and Genetic Diversity of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on Various Plants

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    DIANA ELIZABETH WATURANGI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ice nucleation active (INA bacteria is a group of bacteria with the ability to catalyze the ice formation at temperature above -10 °C and causing frost injury in plants. Since, most of the literature on INA bacteria were from subtropical area, studies of INA bacteria from tropical area are needed. We sampled eight fruits and 36 leaves of 21 plant species, and then identified through biochemical and genetic analysis. INA bacteria were characterized for INA protein classification, pH stability, and optimization of heat endurance. We discovered 15 INA bacteria from seven plants species. Most of bacteria are oxidase and H2S negative, catalase and citrate positive, gram negative, and cocoid formed. These INA bacteria were classified in to three classes based on their freezing temperature. Most of the isolates were active in heat and pH stability assay. Some isolates were analysed for 16S rRNA gene. We observed that isolates from Morinda citrifolia shared 97% similiarity with Pseudomonas sp. Isolate from Piper betle shared 93% similarity with P. pseudoalcaligenes. Isolate from Carica papaya shared 94% similarity with Pseudomonas sp. While isolate from Fragaria vesca shared 90% similarity with Sphingomonas sp.

  13. Isolation, Characterization, and Genetic Diversity of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on Various Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA ELIZABETH WATURANGI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ice nucleation active (INA bacteria is a group of bacteria with the ability to catalyze the ice formation at temperature above -10 oC and causing frost injury in plants. Since, most of the literature on INA bacteria were from subtropical area, studies of INA bacteria from tropical area are needed. We sampled eight fruits and 36 leaves of 21 plant species, and then identified through biochemical and genetic analysis. INA bacteria were characterized for INA protein classification, pH stability, and optimization of heat endurance. We discovered 15 INA bacteria from seven plants species. Most of bacteria are oxidase and H2S negative, catalase and citrate positive, gram negative, and cocoid formed. These INA bacteria were classified in to three classes based on their freezing temperature. Most of the isolates were active in heat and pH stability assay. Some isolates were analysed for 16S rRNA gene. We observed that isolates from Morinda citrifolia shared 97% similiarity with Pseudomonas sp. Isolate from Piper betle shared 93% similarity with P. pseudoalcaligenes. Isolate from Carica papaya shared 94% similarity with Pseudomonas sp. While isolate from Fragaria vesca shared 90% similarity with Sphingomonas sp.

  14. Using RNA-Seq to assemble a rose transcriptome with more than 13,000 full-length expressed genes and to develop the WagRhSNP 68k Axiom SNP array for rose (Rosa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning-Boucoiran, Carole F S; Esselink, G Danny; Vukosavljev, Mirjana; van 't Westende, Wendy P C; Gitonga, Virginia W; Krens, Frans A; Voorrips, Roeland E; van de Weg, W Eric; Schulz, Dietmar; Debener, Thomas; Maliepaard, Chris; Arens, Paul; Smulders, Marinus J M

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop a versatile and large SNP array for rose, we set out to mine ESTs from diverse sets of rose germplasm. For this RNA-Seq libraries containing about 700 million reads were generated from tetraploid cut and garden roses using Illumina paired-end sequencing, and from diploid Rosa multiflora using 454 sequencing. Separate de novo assemblies were performed in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and between rose varieties. SNPs among tetraploid roses were selected for constructing a genotyping array that can be employed for genetic mapping and marker-trait association discovery in breeding programs based on tetraploid germplasm, both from cut roses and from garden roses. In total 68,893 SNPs were included on the WagRhSNP Axiom array. Next, an orthology-guided assembly was performed for the construction of a non-redundant rose transcriptome database. A total of 21,740 transcripts had significant hits with orthologous genes in the strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) genome. Of these 13,390 appeared to contain the full-length coding regions. This newly established transcriptome resource adds considerably to the currently available sequence resources for the Rosaceae family in general and the genus Rosa in particular.

  15. Evaluation and public acceptance of irradiated strawberries and citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mastro, Nelida L.; Kikuchi, Olivia K.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Sabato, Susy F.; Rela, Paulo R.; Taipina, Magda S.; Mattiolo-Marchse, Sandra R.

    1999-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process that can be applied to food in order to eliminate microorganisms, insects and other plagues as well as delay ripening or spoilage, thus lengthening its shelf life. In Brazil, the technique is only starting to be applied and is restricted to a few tons of dry or dehydrated food ingredients per year. Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) and citrus are usually attacked by various plagues. Both strawberry and citrus are included in the Brazilian legislation for irradiated foods. This work describes the first sensory trials of 2 varieties of strawberries and 3 varieties of citrus irradiated at IPEN. Irradiation was performed in a panoramic Co-60 source with doses ranging between 1.7 and 4 kGy. Untrained groups of panelists judged the quality of irradiated and non-irradiated control fruits. From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that there no significant differences in the characteristical properties of the fruits when they were irradiated with the doses recommended by the legislation. (author)

  16. Populations of Phytophthora rubi Show Little Differentiation and High Rates of Migration Among States in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabima, Javier F; Coffey, Michael D; Zazada, Inga A; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2018-04-11

    Population genetics is a powerful tool to understand patterns and evolutionary processes that are involved in plant-pathogen emergence and adaptation to agricultural ecosystems. We are interested in studying the population dynamics of Phytophthora rubi, the causal agent of Phytophthora root rot in raspberry. P. rubi is found in the western United States, where most of the fresh and processed raspberries are produced. We used genotyping-by-sequencing to characterize genetic diversity in populations of P. rubi sampled in the United States and other countries. Our results confirm that P. rubi is a monophyletic species with complete lineage sorting from its sister taxon P. fragariae. Overall, populations of P. rubi show low genetic diversity across the western United States. Demographic analyses suggest that populations of P. rubi from the western United States are the source of pathogen migration to Europe. We found no evidence for population differentiation at a global or regional (western United States) level. Finally, our results provide evidence of migration from California and Oregon into Washington. This report provides new insights into the evolution and structure of global and western United States populations of the raspberry pathogen P. rubi, indicating that human activity might be involved in moving the pathogen among regions and fields.

  17. Sustained by First Nations: European newcomers' use of Indigenous plant foods in temperate North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Peoples of North America have collectively used approximately 1800 different native species of plants, algae, lichens and fungi as food. When European explorers, traders and settlers arrived on the continent, these native foods, often identified and offered by Indigenous hosts, gave them sustenance and in some cases saved them from starvation. Over the years, some of these species – particularly various types of berries, such as blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp., wild raspberries and blackberries (Rubus spp., and wild strawberries (Fragaria spp., and various types of nuts (Corylus spp., Carya spp., Juglans spp., Pinus spp., along with wild-rice (Zizania spp. and maple syrup (from Acer saccharum – became more widely adopted and remain in use to the present day. Some of these and some other species were used in plant breeding programs, as germplasm for hybridization programs, or to strengthen a crop's resistance to disease. At the same time, many nutritious Indigenous foods fell out of use among Indigenous Peoples themselves, and along with their lessened use came a loss of associated knowledge and cultural identity. Today, for a variety of reasons, from improving people's health and regaining their cultural heritage, to enhancing dietary diversity and enjoyment of diverse foods, some of the species that have dwindled in their use have been “rediscovered” by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Peoples, and indications are that their benefits to humanity will continue into the future.

  18. The memory of iron stress in strawberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Florinda; Saavedra, Teresa; da Silva, José Paulo; Miguel, Maria Graça; de Varennes, Amarilis; Correia, Pedro José; Pestana, Maribela

    2016-07-01

    To provide information towards optimization of strategies to treat Fe deficiency, experiments were conducted to study the responses of Fe-deficient plants to the resupply of Fe. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) was used as model plant. Bare-root transplants of strawberry (cv. 'Diamante') were grown for 42 days in Hoagland's nutrient solutions without Fe (Fe0) and containing 10 μM of Fe as Fe-EDDHA (control, Fe10). For plants under Fe0 the total chlorophyll concentration of young leaves decreased progressively on time, showing the typical symptoms of iron chlorosis. After 35 days the Fe concentration was 6% of that observed for plants growing under Fe10. Half of plants growing under Fe0 were then Fe-resupplied by adding 10 μM of Fe to the Fe0 nutrient solution (FeR). Full Chlorophyll recovery of young leaves took place within 12 days. Root ferric chelate-reductase activity (FCR) and succinic and citric acid concentrations increased in FeR plants. Fe partition revealed that FeR plants expressively accumulated this nutrient in the crown and flowers. This observation can be due to a passive deactivation mechanism of the FCR activity, associated with continuous synthesis of succinic and citric acids at root level, and consequent greater uptake of Fe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. On-site detection of Phytophthora spp.—single-stranded target DNA as the limiting factor to improve on-chip hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenkbier, Lydia; Pollok, Sibyll; Popp, Jürgen; Weber, Karina; König, Stephan; Wagner, Stefan; Werres, Sabine; Weber, Jörg; Hentschel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We report on a lab-on-a-chip approach for on-site detection of Phytophthora species that allows visual signal readout. The results demonstrate the significance of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) generation in terms of improving the intensity of the hybridization signal and to improve the reliability of the method. Conventional PCR with subsequent heat denaturation, sodium hydroxide-based denaturation, lambda exonuclease digestion and two asymmetric PCR methods were investigated for the species P. fragariae, P. kernoviae, and P. ramorum. The positioning of the capture probe within the amplified yeast GTP-binding protein (YPT1) target DNA was also of interest because it significantly influences the intensity of the signal. Statistical tests were used to validate the impact of the ssDNA generation methods and the capture-target probe position. The single-stranded target DNA generated by Linear-After-The-Exponential PCR (LATE-PCR) was found to produce signal intensities comparable to post-PCR exonuclease treatment. The LATE-PCR is the best method for the on-site detection of Phytophthora because the enzymatic digestion after PCR is more laborious and time-consuming. (author)

  20. Successful strategy for the selection of new strawberry-associated rhizobacteria antagonistic to Verticillium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, G; Kurze, S; Buchner, A; Wellington, E M; Smalla, K

    2000-12-01

    In order to isolate and characterize new strawberry-associated bacteria antagonistic to the soil-borne pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., rhizobacterial populations from two different strawberry species, Greenish Strawberry (Fragaria viridis) and Garden Strawberry (F. x ananassa) obtained after plating onto King's B and glycerol-arginine agar, were screened for in vitro antagonism toward V. dahliae. The proportion of isolates with antifungal activity determined in in vitro assay against V. dahliae was higher for the Garden Strawberry than for the Greenish Strawberry. From 300 isolates, 20 isolates with strong antifungal activity were selected characterized by physiological profiling and molecular fingerprinting methods. Diversity among the isolates was characterized with molecular fingerprints using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and the more discriminating BOX-PCR fingerprint method. The physiological profiles were well correlated with molecular fingerprinting pattern analysis. Significant reduction of Verticillium wilt by bacterial dipping bath treatment was shown in the greenhouse and in fields naturally infested by V. dahliae. The relative increase of yield ranged from 117% (Streptomyces albidoflavus S1) to 344% (Pseudomonas fluorescens P10) in greenhouse trials, and 113% (Streptomyces albidoflavus S1) to 247% (Pseudomonas fluorescens P6) in field trials. Evaluation resulted in the selection of three effective biocontrol agents (Pseudomonas fluorescens P6, P10, and Streptomyces diastatochromogenes S9) antagonistic to the Verticillium wilt pathogen.

  1. Characterization of Resistance Gene Analogues (RGAs) in Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and Their Evolutionary History of the Rosaceae Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Angela; Righetti, Laura; Bailey, Aubrey; Fontana, Paolo; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80%) of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15), and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera. PMID:24505246

  2. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzolli, Michele; Malacarne, Giulia; Baldo, Angela; Righetti, Laura; Bailey, Aubrey; Fontana, Paolo; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80%) of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15), and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera.

  3. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  4. Molecular genotyping of Colletotrichum species based on arbitrarily primed PCR, A + T-Rich DNA, and nuclear DNA analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Pham, M.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular genotyping of Colletotrichum species based on arbitrarily primed PCR, A + T-rich DNA, and nuclear DNA analyses. Experimental Mycology 17, 309-322. Isolates of Colletotrichum were grouped into 10 separate species based on arbitrarily primed PCR (ap-PCR), A + T-rich DNA (AT-DNA) and nuclear DNA banding patterns. In general, the grouping of Colletotrichum isolates by these molecular approaches corresponded to that done by classical taxonomic identification, however, some exceptions were observed. PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of the 10 species. HaeIII digestion patterns of AT-DNA also distinguished between species of Colletotrichum by generating species-specific band patterns. In addition, hybridization of the repetitive DNA element (GcpR1) to genomic DNA identified a unique set of Pst 1-digested nuclear DNA fragments in each of the 10 species of Colletotrichum tested. Multiple isolates of C. acutatum, C. coccodes, C. fragariae, C. lindemuthianum, C. magna, C. orbiculare, C. graminicola from maize, and C. graminicola from sorghum showed 86-100% intraspecies similarity based on ap-PCR and AT-DNA analyses. Interspecies similarity determined by ap-PCR and AT-DNA analyses varied between 0 and 33%. Three distinct banding patterns were detected in isolates of C. gloeosporioides from strawberry. Similarly, three different banding patterns were observed among isolates of C. musae from diseased banana.

  5. Effect of hydro-ethanolic extracts of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L. on incidence and severity of Botrytis cinerea on strawberry

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    Pazmiño-Miranda Pilar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of application of three dosages (5, 10 and 15 mL/L and two frequencies (each 6 and 8 days of ethanoic extracts obtained from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L. on incidence and severity of grey mould (Botrytis cinerea on strawberry crop (Fragaria ananassa cv. Albion was evaluated. Experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with factorial arrangement 2 x 3 x 2 + 1, with three replications. Lower incidence and severity percentage in flower and fruit (10.24 and 24.43%, respectively were observed after application of cinnamon extract at 15 mL/L at 6 days interval. Similarly, lower fruit severity (11.86% was observed with the same treatment. In general, reduction in B. cinerea incidence and severity was lower when common horsetail extract was used, compared to cinnamon extracts. According to our results, using of cinnamon hydro-ethanoic extracts could be considered as sustainable alternative for grey mold management in strawberry crops.

  6. Polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family as potential radioprotectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata; Szejk, Magdalena; Saluk, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide macromolecular, water-soluble glycoconjugates, isolated from the selected medicinal plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family: from leaves of Fragaria vesca L., Rubus plicatus Whe. et N. E., and from flowering parts of Sanguisorba officinalis L., and Erigeron canadensis L., were investigated for their ability to protect proteins and lipids of human plasma against γ-radiation-induced oxidative damage. Treatment of plasma with plant conjugates (6, 30, 150 μg/ml) prior exposure to 100 Gy radiation resulted in a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, evaluated by TBARS levels; conjugates isolated from E. canadensis and R. plicatus and a reference flavonoid quercetin showed similar high potential (approx. 70% inhibition, at 6 μg/ml). The conjugates prevented radiation-induced oxidation of protein thiols and significantly improved plasma total antioxidant capacity, estimated with Ellman's reagent and ABTS(.+) assay, respectively. The results demonstrate by the first time a significant radioprotective capability of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates isolated from E. canadensis, R. plicatus, S. officinalis and to the less extent from F. vesca. The abilities of these substances to inhibit radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation in plasma seems to be mediated, but not limited to ROS scavenging activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The pollen spectrum of honeys of Lipnik Gmina (Świętokrzyskie Province

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    Ernest Stawiarz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2003 and 2004 apicultural seasons, 25 samples of honeys were collected in 10 localities of Lipnik (świętokrzyskie Province countryside. Pollen analysis was made according to the requirements of the International Commission for Bee Botany IUSB (Louveaux et al., 1978. There were identified pollen of 85 taxa in the examined samples of honeys: pollen of 62 nectariferous and 23 non-nectariferous plants. Participation of non-nectariferous plant pollen in particular samples ranged between 0.3 and 28.4%. Among the nectariferous plant pollen, the highest pollen frequency (above 50% have been stated for Brassicaceae (with Brassica napus, Prunus type, Trifolium repens, Anthriscus type, Salix, Aesculus, Rubus type, Tilia, Taraxacum type, Galeopsis and Heracleum type, among non-nectariferous plans: Poaceae, Papaver and Fragaria. On average, a particular honey contained 16 pollen types of nectariferous plants (range 7-26 and 7 of non-nectariferous (range 1-13. Among the examined samples, there were 11 specific honeys: 7 compatible with the Polish Standard - 4 samples of Brassica napus honeys, 2 Robinia pseudacacia, 1 Tilia, and 4 samples of honeys out of his this standard. There were 3 Galeopsis honeys and 1 honey from Phacelia. The remaining 14 samples were classified as multifloral honeys compatible with the Polish Standard. The woods and scrubs as well as meadows and pastures supplied main sources of honeybee flow in the examined area.

