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Sample records for steer diets quarterly

  1. Alfalfa leaf meal in finishing steer diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.; Brown, D.B.; Hall, J.M.

    1997-10-30

    Ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 540 lb.) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 167 or 189-day finishing phase, respectively. Treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, 100% of supplemental protein. Finishing diets were formulated to contain .61 Mcal NE{sub g}/lb dry matter, 12.5% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. There were no significant (P >.05) effects of dietary treatments on daily gain or dry matter required /lb of gain. Steers fed 100 % ALM consumed more (P <.05) dry matter than steers fed either of the other three treatments. Dry matter consumption increased linearly (P >.05) with increasing ALM. There was no significant (P >.05) dietary treatment effect on marbling, KPH %, yield grade, quality grade, or liver abscesses. There was an apparent trend in reduced liver abscess incidence in steers fed 100 % ALM. Steers fed 66 % ALM had significantly (P <.05) greater backfat measurements, backfat also had a cubic effect (P <.05). Hot carcass weight had a quadratic relation (P <.05) with level of ALM. Substituting alfalfa leaf meal for soybean meal in diets of finishing steers increased DM intake, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in gain which resulted in similar feed efficiency. There may be an advantage in blending ALM and soybean meal as feed efficiency was improved when cattle were fed the blend. Also, feeding ALM may result in lower incidence of liver abscess.

  2. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

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    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  3. Beam steering in superconducting quarter-wave resonators: An analytical approach

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    Alberto Facco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Beam steering in superconducting quarter-wave resonators (QWRs, which is mainly caused by magnetic fields, has been pointed out in 2001 in an early work [A. Facco and V. Zviagintsev, in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, IL, 2001 (IEEE, New York, 2001, p. 1095], where an analytical formula describing it was proposed and the influence of cavity geometry was discussed. Since then, the importance of this effect was recognized and effective correction techniques have been found [P. N. Ostroumov and K. W. Shepard, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 110101 (2001PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.4.110101]. This phenomenon was further studied in the following years, mainly with numerical methods. In this paper we intend to go back to the original approach and, using well established approximations, derive a simple analytical expression for QWR steering which includes correction methods and reproduces the data starting from a few calculable geometrical constants which characterize every cavity. This expression, of the type of the Panofski equation, can be a useful tool in the design of superconducting quarter-wave resonators and in the definition of their limits of application with different beams.

  4. Fatty acid composition of beef steers as affected by diet and fat depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subcutaneous and perirenal fatty acid (FA) profiles were compared in steers fed a control diet (70 : 30 red clover silage (RC) : barley concentrate), a diet with sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS-15 and DDGS-30) substituted for RC and SS.

  5. Feed efficiency differences and reranking in beef steers fed grower and finisher diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durunna, O N; Mujibi, F D N; Goonewardene, L; Okine, E K; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2011-01-01

    This 3-yr study used 490 steers to determine whether feedlot steers changed their feed efficiency (FE) ranking when fed a grower diet, then a finisher diet. The steers were crossbreds and were between 5 to 7 mo of age. There were 2 feeding periods each year. Within each year, approximately 90 steers had their diet switched from a grower to a finisher diet (feed-swap group), whereas another 90 steers were fed either the grower (grower-fed group) or the finisher (finisher-fed group) diet throughout the feeding trial. Each feeding test lasted for a minimum of 10 wk, and all steers were fed ad libitum. Individual animal feed intakes were collected using the GrowSafe feeding system, and BW were measured every 2 wk. Residual feed intake (RFI), G:F, and Kleiber ratio (KR) were computed at the end of each feeding period. For each measure of efficiency, animals were classified as low, medium, or high based on 0.5 SD from the mean. The majority of steers did not maintain the previous efficiency class in the second period. Approximately 58, 51, and 51% of steers in the feed-swap group, finisher-fed group, and the grower-fed group, respectively, changed their RFI measure by 0.5 SD. A low rank correlation occurred in all test groups but was less in the feed-swap group. Spearman rank correlations between the 2 feeding periods in the feed-swap group were 0.33, 0.20, and 0.31 for RFI, G:F, and KR, respectively. Classifications based on G:F and KR showed that a greater number of steers (P 0.05) between the proportions of individuals that changed or maintained their FE class. In the groups without a feed-swap, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in the proportion of steers that changed or maintained the same FE class for all FE measures. Our results suggest that diet type and feeding period affect the FE ranking in beef steers. A feedlot diet is ideal for evaluating the FE potential of steers for feedlot profitability; however, we suggest that tests involving less dense diets should

  6. Soybean hull and enzyme inclusion effects on diet digestibility and growth performance in beef steers consuming corn-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J R; Sexten, W J; Kerley, M S

    2016-06-01

    A beef feedlot study was conducted to determine the effects of increasing soybean hull (SH) inclusion and enzyme addition on diet digestibility and animal performance. The hypothesis was SH inclusion and enzyme addition would increase fiber digestibility with no negative effect on animal performance. Eight treatments (TRT) were arranged in a 4 × 2 factorial using four diets and two enzyme (ENZ) inclusion rates. The diets were composed primarily of whole shell corn (WSC) with 0%, 7%, 14%, or 28% SH replacing corn. The ENZ was a commercial proprietary mix of , and (Cattlemace, R&D Life Sciences, Menomonie, WI) included in the diets at 0% (S0, S7, S14, S28) or 0.045% DM basis (S0e, S7e, S14e, S28e). Eighty steers (287 ± 31 kg, SD) were stratified by weight and blocked into pens with 1 heavy and 1 light pen per TRT (2 pen/TRT, 5 steers/pen). Steers were fed for 70 d with titanium dioxide included in the diets for the final 15 d. Fecal samples were collected on d 70 to determine diet digestibility. Diets were balanced for AA and RDP requirement based on available ME. Individual DMI was measured using a GrowSafe system. Diet, ENZ, and diet × ENZ effects were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Initial BW was applied as a covariate for final BW (FBW), and DMI was included as a covariate for all digestibility measures. The diet × ENZ interaction had no effect on FBW, ADG, DMI, or any digestibility measure ( ≥ 0.11). Steers fed ENZ tended to have greater FBW ( = 0.09) and had numerically greater ADG than steers not fed ENZ. Diet influenced DMI ( digestibility ( ≥ 0.2). Diet had an effect on NDF and ADF digestibility ( ≤ 0.04) which decreased as SH inclusion increased. The addition of ENZ tended to decrease NDF digestibility ( = 0.08) but had no effect on ADF digestibility ( = 0.8). Fiber digestibility in WSC diets did not improve with SH inclusion or ENZ addition but steers fed diets with 14% to 28% of WSC replaced by SH and the addition of 0.045% ENZ

  7. Protein and starch digestion in steers fed feedlot diets differing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Livestock Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Twelve steers fistulated in the rumen and duodenum were allocated to one of three diets and fed 80g DM/kg WO.75/d. The diets consisted of .... 2.1: 1. 1 Calorie 3000. 2 Premix contained vitamins, trace minerals, salt, NaHC03,.

  8. Performance, dry matter digestibility and feeding behavior of Holstein steers fed different diets in confinement

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    Mikael Neumann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance, apparent digestibility of dry matter and feeding behavior of Dutch steers fed different diets in feedlot. Were used 36 Holstein calves, from the same herd, with an average of 192 days and an average body weight of 221kg age. The experimental diets consisted of: T1: 100% concentrate diet; T2: 55% concentrate diet + corn silage; and T3: 55% concentrate diet + oat hay, and six replicates, where each replicate was a stall with two animals. Was no significant difference between treatments, and the treatment consists of the 100% concentrate diet had higher performance results with an average daily gain of 1.350 kg day-1; and feed conversion of 5.28 dry matter intake of 6.84. We evaluated also the 100% diet also influenced the feeding behavior, and the time for rumination, food consumption and water intake are respectively 2.75; 1.14; 0.15 hours day-1. The digestibility of dry matter was also a significant difference to the diet 100%, and this was around 76.37%. The diet showed 100% concentrate in terms of performance, an interesting alternative for termination of Holstein steers.

  9. Effects of weaning age and diet on growth and carcass characteristics in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluharty, F L; Loerch, S C; Turner, T B; Moeller, S J; Lowe, G D

    2000-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of diet on growth of steers weaned at approximately 100 vs 205 d of age. In Exp. 1, a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted using 78 Angus crossbred cow-calf pairs. The factors examined were age at weaning (early, at 103+/-3 d [EW] vs normal, at 203+/-3 d [NW]), feeding strategy (ad libitum vs postweaning programmed intake), and dietary CP concentration (100 vs 120% of NRC [1984] recommended levels). Early-weaned calves had a greater (P feed for ad libitum consumption reached market weight at 394 d, compared with 409 d for programmed-intake steers (P creep feed, or weaned at 210+/-3 d with access to creep feed for 60 d prior to weaning. Early-weaned calves were heavier (P .10) in longissimus muscle area compared to EW calves fed a 60% concentrate diet. At slaughter, 80 to 100% of steers on all treatments graded low Choice or higher. Feeding high-concentrate diets to EW beef calves accelerated growth rate and fat deposition early in the feeding period and may be a way to provide young cattle for a high-quality beef market.

  10. Performance and carcass characteristics of dairy steers fed diets containing crude glycerin

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    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to assess the effects of including 0, 79.8, 159.8, and 240.0 g kg-1 crude glycerin in the total diet dry matter on the 84 days feedlot performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, and carcass characteristics of crossbred dairy steers. Experimental diets were composed of 98.5 g kg-1 of sorghum silage and 901.5 g kg-1 of concentrate. Twenty-four crossbred dairy steers (337.3±39.8 kg body weight and 15 months of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and six replicates. The intake and digestibility of the dry matter and nutrients were not altered by including crude glycerin in the diet. Crude glycerol levels did not affect the final weight (430.2 kg, daily weight gain (1.38 kg day-1, total weight gain (97.2 kg, hot carcass weight (218.9 kg, cold carcass weight (215.2 kg, hot carcass yield (0.50 kg 100 kg-1 BW, longissimus dorsi area (62.86 cm², subcutaneous fat thickness (4.05 mm, and carcass physical composition. Concentrations of serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and creatinine were not altered by including crude glycerin in the diet. Crude glycerin can be added to high concentrate diet up to 240 g kg-1 without changing the animal performance, apparent digestibility of nutrients, the main carcass characteristics, and blood parameters of finishing crossbred dairy steers.

  11. Effects of clay on toxin binding capacity, ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, and growth of steers fed high-concentrate diets.

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    Antonelo, D S; Lancaster, N A; Melnichenko, S; Muegge, C R; Schoonmaker, J P

    2017-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of increasing concentrations of a smectite clay on toxin binding capacity, ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, and growth of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 72 Angus × Simmental steers were blocked by BW (395 ± 9.9 kg) and randomly allotted to 3 treatments (4 pens/treatment and 6 steers/pen) to determine the effects of increasing amounts of clay (0, 1, or 2%) on performance. The clay was top-dressed on an 80% concentrate diet at a rate of 0, 113, or 226 g/steer daily to achieve the 0, 1, and 2% treatments, respectively. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of 606 kg. In Exp. 2, 6 steers (596 ± 22.2 kg initial BW) were randomly allotted to the same 3 treatments in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (21-d periods) to determine the effects of increasing amounts of clay on ruminal pH, VFA, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 3, 150 mg of clay was incubated in 10 mL of rumen fluid with 3 incremental concentrations (6 replicates per concentration) of aflatoxin B (AFB) or ergotamine tartate (ET) to determine binding capacity. During the first 33-d period, there was a quadratic effect of clay on ADG ( clay and then decreasing from 1 to 2% clay. However, during the second 30-d period, clay linearly decreased ADG and G:F ( ≤ 0.03) and overall ADG, DMI, and G:F were not impacted ( ≥ 0.46). Clay linearly decreased marbling score ( = 0.05). Hepatic enzyme activity did not differ among treatments on d 0 or at slaughter ( ≥ 0.15). Clay linearly decreased ruminal lactate and propionate, linearly increased formate and the acetate:propionate ratio ( ≤ 0.04), and tended ( = 0.07) to linearly increase butyrate. Clay tended to linearly increase ( = 0.06) OM and CP apparent digestibility. Ruminal pH, urine pH, and other digestibility measures did not differ among treatments ( ≥ 0.15). Clay was able to effectively bind AFB and ET at concentrations above the normal physiological range (52 and 520 μg/mL), but

  12. Introduction of sugar cane bagasse pellets in diets devoid of long fiber for feedlots finished steers

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    Mikael Neumann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of diets without roughage in beef feedlot has become common in recent years due to practicality, feasibility and availability of inputs. However, the introduction of roughage that does not harm the operation of the feeding management can bring health benefits to animals and economic gain. This study aimed to evaluate the productive and economic performance of steers finished in feedlot, fed three levels of sugar cane bagasse pellets (SBP in diets without long-fiber. The treatments consisted of 0%, 7% and 14% of SBP in a mixture of concentrate, comprising 80% whole corn grain plus 20% of a protein core. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. The diet with 0% of SBP promoted lower dry matter intake and weight gain. Feed conversion was similar between treatments, with an average of 6.21 kg-1. The lower dry matter digestibility was found in the diet with 14% of SBP. The introduction of SBP did not change the rumination, averaging 1.9 hours day-1. Animals fed 7% of SBP showed higher fat thickness. Due to the numerical differences between treatments for feed conversion in housing and daily cost of food, the profit margin was maximal in the diet with 0% of SBP, with values of R$ 338.1; R$ 311.6 and R$ 305,1 per animal, respectively 0%, 7% and 14% of SBP. The introduction of SBP promoted improvements in production performance, but did not improve the economic results of steers finished in feedlot.

  13. quarters

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    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Are there many words combining both space and time? A quarter is one of such rare words: it means both a part of the city space and a period of the year. A regular city has parts bordered by four streets. For example, Chita is a city with an absolutely orthogonal historical center. This Utopian city was designed by Decembrists in the depth of Siberian ore-mines (120. The 130 Quarter in Irkutsk is irregular from its inception because of its triangular form. Located between two roads, the forked quarter was initially bordered by flows along the west-east axis – the main direction of the country. That is why it appreciated the gift for the 350 anniversary of its transit existence – a promenade for an unhurried flow of pedestrians. The quarter manages this flow quite well, while overcoming the difficulties of new existence and gathering myths (102. Arousing many expectations, the “Irkutsk’s Quarters” project continues the theme that was begun by the 130 Quarter and involved regeneration, revival and search for Genius Loci and the key to each single quarter (74. Beaded on the trading axis, these shabby and unfriendly quarters full of rubbish should be transformed for the good of inhabitants, guests and the small business. The triptych by Lidin, Rappaport and Nevlyutov is about happiness of urbanship and cities for people, too (58. The City Community Forum was also devoted to the urban theme (114. Going through the last quarter of the year, we hope that Irkutsk will keep to the right policy, so that in the near future the wooden downtown quarters will become its pride, and the design, construction and investment complexes will join in desire to increase the number of comfortable and lively quarters in our city. The Baikal Beam will get one more landmark: the Smart School (22 for Irkutsk’s children, including orphans, will be built in several years on the bank of Chertugeevsky Bay.

  14. Effects of sorghum wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sorghum wet distillers grains (SWDGS) in finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 240 steers (initial BW = 379 +/-1 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with or without 25%...

  15. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus in sugarcane-based diets for steers

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    Maria Gabriela da Conceição

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of replacing wheat bran with spineless cactus (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% in sugar cane-based diets on the intake of nutrients, feeding behavior, and rumen digestibility of steers was assessed using digested samples collected from the omasum. Five crossbred steers (1/2 Holstein-Zebu were fitted with cannulas in the rumen and then assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Samples of omasal digesta were collected for three days. Rumen was evacuated via the rumen cannula to determine the rumen pool of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, indigestible NDF (iNDF, intake (ki, passage (kp and degradation (NDF rates, and the passage of iNDF (kpi. Nutrient intake displayed a quadratic effect, with maximum intakes of DM (5.73 kg d−1, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, 4.63 kg d−1, and digestible organic matter (DOM, 3.45 kg d−1 estimated at the replacement levels of 54.63, 60.00, and 43.17%, respectively. The replacement levels showed no effect on feeding, rumination, or idle times. There was a linear increase in the total apparent and ruminal digestibility of CP as the spineless cactus content in the diet was increased. There was no effect on total and partial digestibilities of OM and NDF or on intestinal digestibility of CP. No effect was observed on the rumen pool of DM, NDF, or iNDF. Furthermore, ki, kp, NDF degradation, and iNDF passage rates displayed a quadratic effect, with higher concentrations estimated for replacement levels of 56.07, 56.12, 59.00, and 55.20%, respectively. Replacing 55% wheat bran with spineless cactus in sugar cane-based diets is recommended.

  16. RESEARCH INTO THE USE OF DIETARY NITROGEN BY GROWING AND FATTENING STEERS IN RELATION TO DIET FORMULATION AND ENERGY CONTENT

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    I. VOICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were done on the use of the dietary nitrogen by fattening steers between 300-450 kg using the method of in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Alfalfa and corn-based diets were used, in different forms of preservation and with different ratio of the bulk forage to the concentrate feeds; diet digestibility expressed as organic matter and protein varied between 72-76% and between 66- 75% respectively; the best performance produced by the corn silage diets were observed in diet 2 (with ammonia, while the best results produced by the alfalfa diets was noticed in diet 5 (haylage; nitrogen balance showed the highest values of the retained nitrogen in the alfalfa half-hay diet, the alfalfa hay diet having lower values.

  17. Feeding behavior and productive performance of steers fed pearl millet grain-based diets containing proportions of babassu mesocarp bran

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    Wanderson Martins Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior and feedlot productive performance of dairy-origin steers fed for 84 days ground pearl millet grain-based diets with 0, 120, 240, 360, and 480 g kg-1 of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB and a standard diet based on ground corn. Thirty Holstein-Zebu steers with average initial body weight of 371.02±27 kg were used. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replications. Dry matter intake showed better fit with the quadratic regression equation with the inclusion of BMB, reaching a maximum value in diets with 360 g of this by-product. There was no difference for dry matter intake between pearl millet- and corn-based diets. There was no difference in total digestible nutrients intake between diets. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter decreased linearly with the increase in the dietary level of BMB. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter was not different between corn and millet diets. There was no difference in feeding time between diets. Total requirement of metabolizable energy increased linearly with inclusion of BMB. However, total requirements of metabolizable energy did not differ between the corn- and pearl millet-based diets. Average daily gain decreased linearly with the increase in BMB, with adjustment forced by the sharp decline of this variable in diets with 480 g of BMB. There was no difference in average daily gain between corn- and pearl millet-based diets. The inclusion of levels above 360 g of babassu mesocarp bran in pearl millet-based diets reduces the supply of metabolizable energy and the productive performance of feedlot dairy steers.

  18. Performance and carcass yield of crossbred dairy steers fed diets with different levels of concentrate.

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    da Silva, Gabriel Santana; Chaves Véras, Antônia Sherlanea; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Moreira Dutra, Wilson; Menezes Wanderley Neves, Maria Luciana; Oliveira Souza, Evaristo Jorge; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando; de Lima, Dorgival Morais

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels (170, 340, 510 and 680 g/kg of total dry matter) on dry matter intake, digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of 25 Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers in a feedlot. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and digestibility coefficients of all nutrients increased linearly. The total weight gain and average daily gain added 1.16 kg and 9.90 g, respectively, for each 10 g/kg increase in concentrate. The empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight responded linearly to increasing concentrate. The hot carcass yield and cold carcass yield, gains in empty body weight and carcass gain were also influenced, as were the efficiencies of carcass deposition and carcass deposition rate. It is concluded that increasing concentrate levels in feedlot diets increase the intake and digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients, improving the feed efficiency, performance and physical characteristics of the carcass. Furthermore and of importance concerning the climate change debate, evidence from the literature indicates that enteric methane production would be reduced with increasing concentrate levels such as those used.

  19. Effect of post-ethanol extraction sorghum silage as a forage source in growing and finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility.

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    Blank, C P; Loy, D D; Hansen, S L

    2017-07-01

    Two experiments evaluated the use of post-ethanol extraction sorghum silage as an alternative forage source in feedlot diets. Seventy-two crossbred steers (397 kg [SD 23]) were used to evaluate growth and carcass characteristics. Steers were blocked by BW into pens of 6 steers and randomly assigned to growing diets containing 40% (DM basis) sorghum silage (SS; 57.6% NDF) or grass hay (CON; 63.3% NDF) for 56 d ( = 6 pens per treatment). Within each treatment, steers transitioned to dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets (fed for 56 d) containing 6% effective NDF contributed by the forage source, resulting in forage inclusions of 16% for SS and 13.1% for CON, where forage replaced corn. A subsample of steers ( = 12 per treatment) housed in pens equipped with GrowSafe bunks were used for determination of growing phase diet total tract digestibility. From d 28 to 42, steers received titanium dioxide at approximately 10 g∙steer∙d, and fecal samples were collected on d 41 and 42. Fecal and total mixed ration samples were dried and ground for analysis of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, CP, ether extract (EE), and starch. Data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS, with fixed effects of treatment and block for performance and carcass data or treatment for digestibility data; significance was determined at ≤ 0.05 and tendencies at ≤ 0.10. Growing phase DMI and ADG did not differ due to treatment ( ≥ 0.19); however, SS-fed steers had improved G:F compared with CON-fed steers ( = 0.04). Finishing period ADG and G:F did not differ ( ≥ 0.15) between treatments, despite SS-fed steers having lesser ( = 0.008) DMI than CON-fed steers. No differences in DMI, ADG, or G:F over the whole trial were noted between treatments ( ≥ 0.12) nor were any carcass traits affected ( ≥ 0.23). During the digestibility assessment period, DMI was less ( = 0.003) in SS-fed steers. Growing phase total tract apparent digestibility of DM and starch did not differ ( ≥ 0.19) due to treatment

  20. Carcass and meat characteristics of steers or bulls, finished in feedlot and fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate

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    José Luis Moletta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characters of carcass and meat from bulls and steers finished in feedlot during a 116 day period, in individual stalls and fed with a diet of corn silage and three levels of concentrate (0.70; 0.97 and 1.23% of body weight. The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% of ground corn grain 1% of a mineral mix and 1% of limestone. A total of 169 composite Purunã animals, being 94 bulls and 75 steers with average age of 20 months. The interaction between physiological condition and level of concentrate was not significant (P>0.05 for any of the studied variables. Likewise, no effect of level of concentrate was detected upon the same traits. The bulls presented heavier slaughter weight (493.1 kg in comparison with the steers (450.0 kg as well as higher carcass yield (55.2 vs. 53.5%, resulting in a hot carcass weight 12.1% heavier than bulls animals, though with a lower degree of carcass finishing (3.6 vs. 4.2 mm, respectively. Bulls produced carcasses with better conformation and higher area of Longissimus dorsi (68.6 vs. 63.3 cm2, and higher percentage of muscle in comparison with castrated (66.5 vs. 62.8%. The meat from bulls was darker and with lower degree of marbling in relation to steers. Nevertheless, no differences were observed for tenderness nor for juiciness, though steers had more palatable meat.

  1. Effects of partial replacement of maize in the diet with crude glycerin and/or soyabean oil on ruminal fermentation and microbial population in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja-Salcedo, Yury Tatiana; Duarte Messana, Juliana; Carneiro de Souza, Vinícius; Lino Dias, Ana Veronica; Takeshi Kishi, Luciano; Rocha Rebelo, Lucas; Teresinha Berchielli, Telma

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of crude glycerin (CG) and soyabean oil (SO) could be used to partially replace maize in the diet of Nellore steers while maintaining optimum feed utilisation. Eight castrated Nellore steers fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a double 4×4 Latin square design balanced for residual effects, in a factorial arrangement (A×B), when factor A corresponded to the provision of SO, and factor B to the provision of CG. Steers feed SO and CG showed similar DM intake, DM, organic matter and neutral-detergent fibre digestibility to that of steers fed diets without oil and without glycerine (P>0·05). Both diets with CG additions reduced the acetate:propionate ratio and increased the proportion of iso-butyrate, butyrate, iso-valerate and valerate (Pdiets containing SO had less total N excretion (Pdiet generated a greater ruminal abundance of Prevotella, Succinivibrio, Ruminococcus, Syntrophococcus and Succiniclasticum. Archaea abundance (P=0·002) and total ciliate protozoa were less in steers fed diets containing SO (P=0·011). CG associated with lipids could be an energy source, which is a useful strategy for the partial replacement of maize in cattle diets, could result in reduced total N excretion and ruminal methanogens without affecting intake and digestibility.

  2. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Composition of Finishing Steers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Yuhong; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Ren, Liping; Zhou, Bo; Schonewille, Thomas; Zhou, Zhenming

    This study investigated the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP) on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing steers. Corn grain- and cotton meal-based concentrate was partially replaced with EML or SMFP. The diets had

  3. Fatty acid composition of beef steers as affected by diet and fat depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2015-10-09

    , PO Box 3000, ... red clover silage (RC) : barley concentrate), a diet with sunflower ... et al., 2012; 2015) which have potential human health benefits ...... and waste to health and opportunity. Meat Sci. 92,. 210-220. Mapiye, C.

  4. Effect of nitrogen supplementation on urea kinetics and microbial use of recycled urea in steers consuming corn-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Jones, M L; Anderson, D E

    2010-08-01

    We studied the effects of supplementing N as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) or urea to steers consuming corn-based diets. Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (244 kg) were used in 2 concurrent 3 x 3 Latin squares and fed 1 of 3 corn-based diets: control (10.2% CP), urea (13.3% CP), or DDGS (14.9% CP). Periods were 14 d, with 9 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and feces. Urinary (15)N(15)N-urea enrichments, resulting from venous infusions of (15)N(15)N-urea, were used to measure urea kinetics. Dry matter intake (6.0 kg/d) was not affected by treatment, but N intake differed (99, 151, and 123 g/d for the control, DDGS, and urea treatments, respectively). Urea-N synthesis tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for DDGS (118 g/d) than for the control treatment (52 g/d), with the urea treatment (86 g/d) being intermediate. Urea-N excreted in the urine was greater (P urea treatments (29 g/d) than for the control treatment (13 g/d). Gastrointestinal entry of urea-N was not statistically different among treatments (P = 0.25), but was numerically greatest for DDGS (83 g/d), intermediate for urea (57 g/d), and least for the control (39 g/d). The amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for the DDGS treatment (47 g/d) than for the urea (27 g/d) or control treatment (16 g/d). The fraction of recycled urea-N that was apparently used for anabolism tended (P = 0.14) to be greater for the control treatment (0.56) than for the DDGS treatment (0.31), with the urea treatment (0.45) being intermediate, but no differences were observed among treatments in the amount of urea-N used for anabolism (P = 0.66). Urea kinetics in cattle fed grain-based diets were largely related to the amount of N consumed. The percentage of urea production that was captured by ruminal bacteria was greater (P urea treatment (22%), but the percentage of duodenal microbial N flow that was derived from recycled urea-N tended (P = 0.10) to

  5. Physicochemical Quality, Fatty Acid Composition, and Sensory Analysis of Nellore Steers Meat Fed with Inclusion of Condensed Tannin in the Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteira, Susana M; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Silva, Thadeu M; Ribeiro, Rebeca D X; Ribeiro, Cláudio V D M; Pereira, Elzania S; Lanna, Dante P D; Pinto, Luis F B; Rocha, Tiago C; Vieira, Jusaline F; Bezerra, Leilson R

    2018-05-01

    This study was conducted to test the effect of dietary tannin on the fatty acid profile and sensory attributes of meat from Nellore steers. Thirty-two Nellore bull male were distributed in a completely randomized design and fed diets with condensed tannin extract as follows: 0, 10, 30, and 50 g/kg total DM basis. The physicochemical composition of the meat, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile, flavor, tenderness, and overall acceptance were evaluated. There was a linear decrease (P ≤ 0.05) on lipid content, tenderness, cooking weight loss, myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids in meat as tannin increased in the diets. The total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, the atherogenicity index decreased. However, a linear increase (P ≤ 0.05) was observed for linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids. The physicochemical characteristic of the meat, such as moisture, ash, and protein contents, water retention capacity, final pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, collagen, and color indexes (lightness, redness, yellowness, and chrome) did not change with dietary tannin. Also, CLA, n-6:n-3 ratio, Δ 9 -desaturase, and elongase activity were not different among diets. In conclusion, condensed tannin linearly increases unsaturated fatty acids and decreases the atherogenicity index of meat; thus, it can be recommended at the highest level (50 g/kg DM) in the diet of Nellore steers. Agriculture byproducts plays an important part in the diet of ruminant animals and consequently on food chain and has implications for the composition and quality of the livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs) that people consume. Feeding tannin to steers increases the amount of unsaturated fatty acids and meat tenderness, with a concomitant reduction on saturated fatty acids and the atherogenicity index in meat. Thus, we recommend adding tannin to steer diets to reduce the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in red meat for human consumption.

  6. Ingestive behavior of Nellore steers in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the feeding behavior of Nellore beef cattle in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids. Twenty-seven animals averaging 350 ± 24 kg of body weight and 24 months of age, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T, where, T1-TDFC: total diet containing flint corn, T2-TDSFC: total diet containing semi-flint corn and T3-TDSDC: total diet containing semi-dent corn, with 9 replicates per treatment. The animals were fed ad libitum twice a day (at 8:00am and 4:00pm with a isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet, with 30% of sugar cane bagasse and 70% concentrate (88% maize, 8% soybean meal, 3% mineral and vitamin supplement and 1% urea for 95 days (14 days of adaptation and 3 experimental periods of 27 days each. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and after each period of 27 days, always in a fasting period of 16 hours. The evaluation of animals feeding behavior occurred at the last day of each period by visual observation every five minutes for full periods of 24 hours. Observations were made in four shifts: morning (06:00 to 12:00, afternoon (12:00 to 18:00, evening (18:00 to 00:00 and early morning (00:00 06:00 to determine the number of ruminal bolus, chewing time, total feeding time, total ruminating standing time, total ruminating lying time, total standing idle time and total lying idle time. During the night’s observations, the stalls received artificial illumination to facilitate the data collection and the animals were adapted with light at night for three days before observations. Animals fed with diets containing semi-dent corn had longer chew time and more ruminal bolus than those fed with flint corn, but did not differ from those that received semi-flint corn in the diet. The chewing time and number of ruminal bolus varied with the observation periods, being higher in the morning and decreasing in the

  7. Postprandial changes in methanogenic and acidogenic bacteria in the rumens of steers fed high- or low-forage diets once daily.

    OpenAIRE

    Leedle, J A; Greening, R C

    1988-01-01

    Four ruminally fistulated Hereford steers (400 kg) were fed two isocaloric diets at 1.5 x maintenance once daily in a repeated measurement crossover experiment. Postprandial changes in hydrogen-oxidizing, carbon dioxide-reducing bacterial groups were monitored. The methanogenic bacterial populations were present at densities of 4 x 10(8) to 8 x 10(8)/g of ruminal contents on either the high- or low-forage diet. Numbers remained constant postprandially on the high-forage diet but showed a dist...

  8. Feeding behavior of crossbred steers fed diets containing babassu mesocarp meal and corn in kernels or ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the use of babassu mesocarp meal (BMM and corn in different physical forms on the feeding behavior of crossbred young bulls of a dairy breed. Twenty-four crossbred (Nellore vs. Holstein steers (307.35 kg were fed four experimental diets containing two levels of inclusion of the babassu mesocarp meal (0 and 412.4 g/kg and corn in two physical forms (kernels or ground for 98 days. Data was collected on three days during the finishing phase, with observations every five minutes, for 24 hours. When the activities performed by the animals were evaluated as a function of the period of the day, the physical form of the corn showed interaction with the BMM inclusion level on the time spent feeding and on other activities. When the activities were evaluated over the day, the defecation frequency was affected and decreased as BMM was included. The feeding time was longer at the moments that followed feed supply, whereas the time used for other activities increased during the morning period, regardless of the diet utilized. Rumination and idle times were affected by the period of the day and remained high during the night and morning periods. There was increase in feeding time and dry matter rumination efficiencies and neutral detergent fiber as BMM was added to the diet. The number of rumination chews per bolus, however, decreased as BMB was included. Inclusion of babassu mesocarp meal increases the animal feeding time but the physical form of corn does not change its feeding behavior.

  9. Whole maae versus ground matze in fattening diets for beef steers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beide groepe is vir 105 dae teen ad libitum peile gevoer. Geen statisties betekenisvolle verskille, in terme van groei- en doeltreffendheidsparameters, kon tussen die twee .... to that of the complete diet based on ground maue. The added advantage of savings in processing of the maizr, protein and roughage would therefore.

  10. Effects of diet and Aspergillus oryzae extract or Saccharomyces cervisiae on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and steers fed to meet requirements of natural markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerby, H N; Bard, J L; Loerch, S C; Kuber, P S; Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L

    2011-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of diet and feed additive on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and cattle destined for all natural markets. In Exp. 1, 48 Dorset × Hampshire lambs (initial BW 29.4 ± 0.1 kg) were used in a randomized complete block experiment to determine the effects of Aspergillus oryzae extract, Amaferm (AMF) supplementation (1 g/d) in an 85% concentrate diet on growth and carcass characteristics. Lambs were allotted to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen), and blocked by sex and BW. Lambs were fed until the average BW of each pen reached a target BW (55.4 kg for wethers and 50.0 kg for ewes), at which time the entire pen of lambs was slaughtered. Amaferm resulted in a greater (P=0.07) G:F. In Exp. 2, 168 crossbred steers (initial BW 300 ± 0.7 kg) were used in a trial with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to examine the effects of 0.5 g/d of Saccaromyces cervisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell SB (LEV), or 3 g/d of AMF with 2 corn sources, dry whole-shelled corn or high moisture corn, on growth and carcass characteristics. Neither LEV nor AMF improved (P>0.10) carcass characteristics compared with control or non-feed-supplemented steers. Addition of LEV to high-concentrate, corn-based diets did not improve (P>0.10) growth performance of feedlot steers. However, addition of AMF to a diet composed of dry whole-shelled corn resulted in an improvement (P<0.05) in G:F (0.208 vs. 0.194). Results indicate that at the amounts fed, AMF may improve G:F for lambs and steers fed dry corn-based finishing diets. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  11. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (Pproducts (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (Pmeat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  12. The effects of finishing diet and postmortem ageing on the eating quality of the M. longissimus thoracis of electrically stimulated Brahman steer carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, H L; Stark, J L; Beilken, S L

    2004-06-01

    Beef from cattle finished on grass will be of similar quality to that from cattle finished on grain when their carcasses are processed using best practice protocols. To test this hypothesis, carcasses of twenty Brahman steers, finished to 400 kg live weight on either Buffel grass pasture (n=10) or grain (n=10), were electrically stimulated with 400 V for 50 s 45 min postmortem, and their beef quality assessed 1 and 14 days postmortem. Hot weight, rump subcutaneous fat thickness and animal rate of growth in the 205 days preceding slaughter were recorded for each carcass as potential influences on beef quality. Quality of the M. longissimus thoracis (LT) at 1 and 14 days postmortem was evaluated using peak Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, pH, cooking loss and taste panel acceptability, as well as by moisture and crude fat contents measured at 1 day postmortem. Results showed that steers finished on pasture grew the slowest and had the least subcutaneous fat at the same carcass weight. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture also had the shortest mean sarcomere lengths, suggesting these muscles may have been cold-affected, but there was no effect of diet on peak shear force. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture had the highest mean compression value, possibly because of increased collagen cross-linking associated with slow growth or increased exercise. Ageing significantly decreased LT peak shear force and compression values and increased cooking loss, L (∗), a (∗) and b (∗) values. Taste panellists rated the aged, grass-finished beef the most tender and the best quality; however, the taste panel in this study may have favoured LT from grass-finished steers because it was significantly juicier than LT from the grain-finished steer carcasses. These results indicated that carcass composition and processing conditions interact to exert a greater effect on LT toughness and sensory acceptability than finishing diet. Ageing LT from steers

  13. Carcass characteristics of steers of different genetic predominance fed diets containing levels of substitution of corn grain by millet grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Medeiros da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the carcass and meat characteristics of European crossbred young bulls or Zebu crossbred young bulls feedlot finished with diets with high percentage of concentrate (80% containing different levels of grounded millet grain as replacement for grounded corn grain (0, 33, 66 and 100%. Forty-five young bulls with genotype predominance of Aberdeen Angus and forty-four young bulls with genotype predominance Nellore with average initial weight of 317.8 and 320.7 kg, respectively, and average age of 21 month, were allocated in 16 collective pens. At the end of the finishing period were slaughtered six animals of each genetic group, chosen according to the body weight and degree of finishing each treatment. The experimental design was the completely randomized design with treatments in a 4x2 factorial arrangement using six replicates. The replacement of corn grain by millet grain did not significantly influence slaughter weight (480.4 kg, hot carcass weight (259.5 kg, carcass yield (54.1% and subcutaneous fat thickness (3.95 mm. Young bulls with genotype predominance of Aberdeen Angus showed significantly higher values for slaughter weight (507.6 vs. 453.3 kg, hot carcass weight (269.6 vs. 249.3 kg and longissimus dorsi area (65.34 vs 56.83 cm2, however, were lower in carcass yield (53.2 vs. 55.00%. Millet grain can be used in substitution to corn grain for finishing steers since it does not change carcass traits of economic interest.

  14. Effects of glycerin concentration in steam-flaked corn-based diets with supplemental yellow grease on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttrey, E K; Luebbe, M K; McCollum, F T; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C; Hales, K E

    2015-07-01

    Forty-eight individually fed crossbred steers (initial BW = 381 ± 7.61 kg) were used to determine the effects of glycerin (GLY) concentration in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with added yellow grease on animal performance and carcass characteristics. Glycerin was included at 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% dietary DM replacing SFC. A completely randomized design was used with steers as the experimental unit, and the model included the fixed effects of diet. Contrast statements were used to determine linear and quadratic effects of GLY inclusion. Final BW and DMI were not affected (P > 0.27) by GLY concentration. Average daily gain and G:F based on live BW did not differ as GLY level increased in the diet from 0 to 10% of DM (P > 0.33). Carcass-adjusted final BW and carcass-adjusted G:F were also not affected by GLY concentration (P > 0.22); however, carcass-adjusted ADG tended to respond quadratically by decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY inclusion and increasing thereafter (P = 0.10). Calculated dietary NEm and NEg did not differ as GLY increased in the diet (P > 0.37). Hot carcass weight tended to respond quadratically, decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY and increasing thereafter (P = 0.10). Likewise, dressing percentage tended to respond quadratically by decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY inclusion and increasing to 10% GLY inclusion (P = 0.09). Fat thickness decreased linearly as GLY inclusion increased in the diet (P 0.21). Calculated yield grade (YG) decreased linearly as GLY increased in the diet from 0 to 10% of DM (P = 0.04). Based on our results, there was no animal performance benefit for replacing SFC with GLY in diets containing yellow grease, and the only change in carcass merit was a slight improvement in YG.

  15. Digestibility and performance of steers fed low-quality crop residues treated with calcium oxide to partially replace corn in distillers grains finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Harding, J L; Griffin, W A; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Cecava, M J

    2015-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify methods for treating crop residues to improve digestibility and value in finishing diets based on corn grain and corn wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS). In Exp. 1, 336 yearling steers (initial BW 356 ± 11.5 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 pens per treatment. Factors were 3 crop residues (corn cobs, wheat straw, and corn stover) and 2 treatments where crop residues were either fed (20% diet DM) in their native form (NT) or alkaline treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and hydrated to 50% DM before anaerobic storage (AT). Intakes were not affected by diet (F test; P = 0.30). An interaction between chemical treatment and residue (P 0.10) was observed between control (46% corn; DM basis) and AT (31% corn; DM basis) for DM digestibility (70.7% vs. 73.7%) or OM digestibility (72.1% vs. 77.0%). Dry matter intakes were not different between treated and untreated diets (P = 0.38), but lower (P < 0.01) NDF intake was observed for treated diets (3.1 vs. 3.5 kg/d), suggesting that CaO treatment was effective in solubilizing some carbohydrate. These data suggest that 15% replacement of corn and 10% untreated residue with treated forage result in a nutrient supply of OM similar to that of the control. The improvements in total tract fiber digestibility that occurred when treated forages were fed may have been related to increased digestibility of recoverable NDF and not to increased ruminal pH. Feeding chemically treated crop residues and WDGS is an effective strategy for replacing a portion of corn grain and roughage in feedlot diets.

  16. Effects of physical form and stage of maturity at harvest of whole-crop barley silage on intake, chewing activity, diet selection and faecal particle size of dairy steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustas, B.-O.; Nørgaard, Peder; Jalali, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of physical form and stage of maturity at harvest of whole-crop barley silage (WCBS) on feed intake, eating and rumination activity, diet selection and faecal particle size in dairy steers. Whole-crop barley was harvested and ensiled in round bales. Eight dairy ste...

  17. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on alfalfa nutrient degradation characteristics and rumen microbial populations of steers fed diets with different concentrate-to-forage ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Gengzhi; Chang, Ying; Zhao, Liping; Zhou, Zhenming; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) constitutes an effective additive for animal production; its probiotic effect may be related to the concentrate-to-forage ratio (CTFR). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of S. cerevisiae (SC) on fiber degradation and rumen microbial populations in steers fed diets with different levels of dietary concentrate. Ten Simmental × Local crossbred steers (450 ± 50 kg BW) were assigned to a control group or an SC group. Both groups were fed the same basal diet but the SC group received SC supplementation (8 × 10(9) cfu/h/d through the ruminal fistula) following a two-period crossover design. Each period consisted of four phases, each of which lasted 17 d: 10 d for dietary adaptation, 6 d for degradation study, and 1 d for rumen sample collection. From the 1(st) to the 4(th) phase, steers were fed in a stepwise fashion with increasing CTFRs, i.e., 30:70, 50:50, 70:30, and 90:10. The kinetics of dry matter and fiber degradation of alfalfa pellets were evaluated; the rumen microbial populations were detected using real-time PCR. The results revealed no significant (P > 0.05) interactions between dietary CTFR and SC for most parameters. Dietary CTFR had a significant effect (P trend for these parameters. SC supplementation significantly (P trend of rumen fungi and protozoa in SC group (P < 0.1); copies of total bacteria in SC group were significantly higher (P < 0.05). Additionally, percentage of Ruminobacter amylophilus was significantly lower (P < 0.05) but percentage of Selenomonas ruminantium was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the SC group. In a word, dietary CTFR had a significant effect on degradation characteristics of forage and rumen microbial population. S. cerevisiae had positive effects on DM and NDF degradation rate or effective degradability of forage; S. cerevisiae increased rumen total bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and lactate-utilizing bacteria but reduced

  18. Effects of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles co-ensiled with direct-cut forage on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and diet digestibility of finishing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R P; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Scholljegerdes, E J; Baird, A N; Johnson, K D; Buckmaster, D; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2012-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles (MWDGS) co-ensiled with direct-cut forage (DC) to beef steers, on feedlot performance and total tract digestibility. In Exp. 1, sixty-four crossbred Angus steers (n = 64; 329 ± 43 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) corn-silage and soybean meal (CON), 2) DC co-ensiled with MWDGS (CO-EN), 3) haylage mixed with MWDGS at feeding (H+WDG), and 4) haylage mixed with dry distillers grains plus solubles at feeding (H+DDG). Steers were harvested when they reached an endpoint of 1.1 cm of 12th-rib back fat. In Exp. 2, four ruminally cannulated beef steers (initial BW = 556 ± 31 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square to evaluate digestibility of diets used in Exp. 1. Experimental periods were 14 d in length with 10 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for sample collection. Three linear orthogonal contrasts were used to compare effects of 1) CON vs. diets containing distillers grains (DGD), 2) CO-EN vs. diets where distillers grains were mixed at feeding (MIX), and 3) H+WDG vs. H+DDG. In Exp. 1, DMI was less (P 0.10) in DM, OM, or N intakes were observed. Apparent total tract DM (P = 0.01) and N (P = 0.02) digestibility were greatest in steers fed CON compared with all others. Steers fed DGD had less (P = 0.02) rumen NH(3) concentrations compared with CON. The CON diet resulted in greater molar concentrations of VFA (P = 0.03) and decreased acetate to propionate ratio (P = 0.03) compared with all DGD. These data suggest that feeding MWDGS co-ensiled with direct-cut forage results in reduced diet digestibility but equal or greater feedlot performance and similar carcass and characteristics when compared with a corn diet supplemented with soybean meal and diets where MWDGS and DDGS were added at the mixer.

  19. Effect of supplemental nutrient source on heifer growth and reproductive performance, and on utilization of corn silage-based diets by beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, C M; Vanzant, E S; Anderson, L H; Burris, W R; Fieser, B G; Bapst, R F

    2003-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of oilseeds or soybean hulls on growth and reproductive performance of heifers and utilization of corn silage diets by growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 96 beef heifers (249 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were as follows: 1) corn and soybean meal (CON) at 56% of the DMI; 2) whole linted cottonseed at 15% of the DMI (COT); 3) whole raw soybeans at 15% of the DMI (SB); or 4) pelleted soyhulls at 30% of the DMI (SH). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (13.8% CP) and fed to achieve target weights equal to 65% of expected mature BW at the time of AI. Estrus was synchronized and heifers were inseminated by AI in response to detected estrus. Because the energy value for SH was underestimated, cumulative ADG for SH (1.03 kg/d) was greater (P 0.10) the proportion of pubertal heifers at the beginning of the breeding season: CON (60%), COT (53%), SB (69%), SH (71%), or first-service conception rates: CON (37%); COT (38%); SB (57%); SH (42%). In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (387 kg) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of supplemental nutrient source on utilization of corn silage diets. Treatments included diets used in Exp. 1, plus a negative control (soybean meal at 10% of the DMI; SIL) and whole raw soybeans at 25% of the DMI (SB25). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (13.8% CP) except SB25 (17% CP), and were fed twice daily at 1.8 x NEm. Oilseed inclusion decreased (P tract NDF digestibilities. The CON and SH diets had the greatest (P tract OM digestibilities. Microbial efficiencies were greatest (P reproductive performance of heifers. Although oilseed additions increased total fatty acid flow to the duodenum, a high degree of biohydrogenation occurred, greatly increasing C18:0, with only marginal increases in unsaturated fatty acid flow. Depending on diet and feeding conditions, inclusion of whole oilseeds may not be an effective means of

  20. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  1. Effects of duration of vitamin C supplementation during the finishing period on postmortem protein degradation, tenderness, and meat color of the longissimus muscle of calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% sulfur diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, D J; Lonergan, S M; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    High-S (HS) diets have been identified as a causative agent in the development of oxidative stress in cattle, which in postmortem muscle can negatively alter meat quality. Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant produced endogenously by cattle; however, exogenous supplementation of VC may be useful when HS diets are fed to cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of duration of VC supplementation, for the first 56, 90, or 127 d, during the finishing period on meat color and tenderness of the longissimus thoracis (LT) collected from calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% S diet. Angus steers ( n= 42) were stratified to pens by initial BW (304 ± 13 kg) and GeneMax marbling score (4.3 ± 0.12), and each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments (6 steers/pen, 1 pen/treatment), including HS (0.59% S, a combination of dried distillers grains plus solubles and sodium sulfate) control (HS CON), HS CON + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (HS VC56), 90 d (HS VC90), or 127 d (HS VC127), low S (LS; 0.31% S) + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (LS VC56), 90 d (LS VC90), or 127 d (LS VC127). Steers were harvested (n = 40) and, after a 24-h chill, rib sections (LT) were collected. pH was determined on each rib section before division into 3 sections for determination of 1) 7-d retail display and color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), 2) 14-d WBSF determination, and 3) protein degradation and collagen content (2 d postmortem). Data were analyzed by ANOVA as a completely randomized design, with the fixed effect of treatment. Individual feed intake was recorded, and steer was the experimental unit. The HS steers had a greater and lesser percent of the 80- and 76-kDa subunits of calpain-1 (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, and tended to have less (P = 0.08) troponin T degradation (d2), and more (P = 0.02) collagen than LS steers. Increasing days of VC supplementation decreased (P = 0.05) the percentage of the 80 kDa subunit of

  2. Steering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeffer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents basic principles as well as advanced concepts of the computational modeling of steering systems. Moreover, the book includes the components and functionalities of modern steering system, which are presented comprehensively and in a practical way. The book is written by more than 15 leading experts from the automotive industry and its components suppliers. The target audience primarily comprises practicing engineers, developers, researchers as well as graduate students who want to specialize in this field.

  3. Steers performance fed diets with Alexander grass silage (Urochloa plantaginea x sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flânia Mônego Argenta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the parameters related to feedlot beef steers fed with Alexander grass silage or sorghum silage as roughage source. Twelve animals with initial average of weight and age of 245 kg and 20 months, respectively, belonging to Nellore (N, Charolais (C, 21/32 N 11/32 C, 21/32 C 11/32 N; 43/64 N 21/64 C and 43/64 C 21/64 N genetic groups were used. The ration was composed by a roughage:concentrate relation of 50:50 (dry matter basis, offered at ease. The dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber daily intake didn’t differ between roughage sources, being the medium values of 10.18; 1.28; 0.20; 4.96 and 2.51 kg/day, respectively. However, the ether extract intake by metabolic size and by corporal weight percentage were higher for the one that consumed sorghum silage, obtaining values of 2.74 and 2.36 g/metabolic size and 0.06 and 0.05 kg/100 kg of live weight. The same behavior was observed for digestible energy intake, presenting values of 364.87 and 302.83 g/metabolic size and 8.10 and 7.02 kg/100 kg of live weight. The daily average gain, final corporal score and feed conversion weren’t influenced by roughage type, being the values of 1.31 kg; 4.05 points and 7.78 kg of DM/kg of weight gain, respectively. The Alexander grass silage is a feasible alternative as its substitution in relation to sorghum silage.

  4. Biogas production from steer manures in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cuong H.; Saggar, Surinder; Vu, Cuong C.

    2017-01-01

    manures collected from two different experiments of steers fed diets containing feed supplements. BMP was 110.1 (NLkg-1 VS) for manure from steers receiving a control diet, significantly lower 79.0 (NL kg-1 VS) for manure from steers fed a diet containing 0.3% tannin (%DM), but then showed an increasing...... trend to 90.9 and 91.2 (NL kg-1 VS) for manures from steers receiving 0.4 and 0.5% tannin (%DM) supplements, respectively. Similarly, the CH4 production (NL kg-1 VS) of manure from steers was 174 for control, 142 for control supplemented concentrate (C), 143 for control added rice straw treated...

  5. Influence of supplementing vitamin C to yearling steers fed a high sulfur diet during the finishing period on meat color, tenderness and protein degradation, and fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of vitamin C (VC) supplemented for approximately 102 d during the finishing period on color, tenderness, and fatty acid profile of longissimus thoracis (LT; n=136) from steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet. Treatments included 4 supplemental VC concentrations: 1) 0 (CON), 2) 5 (5VC), 3) 10 (10VC), or 4) 20 (20VC) gVC·h(-1)∙d(-1) in a common diet. Increasing supplemental VC decreased (Pvitamin E and tended to increase (P≤0.07) calcium and iron content of steaks. No VC (P≥0.25) effect was noted for WBSF, calpain-1 autolysis, troponin T degradation, or most fatty acid profiles. A quadratic effect (P≤0.03) was observed for cholesterol and CLA content of LT. Under the conditions of our study, supplementing VC to steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet late in the finishing period did not influence color or tenderness, but increased the vitamin E content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intake and utilization of energy from ammonia-treated and untreated wheat straw by steers and wether sheep given a basal diet of grass pellets and hay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.; Boekholt, H.A.; Los, M.J.N.; Leffering, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments, experiment 1 with six steers in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design and experiment 2 with four wether sheep in a cross-over design, were conducted to study the effect of species and ammonia treatment on intake and utilization of the energy of untreated wheat straw. Treatments were: (1)

  7. Steering straight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-12-15

    Baker Hughes Inc. has developed a deep azimuthal resistivity measurement tool for subsurface navigation when drilling oil and gas wells. This tool, named AziTrak, has measurement-while-drilling and logging-while-drilling capabilities and data are sent in real time to the surface via mud pulse or wired pipe telemetry. This technology helps the operator detect and visualize bed boundaries in real time, thanks to 3D imagery and a 360 degree view of the subsurface. The AziTrak system makes it possible to steer proactively and to stay within the pay zone at all times to maximize production; the tool had excellent results in field applications. Although this tool is 5 times more expensive than conventional technologies, its use results in a more economic wellbore thanks to its great utility. If the operator puts a high degree of involvement into it, the AziTrak deep azimuthal resistivity measurement tool will allow him to stay in the pay zone at all times.

  8. Beef quality traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at the maintenance level or ad libitum with two concentrate levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted to evaluate some beef quality attributes of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers finished on feedlot. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on shear force, thawing losses, cooking (leak + evaporation losses, total losses and muscle fiber type, as well as carcass pH and temperature during 24 h of chilling were evaluated. There was a genetic group effect on shear force, where the beef from F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore animals had lower values than Nellore animals. Beef of the animals fed the diets with 1% and 2% of body weight on concentrated lost more liquid than the meat of the animals fed at maintenance during thawing and when considering total losses. During cooking there was a difference among the feeding regimes for drip losses which were greater on the animals fed the diet of 1% of body weight on concentrate, followed by the 2% diet and, finally, by the animals fed at maintenance. The muscle of the Nellore steers had larger proportion of intermediate fibers and lower proportion of oxidative fibers than the crossbred animals. The proportion of glycolytic fibers was not influenced by genetic group. The Nellore animals had larger proportion of fibers of fast contraction and smaller proportion of fibers of slow contraction when compared with the crossbred animals. Feeding regime did not influence the proportion of muscular fibers or shear force. Nellore cattle produce tougher beef than crossbred Simmental × Nellore or Angus × Nellore, although all of them have the potential to produce an acceptable beef when slaughtered at young age. Feed restriction up to 90 days is not enough to cause modification on muscle fiber frequencies, then not affecting beef quality.

  9. Consumo e digestibilidade total e parcial de dietas utilizando farelo de girassol e três fontes de energia em novilhos confinados Intake, total and partial digestibility of diets with sunflower meal and three energy sources in confined steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosália Mendes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo alimentar, a digestibilidade parcial e total e o balanço de nitrogênio, em novilhos confinados. Foram utilizados três novilhos de corte cruzados, canulados no rúmen e no duodeno, distribuídos em dois delineamentos em quadrado latino 3 x 3. As dietas experimentais foram constituídas de 60% de silagem de milho, tendo como fonte de proteína o farelo de girassol e, como fonte de energia, o milho (MI. O milho foi substituído parcialmente pela casca de soja (CS ou pelo farelo de gérmen de milho (FGM. Quatro indicadores internos (lignina e FDA, FDN e lignina indigestíveis foram submetidos a 144 horas de digestão in vitro, para estimativa da digestibilidade parcial e total das dietas. Houve maior ingestão dos componentes fibrosos na dieta CS, porém não foi observado efeito sobre o consumo de matéria seca. A lignina subestimou significativamente a digestibilidade. A utilização da FDAi, FDNi e lignina-i para estimar a digestibilidade total é viável, no entanto, a FDAi e lignina-i não estimaram adequadamente as digestibilidades parciais. Houve efeito significativo na digestibilidade ruminal da FDA, com valores mais elevados para CS e semelhantes para FGM, em relação à dieta MI. A digestibilidade total da FDA foi maior na dieta CS, porém, as digestibilidades dos demais componentes não foram afetadas pelas diferentes fontes energéticas. Não houve diferença significativa para a digestibilidade da energia e nos valores obtidos de NDT, com média de 61,5%. A casca de soja e o farelo de gérmen de milho, em substituição parcial do milho, mostraram-se fontes alternativas satisfatórias para a inclusão na dieta de bovinos.Feed intake, partial and total digestibility and nitrogen balance were evaluated in confined steers. Three crossbreed steers, rumen and duodenum cannulated, were allotted to two 3 x 3 Latin square experimental design. The experimental diets were composed by corn silage (60% and concentrate

  10. Pattern of tissue deposition, gain and body composition of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two levels of concentrate in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty 18-month-old steers (20 Nellore, 20 F1 Simmental × Nellore and 20 F1 Angus × Nellore with average body weight of 265.6±6.4 kg; 325.3±4.7 kg and 324.6±6.0 kg, respectively were used. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on physical carcass composition, empty body composition, composition of the gain, as well as the pattern of tissue deposition were evaluated in this trial. The interaction between genetic group and feeding regime was not significant for any variable evaluated. Animals fed at the maintenance level produced carcass with larger proportions of bones and muscle than the animals fed ad libitum and Nellore animals had larger muscle portion and smaller adipose tissue portion on the carcass than the crossbred animals. Nellore animals and those fed at maintenance had smaller amount of total fat in the carcass than the crossbred animals and those fed ad libitum, respectively. Fat was deposited more pronouncedly in the intermuscular depot, followed by the visceral depot. The rate of deposition of the carcass tissues was smaller in the Nellore animals and in the animals fed the diet with concentrate allowance equivalent to 1% body weight (except for subcutaneous fat tissue, when compared with the crossbred animals and those fed the diet with 2% BW on concentrate, respectively. The rate of fat deposition on the visceral depot was larger in the F1 Angus × Nellore animals and on those fed the 2% of BW of concentrate diet when compared with F1 Simmental × Nellore animals and those fed the diet with the lowest concentrate allowance (1% BW.

  11. Enhancement of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in steers supplemented with chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty steers received a premix that added 0 (control) or 0.2 mg/kg of chromium (KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) to the total diet on a dry matter basis for 55 d. Steer...

  12. Steering smog prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Liere (Robert); J.J. van Wijk (Jack)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe use of computational steering for smog prediction is described. This application is representative for many underlying issues found in steering high performance applications: high computing times, large data sets, and many different input parameters. After a short description of the

  13. Steering and evasion assist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.; Desens, J.; Franke, U.; Gavrila, D.; Schäfers, L.; Ziegler, W.; Eskandarian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Steering and evasion assistance defines a new and future class of driver assistance systems to avoid an impending collision with other traffic participants. Dynamic and kinematic considerations reveal that an evasive steering maneuver has high potential for collision avoidance in many driving

  14. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-8, č. článku 38076. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal quantum steering * EPR steering Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  15. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  16. Vehicle steering by side stick: optimising steering characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Hogema, J.H.; Brekelmans, J.A.W.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was conducted to investigate the possibilities for optimizing task performance when driving a side stick-steered vehicle. Using steer-by-wire technology, a conventional steering system was mimicked, thus yielding the possibility to modify the steering

  17. NST Quarterly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in nuclear science and technology in Malaysia. It keeps readers informed on the progress of research, services, application of nuclear science and technology, and other technical news. It highlights MINT activities and also announces coming events

  18. NST Quarterly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in nuclear science and technology in Malaysia. It keeps readers informed on the progress of research, services, application of nuclear science and technology, and other technical news. It highlights MINT activities and also announces coming events.

  19. Body composition and net and dietary macrominerals requirements of Nellore steers under grazing Composição corporal e exigências líquidas e dietéticas de macrominerais de bovinos Nelore castrados em pastejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Visintin Silva de Almeida

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out with the objective of determining the macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K and Na requirements of Nellore steers under grazing. Twenty four Nellore steers (371 ± 14 kg of BW and 26 mo old were used. Four steers were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (reference group, serving as a reference in subsequent study. The remaining 20 animals were weighed and distributed into a completely randomized design with four supplementation levels offer: 0.0 (mineral mixture - control, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9% of BW, with five replications. The supplements, based on ground corn, soybean meal and/or urea, were previously balanced to achieve an average daily gain of 350, 650 and 850g, respectively, for the different supplementation levels offer. The contents of macrominerals retained in the animal body were determined by regression equations of the macrominerals body content logarithm in function of the empty body weight logarithm (EBW. Net macrominerals requirements for a gain of 1kg of EBW were obtained using the equation Y'= b.10ª.Xb-1, with a and b, respectively, the intercept and the regression coefficient of the prediction equations of macrominerals in the animal body contents for each macromineral considered. The concentrations of all macrominerals, in the empty body weight and gain of the empty body weight, decreased with the increase in the body weight. Total calcium and phosphorus dietary requirements are higher than those recommended in the literature.Com o objetivo de determinar as exigências de macrominerais (Ca, P, Mg, K e Na de bovinos Nelore castrados sob pastejo, foi conduzido um experimento com 24 novilhos da raça Nelore, castrados, com peso inicial de 371 ± 14 kg e 26 meses de idade. Quatro novilhos foram abatidos no início do experimento (grupo referência para servir de referência nos estudos subsequentes. Os animais restantes (20 foram pesados e distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com

  20. Dietas contendo silagem de milho (Zea maiz L. e feno de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. em diferentes proporções para bovinos Corn silage and tifton 85 bermudagrass hay-based diets for steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Rodrigues Cavalcante

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade, o pH e concentração de amônia ruminais e a taxa de passagem em bovinos alimentados com dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 (TIF e silagem de milho (SM em diferentes proporções. Utilizaram-se quatro animais castrados, com peso médio de 523kg, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4, recebendo 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado, na base da matéria seca. O volumoso consistiu das seguintes proporções (%: 100 TIF:0 SM; 67 TIF:33 SM; 33 TIF:67 SM e 0 TIF:100 SM. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, de matéria orgânica (MO e de matéria orgânica digestível (MOD, de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de carboidratos totais (CHOT e digeríveis (CHOD não foram influenciados pelas diferentes proporções de feno de capim-tifton 85: silagem de milho nas dietas, registrando-se valores médios de 9,2; 8,7; 6,4; 1,1; 3,7; 7,3 e 5,4 kg/dia, respectivamente. O consumo de extrato etéreo (EE elevou linearmente com o aumento da silagem de milho nas dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes da MS, MO, PB, EE e CHO também não foram influenciadas pelas diferentes proporções de silagem de milho, obtendo-se, respectivamente, valores médios de 71,8; 73,0; 69,5; 69,2 e 73,9%. Para a digestibilidade da FDN, observou-se efeito quadrático, estimando-se valor máximo de 65,2% para dietas contendo 30,98% de silagem de milho. Estimou-se concentração máxima de amônia de 12,0 mg/100 ml e valor mínimo de pH de 5,98 às 2,44 e 6,82 horas após a alimentação, respectivamente. A taxa de passagem não foi influenciada pelas diferentes proporções de feno:silagem, no volumoso, apresentando valor médio de 4,2%/hora.The intake, digestibility, ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations and passage rate were evaluated in steers fed corn silage (CS and Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay (T85H-based diets, at different forage proportions. Four rumen fistulated steers with 523 kg of live

  1. One-way EPR steering and genuine multipartite EPR steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiongyi; Reid, Margaret D.

    2012-11-01

    We propose criteria and experimental strategies to realise the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering nonlocality. One-way steering can be obtained where there is asymmetry of thermal noise on each system. We also present EPR steering inequalities that act as signatures and suggest how to optimise EPR correlations in specific schemes so that the genuine multipartite EPR steering nonlocality (EPR paradox) can also possibly be realised. The results presented here also apply to the spatially separated macroscopic atomic ensembles.

  2. Methodologies for steering clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadsey, Harold

    1995-01-01

    One of the concerns of the PTTI community is the coordination of one time scale with another. This is accomplished through steering one clock system to another, with a goal of a zero or constant offset in time and frequency. In order to attain this goal, rate differences are calculated and allowed for by the steering algorithm. This paper will present several of these different methods of determining rate differences. Ideally, any change in rate should not cause the offset to change sign (overshoot) by any amount, but certainly not by as much as its previous absolute value. The advantages and disadvantages of each depend on the user's situation.

  3. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization. Posi....... Compare it with going to the gym where you work on the physical body. In the same way as with arms and legs, the mind is a mus­cle which you exercise through C5 practice. Steering the mind on your personal goal will help you to be creative....

  4. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 570.7 Section 570.7... Pounds or Less § 570.7 Steering systems. (a) System play. Lash or free play in the steering system shall... in the steering system. Table 1—Steering System Free Play Values Steering wheel diameter (inches...

  5. Application of washed rumen technique for rapid determination of fasting heat production in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a washed rumen technique as an alternative approach for determining fasting HP in cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) were adapted to a cubed alfalfa-based diet (1.5xNEm) for 10 d. After which steers were placed into individual hea...

  6. Sources of carbohydrates in the ingestive behavior of feedlot steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Santos da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we research the influence of different sources of carbohydrates (corn, soybean hulls or wheat bran upon the digestive behavior of 24 confined castrated steers with an initial average age and weight of 20 months and 330 kg born from the cross between Charolais and Nellore. The diet was composed of 40% sorghum silage and 60% concentrate. The time spent on total ruminating (an average of 454.6 min/day was not influenced by the source of carbohydrate. The animals from the wheat bran treatment spent less time idle (718 min in relation to those on the corn and soybean hulls treatments, which did not differ between themselves (an average of 792 min/day. The steers from the wheat bran treatment remained less time feeding (184 min/day compared with those fed the other treatments, whose average time of permanence in this activity was 214 minutes per day. The other studied variables did not present a significant difference between the treatments. Inclusion of wheat bran in the diet of the confined steers results in less spent time idle, while steers feeding on soybean hulls spend less time feeding. The use of corn, soybean hulls, or wheat bran in the diet of the confined steers does not affect the total cudding time.

  7. Aspectos quantitativos de carcaças de bovinos de diferentes raças, alimentados com diferentes níveis de energia Carcass quantitative characteristics of steers from different breeds fed diet with different energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Luiz Brondani

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as características quantitativas da carcaça de bovinos machos não castrados, terminados em confinamento e abatidos aos 13-14 meses de idade. Foram utilizados 16 bezerros com nove meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 220 kg (oito Aberdeen Angus - AA e oito Hereford - HE, submetidos a dois níveis de energia (3,07 e 3,18 Mcal/kg de MS. O desenho experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas raças e dois níveis de energia. O volumoso utilizado foi a silagem de milho, com 36% de grãos na matéria seca (MS. O concentrado nos tratamentos de menor nível de energia participou com 12% e naqueles de maior nível, com 32% da MS da dieta. Os animais foram abatidos quando, por estimativa, as carcaças apresentaram, na média, um mínimo de 190 kg. Os animais AA apresentaram maior rendimento de carcaça quente (54,95 contra 53,75%, maior comprimento de perna (64,12 contra 62,12 cm e maior área do músculo Longissimus/100 kg de carcaça (29,31 contra 27,41 cm². Os animais que receberam o maior nível de energia na dieta apresentaram maior comprimento de perna (71,75 contra 64,50 cm e melhor conformação da carcaça (11,25 contra 10,12 pontos. Observou-se interação significativa entre raça e nível de energia para a espessura de gordura subcutânea, sendo a maior espessura verificada nas carcaças dos animais HE, que receberam o menor nível de energia.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the carcass quantitative characteristics of feedlot finished steers, slaughtered at 13-14 months of age. Sixteen calves with nine months of age and average initial weight of 220 kg, being eight Aberdeen Angus - AA and eight Hereford - HE, were used. The animals were submitted to two levels of energy, 3.07 or 3.18 Mcal/kg of DM. The complete randomized experimental design was used, with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (two breeds vs. two energy levels. Corn silage with 36% of grain in DM was used as

  8. Dinâmica dos nutrientes no trato gastrintestinal de novilhos holandeses alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar Dynamic of the nutrients in the gastrintestinal tract of holstein steers fed sugar cane based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram objetivos deste trabalho validar as predições com base nas estimativas da dinâmica ruminal e pós-ruminal dos nutrientes e do crescimento microbiano no rúmen, usando as equações que compõem o submodelo Cornell relativo ao trato gastrintestinal. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos Holandês-Zebu com peso médio de 300 kg, canulados no rúmen e abomaso, distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino 4 x 4. Os animais experimentais foram alimentados com rações à base de cana-de-açúcar, suplementada com duas fontes de nitrogênio (uréia ou cama de frango e dois níveis de levedura (0 ou 10 g dia-1, constituindo-se esquema fatorial 2 x 2. A FDN indigestível e a FDN da cana-de-açúcar complexada com cromo foram usadas como indicadores interno e externo, para estimar a produção fecal diária e a taxa de passagem de partículas no rúmen. A dinâmica dos nutrientes baseou-se nas determinações do fluxo de nitrogênio total e do fluxo de nitrogênio de origem bacteriana no abomaso e dos carboidratos totais digeridos no rúmen. A produção microbiana não foi influenciada pelas fontes nitrogenadas e pela adição de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. O Sistema Cornell superestimou os carboidratos totais degradados no rúmen, o fluxo de nitrogênio de origem microbiana e subestimou o fluxo de N total no abomaso.The objectives of this work were to validate the predictions based on the estimates of the ruminal nutrient dynamics and on the microbial growth in the rumen, using equations of the Cornell Submodel system relative to the gastrintestinal tract. Four Holstein - Zebu steers, with 300 kg live weight, rumen and abomasal cannulated were allotted to 4x4 latin square design. The experimental animals received sugar cane based diets, supplemented with two nitrogen sources (urea or poultry litter and two yeast levels (0 or 10 g / d, being constituted 2x2 factorial arrangement. The indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF and chromium mordant

  9. Slow-release urea in supplement fed to beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing regular urea (RU by slow-release urea (SRU at two levels of non-protein nitrogen (NPN in concentrate, offered with low-quality roughage, was evaluated in beef steers on dry matter intake (DMI, ruminal fermentation parameters, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, total tract apparent digestibility of diets and in situ degradability of nitrogen sources. Eight ruminally cannulated steers were allocated into two 4x4 Latin squares, totalizing four treatments: 40 NPN/0 SRU: 40% of concentrate crude protein (CP as NPN, resulting from 0% of SRU and 100% of RU; 40 NPN/50 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 50% of SRU and 50% of RU; 40 NPN/100 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU; 80 NPN/100 SRU: 80% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU. Results showed that partial substitution of regular urea by slow-release urea did not alter dry matter intake, pattern of ruminal fermentation or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein in steers diets. The increase in non-protein nitrogen content in crude protein of the concentrate could compromise feed intake and the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the steers fed complete diets based on low quality forage.

  10. Steering Maps and Their Application to Dimension-Bounded Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroder, Tobias; Gittsovich, Oleg; Huber, Marcus; Uola, Roope; Gühne, Otfried

    2016-03-01

    The existence of quantum correlations that allow one party to steer the quantum state of another party is a counterintuitive quantum effect that was described at the beginning of the past century. Steering occurs if entanglement can be proven even though the description of the measurements on one party is not known, while the other side is characterized. We introduce the concept of steering maps, which allow us to unlock sophisticated techniques that were developed in regular entanglement detection and to use them for certifying steerability. As an application, we show that this allows us to go beyond even the canonical steering scenario; it enables a generalized dimension-bounded steering where one only assumes the Hilbert space dimension on the characterized side, with no description of the measurements. Surprisingly, this does not weaken the detection strength of very symmetric scenarios that have recently been carried out in experiments.

  11. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Bull calves (n=49), born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris) between March and May 2011, were used to compare growth measurements and profitability of conventional and organic dairy steers. Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups at birth: conventional (CONV; n=16), organic (pasture and concentrate; ORG; n=16), or organic grass only (GRS; n=17), and analysis of variables was on a pen basis. Breed groups of calves were Holstein (HO; n=9); Holsteins (n=11) maintained at 1964 breed average level; crossbreds (n=19) including combinations of HO, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red; and crossbreds (n=10) including combinations of HO, Jersey, Swedish Red, and Normande. The CONV steers were fed a diet of 80% concentrate and 20% forage. The ORG steers were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and at least 30% of their diet consisted of organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers grazed pasture during the grazing season and were fed high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. Intakes of a total mixed ration were recorded daily with herd management software. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for beef value, feed intake, pasture intake, health cost, and yardage. The GRS (358.6 kg) steers had lesser total gains from birth to slaughter than ORG (429.6 kg) and CONV (534.5 kg) steers. Furthermore, the GRS (0.61 kg/d) steers had lesser average daily gain from birth compared with ORG (0.81 kg/d) and CONV (1.1 kg/d) steers. The GRS and ORG steers had smaller rib eye area (49.5 and 65.8 cm(2), respectively) compared with CONV (75.4 cm(2)) steers. For profitability, GRS steers had 43% greater profit than CONV steers due to organic beef price premiums and lower feed costs. On the other hand, ORG steers had substantially less profit than CONV steers. The higher cost of production for the ORG steers is due to the extreme high value of organic corn. The results of the

  12. Intake and digestibility of diets containing energy sources associated with sunflower meal or urea in feedlot steers - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.11049 Consumo e digestibilidade de dietas contendo fontes energéticas associadas ao farelo de girassol ou ureia em novilhos confinados - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.11049

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Faturi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and total and partial digestibility of diets using corn, soybean hulls and citrus pulp associated with sunflower meal or urea in feedlot steers. Four steers ½ Aberdeen Angus vs. ½ Nellore, fitted with rumen and duodenum cannulas, with 18 months old and 360 kg of initial weight. The diets were composed of two energy sources (corn and citrus pulp associated with two nitrogen sources (urea and sunflower meal, in a total of four treatments, with forage:concentrate ratio of 40:60. The statistical design was a Latin square with four treatments and four periods of 21 days each. The average daily dry matter intake was influenced (p 0.05 among diets for ruminal and intestinal digestibility. The use of co-products in animal feed did not impair the digestibility of diets and are shown as high potential ingredients for use in beef cattle diets.Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade total e parcial de dietas utilizando milho, casca de soja e polpa cítrica associados ao farelo de girassol ou ureia em novilhos confinados. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos ½ Aberdeen Angus vs. ½ Nelore, providos de cânulas no rúmen e duodeno, com 18 meses de idade e 360 kg de peso médio inicial. As dietas foram constituídas por duas fontes energéticas (milho grão e polpa cítrica associadas a duas fontes nitrogenadas (ureia e farelo de girassol, totalizando quatro tratamentos, numa proporção volumoso:concentrado de 40:60. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino com quatro tratamentos e quatro períodos de 21 dias cada. O consumo médio diário de matéria seca foi influenciado (p 0,05 entre as dietas para as digestibilidades ruminal e intestinal. A utilização de coprodutos na alimentação animal não prejudicou a digestibilidade das dietas, sendo indicados como ingredientes de elevado potencial de utilização em dietas para bovinos de corte.

  13. Beef steers with average dry matter intake and divergent average daily gain have altered gene expression in the jejunum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing diet containing (on a DM basis) 67...

  14. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e comportamento ingestivo de bovinos da raça Holandesa alimentados com dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 com diversos tamanhos de partícula Intake, apparent digestibility and ingestion behavior in Holstein steers fed diets containing Tifton 85 hay with different particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes da dieta e o comportamento ingestivo de novilhos recebendo dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 com diferentes tamanhos de partícula (5, 7, 10 mm e inteiro. Utilizaram-se quatro novilhos da raça Holandesa, castrados, com peso vivo médio de 300 kg e idade média de 20 meses, em delineamento quadrado latino 4 × 4, com quatro animais e quatro períodos. Os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos não foram influenciados pelos perfis granulométricos das dietas experimentais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca diferiram significativamente entre as dietas com feno com partículas de 7 e 10 mm (67,31 e 54,95%, respectivamente. No entanto, os resultados obtidos com essas dietas foram semelhantes aos encontrados com partículas de 5 mm e com feno inteiro, cujos valores foram intermediários, com média de 63,62%. O tempo de alimentação dos animais não diferiu entre as dietas com feno em artículas de 7 e 10 mm e inteiro. O tamanho de partícula do feno de capim-tifton 85 não influenciou o consumo, a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e o comportamento ingestivo de novilhos da raça Holandesa alimentados com dietas completas.The intake, the apparent digestibility of nutrients and the ingestion behavior of four Holstein steers with average weight of 300 kg and 20 months of age, receiving diets containing Tifton 85 hay with different particle sizes (5, 7, 10 mm and whole were evaluated. A 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four steers and four periods was used. Intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrates and non-structural carbohydrates were not influenced by the different granulometric profiles of the experimental diets. The

  15. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  16. Holographic memory using beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Hanan, Jay C. (Inventor); Reyes, George F. (Inventor); Zhou, Hanying (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method, apparatus, and system provide the ability for storing holograms at high speed. A single laser diode emits a collimated laser beam to both write to and read from a photorefractice crystal. One or more liquid crystal beam steering spatial light modulators (BSSLMs) or Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) mirrors steer a reference beam, split from the collimated laser beam, at high speed to the photorefractive crystal.

  17. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, Eugene; /Pennsylvania U.; Butler, Joel; /Fermilab; Dawson, Sally; /Brookhaven; Edwards, Helen; /Fermilab; Himel, Thomas; /SLAC; Holmes, Stephen; /Fermilab; Kim, Young-Kee; /Fermilab /Chicago U.; Lankford, Andrew; /UC, Irvine; McGinnis, David; /Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the

  18. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  19. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  20. 46 CFR 176.814 - Steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 176.814 Section 176.814 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.814 Steering systems. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to test the steering systems of...