  8. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Sukno, Serenella A.; Lane, Charles R.; Thon, Michael R.; Vannacci, Giovanni; Holub, Eric; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy

    2015-01-01

    Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry) is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l.) is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production. PMID:26086351

  9. Irradiation and evolution of the gray rot botrytis cinerea at the strawberry plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labidi, Arbia

    2005-01-01

    Strawberry was introduced since french colonization in tunisia as one of plants cultivated. At the end of the 1970's the strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) was developed in area of Cap Bon. grey mold, caused by botrytis cinerea is by far the most widespread and serious of strawberry fruit diseases and an ever-present threat to the crop. A wide variety of symptoms is caused by B. Cinerea such as a rot on fruit and blight on leaves. this fungus causes domages bith in the field and during storage. In order to reduce severity of grey mold, biological control in field and radiation on post-harvest are developed. The objective of this study was to determine the antagonism of some microorganisms against B.Cinerea such as Trichoderma and Bacillus in greenhouse. On the other hand we tested the efficacity of biological products such as Prev-Am and BM 86on enhancing plant defense. For the post-harvest studies, the goal is to provide a wear tool to manage better the fungus by gamma rays radiation. (author). 29 refs

  10. Influence of Irradiated Chicken Manure on Productivity and Fruit Quality of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out on Strawberry fruits (Fragaria×ananassa) cv. camarosa at Atomic Energy Authority, Experimental farm, Inshas, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2011 and 2012. Chicken manure at rates of 15 and 30 m 3 fed -1 were irradiated with 10 KGy gamma were applied in combination with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 . Untreated control but fertilized with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed-1was also included. Generally chicken manure rates significantly increased vegetative growth, and total yield quality of strawberry fruits. The superiority data with 30 m 3 fed -1 irradiated chicken manure was observed on strawberry of plant height, number of leaves plant, and number of crowns plant, root length and dry weight of shoots. Also total soluble solids and acidity, vitamin C, total sugars and anthocyanin content were significantly increased comparable to control. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents non significantly affected most of treatments except the combined treatment of chicken manure at rate 30 m 3 fed -1 and 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 that induced the best results. This was true at the 2nd season. Moreover these results were nearly closed those of irradiated dry chicken manure at rate of 30 m 3 fed -1 plus 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 , for both seasons

  11. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Natural Antitranspirant on the Storage Ability of Strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.; Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Helaly, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in seasons 2010 and 2011 to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation combined with natural antitranspirant of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) on physical and chemical properties of fresh strawberries fruits ( Fragaria spp.) cv. Camarosa at the age 120 days under cold storage at (5 + 1 degree C and 85- 95 % R.h) in the Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Inshas, Egypt. The results revealed that gamma irradiation combined with natural antitranspirant (CMC) treatments were more significantly effective than the control, whereas all treatments induced less loss of weight and unmarketable fruits percentage during storage. The most effective dose decreasing the loss of weight and unmarketable percentage was 50 Gy gamma rays combined with (CMC) at 3 %. Also treatments significantly improved fruits compositions, particularly titratable acidity, total soluble solids and total sugars content, but the ascorbic acid content led to a significant decrease in strawberries fruits than the control. The best results with these fruits which treated by 50 Gy with 3% CMC combined

  12. Cryopreservation techniques and their application in vegetatively propagated crop plants in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NUKARI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation protocols have been introduced as techniques for germplasm preservation of vegetatively propagated horticultural and staple food crops. In Finland, cryopreservation has been studied since 1990’s, beginning with cryopreservation of forest tree breeding material and since 2004 on cryopreservation of genetic resources of horticultural plants and potato. Priority was given to cryopreservation of raspberry (Rubus ideaus L., strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. and potato (Solanum tuberosum L. and the possibility to use cryotherapy in eradication of raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV from in vitro cultures were studied on raspberry. Modified droplet vitrification cryopreservation protocols were designed for raspberry and strawberry and cryotherapy combined with thermotherapy was proven to be a successful application to eliminate RBDV from infected raspberries. Cryotherapy method can be applied for a large scale elimination of viruses from plant germplasm and from candidate nuclear stock in a certified plant production scheme. Routine use of cryotechniques in germplasm preservation of vegetatively propagated horticultural plants was started. Besides for long term germplasm preservation, cryopreservation techniques can be applied also for maintenance of mother stocks in certified plant production schemes and in commercial plant production. Cryopreservation of potato shoot tips needs additional detailed research to obtain sufficient recovery and regrowth rates.;

  13. Direct and Pollinator-Mediated Effects of Herbivory on Strawberry and the Potential for Improved Resistance

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    Anne Muola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in pollinators has partly been blamed on pesticides, leading some to propose pesticide-free farming as an option to improve pollination. However, herbivores are likely to be more prevalent in pesticide-free environments, requiring knowledge of their effects on pollinators, and alternative crop protection strategies to mitigate any potential pollination reduction. Strawberry leaf beetles (SLB Galerucella spp. are important strawberry pests in Northern Europe and Russia. Given that SLB attack both leaf and flower tissue, we hypothesized pollinators would discriminate against SLB-damaged strawberry plants (Fragaria vesca, cultivar ‘Rügen’, leading to lower pollination success and yield. In addition we screened the most common commercial cultivar ‘Rügen’ and wild Swedish F. vesca genotypes for SLB resistance to assess the potential for inverse breeding to restore high SLB resistance in cultivated strawberry. Behavioral observations in a controlled experiment revealed that the local pollinator fauna avoided strawberry flowers with SLB-damaged petals. Low pollination, in turn, resulted in smaller more deformed fruits. Furthermore, SLB-damaged flowers produced smaller fruits even when they were hand pollinated, showing herbivore damage also had direct effects on yield, independent of indirect effects on pollination. We found variable resistance in wild woodland strawberry to SLB and more resistant plant genotypes than the cultivar ‘Rügen’ were identified. Efficient integrated pest management strategies should be employed to mitigate both direct and indirect effects of herbivory for cultivated strawberry, including high intrinsic plant resistance.

  14. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 1: Edible strawberries and lettuce grown in reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Dickenson, Eric R V; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern present in domestic waste streams include a highly diverse group of potentially biologically active compounds that can be detected at trace levels in wastewater. Concerns about potential uptake into crops arise when reclaimed water is used in food crop production. The present study investigated how 9 contaminants of emerging concern in reclaimed water are taken up into edible portions of two food crops. Two flame retardant chemicals, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and several polar pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) accumulated in a linear, concentration-dependent manner in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) irrigated with reclaimed water, suggesting passive uptake of both neutral and ionizable chemical contaminants in lettuce. Furthermore, concentration-dependent accumulation of TCEP and TCPP from reclaimed water was also observed in strawberry fruits (Fragaria ananassa). Collectively, these data suggest that highly polar or charged contaminants can be taken up by crops from water bearing contaminants of emerging concern and can be accumulated in the edible portions. Using these data, however, estimates of human exposure to these contaminants from reclaimed water food crop accumulation suggest that exposure to the contaminants of emerging concern examined in the present study is likely substantially lower than current exposure guidelines. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

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    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rubus idaeus, Fragaria spp., Rubus subgenus Rubus, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and the leaves of Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Chenopodiaceae species, Cardamine amara, Glechoma spp., Taraxacum spp. and Oxalis acetosella. The most commonly used wild food taxa are nearly identical to those used in Poland, and the same negative association of wild vegetables with famine exists in Slovakia, resulting in their near complete disappearance from the present-day diet.

  16. Diversity of MAPs in some plant communities of Stara Planina

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    Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The high floristic diversity of Stara Planina was the starting base for the research of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs in individual forest and meadow communities. The sites Javor and Prelesje, forest community Fagetum moesiacae montanum B. Jov. 1953, pioneer community of birch Betuletum verrucosae s.l. and meadow community Agrostietum vulgaris (capillaris Pavlović, Z. 1955, were researched as follows: soil types, floristic composition and structure of the community, percentage of MAPs, as well as the selection of species which, according to the predetermined criteria can be recommended for further exploitation. The study shows that the soil of the forest communities is eutric brown, and meadow soils are dystric and eutric humus-siliceous. The percentage of MAPs in the floristic structure of the study sites in forest and meadow communities is 32.35%. The following species can be recommended for the collection and utilisation: Hypericum perforatum L., Asperula odorata L., Dryopteris filix-mas (L Schott. Urtica dioica L., Euphorbia amygdaloides L., Prunella grandiflora L. Tanacetum vulgare L., Achillea millefolium L., Rumex acetosa L., Campanula glomerata L., Stachys officinalis (L Trevis., Plantago lanceolata W. et K., Potentilla erecta (L Rauchel, Chamaespartium sagittale (L P. Gibbs. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L Pers., Euphrasia stricta Host., Fagus moesiaca (Matt Liebl. and Fragaria vesca L.

  17. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry dietary supplements and food products (total n = 74 were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples or were adulterated with anthocyanins from unlabeled sources (three samples. Five of 41 food products contained no detectable anthocyanins. In mg per serving, the dietary supplements tested contained 0.02–86.27 (average 10.00, and food products contained 0.48–39.66 (average 7.76. Anthocyanin levels between the dietary supplements and food products were not significantly different in mg per serving. Individual anthocyanin profiles can be used to evaluate quality of Rosaceae food products and dietary supplements. These findings show that increasing anthocyanin content and reducing adulteration could improve the quality of Rosaceae products available in the marketplace. Keywords: Rubus, Fragaria, Prunus, Dietary supplement, Nonmineral dietary supplement, Nonvitamin dietary supplement

  18. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Michael L; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Jaworski, Elizabeth A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Gilbert, Jessica L; Tieman, Denise M; Odabasi, Asli Z; Moskowitz, Howard R; Folta, Kevin M; Klee, Harry J; Sims, Charles A; Whitaker, Vance M; Clark, David G

    2014-01-01

    Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  19. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Schwieterman

    Full Text Available Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  20. COENOTICAL CHAINS OF ACER PLATANOIDES AND QUERCUS ROBUR IN THE FORESTS OF NOVGOROD-SEVERSKOYE POLESYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skliar V. G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We summarized information on association of small undergrowth of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. and English oak (Quercus robur L. under the canopy of the forest with plants that form the grass-shrub layer within Novgorod-Severskoye Polesye. We founded that the association at certain extent depends on the type of population behavior of undergrowth and grasses. Small undergrowth of A. platanoides being the tolerant species according to the type of population behavior demonstrates negative association with the herbs that have high competitive ability. The pattern of association of A. platanoides with tolerant species depends on their vegetative mobility: the maple has positive association with species with no vegetative mobility and positive and negative association with species characterized by high extent of vegetative mobility. The undergrowth of Q. robur which is the competitive species due to population behavior shows positive association with the herbs that have high competitive ability. We estimated the coenotic parameters that are required for successful resumption of maple and oak in the region of research. We also shown that coenotic optimum for A. platanoides corresponds to the environment with weak intensity of competition in the living soil cover with thin grass layer and density of coverage does not exceed 50%. Q. robur has coenotic optimum among habitats in the herbaceous layer with domination of green moss and (or Convallaria majalis L., Fragaria vesca L. with no grains and density of coverage in living ground cover not more than 60%.

  1. Comparative proteomics analysis of proteins expressed in the I-1 and I-2 internodes of strawberry stolons

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    Lai Wenguo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strawberries (Fragaria ananassa reproduce asexually through stolons, which have strong tendencies to form adventitious roots at their second node. Understanding how the development of the proximal (I-1 and distal (I-2 internodes of stolons differ should facilitate nursery cultivation of strawberries. Results Herein, we compared the proteomic profiles of the strawberry stolon I-1 and I-2 internodes. Proteins extracted from the internodes were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and 164 I-1 protein spots and 200 I-2 protein spots were examined further. Using mass spectrometry and database searches, 38 I-1 and 52 I-2 proteins were identified and categorized (8 and 10 groups, respectively according to their cellular compartmentalization and functionality. Many of the identified proteins are enzymes necessary for carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis. Furthermore, identification of proteins that interact revealed that many of the I-2 proteins form a dynamic network during development. Finally, given our results, we present a mechanistic scheme for adventitious root formation of new clonal plants at the second node. Conclusions Comparative proteomic analysis of I-1 and I-2 proteins revealed that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and sugar-hormone pathways might be important during adventitious root formation at the second node of new clonal plants.

  2. Multiple Models for Rosaceae Genomics[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaev, Vladimir; Korban, Schuyler S.; Sosinski, Bryon; Abbott, Albert G.; Aldwinckle, Herb S.; Folta, Kevin M.; Iezzoni, Amy; Main, Dorrie; Arús, Pere; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Lewers, Kim; Brown, Susan K.; Davis, Thomas M.; Gardiner, Susan E.; Potter, Daniel; Veilleux, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    The plant family Rosaceae consists of over 100 genera and 3,000 species that include many important fruit, nut, ornamental, and wood crops. Members of this family provide high-value nutritional foods and contribute desirable aesthetic and industrial products. Most rosaceous crops have been enhanced by human intervention through sexual hybridization, asexual propagation, and genetic improvement since ancient times, 4,000 to 5,000 B.C. Modern breeding programs have contributed to the selection and release of numerous cultivars having significant economic impact on the U.S. and world markets. In recent years, the Rosaceae community, both in the United States and internationally, has benefited from newfound organization and collaboration that have hastened progress in developing genetic and genomic resources for representative crops such as apple (Malus spp.), peach (Prunus spp.), and strawberry (Fragaria spp.). These resources, including expressed sequence tags, bacterial artificial chromosome libraries, physical and genetic maps, and molecular markers, combined with genetic transformation protocols and bioinformatics tools, have rendered various rosaceous crops highly amenable to comparative and functional genomics studies. This report serves as a synopsis of the resources and initiatives of the Rosaceae community, recent developments in Rosaceae genomics, and plans to apply newly accumulated knowledge and resources toward breeding and crop improvement. PMID:18487361

  3. Radiotracer studies on the formation of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone in detached ripening strawberry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscher, R.; Bringmann, G.; Schreier, P.; Schwab, W.

    1998-01-01

    The transformation of 12 radioactively labeled compounds into 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF), glycosidically bound DMHF, and 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF) was investigated in detached ripening strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa) over a 3-day period. Radiochemical analysis of the different fruit parts revealed that major portions of the applied radioactivity (up to 66%) remained in the stems and calyx. Incorporation levels of [2- 14 C]-dihydroxyacetone, D-[1- 3 H]glucose, D-[U- 14 C]-glucose, D-[U- 14 C]glucose 6-phosphate, D-[U- 14 C]fructose, and D-[U- 14 C]fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into the total amount of furanone derivatives were 0.022, 0.032, 0.035, 0.147, 0.202, and 0.289% of the radioactivity entering the fruits, respectively. Minor amounts of radioactivity (0.001%) were detected in the furanone structures after the administration of [1- 14 C]acetate and [3- 14 C]pyruvate. L-[1- 14 C]Fucose, L-[6- 3 H]fucose, L-[1- 3 H]rhamnose, L-[U- 14 C]-threonine, L-[U- 14 C]lactaldehyde, and [2- 14 C]malonic acid were not transformed into DMHF or a derivative thereof. (author)

  4. Effect of Nutrition Solution pH and Electrical Conductivity on Fusarium Wilt on Strawberry Plants in Hydroponic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt on strawberry plants caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof is a major disease in Korea. The prevalence of this disease is increasing, especially in hydroponic cultivation in strawberry field. This study assessed the effect of nutrition solution pH and electrical conductivity (EC on Fusarium wilt in vitro and in field trials. pH levels of 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5 were assayed in vitro and in field trials. EC levels at 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.5 dS∙m⁻¹ were assayed in field trials. Mycelial growth of Fof increased with increasing pH and was highest at 25°C pH 7 and lowest at 20°C, pH 5.0 in vitro. The incidence of Fusarium wilt was lowest in the pH 6.5 treatment and highest in the pH 5 treatment in field trials. At higher pH levels, the EC decreased in the drain solution and the potassium content of strawberry leaves increased. In the EC assay, the severity of Fusarium wilt and nitrogen content of leaves increased as the EC increased. These results indicate that Fusarium wilt is related to pH and EC in hydroponic culture of strawberry plants.

  5. Trace element content of medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamari, Z.; Neggache, H.; Larbi, R.; Landsberger, S.; Braisted, J.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol, Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4 x 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 and 1.4 x 10 11 n x cm -2 x s -1 , respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sb , Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NISTbotanical references materials. (author)

  6. Spatial distribution of phytophagous mites (Aca ri: Tetranychidae) on strawberry plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadini, Marcos A.M.; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Hamilton G.; Pallini, Angelo; Vilela, Evaldo F.