  1. Demand side management using profile steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Toersche, Hermen; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; van der Klauw, Thijs; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many Demand Side Management (DSM) approaches use energy prices as steering signals. This paper shows that such steering signals may result in power quality problems and high losses. As an alternative, this paper proposes to use desired (e.g., flat) power profiles as steering signals and presents an

  2. Experimental verification of multidimensional quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Che-Ming; Lo, Hsin-Pin; Chen, Liang-Yu; Yabushita, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Quantum steering enables one party to communicate with another remote party even if the sender is untrusted. Such characteristics of quantum systems not only provide direct applications to quantum information science, but are also conceptually important for distinguishing between quantum and classical resources. While concrete illustrations of steering have been shown in several experiments, quantum steering has not been certified for higher dimensional systems. Here, we introduce a simple method to experimentally certify two different kinds of quantum steering: Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering and single-system (SS) steering (i.e., temporal steering), for dimensionality (d) up to d = 16. The former reveals the steerability among bipartite systems, whereas the latter manifests itself in single quantum objects. We use multidimensional steering witnesses to verify EPR steering of polarization-entangled pairs and SS steering of single photons. The ratios between the measured witnesses and the maximum values achieved by classical mimicries are observed to increase with d for both EPR and SS steering. The designed scenario offers a new method to study further the genuine multipartite steering of large dimensionality and potential uses in quantum information processing.

  3. Quarterly Financial Report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    acray

    2011-06-30

    Jun 30, 2011 ... 2 IDRC QUARTERLY FINANCIAL REPORT JUNE 2011. Consolidated .... spending on capacity-building projects as well as to management's decision to restrict capacity- building ...... The investments in financial institutions.

  4. Utilização do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar em dietas com elevada proporção de concentrados para novilhos Nelore em confinamento Levels of sugarcane bagasse in diets with high concentrate for Nellore steers in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Leme

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e características de carcaça de bovinos submetidos a dietas de alto concentrado contendo 15, 21 ou 27% da matéria seca em bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. Foram utilizados 24 novilhos Nelore, com peso médio em jejum de 279 kg e 24 meses de idade, confinados por um período de 98 dias. Não foram observados efeitos significativos para as características de ganho médio diário (média =1,461 kg e eficiência alimentar. Foi observado efeito linear entre matéria seca ingerida e níveis de bagaço, com maior consumo nos tratamentos com menor percentagem de bagaço. Consistente com o comportamento do consumo, o peso do fígado também apresentou efeito linear, em função dos níveis de bagaço, sendo maior nos tratamentos com maior proporção de concentrado. As características peso de carcaça quente, gordura renal e pélvica, área de olho de lombo e espessura de gordura subcutânea não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Entretanto, observou-se comportamento linear do rendimento de carcaça, em função dos níveis de bagaço, sendo maior nos tratamentos com maior proporção de concentrado, consistente com o nível energético da ração. Os resultados indicam a viabilidade do uso de 15 ou 21% de bagaço como único volumoso, em dietas com elevada proporção de concentrado contendo milho, polpa de citrus e farelo de soja para novilhos Nelore em confinamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of cattle fed high concentrate diets containing 15, 21 or 27% of sugarcane bagasse in the dry matter. Twenty-four Nellore steers with 279 kg of shrunk body weight and 24 months of age, two per pen, were fed for 98 days. No significant effects were observed for average daily gain (mean =1.461 kg and feed efficiency among the treatments. It was observed a linear effect between dry matter intake and levels of bagasse, with greater intake in treatments with

  5. Quarterly oil statistics. First quarter 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide rapid, accurate and detailed statistics on oil supply and demand in the OECD area. Main components of the system are: complete balances of production, trade, refinery intake and output, final consumption, stock levels and changes; separate data for crude oil, NGL, feedstocks and nine product groups; separate trade data for main product groups, LPG and naphtha; imports for 41 origins; exports for 29 destinations; marine bunkers and deliveries to international civil aviation by product group; aggregates of quarterly data to annual totals; and natural gas supply and consumption.

  6. Chromium supplementation enhances the metabolic response of steers to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) supplementation on the metabolic response to LPS challenge was examined. Steers (n=20; 235±4 kg body weight (BW)) received a premix that added 0 (Con) or 0.2 mg/kg Cr to the total diet (DM (dry matter) basis) for ...

  7. Efeitos da substituição parcial do milho na dieta pelo resíduo de panificação sobre o desempenho de novilhos da raça Holandesa Effects of partial replacement of corn by bakery waste in the diet on performance of Holstein steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Passini

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a adição de resíduo de panificação (RP em substituição ao milho, na dieta de novilhos Holandeses. Foram aplicados quatro tratamentos, correspondendo, respectivamente, à adição de 0%, 10%, 20% e 30% de RP na mistura de concentrados, em substituição ao milho. A alimentação fornecida foi ração completa, peletizada, contendo 30% de feno de Coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon L. como volumoso. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, para um total de 20 animais. Foram avaliados o consumo de matéria seca, conversão alimentar, ganho de peso, perímetro torácico e altura da cernelha. Avaliou-se a incidência de diarréia, por meio de observação diária das fezes. O experimento iniciou quando os animais atingiram 90 kg de peso vivo médio, e durou 120 dias. Os resultados não mostraram diferença estatística significativa entre os tratamentos em relação aos parâmetros estudados. A adição do RP causou redução de 3,74%, 7,44% e 10,90% no custo de alimentação, respectivamente nos níveis 10%, 20% e 30% de RP, em comparação com a dieta-controle. O RP é uma fonte alternativa viável para a alimentação e redução dos custos de criação dos novilhos.The effects of addition of bakery waste (BW replacing corn in the diet of Holstein steers were studied. Four treatments, respectively to the addition of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of bakery waste were applied in the concentrated mixture for corn replacement. Animals were fed with complete mixtures pelleted ration, with 30% of Coast-cross hay (Cynodon dactylon L. as roughage. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four treatments and five repetitions, totalizing 20 animals. The performance was evaluated by intake and feed conversion, weight gain, heart-girth and size. Diarrhea incidence was evaluated through daily observation of faeces. The experiment began when calves reached 90 kg of life weight, and

  8. Multiobjective optimization of a steering linkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleesonsom, S.; Bureerat, S. [Sustainable and Infrastructure Research and Development Center, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, multi-objective optimization of a rack-and-pinion steering linkage is proposed. This steering linkage is a common mechanism used in small cars with three advantages as it is simple to construct, economical to manufacture, and compact and easy to operate. In the previous works, many researchers tried to minimize a steering error but minimization of a turning radius is somewhat ignored. As a result, a multi-objective optimization problem is assigned to simultaneously minimize a steering error and a turning radius. The design variables are linkage dimensions. The design problem is solved by the hybrid of multi-objective population-based incremental learning and differential evolution with various constraint handling schemes. The new design strategy leads to effective design of rack-and-pinion steering linkages satisfying both steering error and turning radius criteria.

  9. Multiobjective optimization of a steering linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleesonsom, S.; Bureerat, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, multi-objective optimization of a rack-and-pinion steering linkage is proposed. This steering linkage is a common mechanism used in small cars with three advantages as it is simple to construct, economical to manufacture, and compact and easy to operate. In the previous works, many researchers tried to minimize a steering error but minimization of a turning radius is somewhat ignored. As a result, a multi-objective optimization problem is assigned to simultaneously minimize a steering error and a turning radius. The design variables are linkage dimensions. The design problem is solved by the hybrid of multi-objective population-based incremental learning and differential evolution with various constraint handling schemes. The new design strategy leads to effective design of rack-and-pinion steering linkages satisfying both steering error and turning radius criteria

  10. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  11. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  12. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. 46 CFR 108.641 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 108.641 Section... steering gear. Instructions stating, in order, the different steps to be taken for changing to emergency and secondary steering gear must be posted in the steering gear room and at each secondary steering...

  15. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1) Of adequate strength and capable of steering the vessel at all service...

  16. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On Electrohydraulic Pressure Control for Power Steering Applications : Active Steering for Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Amico, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the Electrohydraulic Power Steering system for road vehicles, using electronic pressure control valves. With an ever increasing demand for safer vehicles and fewer traffic accidents, steering-related active safety functions are becoming more common in modern vehicles. Future road vehicles will also evolve towards autonomous vehicles, with several safety, environmental and financial benefits. A key component in realising such solutions is active steering. The power steer...

  18. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  19. English Leadership Quarterly, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human…

  20. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  1. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...... periods are not significantly long. Finally, better alignment between the RRC Connected and Idle mobility procedures is observed, guarantying significant decrease of handovers/reselections and potential battery life savings by minimizing the Inter-Frequency (IF) measurement rate in the RRC Idle....

  2. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Sung Kwon; Choi, Chang Weon; Li, Xiang Zi; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Won Young; Jeong, Joon; Johnson, Bradley J; Zan, Linsen; Smith, Stephen B

    2016-03-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (poil decreased (p = 0.01) PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (ppalm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ) gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (poil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05); SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers. Contrary to our original hypothesis, palm oil did not promote adipogenic gene expression in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue.

  3. Quarterly environmental data summary for third quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, Stephen H. [Weldon Spring Site, St. Charles, MO (United States)

    1999-11-05

    A copy of the quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the third quarter of 1999 is enclosed. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the WSSRAP verification group and merged into the data base during the third quarter of 1999. Selected KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during the quarter are also included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  4. Three-bead steering microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2018-02-01

    The self-propelled microswimmers have recently attracted considerable attention as model systems for biological cell migration as well as artificial micromachines. A simple and well-studied microswimmer model consists of three identical spherical beads joined by two springs in a linear fashion with active oscillatory forces being applied on the beads to generate self-propulsion. We have extended this linear microswimmer configuration to a triangular geometry where the three beads are connected by three identical springs in an equilateral triangular manner. The active forces acting on each spring can lead to autonomous steering motion; i.e., allowing the swimmer to move along arbitrary paths. We explore the microswimmer dynamics analytically and pinpoint its rich character depending on the nature of the active forces. The microswimmers can translate along a straight trajectory, rotate at a fixed location, as well as perform a simultaneous translation and rotation resulting in complex curved trajectories. The sinusoidal active forces on the three springs of the microswimmer contain naturally four operating parameters which are more than required for the steering motion. We identify the minimal operating parameters which are essential for the motion of the microswimmer along any given arbitrary trajectory. Therefore, along with providing insights into the mechanics of the complex motion of the natural and artificial microswimmers, the triangular three-bead microswimmer can be utilized as a model for targeted drug delivery systems and autonomous underwater vehicles where intricate trajectories are involved.

  5. How Insect Flight Steering Muscles Work

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Simon M.; Schwyn, Daniel A.; Mokso, Rajmund; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Doube, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco; Krapp, Holger G.; Taylor, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for

  6. Steer-by-wire innovations and demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Zuurbier, J.; Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Willemsen, D.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Arguments for 'by-wire' systems include production costs, packaging and traffic safety. Innovations concern both product and development process e.g. combined virtual engineering and Hardware-in-the-loop testing. Three Steer-by-wire systems are discussed: a steering system simulator used as a

  7. A new model to compute the desired steering torque for steer-by-wire vehicles and driving simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankem, Steve; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the control of the hand wheel actuator in steer-by-wire (SbW) vehicles and driving simulators (DSs). A novel model for the computation of the desired steering torque is presented. The introduced steering torque computation does not only aim to generate a realistic steering feel, which means that the driver should not miss the basic steering functionality of a modern conventional steering system such as an electric power steering (EPS) or hydraulic power steering (HPS), and this in every driving situation. In addition, the modular structure of the steering torque computation combined with suitably selected tuning parameters has the objective to offer a high degree of customisability of the steering feel and thus to provide each driver with his preferred steering feel in a very intuitive manner. The task and the tuning of each module are firstly described. Then, the steering torque computation is parameterised such that the steering feel of a series EPS system is reproduced. For this purpose, experiments are conducted in a hardware-in-the-loop environment where a test EPS is mounted on a steering test bench coupled with a vehicle simulator and parameter identification techniques are applied. Subsequently, how appropriate the steering torque computation mimics the test EPS system is objectively evaluated with respect to criteria concerning the steering torque level and gradient, the feedback behaviour and the steering return ability. Finally, the intuitive tuning of the modular steering torque computation is demonstrated for deriving a sportier steering feel configuration.

  8. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  9. Operator space approach to steering inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Zhi; Marciniak, Marcin; Horodecki, Michał

    2015-01-01

    In Junge and Palazuelos (2011 Commun. Math. Phys. 306 695–746) and Junge et al (2010 Commun. Math. Phys. 300 715–39) the operator space theory was applied to study bipartite Bell inequalities. The aim of the paper is to follow this line of research and use the operator space technique to analyze the steering scenario. We obtain a bipartite steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality, as well as constructing all ingredients explicitly. It turns out that the unbounded largest violation is obtained by a non maximally entangled state. Moreover, we focus on the bipartite dichotomic case where we construct a steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality. This phenomenon is different to the Bell scenario where only the bounded largest violation can be obtained by any bipartite dichotomic Bell functional. (paper)

  10. EDF - Quarterly Financial Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivi, Carole; Boissezon, Carine de; Hidra, Kader

    2014-01-01

    EDF's sales in the first quarter of 2014 were euro 21.2 billion, down 3.9% from the first quarter of 2013. At constant scope and exchange rates, sales were down 4.2% due to mild weather conditions, which impacted sales of electricity in France, gas sales abroad and trading activities in Europe. UK sales were nonetheless sustained by B2B sales due to higher realised wholesale market prices. In Italy, sales growth was driven by an increase in electricity volumes sold. The first quarter of 2014 also saw the strengthening of the Group's financial structure with the second phase of its multi-annual hybrid funding programme (nearly euro 4 billion equivalent) as well as the issue of two 100-year bonds in dollars and sterling aimed at significantly lengthening average debt maturity. 2014 outlook and 2014-2018 vision: - EDF Group has confirmed its financial objectives for 2014; - Group EBITDA excluding Edison: organic growth of at least 3%; - Edison EBITDA: recurring EBITDA target of euro 1 billion and at least euro 600 million in 2014 before effects of gas contract re-negotiations; - Net financial debt / EBITDA: between 2x and 2.5x; - Pay-out ratio of net income excluding non-recurring items post-hybrid: 55% to 65%. The Group has reaffirmed its goal of achieving positive cash flow after dividends, excluding Linky, in 2018

  11. Steering particles by breaking symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bet, Bram; Samin, Sela; Georgiev, Rumen; Burak Eral, Huseyin; van Roij, René

    2018-06-01

    We derive general equations of motions for highly-confined particles that perform quasi-two-dimensional motion in Hele-Shaw channels, which we solve analytically, aiming to derive design principles for self-steering particles. Based on symmetry properties of a particle, its equations of motion can be simplified, where we retrieve an earlier-known equation of motion for the orientation of dimer particles consisting of disks (Uspal et al 2013 Nat. Commun. 4), but now in full generality. Subsequently, these solutions are compared with particle trajectories that are obtained numerically. For mirror-symmetric particles, excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical solutions is found. For particles lacking mirror symmetry, the analytic solutions provide means to classify the motion based on particle geometry, while we find that taking the side-wall interactions into account is important to accurately describe the trajectories.

  12. Intake, digestibility, ruminal parameters, and microbial protein synthesis in crossbred steers fed diets based on Brachiaria grass silage and sorghum silage Consumo, digestibilidade, parâmetros ruminais e síntese de proteína microbiana em novilhos cruzados alimentados com dietas a base de silagem de braquiária e silagem de sorgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.M. Chizzotti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out with four Holstein x Nellore crossbred steers (225±22kg of BW fitted with ruminal and abomasal cannulaes in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design to evaluate the intake and the total and partial apparent digestibilities of nutrients, ruminal parameters, and microbial synthesis. Diets consisted of 60% silage and 40% concentrate formulated to be isonitrogenous (12.5% of crude protein, dry matter basis. Treatments consisted of different proportions of Brachiaria brizantha grass silage and sorghum silage: 100:0; 67:33; 33:67, and 0:100%, respectively, on dry matter basis. The intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients linearly increased (P0.05 by the treatments. The use of 67% of sorghum silage and 33% of grass silage increased intake and digestibility of nutrients without affecting ruminal pH, ruminal NH3-N, and microbial efficiency.Realizou-se um estudo com quatro novilhos cruzados Holandês x Nelore (225±22kg de peso vivo, canulados no rúmen e abomaso, distribuídos em quadrado latino 4 x 4 para avaliar o efeito de diferentes proporções de silagem de Braquiária brizantha e silagem de sorgo sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes no trato digestório total e parcial, sobre os parâmetros ruminais e sobre a eficiência microbiana. As dietas continham 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado e foram formuladas para serem isonitrogenadas (12,5% de proteína bruta na matéria seca. Os tratamentos consistiram em diferentes proporções de silagens de Brachiaria brizantha e de sorgo: 100:0; 67:33; 33:67 e 0:100%, respectivamente (% da matéria seca. O consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, carboidratos não-fibrosos e nutrientes digestíveis totais aumentou linearmente (P0,05. O uso de 67% de silagem de sorgo com 33% de silagem de braquiária aumentou o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes sem afetar

  13. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  14. Effects of polymer coated slow-release urea on ruminal fermentation and nutrient total tract digestion of beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gardinal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of polymer coated slow-release urea (SRU in high-forage diets of beef steers on nutrient intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and energy balance. Eight 24-mo-old rumen-fistulated castrated Nellore steers (average body weight = 418.0±40.0 kg were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Animals were randomly distributed to receive one of the following diets: no urea inclusion; 1.0% inclusion of feed grade urea in the diet (dry matter [DM] basis; 1.0% inclusion of slow-release urea 1 in the diet (DM basis; and 1.0% inclusion of slow-release urea 2 in the diet (DM basis. Slow-release urea 2 had a similar composition to that of slow-release urea 1 and differed in that it contained 2.95% sulfur. A high-forage diet was provided (75% of total DM and corn silage was used as the forage source. Diets with urea had increased crude protein (CP intake, and CP and total digestible nutrients total tract digestion. Urea sources increased ruminal concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and acetate, and decreased butyrate concentrations. The polymer coated urea did not alter ruminal fermentation when compared with feed grade urea. Diets did not affect the energy balance of steers. Feed grade urea presented greater microbial protein synthesis than polymer coated slow-release urea. The partial replacement of soybean meal by 1% slow-release urea in a diet with 75% forage does not improve ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis, and shows similar results as feeding feed grade urea to beef steers.

  15. Automated beam steering using optimal control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C. K. (Christopher K.)

    2004-01-01

    We present a steering algorithm which, with the aid of a model, allows the user to specify beam behavior throughout a beamline, rather than just at specified beam position monitor (BPM) locations. The model is used primarily to compute the values of the beam phase vectors from BPM measurements, and to define cost functions that describe the steering objectives. The steering problem is formulated as constrained optimization problem; however, by applying optimal control theory we can reduce it to an unconstrained optimization whose dimension is the number of control signals.

  16. Effects of isobutyrate supplementation on ruminal microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Zhang, Y L; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Wang, Y X; Yang, W Z; Bai, Y S; Shi, Z G; Liu, X N

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isobutyrate supplementation on rumen microflora, enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers consuming a corn stover-based diet. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. The treatments were control (without isobutyrate), low isobutyrate (LIB), moderate isobutyrate (MIB) and high isobutyrate (HIB) with 8.4, 16.8 and 25.2 g isobutyrate per steer per day respectively. Isobutyrate was hand-mixed into the concentrate portion. Diet consisted of 60% corn stover and 40% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis]. Dry matter intake (averaged 9 kg/day) was restricted to a maximum of 90% of ad libitum intake. Population of total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and anaerobic fungi were linearly increased, whereas that of protozoa and total methanogens was linearly reduced with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Real-time PCR quantification of population of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Fibrobacter succinogenes was linearly increased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase were linearly increased, whereas that of protease was linearly reduced. Methane production was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Effective degradabilities of cellulose and hemicellulose of corn stover were linearly increased, whereas that of crude protein in diet was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. The present results indicate that isobutyrate supplemented improved microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in steers. It was suggested that the isobutyrate stimulated the digestive micro-organisms or enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. In the experimental conditions of this trial, the optimum isobutyrate dose was approximately 16.8 g isobutyrate per steer per day. Journal of Animal

  17. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... the hydraulic system can be readily recharged from within the steering-gear compartment and must be...

  18. Effect of Feeding a Mixed Microbial Culture Fortified with Trace Minerals on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Late-fattening Hanwoo Steers: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Kwak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a trace minerals-fortified microbial culture (TMC on the performance and carcass characteristics of late-fattening Hanwoo steers. A mixture of microbes (0.6% [v/w] of Enterobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Saccharomyces sp. was cultured with 99% feedstuff for ensiling and 0.4% trace minerals (zinc, selenium, copper, and cobalt. Sixteen late-fattening steers (mean age, 21.8 months were allocated to two diets: a control diet (concentrate mix and rice straw and a treated diet (control diet+3.3% TMC. At a mean age of 31.1 months, all the steers were slaughtered. The addition of TMC to the diet did not affect the average daily weight gain of the late fattening steers, compared with that of control steers. Moreover, consuming the TMC-supplemented diet did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet increased the concentrations of zinc, selenium, and sulfur (p<0.05 in the longissimus muscle. With respect to amino acids, animals consuming TMC showed increased (p<0.05 concentrations of lysine, leucine, and valine among essential amino acids and a decreased (p<0.05 concentration of proline among non-essential amino acids. In conclusion, the consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet during the late-fattening period elevated the concentrations of certain trace minerals and essential amino acids in the longissimus muscle, without any deleterious effects on performance and other carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers.

  19. Genuine Multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    We develop the concept of genuine N-partite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering. This nonlocality is the natural multipartite extension of the original EPR paradox. Useful properties emerge that are not guaranteed for genuine multipartite entangled states. In particular, there is a close link with the task of one-sided, device-independent quantum secret sharing. We derive inequalities to demonstrate multipartite EPR steering for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and Gaussian continuous variable states in loophole-free scenarios.

  20. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, H. M.; Jones, S. J.; Doherty, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schrodinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict ...

  1. Multipass Steering: A Reference Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Michael; Tiefenback, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a reference implementation of a protocol to compute corrections that bring all beams in one of the CEBAF linear accelerators (linac) to axis, including, with a larger tolerance, the lowest energy pass using measured beam trajectory data. This method relies on linear optics as representation of the system; we treat beamline perturbations as magnetic field errors localized to regions between cryomodules, providing the same transverse momentum kick to each beam. We produce a vector of measured beam position data with which we left-multiply the pseudo-inverse of a coefficient array, A, that describes the transport of the beam through the linac using parameters that include the magnetic offsets of the quadrupole magnets, the instrumental offsets of the BPMs, and the beam initial conditions. This process is repeated using a reduced array to produce values that can be applied to the available correcting magnets and beam initial conditions. We show that this method is effective in steering the beam to a straight axis along the linac by using our values in elegant, the accelerator simulation program, on a model of the linac in question. The algorithms in this reference implementation provide a tool for systematic diagnosis and cataloging of perturbations in the beam line. Supported by Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University, NSF, DOE.

  2. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, fourth quarter 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the fourth quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown for the normally planned semiannual maintenance and testing program, initiated September 12, 1980. Operational testing began on November 7. Maximum power was achieved November 28 and was maintained throughout the remainder of the quarter except as noted. The LWBR Core has generated 19,046.07 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. During this quarter, approximately 0.000025 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. During the fourth quarter of 1980, 1081 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. These shipments contained 0.037 curies of radioactivity.

  3. Desempenho, digestibilidade e características de carcaça de novilhos zebuínos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado Productive performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of zebu steers fed diets with different concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Lana Costa

    2005-02-01

    nutrients; feed/gain conversion (FC; average daily live weight (LWG, empty body weight (EBWG and carcass (CG gains; the carcass dressing percentage and the basic cuts percentage; the carcass length (CL; the loin eye area (LEA and the subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT of Zebu steers, with initial average live weigth of 270 kg, fed with 5, 35 e 65% of concentrate, in feedlot. The dry matter and organic matter intake were quadractily influenced by the increasing levels of concentrate in the diet. The ether extract and nonfiber carbohydrate intakes increased and the neutral detergent fiber intake decreased linearly as the concentrate level increased. The crude protein intake was not affected by the concentrate level. The TDN level and digestibility of the dry matter, organic matter, ether extract and non-fiber carbohydrate increased and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased linearly as concentrate level in the ration incresead. The digestibility of the CP was not affected, when Brachiaria brizantha haylage was used as roughage. However, the digestibility of the CP increased linearly, when the Cynodon dactylon was used in the feeding of the animals. The FC decreased and the LWG, EBWG, CG, LEA and SFT increased linearly as the concentrate levels in the diets increased. The CL, the carcass dressing percentage and the basic cuts percentage, excluding leg percentage, were not affected by the concentrate levels in the diet. The inclusion of concentrate in the diets increased the digestibility and improved the productive performance of the animals.

  4. Quantum steering in cascaded four-wave mixing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Lv, Shuchao; Jing, Jietai

    2017-07-24

    Quantum steering is used to describe the "spooky action-at-a-distance" nonlocality raised in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox, which is important for understanding entanglement distribution and constructing quantum networks. Here, in this paper, we study an experimentally feasible scheme for generating quantum steering based on cascaded four-wave-mixing (FWM) processes in hot rubidium (Rb) vapor. Quantum steering, including bipartite steering and genuine tripartite steering among the output light fields, is theoretically analyzed. We find the corresponding gain regions in which the bipartite and tripartite steering exist. The results of bipartite steering can be used to establish a hierarchical steering model in which one beam can steer the other two beams in the whole gain region; however, the other two beams cannot steer the first beam simultaneously. Moreover, the other two beams cannot steer with each other in the whole gain region. More importantly, we investigate the gain dependence of the existence of the genuine tripartite steering and we find that the genuine tripartite steering exists in most of the whole gain region in the ideal case. Also we discuss the effect of losses on the genuine tripartite steering. Our results pave the way to experimental demonstration of quantum steering in cascaded FWM process.

  5. NRC quarterly [status] report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report covers the third quarter of calendar year 1987. The NRC licensing activity during the period of this report included the issuance of a full-power license for Beaver Valley 2 on August 14, 1987, and operating license restricted to five percent power for South Texas Unit 1 on August 21, 1987. Additional licensing delay for Shoreham is projected due to complex litigation. Also, licensing delay may occur for Comanche Peak Unit 1, because the duration of the hearing is uncertain. Although a license authorizing fuel loading and precriticality testing for Seabrook Unit 1 has been issued, there is a projected delay for low-power licensing. Full-power licensing for Seabrook Unit 1 will be delayed due to offsite emergency preparedness issues. The length of the delay is not known at this time. With the exception of Seabrook and Shoreham, regulatory delays in this report are not impacted by the schedules for resolving off-site emergency preparedness issues

  6. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, ... stomach or intestinal surgery. A bland diet includes foods ...

  7. Rumen microbial changes in cattle fed diets with or without salinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumeyan, D B; Nagaraja, T G; Miller, G W; Frey, R A; Boyer, J E

    1986-02-01

    Four rumen-fistulated steers, randomly assigned to two groups (control and salinomycin fed) were used to monitor the changes in rumen microbial populations and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations associated with feeding salinomycin (0.22 mg X kg-1 X day-1). Steers were adapted to an alfalfa hay and grain (80:20) diet before supplementing the diet with salinomycin, and then the diet was changed to 50:50 and 20:80 ratios of alfalfa hay to grain at 2-week intervals. Rumen samples for total and selective enumeration of anaerobic bacteria. VFA analysis, and enumeration of protozoa were collected during the 80:20 alfalfa hay-to-grain diet before salinomycin feeding, and during the 80:20, 50:50, and 20:80 hay-to-grain diets with salinomycin. At each sampling period, rumen samples were collected at 3 h after feeding on three consecutive days. Salinomycin feeding had no effect on rumen pH and total VFA concentration. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was significantly lower in salinomycin-fed steers than in the control. The molar proportion of butyrate increased in both control and salinomycin-fed steers. Total anaerobic bacterial counts were lower in salinomycin-fed steers than in the control steers after 8 weeks of salinomycin feeding. Salinomycin-resistant bacteria increased from 7.6 to 15.6% in salinomycin-fed steers but remained unchanged in control steers. Salinomycin had no effect on cellulolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria, but the proportion of amylolytic bacteria was higher in salinomycin-fed steers than in control steers. The total number of protozoa decreased initially in salinomycin-fed steers. The initial reduction was due to reduced numbers of Entodinium species. Holotrichs were unaffected by salinomycin feeding.

  8. Improvement of motor inertia influence of electric power steering; Dendoshiki power steering no motor kansei no eikyo to hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, S; Sakamoto, K; Hanamoto, Y [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Noritsugu, T [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Motor inertia of electric power steering affects not only steering characteristics but vehicle dynamics. We have investigated the influence of motor inertia and proposed a feedback strategy to compensate it. Weight of the test vehicle is 1100Kg and the steering system is pinion type electric power steering. By using simulation model and vehicle test, we have realized natural steering maneuvering and stable vehicle dynamics. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  9. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, third quarter 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagorski, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the third quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station was operating with the 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D reactor coolant loops and the 1AC and 1BD purification loops in service. During the quarter, the Station was operated for Duquesne Light Company System grid including base load and swing load operation. Twelve (12) planned swing load operations were performed on the LWBR Core this quarter to complete the LWBR operating plan of fifty (50) during this operating phase. The Station was shutdown on September 12 for the Fall 1980 Shutdown and remained in this mode through the end of the quarter. The LWBR Core has generated 18,297.98 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. There were no radioactive liquid discharges from the Radioactive Waste Processing System to the river this quarter. The radioactive liquid waste effluent line to the river remained blanked off to prevent inadvertent radioactive liquid waste discharges. During the quarter, approximately 0.001 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. The radioactivity released from Shippingport Station is far too small to have any measurable effect on the general background environmental radioactivity outside the plant.

  10. Networks: structure and action : steering in and steering by policy networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dassen, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the opportunities to build a structural policy network model that is rooted in social network theories. By making a distinction between a process of steering in networks, and a process of steering by networks, it addresses the effects of network structures on network dynamics as

  11. A multielement trace mineral injection improves liver copper and selenium concentrations and manganese superoxide dismutase activity in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genther, O N; Hansen, S L

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals (TM) are vital to health and growth of livestock, but low dietary concentrations and dietary antagonists may reduce mineral status and feeder cattle TM status is usually unknown at arrival. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of TM status on response to mineral injection in beef cattle. Forty steers were equally assigned to diets for an 84-d depletion period: control (CON; supplemental Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn) or deficient (DEF; no supplemental Cu, Mn, Se, or Zn plus Fe and Mo as TM antagonists). Lesser liver Cu and Se concentrations (79.0 ± 11.60 and 1.66 ± 0.080 mg/kg DM, respectively) in DEF steers compared with CON steers (228.8 ± 11.60 and 2.41 ± 0.080 mg/kg DM, respectively) on d 71 of depletion indicated mild deficiencies of these TM (P CON vs. DEF (P = 0.02), suggesting TM from injection were used rather than stored in DEF steers. Liver Se and Cu (P CON animals, total MPO was greater in animals that received TM injection, but injection did not affect MPO within DEF steers (P = 0.007). Overall, TM from an injectable mineral were used differently between TM adequate and mildly deficient steers.

  12. Assessment of a Boat Fractured Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelic Goran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During regular use of the steering wheel mounted on a boat, two cracks emanating from a fastener hole were noticed which, consequently, caused final fracture of the wheel. To determine the behavior of a boat steering wheel with cracks present, assessment of a fractured wheel was performed. Torque moments of the fasteners were measured prior to removing the steering wheel from the boat. Visual and dye penetrant inspection followed along with the material detection. Besides using experimental procedures, assessment of the fractured wheel was performed using finite element analysis, i.e. stress intensity factor values were numerically determined. Variation of stress intensity factor with crack length is presented. Possible causes of crack occurrence are given and they include excessive values of fastener torque moments coupled with fretting between fastener and fastener hole that was poorly machined. Results obtained by this assessment can be taken for predicting fracture behavior of a cracked steering wheel and as a reference in the design, mounting and exploitation process of steering wheels improving that way their safety in transportation environment.

  13. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Ho Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c. and intramuscular (i.m. adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control, with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (p<0.03. SCD gene expression did not change between the initial and intermediate biopsies but declined by over 75% by the final period (p = 0.04, and G-coupled protein receptor 43 (GPR43 gene expression was unaffected by diet or time on trial. Soybean oil decreased (p = 0.01 PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (p<0.05. AMPKα gene expression was less in s.c. adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04 and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (p<0.03. Soybean oil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05; SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers

  14. Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Quarterly operating report, third quarter 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    A loss of ac power to the station occurred on July 28, 1978 caused by an interaction between Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station when the main transformer of Unit No. 1 of the Beaver Valley Power Station developed an internal failure and tripped the BVPS. Two environmental studies were continued this quarter. The first involves reduction of main unit condenser chlorination and the second, river intake screen fish impingement sampling. There were no radioactive liquid discharges from the Radioactive Waste Processing System to the river this quarter. During the third quarter of 1978, 874 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. At the end of the quarter, the Fall shutdown continued with the plant heated up, the main turbine on turning gear and plant testing in progress prior to Station startup.

  15. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 41, 2nd Quarter, April 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    companies participated, a million more people would be actively looking for threats. Aguas de Amazonas, a subsidiary of Suez Environnement, a...9 Richard B. Myers, “A Word from the Chair- man,” Joint Force Quarterly 37 (2d Quarter 2005), 5. 10 Wald, 26. 11 “Suez— Aguas de Amazonas Water for...humanitarian duties. They have overseen over 130 humani- tarian projects worth in excess of $7.6 million and ranging from a medical center, to potable

  16. Effects of feed intake and dietary urea concentration on ruminal dilution rate and efficiency of bacteria growth in steers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firkins, J.L.; Lewis, S.M.; Montgomery, L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Four multiple-fistulated steers (340 kg) were fed a diet containing 50% ground grass hay, 20% dry distillers grains, and 30% concentrate at two intakes (7.2 or 4.8 kg DM/d). Urea (.4 or 1.2% of the diet) was infused continuously into the steers' rumens. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Infusing urea at .4 or 1.2% of the diet resulted in ruminal NH 3 N concentration of 4.97 and 9.10 mg/dl, respectively. Feeding steers at high rather than low intake decreased ruminal and total tract digestibilities of organic matter, NDF, and ADF but did not increase ruminal escape of N. However, apparent N escape from the rumen calculated using purines, but not 15 N, as a bacterial marker was higher when 1.2 vs. .4% urea was infused. Feeding at high rather than at low intake increased the total pool of viable bacteria per gram organic matter fermented in the rumen. Although ruminal fluid outflows and particulate dilution rates were greater when steers were fed at high than low intakes, efficiencies of bacterial protein synthesis were unaffected by intake. The possibility of increased N recycling within the rumen with feeding at the higher intake is discussed

  17. Online optimized hysteresis-based steering feel model for steer-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kirli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In rubber-wheeled road vehicles, the mechanical connection between steering wheel and front wheels provides steering-related feedback to the driver. The torque fed back to the driver through the steering linkages and steering wheel, which is called steering feel, helps the driver in controlling the vehicle. The torque feedback is reproduced via artificial methods in steer-by-wire systems due to the lack of mechanical connection. In this work, in order to minimize the physical workload and the lateral acceleration under the consideration of handling performance, optimization of a hysteresis-based steering feel has been studied. A 2-degree-of-freedom bicycle model based on the magic formula tire model has been used for simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experiments. A mathematical model is proposed in order to create an adaptive model-based optimization of the hysteresis parameters simultaneously while driving. A hardware-in-the-loop experimental setup has been used for the driving tests. The weave and the double-lane change tests have been performed with different drivers in order to demonstrate and quantify the optimization methods that are presented in this work.

  18. Effects of dietary fat and crude protein on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers fed differing levels of dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, P J; Weaver, A D; Lemenager, R P; Gerrard, D E; Claeys, M C; Lake, S L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary protein and fat from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers. Angus-cross steers (n = 105; 443 +/- 20 kg of BW) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) corn-based diet with DDGS included at 25% of DM (CON), 2) CON with DDGS included at twice the amount of CON (50% of DM; 50DDGS), 3) CON with added corn protein to equal the CP in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CP), 4) CON with added vegetable oil to equal the fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+VO), and 5) CON with protein and fat added to equal the CP and fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CPVO). Steers were fed to a common 12th-rib fat depth endpoint (1.3 +/- 0.2 cm; 68 to 125 d on trial). Loins and rounds were collected from 44 carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), ether extract, and case-life analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Contrasts between 1) CON vs. elevated CP diets (50DDGS, CON+CP, and CON+CPVO; EP), 2) CON vs. elevated fat diets (50DDGS, CON+VO, and CON+CPVO; EF) and 3) CON vs. diets with elevated CP and fat (50DDGS and CON+CPVO; EPF) were analyzed. There were no differences in days on feed or DMI among treatments. Steers fed CON had greater ADG (P EPF diets. Steers fed CON also had greater G:F (P EPF steers. Final BW was greater for CON than EP and EPF diets (P EPF steers (P = 0.04). Dressing percent, 12th-rib fat depth, LM area, KPH, and yield grade were not affected by treatment (P >or= 0.06). Steers fed the CON diet had greater marbling scores (P EPF diets. There were no differences in WBSF, ether extract, or lipid oxidation due to treatment (P >or= 0.44). However, CON steers had greater (P = 0.02) L* values than EF-fed steers and greater b* values than EP, EF, and EPF steers (P

  19. NST Quarterly. July 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in in-vitro mutagenesis of ornamental plants, soil erosion studies and animal feed production from agricultural waste

  20. NST Quarterly - January 1998 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in proposal of national networking for biotechnology culture collection centre (NNBCCC)

  1. NST Quarterly. October 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in latex vulcanization (first RVNRL-based rubber gloves produced in Malaysia), tank floor scanning system (TAFLOSS), incineration and radiotherapeutic agent

  2. NST Quarterly - issue January 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. The subjects discussed are i. food and drinking water which are the major pathways of radionuclides to man and ii. nuclear techniques help to monitor sedimentation in reservoir

  3. NST Quarterly - April 1998 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in ionizing radiation as an alternative method for sanitization of herbs and spices

  4. Drowsy Driver Detection via Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina ABDUL RAHIM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is to produce a safety system especially for fatigue car driver so as to prevent from accidents. The statistic on road fatality shows that human error constitute of 64.84 % road accidents fatality and 17.4 % due to technical factors. These systems encompassed the approach of hand pressure applied on the steering wheel. The steering will be installed with pressure sensors. At the same time these sensors can be used to measure gripping force while driving.

  5. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as... personnel hazards during normal or heavy weather operation. (b) A suitable hand tiller may be acceptable as...

  6. Relative entropy of steering: on its definition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Eneet; Wilde, Mark M

    2017-01-01

    In Gallego and Aolita (2015 Phys. Rev . X 5 041008), the authors proposed a definition for the relative entropy of steering and showed that the resulting quantity is a convex steering monotone. Here we advocate for a different definition for relative entropy of steering, based on well grounded concerns coming from quantum Shannon theory. We prove that this modified relative entropy of steering is a convex steering monotone. Furthermore, we establish that it is uniformly continuous and faithful, in both cases giving quantitative bounds that should be useful in applications. We also consider a restricted relative entropy of steering which is relevant for the case in which the free operations in the resource theory of steering have a more restricted form (the restricted operations could be more relevant in practical scenarios). The restricted relative entropy of steering is convex, monotone with respect to these restricted operations, uniformly continuous, and faithful. (paper)

  7. Ruminal nitrogen metabolism in steers as affected by feed intake and dietary urea concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firkins, J.L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Mulvaney, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Four multiple-cannulated steers (340 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Steers were fed a diet of 50% ground hay and 50% concentrate at two intakes (1.4 and 2.1% of BW), with urea and 15 N-enriched ammonium sulfate infused continuously into the rumen at .4 or 1.2% of diet DM. Ratios of purines and diaminopimelic acid-N to N in fluid-associated and particulate-associated bacteria and in protozoa were similar among treatments but were lower for protozoa than for bacteria. Diaminopimelic acid-N:N was higher for fluid-associated vs. particulate-associated bacteria. Enrichment of 15 N was similar between bacteria among treatments and was 30% lower for protozoa. Turnover rates of 15 N in bacteria, NH 3 N, and non-HN 3 N pools were faster for steers infused with 1.2 than those infused with .4% urea, indicating less efficient usage of ammonia with higher urea. A method is described to estimate the proportion of duodenal nitrogen comprising bacterial and protozoal nitrogen

  8. Design and manufacturing of mechanical steering system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and manufacturing of mechanical steering system for parallel parking, zero turning radius, minimum turning radius with traditional turning. ... of the steering system are designed so as to meet all the configuration of steering system and to be well-matched to the power train, suspension system and body of the car.

  9. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsum, W. van; Godthelp, J.

    1996-01-01

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  10. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear tests. 167.65-25 Section 167.65-25... SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships making voyages of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, the means of...

  11. 46 CFR 61.20-1 - Steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear. 61.20-1 Section 61.20-1 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-1 Steering gear. (a) The marine inspector must inspect the steering gear at each inspection for certification for vessels whose Certificate of Inspections...

  12. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  13. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  14. Steering Dynamics in the Dutch Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waslander, Sietske; Hooge, Edith; Drewes, Tineke

    2016-01-01

    Based on detailed empirical analyses, we paint a layered picture of emerging steering dynamics. Inspired by Foucault, we put the focus on roles stakeholders define both for themselves and others, how they give sense to policy, how they work together in policy elaboration and implementation, and the subtle and sometimes deceitful function of soft…

  15. Use of free steered vehicles. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, W

    1986-01-01

    The UK National Coal Board's Western Area is currently producing 10.5 m/tons per annum from 16 collieries exploiting 26 different seams. This article looks at the use of free steered vehicles (FSV's) in Haig Colliery, Point of Ayr and Silverdale Colliery, covering general applications, installation of coal faces and face salvage by FSV's.

  16. Development of steering system in network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagawa, Fumihiro; Noguchi, So; Yamashita, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    We have been developing the steering system, which can successively observe the-data obtained during the numerical computation and change the parameters in the analysis. Moreover, this system is also extended to link the network. By using this system, a user can easily detect errors immediately and achieve the rapid and accurate analysis with lower computation cost. (Author)

  17. Quantum Steering Beyond Instrumental Causal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, R. V.; Taddei, M. M.; Chaves, R.; Aolita, L.

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict, and experimentally verify with entangled photons, that outcome communication is not enough for hidden-state models to reproduce quantum steering. Hidden-state models with outcome communication correspond, in turn, to the well-known instrumental processes of causal inference but in the one-sided device-independent scenario of one black-box measurement device and one well-characterized quantum apparatus. We introduce one-sided device-independent instrumental inequalities to test against these models, with the appealing feature of detecting entanglement even when communication of the black box's measurement outcome is allowed. We find that, remarkably, these inequalities can also be violated solely with steering, i.e., without outcome communication. In fact, an efficiently computable formal quantifier—the robustness of noninstrumentality—naturally arises, and we prove that steering alone is enough to maximize it. Our findings imply that quantum theory admits a stronger form of steering than known until now, with fundamental as well as practical potential implications.

  18. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  19. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C genotype on vitamin A restriction and marbling in Korean native steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Qiao Peng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This work was to find the correlation of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C genotype with vitamin A reduction and carcass traits during the vitamin A restriction period. Methods In study 1, 60 Korean native steers were fed a diet (890 IU/kg with 8,000 IU and 0 IU of supplemental premix vitamin A/kg of dry matter (DM for control and treatment group, respectively. The levels of serum vitamin A were analyzed through high preparative performance liquid chromatography, and the ADH1C genotype was analyzed based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP; 78.1% TT type, 21.9% TC type; however, CC type was not found. Then, the interaction between ADH1C and carcass traits on the vitamin A restriction was investigated in study 2. A total of 136 Korean native steers were fed a diet that included 930 IU/kg vitamin A of DM. Results Serum vitamin A in treatment was reduced to 112.4 IU/dL in steers with TT type of ADH1C, while for steers with TC type the concentration of serum vitamin A was dropped to 79.5 IU/dL (p<0.1 in study 1. This showed that TC type had the potential to lower serum vitamin A concentration during vitamin A restriction compared to TT type. In study 2 we found that eye muscle area, marbling and carcass weight in Korean native steers with TC type were higher than in steers with TT type (p<0.05. Conclusion The interaction between vitamin A restriction and TC type of ADH1C gene could have the potential of increasing the marbling in Korean native steers. These results indicated that steers with TC type of the ADH1C gene were more sensitive to the change of serum vitamin A than TT types. Furthermore, this finding has the potential to enable a higher marbling score under the condition of vitamin A restriction in Korean native steers.

  20. Effect of different levels of concentrate on ruminal microorganisms and rumen fermentation in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja-Salcedo, Yury T; Ribeiro Júnior, Carlos S; de Jesus, Raphael B; Gomez-Insuasti, Arturo S; Rivera, Astrid R; Messana, Juliana D; Canesin, Roberta C; Berchielli, Telma T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of concentrate on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial population in steers. Eight Nellore steers fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. The dietary treatments consist of four different proportions of concentrate to roughage: 30:70, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20% in the dry matter, resulting in Diets 30, 40, 60 and 80, respectively. The roughage was corn silage, and the concentrate was composed of corn, soybean meal and urea. Apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein showed a linear association with concentrate proportion (p = 0.01), but the increased concentrate levels did not affect the digestibility of fibre. The lowest ruminal pH-values were observed in animals fed with Diet 80, remaining below pH 6.0 from 6 h after feeding, while in the other diets, the ruminal pH was below 6.0 not before 12 h after feeding. After feeding Diet 80, the ammonia concentration in the rumen was significantly the highest. Higher dietary concentrate levels resulted in a linear increase of propionic acid concentrations, a linear reduction of the ratio acetic acid to propionic acid (p ruminal pH-values as much as expected and inhibit some cellulolytic bacteria without impairing the dry matter intake and fibre digestibility in Nellore steers.

  1. A Frictionless Steering Mechanism for the Front Steering ECCD ITER Upper Port Launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, R; Henderson, M A; Sanchez, F

    2005-01-01

    A FS launcher is being designed for the ITER upper port, which offers enhanced physics performance over the RS launcher. A two mirror system is used to decouple the focusing and steering aspects of the launcher and provide a relatively small beam waist ( 1.6 m from the steering mirror). The resulting NTM stabilization efficiency (maximum CD density divided by the local bootstrap current >1.6) is above marginal for the q = 2 and 3/2 rational flux surfaces of the relevant ITER equilibria (scenarios 2, 3a and 5) and a factor of ∼3 relative to an equivalent RS launcher. The performance of the FS launcher strongly depends on the reliability of the steering mechanism, which is used to rotate the plasma facing steering mirror. CRPP has designed a frictionless steering mechanism assembled in a compact cartridge capable of up to ±10 deg. rotation (corresponding to a poloidal steering range of up to ±20 deg. for the microwave beam around a fixed axis of rotation) that offers a high operation reliability despite the close proximity to the thermal and neutron flux coming from the ITER plasma

  2. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the fourth quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service

  3. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montano, M F; Navarrete, J D; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Subsequently (d 112 to 308), all steers received the UREA diet with or without VM. During the initial 112-d, MAB increased ADG, G:F, and dietary NE ( 0.10) across initial supplementation treatments. Overall (d 1 to 308), MAB did not affect ADG ( > 0.10) but enhanced G:F efficiency ( = 0.03) and dietary NE ( = 0.05). During the initial 112-d period and through the remainder of the experiment, VM increased G:F ( 0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, microbial efficiency, or total tract digestion of OM and NDF. The MAB increased indispensable AA flow to the small intestine ( 0.10) total tract N digestion. Extrapolating from AA supplies in the metabolism study, MAB satisfied indispensable AA requirements during the initial 112-d period, whereas the UREA diet met 73.5% and 79.2% of methionine and lysine requirements, respectively. During the subsequent periods (d 112 to 308) indispensable AA supplies exceeded theoretical requirements. We conclude that enhancements in energy utilization when diets are balanced to meet MAA requirements of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 112-d feedlot period remain appreciable throughout time on feed. Virginiamycin enhanced efficiency of energy utilization throughout the feedlot growing-finishing period.

  4. Paleo Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucká, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Topic: Paleo Diet Objectives: The aim of bachelor thesis is to study available literature about Paleo Diet and evaluated it. Then determine whether there is awareness of Paleo Diet in Czech republic. In addition, find out whether there is any experience in dieting according to Paleo Diet and whether Paleo Diet coul be applied in our environment. Methods: As a source of information served a survey. The research group consists of respondents who should have any experience in dieting according t...

  5. Improving Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering inequalities with state information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between entropic Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)-steering inequalities and their underlying uncertainty relations along with the hypothesis that improved uncertainty relations lead to tighter EPR-steering inequalities. In particular, we discuss how using information about the state of a quantum system affects one's ability to witness EPR-steering. As an example, we consider the recent improvement to the entropic uncertainty relation between pairs of discrete observables (Berta et al., 2010 [10]). By considering the assumptions that enter into the development of a steering inequality, we derive correct steering inequalities from these improved uncertainty relations and find that they are identical to ones already developed (Schneeloch et al., 2013 [9]). In addition, we consider how one can use state information to improve our ability to witness EPR-steering, and develop a new continuous variable symmetric EPR-steering inequality as a result.

  6. Method of Controlling Steering of a Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Atluri, Venkata Prasad (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of controlling steering of a vehicle through setting wheel angles of a plurality of modular electronic corner assemblies (eModules) is provided. The method includes receiving a driving mode selected from a mode selection menu. A position of a steering input device is determined in a master controller. A velocity of the vehicle is determined, in the master controller, when the determined position of the steering input device is near center. A drive mode request corresponding to the selected driving mode to the plurality of steering controllers is transmitted to the master controller. A required steering angle of each of the plurality of eModules is determined, in the master controller, as a function of the determined position of the steering input device, the determined velocity of the vehicle, and the selected first driving mode. The eModules are set to the respective determined steering angles.

  7. Influence of dietary nonstructural carbohydrate concentration on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Aviña, Daniel; Plascencia, Alejandro; Zinn, Richard

    2018-06-01

    Since very little information exists about the topic; in this experiment we compare, in a long-term finishing program, the growth-performance responses and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers where non-structural carbohydrate concentration of the diet is reduced from 64% to 51% (dry matter basis). Sixty Holstein steer calves (129±2.2 kg) were blocked by initial weight into five groups and randomly assigned within weight groupings to 10 pens. Calves were fed with a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets containing 51% higher fiber (HF) or 64% lower fiber (LF) nonstructural carbohydrates. Non-structural carbohydrates concentrations were manipulated substituting dried distiller grain with solubles and alfalfa hay for flaked corn. Cattle were weighed every 112 days and at the end of the experiment (day 308) when the cattle were harvested and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Steers fed the HF diet showed improvement (8.8%) in average daily gain (ADG) during the initial 112-d period. This effect was followed by a numerical trend for greater ADG throughout the remainder of the study so that overall ADG tended to be greater (4.9%, p = 0.06) for the HF than for LF. There were no treatment effects on dry matter intake. Gain efficiency and estimated dietary net energy (NE) were greater 8.3% and 5.2%, respectively for HF during the initial 112-d period. Overall (308-d) gain efficiency and estimated dietary NE were similar for both dietary treatments. However, due to differences in tabular dietary NE, the ratio of observed:expected dietary NE tended to be greater (4.1%, p = 0.06) for the HF vs LF diet. There were no treatment effects on carcass characteristics except for a tendency toward a slightly greater (0.5%, p = 0.09) estimated carcass yield. Reducing the non-structural carbohydrate concentration of a conventional steam-flaked corn-based growing finishing diet for Holstein steers can effectively enhance growth performance, particularly during the early

  8. First quarter 2005 sales data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    This press release brings information on the AREVA group sales data. First quarter 2005 sales for the group were 2,496 millions of euros, up 3,6% year-on-year from 2,41 millions. The change in foreign exchange rates between the two periods show a negative impact of 22 millions euros, which is much lower than in the first quarter of 2004. It analyzes also in more details the situation of the front end, the reactors and service division, the back end division, the transmission and distribution division and the connectors division. (A.L.B.)

  9. Dietary selection by steers grazing kikuyu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    being grazeA for a period of 3,5 days in a four-week rotation, at ... Cattle improve the quality of their diet by actively seeking ... of stem in their diet. This would explain why the stem fraction mad~ no significant contribution to the equation predicting diet~ry selection. A:1unusual fact which emerged is that the animals selected.

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  11. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Values for the second quarter of 1992, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  12. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  14. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Howard; Jones, Steve; Andrew, Doherty

    2007-06-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schroedinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell-nonlocality. For arbitrary bipartite Gaussian states we derive a linear matrix inequality that decides the question of steerability via Gaussian measurements, and we relate this to the original EPR paradox.

  15. Conditional steering under the von Neumann scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Paul, Biswajit; Karmakar, Sumana; Sarkar, Debasis; Mukherjee, Amit; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Roy, Arup

    2017-08-01

    In Phys. Lett. A 166, 293 (1992), 10.1016/0375-9601(92)90711-T, Popescu and Rohrlich characterized nonlocality of pure n -partite entangled systems by studying bipartite violation of local realism when n -2 number of parties perform projective measurements on their particles. A pertinent question in this scenario is whether similar characterization is possible for n -partite mixed entangled states also. In the present work we have followed an analogous approach so as to explore whether given a tripartite mixed entangled state the conditional bipartite states obtained by performing projective measurement on the third party demonstrate a weaker form of nonlocality, quantum steering. We also compare this phenomenon of conditional steering with existing notions of tripartite correlations.

  16. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab; Bartosik, Hannes [CERN; Cornelis, Karel [CERN; Norderhaug Drøsdal, Lene [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Papaphilippou, Yannis [CERN; Wenninger, Jorg [CERN

    2014-07-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerates beams for the Large Hadron Collider to 450 GeV. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run 2012-2013 drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. While extensive studies are going on to understand, and possibly suppress, the source of such SPS orbit drifts the feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, by means of the interlocked correctors, is also being investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.

  17. Pointing Device Performance in Steering Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Ransalu; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S

    2016-06-01

    Use of touch-screen-based interactions is growing rapidly. Hence, knowing the maneuvering efficacy of touch screens relative to other pointing devices is of great importance in the context of graphical user interfaces. Movement time, accuracy, and user preferences of four pointing device settings were evaluated on a computer with 14 participants aged 20.1 ± 3.13 years. It was found that, depending on the difficulty of the task, the optimal settings differ for ballistic and visual control tasks. With a touch screen, resting the arm increased movement time for steering tasks. When both performance and comfort are considered, whether to use a mouse or a touch screen for person-computer interaction depends on the steering difficulty. Hence, a input device should be chosen based on the application, and should be optimized to match the graphical user interface. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Self-testing through EPR-steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šupić, Ivan; Hoban, Matty J

    2016-01-01

    The verification of quantum devices is an important aspect of quantum information, especially with the emergence of more advanced experimental implementations of quantum computation and secure communication. Within this, the theory of device-independent robust self-testing via Bell tests has reached a level of maturity now that many quantum states and measurements can be verified without direct access to the quantum systems: interaction with the devices is solely classical. However, the requirements for this robust level of verification are daunting and require high levels of experimental accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility of self-testing where we only have direct access to one part of the quantum device. This motivates the study of self-testing via EPR-steering, an intermediate form of entanglement verification between full state tomography and Bell tests. Quantum non-locality implies EPR-steering so results in the former can apply in the latter, but we ask what advantages may be gleaned from the latter over the former given that one can do partial state tomography? We show that in the case of self-testing a maximally entangled two-qubit state, or ebit, EPR-steering allows for simpler analysis and better error tolerance than in the case of full device-independence. On the other hand, this improvement is only a constant improvement and (up to constants) is the best one can hope for. Finally, we indicate that the main advantage in self-testing based on EPR-steering could be in the case of self-testing multi-partite quantum states and measurements. For example, it may be easier to establish a tensor product structure for a particular party’s Hilbert space even if we do not have access to their part of the global quantum system. (paper)

  19. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  20. Energy situation - Fourth quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggemos, Fabien; Misak, Evelyne; Mombel, David; Moreau, Sylvain

    2018-02-01

    This publication presents, first, a quarterly report of the French energy situation: primary energy consumption, energy independence and CO 2 emissions, national production, imports, exports, energy costs, average and spot prices. Data are presented separately for solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity. The methodology, the definitions and the corrections used are explained in a second part

  1. 1st quarterly report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The present report describes the activities carried out in the 1st quarter of 1977 at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung in Karlsruhe or on its behalf in the framework of the fast breeder project (PSB). The problems and main results of the partial projects fuel rod development, materials testing, reactor physics, reactor safety and reactor technology are presented. (RW) [de

  2. NST Quarterly - issue October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it reviews GM technology and GMOs - genetically modified organisms. The topics discussed includes the implication of GM in practice, the controversy and the prospect of GM technology. Radioactive pig - something like a ball or plug which cleanses the inner walls of the pipeline, also briefly presented

  3. NST Quarterly - October 1997 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in scientific computer modelling and simulation. A report on 2-nd FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting (RCM) of the coordinated research programme (CRP) on public acceptance of the trade development in irradiated food in Asia and the Pacific (RPFI-IV) also presented

  4. NST Quarterly. January 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in nuclear medicine, healthcare products sterilization, industrial irradiation dosimetry and heavy metals determination in food. The Malaysian standard for food irradiation was discussed in this issue

  5. NST Quarterly - April 2000 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in genetic engineering. The articles summarized the improvement of orchids and tulips through genetic engineering and generating new varieties for the floriculture industry. It also reported, MINT won gold and silver at the International Invention 2000, 12-16 April 2000, Geneva

  6. Quarter 9 Mercury information clearinghouse final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, D.L.; Miller, S.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.; Ralston, N.; Dunham, G.; Weber, G.

    2005-12-15

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. A total of eight reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. Selected topics were discussed in detail in each quarterly report. Issues related to mercury from coal-fired utilities include the general areas of measurement, control, policy, and transformations. Specific topics that have been addressed in previous quarterly reports include the following: Quarterly 1 - Sorbent Control Technologies for Mercury Control; Quarterly 2 - Mercury Measurement; Quarterly 3 - Advanced and Developmental Mercury Control Technologies; Quarterly 4 - Prerelease of Mercury from Coal Combustion By-Products; Quarterly 5 - Mercury Fundamentals; Quarterly 6 - Mercury Control Field Demonstrations; Quarterly 7 - Mercury Regulations in the United States: Federal and State; and Quarterly 8 - Commercialization Aspects of Sorbent Injection Technologies in Canada. In this last of nine quarterly reports, an update of these mercury issues is presented that includes a summary of each topic, with recent information pertinent to advances made since the quarterly reports were originally presented. In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. 86 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Intake and performance of steers fed with soybean dreg in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álisson Marian Callegaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using soybean dreg in finishing of confined steers, with age and initial body weight of 20 months and 328.3 kg, respectively. Each treatment consisted of six experimental animals, which were fed with forage: concentrate ratio, 40:60 (dry matter basis, being bulky corn silage and concentrate based of bark, chaff and soybean dreg, corn, sodium chloride and calcium limestone. The steers were distributed in the treatments: 00, 30, 60, 90 and 120 g of soybean dreg per kg of dry matter in the diet, which contained 29.0, 47.3, 66.7, 86.8 and 106.8 g of ether extract, respectively. The dry matter intake was similar (P> 0.05 among the studied treatments with an average of 9.71 kg day-1. Similarly, no differences were observed (P> 0.05 in crude protein intake with anaverage of 1.36 kg day-1. However, there were differences in the consumption of ether extract and neutral and acid detergent fibre, which decreased linearly with the increase in the inclusion of dreg in the diet (CEE=0,305+0,0061SD; CFDN=5.71–0,011SD; CFDA=3.89–0.008SD kg day-1, respectively. The performance of steers was similar (P>0.05 between treatments, being the average daily gain of 1.542 kg, the fed conversion of 6.35 kg DM kg-1 weight gain and slaughter weight of 457.95 kg. The use of soybean dreg until the limit of 120 g kg-1 in the diet of confined cattle is feasible.

  8. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  9. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Research on Performance of Wire-controlled Hydraulic Steering System Based on Four-wheel Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, P.; Jin, X. H.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the steering stability and control strategy of forklift are put forward. Drive based on yawing moment distribution of rotary torque coordination control method, through analyzing the linear two degree of freedom model of forklift truck, forklift yawing angular velocity and mass center side-slip Angle of expectations, as the control target parameters system, using fuzzy controller output driving forklift steering the yawing moment, to drive rotary torque distribution, make the forklift truck to drive horizontal pendulum angular velocity and side-slip Angle tracking reference model very well. In this paper, the lateral stability control system were designed, the joint simulation in MATLAB/Simulink, the simulation results show that under the different partial load, the control system can effectively to control side forklift lateral stability, enhanced the forklift driving safety, for the side forklift steering stability study provides a theoretical basis.

  11. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  12. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 64, 1st Quarter 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    ndupress .ndu.edu issue 64, 1 st quarter 2012 / JFQ 43 experienced in cultural relativism belie the great commonality of moral solidarity in...Politics of Civil-Military Relations (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957), 11. 12 Many people equate cultural relativism and moral relativism ...perhaps reluctantly, his muse was Platonic (the concept of the human for strategy to work in our age, it must possess solid moral and political

  13. Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - Quarterly statistics. Second Quarter 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    This publication provides up-to-date and detailed quarterly statistics on oil, coal, natural gas and electricity for the OECD countries. Oil statistics cover production, trade, refinery intake and output, stock changes and consumption for crude oil, NGL and nine selected oil product groups. Statistics for electricity, natural gas, hard coal and brown coal show supply and trade. Import and export data are reported by origin and destination. Moreover, oil and hard coal production are reported on a worldwide basis.

  14. 32 CFR 643.127 - Quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.127 Quarters. The assignment and rental of quarters to civilian employees and other nonmilitary personnel will be accomplished in accordance with AR 210-50. Responsibility of the Corps of Engineers for the establishment of rental rates for quarters rented to civilian and...

  15. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a quarterly physical inventory to account for all sealed sources and for devices containing depleted uranium received...

  16. Quarterly financial reports | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Quarterly Financial Report for the period ending 31 December 2011 · Quarterly Financial Report for the period ending 30 September 2011 · Quarterly Financial Report for the period ending 30 June 2011 · Summary of Expense Reductions to Accommodate Budget 2012 Appropriation Reduction (PDF) · What we do · Funding ...

  17. Working paper on public steering of privately owned sports facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård

    This short paper discusses how municipalities can steer privately owned sports facilities. Firstly I analyse why steering of privately owned facilities is an interesting subject. Secondly I discuss what the advantages and drawbacks of using different approaches for steering sports facilities are........ Finally I discuss the methodological challenges of measuring activities in sports facilities – and take a closer look at the advantages and drawbacks of using manual and thermal techniques for registering activity.......This short paper discusses how municipalities can steer privately owned sports facilities. Firstly I analyse why steering of privately owned facilities is an interesting subject. Secondly I discuss what the advantages and drawbacks of using different approaches for steering sports facilities are...

  18. Steering Angle Function Algorithm of Morphing of Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Tian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.

  19. Beam steering for virtual/augmented reality displays with a cycloidal diffractive waveplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwei; Weng, Yishi; Xu, Daming; Tabiryan, Nelson V; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2016-04-04

    We proposed a switchable beam steering device with cycloidal diffractive waveplate (CDW) for eye tracking in a virtual reality (VR) or augmented reality (AR) display system. Such a CDW diffracts the incident circularly polarized light to the first order with over 95% efficiency. To convert the input linearly polarized light to right-handed or left-handed circular polarization, we developed a broadband polarization switch consisting of a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell and an achromatic quarter-wave retardation film. By cascading 2-3 CDWs together, multiple diffraction angles can be achieved. To suppress the color dispersion, we proposed two approaches to obtain the same diffraction angle for red, green, and blue LEDs-based full color displays. Our device exhibits several advantages, such as high diffraction efficiency, fast response time, low power consumption, and low cost. It holds promise for the emerging VR/AR displays.

  20. Fault-tolerant Actuator System for Electrical Steering of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sandberg; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    is needed that meets this requirement. This paper studies the fault-tolerance properties of an electrical steering system. It presents a fault-tolerant architecture where a dedicated AC motor design used in conjunction with cheap voltage measurements can ensure detection of all relevant faults......Being critical to the safety of vehicles, the steering system is required to maintain the vehicles ability to steer until it is brought to halt, should a fault occur. With electrical steering becoming a cost-effective candidate for electrical powered vehicles, a fault-tolerant architecture...

  1. Analysis of Vehicle Steering and Driving Bifurcation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical method of vehicle steering bifurcation analysis is based on the nonlinear autonomous vehicle model deriving from the classic two degrees of freedom (2DOF linear vehicle model. This method usually neglects the driving effect on steering bifurcation characteristics. However, in the steering and driving combined conditions, the tyre under different driving conditions can provide different lateral force. The steering bifurcation mechanism without the driving effect is not able to fully reveal the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Aiming at the aforementioned problem, this paper analyzed the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics with the consideration of driving effect. Based on the 5DOF vehicle system dynamics model with the consideration of driving effect, the 7DOF autonomous system model was established. The vehicle steering and driving bifurcation dynamic characteristics were analyzed with different driving mode and driving torque. Taking the front-wheel-drive system as an example, the dynamic evolution process of steering and driving bifurcation was analyzed by phase space, system state variables, power spectral density, and Lyapunov index. The numerical recognition results of chaos were also provided. The research results show that the driving mode and driving torque have the obvious effect on steering and driving bifurcation characteristics.

  2. NST Quarterly - January 1997 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in local heat shrinkable copolymer and electron beam technology for purification of flue gases. It announces an International Nuclear Conference themed ' a new era in nuclear science and technology - the challenge of the 21 century ' will be held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 29 to 30 Sept 1997

  3. 2. Quarterly progress report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    This quarterly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 58 Co, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 106 Ru, K, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  4. 4. Quarterly progress report, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This quarterly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 58 Co, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 125 Sb, 90 Sr, 106 Ru, K, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  5. NST Quarterly - Oct 2000 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights the bioremediation of soils, the use of biological agents to reclaim soils and water polluted by substances hazardous to human health and/or the environment. Integrated waste management and thermal oxidation plant also reported, the topics discussed includes the role of the integrated waste management system, plant description and equipment design

  6. 3. quarter 2006 sales revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    This document presents the sales revenue of the 3. quarter 2006 for the Group AREVA. The sales revenues for the first nine months of 2006 are up by 8,1% to 7,556 millions euros; the nuclear operations are up by 5,2% reflecting strong performance in the front end division; the transmission and distribution division is up by 14%. (A.L.B.)

  7. Third quarter 2005 sales figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This document presents the sales figures of the group for the third quarter of 2005: sales revenues in the front end division, in the reactor and services division, in the back end division and in the transmission and distribution division

  8. 3. Quarterly progress report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This quarterly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 58 Co, 60 Co 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 106 Ru, K, 54 Mn, U and T). A bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  9. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  10. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  11. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  12. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  13. Rumen microbial changes in cattle fed diets with or without salinomycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Olumeyan, D B; Nagaraja, T G; Miller, G W; Frey, R A; Boyer, J E

    1986-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated steers, randomly assigned to two groups (control and salinomycin fed) were used to monitor the changes in rumen microbial populations and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations associated with feeding salinomycin (0.22 mg X kg-1 X day-1). Steers were adapted to an alfalfa hay and grain (80:20) diet before supplementing the diet with salinomycin, and then the diet was changed to 50:50 and 20:80 ratios of alfalfa hay to grain at 2-week intervals. Rumen samples for total...

  14. Stress indicators in steers at slaughtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarrilli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the blood modifications of some slaughtering-linked stress hormones in cattle subject to butcher standardized procedures. The blood samples of 20 Limousine 12-13 months old steers have been collected before slaughtering, during lairage, and after stunning by captive bolt gun, during exsanguination. The plasma level of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and beta-endorphin have been assayed by EIA. The data indicate that catecholamines, cortisol and beta-endorphin did not significantly increase after stunning in these animals.

  15. Steering assistance for backing up articulated vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Zoebel

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Articulated vehicles belong to the category of nonholonomous wheelers. Under the aspect of control theory they require a sophisticated handling. This corresponds to the experience of unexercised drivers, for instance maneuvering a car and its caravan into a parking box. In this context some adequate advice for the right steering movements would give an appreciable assistance. Here a visual assistance is proposed and realized. The decisive advice for the driver is derived from kinematic modeling. The system is designed to be integrated into standard cars and trucks. For testing purposes the actual system has been incorporated into an existing backing up simulator.

  16. Effects of calcium oxide treatment of dry and modified wet corn distillers grains plus solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent digestibility of feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, A R; Duckworth, M J; Shike, D W; Schoonmaker, J P; Felix, T L

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding dried corn distillers grains (DDGS) or modified wet corn distillers grains (MDGS) with or without CaO treatment to feedlot steers on 1) growth performance and carcass characteristics and 2) diet digestibility, pattern of intake, and meal distribution. In Exp. 1, steers (n = 139; average initial BW = 336 ± 75 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and pens were randomly allotted to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): 1) 50% DDGS untreated, 2) 48.8% DDGS treated with 1.2% CaO, 3) 50% MDGS untreated, or 4) 48.8% MDGS treated with 1.2% CaO. The remainder of the diet was corn husklage, dry rolled corn, and vitamin and mineral supplement. In Exp. 2, fistulated steers (n = 8; average initial BW = 540 ± 250 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with the same dietary treatments as in Exp. 1. There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.14) between distillers grains plus solubles (DGS) and CaO inclusion for DMI, ADG, final BW, or USDA yield and quality grades. However, steers fed CaO-treated DGS had decreased (P < 0.01) DMI, regardless of DGS type. Because CaO treatment decreased DMI without affecting (P = 0.66) ADG, steers fed CaO-treated DGS had increased (P < 0.01) G:F compared to steers not fed CaO. The variation in DMI found in this experiment could be explained by differences in meal size and distribution. Steers fed CaO-treated DGS ate a similar (P = 0.36) number of meals but ate smaller (P < 0.01) meals. No effects (P ≥ 0.55) of CaO treatment or its interaction with DGS type were found for apparent total tract DM or NDF digestibility. However, steers fed MDGS had increased (P < 0.01) NDF digestibility compared to steers fed DDGS. In conclusion, CaO treatment of DGS improved feed efficiency when DGS-based diets were fed but did not improve digestibility.

  17. Study on control schemes of flexible steering system of a multi-axle all-wheel-steering robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxia Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a multi-axle wheeled robot possesses larger load capability and also higher drive performance. However, its steering flexibility is degraded due to the large number of wheels. In order to solve this problem, in this article, we proposed three control schemes based on the center of rotation or the steering angles of both the first- and last-axle wheels. To release these control schemes, steering mode selection and also the left wheel’s steering angle in a specific axle are added approaching a practical application. Thereafter, the remaining wheels’ steering angles can be calculated with the Ackerman steering theorem. In order to verify the control effects, a five-axle all-wheel-steering wheeled robot has been developed with the Bluetooth wireless monitor system. Based on the newly designed robot, validation experiments are carried out, such as lateral movement, situ rotation, and multi-mode steering within a narrow space. The results indicate that the proposed design in this article can ensure a more flexible and faster movement within a narrow space. It shows large potential in obstacle avoidance compared with the conventional partial-wheel steering mode.

  18. Influence at the partial substitution partial of Coastcross hay on the ingestion of some nutritional component in diets containing different sources of nitrogen, in steers/ Influência da substituição parcial do feno de Coastcross pela casca de soja sobre a ingestão de alguns componentes nutricionais de dietas contendo diferentes fontes de nitrogênio, em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecir de Souza Castro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of two levels of soybean hulls (SH and three sources of nitrogen on the ingestion of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, non fiber carbohydrates (NFC and acid detergent insoluble protein (ADIP, in steers. Six Holstein x Zebu steers, with 12 months of age and 229 kg of live weight, rumen fistulated, were used. The animals were distributed in six treatments in a 6 x 6 Latin square design. They were individually fed allowing 10% DM leftover. The nitrogen sources did not influence the ingestion of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF. However, it was observed greater ingestion of NFC when animals were fed with starea than when they received “avian slaughter byproducts flour”. It was concluded that the soybean hulls can partially substitute the roughage fraction of bovine ration, and that the starea can totally substitute the soybean meal without detriment in the ingestion of the studied nutritional components.Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de dois níveis de casca de soja (CS e de três fontes de nitrogênio sobre a ingestão de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF e de proteína insolúvel em detergente ácido (PIDA, em bovinos. Foram usados seis novilhos Holandês x Zebu com idade média de 12 meses e pesando em média 229 kg de peso, fistulados no rúmen. Os animais foram distribuídos em seis tratamentos em quadrado latino 6 x 6, alimentados individualmente de tal forma que ocorresse sobra de 10% da matéria seca fornecida. As fontes de nitrogênio não influenciaram a ingestão de MS, MO, PB, FDN e de FDA. Porém, foram observadas maiores ingestões de CNF quando os animais foram alimentados com amiréia do que quando receberam farinha de subprodutos de abatedouro av

  19. Effects of dietary combination of corn and rice as whole crop silage and grain sources on carbohydrate digestion and nitrogen use in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongfu; Sugino, Toshihisa; Obitsu, Taketo; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2014-02-01

    Four Holstein steers were used to evaluate the combination effects of whole crop corn (Cs) or rice (Rs) silage with steam-flaked corn (Cg) or rice (Rg) grain (four dietary treatments) on ruminal carbohydrate digestion, duodenal nitrogen (N) flow and plasma essential amino acid (EAA) concentration. The ruminal digestibility of starch and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) for Rs and Rg diets compared with Cs and Cg diets was greater, but that of neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom) was less. Because the ruminal disappearance of NFC plus aNDFom was similar across four dietary treatments, microbial N flow was not affected by the diets. There was an interaction of methionine (Met) flow by silage and grain sources: greatest for CsRg and least for RsRg diet, and blood plasma concentration of Met after feeding was lower for Rg than Cg diets. Postprandial reduction degree of plasma EAA varied with the diets and individual EAA. The Cs diets compared with the Rs diets tended to be greater in N retention because of greater digestible organic matter (OM) intake. These results suggest that silage source combined with corn or rice grain affects N use in steers through the digestible OM intake, and the kinds of limiting AA may differ among the combination of silage and grain sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  2. Experimental nonlocal steering of Bohmian trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya; Kedem, Yaron; Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-06-26

    Interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM), or proposals for underlying theories, that attempt to present a definite realist picture, such as Bohmian mechanics, require strong non-local effects. Naively, these effects would violate causality and contradict special relativity. However if the theory agrees with QM the violation cannot be observed directly. Here, we demonstrate experimentally such an effect: we steer the velocity and trajectory of a Bohmian particle using a remote measurement. We use a pair of photons and entangle the spatial transverse position of one with the polarization of the other. The first photon is sent to a double-slit-like apparatus, where its trajectory is measured using the technique of Weak Measurements. The other photon is projected to a linear polarization state. The choice of polarization state, and the result, steer the first photon in the most intuitive sense of the word. The effect is indeed shown to be dramatic, while being easy to visualize. We discuss its strength and what are the conditions for it to occur.

  3. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Annoni, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2017-08-03

    Offsetting turbines' yaw orientations from incoming wind is a powerful tool that may be leveraged to reduce undesirable wake effects on downstream turbines. First, we examine a simple two-turbine case to gain intuition as to how inflow direction uncertainty affects the optimal solution. The turbines are modeled with unidirectional inflow such that one turbine directly wakes the other, using ten rotor diameter spacing. We perform optimization under uncertainty (OUU) via a parameter sweep of the front turbine. The OUU solution generally prefers less steering. We then do this optimization for a 60-turbine wind farm with unidirectional inflow, varying the degree of inflow uncertainty and approaching this OUU problem by nesting a polynomial chaos expansion uncertainty quantification routine within an outer optimization. We examined how different levels of uncertainty in the inflow direction effect the ratio of the expected values of deterministic and OUU solutions for steering strategies in the large wind farm, assuming the directional uncertainty used to reach said OUU solution (this ratio is defined as the value of the stochastic solution or VSS).

  4. Steering healthcare service delivery: a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gyan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore regulation in India's healthcare sector and makes recommendations needed for enhancing the healthcare service. The literature was reviewed to understand healthcare's regulatory context. To understand the current healthcare system, qualitative data were collected from state-level officials, public and private hospital staff. A patient survey was performed to assess service quality (QoS). Regulation plays a central role in driving healthcare QoS. India needs to strengthen market and institutional co-production based approaches for steering its healthcare in which delivery processes are complex and pose different challenges. This study assesses current healthcare regulation in an Indian state and presents a framework for studying and strengthening regulation. Agile regulation should be based on service delivery issues (pull approach) rather than monitoring and sanctions based regulatory environment (push approach). Healthcare pitfalls across the world seem to follow similar follies. India's complexity and experience is useful for emerging and developed economies. The author reviewed around 70 publications and synthesised them in healthcare regulatory contexts. Patient's perception of private providers could be a key input towards steering regulation. Identifying gaps across QoS dimensions would be useful in taking corrective measures.