    2007-01-01

    Many phytophagous mites can attack strawberry plants, Fragaria x ananassa, among them the southern red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor, and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. They are found together feeding on the same plant on the upper and underside of the leaves, respectively. Here we studied the choice for feeding sites of O. ilicis and T. urticae on strawberry plants. The first hypothesis tested whether the feeding site choice would be related to the fitness of the species. The second hypothesis dealt whether the feeding site would be determined by the presence of a heterospecific mite. We evaluated the preference, biology and reproductive success of O. ilicis and T. urticae on the under and upper side surface of strawberry leaves infested or not by the heterospecific. O. ilicis preferred to stay on the upper side surface while T. urticae preferred the underside. The preference for the leaf surface correlated with the reproductive success of the species (measured by the intrinsic growth rate). The choice pattern of feeding sites did not alter when the choice test was applied using sites previously infested by heterospecific. Although O. ilicis and T. urticae, apparently, do not interact directly for feeding sites, there is a chance that the first species induces defenses in strawberry plant enabling to reduce the fitness of the second species. The possibility of those species stay together on strawberry plant increases the damage capacity to the culture. (author)

  7. Prooxidant/Antioxidant Ratio (ProAntidex as a Better Index of Net Free Radical Scavenging Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee Ming Cheng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of several Malaysian plant extracts was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. This ratio represents an index (ProAntidex of the net free radical scavenging ability of whole plant extracts. We observed that ethanolic extracts of Nephelium lappaceum peel, Fragaria x ananassa leaf, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Syzygium aqueum leaf and grape seed had a lower Pro-Antidex than the commercially available Emblica™ extract which is an antioxidant agent with very low pro-oxidant activity. Among the aqueous extracts, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Nephelium mutobile leaf and grape seed had lower pro-oxidant activity compared to the Emblica™ extract. Among these extracts, aqueous extract of Nephelium mutobile leaf had a very low index of 0.05 compared to 0.69 for Emblica™. Most of the extracts had a far lower ProAntidex compared to the Vitamin C. The index enables us to identify extracts with high net free radical scavenging activity potential. The ProAntidex is beneficial as a screening parameter to the food industries and healthcare.

  8. Strawberry crinkle virus, a Cytorhabdovirus needing more attention from virologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma, K I; Adams, A N; Hong, Y

    2000-11-01

    Summary Taxonomic relationship: A member of nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of the genus Cytorhabdovirus (type member: Lettuce necrotic yellows virus), family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Members of the family Rhabdoviridae can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. Physical properties: Virions are bacilliform, 74-88 nm in diameter and 163-383 nm in length with surface projections probably composed of trimers of the glycoprotein G, occurring in the cytoplasm in either the coated or the uncoated form (Fig. 1). The nucleocapsid is enclosed in a host-derived envelope. Within the virion, the SCV genome consists of a single negative-sense single-stranded RNA molecule of approximately 13 kb. Viral proteins: The SCV genome encodes at least five proteins: the nucleocapsid (N) protein (45 kDa), the matrix (M) protein (77 kDa), the nonstructural protein [Ns, 55 kDa, also known as phosphoprotein (P)], the glycoprotein (G, 23 kDa) and the large (L) protein. Hosts: The natural host range of SCV is limited to species of the genus Fragaria L. Experimental hosts include Physalis pubescens L., P. floridana Rydb., Nicotiana occidentalis, N. glutinosa L. and N. clevelandi Gray. SCV also replicates in its insect vectors Chaetosiphon fragaefolii Cockerell and C. jacobi Hille Ris Lamberts. When injected as purified virus, SCV replicates in aphids Hyperomyzus lactucae (L.), Macrosiphon euphorbiae Thomas, Myzus ornatus Laing, Megoura viciae Buckton, and Acyrthosiphoa pisum (Harris).

  9. Genetic Approaches to Develop Salt Tolerant Germplasm

    KAUST Repository

    Tester, Mark A.

    2015-08-19

    Forty percent of the world\\'s food is produced under irrigation, and this is directly threatened by over-exploitation and changes in the global environment. One way to address this threat is to develop systems for increasing our ability to use lower quality water, in particular saline water. Low cost partial desalination of brackish water, use of saline water for cooling and increases in the salinity tolerance of crops can all contribute to the development of this new agricultural system. In this talk, the focus will be on the use of forward genetic approaches for discovery of genes related to salinity tolerance in barley and tomatoes. Rather than studying salinity tolerance as a trait in itself, we dissect salinity tolerance into a series of components that are hypothesised to contribute to overall salinity tolerance (following the paradigm of Munns & Tester, 2008). For example, one significant component of tolerance of most crop plants to moderate soil salinity is due to the ability to maintain low concentrations of Na+ in the leaves, and much analysis of this aspect has been done (e.g. Roy et al., 2013, 2014). A major site for the control of shoot Na+ accumulation is at the plasma membrane of the mature stele of the root. Alleles of HKT, a major gene underlying this transport process have been characterized and, in work led by Dr Rana Munns (CSIRO), have now been introgressed into commercial durum wheat and led to significantly increased yields in saline field conditions (Munns et al., 2012). The genotyping of mapping populations is now highly efficient. However, the ability to quantitatively phenotype these populations is now commonly limiting forward progress in plant science. The increasing power of digital imaging and computational technologies offers the opportunity to relieve this phenotyping bottleneck. The Plant Accelerator is a 4500m2 growth facility that provides non-destructive phenotyping of large populations of plants (http

  10. Accumulation, translocation and impact of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in wheat (Triticum aestivum spp.): Influence of diameter and crystal phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Camille, E-mail: camille.larue@cea.fr [UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Service Interdisciplinaire des Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, Laboratoire Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique (LSDRM), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Laurette, Julien, E-mail: julien.laurette@cea.fr [UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Service Interdisciplinaire des Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, Laboratoire Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique (LSDRM), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Herlin-Boime, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.herlin@cea.fr [URA2453 CEA-CNRS, Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (LFP), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Khodja, Hicham, E-mail: hicham.khodja@cea.fr [UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Service Interdisciplinaire des Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, Laboratoire d' Etude des Elements Legers (LEEL), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Fayard, Barbara, E-mail: fayard@lps.u-psud.fr [UMR8502 CNRS-Universite Paris Sud, Laboratoire de Physique des solides (LPS), Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), ID21 beamline, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Flank, Anne-Marie, E-mail: anne-marie.flank@synchrotron-soleil.fr [SOLEIL, Saint Aubin, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); and others

    2012-08-01

    Intensive production of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}-NPs) would lead to their release in the environment. Their ecotoxicological impact is still poorly documented, while their use in commercial goods is constantly increasing. In this study we compare root accumulation and root-to-shoot translocation in wheat of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2}-NPs with diameters ranging from 14 nm to 655 nm, prepared in water. NP distribution in plant tissues was mapped by synchrotron-radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence, observed by transmission electron microscopy and quantified in the different compartments of plant roots by micro-particle-induced X-ray emission. Our results provide evidence that the smallest TiO{sub 2}-NPs accumulate in roots and distribute through whole plant tissues without dissolution or crystal phase modification. We suggest a threshold diameter, 140 nm, above which NPs are no longer accumulated in wheat roots, as well as a threshold diameter, 36 nm, above which NPs are accumulated in wheat root parenchyma but do not reach the stele and consequently do not translocate to the shoot. This accumulation does not impact wheat seed germination, biomass and transpiration. It does not induce any modification of photosynthesis nor induce oxidative stress. However exposure of wheat plantlets to the smallest NPs during the first stages of development causes an increase of root elongation. Collectively, these data suggest that only the smallest TiO{sub 2}-NPs may be accumulated in wheat plants, although in limited amounts and that their impact is moderate. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-NP diameter, but not crystallinity, influences their transfer in plant tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wheat roots accumulate TiO{sub 2}-NPs with diameter up to 36 nm but not 140 nm TiO{sub 2}-NPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-NPs with diameter lower than 36 nm are translocated from wheat root to shoot. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 100 mg

  11. A Study on the Establishment of Pochonka and Chonmun yucho in the Early Choson Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the formation of Pochonka (Song of the Sky Pacers) and Chonmun yucho (Selected and classified writings on astrology) of the early Choson dynasty. We recognized that the songs in these books were deeply influenced by those in a Chinese book Tong-zhi published in 1161 A.D., based on the following facts; the contents of both treatises are described in the same order; the first phrase of the song for Thai-wei-yuan has composed of five words rather than seven words; in particular, Choson's Pochonka has the song that describes the position of the Milky Way relative to asterisms, which was supplemented by the author Zheng Qiao. Since Tong-zhi were brought into Koryo in 1364 A.D., Choson's Pochonka must be formed after that time. In particular, compared with Chinese Pu-tien-ko, Choson's Pochonka stresses the colors of asterisms in order to represent the origin of each asterism with respect to the astronomers, Shih-shen, Kan-te, and Wu-Hsien. We also find that the star-charts in Pochonka and Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido (Chart of the asterisms and the regions they govern) published in the early Choson dynasty are significantly similar in names, number of stars, and shapes of asterisms in them. This fact means that the star-charts in Pochonka originated from either the parent chart of Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido or Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido itself. The parent rubbing was reappeared in 1392 A.D. and carved on stele in 1396 A.D., and so the publication of Pochonka can be dated back to A.D. 1392. Chonmun yucho is a book that was formed by footnoting Pochonka with astrological descriptions in Chinese treatises. The formation period of Chonmun yucho is estimated to be 1440-1450 A.D. from the facts such as the biographical survey of the author Yi Sunji. Furthermore, Pochonka was adopted as a textbook of the government service examination for the astronomy division in Soungwan or the Royal Bureau of Astronomy in 1430 A.D.. We inferred from these facts that Choson

  12. A Study on the Establishment of Pochonka and Chonmun yucho in the Early Choson Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyeon Ahn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the formation of Pochonka (Song of the Sky Pacers and Chonmun yucho (Selected and classified writings on astrology of the early Choson dynasty. We recognized that the songs in these books were deeply influenced by those in a Chinese book Tong-zhi published in 1161 A.D., based on the following facts; the contnts of both treatises are described in the same order; the first phrase of the song for Thai-wei-yuan has composed of five words rather than seven words; in particular, Choson`s Pochonka has the song that describes the position of the Milky Way relative to asterisms, which was supplemented by the author Zheng Qiao. Since Tong-zhi were brought into Koryo in 1364 A.D., Choson`s Pochonka must be formed after that time. In particular, compared with Chinese Pu-tien-ko, Choson`s Pochonka stresses the colors of asterisms in order to represent the origin of each asterism with respect to the astronomers, Shih-shen, Kan-te, and Wu-Hsien. We also find that the star-charts in Pochonka and Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido (Chart of the asterisms and the regions they govern published in the early Choson dynasty are significantly similar in names, number of stars, and shapes of asterisms in them. This fact means that the star-charts in Pochonka originated from either the parent chart of Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido or Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido itself. The parent rubbing was reappeared in 1392 A.D. and carved on stele in 1396 A.D., and so the publication of Pochonka can be dated back to A.D. 1392. Chonmun yucho is a book that was formed by footnoting Pochonka with astrological descriptions in Chinese treatises. The formation period of Chonmun yucho is estimated to be 1440-1450 A.D. from the facts such as the biographical survey of the author Yi Sunji. Furthermore, Pochonka was adopted as a textbook of the government service examination for the astronomy division in Soungwan or the Royal Bureau of Astronomy in 1430 A.D.. We inferred from these facts

  13. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  14. The Role of Na+ and K+ Transporters in Salt Stress Adaptation in Glycophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekoum V. M. Assaha

    2017-07-01

    expression and activity in the stele, and haem oxygenase involvement in stabilizing membrane potential by activating H+-ATPase activity, favorable for K+ uptake through HAK/AKT1, have been shown and are discussed.

  15. Control of water uptake by rice ( Oryza sativa L.): role of the outer part of the root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; Steudle, Ernst; Lafitte, Renee

    2003-06-01

    A new pressure-perfusion technique was used to measure hydraulic and osmotic properties of the outer part of roots (OPR) of 30-day-old rice plants (lowland cultivar: IR64, and upland cultivar: Azucena). The OPR comprised rhizodermis, exodermis, sclerenchyma and one cortical cell layer. The technique involved perfusion of aerenchyma of segments from two different root zones (20-50 mm and 50-100 mm from the tip) at precise rates using aerated nutrient solution. The hydraulic conductivity of the OPR (Lp(OPR)=1.2x10(-6) m s(-1) MPa(-1)) was larger by a factor of 30 than the overall hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)=4x10(-8) m s(-1) MPa(-1)) as measured by pressure chamber and root pressure probe. Low reflection coefficients were obtained for mannitol and NaCl for the OPR (sigma(sOPR)=0.14 and 0.09, respectively). The diffusional water permeability ( P(dOPR)) estimated from isobaric flow of heavy water was smaller by three orders of magnitude than the hydraulic conductivity (Lp(OPR)/ P(fOPR)). Although detailed root anatomy showed well-defined Casparian bands and suberin lamellae in the exodermis, the findings strongly indicate a predominantly apoplastic water flow in the OPR. The Lp(OPR) of heat-killed root segments increased by a factor of only 2, which is in line with the conclusion of a dominating apoplastic water flow. The hydraulic resistance of the OPR was not limiting the passage of water across the root cylinder. Estimations of the hydraulic properties of aerenchyma suggested that the endodermis was rate-limiting the water flow, although the aerenchyma may contribute to the overall resistance. The resistance of the aerenchyma was relatively low, because mono-layered cortical septa crossing the aerenchyma ('spokes') short-circuited the air space between the stele and the OPR. Spokes form hydraulic bridges that act like wicks. Low diffusional water permeabilities of the OPR suggest that radial oxygen losses from aerenchyma to medium are also low. It is concluded that

  16. The characterization of six auxin-induced tomato GH3 genes uncovers a member, SlGH3.4, strongly responsive to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dehua; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Aiqun; Wang, Huimin; Liu, Jianjian; Liu, Junli; Gu, Mian; Sun, Shubin; Xu, Guohua

    2015-04-01

    In plants, the GH3 gene family is widely considered to be involved in a broad range of plant physiological processes, through modulation of hormonal homeostasis. Multiple GH3 genes have been functionally characterized in several plant species; however, to date, limited works to study the GH3 genes in tomato have been reported. Here, we characterize the expression and regulatory profiles of six tomato GH3 genes, SlGH3.2, SlGH3.3, SlGH3.4, SlGH3.7, SlGH3.9 and SlGH3.15, in response to different phytohormone applications and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization. All six GH3 genes showed inducible responses to external IAA, and three members were significantly up-regulated in response to AM symbiosis. In particular, SlGH3.4, the transcripts of which were barely detectable under normal growth conditions, was strongly activated in the IAA-treated and AM fungal-colonized roots. A comparison of the SlGH3.4 expression in wild-type plants and M161, a mutant with a defect in AM symbiosis, confirmed that SlGH3.4 expression is highly correlated to mycorrhizal colonization. Histochemical staining demonstrated that a 2,258 bp SlGH3.4 promoter fragment could drive β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression strongly in root tips, steles and cortical cells of IAA-treated roots, but predominantly in the fungal-colonized cells of mycorrhizal roots. A truncated 654 bp promoter failed to direct GUS expression in IAA-treated roots, but maintained the symbiosis-induced activity in mycorrhizal roots. In summary, our results suggest that a mycorrhizal signaling pathway that is at least partially independent of the auxin signaling pathway has evolved for the co-regulation of the auxin- and mycorrhiza-activated GH3 genes in plants. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in strawberry and grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.The biology of Spodoptera eridania was studied in the laboratory (22±1ºC, RH 70±10%, 14 hours of photoperiod in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' and grape (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. The duration and viability of the entire cycle were respectively 52.2±1.32 days and 37.6% for strawberry and 42.2±0.45 days and 25.5% for grapes. The sex ratio in strawberry was 0.58 and 0.48 on grape. The average longevity of males and females in strawberry was 16.3±1.16 and 15.8±1.85 days, respectively, and 5.6±0.88 and 7.3±0.83 days in grape. The mean fecundity was 1,747.5±187.32 eggs per female in strawberry and 1,764.9±289.04 on grape. The life table of fertility showed that the net reproduction rate and finite rate of increase were 394.89 and 1.10, respectively, for strawberry and 213.98 and 1.12 for grapevine. Strawberry cv. 'Aromas' and grape cv

  18. Yield and quality of strawberry cultivars Produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de morangueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo C Antunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry cultivation is an important economic activity in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, however the number of offered cultivars to the growers is reduced. The yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cultivars Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre and Sabrosa was evaluated under the climatic conditions of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. We determined the number, mass, total soluble solids (TSS ºBrix, total titratable acidity (TTA, antocianin level and fresh fruits produced in an experimental unit. We also determined the production of fruits per hectare and per plant. The statistical design used in the experiment was of completely randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars and 4 replicates where the experimental unit was composed of 8 plants. The harvest began in the first half of August, extending to the second half of December, totalling 20 weeks. Plarionfre, Earlibrite and Festival cultivars showed higher production from the first half of October until the end of the first half of November. Camarosa reached higher productivity, mass of plants and fruit weight. There were no differences between the evaluated cultivars in the levels of TSS, antocianin, ATT and pH during the period of evaluation.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul o cultivo do morangueiro é uma atividade econômica importante, entretanto o número de cultivares disponíveis no mercado é bastante reduzido. Assim buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre e Sabrosa, cultivados nas condições climáticas e de solo do município de Pelotas, RS. Determinaram-se, o número, massa fresca e teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST (expresso em ºBrix, acidez total titulável (ATT (expresso em % de ácido cítrico e teor de antocianinas, dos frutos produzidos por unidade experimental. Determinou