  5. Ingestive behavior of grazing steers fed increasing levels of concentrate supplementation with different crude protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Fabiano Ferreira; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D Almeida; da Silva, Anderson Luiz Nascimento; Macedo, Venício; Abreu Filho, George; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Guimarães, Joanderson Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of steers on Brachiaria brizantha pasture fed diets with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Thirty-two crossbred steers in the finishing phase with average weight of 420 ± 8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment. Their behavior was assessed every 5 min for 24 h, in the middle of the experimental period. Variance and regression analyses at 0.05 % probability were adopted. The times spent grazing and ruminating reduced linearly (P <0.05), whereas the times spent at the trough (eating) and on other activities increased linearly (P <0.05) as the supplementation levels were elevated. The total feeding and chewing times decreased linearly (P <0.05) as the concentrate levels in the diet were elevated. By increasing the supplementation levels, the number of bites per day decreased linearly (P <0.05), and the feed efficiency of dry matter increased quadratically. Rumination efficiency of dry matter increased linearly (P <0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Grazing and rumination activities are reduced when the time devoted to other activities and at the trough are increased, as a result of the substitution effect.

  6. The impact of force feedback level on steering performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, S.; Terken, J.; Hogema, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Steer-by-wire systems provide designers the ability to customize and personalize force feedback on the steering wheel, based on individual preferences. Earlier studies using subjective responses have shown that there are individual differences in preferences for force feedback. It has also been

  7. Revisiting path steering for 3D manipulation tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Liu (Lei); J.-B. Martens; R. van Liere (Robert)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe law of path steering, as proposed by Accot and Zhai, describes a quantitative relationship between human temporal performance and the path spatial characteristics. The steering law is formulated as a continuous goal crossing task, in which a large number of goals are crossed along

  8. Revisiting path steering for 3D manipulation tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Liu (Lei); J.-B. Martens; R. van Liere (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe law of path steering, as proposed by Accot and Zhai, describes a quantitative relationship between human temporal performance and the path spatial characteristics. The steering law is formulated as a continuous goal crossing task, in which a large number of goals are crossed along

  9. Robotic needle steering: design, modeling, planning, and image guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowan, Noah J.; Goldberg, Ken; Chirikjian, Gregory S.; Fichtinger, Gabor; Alterovitz, Ron; Reed, Kyle B.; Kallem, Vinutha; Misra, Sarthak; Park, Wooram; Okamura, Allison M.; Rosen, Jacob; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes how advances in needle design, modeling, planning, and image guidance make it possible to steer flexible needles from outside the body to reach specified anatomical targets not accessible using traditional needle insertion methods. Steering can be achieved using a variety of

  10. Evaluation of flexible endoscope steering using haptic guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Kappers, Astrid M L; Misra, Sarthak

    Background: Steering the tip of a flexible endoscope relies on the physician's dexterity and experience. For complex flexible endoscopes, conventional controls may be inadequate. Methods: A steering method based on a multi-degree-of-freedom haptic device is presented. Haptic cues are generated based

  11. Evaluation of flexible endoscope steering using haptic guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Misra, Sarthak

    2011-01-01

    Background - Steering the tip of a flexible endoscope relies on the physician’s dexterity and experience. For complex flexible endoscopes, conventional controls may be inadequate. Methods - A steering method based on a multi-degree-of-freedom haptic device is presented. Haptic cues are generated

  12. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, third quarter 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    At the beginning of the third quarter of 1979, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown to complete repairs of the turbine generator hydrogen circulation fan following discovery of a rubbing noise on May 24, 1979. The Station was in a cooldown condition at approximately 180/sup 0/F and 300 psig with a steam bubble in the pressurizer and the reactor coolant pumps in slow speed. The reactor plant cooldown heat exchanger was in service to maintain coolant temperature. The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D reactor coolant loops and the 1AC and 1BD purification loops remained in service. All expended PWR Core 2 fuel elements have previously been shipped off-site. The remaining irradiated PWR Core 2 core barrel and miscellaneous refueling tools were in storage under shielding water in the deep pit of the Fuel Handling Building. The LWBR Core has generated 12,111.00 EFPH from startup through the end of the quarter.

  13. Research on Handling Stability of Steering-by-wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main function of steer-by-wire (SBW system are improving steering characteristics, security and stability of the vehicle. In this paper, the variable steering ratio of SBW system is analyzed, and the method of steering ratio based on fuzzy control and neural network are researched. In order to solve the actual working condition, the wheel angle may not reach the expected value, this paper establishes a twodegree-of-freedom (2-DOF vehicle model, and a Matlab/Simulink simulation model, in which a control strategy based on PID controller is put forward to control the front wheel steering angle. Simulation results show that proposed control strategy based on fuzzy neural network can effectively reduce lateral deviation and improve the handling stability and comfortability of the vehicle.

  14. NST Quarterly - January 1999 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in radioactive tracer technique and medical services. Special report on the sediment tracing technique to study the sedimentation pattern at the power stations was presented. The syopsis on two new book launched by MINT also were reviewed. The books are Research Highlights on the Use of Induced Mutations for Plant Improvement in Malaysia and Rice Agro-Ecosystem of the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Malaysia. In medical services, MINT has a group, provide medical physics services such as QA checks on the country's diagnostic radiology equipment and related services

  15. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  16. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  17. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  18. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  19. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  20. Effects of Supplementing Napier Grass With Graded Levels of Desmodium on Intake and Rumen Fermentation of Steers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, J.N.; Muia, J.M.K.; Gitau, G.K.; Gachuri, C.K.; Tamminga, S.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of greenleaf desmodium ( Desmodium Detortum) on organic matter (OM) intake and rumen fermentation of steers fed on Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). four Sahiwal steers (live-weight 437+/- 21 kg) were offered ad libitum four diets constituted from Napier grass and desmodium hay in a 4*4 latin square. The proportion of Desmodium in the diet on DM basis were 0% (D1), 15% (D2), 25% (D3), and 35% (D4) respectively.The OM intake increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the level of desmodium supplement (6.1, 6.4, 7.6 and 8.3). Rumen ammonia (NH3-N) also increased with increased level of supplementation (138, 162, 198, 237 mg 1-1). rumen pH increased slightly with increasing levels of legume in diet. Feeding desmodium significantly improved (P < 0.05) total volatile acids (VFA). The result indicated that supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with desmodium increased rumen NH3-N, VFA levels which subsequently led to enhanced digestion and intake

  1. Phase shifter for antenna beam steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jindal, Ravi, E-mail: rjindal21@gmail.com [Master’s(MS) in System Electronics and General Electrical, Ecole Polytechnique of university of Nantes France, IETR, Nantes (France); Razban, Tchanguiz, E-mail: tchanguiz.razban-haghighi@univ-nantes.fr [Electronics and Telecommunication Institute of Rennes (IETR-UMR 6164), Ecole Polytechnique of university of Nantes France, IETR, Nantes (France)

    2016-03-09

    Wide band Array Antenna operates in Ku-band (10.7-12.7 GHz) frequency composed of N×N radiating elements. This antenna aims at the reception of television satellite signals. The goal of this research is to provide better possibility of electronic beam control instead of manual or mechanical control, and design compact and low cost phase shifters to be inserted in the feeding network of this antenna. The electronic control of the phase shifter will allow the control of beam steering. The emphasis of this project will be done at the beginning on the design of a good phase shifter in Ku band. The aim of this research is to define, simulate, release and measure a continuous phase shifter. Better reflection loss, low transmission loss, low Cost of array antennas, large range of phase-shifter, phase flatness and bandwidth will be achieved by providing better gain.

  2. Phase shifter for antenna beam steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jindal, Ravi; Razban, Tchanguiz

    2016-01-01

    Wide band Array Antenna operates in Ku-band (10.7-12.7 GHz) frequency composed of N×N radiating elements. This antenna aims at the reception of television satellite signals. The goal of this research is to provide better possibility of electronic beam control instead of manual or mechanical control, and design compact and low cost phase shifters to be inserted in the feeding network of this antenna. The electronic control of the phase shifter will allow the control of beam steering. The emphasis of this project will be done at the beginning on the design of a good phase shifter in Ku band. The aim of this research is to define, simulate, release and measure a continuous phase shifter. Better reflection loss, low transmission loss, low Cost of array antennas, large range of phase-shifter, phase flatness and bandwidth will be achieved by providing better gain.

  3. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Three AMU tasks were completed in this Quarter, each resulting in a forecast tool now being used in operations and a final report documenting how the work was done. AMU personnel completed the following tasks (1) Phase II of the Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting task by delivering an improved wind forecasting tool to operations and providing training on its use; (2) a graphical user interface (GUI) she updated with new scripts to complete the ADAS Update and Maintainability task, and delivered the scripts to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group on Johnson Space Center, Texas and National Weather Service in Melbourne, Fla.; and (3) the Verify MesoNAM Performance task after we created and delivered a GUI that forecasters will use to determine the performance of the operational MesoNAM weather model forecast.

  4. Retrospective Review of Pectoralis Major Ruptures in Rodeo Steer Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda H. F. Lau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pectoralis major tendon ruptures have been reported in the literature as occupational injuries, accidental injuries, and sporting activities. Few cases have been reported with respect to rodeo activities. Purpose. To describe a series of PM tendon ruptures in professional steer wrestlers. Study Design. Case series, level of evidence, 4. Methods. A retrospective analysis of PM ruptures in a steer wrestling cohort was performed. Injury data between 1992 and 2008 were reviewed using medical records from the University of Calgary Sport Medicine Center. Results. Nine cases of pectoralis major ruptures in professional steer wrestlers were identified. Injuries occurred during the throwing phase of the steer or while breaking a fall. All athletes reported unexpected or abnormal behavior of the steer that contributed to the mechanism of injury. Seven cases were surgically repaired, while two cases opted for nonsurgical intervention. Eight cases reported successful return to competition following the injury. Conclusion. Steer wrestlers represent a unique cohort of PM rupture case studies. Steer wrestling is a demanding sport that involves throwing maneuvers that may predispose the muscle to rupture. All cases demonstrated good functional outcomes regardless of surgical or non-surgical treatment.

  5. Directional control-response compatibility of joystick steered shuttle cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Zupanc, Christine M; Wallis, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Shuttle cars are an unusual class of vehicle operated in underground coal mines, sometimes in close proximity to pedestrians and steering errors may have very serious consequences. A directional control-response incompatibility has previously been described in shuttle cars which are controlled using a steering wheel oriented perpendicular to the direction of travel. Some other shuttle car operators are seated perpendicular to the direction of travel and steer the car via a seat mounted joystick. A virtual simulation was utilised to determine whether the steering arrangement in these vehicles maintains directional control-response compatibility. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to either a condition corresponding to this design (consistent direction), or a condition in which the directional steering response was reversed while driving in-bye (visual field compatible). Significantly less accurate steering performance was exhibited by the consistent direction group during the in-bye trials only. Shuttle cars which provide the joystick steering mechanism described here require operators to accommodate alternating compatible and incompatible directional control-response relationships with each change of car direction. A virtual simulation of an underground coal shuttle car demonstrates that the design incorporates a directional control-response incompatibility when driving the vehicle in one direction. This design increases the probability of operator error, with potential adverse safety and productivity consequences.

  6. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  7. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada

  8. Multiquantum well beam-steering device for laser satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, Roee; Levy, Itamar; Shlomi, Arnon

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing interest in laser satellite communications, new methods are sought to solve the existing problems of accurate and rapid laser beam deflection. Current solutions in the form of galvanometers or piezo fast steering mirrors with one or two degrees of freedom are bulky, power-consuming and slow. The Multi-Quantum Well (MQW) is a semiconductor device with unique potential to steer laser beams without any moving parts. We have conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential application of the MQW as a laser beam-steering device for laser satellite communication, examining the performance of critical parameters for this type of communications.

  9. Fundamental X-mode electron cyclotron current drive using remote-steering symmetric direction antenna at larger steering angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, H.; Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Sato, K.N.; Sakamoto, M.; Iyomasa, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Ohkubo, K.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Ito, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Nakamura, K.; Notake, T.; Hoshika, H.; Maezono, N.; Nishi, S.; Nakashima, K.

    2005-01-01

    A remote steering antenna has been newly developed for Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/ECCD) experiments on the TRIAM-1M tokamak. It is a first application of the remote steering antenna to the ECH/ECCD experiments under the conditions relevant to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. Our launcher is a symmetric direction antenna with extended steering capability. The larger steering angles of 8-19 degrees are available, in addition to that near 0 degree. The output beam from the antenna is the well-defined Gaussian beam with a correct steering angle. The Gaussian content and the steering angle accuracy are 0.85 and -0.3 degrees, respectively. Antenna transmission efficiency in the high power test is evaluated as 0.95. The efficiencies at the low and high power tests are consistent with those in the calculation with higher-order modes. The difference between plasma currents increased at co- and counter-steering injections [+/-19 degrees] is clearly observed in the superposition to the Lower Hybrid Current Driven (LHCD) plasma of the fundamental X-mode injection. (author)

  10. Trend chart: wind power. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltier, Yves

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  11. Trend chart: wind power. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  12. Trend chart: wind power. Second quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-08-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the second quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  13. Trend chart: wind power. Fourth quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Sylvain

    2018-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the fourth quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  14. Trend chart: biogas. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  15. Trend chart: biogas. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the Second quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  16. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  17. Trend chart: wind power. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the second quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  18. Trend chart: biogas. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  19. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  20. Trend chart: wind power. First quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  1. Trend chart: wind power. Forth quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2015: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  2. Trend chart: biogas. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  3. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2015: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  4. United States housing, second quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. housing market’s quarter two results were disap¬pointing compared with the first quarter. Although overall expected gains did not materialize, certain sectors improved slightly. Housing under construction, completions, and new and existing home sales exhibited slight increases. Overall permit data declined, and the decrease in starts was due primarily to a...

  5. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization and fungal population in the rumen contents of higid beef steers or wih ruminal acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Oliveira Abrão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Abrão F.O., Duarte E.R., Nigri A.C.A., Silva M.L.F., Ribeiro I.C.O., Silva K.L., Rosa C.A. & Rodriguez N.M. [Physicochemical and microbiological characterization and fungal population in the rumen contents of higid beef steers or wih ruminal acidosis.] Caracterização físico-química e microbiológica e população de fungos no conteúdo ruminal de novilhos de corte hígidos ou com acidose ruminal. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(1:7-14, 2015. Instituto de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Universitária, 1000, Universitário, Montes Claros, MG 39404-006, Brasil. E-mail: duartevet@hotmail.com In cattle fed with diets without vegetable fibers the development of fungi and other microorganisms in the rumen environment can be altered. The objective of this study was to evaluate physicochemical, microbiological characteristics and fungal population in the rumen contents of steers raised on lignified pasture or in feedlot without forage. The experimental design was completely randomized, 50 steers were randomly bred in mature pasture and 20 steers fed without forage. Immediately after collection of ruminal fluid, its physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. Micromorphological examination, direct examination for the detection of strict anaerobes fungi and culture, quantification, identification of aerobic fungi were performed. On direct examination, anaerobic fungi of the rumen, monocentric and polycentric were detected in similar proportions (P> 0.05 for rumen fluid of steers raised in tropical pastures during the dry season. However, structures of these microorganisms were not identified for any of the samples obtained from steers fed without vegetal fiber. The average colony-forming units of aerobic fungi by mℓ of ruminal fluid from confined calves was significantly higher than that of animals raised on pasture (P <0.05. After microculture, the genus Aspergillus was the most

  6. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  8. 46 CFR 196.37-33 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 196.37-33... steering gear. (a) Instructions in at least 1/2 inch letters and figures shall be posted in the steering engineroom, relating in order, the different steps to be taken in changing to the emergency steering gear...

  9. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout their...

  10. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  11. Strong Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering with unconditional entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Sebastian; Bauchrowitz, Jöran; Eberle, Tobias; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-02-01

    In 1935 Schrödinger introduced the terms entanglement and steering in the context of the famous gedanken experiment discussed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR). Here, we report on a sixfold increase of the observed EPR-steering effect with regard to previous experiments, as quantified by the Reid criterion. We achieved an unprecedented low conditional variance product of about 0.04<1, where 1 is the upper bound below which steering is demonstrated. The steering effect was observed on an unconditional two-mode-squeezed entangled state that contained a total vacuum state contribution of less than 8%, including detection imperfections. Together with the achieved high interference contrast between the entangled state and a bright coherent laser field, our state is compatible with efficient applications in high-power laser interferometers and fiber-based networks for entanglement distribution.

  12. A Parallel and Distributed Surrogate Model Implementation for Computational Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Butnaru, Daniel; Buse, Gerrit; Pfluger, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    of the input parameters. Such an exploration process is however not possible if the simulation is computationally too expensive. For these cases we present in this paper a scalable computational steering approach utilizing a fast surrogate model as substitute

  13. CCCT - NCTN Steering Committees - Pediatric and Adolescent Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pediatric and Adolescent Solid Tumor Steering Committee addresses the design, prioritization and evaluation of concepts for large phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials in extracranial solid tumors of children and youth.

  14. Real-Time Application Performance Steering and Adaptive Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    .... The objective of the Real-time Application Performance Steering and Adaptive Control project is to replace ad hoc, post-mortem performance optimization with an extensible, portable, and distributed...

  15. DSP-based electric power assisted steering using BLDC motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bharat Electronics Limited, Nandambakkam, Chennai 600 089 e-mail: ... engine speed sensor, vehicle speed sensor, steering column, torsion bar and electronic control unit. Figure 1. .... IEEE Trans. on Industry Application 26(6):. 1144–1157.

  16. Calculation of the beam injector steering system using Helmholtz coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaro, A.; Sircilli Neto, F.; Migliano, A.C.C.

    1991-03-01

    In this work, a preliminary evaluation of the beam injector steering system of the IEAv electron linac is presented. From the existing injector configuration and with the assumptions of monoenergetic beam (100 keV) and uniform magnetic field, two pairs of Helmholtz coils were calculated for the steering system. Excitations of 105 A.turn and 37 A.turn were determined for the first and second coils, respectively. (author)

  17. "Intelligent" Automatic Beam Steering and Shaping

    CERN Document Server

    Jansson, A

    2000-01-01

    The strategy for Automated Beam Steering and Shaping (ABS) in the PS complex is to use theoretical response matrices calculated from an optics database. The main reason for this is that it enforces a certain understanding of the machine optics. A drawback is that the validation of such a matrix can be a lengthy process. However, every time a correction is made using an ABS program, a partial measurement of the response matrix is effectively performed. Since the ABS programs are very frequently used, the full matrices could thus be measured on an almost daily basis, provided this information is retained. The information can be used in two ways. Either the program passively logs the data to be analysed off­line, or the information is directly fed back to the matrix, which makes the program 'learn' as it executes. The data logging provides a powerful machine debugging tool, since deviations between the measured and theoretical matrices can be traced back to incorrect optical parameters. The 'learning' mode ensu...

  18. Computational steering of GEM based detector simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheharyar, Ali; Bouhali, Othmane

    2017-10-01

    Gas based detector R&D relies heavily on full simulation of detectors and their optimization before final prototypes can be built and tested. These simulations in particular those with complex scenarios such as those involving high detector voltages or gas with larger gains are computationally intensive may take several days or weeks to complete. These long-running simulations usually run on the high-performance computers in batch mode. If the results lead to unexpected behavior, then the simulation might be rerun with different parameters. However, the simulations (or jobs) may have to wait in a queue until they get a chance to run again because the supercomputer is a shared resource that maintains a queue of other user programs as well and executes them as time and priorities permit. It may result in inefficient resource utilization and increase in the turnaround time for the scientific experiment. To overcome this issue, the monitoring of the behavior of a simulation, while it is running (or live), is essential. In this work, we employ the computational steering technique by coupling the detector simulations with a visualization package named VisIt to enable the exploration of the live data as it is produced by the simulation.

  19. Applications of EPR steering in quantum teleportation and NOON states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Laura Rosales

    2018-04-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering refers to the type of correlations described in the EPR paradox, where one observer seems to affect ("steer") the state of other observer by using local measurements. There have been several works regarding characterization and quantification of EPR steering. One characteristic of this non-local correlation is that it can be asymmetric, while entanglement is symmetric. This asymmetric property is relevant for potential applications of EPR steering to quantum information, in particular to quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. This latter refers to the process where one observer sends an unknown quantum state to Bob, who is in a different location. They communicate by classical means. Here we will show that EPR steering is a necessary resource to obtain secure continuous variable teleportation. We will also consider NOON states, which is an example of an entangled state. For this state, we will present a steering signature. This contribution reviews the work derived in Refs. [1] and [2], which was presented as an invited talk in ELAF 2017.

  20. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Annoni, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2017-05-01

    Wind turbines in a wind power plant experience significant power losses because of aerodynamic interactions between turbines. One control strategy to reduce these losses is known as 'wake steering,' in which upstream turbines are yawed to direct wakes away from downstream turbines. Previous wake steering research has assumed perfect information, however, there can be significant uncertainty in many aspects of the problem, including wind inflow and various turbine measurements. Uncertainty has significant implications for performance of wake steering strategies. Consequently, the authors formulate and solve an optimization under uncertainty (OUU) problem for finding optimal wake steering strategies in the presence of yaw angle uncertainty. The OUU wake steering strategy is demonstrated on a two-turbine test case and on the utility-scale, offshore Princess Amalia Wind Farm. When we accounted for yaw angle uncertainty in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm case, inflow-direction-specific OUU solutions produced between 0% and 1.4% more power than the deterministically optimized steering strategies, resulting in an overall annual average improvement of 0.2%. More importantly, the deterministic optimization is expected to perform worse and with more downside risk than the OUU result when realistic uncertainty is taken into account. Additionally, the OUU solution produces fewer extreme yaw situations than the deterministic solution.

  1. Creation of quantum steering by interaction with a common bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhe; Xu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Bo

    2018-05-01

    By applying the hierarchy equation method, we computationally study the creation of quantum steering in a two-qubit system interacting with a common bosonic bath. The calculation does not adopt conventional approximate approaches, such as the Born, Markov, rotating-wave, and other perturbative approximations. Three kinds of quantum steering, i.e., Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering (EPRS), temporal steering (TS), and spatiotemporal steering (STS), are considered. Since the initial state of the two qubits is chosen as a product state, there does not exist EPRS at the beginning. During the evolution, we find that STS as well as EPRS are generated at the same time. An inversion relationship between STS and TS is revealed. By varying the system-bath coupling strength from weak to ultrastrong regimes, we find the nonmonotonic dependence of STS, TS, and EPRS on the coupling strength. It is interesting to study the dynamics of the three kinds of quantum steering by using an exactly numerical method, which is not considered in previous researches.

  2. Microbial Protein Production and Nitrogen Balance of Local Steer Fed Ammoniated Rice Straws Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hindratiningrum

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to investigate the kind of energy source feedstuffs on nutrient balance and microbial protein synthesis in local male beef cattle fed with ammoniated rice straws Twenty steers Peranakan Ongole (PO with average age 1-2 years old were used. They were divided 5 groups based on initial body weight as block. Therefore, Completely Randomised Block Design (CBRD was used for this experiment. Data were analysed by analysis variance and continued honestly significant different (HSD to test the differences between means. The result showed that the range MCP and eficiency MCP were 154,61 g/d until 226,54 g/d and 54,08 gMCP/kg DOMR until 62,64 gMCP/kg DOMR. The range of nitrogen balance were 72,28 gram until 111,67 gram. MCP and efficiency MCP were not affected (P>0,05 by the treatments but balance of nitrogen was affected (P<0,05. Diet containing fresh cassava waste as energy source (R2 was lower (P<0,05 than R1 and R4 while between R1,R3 and R4 was similar. This results indicate that feed source of energy (rice brand, wet cassava waste, dry cassava waste and corn can be used in steers with rice straw ensilage as forage. (Animal Production 11(2: 116-121 (2009 Key Words : Microbial protein production, nitrogen balance, rice straw, ensilage

  3. Diverticulitis Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of items allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no ... two or three days of starting the diet and antibiotics. If you haven't started feeling ...

  4. Econometric Methods within Romanian Quarterly National Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Marineta Drăguşin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to synthesise the main econometric methods (including the mathematical and statistical ones used in the Romanian Quarterly National Accounts compilation, irrespectively of Quarterly Gross Domestic Product (QGDP. These methods are adapted for a fast manner to operatively provide information about the country macroeconomic evolution to interested users. In this context, the mathematical and econometric methods play an important role in obtaining quarterly accounts valued in current prices and in constant prices, in seasonal adjustments and flash estimates of QGDP.

  5. Nondestructive analysis of the gold quarter liras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, C.; Guerol, A.; Demir, L.; Sahin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we have prepared seven Au-Cu standards in the concentration range of 18-24 (as carat) for nondestructive control of gold quarter liras. Some calibration curves for quantitative analysis of Au in the gold quarter liras that commercially present in Turkey have been plotted using these standard samples. The characteristic X-rays of Au and Cu emitted from these standard samples and the test sample with known composition are recorded by using a Ge(Li) detector. These calibration curves provide a nondestructive analysis of gold quarter liras with the uncertainties about 1.18%. (author)

  6. Post-ruminal branched-chain amino acid supplementation and intravenous lipopolysaccharide infusion alters blood metabolites, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen balance of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löest, C A; Gilliam, G G; Waggoner, J W; Turner, J L

    2018-04-27

    Steers exposed to an endotoxin may require additional branched-chain AA (BCAA) to support an increase in synthesis of immune proteins. This study evaluated effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and BCAA supplementation on blood metabolites and N balance of 20 ruminally-cannulated steers (177 ± 4.2 kg BW). The experiment was a randomized block design, with 14-d adaptation to metabolism stalls and diet (DM fed = 1.5% BW) and 6-d collection. Treatments were a 2 × 2 factorial of LPS (0 vs 1.0 to 1.5 μg/kg BW; -LPS vs +LPS) and BCAA (0 vs 35 g/d; -BCAA vs +BCAA). The LPS in 100 mL sterile saline was infused (1 mL/min via i.v. catheter) on d 15. The BCAA in an essential AA solution were abomasally infused (900 mL/d) 3 times daily in equal portions beginning on d 7. Blood, rumen fluid, and rectal temperature were collected on d 15 at h 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 after LPS infusion. Feces and urine were collected from d 16 to 20. Rectal temperatures were greater for +LPS vs. -LPS steers at 4 h and lower at 8 h after LPS infusion (LPS h, P BCAA than -BCAA steers at 12 h after LPS infusion (BCAA × h, P BCAA, P BCAA than -BCAA steers at 0 h and 24 h after LPS infusion (BCAA × h, P ≤ 0.05). Steers receiving +LPS had lower rumen pH at 8 h, greater total VFA at 8 h, and lower rumen NH3 at 24 h after LPS infusion compared with -LPS steers (LPS × h, P ≤ 0.04). Total tract passage rates, DM, OM, NDF, ADF, and N intake, fecal N, digested N, and retained N were lower (P BCAA vs -BCAA steers. The absence of LPS × BCAA interactions (P ≥ 0.20) for N balance indicated that post-ruminal supplementation of BCAA did not alleviate the negative effects of endotoxin on N utilization by growing steers.

  7. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H J; Lee, I K; Piao, M Y; Gu, M J; Yun, C H; Kim, H J; Kim, K H; Baik, M

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (pambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March.

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis for the 1st Quarter FY2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 82 reportable events (13 from the 1st quarter (Qtr) of fiscal year (FY) 2017 and 68 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 31 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (seven from this quarter and 24 from the prior three quarters).

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis 4th Quarter FY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System, as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 84 reportable events (29 from the 4th quarter fiscal year 2016 and 55 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 39 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (two from this quarter and 37 from the prior three quarters).

  10. Information Science Research Institute. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nartker, T.A.

    1994-06-30

    This is a second quarter 1194 progress report on the UNLV Information Science Research Institute. Included is symposium activity; staff activity; document analysis program; text retrieval program; institute activity; and goals.

  11. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.

    1992-01-01

    The United States produced 257 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1992. This was the second highest quarterly production level ever recorded. US coal exports in January through March of 1992 were 25 million short tons, the highest first quarter since 1982. The leading destinations for US coal exports were Japan, Italy, France, and the Netherlands, together receiving 46 percent of the total. Coal exports for the first quarter of 1992 were valued at $1 billion, based on an average price of $42.28 per short ton. Steam coal exports totaled 10 million short tons, an increase of 34 percent over the level a year earlier. Metallurgical coal exports amounted to 15 million short tons, about the same as a year earlier. US coal consumption for January through March 1992 was 221 million short tons, 2 million short tons more than a year earlier (Table 45). All sectors but the residential and commercial sector reported increased coal consumption

  12. Quarterly Fishery Surveys - Salton Sea [ds428

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In the spring of 2003, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) personnel began quarterly sampling of Salton Sea fish at fourteen stations around the sea, as...

  13. NSA Diana Wueger Published in Washington Quarterly

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    National Security Affairs (NSA) News NSA Faculty Associate for Research Diana Wueger has recently had an article titled “India’s Nuclear-Armed Submarines: Deterrence or Danger?” published in the Washington Quarterly.

  14. BEAMLINE-CONTROLLED STEERING OF SOURCE-POINT ANGLE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, L.; Fystro, G.; Shang, H.; Smith, M.

    2017-06-25

    An EPICS-based steering software system has been implemented for beamline personnel to directly steer the angle of the synchrotron radiation sources at the Advanced Photon Source. A script running on a workstation monitors "start steering" beamline EPICS records, and effects a steering given by the value of the "angle request" EPICS record. The new system makes the steering process much faster than before, although the older steering protocols can still be used. The robustness features of the original steering remain. Feedback messages are provided to the beamlines and the accelerator operators. Underpinning this new steering protocol is the recent refinement of the global orbit feedback process whereby feedforward of dipole corrector set points and orbit set points are used to create a local steering bump in a rapid and seamless way.

  15. Physiological responses to known intake of ergot alkaloids by steers at environmental temperatures within or greater than their thermoneutral zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisemann, Joan; Huntington, Gerald; Williamson, Megan; Hanna, Michelle; Poore, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Two studies separated effects of dietary ergot alkaloids from effects of feed intake or ambient temperature on respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR), surface temperature (ST), rectal temperature (RT), blood pressure (BP), serum hormone, and plasma metabolite concentrations in beef steers. The balanced, single reversal design for each experiment used 8 beef steers fed tall fescue seed (2.5 g/kg body weight, (BW)) with (E+) or without (E-) ergot alkaloids as part of a 60:40 switchgrass hay: supplement diet. Periods were 35 d with 21 d of preliminary phase and 14 d of feeding fescue seed once daily. Measures of dependent variables were collected on d 20, 25, 29 and 35 of each period at 0730 (before feeding), 1230 and 1530. In Expt 1 steers weighed 286 kg, gained 0.61 kg BW/d, E+ supplied 2.72 mg ergot alkaloids including 1.60 mg ergovaline per steer daily, and mean minimum and maximum daily ambient temperatures were 23.6 and 32.3°C. In Expt 2 steers weighed 348 kg, gained 1.03 kg BW/d, E+ supplied 3.06 mg ergot alkaloids including 2.00 mg ergovaline daily, and mean minimum and maximum daily ambient temperatures were 11.9 and 17.4°C. Dry matter intake was not affected by fescue seed treatment (P < 0.20) in either experiment. In both experiments, E+ reduced HR (P < 0.01) and increased insulin (P = 0.07). Systolic BP minus diastolic BP decreased (P< 0.05) for E+ in both experiments, due to increased diastolic BP in Expt 1 (P < 0.03) and decreased systolic BP in Expt 2 (P < 0.07). In Expt 1, above the thermoneutral zone, E+ increased (P< 0.05) RR, RT and left side ST in comparison to E-, but in Expt 2, within the thermoneutral zone, E+ and E- did not differ (P < 0.18). Ergot alkaloids from fescue seed affect the cardiovascular system of steers separately from effects of feed intake or environmental temperature. Ergot alkaloids interact with ambient temperatures above the steers’ thermoneutral zone to exacerbate the symptoms of hyperthermic stress.

  16. Effects of concentrate-to-forage ratios and 2-methylbutyrate supplementation on ruminal fermentation, bacteria abundance and urinary excretion of purine derivatives in Chinese Simmental steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Guo, G; Huo, W J; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Wang, H

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary concentrate levels and 2-methylbutyrate (2MB) supplementation on performance, ruminal fermentation, bacteria abundance, microbial enzyme activity and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers (12 months of age; 389 ± 3.7 kg of body weight) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Moderate-concentrate (400 g/kg diet [MC]) or high-concentrate (600 g/kg diet [HC]) diets were fed with or without 2MB (0 g/day [2MB-] or 15.0 g/day [2MB+]). Dry matter intake and average daily gain increased, but feed conversion ratio decreased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. Ruminal pH decreased, but total volatile fatty acid increased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. Molar proportion of acetate and acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased with the HC diet, but increased with 2MB supplementation. Propionate molar proportion and ruminal NH 3 -N content increased with the HC diet, but decreased with 2MB supplementation. Neutral detergent fibre degradability decreased with the HC diet, but increased with 2MB supplementation. Crude protein degradability increased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. Abundance of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Bufyrivibrio fibrisolvens as well as activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase and pectinase decreased with the HC diet, but increased with 2MB supplementation. However, abundance of Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus as well as activities of α-amylase and protease increased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. Total PD excretion also increased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. The results suggested that growth performance, ruminal fermentation, CP degradability and total PD excretion increased with increasing dietary concentrate level from 40% to 60% or 2MB supplementation. The

  17. Altered steering strategies for goal-directed locomotion in stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals who have sustained a stroke can manifest altered locomotor steering behaviors when exposed to optic flows expanding from different locations. Whether these alterations persist in the presence of a visible goal and whether they can be explained by the presence of a perceptuo-motor disorder remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare stroke participants and healthy participants on their ability to control heading while exposed to changing optic flows and target locations. Methods Ten participants with stroke (55.6 ± 9.3 yrs) and ten healthy controls (57.0 ± 11.5 yrs) participated in a mouse-driven steering task (perceptuo-motor task) while seated and in a walking steering task. In the seated steering task, participants were instructed to head or ‘walk’ toward a target in the virtual environment by using a mouse while wearing a helmet-mounted display (HMD). In the walking task, participants performed a similar steering task in the same virtual environment while walking overground at their comfortable speed. For both experiments, the target and/or the focus of expansion (FOE) of the optic flow shifted to the side (±20°) or remained centered. The main outcome measure was net heading errors (NHE). Secondary outcomes included mediolateral displacement, horizontal head orientation, and onsets of heading and head reorientation. Results In the walking steering task, the presence of FOE shifts modulated the extent and timing of mediolateral displacement and head rotation changes, as well as NHE magnitudes. Participants overshot and undershot their net heading, respectively, in response to ipsilateral and contralateral FOE and target shifts. Stroke participants made larger NHEs, especially when the FOE was shifted towards the non-paretic side. In the seated steering task, similar NHEs were observed between stroke and healthy participants. Conclusions The findings highlight the fine coordination between rotational and

  18. Observation of one-way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händchen, Vitus; Eberle, Tobias; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Samblowski, Aiko; Franz, Torsten; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2012-09-01

    The distinctive non-classical features of quantum physics were first discussed in the seminal paper by A. Einstein, B. Podolsky and N. Rosen (EPR) in 1935. In his immediate response, E. Schrödinger introduced the notion of entanglement, now seen as the essential resource in quantum information as well as in quantum metrology. Furthermore, he showed that at the core of the EPR argument is a phenomenon that he called steering. In contrast to entanglement and violations of Bell's inequalities, steering implies a direction between the parties involved. Recent theoretical works have precisely defined this property, but the question arose as to whether there are bipartite states showing steering only in one direction. Here, we present an experimental realization of two entangled Gaussian modes of light that in fact shows the steering effect in one direction but not in the other. The generated one-way steering gives a new insight into quantum physics and may open a new field of applications in quantum information.

  19. Effect of protein supplementation on ruminal parameters and microbial community fingerprint of Nellore steers fed tropical forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C B P; Azevedo, A C; Gomes, D I; Batista, E D; Rufino, L M A; Detmann, E; Mantovani, H C

    2016-01-01

    In tropical regions, protein supplementation is a common practice in dairy and beef farming. However, the effect of highly degradable protein in ruminal fermentation and microbial community composition has not yet been investigated in a systematic manner. In this work, we aimed to investigate the impact of casein supplementation on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, specific activity of deamination (SAD), ammonia concentration and bacterial and archaeal community composition. The experimental design was a 4×4 Latin square balanced for residual effects, with four animals (average initial weight of 280±10 kg) and four experimental periods, each with duration of 29 days. The diet comprised Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.) hay with an average CP content of 9.8%, on a dry matter basis. Animals received basal forage (control) or infusions of pure casein (230 g) administered direct into the rumen, abomasum or divided (50 : 50 ratio) in the rumen/abomasum. There was no differences (P>0.05) in ruminal pH and microbial protein concentration between supplemented v. non-supplemented animals. However, in steers receiving ruminal infusion of casein the SAD and ruminal ammonia concentration increased 33% and 76%, respectively, compared with the control. The total concentration of VFA increased (P0.05) in species richness and diversity of γ-proteobacteria, firmicutes and archaea between non-supplemented Nellore steers and steers receiving casein supplementation in the rumen. However, species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were lower (Pruminal and postruminal protein supplementation on metabolic activities of rumen microbes and the composition of bacterial and archaeal communities in the rumen of steers.

  20. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common questions IBS patients have is what food to avoid. This can drive a person to ... Global Treatments IBS Diet What to Do and What to Avoid Foods That Cause Cramping and Diarrhea Foods that Cause ...

  1. Effect of biotin supplementation on meat quality of F1 Wagyu/Black Angus feedlot steers of known genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R J; Doyle, J C; Elliott, R; Norton, B W; Loxton, I

    2007-10-01

    Biotin (D-biotin) was supplemented to F1 Wagyu/Black Angus steers fed a wheat-based ration to evaluate the effect on meat quality. One hundred and eight steers of known Wagyu sire lines were assigned to three biotin treatments (0, 10 and 20mg/head/day) with each treatment replicated four times using an unfasted liveweight of 410.5kg (±24.42 SD). Biotin supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on beef marbling standard at either the 5/6th or 10/11th rib quartering site, 10/11th rib intra-muscular fat percentage, intra-muscular fat fatty acid composition or adipose melting points. Wagyu genotype had an effect (P<0.05) on beef marbling standard and intra-muscular fat percentage at the 10/11th rib, inter-muscular and intra-muscular melting point and fatty acid composition of intra-muscular fat. A significant (P<0.001) but poor correlation existed between beef marbling standard and intra-muscular fat percentage (R(2)=0.198). Total conjugated linoleic acid had a highly significantly (P<0.0001) positive correlation to intra-muscular fat percentage (R(2)=0.446).

  2. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  3. Steer wrestling : Hemisphere GPS hopes to bring its auto-steering technology to the oilsands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-15

    Hemisphere GPS has developed a technology to guide giant dump trucks used in oilsand mining operations. The technology offers the possibility to haul oilsands from northern Alberta mines using driverless, remotely-guided trucks. The GPS system would ensure more accuracy than a human operator. The technology has the potential to be commercialized within the next year, and may be adapted for the mining industry. The unmanned technology would help oilsands mine operators lower their labour costs. Hemisphere GPS gained access to the steer-by-wire technology when it purchased the Australian software company Beeline Technologies Pty Ltd. Hemisphere GPS has also developed prototype unmanned drilling rig technology which has considerable potential in the energy industry. The company has won numerous awards in recognition of its commercial achievements in science and technology. 1 fig.

  4. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

  5. Experimental EPR-steering using Bell-local states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.; Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Pryde, G. J.

    2010-11-01

    The concept of `steering' was introduced in 1935 by Schrödinger as a generalization of the EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) paradox. It has recently been formalized as a quantum-information task with arbitrary bipartite states and measurements, for which the existence of entanglement is necessary but not sufficient. Previous experiments in this area have been restricted to an approach that followed the original EPR argument in considering only two different measurement settings per side. Here we demonstrate experimentally that EPR-steering occurs for mixed entangled states that are Bell local (that is, that cannot possibly demonstrate Bell non-locality). Unlike the case of Bell inequalities, increasing the number of measurement settings beyond two-we use up to six-significantly increases the robustness of the EPR-steering phenomenon to noise.

  6. Field test of wake steering at an offshore wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fleming

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a field test of wake-steering control is presented. The field test is the result of a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL and Envision Energy, a smart energy management company and turbine manufacturer. In the campaign, an array of turbines within an operating commercial offshore wind farm in China have the normal yaw controller modified to implement wake steering according to a yaw control strategy. The strategy was designed using NREL wind farm models, including a computational fluid dynamics model, Simulator fOr Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA, for understanding wake dynamics and an engineering model, FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady State (FLORIS, for yaw control optimization. Results indicate that, within the certainty afforded by the data, the wake-steering controller was successful in increasing power capture, by amounts similar to those predicted from the models.

  7. Dissipation induced asymmetric steering of distant atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangling; Tan, Huatang; Chen, Aixi

    2018-04-01

    The asymmetric steering effects of separated atomic ensembles denoted by the effective bosonic modes have been explored by the means of quantum reservoir engineering in the setting of the cascaded cavities, in each of which an atomic ensemble is involved. It is shown that the steady-state asymmetric steering of the mesoscopic objects is unconditionally achieved via the dissipation of the cavities, by which the nonlocal interaction occurs between two atomic ensembles, and the direction of steering could be easily controlled through variation of certain tunable system parameters. One advantage of the present scheme is that it could be rather robust against parameter fluctuations, and does not require the accurate control of evolution time and the original state of the system. Furthermore, the double-channel Raman transitions between the long-lived atomic ground states are used and the atomic ensembles act as the quantum network nodes, which makes our scheme insensitive to the collective spontaneous emission of atoms.

  8. A Parallel and Distributed Surrogate Model Implementation for Computational Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Butnaru, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the influence of multiple parameters in a complex simulation setting is a difficult task. In the ideal case, the scientist can freely steer such a simulation and is immediately presented with the results for a certain configuration of the input parameters. Such an exploration process is however not possible if the simulation is computationally too expensive. For these cases we present in this paper a scalable computational steering approach utilizing a fast surrogate model as substitute for the time-consuming simulation. The surrogate model we propose is based on the sparse grid technique, and we identify the main computational tasks associated with its evaluation and its extension. We further show how distributed data management combined with the specific use of accelerators allows us to approximate and deliver simulation results to a high-resolution visualization system in real-time. This significantly enhances the steering workflow and facilitates the interactive exploration of large datasets. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Supplementation of native grass hay with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata hay, wilted leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala forage, wilted tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis forage or a wheat middling for young Friesian x Zebu (Boran crossbred steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Varvikko

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available A 100-day experiment of a randomized block design was conducted with forty Friesian x Zebu (Boran crossbred growing steers to compare the value of wheat middling, an agro-industrial by-product (diet W, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata hay (diet C, and wilted forages of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, diet L and tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis, diet T as cattle feed. These feeds were fed daily at a level of 1.5 kg (on an air dry basis to supplement the basal diet (diet H of native hay. A mineral supplement containing 50 g bone meal and 10 g common salt was also given daily. The steers were group-fed, but during the last two weeks at the end of the experiment the animals were housed individually in feeding pens to estimate the feed intake and apparent digestibilities of the diets. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment, thereafter every two weeks, and finally at the end of the experiment. The animals consumed all the offered supplements, except for tagasaste forage, of which one third remained unconsumed. The mean daily total dry matter intake during the individual feeding period ranged from 4.0 to 5.0 kg between the diets (P

  10. Autonomous Shepherding Behaviors of Multiple Target Steering Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonki; Kim, DaeEun

    2017-11-25

    This paper presents a distributed coordination methodology for multi-robot systems, based on nearest-neighbor interactions. Among many interesting tasks that may be performed using swarm robots, we propose a biologically-inspired control law for a shepherding task, whereby a group of external agents drives another group of agents to a desired location. First, we generated sheep-like robots that act like a flock. We assume that each agent is capable of measuring the relative location and velocity to each of its neighbors within a limited sensing area. Then, we designed a control strategy for shepherd-like robots that have information regarding where to go and a steering ability to control the flock, according to the robots' position relative to the flock. We define several independent behavior rules; each agent calculates to what extent it will move by summarizing each rule. The flocking sheep agents detect the steering agents and try to avoid them; this tendency leads to movement of the flock. Each steering agent only needs to focus on guiding the nearest flocking agent to the desired location. Without centralized coordination, multiple steering agents produce an arc formation to control the flock effectively. In addition, we propose a new rule for collecting behavior, whereby a scattered flock or multiple flocks are consolidated. From simulation results with multiple robots, we show that each robot performs actions for the shepherding behavior, and only a few steering agents are needed to control the whole flock. The results are displayed in maps that trace the paths of the flock and steering robots. Performance is evaluated via time cost and path accuracy to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  11. Autonomous Shepherding Behaviors of Multiple Target Steering Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonki Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a distributed coordination methodology for multi-robot systems, based on nearest-neighbor interactions. Among many interesting tasks that may be performed using swarm robots, we propose a biologically-inspired control law for a shepherding task, whereby a group of external agents drives another group of agents to a desired location. First, we generated sheep-like robots that act like a flock. We assume that each agent is capable of measuring the relative location and velocity to each of its neighbors within a limited sensing area. Then, we designed a control strategy for shepherd-like robots that have information regarding where to go and a steering ability to control the flock, according to the robots’ position relative to the flock. We define several independent behavior rules; each agent calculates to what extent it will move by summarizing each rule. The flocking sheep agents detect the steering agents and try to avoid them; this tendency leads to movement of the flock. Each steering agent only needs to focus on guiding the nearest flocking agent to the desired location. Without centralized coordination, multiple steering agents produce an arc formation to control the flock effectively. In addition, we propose a new rule for collecting behavior, whereby a scattered flock or multiple flocks are consolidated. From simulation results with multiple robots, we show that each robot performs actions for the shepherding behavior, and only a few steering agents are needed to control the whole flock. The results are displayed in maps that trace the paths of the flock and steering robots. Performance is evaluated via time cost and path accuracy to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  12. Soluble Non-ammonia Nitrogen in Ruminal and Omasal Digesta of Korean Native Steers Supplemented with Soluble Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Choi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of soluble protein supplements on concentration of soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN in the liquid phase of ruminal (RD and omasal digesta (OD of Korean native steers, and to investigate diurnal pattern in SNAN concentration in RD and OD. Three ruminally cannulated Korean native steers in a 3×3 Latin square design consumed a basal diet of rice straw and corn-based concentrate (control, and that supplemented (kg/d DM basis with intact casein (0.24; IC or acid hydrolyzed casein (0.46; AHC. Ruminal digesta was sampled using a vacuum pump, whereas OD was collected using an omasal sampling system at 2.0 h intervals after a morning feeding. The SNAN fractions (free amino acid (AA, peptide and soluble protein in RD and OD were assessed using the ninhydrin assay. Concentrations of free AA and total SNAN in RD were significantly (p<0.05 lower than those in OD. Although free AA concentration was relatively high, mean peptide was quantitatively the most important fraction of total SNAN in both RD and OD, indicating that degradation of peptide to AA rather than hydrolysis of soluble protein to peptide or deamination may be the most limiting step in rumen proteolysis of Korean native steers. Diurnal variation in peptide concentration in OD for the soluble protein supplemented diets during the feeding cycle peaked 2 h post-feeding and decreased thereafter whereas that for the control was relatively constant during the entire feeding cycle. Diurnal variation in peptide concentration was rather similar between RD and OD.

  13. Effect of corn grain particle size on ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of Holstein steers fed total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hyung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of corn grain particle size on ruminant fermentation and blood metabolites in Holstein steers fed total mixed ration (TMR as a basal diet to explain fundamental data of corn grain for cattle in Korea. Methods Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (body weight 592±29.9 kg fed TMR as a basal diet were housed individually in an auto temperature and humidity modulated chamber (24°C and 60% for 22 h/d. Treatments in a 4×4 Latin square design were TMR only (control, TMR with whole corn grain (WC, coarsely ground corn grain (CC, and finely ground corn grain (FC, respectively. The corn feeds substituted for 20% energy intake of TMR intake. To measure the ruminal pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acids (VFA, ruminal digesta was sampled through ruminal cannula at 1 h intervals after the morning feeding to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics. Blood was sampled via the jugular vein after the ruminal digesta sampling. Results There was no difference in dry matter (DM intake between different corn particle size because the DM intake was restricted to 1.66% of body weight. Different corn particle size did not change mean ammonia N and total VFA concentrations whereas lower (p<0.05 ruminal pH and a ratio of acetate to propionate, and higher (p<0.05 propionate concentration were noted when the steers consumed CC compared with WC and FC. Concentration of blood metabolites were not affected by different particle size of corn grain except for blood triglyceride concentration, which was significantly (p<0.05 increased by FC. Conclusion Results indicate that feeding CC may increase feed digestion in the rumen, whereas the FC group seemed to obtain inadequate corn retention time for microbial degradation in the rumen.

  14. Stochastic stability of four-wheel-steering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Dongwei; Wang Hongli; Zhu Zhiwen; Feng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A four-wheel-steering system subjected to white noise excitations was reduced to a two-degree-of-freedom quasi-non-integrable-Hamiltonian system. Subsequently we obtained an one-dimensional Ito stochastic differential equation for the averaged Hamiltonian of the system by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi-non-integrable-Hamiltonian systems. Thus, the stochastic stability of four-wheel-steering system was analyzed by analyzing the sample behaviors of the averaged Hamiltonian at the boundary H = 0 and calculating its Lyapunov exponent. An example given at the end demonstrated that the conclusion obtained is of considerable significance

  15. Steering of Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    by systems theory we outline a more adequate way of teaching in the new medium environment – a teaching that can manage the new situation and use the new possibilities provided by the digital media. The argumentation builds on empirical findings from the action research project Socio Media Education (SME......This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work since...

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis - 3rd Quarter FY-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 73 reportable events (23 from the 3rd Qtr FY-16 and 50 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 45 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (16 from this quarter and 29 from the prior three quarters).

  17. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis - 1st Quarter FY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 74 reportable events (16 from the 1st Qtr FY-16 and 58 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 35 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (15 from this quarter and 20 from the prior three quarters).

  18. Environmental Biosciences Program Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2009-01-30

    Current research projects have focused Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP) talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene, low-dose ionizing radiation (gamma and neutron) and alpha radiation from plutonium. Trichloroethylene research has been conducted as a joint collaborative effort with the University of Georgia. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Laboratory work has been completed on several trichloroethylene risk assessment projects, and these projects have been brought to a close. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the remaining trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A comprehensive manuscript on the scientific basis of trichloroethylene risk assessment is in preparation. Work on the low-dose radiation risk assessment projects is also progressing at a slowed rate as a result of funding uncertainties. It has been necessary to restructure the proponency and performance schedule of these projects, with the project on Low-Dose Radiation: Epidemiology Risk Models transferred to DOE Office of Science proponency under a separate funding instrument. Research on this project will continue under the provisions of the DOE Office of Science funding instrument, with progress reported in accordance with the requirements of that funding instrument. Progress on that project will no longer be reported in quarterly reports for DE-FC09-02CH11109. Following a meeting at the Savannah River Site on May 8, 2008, a plan was submitted for development of an epidemiological cohort study and prospective medical surveillance system for the assessment of disease rates among workers at the Savannah River

  19. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces methane emission in beef cattle fed sugarcane-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, R.B.A.; Berndt, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary nitrate on methane emission and rumen fermentation parameters in Nellore × Guzera (Bos indicus) beef cattle fed a sugarcane based diet. The experiment was conducted with 16 steers weighing 283 ± 49 kg (mean ± SD), 6 rumen cannulated

  20. Diet, Alcohol Consumption and Serum Lipid Levels of Elderly Men ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Elderly subjects attending quarterly medical lectures organized by a non-governmental organization at the Federal Medical Centre, Asaba were recruited. Information on diet, alcohol consumption and hypertension were obtained and serum lipids were determined using standard cholesterol / low density ...

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 60 reportable events (23 from the 4th Qtr FY14 and 37 from the prior three reporting quarters) as well as 58 other issue reports (including not reportable events and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL from July 2013 through October 2014. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) operates the INL under contract DE AC07 051D14517.

  2. Quarterly coal statistics of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-27

    These quarterly statistics contain data from the fourth quarter 1990 to the fourth quarter 1991. The first set of tables (A1 to A30) show trends in production, trade, stock change and apparent consumption data for OECD countries. Tables B1 to B12 show detailed statistics for some major coal trade flows to and from OECD countries and average value in US dollars. A third set of tables, C1 to C12, show average import values and indices. The trade data have been extracted or derived from national and EEC customs statistics. An introductory section summarizes trends in coal supply and consumption, deliveries to thermal power stations; electricity production and final consumption of coal and tabulates EEC and Japanese steam coal and coking coal imports to major countries.

  3. ER Consolidated Quarterly Report October 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective actions and related Long- Term Stewardship (LTS) activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) ER for the April, May, and June 2014 quarterly reporting period. Section 2.0 provides the status of ER Operations activities including closure activities for the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), project management and site closure, and hydrogeologic characterizations. Section 3.0 provides the status of LTS activities that relate to the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the associated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). Section 4.0 provides the references noted in Section I of this report.

  4. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Hibbard, G; Kitts, S E

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers.......Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers....

  5. Effect of soy lecithin on total cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers (Korean native cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Zi; Park, Byung Ki; Hong, Byuong Chon; Ahn, Jun Sang; Shin, Jong Suh

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on the total cholesterol content, the fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo steers. Hanwoo steers (24 head) were fed two diets: Control (CON) (concentrate + alcohol-fermented feed (AFF)) and soy lecithin treatment (CON + soy lecithin at 0.5% of the AFF). Soy lecithin treatment increased average daily gain, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood. A lower cholesterol concentration was found in the Longissimus dorsi for the soy lecithin diet compared to the CON diet. With respect to the marbling score and quality grade of Longissimus dorsi, soy lecithin supplementation significantly increased the C20:5n3, C22:4 and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents compared to the CON diet. Soy lecithin supplementation would alter the total cholesterol content, polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and meat quality of Longissimus dorsi. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. supplementation of energy and/or protein to steers grazing summer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aspects of the effect of supplementary energy and/or protein, strategically ptovided to steers on summer veld, were investi gated. 40 Friesland steers in the age ... was posed whether the strategic provision of energy and or protein to steers grazing .... Definitions and abbreviotions was determined after cooling for 24 h ...

  7. Design, Modeling And Control Of Steering And Braking For An Urban Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Maciua, Dragos

    1996-01-01

    This report describes research which involved the design modification, modeling and control of automatic steering and braking systems for an urban electric vehicle. The vehicle is equipped with four-wheel independent drive, four-wheel independent braking and four-wheel steering. Control algorithms were developed for steering and braking. Simulation results show the feasibility of the algorithms.

  8. Chromium supplementation enhances the acute phase response of steers to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty crossbred steers (235±4 kg BW) received 0 ppb (Control; C) or 200 ppb chromium propionate (CHR) for 55 days. Steers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording...

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-55 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 78.47-55... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-55 Instructions for changing steering gear..., relating in order, the different steps to be taken in changing to the emergency steering gear. Each clutch...

  10. 46 CFR 97.37-33 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 97.37-33... steering gear. (a) Instructions in at least 1/2 inch letters and figures shall be posted in the steering... gear. Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch which is used during the changeover shall be...

  11. Steering a Steady Course in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    NUMBER (Include area code ) 401-841-3556 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI-Std Z39-18 Steering a Steady Course in the South...minor features claimed by a Filipino civilian in the SCS are not worth US blood, talent , or treasure defending against the PRC. The PRC, on the other

  12. CLOSTAT alters the serum metabolome of Holstein Steer Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics are gaining increased interest in calf feeding operations as some producers seek novel, non-antibiotic technologies to improve health and performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in serum metabolomic compounds of Holstein steer calves supplemented with C...

  13. Trailer steering control of a tractor-trailer Robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, P.J.; Roebroek, E.J.W.; Van De Wouw, N.; Jiang, Z.P.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider active trailer steering control as a means to improve the maneuverability of (long) truck-trailer combinations during cornering. Hereto, we formulate the problem of reducing the so-called swept path width during cornering and that of eliminating unsafe tail swing of the

  14. Sliding mode observer design for automatic steering of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.R.; Rachid, A. [LSA, Amiens (France); Xu, S.J. [Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China)]|[IUT de Longwy, Cosnes et Romain (France); Darouach, M. [IUT de Longwy, Cosnes et Romain (France)

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with the observer design problem for automatic steering of vehicles. The lateral motion of the vehicles is considered. A sliding mode observer is derived such that the observation errors converge to zero asymptotically in finite time. The simulation results have shown that the design is very effective. (orig.)

  15. Steering Micro-Robotic Swarm by Dynamic Actuating Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, Q.; Yu, J; Dai, C.; Xu, T; Zhang, L.; Wang, C.C.; Jin, X.

    2016-01-01

    We present a general solution for steering microrobotic
    swarm by dynamic actuating fields. In our approach, the
    motion of micro-robots is controlled by changing the actuating
    direction of a field applied to them. The time-series sequence
    of actuating field’s directions can be

  16. Complex Education Systems: From Steering Change to Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The theories and approaches of steering/monitoring a process of change within education systems have evolved over the last 20 years or so as a result of many factors such as globalisation and decentralisation, a faster pace of change, increasing expectations and demands from various stakeholders (parents, employers, teacher unions, etc.) and the…

  17. Multifunctional Converter Drive for Automotive Electric Power Steering Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackner, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis it is shown that in the case of an automotive electric power steering system, critical pulse power loads can be decoupled from the power net with a storage element and a multifunctional converter. A multifunctional converter system is proposed because it uses the motor drive system as

  18. Improving yaw dynamics by feedforward rear wheel steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, I.J.M.; Veldhuizen, T.J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Active rear wheel steering can be applied to improve vehicle yaw dynamics. In this paper two possible control algorithms are discussed. The first method is a yaw rate feedback controller with a reference model, which has been reported in a similar form previously in literature. The second controller

  19. Auditory orientation in crickets: Pattern recognition controls reactive steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2005-10-01

    Many groups of insects are specialists in exploiting sensory cues to locate food resources or conspecifics. To achieve orientation, bees and ants analyze the polarization pattern of the sky, male moths orient along the females' odor plume, and cicadas, grasshoppers, and crickets use acoustic signals to locate singing conspecifics. In comparison with olfactory and visual orientation, where learning is involved, auditory processing underlying orientation in insects appears to be more hardwired and genetically determined. In each of these examples, however, orientation requires a recognition process identifying the crucial sensory pattern to interact with a localization process directing the animal's locomotor activity. Here, we characterize this interaction. Using a sensitive trackball system, we show that, during cricket auditory behavior, the recognition process that is tuned toward the species-specific song pattern controls the amplitude of auditory evoked steering responses. Females perform small reactive steering movements toward any sound patterns. Hearing the male's calling song increases the gain of auditory steering within 2-5 s, and the animals even steer toward nonattractive sound patterns inserted into the speciesspecific pattern. This gain control mechanism in the auditory-to-motor pathway allows crickets to pursue species-specific sound patterns temporarily corrupted by environmental factors and may reflect the organization of recognition and localization networks in insects. localization | phonotaxis

  20. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  1. A hybrid system for beam steering and wavefront control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Vladimir V.

    2004-06-01

    Performance of long-range mobile laser systems operating within Earth's atmosphere is generally limited by several factors. Movement of the communicating platforms, such as aircraft, terrain vehicles, etc., complemented by mechanical vibrations, is the main cause of pointing errors. In addition, atmospheric turbulence causes changes of the refractive index along the propagation path that lead to phase distortions (aberrations), thus creating random redistribution of optical energy in the spatial domain. The combined effect of these factors leads to an increased bit-error probability under adverse operation conditions. While traditional approaches provide separate treatment of these problems, suggesting the development of high-bandwidth beam steering systems to perform tracking and jitter rejection, and wavefront control for the mitigation of atmospheric effects, the two tasks could be integrated. In this paper we present a hybrid laser beam steering/wavefront control system comprising an electrically addressed spatial light modulator (SLM) installed on the Omni-Wrist sensor mount platform. The function of the Omni-Wrist is to provide coarse steering over a wide range of pointing angles, while the purpose of the SLM is twofold: it performs wavefront correction and fine steering. The control law for the Omni-Wrist is synthesized using the decentralized approach that provides independent access to the azimuth and declination channels, while the algorithm for calculating the required phase profile for the SLM is optimization-based. This paper presents the control algorithms, the approach to coordinating the operation of the both systems and the simulation results.

  2. Steering with big words: articulating ideographs in research programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Colette; Walhout, Bart; Walhout, Bart; Peine, Alexander; van Lente, Harro

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, science should address societal challenges, such as ‘sustainability’, or ‘responsible research and innovation’. This emerging form of steering toward broad and generic goals involves the use of ‘big words’: encompassing concepts that are uncontested themselves, but that allow for multiple

  3. Steering with big words: articulating ideographs in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Colette; Walhout, Albert; Peine, Alex; van Lente, Harro

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, science should address societal challenges, such as ‘sustainability’, or ‘responsible research and innovation’. This emerging form of steering toward broad and generic goals involves the use of ‘big words’: encompassing concepts that are uncontested themselves, but that allow for multiple

  4. and alkali treatment of maize intake and utilization by steers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mixture of urea and sunflower oilcake was used as a N supplement. These were given in a mixture with Ca, P, NaCl, minerals and vitamins (A.R.C.,. 1965) directly into the feed trough when the maize supplement was given. Digestibility study: Faeces was collected for 6 days. Collection periods for the 32 steers were.

  5. The Analysis of The Fault of Electrical Power Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the common fault types of primary Electrical Power Steering system, meanwhile classify every fault. It provides the basis for further troubleshooting and maintenance. At the same time this paper propose a practical working principle of fault-tolerant, in order to make the EPS system more security and durability.

  6. Steering characteristic of an articulated bus under quasi steady maneuvering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Setiawan, Budi Agus; Aridharma, Airlangga Putra; Lenggana, Bhre Wangsa; Caesar, Bernardus Placenta Previo

    2018-02-01

    Articulated buses have been being preferred as public transportation modes due to their operational capacity. Therefore, passenger safety must be the priority of this public service vehicle. This research focused on the analytical approach of steering characteristics of an articulated bus when it maneuvered steadily. Such turning condition could be referred as a stability parameter of the bus for preliminary handling assessment. The analytical approach employed kinematics relationship between front and rear bodies as well as steering capabilities. The quasi steady model was developed to determine steering parameters such as turning radius, oversteer, and understeer. The mathematical model was useful for determining both coefficients of understeer and oversteer. The dimension of articulated bus followed a commonly used bus as utilized in Trans Jakarta busses. Based on the simulation, for one minimum center of the body, the turning radius was calculated about 8.8 m and 7.6 m at steady turning speed of 10 km/h. In neutral condition, the minimum road radius should be 6.5 m at 10 km/h and 6.9 m at 40 km/h. For two centers of the body and oversteer condition, the front body has the turning radius of 8.8 m, while, the rear body has the turning radius of 9.8 m at both turning speeds of 40 km/h. The other steering parameters were discussed accordingly.

  7. Quarterly report for the electricity market. 2. quarter of 2012; Kvartalsrapport for kraftmarknaden. 2. kvartal 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliston, Anton Jaynand; Holmqvist, Erik; Lund, Per Tore Jensen; Magnussen, Ingrid; Viggen, Kjerstin Dahl; Willumsen, Mats Oeivind; Guren, Ingrid; Ulriksen, Margit Iren

    2012-07-01

    Fourth quarter of 2011 was unusually mild and wet, resulting in high energy inflow to the Norwegian reservoirs. Total inflow for the year was 149.2 TWh, 26.7 TWh more than normal. This ensured record-high 80.3 percent load factor at the end of the quarter.The stored energy amount in the reservoirs was thus 29.5 TWh greater than at the end of 2010/2011. Norway had a power consumption of 34.1 TWh in the fourth quarter. Compared with the same quarter of 2010, a decrease of 4.2 TWh, which can be connected to the mild weather development. The total Norwegian electricity consumption in 2011 was 125.1 TWh, or 6.9 TWh less than in 2010. Electricity production in the fourth quarter of 2011 was 38.3 GWh, an increase of 3.7 TWh from the same quarter the year before. The production increase were a result of the large volume of water in the system. Power production for the year 2011 was 128.1 TWh, an increase of 3.7 TWh from 2010. Kraft surplus was therefore large, and it was Norwegian net export of 4.2 TWh in the fourth quarter, and 3.0 TWh total for the year. In comparison, in the fourth quarter of 2010 Norwegian net import of 0.8 TWh and 7.5 TWh annually. The good resource combined with the low consumption gave a unusually low price levels in the wholesale market for electricity. On average for fourth quarter, the price of power in the East and South-East Norway Nok 264 / MWh, in western Norway Nok 260 / MWh, in Central Norway Nok 270 / MWh (eb)

  8. Quarterly report for the electricity market. 1. quarter of 2012; Kvartalsrapport for kraftmarknaden. 1. kvartal 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Finn Erik Ljaastad; Eliston, Anton Jaynanand; Guren, Ingri; Homqvist, Erik; Lund, Per Tore Jensen; Magnussen, Ingrid; Rasmussen, Kristian; Ulriksen, Margit Iren

    2012-07-01

    The first quarter of 2012 was unusually mild and wetter than normal. Total inflow was 16.8 TWh, 7.5 TWh more than normal. This ensured a high reservoir levels and at the end of the quarter the filling was 50.5 percent. It is 12.5 percentage points over the normal for the time of year and 32.4 percentage points higher than the same time last year. Norway had a power consumption of 37.5 TWh in the first quarter, which is 2.3 percent less than in the same quarter last year. the past 12 months, consumption has been 124.2 TWh, compared with 129.7 TWh the preceding 12 months. Power production in Norway was 42.3 TWh in the first quarter - an increase of 32.3 percent compared with the same quarter last year. The last 12 months have the Norwegian production been 138.5 TWh compared to 117.7 TWh the the previous 12 months. The production increase is due to milder and wetter weather than normal over the past year. This involvement also high the exports abroad. In the first quarter, Norway had a net export of 4.8 TWh, compared with a net import of 6.4 TWh in the first quarter last year. The good resource, combined with a low consumption gave a low price level in wholesale market for electricity. On average for the fourth quarter was the average spot price in the South and West Norway, Nok 272 and 275 / MWh. In Eastern Norway, the average price of Nok 283 / MWh, while it was Nok 285 / MWh in the Middle and Northern Norway. (Author)

  9. Quarterly report for the electricity market. 2. quarter of 2012; Kvartalsrapport for kraftmarknaden. 2. kvartal 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Finn Erik Ljaastad; Eliston, Anton Jayanand; Vaeringstad, Thomas; Lund, Per Tore Jensen; Magnussen, Ingrid; Langseth, Benedicte; Willumsen, Mats Oeivind; Rasmussen, Kristian; Guren, Ingri

    2012-07-01

    Second quarter of 2012 was cold. Total inflow was 47.0 TWh, 8.8 TWh less than normal. At the end of the quarter, the reservoir level 68.4 percent. It is 1.8 percentage points above normal for time of year and 1.2 percentage points higher than the same time last year. Norway had a power consumption of 28.2 TWh in the second quarter, which is 4.2 percent higher than in the same quarter last year. The last 12 months the consumption have been 125.7 TWh, compared with 128.7 TWh the preceding 12 months. The power production in Norway was 33.3 TWh in the second quarter - an increase of 26.1 percent compared with the same quarter last year. The last 12 months the Norwegian production has been 145.8 TWh, compared with 120.9 TWh the preceding 12 months. The production increase is due to that the last year has been much wetter than the preceding. This has also given high export abroad. In the second quarter Norway had a net export of 5.1 TWh, compared with a net import of 0.6 TWh in the second quarter last year. The good resource gave a low price level in the wholesale market for electricity. On average for the second quarter was the average spot price in West, Southwest and Eastern Norway, 201, 202 and 203 Nok / MWh. In Central and Northern Norway, the average price 218 and 213 Nok/ MWh. (eb)

  10. Current steering with partial tripolar stimulation mode in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Chih; Luo, Xin

    2013-04-01

    The large spread of excitation is a major cause of poor spectral resolution for cochlear implant (CI) users. Partial tripolar (pTP) mode has been proposed to reduce current spread by returning an equally distributed fraction (0.5 × σ) of current to two flanking electrodes and the rest to an extra-cochlear ground. This study tested the efficacy of incorporating current steering into pTP mode to add spectral channels. Different proportions of current [α × σ and (1 - α) × σ] were returned to the basal and apical flanking electrodes respectively to shape the electric field. Loudness and pitch perception with α from 0 to 1 in steps of 0.1 was simulated with a computational model of CI stimulation and tested on the apical, middle, and basal electrodes of six CI subjects. The highest σ allowing for full loudness growth within the implant compliance limit was chosen for each main electrode. Pitch ranking was measured between pairs of loudness-balanced steered pTP stimuli with an α interval of 0.1 at the most comfortable level. Results demonstrated that steered pTP stimuli with α around 0.5 required more current to achieve equal loudness than those with α around 0 or 1, maybe due to more focused excitation patterns. Subjects usually perceived decreasing pitches as α increased from 0 to 1, somewhat consistent with the apical shift of the center of gravity of excitation pattern in the model. Pitch discrimination was not better with α around 0.5 than with α around 0 or 1, except for some subjects and electrodes. For three subjects with better pitch discrimination, about half of the pitch ranges of two adjacent main electrodes overlapped with each other in steered pTP mode. These results suggest that current steering with focused pTP mode may improve spectral resolution and pitch perception with CIs.

  11. Mineral exploration, Australia, March quarter 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This publication contains annual and quarterly statistics of exploration for minerals in Australia. Part 1 sets out statistics of exploration for minerals and oil shale for which data are no longer available for separate publication. Part 2 gives details of petroleum exploration.

  12. 39 CFR 243.2 - Quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF OFFICES § 243.2 Quarters. (a.... Postal Service, General Accounting Office Building, Washington, DC 20260, with a memorandum of... depositing mail in front of or next to the post office. Show collection time schedules on letterboxes. At...

  13. "The Career Development Quarterly": A Centennial Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.; Pope, Mark; Niles, Spencer G.

    2011-01-01

    "The Career Development Quarterly" has been the premier journal in the field of vocational guidance and career intervention since its inception 100 years ago. To celebrate its centennial, 3 former editors trace its evolution from a modest and occasional newsletter to its current status as a major professional journal. They recount its history of…

  14. 76 FR 22910 - ACHP Quarterly Business Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION ACHP Quarterly Business Meeting AGENCY: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Advisory Council... Historic Preservation Working Group IX. New Business X. Adjourn Note: The meetings of the ACHP are open to...

  15. Subject Access Project. Third Quarterly Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Pauline

    This third quarterly report for the period January to March 1977 describes the production schedule, records, and estimated costs and times in creating the Subject Access Project data base. Plans for on-line use of the data base and search strategy design are outlined. A table of specifications for preparing the data base for on-line searching is…

  16. Effects of dietary protein levels and 2-methylbutyrate on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, bacterial populations and urinary purine derivatives in Simmental steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Guo, G; Huo, W J; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Yang, W Z

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels and 2-methylbutyrate (MB) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, bacterial populations, microbial enzyme activity and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in Simmental steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers, averaging 18 months of age and 465 ± 8.6 kg of body weight (BW), were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design by a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Low protein (98.5 g CP/kg dry matter [LP] or high protein (128.7 g CP/kg dry matter [HP]) diets were fed with MB supplementation (0 g [MB-] or 16.8 g steer -1  day -1 [MB+]). Steers were fed a total mixed ration with dietary corn straw to concentrate ratio of 50:50 (dry matter [DM] basis). The CP × MB interaction was observed for ruminal total VFA, molar proportions of acetate and propionate, acetate to propionate ratio, ammonia-N, effective degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and CP, microbial enzyme activity, bacterial populations and total PD excretion (p Ruminal pH decreased (p ruminal total VFA concentration increased (p Ruminal ammonia-N content increased (p = .034) with increasing dietary CP level, but decreased (p = .012) with MB supplementation. The effective degradability of NDF and CP increased (p ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, microbial enzyme activity, ruminal bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis improved with increasing dietary CP level or MB supplementation in steers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effects of encapsulated nitrate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, nitrate residues in tissues, and enteric methane emissions in beef steers: Finishing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-08-01

    A finishing feedlot study was conducted with beef steers to determine effects of encapsulated nitrate (EN) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, methane production, and nitrate (NO) residues in tissues. The 132 crossbred steers were backgrounded in a feedlot for 91 d and transitioned for 28 days to the high-concentrate diets evaluated in the present study, maintaining the treatment and pen assignments designated at the start of the backgrounding period. The steers were initially assigned to 22 pens (6 animals per pen) in a randomized complete block design with BW (18 pens) and animals designated for methane measurement (4 pens) as blocking factors. Five animals in each pen designated for methane measurement (total of 20 animals) were monitored for methane emissions in respiratory chambers twice during the experiment. Pens received 3 dietary treatments (7 pens each): Control, a finishing diet supplemented with urea; 1.25% EN, control diet supplemented with 1.25% encapsulated NO in dietary DM that partially replaced urea; and 2.5% EN, control diet supplemented with 2.5% EN (DM basis) fully replacing urea. The final pen designated only for methane measurement received a fourth dietary treatment, 2.3% UEN, the control diet supplemented with unencapsulated NO (UEN) fully replacing urea. The cattle weighed 449 ± SD 32 kg at the start of the 150-d finishing period. The 2.5% EN diet decreased ( methane production (g/d) and yield (g/kg DMI) were observed among treatments. Inclusion of EN in the diets increased ( ≤ 0.03) sorting in favor of large and medium particles and against small and fine particles. Plasma NO and NO concentrations were elevated ( < 0.01) with EN in a dose-response manner, but total blood methemoglobin levels for all treatments were low, below the detection limit. Feeding EN increased ( < 0.01) NO concentrations of samples from muscle, fat, liver, and kidney; NO concentrations of these tissues were similar between 1.25% EN and 2.3% UEN. In

  18. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  19. Collective multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering: more secure optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Gong, Qihuang; He, Qiongyi

    2014-12-01

    Collective multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is a type of quantum correlation shared among N parties, where the EPR paradox of one party can only be realized by performing local measurements on all the remaining N-1 parties. We formalize the collective tripartite steering in terms of local hidden state model and give the steering inequalities that act as signatures and suggest how to optimize collective tripartite steering in specific optical schemes. The special entangled states with property of collective multipartite steering may have potential applications in ultra-secure multiuser communication networks where the issue of trust is critical.

  20. The Impact of Analog and Bang-Bang Steering Gear Control on Ship's Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft Thomsen, J. C.; Blanke, Mogens; Reid, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    it is found to be at least equally important regarding steering performance and fuel economy. The paper presents a comprehensive survey of steering gear principles commonly used, including relevant details of three analog steering gear servo principles, which have outperformed conventional designs. Control......The latest years have shown considerable efforts towards improving steering generated propulsion losses of ships by the introduction of various sophisticated control algorithms in the autopilots. However, little previous attention has been given to the steering gear control loop, although...

  1. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary: 100, 200, 300 and 600 Areas. Fourth quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed on waste disposal sites located at the Hanford Site. The Fourth Quarter 1994 survey results and the status of actions required from current and past reports are summarized

  2. ARM Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, Jimmy W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. This quarterly report is written to comply with this requirement. This reports on the first quarter facility statistics.

  3. Evaluation of the point-centred-quarter method of sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -quarter method.The parameter which was most efficiently sampled was species composition relativedensity) with 90% replicate similarity being achieved with 100 point-centred-quarters. However, this technique cannot be recommended, even ...

  4. Study on a New Steering Mechanism for Point-the-Bit Rotary Steerable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel steering mechanism embedded in a point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS for oilfield exploitation. The new steering mechanism adopts a set of universal joints to alleviate the high alternative strain on drilling mandrel and employs a specially designed planetary gear small tooth number difference (PGSTD to achieve directional steering. Its principle and characteristics are explained and examined through a series of analyses. First, the eccentric displacement vector of the offset point on the drilling mandrel is formulated and kinematic solutions are established. Next, structural design for the new steering mechanism is addressed. Then, procedures and program architectures for simulating offset state of the drilling mandrel and motion trajectory of the whole steering mechanism are presented. After that, steering motion simulations of the new steering mechanism for both 2D and 3D well trajectories are then performed by combining LabVIEW and SolidWorks. Finally, experiments on the steering motion control of the new steering mechanism prototype are carried out. The simulations and experiments reveal that the steering performance of the new steering mechanism is satisfied. The research can provide good guidance for further research and engineering application of the point-the-bit RSS.