  19. Strawberry fruit resistance to simulated handling Resistência física de morangos submetidos ao manuseio

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    Marcos David Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvest operations are currently the main source of mechanical injury of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.. Experiments were designed to simulate conditions encountered during commercial handling. Individual fruits were subjected to impact or compression forces with similar energy to determine the sensitivity to mechanical injury. Bruise volume was used as the measurement of injury. Bruise severity increased as a function of impact energy for both impact types. However, dropped fruits had larger bruise volume than fruits submitted to pendulum impactor at the same energy level. Doubling the impact energy (0.040 to 0.083 J increased bruise volume by 7 times (13 to 91 mm³. Fruits dropped from 380 mm (0.075 J showed 71% greater bruise volume than those dropped from either 130 mm (0.025 J or 200 mm (0.040 J. Compressed fruits showed higher bruise volume than other tests. Some cultivars are more susceptible to compression forces than others. 'Sweet Charlie' berries showed bruise volume 40% higher than the others cultivars when subjected to compression. Fruits subjected to impact showed bruise volume lower than the compressed fruits, indicating the possibility to be handled and graded in a packing line.A etapa de colheita é a principal fonte de danos físicos ao morango (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.. Experimentos foram realizados para simular condições encontradas durante manuseio. Frutos foram submetidos individualmente às forças de impacto e compressão em energias similares para determinar sensibilidade dos frutos a danos físicos. Volume da injúria física foi utilizado para mensurar a incidência do dano físico ocorrido. Severidade da lesão aumenta, com incremento da energia, tanto para força de impacto como para compressão. Todavia, frutos submetidos à queda livre demonstraram maiores volumes de danos físicos do que frutos submetidos a danos ocasionados por pendulo no mesmo nível de energia. Dobrando a energia de impacto (0

  20. Características anatômicas de mudas de morangueiro micropropagadas com diferentes fontes de silício Anatomical characteristics of the strawberry seedlings micropropagated using different sources of silicon

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    Francyane Tavares Braga

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes de silício, utilizadas na micropropagação, nas características anatômicas de mudas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa. Foram utilizados propágulos da cv. Oso Grande cultivados em meio Murashige e Skoog (MS, acrescido de 30 gL-1 de sacarose, 6 gL-1 de ágar e 1 mgL-1 de 6-benzilaminopurina. Os tratamentos consistiram da adição ao meio MS dos silicatos de cálcio, de sódio e de potássio, na dosagem de 1 gL-1. O tratamento testemunha foi o meio MS sem fonte de silício. Odelineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com dez repetições. Os propágulos foram mantidos por 45 dias em sala de crescimento, em condições controladas. Avaliaram-se características fitotécnicas e anatômicas dos propágulos in vitro. Verificou-se que o aumento da massa de matéria fresca e seca dos propágulos de morangueiro ocorreu na presença de silicato de sódio. Asuplementação do meio de cultura com silício proporcionou maior teor de clorofila. Aadição de silicato de sódio ao meio MS resultou em aumento da espessura dos tecidos do limbo foliar e da deposição de cera epicuticular e na formação de depósito de silício nas células.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different silicon sources, used in micropropagation, on the anatomical characteristics of strawberry's (Fragaria x ananassa seedlings. Propagules of cv.Oso Grande were cultivated on a Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 30 gL-1 of sucrose, 6 gL-1 of agar and 1mgL-1 of 6-benzylamino purine. The treatments consisted of calcium, sodium, or potassium silicates added to the MS medium, at the dosage of 1 gL-1. The MS medium without added silicon was the check treatment. The experimental design was completely randomized with ten replications. The propagules were maintained during 45days in a growth chamber, under controlled conditions. Developmental and anatomical characteristics of the

  1. Controle de doenças foliares e de flores e qualidade pós-colheita do morangueiro tratado com Saccharomyces cerevisiae Control of leaf and flower diseases and postharvest quality of strawberry plants treated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Alfredo de Gouvea

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes preparações de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foi avaliado sobre o desenvolvimento das doenças do morangueiro, como mancha-de-micosferela (Mycosphaerella fragariae, mancha-de-dendrofoma (Dendrophoma obscurans e flor-preta (Colletotrichum acutatum além da qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos. O trabalho foi realizado entre 2004 e 2005 na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos. Os tratamentos consistiram de pulverizações semanais de cinco diferentes preparados a partir da levedura S. cerevisiae: suspensão com fermento biológico fresco comercial, suspensão de células de levedura, suspensão autoclavada de células, filtrado de cultura em meio líquido e Agro-MOS®, produto comercial formulado a partir da levedura, além da testemunha com água destilada e do tratamento controle com fungicidas. Nenhuma das preparações apresentou efeito contra a mancha-de-micosferela; preparações com a presença de células vivas e o produto Agro-MOS® apresentaram efeito contra mancha-de-dendrofoma; preparações com suspensão do produto comercial e filtrado de cultura líquida reduziram a incidência de flor-preta em flores e frutos. Preparações de S. cerevisiae com suspensão de células, suspensão autoclavada de células e filtrado de cultura líquida promoveram aumento na produtividade dos morangueiros que variou de 589,6 a 617,8 g planta-1. Preparações de S. cerevisiae, com presença de células vivas ou não, alteraram o metabolismo do morangueiro, aumentando a atividade das enzimas quitinase e glucanase, envolvidas na resistência sistêmica adquirida. Todos os tratamentos, com exceção do tratamento com suspensão autoclavada de células, reduziram a incidência de mofo-cinzento em pós-colheita de frutos.The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was evaluated on the development of strawberry diseases and postharvest quality of fruits. The research was carried out in 2004 and 2005 in Paraná State

  2. An improved method for genomic DNA extraction from strawberry leaves Otimização de um método para extração de DNA genômico a partir de folhas de morangueiro

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    Claudinéia Ferreira Nunes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several extraction methods of genomic DNA for identification and characterization of genetic diversity in different plant species are routinely applied during molecular analysis. However, the presence of undesirable compounds such as polyphenols and polysaccharides is one of the biggest problems faced during the isolation and purification of high quality DNA in plants. Therefore, achievement of fast and accurate methods for DNA extraction is crucial in order to produce pure samples. Leaves of strawberry genotypes (Fragaria ananassa have high contents of polysaccharides and polyphenols which increase the sample viscosity and decrease the DNA quality, interfering with the PCR performance. Thereby, in this study we evaluated the quality and amount of genomic DNA extracted from young leaves of strawberry after tissue lyophilization and maceration in presence of polivinilpirrolidone (PVP. The CTAB method was used as reference procedure and it was modified to improve the DNA extraction. The modifications consisted of tissue lyophilization overnight until it was completely freeze-dried and addition of PVP during the tissue maceration in liquid nitrogen. The results showed the efficiency and reliability of the modified method compared to the unmodified method, indicating that combination of lyophilization and PVP improve the quality and amount of the DNA extracted from strawberry leaves.Vários métodos de extração de DNA genômico para a identificação e caracterização da diversidade genética em diferentes espécies de plantas são rotineiramente aplicados durante a análise molecular. Entretanto, a presença de compostos indesejáveis, tais como polifenóis e polissacarídeos, é um dos maiores problemas que ocorrem durante o isolamento e purificação de DNA de alta qualidade em plantas. Dessa forma, o sucesso no desenvolvimento de métodos de extração de DNA rápidos e acurados é crucial para produzir amostras puras. Folhas de genótipos de

  3. Evaluation of vegetable extracts for control of the pathogenic fungi in banana and strawberry in post harvest storage Evaluación de extractos vegetales para manejo de hongos patógenos en banano y fresa almacenados

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    Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out get knowledge about fungicidal properties of vegetable extracts to the control of the pathogenyc fungi (Colletotrichum musae and Botrytis cinerea in banana (Musa sapientum and strawberry (Fragaria sp during the pos harvest storage, at the National University of Colombia headquarters in Palmira. Ethanolics extracts of the following vegetable species were evaluated: Plantago major L, Ruta graveolens L, Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS, Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon. The extracts were obtained by the percolation method starting from the macerated material (100 g and 1000 ml of solvent. The fungi was isolated from the strawberry (Fragaria sp affected by B. cinerea and banana Gross mitchel affected by C. musae. To evaluate the control of the fungi C. musae and B. cinerea sixteen treatments were used (four extracts of plants, two extraction media, two dilutions and three repetitions. Three control treatments were added: absolute (PDA; solvent (PDA + ethanol or water; and chemical (PDA + chemical fungicide. The dilutions were prepared with the solvent used to obtain the extract. The evaluation in vitro was maid with ethanolics extracts diluted at 25%, because these presented the best results in the previous tests. The results indicate that the ethanolic solvent decreased the development of the fungi in 68%. The fruits in which the etanolic extract of ruda and pronto alivio was applied presented bigger incidence and grade of severity.

    Keys words: Vegetable extract; patogenic fungi; Colletotrichum musae; Botrytis cinérea; post harvest

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Palmira, se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos (1.000 ml, macerados (100 g de llantén (Plantago major L, ruda (Ruta graveolens L, pronto alivio [Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS] y helecho marranero [Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon]. Para la evaluación del control

  4. Caracterização botânica de cultivares de morangueiro Botanical characterization of strawberry cultivars

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    Rachel Benetti Queiroz Voltan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de caracterização botânica em seis cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria X ananassa Duch. quatro desenvolvidos no Brasil - 'Campinas (IAC-2712', 'Guarani (IAC-5074', 'AGF 080' e 'IAC Princesa Isabel' - e dois introduzidos - 'Reiko', do Japão, e 'Sequóia', dos Estados Unidos - visando sua distinção taxonômica. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul (SP durante os anos agrícolas de 1992/93. Os caracteres morfológicos que se mostraram úteis na diferenciação dos seis cultivares foram os seguintes: tipo de planta; número de folíolos; coloração da folha; razão entre o comprimento e a largura dos folíolos medianos; ângulo da base do limbo do folíolo mediano; comprimento das estipulas; posição das flores primárias em relação à folhagem; número de pétalas das flores primárias; razão entre o comprimento e a largura das pétalas; receptáculo do ovário; forma das infrutescências e da base da infrutescência; posição do cálice e calículo; espaços vazios no interior da infrutescência e comprimento e largura da infrutescência. Para a identificação dos cultivares, foi elaborada uma chave analítica. Os cultivares AGF 080 e Campinas não foram distinguidos com base nos caracteres analisados.Six strawberry cultivars (Fragaria X ananassa Duch., four developed in Brazil (AGF 080, Campinas, Guarani and IAC Princesa Isabel and two introduced (Reiko from Japan and Sequoia from USA were botanically evaluated in order to screening morphological vegetativa and reproductive characters to get the taxonomical distinction of them. Two experiments were carried out in 1992 and 1993 at the Experimental Station of Monte Alegre do Sul, Instituto Agronômico (IAC, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The following morphological characters were screened to distinguish the cultivars studied: growing habit; leaflet number; leaf colour; middle leaflet length and width ratio; middle

  5. Risk of contamination of wild berries from upper Orava region by cadmium

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    Stanislav Zupka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The upper Orava region is located at the North Slovakia, near of potential sources of environmental contamination due by mining of coal, zinc and lead ores. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of consumption of wild forest fruit from Upper Orava region from the aspect of cadmium content. Ten sampling points were found by random search. From these points samples of soil, leaves and fruits of wild berries (9 samples of blueberries Vaccinium Myrtillus and 1 sample of strawberries Fragaria Vesca were collected. In soil samples the active soil reaction (pH/H2O ranged from 3.53 (strong acidity to 4.56 (extremly strong acidity, and the determined percentage of humus ranged from 1.66 (low humic soil to 4.90 (high humic soil.  In two soil samples the total content of cadmium determinated in soil extracts by aqua regia exceeded limit 0.70 mg.kg-1 given by the legislation in tne Slovak Republic. In three soil samples the determined content of cadmium mobile forms determined in soil extracts by NH4NO3 exceeded the limit 0.10 mg.kg-1. The content of Cd determined in leaves as well as in fruits was evaluated according to Food Codex of the Slovak Republic. Only in one sample of leaf samples the limit 1.00 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. The other leaf samples are safely when used as an ingredient in tea mixtures. On the other hand even in 7 fruit samples the limit 0.05 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. This fruit can pose a risk for the human organism when is directly consumed as well as may negatively affect the human health when is used as raw materials in the food industry. 

  6. Strawberry Extract’s Effects on Enterococcus faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis Biofilms in vitro

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    Armelia Sari Widyarman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis are oral bacteria related to root canal infection and periodontal disease pathogenesis. Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa fruit are rich in vitamins and minerals, have antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Objective: This study investigated the inhibition effect of strawberry extract on monospecies and multispecies E. faecalis and P. gingivalis bacteria grown as biofilms in vitro. Methods: This study used E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277. It analyzed the effect of strawberry extract on bacteria biofilm formation using a biofilm assay on microplate wells. Five concentrations of strawberry extracts were used (100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%, and the inhibition effect was observed after a 1h, 3h, 6h, and 24h incubation period. Biofilms without the strawberry extract were used as the negative controls, and crystal violet and safranin (0.5%w/v were used to count the biofilm mass. The biofilms grown on microplates were counted using an ELISA reader at 450 nm after 200 mL of 90% ethanol was added to attract the absorbed stain. The strawberry extract inhibition effectiveness on the biofilm formation of each bacterium tested was analyzed using one-way Anova, where p<0.05 was defined as a significant difference. Result: The strawberry extract inhibited the tested monospecies and multispecies bacteria biofilm formation. The optimal strawberry extract concentration for the inhibition of either monospecies biofilms was 100%. However, the optimal incubation time for the strawberry extract to inhibit the multispecies biofilm formation was 24h, which was the study’s biofilm maturity phase. Conclusions: The 100% strawberry extract concentration inhibited the formation of both the monospecies and multispecies E. faecalis and P. gingivalis biofilms. Future studies are needed to evaluate the potential of strawberry extract as an alternative dental

  7. Physical mapping of a pollen modifier locus controlling self-incompatibility in apricot and synteny analysis within the Rosaceae.

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    Zuriaga, Elena; Molina, Laura; Badenes, María Luisa; Romero, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    S-locus products (S-RNase and F-box proteins) are essential for the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) specific recognition in Prunus. However, accumulated genetic evidence suggests that other S-locus unlinked factors are also required for GSI. For instance, GSI breakdown was associated with a pollen-part mutation unlinked to the S-locus in the apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. 'Canino'. Fine-mapping of this mutated modifier gene (M-locus) and the synteny analysis of the M-locus within the Rosaceae are here reported. A segregation distortion loci mapping strategy, based on a selectively genotyped population, was used to map the M-locus. In addition, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig was constructed for this region using overlapping oligonucleotides probes, and BAC-end sequences (BES) were blasted against Rosaceae genomes to perform micro-synteny analysis. The M-locus was mapped to the distal part of chr.3 flanked by two SSR markers within an interval of 1.8 cM corresponding to ~364 Kb in the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome. In the integrated genetic-physical map of this region, BES were mapped against the peach scaffold_3 and BACs were anchored to the apricot map. Micro-syntenic blocks were detected in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) LG17/9 and strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) FG6 chromosomes. The M-locus fine-scale mapping provides a solid basis for self-compatibility marker-assisted selection and for positional cloning of the underlying gene, a necessary goal to elucidate the pollen rejection mechanism in Prunus. In a wider context, the syntenic regions identified in peach, apple and strawberry might be useful to interpret GSI evolution in Rosaceae.

  8. Genome-wide characterization, evolution, and expression analysis of the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK) gene family in Rosaceae genomes.

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    Sun, Jiangmei; Li, Leiting; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Juyou

    2017-10-10

    Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK) is the largest gene family of receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) and actively participates in regulating the growth, development, signal transduction, immunity, and stress responses of plants. However, the patterns of LRR-RLK gene family evolution in the five main Rosaceae species for which genome sequences are available have not yet been reported. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of LRR-RLK genes for five Rosaceae species: Fragaria vesca (strawberry), Malus domestica (apple), Pyrus bretschneideri (Chinese white pear), Prunus mume (mei), and Prunus persica (peach), which contained 201, 244, 427, 267, and 258 LRR-RLK genes, respectively. All LRR-RLK genes were further grouped into 23 subfamilies based on the hidden Markov models approach. RLK-Pelle_LRR-XII-1, RLK-Pelle_LRR-XI-1, and RLK-Pelle_LRR-III were the three largest subfamilies. Synteny analysis indicated that there were 236 tandem duplicated genes in the five Rosaceae species, among which subfamilies XII-1 (82 genes) and XI-1 (80 genes) comprised 68.6%. Our results indicate that tandem duplication made a large contribution to the expansion of the subfamilies. The gene expression, tissue-specific expression, and subcellular localization data revealed that LRR-RLK genes were differentially expressed in various organs and tissues, and the largest subfamily XI-1 was highly expressed in all five Rosaceae species, suggesting that LRR-RLKs play important roles in each stage of plant growth and development. Taken together, our results provide an overview of the LRR-RLK family in Rosaceae genomes and the basis for further functional studies.

  9. Genome-wide analysis suggests high level of microsynteny and purifying selection affect the evolution of EIN3/EIL family in Rosaceae.

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    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Li, Dahui; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    The ethylene-insensitive3/ethylene-insensitive3-like ( EIN3/EIL ) proteins are a type of nuclear-localized protein with DNA-binding activity in plants. Although the EIN3/EIL gene family has been studied in several plant species, little is known about comprehensive study of the EIN3/EIL gene family in Rosaceae. In this study, ten, five, four, and five EIN3/EIL genes were identified in the genomes of pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri ), mei ( Prunus mume ), peach ( Prunus persica ) and strawberry ( Fragaria vesca ), respectively. Twenty-eight chromosomal segments of EIL/EIN3 gene family were found in four Rosaceae species, and these segments could form seven orthologous or paralogous groups based on interspecies or intraspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny) analysis. Moreover, the highly conserved regions of microsynteny were found in four Rosaceae species. Subsequently it was found that both whole genome duplication and tandem duplication events significantly contributed to the EIL/EIN3 gene family expansion. Gene expression analysis of the EIL/EIN3 genes in the pear revealed subfunctionalization for several PbEIL genes derived from whole genome duplication. It is noteworthy that according to environmental selection pressure analysis, the strong purifying selection should dominate the maintenance of the EIL/EIN3 gene family in four Rosaceae species. These results provided useful information on Rosaceae EIL/EIN3 genes, as well as insights into the evolution of this gene family in four Rosaceae species. Furthermore, high level of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae plants suggested that a large-scale genome duplication event in the EIL/EIN3 gene family was predated to speciation.

  10. Development and bin mapping of a Rosaceae Conserved Ortholog Set (COS) of markers.

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    Cabrera, Antonio; Kozik, Alex; Howad, Werner; Arus, Pere; Iezzoni, Amy F; van der Knaap, Esther

    2009-11-29

    Detailed comparative genome analyses within the economically important Rosaceae family have not been conducted. This is largely due to the lack of conserved gene-based molecular markers that are transferable among the important crop genera within the family [e.g. Malus (apple), Fragaria (strawberry), and Prunus (peach, cherry, apricot and almond)]. The lack of molecular markers and comparative whole genome sequence analysis for this family severely hampers crop improvement efforts as well as QTL confirmation and validation studies. We identified a set of 3,818 rosaceaous unigenes comprised of two or more ESTs that correspond to single copy Arabidopsis genes. From this Rosaceae Conserved Orthologous Set (RosCOS), 1039 were selected from which 857 were used for the development of intron-flanking primers and allele amplification. This led to successful amplification and subsequent mapping of 613 RosCOS onto the Prunus TxE reference map resulting in a genome-wide coverage of 0.67 to 1.06 gene-based markers per cM per linkage group. Furthermore, the RosCOS primers showed amplification success rates from 23 to 100% across the family indicating that a substantial part of the RosCOS primers can be directly employed in other less studied rosaceaous crops. Comparisons of the genetic map positions of the RosCOS with the physical locations of the orthologs in the Populus trichocarpa genome identified regions of colinearity between the genomes of Prunus-Rosaceae and Populus-Salicaceae. Conserved orthologous genes are extremely useful for the analysis of genome evolution among closely and distantly related species. The results presented in this study demonstrate the considerable potential of the mapped Prunus RosCOS for genome-wide marker employment and comparative whole genome studies within the Rosaceae family. Moreover, these markers will also function as useful anchor points for the genome sequencing efforts currently ongoing in this family as well as for comparative QTL

  11. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of the heat shock transcription factor family in Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) and five other Rosaceae species.

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    Qiao, Xin; Li, Meng; Li, Leiting; Yin, Hao; Wu, Juyou; Zhang, Shaoling

    2015-01-21

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs), which act as important transcriptional regulatory proteins in eukaryotes, play a central role in controlling the expression of heat-responsive genes. At present, the genomes of Chinese white pear ('Dangshansuli') and five other Rosaceae fruit crops have been fully sequenced. However, information about the Hsfs gene family in these Rosaceae species is limited, and the evolutionary history of the Hsfs gene family also remains unresolved. In this study, 137 Hsf genes were identified from six Rosaceae species (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus × domestica, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, and Pyrus communis), 29 of which came from Chinese white pear, designated as PbHsf. Based on the structural characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of these sequences, the Hsf family genes could be classified into three main groups (classes A, B, and C). Segmental and dispersed duplications were the primary forces underlying Hsf gene family expansion in the Rosaceae. Most of the PbHsf duplicated gene pairs were dated back to the recent whole-genome duplication (WGD, 30-45 million years ago (MYA)). Purifying selection also played a critical role in the evolution of Hsf genes. Transcriptome data demonstrated that the expression levels of the PbHsf genes were widely different. Six PbHsf genes were upregulated in fruit under naturally increased temperature. A comprehensive analysis of Hsf genes was performed in six Rosaceae species, and 137 full length Hsf genes were identified. The results presented here will undoubtedly be useful for better understanding the complexity of the Hsf gene family and will facilitate functional characterization in future studies.

  12. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

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    Menghan Wei

    Full Text Available As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica, pear (Pyrus communis, peach (Prunus persica, plum (Prunus mume and strawberry (Fragaria vesca in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA], while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA. Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR. Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  13. In vitro antiviral activity of a series of wild berry fruit extracts against representatives of Picorna-, Orthomyxo- and Paramyxoviridae.

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    Nikolaeva-Glomb, Lubomira; Mukova, Luchia; Nikolova, Nadya; Badjakov, Ilian; Dincheva, Ivayla; Kondakova, Violeta; Doumanova, Lyuba; Galabov, Angel S

    2014-01-01

    Wild berry species are known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. They have long been traditionally applied for their antiseptic, antimicrobial, cardioprotective and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study is to reveal the potential for selective antiviral activity of total methanol extracts, as well as that of the anthocyanins and the non-anthocyanins from the following wild berries picked in Bulgaria: strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) of the Rosaceae plant family, and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillis L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L) of the Ericaceae. The antiviral effect has been tested against viruses that are important human pathogens and for which chemotherapy and/or chemoprophylaxis is indicated, namely poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) and coxsackievirus B1 (CV-B1) from the Picornaviridae virus family, human respiratory syncytial virus A2 (HRSV-A2) from the Paramyxoviridae and influenza virus A/H3N2 of Orthomyxoviridae. Wild berry fruits are freeze-dried and ground, then total methanol extracts are prepared. Further the extracts are fractioned by solid phase extraction and the non-anthocyanin and anthocyanin fractions are eluted. The in vitro antiviral effect is examined by the virus cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition test. The results reveal that the total extracts of all tested berry fruits inhibit the replication of CV-B1 and influenza A virus. CV-B1 is inhibited to the highest degree by both bilberry and strawberry, as well as by lingonberry total extracts, and influenza A by bilberry and strawberry extracts. Anthocyanin fractions of all wild berries strongly inhibit the replication of influenza virus A/H3N2. Given the obtained results it is concluded that wild berry species are a valuable resource of antiviral substances and the present study should serve as a basis for further detailed research on the matter.

  14. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [es

  15. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: a comparative study

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    Lastra Juan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compare traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in six rural regions of the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula as follows: Campoo, Picos de Europa, Piloña, Sanabria and Caurel in Spain and Parque Natural de Montesinho in Portugal. Methods Data on the use of 97 species were collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews with local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document the relative importance of each species and to indicate differences in selection criteria for consuming wild food species in the regions studied. Results and discussion The most significant species include many wild berries and nuts (e.g. Castanea sativa, Rubus ulmifolius, Fragaria vesca and the most popular species in each food-category (e.g. fruits or herbs used to prepare liqueurs such as Prunus spinosa, vegetables such as Rumex acetosa, condiments such as Origanum vulgare, or plants used to prepare herbal teas such as Chamaemelum nobile. The most important species in the study area as a whole are consumed at five or all six of the survey sites. Conclusion Social, economic and cultural factors, such as poor communications, fads and direct contact with nature in everyday life should be taken into account in determining why some wild foods and traditional vegetables have been consumed, but others not. They may be even more important than biological factors such as richness and abundance of wild edible flora. Although most are no longer consumed, demand is growing for those regarded as local specialties that reflect regional identity.

  16. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

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    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  17. Molecular and phytochemical investigation of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis essential oils and their biological activity against Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides, and Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Gao, Zengping; Demirci, Betul; Techen, Natascha; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Sampson, Blair J; Werle, Chris; Bernier, Ulrich R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can

    2014-09-03

    In this study, Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis root essential oils were investigated as pest management perspectives, and root samples were also analyzed genetically using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a DNA barcode marker. A. pubescentis root essential oil demonstrated weak antifungal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. dahurica root essential oil did not show antifungal activity. Conversely, A. dahurica root essential oil demonstrated better biting deterrent and insecticidal activity against yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and azalea lace bugs, Stephanitis pyrioides, than A. pubescentis root oil. The major compounds in the A. dahurica oil were found as α-pinene (46.3%), sabinene (9.3%), myrcene (5.5%), 1-dodecanol (5.2%), and terpinen-4-ol (4.9%). α-Pinene (37.6%), p-cymene (11.6%), limonene (8.7%), and cryptone (6.7%) were the major compounds found in the A. pubescentis oil. In mosquito bioassays, 1-dodecanol and 1-tridecanol showed antibiting deterrent activity similar to the positive control DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Ae. aegypti, whereas only 1-tridecanol showed repellent activity in human-based cloth patch bioassay with minimum effective dosages (MED) of 0.086 ± 0.089 mg/cm(2) (DEET = 0.007 ± 0.003 mg/cm(2)). In larval bioassays, 1-tridecanol was more toxic with an LC50 value of 2.1 ppm than 1-dodecanol having an LC50 value of 5.2 ppm against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. 1-Dodecanol and 1-tridecanol could be useful for the natural mosquito control agents.

  18. Partial preferential chromosome pairing is genotype dependent in tetraploid rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Peter M; Arens, Paul; Voorrips, Roeland E; Esselink, G Danny; Koning-Boucoiran, Carole F S; Van't Westende, Wendy P C; Santos Leonardo, Tiago; Wissink, Patrick; Zheng, Chaozhi; van Geest, Geert; Visser, Richard G F; Krens, Frans A; Smulders, Marinus J M; Maliepaard, Chris

    2017-04-01

    It has long been recognised that polyploid species do not always neatly fall into the categories of auto- or allopolyploid, leading to the term 'segmental allopolyploid' to describe everything in between. The meiotic behaviour of such intermediate species is not fully understood, nor is there consensus as to how to model their inheritance patterns. In this study we used a tetraploid cut rose (Rosa hybrida) population, genotyped using the 68K WagRhSNP array, to construct an ultra-high-density linkage map of all homologous chromosomes using methods previously developed for autotetraploids. Using the predicted bivalent configurations in this population we quantified differences in pairing behaviour among and along homologous chromosomes, leading us to correct our estimates of recombination frequency to account for this behaviour. This resulted in the re-mapping of 25 695 SNP markers across all homologues of the seven rose chromosomes, tailored to the pairing behaviour of each chromosome in each parent. We confirmed the inferred differences in pairing behaviour among chromosomes by examining repulsion-phase linkage estimates, which also carry information about preferential pairing and recombination. Currently, the closest sequenced relative to rose is Fragaria vesca. Aligning the integrated ultra-dense rose map with the strawberry genome sequence provided a detailed picture of the synteny, confirming overall co-linearity but also revealing new genomic rearrangements. Our results suggest that pairing affinities may vary along chromosome arms, which broadens our current understanding of segmental allopolyploidy. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Transcriptome database resource and gene expression atlas for the rose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background For centuries roses have been selected based on a number of traits. Little information exists on the genetic and molecular basis that contributes to these traits, mainly because information on expressed genes for this economically important ornamental plant is scarce. Results Here, we used a combination of Illumina and 454 sequencing technologies to generate information on Rosa sp. transcripts using RNA from various tissues and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. A total of 80714 transcript clusters were identified and 76611 peptides have been predicted among which 20997 have been clustered into 13900 protein families. BLASTp hits in closely related Rosaceae species revealed that about half of the predicted peptides in the strawberry and peach genomes have orthologs in Rosa dataset. Digital expression was obtained using RNA samples from organs at different development stages and under different stress conditions. qPCR validated the digital expression data for a selection of 23 genes with high or low expression levels. Comparative gene expression analyses between the different tissues and organs allowed the identification of clusters that are highly enriched in given tissues or under particular conditions, demonstrating the usefulness of the digital gene expression analysis. A web interface ROSAseq was created that allows data interrogation by BLAST, subsequent analysis of DNA clusters and access to thorough transcript annotation including best BLAST matches on Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica and Arabidopsis. The rose peptides dataset was used to create the ROSAcyc resource pathway database that allows access to the putative genes and enzymatic pathways. Conclusions The study provides useful information on Rosa expressed genes, with thorough annotation and an overview of expression patterns for transcripts with good accuracy. PMID:23164410

  20. Effect of organic amendments on vegetative growth, fruit and yield quality of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Qureshi, K.M.; Hafiz, I.A.; Khan, K.S.; Qureshi, U.S.

    2013-01-01

    Organic agricultural techniques are utilized globally to protect our environment and prevent health issues resulting from pesticides and hazardous chemicals. In this regard, studies were conducted using six different organic amendments on strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) cv. Chandler which included T 1 = planting media (soil + silt + farm yard manure); T 2 = planting media + 400 mgl/sup -1/ humic acid; T 3 = planting media + 200 g kg/sup -1/ leaf manure; T 4 = planting media + 200 g kg/sup -1/ vermicompost; T 5 = planting media + 200 g kg/sup -1/ plant fertilizer and T 6 = planting media + 200 g kg/sup -1/ bio-compost during 2011-12 at PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi. Treatment T 1 (soil + silt + FYM) induced positive influence on plant height (15.21 cm), canopy spread (20.37 cm), crown diameter (1.47 cm), fresh weight of plant (10.71 g), number of runners per plant (2), total number of flowers (58), total number of fruits (42), fruit size (3.04 cm), fruit weight per berry (8.82 g) while T 4 (soil + silt + 200 g/sup -1/ kg vermicompost) improved fresh leaf weight (0.92 g), number of leaves (6.67), leaf area (43.07 cm/sup 2/) and days required for first bloom (96.67). Leaf manure based treatment (T 3 ) enhanced root length (20.11 cm), T 4 improved quality parameters like total soluble solid (TSS) (8.88) and ascorbic acid contents (64 mg) while T 1 improved total sugar contents in fruits (6.82%). Hence farm yard manure(FYM) and vermicompost based organic amendments enhanced vegetative growth and improved quality of strawberry fruits. (author)

  1. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira

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    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.

  2. Where does the border lie: locally grown plants used for making tea for recreation and/or healing, 1970s-1990s Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-10-28

    Traditional use of local wild and cultivated plants for making recreational tea in Estonia often borders with the medicinal use of the same plants. The aim of this paper is to map the perceptions of plants used for making tea and to define the domains of recreational and medicinal teas in specific cultural settings. Between November 2011 and March 2012 the authors distributed electronic questionnaires on the use of wild food plants in childhood. The questionnaire was answered by 250 respondents. 178 of them reported the use of plants for making recreational teas. The responses were analysed according to the taxonomy of the used plants, the most frequently used taxa and families were detected, the influence of respondents' demographic data on the number of use reports was assessed and the overlapping of medicinal and recreational uses was discussed. The study detected 69 vascular plant species, ten vascular taxa identified on the genera level only, and one lichen. The most popular families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiacea, and 12 taxa were used by at least 10% of the respondents, while only one of them (Tilia) was used by more than 50% and one (Rubus idaeus) by over 33% of the respondents. The next ten most used taxa were: Rosa, Mentha, Primula veris, Matricaria, Achillea millefolium, Hypericum, Carum carvi, Urtica dioica, Thymus serpyllum and Fragaria. Of the 30 most used consolidated taxa mentioned in five or more use records, only four were used exclusively in one domain. The majority of the used plants were situated on the recreational-medicinal continuum, which could be divided into two domains: recreational, medicinal and the "grey" area that lies around the borderline. The predominance of the cold and cold-related diseases on the spectrum treated by plants used for making recreational tea reflects the climatic conditions of the region and suggests that they are the most commonly self-treated diseases in the region, seen from the child's perspective.