  5. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 3rd Quarter FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbeth A. Mitchell

    2014-09-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of occurrence reports and other non-reportable issues identified at INL from July 2013 through June 2014.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  7. Development of active rear steer actuator. Development of four wheel steer actuator for active safety; Active rear steer actuator no kaihatsu. Yobo anzen ni muketa 4WS actuator no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, T [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, ecology, energy saving and safety have become important issues. And Active Safety is spotlighted in vehicle control area. Many researches and developments on four wheel steer system have been done to improve vehicle stability. We have developed the Active Rear Steer system with electromechanical Actuator, which is mass-productive, compact, and high response and durable. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Modeling of Driver Steering Operations in Lateral Wind Disturbances toward Driver Assistance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yoshinori; Wada, Takahiro; Kamiji, Norimasa; Doi, Shun'ichi

    Disturbances decrease vehicle stability and increase driver's mental and physical workload. Especially unexpected disturbances such as lateral winds have severe effect on vehicle stability and driver's workload. This study aims at building a driver model of steering operations in lateral wind toward developing effective driver assistance system. First, the relationship between the driver's lateral motion and its reactive quick steering behavior is investigated using driving simulator with lateral 1dof motion. In the experiments, four different wind patterns are displayed by the simulator. As the results, strong correlation was found between the driver's head lateral jerk by the lateral disturbance and the angular acceleration of the steering wheel. Then, we build a mathematical model of driver's steering model from lateral disturbance input to steering torque of the reactive quick feed-forward steering based on the experimental results. Finally, validity of the proposed model is shown by comparing the steering torque of experimental results and that of simulation results.

  9. tant sorghum grain as energy source in fattening diets for beef steers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FORD, J.E., 1977. Availability of methionine and lysine in sorghum grain in relation to the tannin content. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 36, 124A. HALE, W.H. & PROUTY, F.L., 1980.Current status of grain process- ing: Efficiency of processing systems. Proc. 8th Annual Texas Beef. Conj., Amarillo, Texas. HALE, W.H., TAYLOR, B., SABA, ...

  10. Copper and selenium supplementation in the diet of Brangus steers on the nutritional characteristics of meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Saran Netto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on the carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle and on the copper and selenium concentrations in the liver. The treatments were: no supplementation of copper or selenium; 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite; 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate; and 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate. The fat thickness, rib eye area and fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle were not affected by treatments. There was no effect on carcass yield and cooling loss with the supplementation of copper, selenium or selenium × copper in the levels studied. For the ether extract concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle, no differences were found according to the treatments with selenium, copper or selenium × copper. The treatments with selenium and selenium × copper showed higher selenium concentrations in the liver than the control and copper treatments. For the copper concentration in the liver, the copper and selenium × copper treatments showed higher values than the control and selenium treatments. Despite the little effect on the meat composition, the results of this experiment demonstrate no interaction between selenium and copper in the levels studied.

  11. 10 CFR 34.69 - Records of quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of quarterly inventory. 34.69 Section 34.69 Energy... INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.69 Records of quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the quarterly inventory of sealed sources and of devices...

  12. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

  13. 77 FR 51705 - Rescission of Quarterly Financial Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... No. FMCSA-2012-0020] RIN-2126-AB48 Rescission of Quarterly Financial Reporting Requirements AGENCY...: FMCSA withdraws its June 27, 2012, direct final rule eliminating the quarterly financial reporting... future proposing the elimination of the quarterly financial reporting requirements for Form QFR and Form...

  14. The quarter wave resonator as a superconducting linac element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Brennan, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The electrical and mechanical properties of quarter wave resonators are derived. A procedure for optimal design of a quarter wave resonator for use in a superconducting heavy ion linac is given. It is concluded that a quarter wave resonator has significant advantages for this application. (orig.)

  15. QUANTIFICATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF RUMEN MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN STEERS FED GREEN TROPICAL GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHEN L. MULLIK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The rate of rumen microbial crude protein (MCP supply to the intestines is a crucial element in the current rumen models to predict respond of ruminants to a certain diet. Data from tropical pastures always below predicted results from the existing rumen models. Thus, quantification of the rumen MCP supply from tropical grass will improve predictive rate under tropical feeding conditions. Four Brahman crossbred steers (457±20.1 kg were used in a metabolism study. Pangola grass (Digitaria erianthe cv. Steudal was harvested every morning and fed to the animals soon after. Parameters measured were EMPS, intake, fractional passage rates, and rumen ammonia concentration. The EMPS was estimated using purine derivative excretion in urine. Crude protein and water soluble carbohydrates content were 6.3 and 7.4% of dry matter (DM respectively. DM intake was 1.6% live weight. Average rumen ammonia concentration was 69 mg/L whilst rumen passage rates were 7.84 and 6.92 %/h for fluid and solids respectively. EMPS was only 72 g MCP/kg digestible organic matter. It might be concluded that EMPS in steers consuming green pangola grass was below the minimum level for forage diets adopted in the current feeding standards. ABSTRAK Tingkat pasokan protein mikroba rumen (MCP ke usus halus merupakan salah satu unsur kunci dalam meramal respon pertumbuhan ruminan terhadap ransum tertentu. Data MCP hijauan tropis selalu berada di bawah nilai prediksi model rumen yang dipakai saat ini. Dengan demikian, kuantifikasi pasokan MCP rumput tropis diharapkan menjadi masukan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan prediksi model rumen untuk pakan daerah tropis. Empat sapi jantan muda Brahman persilangan (457±20,1 kg digunakan dalam sebuah penelitian metabolisme. Rumput pangola (Digitaria erianthe cv. Steudal dipanen setiap pagi dan langsung diberikan kepada ternak dalam kandang metabolis. Parameter yang diukur adalah produksi MCP dan efisiensi sintesis MCP (Emps, konsumsi, laju

  16. The role of steering groups and project workers in NDUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, S

    In light of the challenges that many nursing development units (NDUs) have faced during the past four years, this paper assesses the usefulness, as perceived by their clinical leaders, of support structures that had to be in place to secure NDU status. The structures assessed were a steering group and the allocation of a project worker by the King's Fund. Well organised steering groups offer unique opportunities to the NDUs to gain access to the knowledge and expertise of key figures, marketing the NDU and ensuring the project progresses to plan. Influential project workers were found to support the clinical leader and NDU staff, act as an external advocate and provide a global knowledge of nursing developments. This is the second of two papers reporting on a Department of Health-funded review of NDUs. The first appeared in Nursing Times on November 20.

  17. Adiabatic photo-steering theory in topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Feasible external control of material properties is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. A new approach to achieving this aim, named adiabatic photo-steering, is reviewed. The core principle of this scheme is that several material constants are effectively turned into externally tunable variables by irradiation of monochromatic laser light. Two-dimensional topological insulators are selected as the optimal systems that exhibit a prominent change in their properties following the application of this method. Two specific examples of photo-steered quantum phenomena, which reflect topological aspects of the electronic systems at hand, are presented. One is the integer quantum Hall effect described by the Haldane model, and the other is the quantum spin Hall effect described by the Kane-Mele model. The topological quantities associated with these phenomena are the conventional Chern number and spin Chern number, respectively. A recent interesting idea, time-reversal symmetry breaking via a temporary periodic external stimulation, is also discussed.

  18. Optimization of Steering System of Forklift Vehicle for Idle Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal design process for the steering system of a forklift vehicle. An efficient procedure for minimizing the engine-induced idle vibration is developed in this study. Reciprocating unbalance and gas pressure torque as two major sources of engine excitation are studied. Using the field vibration tests and FEM analysis, the cause and characteristics of steering system’s idle vibration are recognized. So as to distribute the characteristic modes based on the optimization strategy, global sensitivity analysis of the main parameters is also carried out to achieve the optimal combination of the optimization factors. Based on all analysis above, some structure modifications for optimization are presented to control the idle vibration. The effectiveness and rationality of the improvements are also verified through experimental prototyping testing. This study also makes it possible to provide a design guideline using CAE (computer aided engineering analysis for some other objects.

  19. Spatially distributed multipartite entanglement enables EPR steering of atomic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Philipp; Prüfer, Maximilian; Strobel, Helmut; Linnemann, Daniel; Frölian, Anika; Gasenzer, Thomas; Gärttner, Martin; Oberthaler, Markus K.

    2018-04-01

    A key resource for distributed quantum-enhanced protocols is entanglement between spatially separated modes. However, the robust generation and detection of entanglement between spatially separated regions of an ultracold atomic system remain a challenge. We used spin mixing in a tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensate to generate an entangled state of indistinguishable particles in a single spatial mode. We show experimentally that this entanglement can be spatially distributed by self-similar expansion of the atomic cloud. We used spatially resolved spin read-out to reveal a particularly strong form of quantum correlations known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering between distinct parts of the expanded cloud. Based on the strength of EPR steering, we constructed a witness, which confirmed genuine 5-partite entanglement.

  20. Steering the dynamics within reduced space through quantum learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik

    2003-01-01

    In quantum dynamics of many-body systems, to identify the Hamiltonian becomes more difficult very rapidly as the number of degrees of freedom increases. In order to simplify the dynamics and to deduce dynamically relevant Hamiltonian information, it is desirable to control the dynamics to lie within a reduced space. With a judicious choice for the cost functional, the closed loop optimal control experiments can be manipulated efficiently to steer the dynamics to lie within a subspace of the system eigenstates without requiring any prior detailed knowledge about the system Hamiltonian. The procedure is simulated for optimally controlled population transfer experiments in the system of two degrees of freedom. To show the feasibility of steering the dynamics to lie in a specified subspace, the learning algorithms guiding the dynamics are presented along with frequency filtering. The results demonstrate that the optimal control fields derive the system to the desired target state through the desired subspace

  1. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.

    2016-01-01

    production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental......This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... design and setup. All data collected as part of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal....

  2. EFFECT OF POULTRY MEAL ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FEEDLOT STEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabrera-Nuñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry meal on weight gain and carcass yield, under a housing system. 30 Swiss x Zebu steers were used, with an approximate weight of 353 kg, which were assigned under a completely randomized design in three treatments. T1 (control concentrate without poultry meal; T2 concentrate + 30% poultry meal and T3 concentrate + 35% poultry meal. The composition of the concentrate was based on ground sorghum, maize grain, wheat bran, ground mineral salt bale with 18% crude protein and 70% TDN. A significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on the percentage of carcass weight of 53.0 was observed; 59.5 and 58.8% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The results indicate that supplementation based poultry meal 35% promoted greater yield in feedlot steers.

  3. Steering and filtering white light with resonant waveguide gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Giorgio; Basset, Guillaume; Martin, Olivier J. F.; Gallinet, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    A novel thin-film single-layer structure based on resonant waveguide gratings (RWGs) allows to engineer selective color filtering and steering of white light. The unit cell of the structure consists of two adjacent finite-length and cross-talking RWGs, where the former acts as in-coupler and the latter acts as out-coupler. The structure is made by only one nano-imprint lithography replication and one thin film layer deposition, making it fully compatible with up-scalable fabrication processes. We characterize a fabricated optical security element designed to work with the flash and the camera of a smartphone in off-axis light steering configuration, where the pattern is revealed only by placing the smartphone in the proper position. Widespread applications are foreseen in a variety of fields, such as multifocal or monochromatic lenses, solar cells, biosensors, security devices and seethrough optical combiners for near-eye displays.

  4. Human sperm steer with second harmonics of the flagellar beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggiorato, Guglielmo; Alvarez, Luis; Jikeli, Jan F; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Gompper, Gerhard; Elgeti, Jens

    2017-11-10

    Sperm are propelled by bending waves traveling along their flagellum. For steering in gradients of sensory cues, sperm adjust the flagellar waveform. Symmetric and asymmetric waveforms result in straight and curved swimming paths, respectively. Two mechanisms causing spatially asymmetric waveforms have been proposed: an average flagellar curvature and buckling. We image flagella of human sperm tethered with the head to a surface. The waveform is characterized by a fundamental beat frequency and its second harmonic. The superposition of harmonics breaks the beat symmetry temporally rather than spatially. As a result, sperm rotate around the tethering point. The rotation velocity is determined by the second-harmonic amplitude and phase. Stimulation with the female sex hormone progesterone enhances the second-harmonic contribution and, thereby, modulates sperm rotation. Higher beat frequency components exist in other flagellated cells; therefore, this steering mechanism might be widespread and could inspire the design of synthetic microswimmers.

  5. Performance and carcass characteristics of steers fed with two levels of metabolizable energy intake during summer and winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R A; Keim, J P; Gandarillas, M; Velásquez, A; Alvarado-Gilis, C; Mader, T L

    2018-05-22

    Climate change is producing an increase on extreme weather events around the world such as flooding, drought and extreme ambient temperatures impacting animal production and animal welfare. At present, there is a lack of studies addressing the effects of climatic conditions associated with energy intake in finishing cattle in South American feed yards. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of environmental variables and level of metabolizable energy intake above maintenance requirements (MEI) on performance and carcass quality of steers. In each experiment (winter and summer), steers were fed with 1.85 or 2.72 times of their requirements of metabolizable energy of maintenance. A total of 24 crossbred steers per experiment were used and located in four pens (26.25 m2/head) equipped with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System. Animals were fed with the same diet within each season, varying the amount offered to adjust the MEI treatments. Mud depth, mud scores, tympanic temperature (TT), environmental variables, average daily gain, respiration rates and carcass characteristics plus three thermal comfort indices were collected. Data analysis considered a factorial arrangement (Season and MEI). In addition, a repeated measures analysis was performed for TT and respiration rate. Mean values of ambient temperature, solar radiation and comfort thermal indices were greater in the summer experiment as expected (Pcarcass characteristics were affected by season but not by the level of MEI. Finally, due to the high variability of data as well as the small number of animals assessed in these experiments, more studies on carcass characteristics under similar conditions are required.

  6. Planning analysis and political steering with New Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sager, Tore Øivin; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    of interviews sheds light on the apparent paradox that parliamentarians accept delegation of highway investment decisions despite their profound scepticism to the cost-benefit analyses and impact calculations that are essential to management by objectives and results, which was to give them continued political...... by the Government. The political concentration on strategic steering, the concomitant delegation, and management by objectives and results are central components of New Public Management....

  7. Workshop on automated beam steering and shaping (ABS). Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, M [ed.

    1999-09-10

    A workshop on Automated Beam Steering and Shaping (ABS) was held at CERN in December 1998. This was the first workshop dedicated to this subject. The workshop had two major goals: to review the present status of ABS algorithms and systems around the world and to create a worldwide ABS community. These proceedings contain summary reports from all sessions, contributions from several presentations held at the workshop, and a complete set of abstracts for all presentations. (orig.)

  8. Automation of Armored Four Wheel Counter Steer Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    additions to the cabin, such as displays, servos , and controls, require a small footprint and cannot impede critical systems (e.g., fire control) or...autopilot. The steering system engages until the man- ual/emergency override button is pressed . To engage the velocity control mode, the operator...engaged if the need arises. Once the error is cleared, pressing the manual override button places the system back into ready mode. FIGURE 3. The software

  9. Optimum steering of photon beam lines in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fong, B.; Lee, M.; Ziemann, V.

    1993-04-01

    A common operational requirement for many synchrotron light sources is to maintain steered photon beamlines with minimum corrector strength values. To solve this problem for SPEAR, we employed the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) matrix-inversion technique to minimize corrector strengths while constraining the photon beamlines to remain on target. The result was a reduction in corrector strengths, yielding increased overhead for the photon-beam position feedback systems

  10. Workshop on automated beam steering and shaping (ABS). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroos, M.

    1999-01-01

    A workshop on Automated Beam Steering and Shaping (ABS) was held at CERN in December 1998. This was the first workshop dedicated to this subject. The workshop had two major goals: to review the present status of ABS algorithms and systems around the world and to create a worldwide ABS community. These proceedings contain summary reports from all sessions, contributions from several presentations held at the workshop, and a complete set of abstracts for all presentations. (orig.)

  11. Entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations, Bell nonlocality, and steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Doherty, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)] we defined 'steering', a type of quantum nonlocality that is logically distinct from both nonseparability and Bell nonlocality. In the bipartite setting, it hinges on the question of whether Alice can affect Bob's state at a distance through her choice of measurement. More precisely and operationally, it hinges on the question of whether Alice, with classical communication, can convince Bob that they share an entangled state under the circumstances that Bob trusts nothing that Alice says. We argue that if she can, then this demonstrates the nonlocal effect first identified in the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper [Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935)] as a universal effect for pure entangled states. This ability of Alice to remotely prepare Bob's state was subsequently called steering by Schroedinger, whose terminology we adopt. The phenomenon of steering has been largely overlooked, and prior to our work had not even been given a rigorous definition that is applicable to mixed states as well as pure states. Armed with our rigorous definition, we proved that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell nonlocality. In this work we expand on these results and provide further examples of steerable states. We also elaborate on the connection with the original EPR paradox

  12. Entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations, Bell nonlocality, and steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Doherty, A. C.

    2007-11-01

    In a recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)] we defined “steering,” a type of quantum nonlocality that is logically distinct from both nonseparability and Bell nonlocality. In the bipartite setting, it hinges on the question of whether Alice can affect Bob’s state at a distance through her choice of measurement. More precisely and operationally, it hinges on the question of whether Alice, with classical communication, can convince Bob that they share an entangled state under the circumstances that Bob trusts nothing that Alice says. We argue that if she can, then this demonstrates the nonlocal effect first identified in the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper [Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935)] as a universal effect for pure entangled states. This ability of Alice to remotely prepare Bob’s state was subsequently called steering by Schrödinger, whose terminology we adopt. The phenomenon of steering has been largely overlooked, and prior to our work had not even been given a rigorous definition that is applicable to mixed states as well as pure states. Armed with our rigorous definition, we proved that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell nonlocality. In this work we expand on these results and provide further examples of steerable states. We also elaborate on the connection with the original EPR paradox.

  13. Design of a steering stabilizer based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhaomin; Yan, Yibin

    2018-04-01

    This design realizes a posture correction device of griping steering wheel based on CAN bus, which is embedded in the steering wheel of vehicles. The system aims to detect the drivers' abnormal griping postures and provides drivers with classification alerts, by combining the recorded griping postures data and the vehicle speed data that are obtained via the CAN bus. The warning information are automatically stored and retained in the device for 12 months. To enhance the alerting effect, the count of this warning message for both the latest month and the last 12 months are displayed on the dashboard panel. In addition to prevent itself from being blocked and self-detect any faults in advance, the appliance also provide a self-test function, which will communicate with the integrated instrument system in vehicle and do simulation test right after the vehicle power on. This appliance can help to urge and ensure drivers to operate the steering wheel correctly, effectively, and timely; prevent some typical incorrect behaviors which commonly happen along with the change of griping postures, such as the using cellphone, and ultimately, reduce the incidence of traffic accidents.

  14. Optimization of steering elements in the RIA driver linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E. S.; Aseev, V. S.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Physics

    2005-01-01

    The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting (SC) linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from proton to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver's real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids. The algorithm has been fully integrated into the tracking code TRACK and it is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements in the driver linac

  15. Geometrodynamic steering principle reveals the determiners of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    What shall the authors need to grasp the essence of quantum gravity? One requirement, at least, is essential: to understand the steering principle of classical geometrodynamics. The authors outline here the physical content of that steering principle - heat of the so-called initial value problem - in its J.W. York, Jr. formulation. The central idea epitomizes itself in a single simple sentence: Mass-energy there determines inertia here. They spell out this steering principle both in its precise form and in its poor man's version. At both levels of analysis considerations of physics and mathematics alike require that the effective mass-energy of gravity waves must make itself felt on the spacetime geometry - and therefore on the gyro-defined local inertial frame of reference - on the same level as matter itself. Additional to the (mass)/(distance) Newtonian potential so familiar as measure of the effect of a nearby mass on the local frame is the Thirring and Lense gravitomagnetic potential, proportional to (angular momentum) x (distance vector)/(distance). The recent proposal of Ciufolini for a dual laser-ranged LAGEOS satellite to detect the thus-predicted gravitomagnetism of the earth is briefly described

  16. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering: Its geometric quantification and witness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Huan-Yu; Chen, Shin-Liang; Budroni, Costantino; Miranowicz, Adam; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Nori, Franco

    2018-02-01

    We propose a measure of quantum steerability, namely, a convex steering monotone, based on the trace distance between a given assemblage and its corresponding closest assemblage admitting a local-hidden-state (LHS) model. We provide methods to estimate such a quantity, via lower and upper bounds, based on semidefinite programming. One of these upper bounds has a clear geometrical interpretation as a linear function of rescaled Euclidean distances in the Bloch sphere between the normalized quantum states of (i) a given assemblage and (ii) an LHS assemblage. For a qubit-qubit quantum state, these ideas also allow us to visualize various steerability properties of the state in the Bloch sphere via the so-called LHS surface. In particular, some steerability properties can be obtained by comparing such an LHS surface with a corresponding quantum steering ellipsoid. Thus, we propose a witness of steerability corresponding to the difference of the volumes enclosed by these two surfaces. This witness (which reveals the steerability of a quantum state) enables one to find an optimal measurement basis, which can then be used to determine the proposed steering monotone (which describes the steerability of an assemblage) optimized over all mutually unbiased bases.

  17. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 4, Spring 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Martin J. Peters, Jr. Calvin B. Kelley Art Direction Typography and Design Division Government Printing Office Joint Force Quarterly is published by...within larger organizations. For example, the concept 6 JFQ / Spring 1994 of the combined joint task force for Europe is designed to provide just such...or financial, may be the shared outcome for all parties to future conflicts. The image of war, shaped over centuries, is precise, graphic , and

  18. Niobium sputter deposition on quarter wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanadham, C; Jayaprakash, D; Mishra, R L

    2003-01-01

    Niobium sputter deposition on quarter wave copper R.F resonators, have been taken up in our laboratory, An ultra high vacuum system was made for this purpose. Niobium exhibits superconducting properties at liquid Helium temperature. A uniform coating of about 1.5 mu m of niobium on the internal surfaces of the copper resonant cavities is desired. Power dissipation in the resonators can be greatly reduced by making the internal surfaces of the R.F cavity super conducting. (author)

  19. A Walk around Irkutsk’s Quarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the key issues of the Concept of reconstruction of the 11 Irkutsk’s quarters adjacent to the Trading Axis. While remaining basic, the trading function should reduce its overwhelming domination to be in harmony with other functions of the city environment, which attract inhabitants and guests to the historical area of Irkutsk, that is culture, education, leisure, recreation, and housing.

  20. MENA Quarterly Economic Brief, July 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Devarajan, Shanta; Mottaghi, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Iran and the Permanent Members of the UN Security Council and Germany (P5+1) reached a deal on July 14, 2015 that limits Iranian nuclear activity in return for lifting all international sanctions that were placed on Iran (Box 1). This issue of the MENA Quarterly Economic Brief (QEB) traces the economic effects of this development—removing sanctions on Iran—on the world oil market, on Iran’s trading partners, and on the Iranian economy.

  1. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 2, Autumn 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Typography and Design Division Government Printing Office Joint Force Quarterly is published by the Institute for National Strategic Studies, National...Decisions regard- ing the key force will affect many factors in the new environment. It determines reaction time, how much and what type of force to...shelters destroyed? Only indirectly. Attacks on shel- ters had forced a reaction by the Iraqis, one that caused the loss of their air arm as a force in

  2. Quarterly coal report July--September 1996, February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the second quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  3. 2nd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, L. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States) (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet (ft3) generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  4. The Influence of Feed Energy Density and a Formulated Additive on Rumen and Rectal Temperature in Hanwoo Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbuem Cho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the optimum blending condition of protected fat, choline and yeast culture for lowering of rumen temperature. The Box Benken experimental design, a fractional factorial arrangement, and response surface methodology were employed. The optimum blending condition was determined using the rumen simulated in vitro fermentation. An additive formulated on the optimum condition contained 50% of protected fat, 25% of yeast culture, 5% of choline, 7% of organic zinc, 6.5% of cinnamon, and 6.5% of stevioside. The feed additive was supplemented at a rate of 0.1% of diet (orchard grass:concentrate, 3:7 and compared with a control which had no additive. The treatment resulted in lower volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration and biogas than the control. To investigate the effect of the optimized additive and feed energy levels on rumen and rectal temperatures, four rumen cannulated Hanwoo (Korean native beef breed steers were in a 4×4 Latin square design. Energy levels were varied to low and high by altering the ratio of forage to concentrate in diet: low energy (6:4 and high energy (4:6. The additive was added at a rate of 0.1% of the diet. The following parameters were measured; feed intake, rumen and rectal temperatures, ruminal pH and VFA concentration. This study was conducted in an environmentally controlled house with temperature set at 30°C and relative humidity levels of 70%. Steers were housed individually in raised crates to facilitate collection of urine and feces. The adaptation period was for 14 days, 2 days for sampling and 7 days for resting the animals. The additive significantly reduced both rumen (p<0.01 and rectal temperatures (p<0.001 without depressed feed intake. There were interactions (p<0.01 between energy level and additive on ruminal temperature. Neither additive nor energy level had an effect on total VFA concentration. The additive however, significantly increased (p<0.01 propionate and subsequently

  5. An investigation on motor-driven power steering-based crosswind disturbance compensation for the reduction of driver steering effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuwon; Kim, Boemjun; Go, Youngil; Park, Jaeyong; Park, Joonhong; Suh, Insoo; Yi, Kyongsu

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a lateral disturbance compensation algorithm for an application to a motor-driven power steering (MDPS)-based driver assistant system. The lateral disturbance including wind force and lateral load transfer by bank angle reduces the driver's steering refinement and at the same time increases the possibility of an accident. A lateral disturbance compensation algorithm is designed to determine the motor overlay torque of an MDPS system for reducing the manoeuvreing effort of a human driver under lateral disturbance. Motor overlay torque for the compensation of driver's steering torque induced by the lateral disturbance consists of human torque feedback and feedforward torque. Vehicle-driver system dynamics have been investigated using a combined dynamic model which consists of a vehicle dynamic model, driver steering dynamic model and lateral disturbance model. The human torque feedback input has been designed via the investigation of the vehicle-driver system dynamics. Feedforward input torque is calculated to compensate additional tyre self-aligning torque from an estimated lateral disturbance. The proposed compensation algorithm has been implemented on a developed driver model which represents the driver's manoeuvreing characteristics under the lateral disturbance. The developed driver model has been validated with test data via a driving simulator in a crosswind condition. Human-in-the-loop simulations with a full-scale driving simulator on a virtual test track have been conducted to investigate the real-time performance of the proposed lateral disturbance compensation algorithm. It has been shown from simulation studies and human-in-the-loop simulation results that the driver's manoeuvreing effort and a lateral deviation of the vehicle under the lateral disturbance can be significantly reduced via the lateral disturbance compensation algorithm.

  6. The Optimal Steering Control System using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm on Vehicles with Steer-by-Wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hunaini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Steer-by-wire is the electrical steering systems on vehicles that are expected with the development of an optimal control system can improve the dynamic performance of the vehicle. This paper aims to optimize the control systems, namely Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC and the Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID control on the vehicle steering system using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA. The control systems are built in a cascade, FLC to suppress errors in the lateral motion and the PID control to minimize the error in the yaw motion of the vehicle. FLC is built has two inputs (error and delta error and single output. Each input and output consists of three Membership Function (MF in the form of a triangular for language term "zero" and two trapezoidal for language term "negative" and "positive". In order to work optimally, each MF optimized using ICA to get the position and width of the most appropriate. Likewise, in the PID control, the constant at each Proportional, Integral and Derivative control also optimized using ICA, so there are six parameters of the control system are simultaneously optimized by ICA. Simulations performed on vehicle models with 10 Degree Of Freedom (DOF, the plant input using the variables of steering that expressed in the desired trajectory, and the plant outputs are lateral and yaw motion. The simulation results showed that the FLC-PID control system optimized by using ICA can maintain the movement of vehicle according to the desired trajectory with lower error and higher speed limits than optimized with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO.

  7. Fundamentals studies of a magnetically steered vacuum arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walke, Paul

    In recent years demand from production industry for high performance cutting tools, aero and automobile engine parts has prompted research into both existing and novel methods of laying down hard, low friction coatings . A key process for the production of such coatings has been Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) which has proved to be a consistent and reliable tool for industry. For this technique to continue to be improved and more advanced coatings to be produced, research at the fundamental level is required. This thesis describes research investigating the behaviour of the steered arc cathode spot and methods of improving existing steered arc coating technology.The majority of existing steered arc systems use either permanent magnets or a combination of permanent and electromagnets to steer the arc. Described here is a novel system which employs a pair of electromagnetic coils of cylindrical geometry which enable the arc to be positioned on a circular orbit through a range of continuously variable radii. In addition to this the coils are capable of controlling the transverse and normal magnetic field profiles independently of the steering radius selected. This enables the behaviour of the arc spot to be investigated under a range of magnetic field conditions thus allowing the comparison of measured arc behaviour with a new model of arc motion. Care has described the motion of the arc spot as a biased random walk and has derived an analytical solution to describe the time dependent, probability density function for the arc position in two dimensions. Two distributions are proposed (one in each dimension); the first describes the probability density for the arc position in the direction of driven motion, the second the probability density in the direction of arc confinement. The shape of these distributions is dependent upon the transverse and normal components of the applied magnetic field.A series of experiments are described here that measure the shape of these

  8. Nitrate decreases ruminal methane production with slight changes to ruminal methanogen composition of nitrate-adapted steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Yan; Wu, Hao; Huo, Yunlong; Zhang, Xinzhuang; Zhou, Zhenming

    2018-03-20

    This study was conducted to examine effects of nitrate on ruminal methane production, methanogen abundance, and composition. Six rumen-fistulated Limousin×Jinnan steers were fed diets supplemented with either 0% (0NR), 1% (1NR), or 2% (2NR) nitrate (dry matter basis) regimens in succession. Rumen fluid was taken after two-week adaptation for evaluation of in vitro methane production, methanogen abundance, and composition measurements. Results showed that nitrate significantly decreased in vitro ruminal methane production at 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h (P methane reduction was significantly related to Methanobrevibacter and Methanoplanus abundance, and negatively correlated with Methanosphaera and Methanimicrococcus abundance.

  9. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  10. Blood profile and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian steers finished on total mixed ration or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellet mixed with reed canary grass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, D T; Lee, S G; Baek, K H; Chung, W S; Chung, I A; Kim, D I; Kim, G Y; Lee, S K

    2018-02-01

    Holstein-Friesian steer beef production is renowned globally as a secondary product of the milk industry. Grass feeding is a common practice in raising Holstein steers because of its low cost. Furthermore, grass feeding is an alternative way to produce beef with a balanced n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) ratio. However, the performance and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian cattle is more likely to depend on a high-quality diet. The aim of this study was to observe whether feeding two mixed diets; a corn-based total mixed ration (TMR) with winter ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets with reed canary grass haylage (n-3 mix) provided benefits on carcass weight, meat quality and FA composition compared with cattle fed with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) haylage alone. In all, 15 21-month-old Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to three group pens, were allowed free access to water and were fed different experimental diets for 150 days. Blood samples were taken a week before slaughter. Carcass weight and meat quality were evaluated after slaughter. Plasma lipid levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined. Diet did not affect plasma triglyceride levels and GGT activity. Plasma cholesterol levels, including low-density and high-density lipoproteins, were higher in both mixed-diet groups than in the haylae group. The highest activities of plasma AST, CK and ALP were observed in the haylage group, followed by n-3 mix and TMR groups, respectively. Carcass weight was lower in the haylage group than in the other groups and no differences were found between the TMR and n-3 mix groups. Although the n-3 mix-fed and haylage-fed beef provided lower n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio than TMR-fed beef, the roasted beef obtained from the TMR group was more acceptable with better overall meat physicochemical properties and sensory scores

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpaeae, T.

    1996-11-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. In the second quarter of 1996, the Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation except for the annual maintenance outages of TVO plant units and the Midsummer shutdown at TVO II which was due to low electricity demand, a turbine generator inspection and repairs. The load factor average of all plant units was 88.9 %. Events in the second quarter of 1996 were classified level 0 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

  12. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary: Third quarter 1994--100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed on waste disposal sites located at the Hanford Site. The Third Quarter 1994 survey results and the status of actions required from current and past reports and are summarized below: (1) All the routine environmental radiological surveys scheduled during July, August, and September 1994 were completed except for the D Island vent riser area. The surveys for the 200-W railways, spurs, and sidings were completed during this period after being delayed by equipment problems during the second quarter. (2) No Compliance Assessment Reports (CARs) were issued for sites found out of compliance with standards identified in WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance. (3) Two Surveillance Compliance/Inspection Reports (SCIRs) were closed during the Third Quarter of 1994. (4) Eleven open SCIRs had not been resolved

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 1st Quarter FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 73 reportable events (27 from the 1St Qtr FY-15 and 46 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 38 other issue reports (including nine not reportable events and Significant Category A and B conditions reported during the1st Qtr FY-15) identified at INL during the past 12 months.

  14. Electronic differential control of 2WD electric vehicle considering steering stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yiding; Jiang, Haobin; Geng, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the steering wheel differential steering control technology of rear wheel independent driving electric wheel, considering the assisting effect of electronic differential control on vehicle steering, based on the high speed steering characteristic of electric wheel car, the electronic differential speed of auxiliary wheel steering is also studied. A yaw moment control strategy is applied to the vehicle at high speed. Based on the vehicle stability reference value, yaw rate is used to design the fuzzy controller to distribute the driving wheel torque. The simulation results show that the basic electronic differential speed function is realized based on the yaw moment control strategy, while the vehicle stability control is improved and the driving safety is enhanced. On the other hand, the torque control strategy can also assist steering of vehicle.

  15. Research on Sliding Mode Control for Steer-by-Wire System in Forklift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jun-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at steering stability and wheel angle tracking of steer-by-wire (SBW three wheeled forklift, steering dynamic model and SBW system mathematical model of three wheeled forklift are established. A control strategy for the ideal transmission ratio is introduced based on this model, which ensures forklift steering gain invariant. A sliding mode controller can then be designed based on the bound information of uncertain system parameters, uncertain self-aligning torque, and external disturbances. The results of simulation show the control strategies above can effectively reduce the sideslip angle when the forklift is steering and improve the sensitivity and stability of the steering forklift; at the same time can effectively restrain the parameter perturbation of internal system and external disturbance, which improves the tracking performance of the wheel angle.

  16. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, 2nd quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1994 through the fourth quarter of 1995. Values for the first quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available. The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1994 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the STIFS. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service.

  17. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Event Performance Analysis FY 2013 4th Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2 “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable for the previous twelve months. This report is the analysis of occurrence reports and deficiency reports (including not reportable events) identified at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) during the period of October 2012 through September 2013.

  18. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 2nd Quarter FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbeth A. Mitchell

    2014-06-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of occurrence reports and other deficiency reports (including not reportable events) identified at INL from January 2014 through March 2014.

  19. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary - second quarter 1997 100, 200, 300, and 600 areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.; Marks, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site. The Second Quarter 1997 survey results and the status of actions required are summarized below: All of the routine environmental radiological surveys scheduled during April, May, and June 1997, were performed as planned with the exception of UN-216-E-9. This site was not surveyed as stabilization activities were in progress. The sites scheduled for the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) team were switched with those identified for the third quarter as there was a conflict with vegetation management activities

  20. Packaging consideration of two-dimensional polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiaonan; Chen, Maggie Yihong; Wang, Alan Xiaolong; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report the theoretical study of polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering which is based on the superprism effect as well as the experiment fabrication of the two dimensional photonic crystals for the laser beam steering. Superprism effect, the principle for beam steering, was separately studied in details through EFC (Equifrequency Contour) analysis. Polymer based photonic crystals were fabricated through double exposure holographic interference method using SU8-2007. The experiment results were also reported.

  1. Operational experience with model-based steering in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Himel, T.; Moore, S.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.; Shoaee, H.

    1989-03-01

    Operational experience with model-driven steering in the linac of the Stanford Linear Collider is discussed. Important issues include two-beam steering, sensitivity of algorithms to faulty components, sources of disagreement with the model, and the effects of the finite resolution of beam position monitors. Methods developed to make the steering algorithms more robust in the presence of such complications are also presented. 5 refs., 1 fig

  2. Perissodactyla diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2018-01-01

    Perissodactyla (Schoch 1989) includes tapirs, rhinoceros, wild asses, horses, and zebras. It is the order of hoofed mammals referred to as “odd-toed ungulates” because its members have one to three weight-bearing toes and walk on hoofs or “ungules.” They are herbivores that are specialized to exploit grasslands and brushy habitat (rhinos, horses, asses, zebras) or dense tropical forests (tapirs). All share a common digestive system called hindgut fermentation, or cecal digestion (in the cecum), and can consume relatively tough, coarse forage. Some perissodactyls are “browsers” that forage primarily on woody shrubs and trees, whereas others are “grazers” with a graminoid-dominated diet. They are all predominantly opportunistic feeders and select for quantity over quality of forage; that is, they consume more abundant low-quality forage instead of searching and selecting for higher-quality forage because it gives them the advantage of reducing search effort, which conserves energy.

  3. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  4. Low Tyramine Headache Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 25 Oct Low-Tyramine Diet for Migraine Posted at 17:16h ... and Diamond Headache Clinic Headache Diet Tags: headache , low tyramine diet , MAOI , tyramine No Comments Post A ...

  5. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  6. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  7. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  8. EVALUATION OF A CONCEPTUAL VEHICLE STEERING SYSTEM FOR INDEPENDENT WHEEL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard BUCHALIK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief description of an unconventional steering system involving electronic stability control and its influence on vehicle motion. The proposed configuration enables individual changes in steering angle for each single wheel, in contrast to the mechanical linkage solution. An analysis of vehicle behaviour during emergency braking on a heterogeneous surface is conducted, especially with regard to the undesirable rotation of the vehicle body. The benefits of using this active steering system, implemented in the steer-by-wire mode, are characterized, while the problems for further consideration and the potential benefits of such a solution are described.

  9. Demonstration of Multisetting One-Way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering in Two-Qubit Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Sun, Kai; Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-04-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes the ability of one party to remotely affect another's state through local measurements. One of the most distinguishable properties of EPR steering is its asymmetric aspect. Steering can work in one direction but fail in the opposite direction. This type of one-way steering, which is different from the symmetry concepts of entanglement and Bell nonlocality, has garnered much interest. However, an experimental demonstration of genuine one-way EPR steering in the simplest scenario, i.e., one that employs two-qubit systems, is still lacking. In this Letter, we experimentally demonstrate one-way EPR steering with multimeasurement settings for a class of two-qubit states, which are still one-way steerable even with infinite settings. The steerability is quantified by the steering radius, which represents a necessary and sufficient steering criterion. The demonstrated one-way steering in the simplest bipartite quantum system is of fundamental interest and may provide potential applications in one-way quantum information tasks.

  10. Integrated Design and Analysis Tools for Reduced Weight, Affordable Fiber Steered Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hale, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This report describes geometric design tools which encompass the overall process flow for fiber placed and fiber steered structures, to allow parallel considerations for manufacturability and mechanical performance...