  3. Новые данные об адвентивных видах сосудистых растений Республики Бурятия

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sutkin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Приведены сведения о новых местонахождениях Sinapis alba L., Hesperis pycnotricha Borbas et Degen, Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., Mey. et Scherb., Fragaria moschata (Duchesne Weston., Rosa rugosa Thunb., Impatiens parviflora DC., Viola tricolor L. на территории Республики Бурятия. Названия адвентивных видов растений даны по «Конспекту флоры Азиатской России» (Konspekt flory..., 2012. Образцы гербария переданы в UUH и ALTB.Ключевые слова: адвентивные растения, инвазионные виды, оз. Байкал, Республика Бурятия, Восточная Сибирь.  

  4. Effectiveness of mixtures of vivianite and organic materials in preventing iron chlorosis in strawberry

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    A. de Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of Fe salts with different organic matter sources has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing Fe deficiency chlorosis. The main objective of this work was to study the effectiveness of different Fe sources based on mixtures of humic substances or compost with vivianite in preventing this nutritional disorder in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cv Camarosa. To this end, a randomised block experiment involving four replications (3 plants per replication and one factor (Fe source was performed in a greenhouse using a calcareous growing medium. Iron sources studied were: (i control without Fe, (ii control with an effective Fe source in calcareous media (EDDHA-Fe, 0.1 g kg-1, (iii vivianite (1 g kg-1 medium, which is the recommended rate, (iv vivianite (1 g kg-1 + humic substances (HS 0.06 g kg-1, (v vivianite (0.5 g kg-1 + HS (0.06 g kg-1 and (vi a mixture of composted cork residue and vivianite at a 6:1 mass ratio (CORVIV applied at a dose of 6 g kg-1 medium. All Fe sources were effective in increasing SPAD readings when compared with control without Fe. Treatments based on vivianite provided non-significantly different SPAD readings from that obtained with EDDHA-Fe. However, only CORVIV showed non-significantly different dry matter (DM production, leaf area index, and total Fe content in the aerial part than EDDHA-Fe. Humic substances and vivianite at 1 g kg–1 increased DM yield in plants when compared with vivianite without HS, results with this last treatment being similar to those obtained with vivianite at 0.5 g kg–1 with HS. It can be concluded that studied sources of organic matter increased the efficiency of vivianite in preventing Fe chlorosis in strawberry, especially vivianite enriched cork compost which was as effective as EDDHA-Fe.

  5. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  6. Late Neolithic vegetation history at the pile-dwelling site of Palù di Livenza (northeastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Roberta

    2004-12-01

    The Late Neolithic pile-dwelling of Palù di Livenza yielded archaeological remains typical of the Square Mouth Pottery and Lagozza Cultures. A palynological investigation reveals important changes in the vegetation due to anthropogenic pressure. Between ca. 6590 and 5960 cal. yr BP, dense oak wood forests with deciduous Quercus, Fagus and Corylus extended around the mire, with no signs of human impact. The establishment of the pile-dwelling, dated to ca. 5960 cal. yr BP, led to a strong reduction of forests, reclamation of wetlands, and expansion of herbaceous communities, with cultivated species, infestant weeds, nitrophilous and ruderal herbs, pastures and meadows. According to AMS dates and previous archaeological chronologies, the pile-dwelling persisted for about 700 years (from ca. 5960 to 5260 cal. yr BP). The history of the pile-dwelling after ca. 5260 cal. yr BP cannot be reconstructed because of recent contamination of the top part of the section. Rarefaction analysis was applied to estimate changes of palynological richness through time: the highest E(Tn) (between 56 and 69 taxa) are contemporaneous with the local development of the pile-dwelling. The comparison of pollen data with archaeobotanical evidence indicates that Fragaria vesca, Malus sylvestris, Papaver somniferum and Physalis alkekengi were gathered at some distance from the site and that Linum usitatissimum is strongly under-represented in pollen samples. Crop cultivation can be estimated for a radius of several hundred metres around the mire. Palù di Livenza is significant in the context of Neolithic archaeobotany of northern Italy and neighbouring countries. Copyright

  7. Partial activation of SA- and JA-defensive pathways in strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum interaction

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    FRANCISCO AMIL-RUIZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5 and FaPR10 were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  8. Structural basis for the enzymatic formation of the key strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefner, André; Sinz, Quirin; Neumaier, Irmgard; Schwab, Wilfried; Skerra, Arne

    2013-06-07

    The last step in the biosynthetic route to the key strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) is catalyzed by Fragaria x ananassa enone oxidoreductase (FaEO), earlier putatively assigned as quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The ripening-induced enzyme catalyzes the reduction of the exocyclic double bond of the highly reactive precursor 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone (HMMF) in a NAD(P)H-dependent manner. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of this peculiar reaction, we determined the crystal structure of FaEO in six different states or complexes at resolutions of ≤1.6 Å, including those with HDMF as well as three distinct substrate analogs. Our crystallographic analysis revealed a monomeric enzyme whose active site is largely determined by the bound NAD(P)H cofactor, which is embedded in a Rossmann-fold. Considering that the quasi-symmetric enolic reaction product HDMF is prone to extensive tautomerization, whereas its precursor HMMF is chemically labile in aqueous solution, we used the asymmetric and more stable surrogate product 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (EHMF) and the corresponding substrate (2E)-ethylidene-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (EDHMF) to study their enzyme complexes as well. Together with deuterium-labeling experiments of EDHMF reduction by [4R-(2)H]NADH and chiral-phase analysis of the reaction product EHMF, our data show that the 4R-hydride of NAD(P)H is transferred to the unsaturated exocyclic C6 carbon of HMMF, resulting in a cyclic achiral enolate intermediate that subsequently becomes protonated, eventually leading to HDMF. Apart from elucidating this important reaction of the plant secondary metabolism our study provides a foundation for protein engineering of enone oxidoreductases and their application in biocatalytic processes.

  9. The Genera of Fungi: fixing the application of type species of generic names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Giraldo, Alejandra; Hawksworth, David L; Robert, Vincent; Kirk, Paul M; Guarro, Josep; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad L; Damm, Ulrike; Trakunyingcharoen, Thippawan; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2014-06-01

    To ensure a stable platform for fungal taxonomy, it is of paramount importance that the genetic application of generic names be based on their DNA sequence data, and wherever possible, not morphology or ecology alone. To facilitate this process, a new database, accessible at www.GeneraofFungi.org (GoF) was established, which will allow deposition of metadata linked to holo-, lecto-, neo- or epitype specimens, cultures and DNA sequence data of the type species of genera. Although there are presently more than 18 000 fungal genera described, we aim to initially focus on the subset of names that have been placed on the "Without-prejudice List of Protected Generic Names of Fungi" (see IMA Fungus 4(2): 381-443, 2013). To enable the global mycological community to keep track of typification events and avoid duplication, special MycoBank Typification identfiers (MBT) will be issued upon deposit of metadata in MycoBank. MycoBank is linked to GoF, thus deposited metadata of generic type species will be displayed in GoF (and vice versa), but will also be linked to Index Fungorum (IF) and the curated RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database in GenBank at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). This initial paper focuses on eight genera of appendaged coelomycetes, the type species of which are neo- or epitypified here: Bartalinia (Bartalinia robillardoides; Amphisphaeriaceae, Xylariales), Chaetospermum (Chaetospermum chaetosporum, incertae sedis, Sebacinales), Coniella (Coniella fragariae, Schizoparmaceae, Diaporthales), Crinitospora (Crinitospora pulchra, Melanconidaceae, Diaporthales), Eleutheromyces (Eleutheromyces subulatus, Helotiales), Kellermania (Kellermania yuccigena, Planistromataceae, Botryosphaeriales), Mastigosporium (Mastigosporium album, Helotiales), and Mycotribulus (Mycotribulus mirabilis, Agaricales). Authors interested in contributing accounts of individual genera to larger multi-authored papers to be published in IMA Fungus, should contact the

  10. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica) and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Menghan; Wang, Sanhong; Dong, Hui; Cai, Binhua; Tao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), plum (Prunus mume) and strawberry (Fragaria vesca) in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA]), while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA). Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR). Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  11. APPLICATION OF OZONE AIMING TO KEEP THE QUALITY OF STRAWBERRIES USING A LOW COST REACTOR

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    MÔNICA LOPES MORAIS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O morango é uma fruta de alto valor comercial e tem uma rápida deterioração, como a demanda por produtos saudáveis, seguros sob o ponto de vista microbiológico e livre de produtos químicos aumenta cada vez mais, o método de aplicação do gás ozônio em uma atmosfera controlada foi proposto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficiência do gás ozônio produzido por um reator, a fim de que os pequenos produtores de morangos possam usá-lo, contribuindo, assim, para as economias regionais. Morangos (Fragaria ananassa variedade Oso Grande, colhidasna região de Minas Gerais foram divididas dois grupos: o primeiro recebeu tratamento com ozônio e o segundo não. No primeiro grupo, o ozônio foi aplicado durante 20 minutos a partir de um reator de Corona. Os frutos foram armazenados a 4 ° C, por períodos de 5, 10 e 15 dias. A qualidade dos frutos foi relata a partir dos níveis de sólidos solúveis totais (SS, acidez titulável (AT , pH, compostos fenólicos (CF, ácido ascórbico (AA, perda de massa fresca (PM% e análise microbiológica (AM, em diferentes tempos de armazenamento de frutos ozonizados e não ozonizados. O uso de gás ozônio foi eficiente para a pós-colheita de morango. Os níveis de microrganismos estão dentro dos limites aceitáveis e as propriedades físicas e químicas foram mantidas.

  12. Utilização de atmosfera modificada na conservação de morangos em pós-colheita

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    Calegaro Júlio Marques

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de testar a utilização de três composições iniciais de atmosferas (3 kPa O2 + 10 kPa CO2, 5 kPa O2 + 15 kPa CO2 e do ar ambiente com dois tempos de armazenagem (7 e 14 dias a 0ºC, para a conservação de morangos (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Oso Grande. Os frutos eram provenientes de uma lavoura comercial do Município de Farroupilha, RS. No primeiro experimento, utilizaram-se vidros de 1.700 mL de capacidade para a armazenagem, e no segundo, empregaramse sacos de polietileno, de 53 cm x 90 cm e 90 mim de espessura. As atmosferas com 3 kPa O2 + 10 kPa CO2 ou 5 kPa O2 + 15 kPa CO2 apresentaram bom potencial para a conservação dos frutos por até 7 dias. A modificação da atmosfera em embalagens de polietileno empregando concentrações iniciais de ar ambiente aumentou o período de conservação e manteve a qualidade dos frutos por até 7 dias. Os benefícios decorrentes da utilização dessas atmosferas foram a manutenção da firmeza da polpa, da coloração dos frutos, dos teores de açúcares totais, e de ácido ascórbico.

  13. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', a novel taxon associated with stolbur- and bois noir-related diseases of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglino, Fabio; Zhao, Yan; Casati, Paola; Bulgari, Daniela; Bianco, Piero Attilio; Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert Edward

    2013-08-01

    Phytoplasmas classified in group 16SrXII infect a wide range of plants and are transmitted by polyphagous planthoppers of the family Cixiidae. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and biological properties, group 16SrXII encompasses several species, including 'Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense', 'Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma fragariae'. Other group 16SrXII phytoplasma strains are associated with stolbur disease in wild and cultivated herbaceous and woody plants and with bois noir disease in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). Such latter strains have been informally proposed to represent a separate species, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', but a formal description of this taxon has not previously been published. In the present work, stolbur disease strain STOL11 (STOL) was distinguished from reference strains of previously described species of the 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' genus based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and a unique signature sequence in the 16S rRNA gene. Other stolbur- and bois noir-associated ('Ca. Phytoplasma solani') strains shared >99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strain STOL11 and contained the signature sequence. 'Ca. Phytoplasma solani' is the only phytoplasma known to be transmitted by Hyalesthes obsoletus. Insect vectorship and molecular characteristics are consistent with the concept that diverse 'Ca. Phytoplasma solani' strains share common properties and represent an ecologically distinct gene pool. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, tuf, secY and rplV-rpsC gene sequences supported this view and yielded congruent trees in which 'Ca. Phytoplasma solani' strains formed, within the group 16SrXII clade, a monophyletic subclade that was most closely related to, but distinct from, that of 'Ca. Phytoplasma australiense'-related strains. Based on distinct molecular and biological properties, stolbur- and bois noir-associated strains are proposed to represent a novel species level taxon, 'Ca

  14. Temperature affects long-term productivity and quality attributes of day-neutral strawberry for a space life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Chase, Elaine; Santini, Judith B.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2015-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa L.) is a promising candidate crop for space life-support systems with desirable sensory quality and health attributes. Day-neutral cultivars such as 'Seascape' are adaptable to a range of photoperiods, including short days that would save considerable energy for crop lighting without reductions in productivity or yield. Since photoperiod and temperature interact to affect strawberry growth and development, several diurnal temperature regimes were tested under a short photoperiod of 10 h per day for effects on yield and quality attributes of 'Seascape' strawberry during production cycles longer than 270 days. The coolest day/night temperature regime, 16°/8 °C, tended to produce smaller numbers of larger fruit than did the intermediate temperature range of 18°/10 °C or the warmest regime, 20°/12 °C, both of which produced similar larger numbers of smaller fruit. The intermediate temperature regime produced the highest total fresh mass of berries over an entire production cycle. Independent experiments examined either organoleptic or physicochemical quality attributes. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that fruit grown under the coolest temperature regime tended to score the highest for both hedonic preference and descriptive evaluation of sensory attributes related to sweetness, texture, aftertaste, and overall approval. The physicochemical quality attributes Brix, pH, and sugar/acid ratio were highest for fruits harvested from the coolest temperature regime and lower for those from the warmer temperature regimes. The cool-regime fruits also were lowest in titratable acidity. The yield parameters fruit number and size oscillated over the course of a production cycle, with a gradual decline in fruit size under all three temperature regimes. Brix and titratable acidity both decreased over time for all three temperature treatments, but sugar/acid ratio remained highest for the cool temperature regime over the entire production

  15. Genetic similarity among strawberry cultivars assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gustavo Ferreira Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne cultivars used in Brazil are developed in other countries, it became clear the need to start the strawberry breeding program in the country. To start a breeding program is necessary the genetic characterization of the germplasm available. Molecular markers are important tools that can be used for this purpose. The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic similarity among 11 strawberry cultivars using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers and to indicate the possible promising crosses. The DNA of the eleven strawberry cultivars was extracted and amplified by PCR with RAPD and ISSR primers. The DNA fragments were separated in agarose gel for the RAPD markers and in polyacrylamide gel for the ISSR markers. The genetic similarity matrix was estimated by the Jaccard coefficient. Based on this matrix, the cultivars were grouped using the UPGMA method. The dendogram generated by the RAPD markers distributed the cultivars in three groups while the ISSR markers generated two groups. There was no direct relationship between the marker groups when the two types of markers were compared. The grouping proposed by the ISSR markers was more coherent with the origin and the genealogy of the cultivars than that proposed by the RAPD markers, and it can be considered the most efficient method for the study of genetic divergence in strawberry. The most promising crosses, based on the genetic divergence estimated from the RAPD and ISSR molecular data were between the Tudla and Ventana and the Oso Grande and Ventana cultivars, respectively.

  16. Genetic resources of autochthonous fruit species and varieties

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    Keserović Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the plentitude of genetic resources of indigenous varieties of fruit species and their importance for further development of fruit growing, especially from the aspect of breeding new varieties resistant to pathogens and abiotic stress conditions (frost, drought, sunburns, etc.. Economic significance and importance in the human nutrition, as a raw or processed fruitage, were stated as well. Based on the unique biodiversity, the Balkan Peninsula can be considered as a secondary center of divergence for a large number of fruit species, such as Malus x domestica, Malus sylvestris, Pyrus communis, Prunus cerasifera, P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. fruticosa, P. amygdalus, P. nana, Juglans regia, Corilus colurna, Corilus avellana, Castanea sativa, Fragaria vesca, Cornus mas. The old indigenous and domesticated varieties and natural populations of fruit species on the Balkan Peninsula have never been the subject of comprehensive research work on their collecting and studying. Serbia has no national scientific institution that takes care of genetic resources. Nowadays, the issue of preserving genetic resources is of great importance because, due to the intensification and modernization of plant production, many local populations have disappeared or are reduced to a small number of biotypes. The varieties with huge genetic and breeding value have disappeared forever without any possibility of their return. By importing high quality fruit varieties, we imported many diseases and various pests as well. New varieties intended for intensive cultivation require the application of expensive growing technologies. The systematic scientific work on the study of wild fruit species and autochthonous varieties is of the great interest for fruit science and practice in the future. The establishment of in situ collections with the aim to preserve valuable genetic material is mandatory. In the following period, indigenous and domesticated varieties

  17. Microbial synthesis of a branched-chain ester platform from organic waste carboxylates

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    Donovan S. Layton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Processing of lignocellulosic biomass or organic wastes produces a plethora of chemicals such as short, linear carboxylic acids, known as carboxylates, derived from anaerobic digestion. While these carboxylates have low values and are inhibitory to microbes during fermentation, they can be biologically upgraded to high-value products. In this study, we expanded our general framework for biological upgrading of carboxylates to branched-chain esters by using three highly active alcohol acyltransferases (AATs for alcohol and acyl CoA condensation and modulating the alcohol moiety from ethanol to isobutanol in the modular chassis cell. With this framework, we demonstrated the production of an ester library comprised of 16 out of all 18 potential esters, including acetate, propionate, butanoate, pentanoate, and hexanoate esters, from the 5 linear, saturated C2-C6 carboxylic acids. Among these esters, 5 new branched-chain esters, including isobutyl acetate, isobutyl propionate, isobutyl butyrate, isobutyl pentanoate, and isobutyl hexanoate were synthesized in vivo. During 24 h in situ fermentation and extraction, one of the engineered strains, EcDL208 harnessing the SAAT of Fragaria ananassa produced ~63 mg/L of a mixture of butyl and isobutyl butyrates from glucose and butyrate co-fermentation and ~127 mg/L of a mixture of isobutyl and pentyl pentanoates from glucose and pentanoate co-fermentation, with high specificity. These butyrate and pentanoate esters are potential drop-in liquid fuels. This study provides better understanding of functional roles of AATs for microbial biosynthesis of branched-chain esters and expands the potential use of these esters as drop-in biofuels beyond their conventional flavor, fragrance, and solvent applications. Keywords: Carboxylate platform, Ester platform, Branched-chain ester, Modular cell, Biological upgrading, Organic waste, Lignocellulosic biomass, Isobutyl esters

  18. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, F. M.; Casari, A. C. A.; Mariano, M.; Yamashita, F.; Innocnentini Mei, L. H.; Soldi, V.; Martelli, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits.

  19. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhouri, F M; Casari, A C A; Martelli, S M; Mariano, M; Soldi, V; Yamashita, F; Mei, L H Innocnentini

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits

  20. Idiosyncratic responses of grizzly bear habitat to climate change based on projected food resource changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David R; Nielsen, Scott E; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2014-07-01

    Climate change vulnerability assessments for species of conservation concern often use species distribution and ecological niche modeling to project changes in habitat. One of many assumptions of these approaches is that food web dependencies are consistent in time and environmental space. Species at higher trophic levels that rely on the availability of species at lower trophic levels as food may be sensitive to extinction cascades initiated by changes in the habitat of key food resources. Here we assess climate change vulnerability for Ursus arctos (grizzly bears) in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains using projected changes to 17 of the most commonly consumed plant food items. We used presence-absence information from 7088 field plots to estimate ecological niches and to project changes in future distributions of each species. Model projections indicated idiosyncratic responses among food items. Many food items persisted or even increased, although several species were found to be vulnerable based on declines or geographic shifts in suitable habitat. These included Hedysarum alpinum (alpine sweet vetch), a critical spring and autumn root-digging resource when little else is available. Potential habitat loss was also identified for three fruiting species of lower importance to bears: Empetrum nigrum (crowberry), Vaccinium scoparium (grouseberry), and Fragaria virginiana (strawberry). A general trend towards uphill migration of bear foods may result in higher vulnerability to bear populations at low elevations, which are also those that are most likely to have human-bear conflict problems. Regardless, a wide diet breadth of grizzly bears, as well as wide environmental niches of most food items, make climate change a much lower threat to grizzly bears than other bear species such as polar bears and panda bears. We cannot exclude, however, future alterations in human behavior and land use resulting from climate change that may reduce survival rates.

  1. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  2. The accumulation of elements in plants growing spontaneously on small heaps left by the historical Zn-Pb ore mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Woch, Marcin W; Kapusta, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated the levels of nine metals, namely Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb, Tl, and Zn, in soils and tissues of ten plant species growing spontaneously on heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn in heap soils were much higher than in control soils. Plants growing on heaps accumulated excessive amounts of these elements in tissues, on average 1.3-52 mg Cd kg(-1), 9.4-254 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.06-23 mg Tl kg(-1) and 134-1479 mg Zn kg(-1) in comparison to 0.5-1.1 mg Cd kg(-1), 2.1-11 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.02-0.06 mg Tl kg(-1), and 23-124 mg Zn kg(-1) in control plants. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn were found in the roots of Euphorbia cyparissias, Fragaria vesca, and Potentilla arenaria, and Tl in Plantago lanceolata. Many species growing on heaps were enriched in K and Mg, and depleted in Ca, Fe, and Mn. The concentrations of all elements in plant tissues were dependent on species, organ (root vs. shoot), and species-organ interactions. Average concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg were generally higher in shoots than in roots or similar in the two organs, whereas Cd, Fe, Pb, Tl, and Zn were accumulated predominantly in the roots. Our results imply that heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores may pose a potential threat to the environment and human health.

  3. Search for a plant for phytoremediation--what can we learn from field and hydroponic studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabłudowska, E; Kowalska, J; Jedynak, L; Wojas, S; Skłodowska, A; Antosiewicz, D M

    2009-10-01

    The main aim of the study was to evaluate the strategies for coping with arsenic toxicity developed by the mine species (Calamagrostis arundinacea, Fragaria vesca, Stachys sylvatica, and Epilobium parviflorum), and to compare results obtained from plants exposed to arsenic present in contaminated soil (2000-3500 mg/kg dw) and in hydroponic solution (2 microM and 12 microM arsenate). Here we report basic differences in plant responses to arsenic depending on growth conditions (hydroponic/soil) with respect to uptake, root-to-shoot translocation, distribution, and detoxification/speciation. Calamagrostis has the highest level of As-tolerance among the tested species. When grown in soil, it accumulated the highest amount of As in roots and shoots relative to other species, however, when exposed to arsenic in hydroponics, it had lower As concentrations. The efficiency of arsenic root-to-shoot translocation was also different, being less effective in soil-grown Calamagrostis compared with hydroponics. Furthermore, in Calamagrostis exposed to arsenate in liquid medium, As(III) was the predominant arsenic form, in contrast to plants grown in As-contaminated soil, in which As(V) predominated. In addition, comparison of the level of phytochelatins showed that only PC2 was detected in plants from hydroponics, whereas in those from soil, additionally PC3 and PC4 were found. The results show that the basic components of a plant's response to arsenic, including uptake, accumulation as well as detoxification, change depending on the experimental conditions (arsenic in liquid medium or contaminated soil).

  4. Use of genome sequence data in the design and testing of SSR markers for Phytophthora species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardle Linda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites or single sequence repeats (SSRs are a powerful choice of marker in the study of Phytophthora population biology, epidemiology, ecology, genetics and evolution. A strategy was tested in which the publicly available unigene datasets extracted from genome sequences of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum were mined for candidate SSR markers that could be applied to a wide range of Phytophthora species. Results A first approach, aimed at the identification of polymorphic SSR loci common to many Phytophthora species, yielded 171 reliable sequences containing 211 SSRs. Microsatellites were identified from 16 target species representing the breadth of diversity across the genus. Repeat number ranged from 3 to 16 with most having seven repeats or less and four being the most commonly found. Trinucleotide repeats such as (AAGn, (AGGn and (AGCn were the most common followed by pentanucleotide, tetranucleotide and dinucleotide repeats. A second approach was aimed at the identification of useful loci common to a restricted number of species more closely related to P. sojae (P. alni, P. cambivora, P. europaea and P. fragariae. This analysis yielded 10 trinucleotide and 2 tetranucleotide SSRs which were repeated 4, 5 or 6 times. Conclusion Key studies on inter- and intra-specific variation of selected microsatellites remain. Despite the screening of conserved gene coding regions, the sequence diversity between species was high and the identification of useful SSR loci applicable to anything other than the most closely related pairs of Phytophthora species was challenging. That said, many novel SSR loci for species other than the three 'source species' (P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum are reported, offering great potential for the investigation of Phytophthora populations. In addition to the presence of microsatellites, many of the amplified regions may represent useful molecular marker regions for other studies as

  5. Conservation biological control in strawberry: effect of different pollen on development, survival, and reproduction of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugole Ottaviano, María F; Cédola, Claudia V; Sánchez, Norma E; Greco, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wild vegetation surrounding crops may provide temporary habitat and potential food sources for phytoseiids in different seasons. Monthly vegetation samples of wild plants adjacent to strawberry plants and wild plants in a vegetation strip close to the crop were taken. The frequency of Neoseiulus californicus, Tetranychus urticae and other mites and insects was recorded. In addition, in a laboratory assay, the survival, developmental time and fecundity of females fed on pollen of strawberry and pollen of wild plants where N. californicus was recorded during their flowering, were estimated. Pollen from Urtica urens, Lamium amplexicaule, Convolvulus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceous, Galega officinalis, and Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) allowed development of N. californicus to adult, but not reproduction. Survival was 70-80 % when fed on pollen from S. oleraceus, G. officinalis and C. arvensis, 80-90 % when fed on pollen from U. urens and F. x ananassa, and more than 90 % when fed on T. urticae and on pollen from L. amplexicaule. In autumn and winter, U. urens, L. amplexicaule and S. oleraceous could promote the persistence of N. californicus when prey density in strawberry is low, offering T. urticae, thrips and pollen. In summer, pollen of C. arvensis and G. officinalis would contribute to the persistence of N. californicus when the strawberry crop is ending and offers scarce food resources. Although the pollen of these plants would not enable the predator population to increase, the presence of these plants in the vicinity of strawberry could contribute to the persistence of N. californicus population and help to limit T. urticae growth when this pest begins to colonize the crop.

  6. Recent speciation in three closely related sympatric specialists: inferences using multi-locus sequence, post-mating isolation and endosymbiont data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Jun Xue

    Full Text Available Shifting between unrelated host plants is relatively rare for phytophagous insects, and distinct host specificity may play crucial roles in reproductive isolation. However, the isolation status and the relationship between parental divergence and post-mating isolation among closely related sympatric specialists are still poorly understood. Here, multi-locus sequence were used to estimate the relationship among three host plant-specific closely related flea beetles, Altica cirsicola, A. fragariae and A. viridicyanea (abbreviated as AC, AF and AV respectively. The tree topologies were inconsistent using different gene or different combinations of gene fragments. The relationship of AF+(AC+AV was supported, however, by both gene tree and species tree based on concatenated data. Post-mating reproductive data on the results of crossing these three species are best interpreted in the light of a well established phylogeny. Nuclear-induced but not Wolbachia-induced unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was detected in AC-AF and AF-AV but not in AC-AV, may also suggest more close genetic affinity between AC and AV. Prevalence of Wolbachia in these three beetles, and the endosymbiont in most individuals of AV and AC sharing a same wsp haplotype may give another evidence of AF+(AC+AV. Our study also suggested that these three flea beetles diverged in a relative short time (0.94 My, which may be the result of shifting between unrelated host plants and distinct host specificity. Incomplete post-mating isolation while almost complete lineage sorting indicated that effective pre-mating isolation among these three species should have evolved.

  7. Elemental composition of strawberry plants inoculated with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3, assessed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, M F; Lovaisa, N C; Salazar, S M; Díaz-Ricci, J C; Pedraza, R O

    2014-07-01

    The elemental composition of strawberry plants (Fragaria ananassa cv. Macarena) inoculated with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3, and non-inoculated controls, was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. This allowed simultaneous semi-quantification of different elements in a small, solid sample. Plants were inoculated and grown hydroponically in 50% or 100% Hoagland solution, corresponding to limited or optimum nutrient medium, respectively. Bacteria-inoculated plants increased the growth index 45% and 80% compared to controls when grown in 100% and 50% Hoagland solution, respectively. Thus, inoculation with A. brasilense REC3 in a nutrient-limited medium had the strongest effect in terms of increasing both shoot and root biomass and growth index, as already described for Azospirillum inoculated into nutrient-poor soils. SEM-EDS spectra and maps showed the elemental composition and relative distribution of nutrients in strawberry tissues. Leaves contained C, O, N, Na, P, K, Ca and Cu, while roots also had Si and Cl. The organic fraction (C, O and N) accounted for over 96.3% of the total chemical composition; of the mineral fraction, Na had higher accumulation in both leaves and roots. Azospirillum-inoculated and control plants had similar elemental quantities; however, in bacteria-inoculated roots, P was significantly increased (34.33%), which constitutes a major benefit for plant nutrition, while Cu content decreased (35.16%). © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. What is the impact of Impatiens parviflora on diversity and composition of herbal layer communities of temperate forests?

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    Martin Hejda

    Full Text Available The aim was to estimate the impacts of invasive Impatiens parviflora on forests' herbal layer communities. A replicated Before-After-Control-Impact field experiment and comparisons with adjacent uninvaded plots were used. The alien's impact on species richness was tested using hierarchical generalized mixed effect models with Poisson error structure. Impact on species composition was tested using multivariate models (DCA, CCA, RDA and Monte-Carlo permutation tests. Removal plots did not differ in native species richness from neither invaded nor adjacent uninvaded plots, both when the treatment's main effect or its interaction with sampling time was tested (Chi(2 = 0.4757, DF = 2, p = 0.7883; Chi(2 = 7.229, DF = 8, p = 0.5121 respectively. On the contrary, ordination models revealed differences in the development of plots following the treatments (p = 0.034 with the invaded plots differing from the adjacent uninvaded (p = 0.002. Impatiens parviflora is highly unlikely to impact native species richness of invaded communities, which may be associated with its limited ability to create a dense canopy, a modest root system or the fact the I. parviflora does not represent a novel and distinctive dominant to the invaded communities. Concerning its potential impacts on species composition, the presence of native clonal species (Athyrium filix-femina, Dryopteris filix-mas, Fragaria moschata, Luzula luzuloides, Poa nemoralis on the adjacent uninvaded plots likely makes them different from the invaded plots. However, these competitive and strong species are more likely to prevent the invasion of I. parviflora on the adjacent uninvaded plots rather than being themselves eliminated from the invaded communities.

  9. Genome-wide analysis suggests high level of microsynteny and purifying selection affect the evolution of EIN3/EIL family in Rosaceae

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    Yunpeng Cao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ethylene-insensitive3/ethylene-insensitive3-like (EIN3/EIL proteins are a type of nuclear-localized protein with DNA-binding activity in plants. Although the EIN3/EIL gene family has been studied in several plant species, little is known about comprehensive study of the EIN3/EIL gene family in Rosaceae. In this study, ten, five, four, and five EIN3/EIL genes were identified in the genomes of pear (Pyrus bretschneideri, mei (Prunus mume, peach (Prunus persica and strawberry (Fragaria vesca, respectively. Twenty-eight chromosomal segments of EIL/EIN3 gene family were found in four Rosaceae species, and these segments could form seven orthologous or paralogous groups based on interspecies or intraspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny analysis. Moreover, the highly conserved regions of microsynteny were found in four Rosaceae species. Subsequently it was found that both whole genome duplication and tandem duplication events significantly contributed to the EIL/EIN3 gene family expansion. Gene expression analysis of the EIL/EIN3 genes in the pear revealed subfunctionalization for several PbEIL genes derived from whole genome duplication. It is noteworthy that according to environmental selection pressure analysis, the strong purifying selection should dominate the maintenance of the EIL/EIN3 gene family in four Rosaceae species. These results provided useful information on Rosaceae EIL/EIN3 genes, as well as insights into the evolution of this gene family in four Rosaceae species. Furthermore, high level of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae plants suggested that a large-scale genome duplication event in the EIL/EIN3 gene family was predated to speciation.

  10. Ocorrência do vírus do mosqueado do morangueiro no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the strawberry mottle virus in São Paulo

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    Ana Maria B. Carvalho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ocorrência de estirpes do vírus do grupo denominado mosqueado («strawberry mottle» em plantações de morangueiro no Estado de São Paulo. Variedades antigas, como a Dr. Morère. acham-se totalmente infetatas. sendo portadoras sem sintomas. Alguns clones novos plantados apenas por poucos anos em campo, já se acham parcialmente infetados, indicando que há transmissão da moléstia sob condições naturais. Sintomas de palidez das nervuras, mosqueado, paralisação no crescimento e encrespamento são apresentados por plantas de Fragaria vesca infetadas pelos vírus dêsse grupo. Numerosas espécies de plantas-teste habituais foram inoculadas com diferentes isolados do vírus, por meio do vetor, mas os resultados foram geralmente negativos. Afídios virulíferos, colonizados sôbre plantas novas de Cassia accidentalis, Chenopodiam quinoa, Leonotis nepaetifolia e Leonurus sibiricus. induziram o aparecimento de sintomas. Não se conseguiu retransmitir o vírus dessas espécies para F. vesca, existindo, portanto, dúvidas sôbre a verdadeira identidade do vírus que infetava tais plantas. O vírus do mosqueado não foi aparentemente transmitido pela semente. Também não se mostrou transmissível mecânicamente para Frogaria vesca. O virus obtido por inoculação com o vetor em Chenopodium quinoa e que se supõe ser o do mosqueado, pôde se transmitido mecânicamente de C. quinoa para C. quinoa. mas não para F. vesca. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii mostrou-se eficiente vetor do mosqueado, conseguindo-se obter em média mais de 50% de infecção em infestações com 1 afidio por planta. Aphis gossypii também transmitiu o vírus do mosqueado, mas com muito menor eficiência. Não se conseguiu transmitir o mosqueado com uma espécie de Cuscuta que ocorre comumeute em Campinas. Em testes de transmissão por enxertia de fôlhas, os resultados foram muito fracos devido ao mau pegamento. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii

  11. Effect of planting density and growing media on growth and yield of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, R.; Qureshi, K.M.; Hassan, I.; Rasheed, M.; Qureshi, U.S.

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria ananasa), belonging to Rosaceae family, is a rich source of vitamins and minerals with delicate flavors. It is perishable crop which is exceedingly in demand for its taste, profitability, high yield and good quality. To make the plant growth successful in the container, the requirement of special media is very important step because plant growth is largely depended on the physiochemical properties of the growing media used. Winter strawberry production in a greenhouse using high plant densities and various media may be a viable alternative to open-field production system. Planting density can be increased thrice by using different production systems. Studies were conducted to see the impact of different planting densities and media on growth and yield of strawberry. The treatments were T 1 = Control, with normal planting distance of 30 cm x 60 cm and growing media silt, sand and farm yard manure (FYM); T 2 = 15 cm 2 x 30 cm and silt, sand and FYM; T 3 = 30 cm x 60 cm and coir; T 4 = 15 cm x 30 cm and coir; T 5 = 30 cm x 60 cm and peat moss; T 6 = 15 cm x 30 cm and 5 6 peat moss. Results showed that plants grown at low planting distance on all growth media showed more pronounced results as compared to high planting distance. Plants grown in peat moss at both planting densities moderately increased the plant height, canopy size, leaf area, number of fruits, fruit size, fruit weight and titratable acidity. A significant increase in fresh and dry weight of leaves, number of leaves, fruit yield in term of fruit number, fruit size and fruit weight, and fruit quality with high ascorbic acid contents were observed. On the other hand, plants grown in silt, sand and FYM (1 : 1 : 1) at both planting densities showed significant increment in vegetative growth resulting in early flowering with more flowers per plant, better fruit setting and fruit set percentage, greater fruit size and weight but fruit number per plant was reduced which lowered the overall

  12. Components of male aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi herbst. (Coleoptera:Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, P J; Hall, D R; Cross, J V

    2001-06-01

    The strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi, is a major pest of strawberries in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. As part of a project to develop noninsecticidal control methods, the pheromone system of this species was investigated. Comparison of volatiles produced by field-collected, overwintering individuals of each sex led to identification of three male-specific compounds--(Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (cis)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)cyclobutaneethanol, and 2-(1-methylethenyl)-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-ol (lavandulol)--in amounts of 6.1, 1.2, and 0.82 microg/day/ male. The first two compounds are components of the aggregation pheromone of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, grandlure II and grandlure I, respectively. Grandlure I was the (1R,2S)-(+) enantiomer and lavandulol was a single enantiomer, although the absolute configuration was not determined. Trace amounts of the other two grandlure components (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure III) and (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure IV) were also detected. (E,E)-1-(1-Methylethyl)-4-methylene-8-methyl-2,7-cyclo-decadiene (germacrene-D), a known volatile from strawberry plants, Fragaria ananassa, was collected in increased amounts in the presence of pheromone-producing weevils. Male weevils only produced pheromone on F. ananassa and not on scented mayweed, Matracaria recutita, or cow parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris, although these are known food sources. In field trials using various combinations of synthetic grandlures I, II, III, and IV and lavandulol, significantly more weevils were caught in traps baited with blends containing grandlure I and II and lavandulol than in those baited with blends without lavandulol or unbaited controls. Addition of grandlure III and IV had no significant effect on attractiveness. Horizontal sticky traps were found to be more effective than vertical sticky traps or standard boll weevil traps. In mid-season females

  13. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review

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    Szymański Wojciech M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. Methods 42 ethnographic and botanical sources documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analyzed. Results The use of 112 species (3.7% of the flora has been recorded. Only half of them have been used since the 1960s. Three species: Cirsium rivulare, Euphorbia peplus and Scirpus sylvaticus have never before been reported as edible by ethnobotanical literature. The list of wild edible plants which are still commonly gathered includes only two green vegetables (Rumex acetosa leaves for soups and Oxalis acetosella as children's snack, 15 folk species of fruits and seeds (Crataegus spp., Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fragaria vesca, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus, Rubus sect. Rubus, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. oxycoccos, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea and four taxa used for seasoning or as preservatives (Armoracia rusticana root and leaves, Carum carvi seeds, Juniperus communis pseudo-fruits and Quercus spp. leaves. The use of other species is either forgotten or very rare. In the past, several species were used for food in times of scarcity, most commonly Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica, U. urens, Elymus repens, Oxalis acetosella and Cirsium spp., but now the use of wild plants is mainly restricted to raw consumption or making juices, jams, wines and other preserves. The history of the gradual disappearance of the original barszcz, Heracleum sphondylium soup, from Polish cuisine has been researched in detail and two, previously unpublished, instances of its use in the 20th century have been found in the Carpathians. An increase in the culinary use of some wild plants due to media publications can be observed. Conclusion Poland can be characterized as a country where the traditions of culinary

  14. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczaj, Łukasz; Szymański, Wojciech M

    2007-04-15

    This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. 42 ethnographic and botanical sources documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analyzed. The use of 112 species (3.7% of the flora) has been recorded. Only half of them have been used since the 1960s. Three species: Cirsium rivulare, Euphorbia peplus and Scirpus sylvaticus have never before been reported as edible by ethnobotanical literature. The list of wild edible plants which are still commonly gathered includes only two green vegetables (Rumex acetosa leaves for soups and Oxalis acetosella as children's snack), 15 folk species of fruits and seeds (Crataegus spp., Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fragaria vesca, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus, Rubus sect. Rubus, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. oxycoccos, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea) and four taxa used for seasoning or as preservatives (Armoracia rusticana root and leaves, Carum carvi seeds, Juniperus communis pseudo-fruits and Quercus spp. leaves). The use of other species is either forgotten or very rare. In the past, several species were used for food in times of scarcity, most commonly Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica, U. urens, Elymus repens, Oxalis acetosella and Cirsium spp., but now the use of wild plants is mainly restricted to raw consumption or making juices, jams, wines and other preserves. The history of the gradual disappearance of the original barszcz, Heracleum sphondylium soup, from Polish cuisine has been researched in detail and two, previously unpublished, instances of its use in the 20th century have been found in the Carpathians. An increase in the culinary use of some wild plants due to media publications can be observed. Poland can be characterized as a country where the traditions of culinary use of wild plants became impoverished very early, compared to

  15. Development and bin mapping of a Rosaceae Conserved Ortholog Set (COS of markers

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    Kozik Alex

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed comparative genome analyses within the economically important Rosaceae family have not been conducted. This is largely due to the lack of conserved gene-based molecular markers that are transferable among the important crop genera within the family [e.g. Malus (apple, Fragaria (strawberry, and Prunus (peach, cherry, apricot and almond]. The lack of molecular markers and comparative whole genome sequence analysis for this family severely hampers crop improvement efforts as well as QTL confirmation and validation studies. Results We identified a set of 3,818 rosaceaous unigenes comprised of two or more ESTs that correspond to single copy Arabidopsis genes. From this Rosaceae Conserved Orthologous Set (RosCOS, 1039 were selected from which 857 were used for the development of intron-flanking primers and allele amplification. This led to successful amplification and subsequent mapping of 613 RosCOS onto the Prunus TxE reference map resulting in a genome-wide coverage of 0.67 to 1.06 gene-based markers per cM per linkage group. Furthermore, the RosCOS primers showed amplification success rates from 23 to 100% across the family indicating that a substantial part of the RosCOS primers can be directly employed in other less studied rosaceaous crops. Comparisons of the genetic map positions of the RosCOS with the physical locations of the orthologs in the Populus trichocarpa genome identified regions of colinearity between the genomes of Prunus-Rosaceae and Populus-Salicaceae. Conclusion Conserved orthologous genes are extremely useful for the analysis of genome evolution among closely and distantly related species. The results presented in this study demonstrate the considerable potential of the mapped Prunus RosCOS for genome-wide marker employment and comparative whole genome studies within the Rosaceae family. Moreover, these markers will also function as useful anchor points for the genome sequencing efforts currently

  16. Improved regeneration and transformation protocols for three strawberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Hossam; Hussein, Gihan M; Abdel-Hadi, Abdel-Hadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which makes the breeding of new cultivars difficult. Simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is required for cultivars improvement in strawberry. In the present study, adventitious shoot regeneration has been investigated in three cultivated strawberry plants, i.e., Festival, Sweet Charly and Florida via direct organogenesis using the in vitro juvenile leaves as explants. Explants were collected after sub-culturing on a propagation medium composed of MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA; 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. To select the suitable organogenesis, the explants of the three cultivars were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/l), then incubated at a temperature of 22 °C ± 2. Medium containing 2 mg/l TDZ revealed the best regeneration efficiency with the three cultivars (72% for Festival, and 73% for Sweet Charly and Florida). After 4 weeks, the produced shoots were cultured on MS medium with different concentrations of BA and Kin to enhance shoot elongation. Results showed that the medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l Kin revealed highest elongation efficiency (88% and 94%) for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. On the other hand, medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l Kin showed highest elongation efficiency (90%) in Florida. Elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l NAA. Furthermore, transformation of the two cultivars, Festival and Sweet Charly, has been established via Agrobacterium strain LBA44404 containing the plasmid pISV2678 with gus-intron and bar genes. Three days post co-cultivation, GUS activity was screening using the histochemical assay. The results showed 16% and 18% of the tested plant materials has changed into blue color for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. Out of 120 explants only 13 shoots were developed on

  17. Modelagem e propriedades termodinâmicas na secagem de morangos

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    Gabriel Henrique Horta de OLIVEIRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A secagem de produtos agrícolas é largamente utilizada no mundo para diminuir o teor de água do produto, dificultando o crescimento microbiano e a ocorrência de reações químicas e bioquímicas e possibilitando a armazenagem segura por períodos longos, além de reduzir o volume e a massa a ser transportada. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar e modelar a etapa de secagem de morangos (Fragaria L., bem como obter parâmetros termodinâmicos em três diferentes temperaturas (40 °C, 50 °C e 60 °C. Foram utilizados frutos obtidos na CEASA-DF, com teor de água inicial de 93,0% (b.u.. Os dados experimentais foram ajustados a seis modelos matemáticos usualmente utilizados para a representação da etapa de secagem. A energia de ativação para a secagem dos morangos, a entropia, a entalpia e a energia livre de Gibbs foram obtidas. O modelo Logaritmo foi o que melhor representou a secagem de frutos de morangueiro, apresentando valores de erro médio relativo entre 7,59% e 8,48%, desvio-padrão da estimativa entre 0,03 e 0,06 e coeficiente de determinação entre 99,93% e 99,95%. A entalpia do processo de secagem diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura de secagem, com valores de –481,21, –564,35 e –647,49 J mol–1 para as temperaturas 40, 50 e 60 °C, respectivamente. O mesmo comportamento ocorreu com a entropia, com valores -238,35, -238,61 e –238,86 J mol–1 K–1, para temperaturas 40, 50 e 60 °C, respectivamente. A energia livre de Gibbs aumentou com o aumento da temperatura, atingindo valores de 74.159,75, 76.544,54 e 78.931,90 J mol–1 para as temperaturas 40, 50 e 60 °C, respectivamente.

  18. GA3 e Paclobutrazol no florescimento e na produção de frutos em duas cultivares de morangueiro GA3 and Paclobutrazol on the flowering and yield of strawberry

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    Jaime Duarte Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o efeito dos fitorreguladores Ga3 e Paclobutrazol no florescimento e produção de frutos de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.. O experimento foi conduzido em Caldas (MG, na EPAMIG. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, num esquema fatorial 2x4, onde as variáveis dependentes foram duas cultivares ('Oso Grande' e 'Seascape' e os tratamentos controle (água; GA3 a 40 mg L-1 em duas aplicações (aos 45 e 65 dias após o transplante; paclobutrazol (produto comercial Cultar 10% a 100 mg L-1 aos 75 dias após o transplante das mudas; combinação de GA3 + paclobutrazol aplicados aos 45; 65 e aos 75 dias, respectivamente, após o transplante. Os tratamentos foram aplicados via foliar em ambas as cultivares. A resposta à aplicação dos fitorreguladores GA3 e paclobutrazol em morangueiro depende da cultivar. A cv. Seascape, de dia neutro, respondeu melhor à aplicação de GA3 que a 'Oso Grande', de dia curto; Por outro lado, o paclobutrazol, quando aplicado via foliar, aos 75 dias após o transplante, reduziu o florescimento do morangueiro o que mostra a necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre dosagens e épocas de aplicação do paclobutrazol nesta cultura.The effect of bioregulators GA3 and paclobutrazol was evaluated on flowering and yield of strawberry cultivars Oso Grande and Seascape. The experiment was carried out in Caldas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of control (no application of bioregulators; GA3 at 40 mg L-1, in two applications (45 and 65 days after transplanting date; paclobutrazol (commercial product Cultar, 10% at 100 mg L-1, 75 days after transplanting date; combination of GA3 + paclobutrazol, applied 45; 65 and 75 days, respectively, after transplanting date. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with four replications, in a factorial 2x4. The response to the bioregulators GA3 and Paclobutrazol was cultivar

  19. Desempenho produtivo e massa média de frutos de morangueiro obtidos de diferentes sistemas de cultivo / Performance and average mass of strawberry fruit obtained from different cropping systems

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    Letícia Kurchaidt Pinheiro Camargo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade e a massa média de frutos de oito cultivares de morangueiro (Aromas, Camino Real, Campinas, Dover, Oso Grande, Toyonoka, Tudla-Milsei e Ventana, cultivadas em diferentes sistemas de produção. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foram blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os frutos foram colhidos no período de outubro de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008. Os resultados obtidos permitem inferir que, quanto à produtividade, o sistema orgânico foi mais efetivo para as cultivares Oso Grande e Tudla-Milsei e o sistema convencional para Dover e Toyonoka. As maiores massas médias foram encontradas nos frutos das cultivares Tudla-Milsei e Ventana, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo. A cultivar que se destacou tanto no sistema orgânico quanto no sistema convencional, foi a Tudla-Milsei, com as maiores produtividades e os frutos com maior massa média. As cultivares responderam diferentemente em função do manejo cultural empregado em cada sistema de cultivo, o que permite afirmar que há variabilidade entre as cultivares comerciais mais plantadas na atualidade. Portanto, a escolha da cultivar a ser utilizada, visando à produtividade, deverá ocorrer em função do seu desempenho dentro de cada sistema de cultivo. AbstractThe goal of this work was to evaluate the productivity and mass of fruit average of eight cultivars (Aromas, Camino Real, Campinas, Dover, Oso Grande, Toyonoka, Tudla-Milsei and Ventana of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa grown in different cropping systems. The experimental designed was randomized blocks with 4 replications. The fruits were collected in the period from October 2007 to February 2008. The results allow inferring that the productivity, the organic system was more effective for the Oso Grande e Tudla-Milsei and conventional system for Dover and Toyonoka. The highest masses averages were found in fruits of Tudla-Milsei and Ventana, in both systems. Tudla

  20. Changes in transcription of cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries are associated with the ripening-related increase in isopentenyladenine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-09-16

    Cytokinins are known to play an important role in fruit set and early fruit growth, but their involvement in later stages of fruit development is less well understood. Recent reports of greatly increased cytokinin concentrations in the flesh of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson) and grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) have suggested that these hormones are implicated in the control of ripening-related processes. A similar pattern of isopentenyladenine (iP) accumulation was observed in the ripening fruit of several grapevine cultivars, strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), suggesting a common, ripening-related role for this cytokinin. Significant differences in maximal iP concentrations between grapevine cultivars and between fruit species might reflect varying degrees of relevance or functional adaptations of this hormone in the ripening process. Grapevine orthologues of five Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) gene families involved in cytokinin metabolism and signalling were identified and analysed for their expression in developing grape berries and a range of other grapevine tissues. Members of each gene family were characterised by distinct expression profiles during berry development and in different grapevine organs, suggesting a complex regulation of cellular cytokinin activities throughout the plant. The post-veraison-specific expression of a set of biosynthesis, activation, perception and signalling genes together with a lack of expression of degradation-related genes during the ripening phase were indicative of a local control of berry iP concentrations leading to the observed accumulation of iP in ripening grapes. The transcriptional analysis of grapevine genes involved in cytokinin production, degradation and response has provided a possible explanation for the ripening-associated accumulation of iP in grapes and other fruit. The pre- and post-veraison-specific expression of