  11. Ultra-compact laser beam steering device using holographically formed two dimensional photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiaonan; Chen, Maggie Yihong; Wang, Alan Xiaolong; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we report the theoretical study of polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering which is based on the superprism effect as well as the experiment fabrication of the two dimensional photonic crystals for the laser beam steering. Superprism effect, the principle for beam steering, was separately studied in details through EFC (Equifrequency Contour) analysis. Polymer based photonic crystals were fabricated through double exposure holographic interference method using SU8-2007. The experiment results showed a beam steering angle of 10 degree for 30 nm wavelength variation.

  12. Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jason D.; Frantz, Jesse A.; Spillmann, Christopher M.; Bekele, Robel Y.; Kolacz, Jakub; Gotjen, Henry; Naciri, Jawad; Shaw, Brandon; Sanghera, Jas S.

    2018-02-01

    Beam steering is a crucial technology for a number of applications, including chemical sensing/mapping and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). Traditional beam steering approaches rely on mechanical movement, such as the realignment of mirrors in gimbal mounts. The mechanical approach to steering has several drawbacks, including large size, weight and power usage (SWAP), and frequent mechanical failures. Recently, alternative non-mechanical approaches have been proposed and developed, but these technologies do not meet the demanding requirements for many beam steering applications. Here, we highlight the development efforts into a particular non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) approach, refractive waveguides, for application in the MWIR. These waveguides are based on an Ulrich-coupled slab waveguide with a liquid crystal (LC) top cladding; by selectively applying an electric field across the liquid crystal through a prismatic electrode, steering is achieved by creating refraction at prismatic interfaces as light propagates through the device. For applications in the MWIR, we describe a versatile waveguide architecture based on chalcogenide glasses that have a wide range of refractive indices, transmission windows, and dispersion properties. We have further developed robust shadow-masking methods to taper the subcladding layers in the coupling region. We have demonstrated devices with >10° of steering in the MWIR and a number of advantageous properties for beam steering applications, including low-power operation, compact size, and fast point-to-point steering.

  13. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1 was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2 was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C and minimum (1.0°C indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001 than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001 during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001 during P2 (1.38 kg/d than P1 (1.13 kg/d. Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015 than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March.

  14. The WSTIAC Quarterly. Volume 9, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    elements of command– Major Eric D. Trias Captain Bryan M. Bell US Air Force You have to know the past to understand the present. — Carl Sagan This article is...Quarterly, Volume 9, Number 4 3 INTRODUCTION Carl von Clausewitz defined war as “…an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfill our will...controlled systems. NOTES & REFERENCES ‡ Joint Pub 3-13 provides the doctrinal foundation for the conduct of IO in joint operations. [1] von Clausewitz, Carl

  15. Natural gas consumption for GRTgaz areas: 1. Quarter of 2015, 2. Quarter of 2015, 3. Quarter of 2015, 4. Quarter of 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the quarterly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2015: gross consumption, climate corrected consumption, quantities of natural gas transported

  16. Natural gas consumption within GRTgaz's territory: 1. Quarter of 2008, 2. Quarter of 2008, 3. Quarter of 2008, 4. Quarter of 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the quarterly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2008: gross consumption, climate corrected consumption, quantities of natural gas transported

  17. Natural gas consumption for GRTgaz areas: 1. Quarter of 2014, 2. Quarter of 2014, 3. Quarter of 2014, 4. Quarter of 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the quarterly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2014: gross consumption, climate corrected consumption, quantities of natural gas transported

  18. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-18

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended.

  19. Natural gas consumption for GRTgaz areas: 1. Quarter of 2011, 2. Quarter of 2011, 3. Quarter of 2011, 4. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the quarterly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2011: gross consumption, climate corrected consumption, quantities of natural gas transported

  20. : Light Steering Projection Systems and Attributes for HDR Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Damberg, Gerwin

    2017-06-02

    New light steering projectors in cinema form images by moving light away from dark regions into bright areas of an image. In these systems, the peak luminance of small features can far exceed full screen white luminance. In traditional projectors where light is filtered or blocked in order to give shades of gray (or colors), the peak luminance is fixed. The luminance of chromatic features benefit in the same way as white features, and chromatic image details can be reproduced at high brightness leading to a much wider overall color gamut coverage than previously possible. Projectors of this capability are desired by the creative community to aid in and enhance storytelling. Furthermore, reduced light source power requirements of light steering projectors provide additional economic and environmental benefits. While the dependency of peak luminance level on (bright) image feature size is new in the digital cinema space, display technologies with identical characteristics such as OLED, LED LCD and Plasma TVs are well established in the home. Similarly, direct view LED walls are popular in events, advertising and architectural markets. To enable consistent color reproduction across devices in today’s content production pipelines, models that describe modern projectors and display attributes need to evolve together with HDR standards and available metadata. This paper is a first step towards rethinking legacy display descriptors such as contrast, peak luminance and color primaries in light of new display technology. We first summarize recent progress in the field of light steering projectors in cinema and then, based on new projector and existing display characteristics propose the inclusion of two simple display attributes: Maximum Average Luminance and Peak (Color) Primary Luminance. We show that the proposed attributes allow a better prediction of content reproducibility on HDR displays. To validate this assertion, we test professional content on a commercial HDR

  1. Steering the osteoclast through the demineralization-collagenolysis balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Merrild, Ditte Marie Horslev; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    are generated when collagen degradation is slower than demineralization, and trenches when collagen degradation is as fast as demineralization. Next we treated the osteoclasts with a low dose of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor to slightly decrease the rate of demineralization, thereby allowing collagen......, forming a pit, and continues parallel to the bone surface, forming a trench. Importantly, we show that the progress of the osteoclast along this route depends on the balance between the rate of collagenolysis and demineralization. We propose that the osteocytes and bone lining cells surrounding...... the osteoclast may act on this balance to steer the osteoclast resorptive activity in order to give the excavations a specific shape....

  2. Concept of navigation and automatic steering of the measuring dolphin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majohr, J.; Buch, T.; Korte, C. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik

    2000-07-01

    The Catamaran - Measuring Dolphin (MESSIN) is an unmanned and independently operated craft having been designed for carrying out multiple measuring tasks in the field of marine research and water monitoring especially in shallow waters. An introduction to the navigation, steering and safety systems is given. Furthermore the main components of the track control system and the electronic chart system used here are shown. Results of manoeuvring tests of the MESSIN are represented. This paper gives a contribution to the field of research ''autonomous and full automated vehicle''. (orig.)

  3. Creating virtual electrodes with 2D current steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas C.; Fallon, James B.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Current steering techniques have shown promise in retinal prostheses as a way to increase the number of distinct percepts elicitable without increasing the number of implanted electrodes. Previously, it has been shown that ‘virtual’ electrodes can be created between simultaneously stimulated electrode pairs, producing unique cortical response patterns. This study investigated whether virtual electrodes could be created using 2D current steering, and whether these virtual electrodes can produce cortical responses with predictable spatial characteristics. Approach. Normally-sighted eyes of seven adult anaesthetised cats were implanted with a 42-channel electrode array in the suprachoroidal space and multi-unit neural activity was recorded from the visual cortex. Stimuli were delivered to individual physical electrodes, or electrodes grouped into triangular, rectangular, and hexagonal arrangements. Varying proportions of charge were applied to each electrode in a group to ‘steer’ current and create virtual electrodes. The centroids of cortical responses to stimulation of virtual electrodes were compared to those evoked by stimulation of single physical electrodes. Main results. Responses to stimulation of groups of up to six electrodes with equal ratios of charge on each electrode resulted in cortical activation patterns that were similar to those elicited by the central physical electrode (centroids: RM ANOVA on ranks, p  >  0.05 neural spread: one-way ANOVA on Ranks, p  >  0.05). We were also able to steer the centroid of activation towards the direction of any of the electrodes of the group by applying a greater charge to that electrode, but the movement in the centroid was not found to be significant. Significance. The results suggest that current steering is possible in two dimensions between up to at least six electrodes, indicating it may be possible to increase the number of percepts in patients without increasing the number

  4. Adaptive feedback linearization applied to steering of ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of feedback linearization to automatic steering of ships. The flexibility of the design procedure allows the autopilot to be optimized for both course-keeping and course-changing manoeuvres. Direct adaptive versions of both the course-keeping and turning controller are derived. The advantages of the adaptive controllers are improved performance and reduced fuel consumption. The application of nonlinear control theory also allows the designer in a systematic manner to compensate for nonlinearities in the control design.

  5. Geometric steering criterion for two-qubit states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bai-Chu; Jia, Zhih-Ahn; Wu, Yu-Chun; Guo, Guang-Can

    2018-01-01

    According to the geometric characterization of measurement assemblages and local hidden state (LHS) models, we propose a steering criterion which is both necessary and sufficient for two-qubit states under arbitrary measurement sets. A quantity is introduced to describe the required local resources to reconstruct a measurement assemblage for two-qubit states. We show that the quantity can be regarded as a quantification of steerability and be used to find out optimal LHS models. Finally we propose a method to generate unsteerable states, and construct some two-qubit states which are entangled but unsteerable under all projective measurements.

  6. Electrical Steering of Vehicles - Fault-tolerant Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    solutions and still meet strict requirements to functional safety. The paper applies graph-based analysis of functional system structure to find a novel fault-tolerant architecture for an electrical steering where a dedicated AC-motor design and cheap voltage measurements ensure ability to detect all......The topic of this paper is systems that need be designed such that no single fault can cause failure at the overall level. A methodology is presented for analysis and design of fault-tolerant architectures, where diagnosis and autonomous reconfiguration can replace high cost triple redundancy...

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1997-12-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the second quarter of 1997, except for the annual maintenance outages of Olkiluoto plant units and the Midsummer outage at Olkiluoto 2 due to reduced demand for electricity. There were also brief interruptions in power operation at the Olkiluoto plant units due to three reactor scrams. All plant units are undergoing long-term test operation at upgraded reactor power level which has been approved by STUK The load factor average of all plant units was 88.7 %. One event in the second quarter of 1997 was classified level 1 on the INES. The event in question was a scram at Olkiluoto 1 which was caused by erroneous opening of switches. Other events in this quarter were level 0. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  8. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary: Second Quarter 1995 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of the operational environmental monitoring program at the Hanford Site. The Second Quarter 1995 survey results and the status of actions required from current and past reports are summarized

  9. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 4th quarter, 1994 and annual summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1995-05-01

    The Loviisa NPP units were in power operation the whole last quarter, with the exception of a reactor scram at Loviisa 1. The load factor average of all Finnish plant units was 100.2 %. The annual average was 90.0 %. All events in the fourth annual quarter were assigned level 0 (no safety significance) on the international INES scale. Four events in 1994 were classified level 1 (an anomaly). The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in December approved Imatran Voima Oy's application to extend the operation of the reactor pressure vessel of Loviisa 2 until the annual maintenance outage of 2010. During this quarter, a batch of spent fuel from Loviisa power plant was transported to Russia. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Only such quantities of plant-based radioactive materials were measurable in samples collected around the plants as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The report includes a summary of all the items described in the Quarterly Reports of 1994. (8 figs., 4 tabs.)

  10. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 3rd quarter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpaeae, T.

    1997-02-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. In the third quarter of 1996, the Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units and a shutdown at Olkiluoto 1 to identify and repair malfunctions of a high pressure turbine control valve. The load factor average of all plant units was 77.2%. Events in the third quarter of 1996 were classified level 0 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The names of Teollisuuden Voima Oy's plant units have changed. Olkiluoto 1 and Olkiluoto 2 now replace the names TVO I and TVO II previously used in quarterly reports. (orig.)

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 4th quarter, 1994 and annual summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K [ed.

    1995-05-01

    The Loviisa NPP units were in power operation the whole last quarter, with the exception of a reactor scram at Loviisa 1. The load factor average of all Finnish plant units was 100.2 %. The annual average was 90.0 %. All events in the fourth annual quarter were assigned level 0 (no safety significance) on the international INES scale. Four events in 1994 were classified level 1 (an anomaly). The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in December approved Imatran Voima Oy`s application to extend the operation of the reactor pressure vessel of Loviisa 2 until the annual maintenance outage of 2010. During this quarter, a batch of spent fuel from Loviisa power plant was transported to Russia. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Only such quantities of plant-based radioactive materials were measurable in samples collected around the plants as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The report includes a summary of all the items described in the Quarterly Reports of 1994. (8 figs., 4 tabs.).

  12. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary. Fourth quarter, 1995 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of the operational environmental monitoring program at the Hanford Site. The Fourth Quarter 1995 survey results and the status of actions required from current and past reports are described

  13. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 3rd quarter 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1998-04-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the third quarter of 1997, except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units which lasted well over a month in all. There was also a brief interruption in electricity generation at Olkiluoto 1 for repairs and at Olkiluoto 2 due to a disturbance at the turbine plant. All plant units were in long-term test operation at upgraded reactor power level approved by STUK. The load factor average of all plant units was 87.6 %. One event in the third quarter was classified level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). It was noted at Loviisa 2 that one of four pressurized water tanks in the plant unit's emergency cooling system had been inoperable for a year. Other events in this quarter were INES level 0. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  14. Quarterly report of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. 4th quarter 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    During the fourth quarter of 1984 ten power reactors were in operation in Sweden. Two new reactors, Oskarshamn 3 and Forsmark 3, got loading authorization and started the test operation. No serious fault has occurred during the period. (K.A.E.)

  15. Sensory quality of beef from different finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resconi, V C; Campo, M M; Font i Furnols, M; Montossi, F; Sañudo, C

    2010-11-01

    Beef production under different local husbandry systems might have meat sensory quality implications for the marketing of these products abroad. In order to assess the effect of finishing diet systems on beef quality, a trained sensory taste panel assessed meat aged for 20 days from 80 Uruguayan Hereford steers that were finished on one of the following diets: T1=Pasture [4% of animal live weight (LW)], T2=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (0.6% LW)], T3=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (1.2% LW)], or T4=Concentrate plus hay ad libitum. Beef odour and flavour intensities decreased with an increase in the energy content of the diet. The meat from T2 had the lowest acid flavour and strange odours intensities. In general, steers fed only concentrate plus hay (T4) produced meat that had an inferior sensory quality because they had more pronounced off-flavours and was tougher. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quarterly Technical Progress Report June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Bruce A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The project has two main goals: 1) Identify the types of adducts naphthalene (NA) forms with DNA and 2) determine whether adduct formation correlates with site selective tumor formation in defined subcompartments of the respiratory tract (respiratory and olfactory nasal epithelium and airways of mice, rats and rhesus monkeys). Five tasks are associated with the completion of the goals. Task 1: Contracting and Animal Use Approvals. IACUC and ACURO approvals are complete, The subcontract with UC Davis (UCD) was executed in December 2014. Task 2: Perform In Vitro Study for Goal 1. Rat samples exposed and in freezer while adduct standards are being made. Mouse samples need to be exposed in next quarter. Task 3: Perform In Vitro Study for Goal 2. Mouse ex vivo samples completed. Rat and monkey samples need to be completed in the next quarter. Task 4: Sample Preparation and Analysis. Mouse Goal 2 samples completed. Other samples remain to be done. Task 5: Data Interpretation and Reporting. Need rat data to write paper on adduct formation.

  17. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  18. Effect of dietary phosphorus on intestinal phosphorus absorption in growing Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Ronk, E; Hanigan, M D; Knowlton, K F; Schramm, H; McCann, M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of dietary P intake on intestinal P absorption was evaluated in growing Holstein steers. Diets varying in P content (0.15, 0.27, 0.36, and 0.45%, DM basis) were fed to 8 steers (174±10kg of BW) fitted with permanent duodenal and ileal cannulas in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods. Ytterbium-labeled corn silage and cobalt-EDTA were used as particulate and liquid phase markers, respectively, to measure digesta flow. Duodenal and ileal samples and spot urine samples were collected every 9 h from d 11 to 14. Total fecal collection was conducted on d 11 to 14 with fecal bags. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vessel on d 14. Feed, digesta, and fecal samples were analyzed for total P and inorganic P. Data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX in SAS with a model including treatment, square, period, and interaction of treatment and square. Preplanned contrasts were used to evaluate linear and quadratic treatment effects. Results were reported as least squares means. Dry matter intake (mean=4.90kg/d, 2.8% of BW) and apparent DM digestibility (mean=78.1%) were unaffected by treatment. Duodenal and ileal flow of total P increased linearly with increasing P intake (13.4, 18.5, 23.0, and 27.4g/d; 6.80, 7.87, 8.42, and 10.4g/d). Increasing P intake increased the quantity of P absorbed from the small intestine linearly (6.96, 11.1, 14.6, and 17.2g/d), but absorption efficiency was unchanged (mean=59.6%). Phosphorus was absorbed on a net basis from the large intestine, but this was not affected by treatment and was a small proportion of total P absorption. Blood inorganic P increased linearly with increased dietary P (4.36, 6.31, 7.68, and 8.5mg/dL) and salivary P secretion was unchanged (mean=5.79g/d), suggesting that rumen function was prioritized during short-term P deficiency. These data showing an absence of change in absorption efficiency and salivary P secretion in the face of short-term P deficiency may be used to improve published

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1999-12-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish NPPs describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. All Finnish NPP units were in power operation for the whole second quarter of 1999, with the exception of the annual maintenance outages of the Olkiluoto plant units. The load factor average of the plant units in this quarter was 93.1%. Two events in this quarter were classified Level 1 on the INKS Scale. At Olkiluoto 1, a valve of the containment gas treatment system had been in an incorrect position for almost a month, owing to which the system would not have been available as planned in an accident. At Olkiluoto 2, main circulation pump work was done during the annual maintenance outage and a containment personnel air lock was briefly open in violation of the Technical Specifications. Water leaking out of the reactor in an accident could not have been directed to the emergency cooling system because it would have leaked out from the containment via the open personnel air lock. Other events in this quarter had no bearing on the nuclear or radiation safety of the plant units. The individual doses of NPP personnel and also radioactive releases off-site were well below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  20. Natural gas imports and exports: First quarter report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This quarter`s focus is market penetration of gas imports into New England. Attachments show the following: % takes to maximum firm contract levels and weighted average per unit price for the long-term importers, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters, volumes and prices for gas imported on short-term or spot market basis, and gas exported short-term to Canada and Mexico.

  1. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Currently, 125 wells monitor groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site. Samples from the wells are analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents during third quarter 1994. Sixty-four (51%) of the 125 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium activities. Trichloroethylene concentrations exceeded the final PDWS in 22 (18%) wells. Chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, elevated in one or more wells during third quarter 1994, also occurred in elevated levels during second quarter 1994. These constituents generally were elevated in the same wells during both quarters. Gross alpha, which was elevated in only one well during second quarter 1994, was elevated again during third quarter. Mercury, which was elevated during first quarter 1994, was elevated again in one well. Dichloromethane was elevated in two wells for the first time in several quarters

  2. Third-quarter 1989 electric utility financial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Utility earnings per share before write-offs fell 6.9% in the third quarter of 1989 from the year-earlier level. Write-offs reduced third-quarter earnings of a sample of 83 utilities that account for 95% of investor-owned utility revenue by $792 million, compared with $183 million in the year-earlier quarter. With larger write-offs in 1989 than in 1988, third-quarter earnings per share after write-offs plunged 16.9% from the year-earlier level

  3. Adiabatic photo-steering theory in topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Feasible external control of material properties is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. A new approach to achieving this aim, named adiabatic photo-steering, is reviewed. The core principle of this scheme is that several material constants are effectively turned into externally tunable variables by irradiation of monochromatic laser light. Two-dimensional topological insulators are selected as the optimal systems that exhibit a prominent change in their properties following the application of this method. Two specific examples of photo-steered quantum phenomena, which reflect topological aspects of the electronic systems at hand, are presented. One is the integer quantum Hall effect described by the Haldane model, and the other is the quantum spin Hall effect described by the Kane–Mele model. The topological quantities associated with these phenomena are the conventional Chern number and spin Chern number, respectively. A recent interesting idea, time-reversal symmetry breaking via a temporary periodic external stimulation, is also discussed. (focus issue review)

  4. The steering committee for the marketing of radurised foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    After the very successful results obtained during the initial research stage of food irradiation, a need was felt for the commercial application of the process. Although few, if any, other food processing methods have been so thoroughly investigated prior to acceptance, several factors influenced the spontaneous implementation thereof. A definite need for co-ordination of commercial trials and proper commercial introduction of the process which invited so many discussions world-wide, led to the introduction of the Steering Committee for Radurised Foodstuffs in South Africa by the Minister of Agriculture during 1981. The Steering Committee was established to advise the Minister of Agriculture regarding the acceptability of the process and the progress made in this regard. The Minister of Agriculture (now Agricultural Economics and Water Affairs) fulfills an important role in the marketing of agricultural products in South Africa. Many decisions and recommendations of Organised Agriculture and of the different Marketing Boards are subject to the final approval or acceptance by the Minister. It is therefore important that he will be informed and advised regarding radurisation of foodstuffs and related aspects

  5. Mid-sized omnidirectional robot with hydraulic drive and steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carl G.; Perry, Trent; Cook, Douglas; Maxfield, Russell; Davidson, Morgan E.

    2003-09-01

    Through funding from the US Army-Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program, Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) has developed the T-series of omni-directional robots based on the USU omni-directional vehicle (ODV) technology. The ODV provides independent computer control of steering and drive in a single wheel assembly. By putting multiple omni-directional (OD) wheels on a chassis, a vehicle is capable of uncoupled translational and rotational motion. Previous robots in the series, the T1, T2, T3, ODIS, ODIS-T, and ODIS-S have all used OD wheels based on electric motors. The T4 weighs approximately 1400 lbs and features a 4-wheel drive wheel configuration. Each wheel assembly consists of a hydraulic drive motor and a hydraulic steering motor. A gasoline engine is used to power both the hydraulic and electrical systems. The paper presents an overview of the mechanical design of the vehicle as well as potential uses of this technology in fielded systems.

  6. Steering elastic SH waves in an anomalous way by metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liyun; Yang, Zhichun; Xu, Yanlong

    2018-03-01

    Metasurface, which does not exist in nature, has exhibited exotic essence on the manipulation of both electromagnetic and acoustic waves. In this paper, the concept of metasurface is extended to the field of elastic SH waves, and the anomalous refractions of SH waves across the designed elastic SH wave metasurfaces (SHWMs) are demonstrated numerically. Firstly, a SHWM is designed with supercells, each supercell is composed of four subunits. It is demonstrated that this configuration has the ability of deflecting the vertical and oblique incident waves in an arbitrary desired direction. Then, a unique SHWM with supercell composed of only two subunits is designed. Numerical simulation shows its ability of splitting the vertical and oblique incident waves into two tunable transmitted wave beams, respectively. In the process of steering SH waves, it is also found that two kinds of leakages of transmitted waves across the designed SHWM will occur in some particular situations, which will affect the desired transmitted wave. The mechanisms of the leakages, which are different from that of the common high-order diffraction mentioned in existing literatures, are revealed. The current study can offer theoretical guidance not only for designing devices of directional ultrasonic detection and splitting SH waves but also for steering other kinds of classical waves.

  7. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  8. Advanced Optics for the Remote Steering ITER ECRH Upper Launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, A; Cirant, S; Moro, A; Platania, P; Sozzi, C

    2005-01-01

    The optics of the ECRH Upper Launcher in ITER based on the Remote Steering concept needs special attention, since any focussing element in front of the waveguide has combined effects on the range of steering angles achievable and the beam width in the plasma region. The effects are studied in detail for a setup composed by 8 beams per port (three ports), for a spherical and a hyperbolic mirror surface. Gaussian beam analysis is compared to beam pattern calculations with the optical physics code GRASP, in order to verify the validity of gaussian optics approximation. The standard description with simply astigmatic beams, not adequate in more complex systems as the proposed two-mirror set-up, requires approximations, which are compared with the generalized astigmatic beam description. The ohmic losses at the end mirrors and the related localized heating due to the very large power density cause deformations that depends on the design of the cooling circuit. The distortion of the beam shape has been evaluated in a realistic case of mirror cooling with a small-channel system. The quantification of the effect depends on the precise evaluation ohmic losses and their enhancement in the long term due to the surface deterioration

  9. Stability Simulation of a Vehicle with Wheel Active Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabec Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of increasing the vehicle driving stability at a higher speed. One of the ways how to achieve higher stability is using the 4WS system. Mathematical description of vehicle general movement is a very complex task. For simulation, models which are aptly simplified are used. For the first approach, so-called single-truck vehicle model (often linear is usually used. For the simulation, we have chosen to extend the model into a two-truck one, which includes the possibility to input more vehicle parameters. Considering the 4WS system, it is possible to use a number of potential regulations. In our simulation model, the regulation system with compound coupling was used. This type of regulation turns the rear wheels depending on the input parameters of the system (steering angle of the front wheels and depending on the output moving quantities of the vehicle, most frequently the yaw rate. Criterion for compensation of lateral deflection centre of gravity angle is its zero value, or more precisely the zero value of its first-order derivative. Parameters and set-up of the simulation model were done in conjunction with the dSAPACE software. Reference performances of the vehicle simulation model were made through the defined manoeuvres. But the simulation results indicate that the rear-wheels steering can have a positive effect on the vehicle movement stability, especially when changing the driving direction at high speed.

  10. Fad diets, miracle diets, diet cult… but no results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fad diets, miracle diets (in sum, diet cult are diets that make promises of weight loss or other health advantages (e.g. longer life without backing by solid science, and usually they are characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices. These diets are often supported by celebrities and some health “professionals”, and they result attractive among people who want to lose weight quickly. By means of pseudoscientific arguments, designers of fad, miracle or magic diets usually describe them as healthy diets with unusual properties but always with undoubted benefits. After revising the history of these diets and exploring the scientific evidence, it must be noted that there is not a diet better than eating less, moving more and eating lots of fruits and vegetables. In addition, it is necessary to be aware of our general daily habits, remembering that eating is important but it is not everything. Getting active is also very relevant to improve (or recover our health. Summarizing, eating healthy and taking care of yourself are a duty but not a miracle.

  11. Beam steering for circular switched parasitic arrays using a combinational approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mofolo, ROM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present a method of electronic beam steering for circular switched parasitic array (SPA) antennas. In circular SPA antennas, one achieves azimuth beam steering by open-circuiting and short-circuiting different parasitic...

  12. How to Steer and Lead Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work any more since...

  13. Alteration in gene expression in the jejunum mucosa of Angus steers with divergent ADG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing ration containing (on a DM basis) 67.8% ...

  14. Progress on the ITER H&CD EC upper launcher steering-mirror control system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collazos, A.; Bertizzolo, R.; Chavan, R.; Dolizy, F.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Henderson, M.A.; Landis, J.-D.; Sanchez, F.

    2010-01-01

    The ITER Heating and Current Drive Upper Launcher (H&CD EC UL) uses a pneumomechanical steering-mirror assembly (SMA) to steer the RF beams for their deposition in the appropriate location in the plasma to control magnetohydrodynamic activity (neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and sawtooth

  15. Exogenous administration of lipids to steers alters aspects of the innate immune response to endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limitations in energy availability are known to impede the efficiency of the immune response to endotoxemia. Therefore, this study examined the effects of increasing energy availability on the pro-inflammatory response to LPS in Holstein steers. Steers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (n = 7 ...

  16. A theoretical model of speed-dependent steering torque for rolling tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yintao; Oertel, Christian; Liu, Yahui; Li, Xuebing

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the tyre steering torque is highly dependent on the tyre rolling speed. In limited cases, i.e. parking manoeuvre, the steering torque approaches the maximum. With the increasing tyre speed, the steering torque decreased rapidly. Accurate modelling of the speed-dependent behaviour for the tyre steering torque is a key factor to calibrate the electric power steering (EPS) system and tune the handling performance of vehicles. However, no satisfactory theoretical model can be found in the existing literature to explain this phenomenon. This paper proposes a new theoretical framework to model this important tyre behaviour, which includes three key factors: (1) tyre three-dimensional transient rolling kinematics with turn-slip; (2) dynamical force and moment generation; and (3) the mixed Lagrange-Euler method for contact deformation solving. A nonlinear finite-element code has been developed to implement the proposed approach. It can be found that the main mechanism for the speed-dependent steering torque is due to turn-slip-related kinematics. This paper provides a theory to explain the complex mechanism of the tyre steering torque generation, which helps to understand the speed-dependent tyre steering torque, tyre road feeling and EPS calibration.

  17. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  18. Effects of steering demand on lane keeping behaviour, self-reports, and physiology : A simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Chris; Brookhuis, Karel A.; De Waard, Dick

    In this study a driving simulator was used to determine changes in mental effort in response to manipulations of steering demand. Changes in mental effort were assessed by using subjective effort ratings, physiology, and the standard deviation of the lateral position. Steering demand was increased

  19. Beam steered millimeter-wave fiber-wireless system for 5G indoor coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Z.; Wang, Q.; Tessema, N.M.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Soares, F.M.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    A 38GHz beam steered fiber-wireless system, enabled by a novel integrated optical tunable delay line, is demonstrated for 5G indoor coverage. The beam steering gains 14dBm spatial power focusing and 6 times EVM improvement.

  20. 46 CFR 185.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests. 185.320 Section 185.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.320 Steering...

  1. 46 CFR 122.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests... communication system tests. The master of a vessel shall have examined and tested the steering gear, signaling whistle, propulsion controls, and communication systems of the vessel prior to getting underway for a...

  2. Reducing Digging Losses by Using Automated Steering to Plant and Invert Peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Vellidis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available GPS guidance of farm machinery has been increasingly adopted by farmers because of the perceived gains in efficiency that it provides. In the southeastern USA one of the reasons farmers adopt GPS guidance, and specifically automated steering (auto-steer, is that it can theoretically result in large yield gains when used to plant and invert peanuts—one of the region’s most important crops. The goal of our study was to quantify the yield benefit of using real time kinematic (RTK-based auto-steer to plant and invert peanuts under a variety of terrain conditions. Yield benefits result from reduced digging losses. The study was conducted for two consecutive years (2010 and 2011 on a private farm in Georgia, USA. When all data are grouped together, auto-steer outperformed conventional by 579 kg/ha in 2010 and 451 kg/ha in 2011. We also evaluated the performance of auto-steer under different curvature conditions using low, medium, and high curvature rows. The results showed that auto-steer outperformed conventional under all curvature by a minimum of 338 kg/ha. Finally, we evaluated passive implement guidance in combination with auto-steer and found that it holds tremendous potential for further reducing digging losses. In many cases, auto-steer will pay for itself within a year.

  3. On Using Current Steering Logic in Mixed Analogue-digital Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten

    1998-01-01

    The authors investigate power supply noise in mixed analogue-digital circuits, arising from communication between the analogue and digital parts of the circuit. Current steering techniques and proper buffering are used to show which noise currents can be reduced and which cannot. In addition......, a high-swing current steering buffer for driving analogue switches or external digital signals is proposed....

  4. Does pedalling on a recumbent bicycle influence the cyclist’s steering behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, K.M.; Klap, P.; Van Lanen, J.A.; Letsoin, G.J.; Jansen, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the answer to the question how pedalling on a specific recumbent bicycle, such as the VeloX3, influences a cyclist’s ability to steer the bicycle. The research aims to find the correlation between pedalling and the undesired steering movements it creates. To test this assumption a

  5. Modelling and Simulation of a Hydrostatic Steering System for Agricultural Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zardin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering system of a vehicle impacts on the vehicle performance, safety and on the driver’s comfort. Moreover, in off-road vehicles using hydrostatic steering systems, the energy dissipation also becomes a critical issue. These aspects push and motivate innovation, research and analysis in the field of agricultural tractors. This paper proposes the modelling and analysis of a hydrostatic steering system for an agricultural tractor to calculate the performance of the system and determine the influence of its main design parameters. The focus here is on the driver’s steering feel, which can improve the driver’s behavior reducing unnecessary steering corrections during the working conditions. The hydrostatic steering system is quite complex and involves a hydraulic circuit and a mechanical mechanism to transmit the steering to the vehicle tires. The detailed lumped parameters model here proposed allows to simulate the dynamic behavior of the steering system and to both enhance the understanding of the system and to improve the design through parameters sensitivity analysis.

  6. comparative beef production from buli,s, steers and heifers under

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steers, although statistically significant, were much srnaller than differences obtained in the present study. Out of a maximum possible grading of 20 points, bulls obtained an average of 12,3 points (Grade I -) which is considerably lower than the grading points obtained by steers (16,3 = Prime) or by heifers (17,5 = Prime+).

  7. Using carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and retained energy to calculate dietary ME intake by beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight cross-bred beef steers (initial BW = 241 ± 4.10 kg) were used in a 77-d feeding experiment to determine if ME intake can be determined from carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and energy retention estimates. Steers were housed in a pen equipped with individual feed bunks and animal access w...

  8. Phosphate steering by Flap Endonuclease 1 promotes 5′-flap specificity and incision to prevent genome instability

    KAUST Repository

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Thompson, Mark J.; Arvai, Andrew S.; Neil, Alexander J.; Shaw, Steven J.; Algasaier, Sana I.; Kim, Jane C.; Finger, L. David; Jardine, Emma; Gotham, Victoria J.B.; Sarker, Altaf H.; Her, Mai Z.; Rashid, Fahad; Hamdan, Samir; Mirkin, Sergei M.; Grasby, Jane A.; Tainer, John A.

    2017-01-01

    and large-scale trinucleotide (GAA) repeat expansions in vivo, implying failed phosphate-steering promotes an unanticipated lagging-strand template-switch mechanism during replication. Thus, phosphate steering is an unappreciated FEN1 function that enforces

  9. Collision-model approach to steering of an open driven qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Konstantin; Luoma, Kimmo; Strunz, Walter T.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate quantum steering of an open quantum system by measurements on its environment in the framework of collision models. As an example we consider a coherently driven qubit dissipatively coupled to a bath. We construct local nonadaptive and adaptive as well as nonlocal measurement scenarios specifying explicitly the measured observable on the environment. Our approach shows transparently how the conditional evolution of the open system depends on the type of the measurement scenario and the measured observables. These can then be optimized for steering. The nonlocal measurement scenario leads to maximal violation of the used steering inequality at zero temperature. Further, we investigate the robustness of the constructed scenarios against thermal noise. We find generally that steering becomes harder at higher temperatures. Surprisingly, the system can be steered even when bipartite entanglement between the system and individual subenvironments vanishes.

  10. The AMTEX Partnership. Third quarter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The AMTEX Partnership is a collaborative research and development program among the U.S. Integrated Textile Industry, the Department of Energy, The DOE laboratories, other federal agencies and laboratories, and universities. The goal of AMTEX is to strengthen the competitiveness of this vital U.S. industry and thereby preserve and create American jobs. During the third quarter of 1994 all the Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) were completed and work initiated for three additional projects: Computer Aided Fabric Evaluation (CAFE), Textile Resource Conservation (TReC), and Sensors for Agile Manufacturing (SFAM). The plan for a Cotton Biotechnology project was completed and reviewed by the Industry Technical Advisory Committee. In addition, an `impact study` on the topic of flexible fiber production was conducted by an industry group led by the fiber manufacturers.

  11. Cardiology update 2017: The first quarter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridharan Umapathy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first quarter of 2017, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9's role got defined further with a number of trials such as FOURIER, ORION-1, and SPIRE 1 and 2. TAVI proves safe in intermediate-risk patients in the Surgical Replacement and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation study. Newer anticoagulants extended their role to valvular heart disease. Bioabsorbable stent showed problems (ABSORB 2 and 3. New guidelines have been released for syncope and transcatheter aortic valve replacement implantation. Clinical outcome studies involving instantaneous wave-free ratio (IFR showed IFR to be noninferior to fractional flow reserve. Optimal medical therapy proves noninferior to percutaneous coronary intervention in single vessel chronic total occlusion.

  12. Performance indicators for first quarter CY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a Department-Wide Performance Indicator (PI) Program for trending and analysis of operational data as directed by DOE Order 5480.26. The PI Program was established to provide a means for monitoring the environment safety, and health (ES ampersand H) performance of the DOE at the Secretary and other management levels. This is the thirteenth in a series of quarterly reports generated for the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., to meet the requirements of the PI Program as directed by the DOE Standard (DOE-STD-1048-92). The report format and content adhere to the guidelines established In DOE Order 5480.26, Trending and Analysis of Operations Information Using Performance Indicators, and DOE-STD-1048-92, DOE Peformance Indicators Guidance Document

  13. Quarterly status of Department of Energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Quarterly Status of Department of Energy Projects is prepared by the Office of project and Facilities Management, MA-30. The report is designed to provide Department of Energy (DOE) management officials with a summary of the important baseline data that exists in the DOE project data base. This data base is maintained chiefly from periodic field management reports required by DOE Order 5700.4. Since most of the current estimates in this report are from field project managers, they do not necessarily have full Headquarters approval. The current budget data sheet estimates that appear in the report are considered appropriate for reporting external to the Department and reflect the President's FY 1983 Budget to Congress. Moneys allocated and estimated costs, and the construction status are tabulated for projects under the subject categories of: conservation and renewable energy; defense programs; environmental protection, safety and emergency preparedness; energy research; defense programs; nuclear energy; and management and administration

  14. Avoiding Internal Capsule Stimulation With a New Eight-Channel Steering Deep Brain Stimulation Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Kees J; Verhagen, Rens; Bour, Lo J; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H

    2017-10-15

    Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of this study is to assess the performances of a new eight channel steering-DBS lead and compare this with a conventional cylindrical contact (CC) lead. The two leads were evaluated in a finite element electric field model combined with multicompartment neuron and axon models, representing the internal capsule (IC) fibers and subthalamic nucleus (STN) cells. We defined the optimal stimulation setting as the configuration that activated the highest percentage of STN cells, without activating any IC fibers. With this criterion, we compared monopolar stimulation using a single contact of the steering-DBS lead and CC lead, on three locations and four orientations of the lead. In addition, we performed a current steering test case by dividing the current over two contacts with the steering-DBS lead in its worst-case orientation. In most cases, the steering-DBS lead is able to stimulate a significantly higher percentage of STN cells compared to the CC lead using single contact stimulation or using a two contact current steering protocol when there is approximately a 1 mm displacement of the CC lead. The results also show that correct placement and orientation of the lead in the target remains an important aspect in achieving the optimal stimulation outcome. Currently, clinical trials are set up in Europe with a similar design as the steering-DBS lead. Our results illustrate the importance of the orientation of the new steering-DBS lead in avoiding side effects induced by stimulation of IC fibers. Therefore, in clinical trials sufficient attention should be paid to implanting the steering DBS-lead in the most effective orientation. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  15. 77 FR 71288 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... its regulations to change the process for filing Electric Quarterly Reports (EQR). Due to technology... Quarterly Reports (EQR). Due to technology changes that will render the current filing process outmoded... the current EQR software to the web interface minimally disruptive. We direct Commission staff to...

  16. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltier, Yves

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents a quarterly review of power generation from photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  17. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2015-08-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  18. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2011-11-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  19. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  20. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2014-11-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet