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Sample records for steels-part ii sensitivity

  1. Fatigue threshold studies in Fe, Fe-Si, and HSLA steel: Part II. Thermally activated behavior of the effective stress intensity at threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.; Esaklul, K.; Gerberich, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that closure mechanisms alone cannot fully explain increasing fatigue thresholds with decreasing test temperature. Implications are that fatigue crack propagation near threshold is a thermally activated process. The effective threshold stress intensity correlate to the thermal component of the flow stress. A fractographic study of the fatigue surface was performed. Water vapor in room air promotes the formation of oxide and intergranular crack growth. At lower temperatures, a brittle-type cyclic cleavage fatigue surface was observed but the ductile process persisted even at 123 K. Arrest marks found on all three modes of fatigue crack growth suggest that fatigue crack growth controlled by the subcell structure near threshold. The effective fatigue threshold may be related to the square root of (one plus the strain rate sensitivity)

  2. Fatigue threshold studies in Fe, Fe-Si, and HSLA steel: Part II. thermally activated behavior of the effective stress intensity at threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.; Esaklul, K.; Gerberich, W. W.

    1984-05-01

    It is shown that closure mechanisms alone cannot fully explain increasing fatigue thresholds with decreasing test temperature for a sequence of Fe-Si binary alloys and an HSLA steel. Implications are that fatigue crack propagation near threshold is a thermally activated process. The effective threshold stress intensity, which was obtained by subtracting the closure portion from the fatigue threshold, was examined. This effective stress intensity was found to correlate very well to the thermal component of the flow stress. A detailed fractographic study of the fatigue surface was performed. Water vapor in the room air was found to promote the formation of oxide and intergranular crack growth. At lower temperature, a brittle-type cyclic cleavage fatigue surface was observed but the ductile process persisted even at 123 K. Arrest marks were found on all three modes of fatigue crack growth. The regular spacings between these lines and dislocation modeling suggested that fatigue crack growth was controlled by the subcell structure near threshold. A model based on the slip-off of dislocations was examined. From this, it is shown that the effective fatigue threshold may be related to the square root of (one plus the strain rate sensitivity).

  3. Ecologically safe process for sulfo-aluminizing of steel parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plyatsuk L. D.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present technical solution refers to the field of electrophysical and electrochemical processing of parts, in particular, to the electroerosion alloying (EEA of the surfaces of steel parts with aluminum (aluminizing and sulfur (sulfidizing, and it can be used to treat the surfaces of heat-treated steel parts in order to increase their hardness, wear resistance, to prevent frictional seizure and improve the resistance to atmospheric corrosion. When aluminizing steel parts with the use of the method of electroerosion alloying (EEA by aluminum electrode at discharge energy Wp = 0.52–6.8 J and productivity of 1.0–3.0 cm2 / min, before the EEA process by an aluminum electrode, to the surface of the part to be aluminized, there is applied a consistency substance containing sulfur and aluminum powder, and thereafter, not having waited for drying of the consistency substance, the process of aluminizing by the EEL method with an aluminum electrode is carried out, and the consistency substance should have the aluminum powder content of not more than 56 %. There have been carried out metallographic and durametric analyses of the features of the surface layers made of carbon steels after simultaneous aluminizing and sulfidizing them by the EEA method. It is shown that the structure of the layer consists of three portions, namely, a “white” layer, a diffusion zone and a base metal. Such qualitative surface layer parameters as thickness, “white” layer and transition zone microhardness values, and also roughness increase with increasing discharge energy. The “white” layer continuity for all the investigated discharge energies of Wp = 0.52, 2.60 and 6.80 J is 100 %.

  4. LHC II system sensitivity to magnetic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Cotae, Vlad

    2005-01-01

    Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of ferrofluid treatment and static magnetic field exposure on the photosynthetic system II, where the light harvesting complex (LHC II) controls the ratio chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b (revealing, indirectly, the photosynthesis rate). Spectrophotometric measurement of chlorophyll content revealed different influences for relatively low ferrofluid concentrations (10-30 mul/l) in comparison to higher concentrations (70-100 mul/l). The overlapped effect of the static magnetic field shaped better the stimulatory ferrofluid action on LHC II system in young poppy plantlets.

  5. (II) complexes as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimethyl-3-propyl-1 H-imidazol-3-ium iodide (DMPII),. 4-tert-butyl-pyridine (TBP) and ... cymene) ruthenium(II) dimer was synthesized according to the reported ... saturated ammonium chloride (200 ml) solution was added to decompose the ...

  6. Molecularly Engineered Ru(II) Sensitizers Compatible with Cobalt(II/III) Redox Mediators for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuan-Lin; Huckaba, Aron J; Clifford, John N; Yang, Ya-Wen; Yella, Aswani; Palomares, Emilio; Grätzel, Michael; Chi, Yun; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-08-01

    Thiocyanate-free isoquinazolylpyrazolate Ru(II) complexes were synthesized and applied as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Unlike most other successful Ru sensitizers, Co-based electrolytes were used, and resulting record efficiency of 9.53% was obtained under simulated sunlight with an intensity of 100 mW cm(-2). Specifically, dye 51-57dht.1 and an electrolyte based on Co(phen)3 led to measurement of a JSC of 13.89 mA cm(-2), VOC of 900 mV, and FF of 0.762 to yield 9.53% efficiency. The improved device performances were achieved by the inclusion of 2-hexylthiophene units onto the isoquinoline subunits, in addition to lengthening the perfluoroalkyl chain on the pyrazolate chelating group, which worked to increase light absorption and decrease recombination effects when using the Co-based electrolyte. As this study shows, Ru(II) sensitizers bearing sterically demanding ligands can allow successful utilization of important Co electrolytes and high performance.

  7. Prototype evaluation of transformation toughened blast resistant naval hull steels: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Jung, J.; Olson, G. B.

    2007-07-01

    Application of a systems approach to computational materials design led to the theoretical design of a transformation toughened ultratough high-strength plate steel for blast-resistant naval hull applications. A first prototype alloy has achieved property goals motivated by projected naval hull applications requiring extreme fracture toughness (C v > 85 ft-lbs or 115 J corresponding to K Id≥ 200 ksi.in1/2 or 220 MPa.m1/2) at strength levels of 150 180 ksi (1,030 1,240 MPa) yield strength in weldable, formable plate steels. A continuous casting process was simulated by slab casting the prototype alloy as a 1.75‧‧ (4.45 cm) plate. Consistent with predictions, compositional banding in the plate was limited to an amplitude of 6 7.5 wt% Ni and 3.5 5 wt% Cu. Examination of the oxide scale showed no evidence of hot shortness in the alloy during hot working. Isothermal transformation kinetics measurements demonstrated achievement of 50% bainite in 4 min at 360 °C. Hardness and tensile tests confirmed predicted precipitation strengthening behavior in quench and tempered material. Multi-step tempering conditions were employed to achieve the optimal austenite stability resulting in significant increase of impact toughness to 130 ft-lb (176 J) at a strength level of 160 ksi (1,100 MPa). Comparison with the baseline toughness strength combination determined by isochronal tempering studies indicates a transformation toughening increment of 65% in Charpy energy. Predicted Cu particle number densities and the heterogeneous nucleation of optimal stability high Ni 5 nm austenite on nanometer-scale copper precipitates in the multi-step tempered samples was confirmed using three-dimensional atom probe microanalysis. Charpy impact tests and fractography demonstrate ductile fracture with C v > 80 ft-lbs (108 J) down to -40 °C, with a substantial toughness peak at 25 °C consistent with designed transformation toughening behavior. The properties demonstrated in this first prototype represent a substantial advance over existing naval hull steels. Achieving these improvements in a single design and prototyping iteration is a significant advance in computational materials design capability.

  8. Fatigue cracks in Eurofer 97 steel: Part II. Comparison of small and long fatigue crack growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kruml, Tomáš; Hutař, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Seitl, Stanislav; Polák, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 412, 1 (2011), s. 7-12 ISSN 0022-3115 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/1954; GA ČR GA101/09/0867 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ferritic-martensitic steel * long crack growth * small crack growth * crack closure Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.052, year: 2011

  9. Oxygen-Independent Pressure Sensitive Paint, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) systems are excellent tools for performing global pressure measurements in aerodynamic testing, especially in wind tunnel studies. The...

  10. Stainless steel electrochemical behaviour - application to the decontamination of steel parts contaminated by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1991-01-01

    This purpose of this work is the study of an electrochemical decontamination process of stainless steel in which tritium is present on the surface of the metal, in the oxide layer and in the metal. We have first investigated the behaviour of the oxide layer. Then we have studied the hydrogen evolution, its diffusion and retrodiffusion in the metal. The results are applied to the decontamination of steel parts contamined by tritium. Part of the tritium can be eliminated by reducing the oxyde layer, which contains large amounts of tritium. However, it is more beneficial to electrolyse at the potential at which the H + ions are reduced. The hydrogen on the steel surface enters in the metal and displaces most of tritium located in the metallic layers near the surface. The tritium surface elimination rate is about 95%. The tritium eliminated through electrolysis is only a small fraction of all the tritium contained in the metal. However, according to conservation experiments of parts after electrolysis, it can be concluded that hydrogen, probably more strongly bound than tritium to steel, forms near the surface a barrier that prevents tritium retrodiffusion. Electrolysis appears as a satisfactory process for the surface decontamination of slightly tritiated steel parts. A decontamination automaton based on the preceding results is described using a pad electrolyser. This type of decontamination is little polluting, and the parts can be recycled after the in situ treatment [fr

  11. Charge separation sensitized by advanced II-VI semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, David F. [Univ.of California, Merced, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    This proposal focuses on how the composition and morphology of pure and alloyed II-VI semiconductor heterostructures control their spectroscopic and dynamical properties. The proposed research will use a combination of synthesis development, electron microscopy, time-resolved electronic spectroscopy and modeling calculations to study these nanostructures. The proposed research will examine the extent to which morphology, compression due to lattice mismatch and alloy effects can be used to tune the electron and hole energies and the spectroscopic properties of II-VI heterojunctions. It will also use synthesis, optical spectroscopy and HRTEM to examine the role of lattice mismatch and hence lattice strain in producing interfacial defects, and the extent to which defect formation can be prevented by controlling the composition profile through the particles and across the interfaces. Finally, we will study the magnitude of the surface roughness in core/shell nanostructures and the role of shell thickness variability on the inhomogeneity of interfacial charge transfer rates.

  12. Single Photon Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector (APD), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging Phase I SBIR successes, in Phase II, a single photon sensitive LIDAR receiver will be fabricated and delivered to NASA. In Phase I, high-gain,...

  13. Inspection of cup-shaped steel parts from the I.D. side using eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Erick W.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2018-04-01

    An eddy current method was developed to inspect cup-shaped steel parts from the I.D. side. During the manufacturing process of these parts, a thin Al tape foil is applied to the I.D. side of the part. One of the critical process parameters is that only one foil layer can be applied. An eddy current inspection system was developed to reject parts with more than one foil layer. The Al tape foil is cut to length to fit the inner diameter, however, after application of the foil there is a gap created between the beginning and end of the foil. It was found that this gap interfered with the eddy current inspection causing a false positive indication. To solve this problem a sensor design and data analysis process were developed to overcome the effects of these gaps. The developed system incorporates simultaneous measurements from multiple eddy current sensors and signal processing to achieve a reliable inspection.

  14. Replacement of steel parts with extruded aluminum alloys in an automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggula, Manikantha Reddy

    Over the past years, vehicle emissions have shown a negative impact on environment and human health. A new strategy has been used by automakers to reduce a vehicle's weight which significantly reduce fuel consumption and C02 emissions. A very light car consumes very less fuel as it needs to overcome less inertia, decreasing the required power to movie the vehicle. Reducing weight is the easiest way to increase fuel economy and making it by just 10% can increase its efficiency 6 to 8 percent. For a normal scale 80% of vehicles weight is shared among chassis, power train and other exterior components. Almost 60% of the vehicles weight is comprised of steel and the remaining is with cast and extruded aluminum and magnesium alloys. Our main aim is to look for the parts like Fuel tank holder, Fuel filler neck, Turbo inlet assembly, and Brake lines, Dash board frame which are made from steel and replace them with extruded aluminum alloys, to analyze a conventional rear wheel aluminum drive shaft and replace it with a new design and with a new aluminum alloy. The current project involves dismantling an automobile and looking for feasible steel parts and making samples, analyzing the hardness of the samples. These parts are optimally analyzed using Ansys Finite element analysis tool, these parts are subjected to the constraints such as three-point bending, tensile testing, hydrostatic pressure and also torsional stress action on the drive shaft, the deformation and stress are observed in these parts. The results show the current steel parts can be replaced with 3000 series aluminum alloy and the drive shaft can be replaced with new design with 6061-T6 Al-alloy which decreases 25% of the shaft weight.

  15. Increased Angiotensin II Sensitivity Contributes to Microvascular Dysfunction in Women Who Have Had Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Jandu, Sandeep; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Alexander, Lacy M

    2017-08-01

    Women who have had preeclampsia have increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, the mechanism(s) responsible for this association remain unclear. Microvascular damage sustained during a preeclamptic pregnancy may persist postpartum. The putative mechanisms mediating this dysfunction include a reduction in NO-dependent dilation and an increased sensitivity to angiotensin II. In this study, we evaluated endothelium-dependent dilation, angiotensin II sensitivity, and the therapeutic effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade (losartan) on endothelium-dependent dilation in vivo in the microvasculature of women with a history of preeclampsia (n=12) and control women who had a healthy pregnancy (n=12). We hypothesized that preeclampsia would have (1) reduced endothelium-dependent dilation, (2) reduced NO-mediated dilation, and (3) increased sensitivity to angiotensin II. We further hypothesized that localized losartan would increase endothelium-dependent vasodilation in preeclampsia. We assessed microvascular endothelium-dependent vasodilator function by measurement of cutaneous vascular conductance responses to graded infusion of acetylcholine (acetylcholine; 10 -7 -102 mmol/L) and a standardized local heating protocol in control sites and sites treated with 15 mmol/L L-NAME ( N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester; NO-synthase inhibitor) or 43 µmol/L losartan. Further, we assessed microvascular vasoconstrictor sensitivity to angiotensin II (10 -20 -10 -4 mol/L). Preeclampsia had significantly reduced endothelium-dependent dilation (-0.3±0.5 versus -1.0±0.4 log EC50 ; P Preeclampsia also had augmented vasoconstrictor sensitivity to angiotensin II (-10.2±1.3 versus -8.3±0.5; P =0.006). Angiotensin II type I receptor inhibition augmented endothelium-dependent vasodilation and NO-dependent dilation in preeclampsia but had no effect in healthy pregnancy. These data suggest that women who have had preeclampsia have persistent microvascular dysfunction postpartum

  16. A High Sensitivity Micro Format Chemiluminescence Enzyme Inhibition Assay for Determination of Hg(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchanmala Deshpande

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive and specific enzyme inhibition assay based on alcohol oxidase (AlOx and horseradish peroxidase (HRP for determination of mercury Hg(II in water samples has been presented. This article describes the optimization and miniaturization of an enzymatic assay using a chemiluminescence reaction. The analytical performance and detection limit for determination of Hg(II was optimized in 96 well plates and further extended to 384 well plates with a 10-fold reduction in assay volume. Inhibition of the enzyme activity by dissolved Hg(II was found to be linear in the range 5–500 pg.mL−1 with 3% CVin inter-batch assay. Due to miniaturization of assay in 384 well plates, Hg(II was measurable as low as 1 pg.mL−1 within15 min. About 10-fold more specificity of the developed assay for Hg(II analysis was confirmed by challenging with interfering divalent metal ions such as cadmium Cd(II and lead Pb(II. Using the proposed assay we could successfully demonstrate that in a composite mixture of Hg(II, Cd(II and Pb(II, inhibition by each metal ion is significantly enhanced in the presence of the others. Applicability of the proposed assay for the determination of the Hg(II in spiked drinking and sea water resulted in recoveries ranging from 100–110.52%.

  17. Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. II. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.A.; Moody, M.V.; Paik, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive superconducting gravity gradiometer has been constructed and tested. Coupling to gravity signals is obtained by having two superconducting proof masses modulate magnetic fields produced by persistent currents. The induced electrical currents are differenced by a passive superconducting circuit coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device. The experimental behavior of this device has been shown to follow the theoretical model closely in both signal transfer and noise characteristics. While its intrinsic noise level is shown to be 0.07 E Hz/sup -1/2/ (1 Eequivalent10/sup -9/ sec/sup -2/), the actual performance of the gravity gradiometer on a passive platform has been limited to 0.3--0.7 E Hz/sup -1/2/ due to its coupling to the environmental noise. The detailed structure of this excess noise is understood in terms of an analytical error model of the instrument. The calibration of the gradiometer has been obtained by two independent methods: by applying a linear acceleration and a gravity signal in two different operational modes of the instrument. This device has been successfully operated as a detector in a new null experiment for the gravitational inverse-square law. In this paper we report the design, fabrication, and detailed test results of the superconducting gravity gradiometer. We also present additional theoretical analyses which predict the specific dynamic behavior of the gradiometer and of the test

  18. Cell sensitivity to irradiation and DNA repair processes. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new model of DNA single-strand break (SSB) and double-strand break (DSB) induction by radiations of different linear energy transfer (LET) has been developed. Utilizing quadratic dependence of the dose that delta-electrons depart in the track of heavy particles the fraction of heavy particle energy deposited in the target of DNA dimensions has been calculated. SSBs arise from energy depositions in one strand of DNA, direct DSBs arise from two SSBs on opposite strands of DNA in the track of one particle. It is concluded that DSB's induced by γ-radiation are mostly of enzymatic origin, meanwhile DSB's induced by high-LET radiation are direct DSB's. The dependence of radiosensitivity D 0 -1 on LET (L) for isogenic mutants of E. coli with different sensitivity to γ-radiation has been determined on the bases of the model and considering microscopic energy fluctuations. The shape of D 0 -1 (L) function is formed both by physical characteristics of radiation and by the ability of cells to repair some types of DNA damage. The model provides a basis for further investigation. (author)

  19. High-sensitivity determination of Zn(II) and Cu(II) in vitro by fluorescence polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard B.; Maliwal, Badri P.; Feliccia, Vincent; Fierke, Carol A.

    1998-04-01

    Recent work has suggested that free Cu(II) may play a role in syndromes such as Crohn's and Wilson's diseases, as well as being a pollutant toxic at low levels to shellfish and sheep. Similarly, Zn(II) has been implicated in some neural damage in the brain resulting from epilepsy and ischemia. Several high sensitivity methods exist for determining these ions in solution, including GFAAS, ICP-MS, ICP-ES, and electrochemical techniques. However, these techniques are generally slow and costly, require pretreatment of the sample, require complex instruments and skilled personnel, and are incapable of imaging at the cellular and subcellular level. To address these shortcomings we developed fluorescence polarization (anisotropy) biosensing methods for these ions which are very sensitivity, highly selective, require simple instrumentation and little pretreatment, and are inexpensive. Thus free Cu(II) or Zn(II) can be determined at picomolar levels by changes in fluorescence polarization, lifetime, or wavelength ratio using these methods; these techniques may be adapted to microscopy.

  20. Increased Sensitivity to Angiotensin II is Present Postpartum in Women with History of Hypertensive Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Aditi R.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Brown, Nancy J.; Royle, Caroline M.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Seely, Ellen W.

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancies complicated by new onset hypertension are associated with increased sensitivity to angiotensin II, but it is unclear if this sensitivity persists postpartum. We studied pressor response to infused angiotensin II in 25 normotensive postpartum women in both high and low sodium balance. Ten women had history of hypertensive pregnancy (five with preeclampsia; five with transient hypertension of pregnancy) and 15 women had history of uncomplicated, normotensive pregnancy. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, aldosterone and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) levels were measured before and after angiotensin II infusion in both dietary phases. In high sodium balance, women with history of hypertensive pregnancy were normotensive but had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than controls (115 vs. 104 mmHg and 73 vs. 65 mmHg, respectively, ppregnancy had pressor response to salt loading, demonstrated by increase in systolic blood pressure on high salt diet. They also had greater systolic pressor response (10 vs. 2 mmHg, p=0.03), greater increase in aldosterone (56.8 vs. 30.8 ng/dL, p=0.03) and increase in sFlt-1 levels (11.0 vs. -18.9 pg/mL, p=0.02) after infusion of angiotensin II in low sodium balance, compared with controls. Thus, women with history of hypertensive pregnancy demonstrated salt sensitivity of blood pressure and had increased pressor, adrenal and sFlt-1 responses to infused angiotensin II in low sodium balance. Increased sensitivity to angiotensin II observed during pregnancy in women with hypertensive pregnancy is present postpartum; this feature may contribute to future cardiovascular risk in these women. PMID:20308605

  1. Increased sensitivity to angiotensin II is present postpartum in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Aditi R; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Brown, Nancy J; Royle, Caroline M; McElrath, Thomas F; Seely, Ellen W

    2010-05-01

    Pregnancies complicated by new-onset hypertension are associated with increased sensitivity to angiotensin II, but it is unclear whether this sensitivity persists postpartum. We studied pressor response to infused angiotensin II in 25 normotensive postpartum women in both high- and low-sodium balance. Ten women had a history of hypertensive pregnancy (5 with preeclampsia; 5 with transient hypertension of pregnancy), and 15 women had a history of uncomplicated, normotensive pregnancy. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, aldosterone, and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 levels were measured before and after angiotensin II infusion in both dietary phases. In high sodium balance, women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy were normotensive but had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than controls (115 versus 104 mm Hg and 73 versus 65 mm Hg, respectively; Ppregnancy had a pressor response to salt loading, demonstrated by an increase in systolic blood pressure on a high-salt diet. They also had greater systolic pressor response (10 versus 2 mm Hg; P=0.03), greater increase in aldosterone (56.8 versus 30.8 ng/dL; P=0.03), and increase in soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 levels (11.0 versus -18.9 pg/mL; P=0.02) after infusion of angiotensin II in low-sodium balance compared with controls. Thus, women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy demonstrated salt sensitivity of blood pressure and had increased pressor, adrenal, and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 responses to infused angiotensin II in low-sodium balance. Increased sensitivity to angiotensin II observed during pregnancy in women with hypertensive pregnancy is present postpartum; this feature may contribute to future cardiovascular risk in these women.

  2. Material report in support to RCC-MRX code 2010 stainless steel parts and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelet, Olivier; Lebarbe, Thierry; Dubiez-Le Goff, Sophie; Bonne, Dominique; Gelineau, Odile

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Material Report dedicated to stainless steels parts and products issued by AFCEN (Association Francaise pour les regles de Conception et de Construction des Materiels des Chaudieres Electro-Nucleaires) in support to RCC-MRx 2010 Code. The RCC-MRx Code is the result of the merger of the RCC-MX 2008, developed in the context of the research reactor Jules Horowitz Reactor project, in the RCC-MR 2007, which set up rules applicable to the design of components operating at high temperature and to the Vacuum Vessel of ITER (a presentation of RCC-MRx 2010 Code is the subject of another paper proposed in this Congress; it explains in particular the status of this Code). This Material Report is part of a set of Criteria of RCC-MRx (this set of Criteria is under construction). The Criteria aim at explaining the design and construction rules of the Code. They cover analyses rules as well as part procurement, welding, methods of tests and examination and fabrication rules. The Material Report particularly provides justifications and explanations on requirements and features dealing with parts and products proposed in the Code. The Material Report contains the following information: Introduction of the grade(s): codes and standards and Reference Procurement Specifications covering parts and products, applications and experience gained, - Physical properties, - Mechanical properties used for design calculations (base metal and welds): basic mechanical properties, creep mechanical properties, irradiated mechanical properties, - Fabrication: experience gained, metallurgy, - Welding: weldability, experience gained during welding and repair procedure qualifications, - Non-destructive examination, - In-service behaviour. In the article, examples of data supplied in the Material Report dedicated to stainless steels will be exposed. (authors)

  3. Seasonal plasticity of auditory saccular sensitivity in "sneaker" type II male plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Colleye, Orphal; Zeddies, David G; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    Adult female and nesting (type I) male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit an adaptive form of auditory plasticity for the enhanced detection of social acoustic signals. Whether this adaptive plasticity also occurs in "sneaker" type II males is unknown. Here, we characterize auditory-evoked potentials recorded from hair cells in the saccule of reproductive and non-reproductive "sneaker" type II male midshipman to determine whether this sexual phenotype exhibits seasonal, reproductive state-dependent changes in auditory sensitivity and frequency response to behaviorally relevant auditory stimuli. Saccular potentials were recorded from the middle and caudal region of the saccule while sound was presented via an underwater speaker. Our results indicate saccular hair cells from reproductive type II males had thresholds based on measures of sound pressure and acceleration (re. 1 µPa and 1 ms -2 , respectively) that were ~8-21 dB lower than non-reproductive type II males across a broad range of frequencies, which include the dominant higher frequencies in type I male vocalizations. This increase in type II auditory sensitivity may potentially facilitate eavesdropping by sneaker males and their assessment of vocal type I males for the selection of cuckoldry sites during the breeding season.

  4. Highly efficient and stable cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Liu, Jun-Min; Su, Pei-Yang; Chen, Yi-Fan; Shen, Yong; Xiao, Li-Min; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four novel thiocyanate-free cyclometalated ruthenium sensitizer were conveniently synthesized. • The D-CF 3 -sensitized DSSCs show higher efficiency compared to N719 based cells. • The DSSCs based on D-CF 3 and D-bisCF 3 sensitizers exhibit excellent long-term stability. • The diverse cyclometalated Ru complexes can be developed as high-performance sensitizers for use in DSSC. - Abstract: Four novel thiocyanate-free cyclometallted Ru(II) complexes, D-bisCF 3 , D-CF 3 , D-OMe, and D-DPA, with two 4,4′-dicarboxylic acid-2,2′-bipyridine together with a functionalized phenylpyridine ancillary ligand, have been designed and synthesized. The effect of different substituents (R = bisCF 3 , CF 3 , OMe, and DPA) on the ancillary C^N ligand on the photophysical properties and photovoltaic performance is investigated. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar conditions, the device based on D-CF 3 sensitizer gives a higher conversion efficiency of 8.74% than those based on D-bisCF 3 , D-OMe, and D-DPA, which can be ascribed to its broad range of visible light absorption, appropriate localization of the frontier orbitals, weak hydrogen bonds between -CF 3 and -OH groups at the TiO 2 surface, moderate dye loading on TiO 2 , and high charge collection efficiency. Moreover, the D-bisCF 3 and D-CF 3 based DSSCs exhibit good stability under 100 mW cm −2 light soaking at 60 °C for 400 h

  5. Interfacial charge separation and photovoltaic efficiency in Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Mariachiara; Duchanois, Thibaut; Liu, Li; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier; Haacke, Stefan; Gros, Philippe C

    2016-10-12

    The first combined theoretical and photovoltaic characterization of both homoleptic and heteroleptic Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized photoanodes in working dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been performed. Three new heteroleptic Fe(ii)-NHC dye sensitizers have been synthesized, characterized and tested. Despite an improved interfacial charge separation in comparison to the homoleptic compounds, the heteroleptic complexes did not show boosted photovoltaic performances. The ab initio quantitative analysis of the interfacial electron and hole transfers and the measured photovoltaic data clearly evidenced fast recombination reactions for heteroleptics, even associated with un unfavorable directional electron flow, and hence slower injection rates, in the case of homoleptics. Notably, quantum mechanics calculations revealed that deprotonation of the not anchored carboxylic function in the homoleptic complex can effectively accelerate the electron injection rate and completely suppress the electron recombination to the oxidized dye. This result suggests that introduction of strong electron-donating substituents on the not-anchored carbene ligand in heteroleptic complexes, in such a way of mimicking the electronic effects of the carboxylate functionality, should yield markedly improved interfacial charge generation properties. The present results, providing for the first time a detailed understanding of the interfacial electron transfers and photovoltaic characterization in Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized solar cells, open the way to a rational molecular engineering of efficient iron-based dyes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  6. Label free luminescence strategy for sensitive detection of ATP using aptamer-Ru(II) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Eththilu [Department of Physical Che mistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian [Department of Physical Che mistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa Univesity, Karaikudi 630003, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramdass, Arumugam [Department of Physical Che mistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India); Research Department of Chemistry, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628216, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramesh, Pandian [UCIBIO-REQUIMTE, Departmento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Rajagopal, Seenivasan, E-mail: rajagopalseenivasan@yahoo.com [Department of Physical Che mistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-07-15

    A simple and sensitive aptamer-based luminescence strategy for ATP detection is developed using Ru(II) complexes as probe molecule. It is based on the fact that Ru(II)-dppz complexes show the light switching behavior with DNA aptamers and found to show significant luminescence spectral change on the addition of ATP molecules. The binding efficiencies of aptamer with ATP, ADP and AMP are calculated and compared. The structural change of aptamer is also studied using circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques. Moreover, the binding nature of aptamer with ATP, ADP and AMP is demonstrated by computational techniques. The proposed strategy was successfully applied to the detection of ATP.

  7. Label free luminescence strategy for sensitive detection of ATP using aptamer-Ru(II) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, Eththilu; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Ramdass, Arumugam; Ramesh, Pandian; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2016-01-01

    A simple and sensitive aptamer-based luminescence strategy for ATP detection is developed using Ru(II) complexes as probe molecule. It is based on the fact that Ru(II)-dppz complexes show the light switching behavior with DNA aptamers and found to show significant luminescence spectral change on the addition of ATP molecules. The binding efficiencies of aptamer with ATP, ADP and AMP are calculated and compared. The structural change of aptamer is also studied using circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques. Moreover, the binding nature of aptamer with ATP, ADP and AMP is demonstrated by computational techniques. The proposed strategy was successfully applied to the detection of ATP.

  8. Highly sensitive detection of lead(II) ion using multicolor CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, W.; Zhang, C.; Gao, Q.; Li, H.

    2012-01-01

    Multicolor and water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized with thioglycolic acid (TGA) as stabilizer. These QDs have a good size distribution, display high fluorescence quantum yield, and can be applied to the ultrasensitive detection of Pb(II) ion by virtue of their quenching effect. The size of the QDs exerts a strong effect on sensitivity, and quenching of luminescence is most effective for the smallest particles. The quenching mechanism is discussed. Fairly selective detection was accomplished by utilizing QDs with a diameter of 1. 6 nm which resulted in a detection limit of 4. 7 nmol L -1 concentration of Pb(II). The method was successfully applied to the determination of Pb(II) in spinach and citrus leaves, and the results are in good agreement with those obtained with atomic absorption spectrometry. (author)

  9. Revised constraints and Belle II sensitivity for visible and invisible axion-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Matthew J.; Kahlhoefer, Felix

    2017-09-01

    Light pseudoscalars interacting pre-dominantly with Standard Model gauge bosons (so-called axion-like particles or ALPs) occur frequently in extensions of the Standard Model. In this work we review and update existing constraints on ALPs in the keV to GeV mass region from colliders, beam dump experiments and astrophysics. We furthermore provide a detailed calculation of the expected sensitivity of Belle II, which can search for visibly and invisibly decaying ALPs, as well as long-lived ALPs. The Belle II sensitivity is found to be substantially better than previously estimated, covering wide ranges of relevant parameter space. In particular, Belle II can explore an interesting class of dark matter models, in which ALPs mediate the interactions between the Standard Model and dark matter. In these models, the relic abundance can be set via resonant freeze-out, leading to a highly predictive scenario consistent with all existing constraints but testable with single-photon searches at Belle II in the near future.

  10. Revised constraints and Belle II sensitivity for visible and invisible axion-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Matthew J. [Melbourne Univ. (Australia). ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale; Ferber, Torben [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Hearty, Christopher [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Institute of Particle Physics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kahlhoefer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    Light pseudoscalars interacting pre-dominantly with Standard Model gauge bosons (so-called axion-like particles or ALPs) occur frequently in extensions of the Standard Model. In this work we review and update existing constraints on ALPs in the keV to GeV mass region from colliders, beam dump experiments and astrophysics. We furthermore provide a detailed calculation of the expected sensitivity of Belle II, which can search for visibly and invisibly decaying ALPs, as well as long-lived ALPs. The Belle II sensitivity is found to be substantially better than previously estimated, covering wide ranges of relevant parameter space. In particular, Belle II can explore an interesting class of dark matter models, in which ALPs mediate the interactions between the Standard Model and dark matter. In these models, the relic abundance can be set via resonant freeze-out, leading to a highly predictive scenario consistent with all existing constraints but testable with single-photon searches at Belle II in the near future.

  11. Endothelium-dependent relaxation and angiotensin II sensitivity in experimental preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marijn van der Graaf

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated endothelial dysfunction and the role of angiotensin (Ang-II type I (AT1-R and type II (AT2-R receptor in the changes in the Ang-II sensitivity in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. METHODS: Aortic rings were isolated from low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS infused pregnant rats (experimental preeclampsia; n=9, saline-infused pregnant rats (n=8, and saline (n=8 and LPS (n=8 infused non-pregnant rats. Endothelium-dependent acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was studied in phenylephrine-preconstricted aortic rings in the presence of vehicle, N(G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and/or indomethacin. To evaluate the role for AT1-R and AT2-R in Ang-II sensitivity, full concentration response curves were obtained for Ang-II in the presence of losartan or PD123319. mRNA expression of the AT1-R and AT2-R, eNOS and iNOS, COX1 and COX2 in aorta were evaluated using real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: The role of vasodilator prostaglandins in the aorta was increased and the role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor and response of the AT1-R and AT2-R to Ang-II was decreased in pregnant saline infused rats as compared with non-pregnant rats. These changes were not observed during preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy induced adaptations in endothelial function, which were not observed in the rat model for preeclampsia. This role of lack of pregnancy induced endothelial adaptation in the pathophysiology of experimental preeclampsia needs further investigation.

  12. Highly selective apo-arginase based method for sensitive enzymatic assay of manganese (II) and cobalt (II) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasyuk, Nataliya; Gayda, Galina; Zakalskiy, Andriy; Zakalska, Oksana; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2018-03-01

    A novel enzymatic method of manganese (II) and cobalt (II) ions assay, based on using apo-enzyme of Mn2 +-dependent recombinant arginase I (arginase) and 2,3-butanedione monoxime (DMO) as a chemical reagent is proposed. The principle of the method is the evaluation of the activity of L-arginine-hydrolyzing of arginase holoenzyme after the specific binding of Mn2 + or Co2 + with apo-arginase. Urea, which is the product of enzymatic hydrolysis of L-arginine (Arg), reacts with DMO and the resulted compound is detected by both fluorometry and visual spectrophotometry. Thus, the content of metal ions in the tested samples can be determined by measuring the level of urea generated after enzymatic hydrolysis of Arg by reconstructed arginase holoenzyme in the presence of tested metal ions. The linearity range of the fluorometric apo-arginase-DMO method in the case of Mn2 + assay is from 4 pM to 1.10 nM with a limit of detection of 1 pM Mn2 +, whereas the linearity range of the present method in the case of Co2 + assay is from 8 pM to 45 nM with a limit of detection of 2.5 pM Co2 +. The proposed method being highly sensitive, selective, valid and low-cost, may be useful to monitor Mn2 + and Co2 + content in clinical laboratories, food industry and environmental control service.

  13. Pupil cycle time and contrast sensitivity in type II diabetes mellitus patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyoung Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pupil cycle time (PCT has been widely used for examination of ocular diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of contrast sensitivity according to PCT results, and the secondary aim was to determine the factors associated with PCT difference for type II diabetes patients. Settings and Design: A clinical pilot study that included a total of 60 eyes of 60 type II diabetes patients. Materials and Methods: We divided all patients into three groups according to PCT results. Group A and Group C were composed of patients who had upper one third PCT and lower one third PCT, respectively. We analyzed difference of age, diabetes duration, hypertension duration, mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, mean spherical equivalent (SE, HbA1C, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, stage of diabetic retinopathy, and Cardiac Autonomic Function Score (CAFS. Contrast sensitivity and decrease of visual acuity by glare were also estimated and analyzed for 28 eyes of 28 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR patients. Group [NPDR] A and Group [NPDR] C were defined as those who had lower one third PCT and upper one third PCT, respectively. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software. Results and Conclusions: Each group contained 20 eyes. Significant differences between Group A and Group C were observed in duration of diabetes and CAFS (P ≤ 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. Contrast sensitivity in Group [NPDR] A was significantly more than in Group [NPDR] C at all cpds (all P ≤ 0.001. We found that PCT can influence contrast sensitivity or glare in diabetes patients and also confirmed a significant correlation of PCT with CAFS and duration of diabetes.

  14. Heat treatment of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel: Part II. Isothermal aging kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, C. V.; Cieslak, M. J.; Hochanadel, P. W.; Edwards, G. R.

    1994-04-01

    The hardening response of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel has been evaluated by hardness measurements following aging in the temperature range normally specified for this alloy (510 °C to 593 °C). A new relationship between fraction transformed and hardness was developed, and analysis of the data in terms of the kinetics of precipitation, in a manner similar to that frequently applied to other precipitation-hardenable martensitic steels, yielded low time exponents and a low value for the apparent activation energy. The values of the time exponents were 0.49, 0.37, 0.56, and 0.53 at 510 °C, 538 °C, 566 °C, and 593 °C, respectively, and that for the apparent activation energy was 139 kJ/mole. As has been proposed for other maraging type steels, these estimates suggest that Β-NiAl precipitates along or near dislocations and that growth of the precipitates is dominated by dislocation pipe diffusion. However, these predictions were neither supported nor refuted by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) because of difficulties in imaging the Β-NiAl precipitates at the aging times and temperatures used. Further, analysis of the data using the formalism of Wert and Zener for the growth of precipitates with interfering diffusion fields indicated that the estimates of fraction transformed from hardness data are not fully appropriate for maraging type steels. Consideration of the nature of the Avrami analysis and the electron microscopy results suggests that other phenomena, including dislocation recovery and reversion of martensite to austenite, occur at rates sufficient to convolute the Avrami analysis. It is further suggested that these results cast doubt on the fundamental implications of previous analyses of precipitation kinetics in age-hardening martensitic steels. Although the Avrami analysis was found not to provide a tenable description of the precipitation kinetics, it does provide a reasonable methodology for portrayal of the hardening response of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel.

  15. Full-range stress–strain behaviour of contemporary pipeline steels: Part II. Estimation of model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelé, Stijn; De Waele, Wim; Denys, Rudi; Verstraete, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary pipeline steels with a yield-to-tensile ratio above 0.80 often show two-stages of strain hardening, which cannot be simultaneously described by the standardized Ramberg–Osgood model. A companion paper (Part I) showed that the recently developed UGent model provides more accurate descriptions than the Ramberg–Osgood model, as it succeeds in describing both strain hardening stages. However, it may be challenging to obtain an optimal model fit in absence of full stress–strain data. This paper discusses on how to find suited parameter values for the UGent model, given a set of measurable tensile test characteristics. The proposed methodology shows good results for an extensive set of investigated experimental stress–strain curves. Next to some common tensile test characteristics, the 1.0% proof stress is needed. The authors therefore encourage the acquisition of this stress during tensile tests. - Highlights: ► An analytical procedure estimates UGent model parameters. ► The procedure requires a set of tensile test characteristics. ► The UGent model performs better than the Ramberg–Osgood model. ► Apart from common characteristics, the 1.0% proof stress is required. ► The authors encourage the acquisition of this 1.0% proof stress.

  16. The radiation swelling effect on fracture properties and fracture mechanisms of irradiated austenitic steels. Part II. Fatigue crack growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, B., E-mail: margolinbz@yandex.ru; Minkin, A.; Smirnov, V.; Sorokin, A.; Shvetsova, V.; Potapova, V.

    2016-11-15

    The experimental data on the fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) have been obtained for austenitic steel of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti grade (Russian analog of AISI 321 steel) irradiated up to neutron dose of 150 dpa with various radiation swelling. The performed study of the fracture mechanisms for cracked specimens under cyclic loading has explained why radiation swelling affects weakly FCGR unlike its effect on fracture toughness. Mechanical modeling of fatigue crack growth has been carried out and the dependencies for prediction of FCGR in irradiated austenitic steel with and with no swelling are proposed and verified with the obtained experimental results. As input data for these dependencies, FCGR for unirradiated steel and the tensile mechanical properties for unirradiated and irradiated steels are used.

  17. Uncertainty and sensitivity studies supporting the interpretation of the results of TVO I/II PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for the TVO I/II nuclear power units. As a part of the PRA project, uncertainties of risk models and methods were systematically studied in order to describe them and to demonstrate their impact by way of results. The uncertainty study was divided into two phases: a qualitative and a quantitative study. The qualitative study contained identification of uncertainties and qualitative assessments of their importance. The PRA was introduced, and identified assumptions and uncertainties behind the models were documented. The most significant uncertainties were selected by importance measures or other judgements for further quantitative studies. The quantitative study included sensitivity studies and propagation of uncertainty ranges. In the sensitivity studies uncertain assumptions or parameters were varied in order to illustrate the sensitivity of the models. The propagation of the uncertainty ranges demonstrated the impact of the statistical uncertainties of the parameter values. The Monte Carlo method was used as a propagation method. The most significant uncertainties were those involved in modelling human interactions, dependences and common cause failures (CCFs), loss of coolant accident (LOCA) frequencies and pressure suppression. The qualitative mapping out of the uncertainty factors turned out to be useful in planning quantitative studies. It also served as internal review of the assumptions made in the PRA. The sensitivity studies were perhaps the most advantageous part of the quantitative study because they allowed individual analyses of the significance of uncertainty sources identified. The uncertainty study was found reasonable in systematically and critically assessing uncertainties in a risk analysis. The usefulness of this study depends on the decision maker (power company) since uncertainty studies are primarily carried out to support decision making when uncertainties are

  18. A sensitive fluorescence biosensor for alkaline phosphatase activity based on the Cu(II)-dependent DNAzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Guo, Yajuan; Wang, Lixu [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Luo, Fang, E-mail: luofang0812@163.com [College of Biological Science and Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Lin, Cuiying, E-mail: lcuiying@fzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) plays an important role in phosphate metabolism processes; deviation from its normal level may indicate different kinds of diseases, so it is highly necessary to develop some simple and sensitive methods to monitor the ALP level. In this study, a simple, high selective, and sensitive fluorescent biosensor has been proposed for ALP activity determination. The Cu(II)-dependent DNAzyme (Cu-Enzyme) are divided into two parts: Cu-Enzyme 1 and Cu-Enzyme 2, and labelled with alkyne and azido groups, respectively. The Cu-substrate (Cu-Sub) is labelled with a FAM fluorophore (6-carboxyfluorescein) at the 3′-end and an additional quencher (BHQ1) at the 5′-end. The 5′-end of Cu-Enzyme 1 is labelled with BHQ1 as well. The hybridization of the Cu-Enzyme 1 and Cu-Enzyme 2 with Cu-Sub strand results in the low background fluorescence signal because the fluorescence from FAM is quenched. The addition of ALP can hydrolyze AA-P into AA, which can reduce Cu(II) into Cu(I) and in turn catalyze the cycloaddition of Cu-Enzyme 1 and Cu-Enzyme 2 to form a modified Cu-Enzyme. Then the modified Cu-Enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of the Cu-Sub strands into two pieces. One piece containing FAM fluorophore can easily diffuse into solution and give off a strong fluorescence signal. The enhanced fluorescent intensity has a linear relationship with the ALP concentration in the range of 0.36–54.55 U L{sup −1} with the detection limit of 0.14 U L{sup −1} (S/N = 3). The proposed biosensor has been successfully applied to detect ALP in serum samples with satisfied results. - Highlights: • We have proposed a simple, high selective and sensitive fluorescent biosensor for ALP. • The biosensor combines the high selectivity and the click reaction and the high sensitivity of the fluorescence detection. • The biosensor has been successfully applied to detect ALP in serum samples with satisfied results.

  19. Parameter sensitivity study of a Field II multilayer transducer model on a convex transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    A multilayer transducer model for predicting a transducer impulse response has in earlier works been developed and combined with the Field II software. This development was tested on current, voltage, and intensity measurements on piezoceramics discs (Bæk et al. IUS 2008) and a convex 128 element...... ultrasound imaging transducer (Bæk et al. ICU 2009). The model benefits from its 1D simplicity and hasshown to give an amplitude error around 1.7‐2 dB. However, any prediction of amplitude, phase, and attenuation of pulses relies on the accuracy of manufacturer supplied material characteristics, which may...... is a quantitative calibrated model for a complete ultrasound system. This includes a sensitivity study aspresented here.Statement of Contribution/MethodsThe study alters 35 different model parameters which describe a 128 element convex transducer from BK Medical Aps. The changes are within ±20 % of the values...

  20. Photothermal sensitization of amelanotic melanoma cells by Ni(II)-octabutoxy-naphthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetti, A; Soncin, M; Reddi, E; Rodgers, M A; Kenney, M E; Jori, G

    1999-01-01

    Incubation of B78H1 amelanotic melanoma cells with a potential photothermal sensitizer, namely, liposome-incorporated Ni(II)-octabutoxy-naphthalocyanine (NiNc), induces an appreciable cellular accumulation of the naphthalocyanine, which is dependent on both the NiNc concentration and the incubation time. No detectable decrease in cell survival occurs upon red-light irradiation (corresponding to the longest-wavelength absorption bands of NiNc) in a continuous-wave (c.w.) regime of the naphthalocyanine-loaded cells. On the other hand, 850 nm irradiation with a Q-switched Ti:sapphire laser operating in a pulsed mode (30 ns pulses, 10 Hz, 200 mJ/pulse) induces an efficient cell death. Thus, ca. 98% decrease in cell survival is obtained upon 5 min irradiation of cells that have been incubated for 48 h with 5.1 microM NiNc. The efficiency of the photoprocess is strongly influenced by the NiNc cell incubation time prior to irradiation. Photothermal sensitization with NiNc appears to open new perspectives for therapeutic applications, as suggested by preliminary in vivo studies with C57/BL6 mice bearing a subcutaneously implanted amelanotic melanoma.

  1. High sensitive detection of copper II ions using D-penicillamine-coated gold nanorods based on localized surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoochan; Jo, Seongjae; Park, Joohyung; Park, Jinsung; Yang, Jaemoon

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a nanoplasmonic biosensor based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect that enables a sensitive and selective recognition of copper II ions. First, we fabricated the nanoplasmonics as LSPR substrates using gold nanorods (GNR) and the nano-adsorption method. The LSPR sensitivity of the nanoplasmonics was evaluated using various solvents with different refractive indexes. Subsequently, D-penicillamine (DPA)—a chelating agent of copper II ions—was conjugated to the surface of the GNR. The limit of detection (LOD) for the DPA-conjugated nanoplasmonics was 100 pM. Furthermore, selectivity tests were conducted using various divalent cations, and sensitivity tests were conducted on the nanoplasmonics under blood-like environments. Finally, the developed nanoplasmonic biosensor based on GNR shows great potential for the effective recognition of copper II ions, even in human blood conditions.

  2. A compromised yeast RNA polymerase II enhances UV sensitivity in the absence of global genome nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J M; Ingles, C J

    2001-02-01

    Nucleotide excision repair is the major pathway responsible for removing UV-induced DNA damage, and is therefore essential for cell survival following exposure to UV radiation. In this report, we have assessed the contributions of some components of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription machinery to UV resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of the gene encoding the Pol II elongation factor TFIIS (SII) resulted in enhanced UV sensitivity, but only in the absence of global genome repair dependent on the RAD7 and RAD16 genes, a result seen previously with deletions of RAD26 and RAD28, yeast homologs of the human Cockayne syndrome genes CSB and CSA, respectively. A RAD7/16-dependent reduction in survival after UV irradiation was also seen in the presence of mutations in RNA Pol II that confer a defect in its response to SII, as well as with other mutations which reside in regions of the largest subunit of Pol II not involved in SII interactions. Indeed, an increase in UV sensitivity was achieved by simply decreasing the steadystate level of RNA Pol II. Truncation of the C-terminal domain and other RNA Pol II mutations conferred sensitivity to the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea and induction of RNR1 and RNR2 mRNAs after UV irradiation was attenuated in these mutant cells. That UV sensitivity can be a consequence of mutations in the RNA Pol II machinery in yeast cells suggests that alterations in transcriptional programs could underlie some of the pathophysiological defects seen in the human disease Cockayne syndrome.

  3. Full-range stress–strain behaviour of contemporary pipeline steels: Part I. Model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelé, Stijn; De Waele, Wim; Denys, Rudi; Verstraete, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The stress–strain relationship of contemporary pipeline steels is often approximated by the relatively simple Ramberg–Osgood equation. However, these steels often show a more complex post-yield behaviour, which can result in significant errors. To address this limitation for cases where an accurate full-range description is needed, the authors developed a new ‘UGent’ stress–strain model which has two independent strain-hardening exponents. This paper compares the UGent model with the Ramberg–Osgood model for a wide range of experimental data, by means of least-squares curve fitting. A significant improvement is observed for contemporary pipeline steels with a yield-to-tensile ratio above 0.80. These steels typically exhibit two distinct stages of strain hardening. In contrast to the Ramberg–Osgood model, both stages are successfully described by the UGent model. A companion paper (Part II) discusses how to find appropriate model parameter values for the UGent model. - Highlights: ► Contemporary pipeline steels often show two strain-hardening stages. ► This phenomenon is progressively apparent as Y/T exceeds 0.80. ► Both stages cannot be simultaneously described by the Ramberg–Osgood model. ► A new “UGent” model provides significantly better descriptions. ► The improvement becomes more pronounced as Y/T increases.

  4. Molecular characterization of a nuclear topoisomerase II from Nicotiana tabacum that functionally complements a temperature-sensitive topoisomerase II yeast mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B N; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Sopory, S K; Reddy, M K

    2003-07-01

    We have successfully expressed enzymatically active plant topoisomerase II in Escherichia coli for the first time, which has enabled its biochemical characterization. Using a PCR-based strategy, we obtained a full-length cDNA and the corresponding genomic clone of tobacco topoisomerase II. The genomic clone has 18 exons interrupted by 17 introns. Most of the 5' and 3' splice junctions follow the typical canonical consensus dinucleotide sequence GU-AG present in other plant introns. The position of introns and phasing with respect to primary amino acid sequence in tobacco TopII and Arabidopsis TopII are highly conserved, suggesting that the two genes are evolved from the common ancestral type II topoisomerase gene. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 1482 amino acids. The primary amino acid sequence shows a striking sequence similarity, preserving all the structural domains that are conserved among eukaryotic type II topoisomerases in an identical spatial order. We have expressed the full-length polypeptide in E. coli and purified the recombinant protein to homogeneity. The full-length polypeptide relaxed supercoiled DNA and decatenated the catenated DNA in a Mg(2+)- and ATP-dependent manner, and this activity was inhibited by 4'-(9-acridinylamino)-3'-methoxymethanesulfonanilide (m-AMSA). The immunofluorescence and confocal microscopic studies, with antibodies developed against the N-terminal region of tobacco recombinant topoisomerase II, established the nuclear localization of topoisomerase II in tobacco BY2 cells. The regulated expression of tobacco topoisomerase II gene under the GAL1 promoter functionally complemented a temperature-sensitive TopII(ts) yeast mutant.

  5. A label-free colorimetric aptasensor for simple, sensitive and selective detection of Pt (II) based on platinum (II)-oligonucleotide coordination induced gold nanoparticles aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Daoqing; Zhai, Qingfeng; Zhou, Weijun; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-11-15

    Herein, a gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based label-free colorimetric aptasensor for simple, sensitive and selective detection of Pt (II) was constructed for the first time. Four bases (G-G mismatch) mismatched streptavidin aptamer (MSAA) was used to protect AuNPs from salt-induced aggregation and recognize Pt (II) specifically. Only in the presence of Pt (II), coordination occurs between G-G bases and Pt (II), leading to the activation of streptavidin aptamer. Streptavidin coated magnetic beads (MBs) were used as separation agent to separate Pt (II)-coordinated MSAA. The residual less amount of MSAA could not efficiently protect AuNPs anymore and aggregation of AuNPs will produce a colorimetric product. With the addition of Pt (II), a pale purple-to-blue color variation could be observed by the naked eye. A detection limit of 150nM and a linear range from 0.6μM to 12.5μM for Pt (II) could be achieved without any amplification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Insulin-sensitive phospholipid signaling systems and glucose transport. Update II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farese, R V

    2001-04-01

    Insulin provokes rapid changes in phospholipid metabolism and thereby generates biologically active lipids that serve as intracellular signaling factors that regulate glucose transport and glycogen synthesis. These changes include: (i) activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and production of PIP3; (ii) PIP3-dependent activation of atypical protein kinase Cs (PKCs); (iii) PIP3-dependent activation of PKB; (iv) PI3K-dependent activation of phospholipase D and hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine with subsequent increases in phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol (DAG); (v) PI3K-independent activation of glycerol-3-phosphate acylytansferase and increases in de novo synthesis of PA and DAG; and (vi) activation of DAG-sensitive PKCs. Recent findings suggest that atypical PKCs and PKB serve as important positive regulators of insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism, whereas mechanisms that result in the activation of DAG-sensitive PKCs serve mainly as negative regulators of insulin signaling through PI3K. Atypical PKCs and PKB are rapidly activated by insulin in adipocytes, liver, skeletal muscles, and other cell types by a mechanism requiring PI3K and its downstream effector, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1), which, in conjunction with PIP3, phosphorylates critical threonine residues in the activation loops of atypical PKCs and PKB. PIP3 also promotes increases in autophosphorylation and allosteric activation of atypical PKCs. Atypical PKCs and perhaps PKB appear to be required for insulin-induced translocation of the GLUT 4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane and subsequent glucose transport. PKB also appears to be the major regulator of glycogen synthase. Together, atypical PKCs and PKB serve as a potent, integrated PI3K/PDK-1-directed signaling system that is used by insulin to regulate glucose metabolism.

  7. Oxygen sensitivity of potassium- and angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone release by bovine adrenal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickner, R C; Raff, H

    1991-04-01

    Angiotensin II (AII) and extracellular K+, acting through different intracellular mechanisms, stimulate aldosterone release in a synergistic fashion. We have previously shown that decreases in oxygen (O2) within the physiological range inhibit AII, cyclic AMP (cAMP) and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone release. The present experiment evaluated the effect of various concentrations of O2 on K+-stimulated aldosterone release in the presence and absence of AII. Dispersed bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells were incubated with different concentrations of K+ (0.9-5.4 mmol/l) without and with AII (10 nmol/l) under different concentrations of O2 (0, 5 or 50%); 21% O2 (pO2 = 19.9 +/- 0.5 kPa,n = 9) was used as reference control for comparison. In all cases, increases in K+ stimulated aldosterone release, an effect augmented by AII. Under 0% O2 (pO2 = 8.1 +/- 0.3 kPa, n = 3) and 5% O2 (pO2 = 12.8 +/- 0.5 kPa, n = 3), aldosterone release stimulated by K+ or K+/AII was significantly inhibited compared with that under 21% O2. Conversely, under 50% O2 (pO2 = 36.3 +/- 2.5 kPa, n = 3), aldosterone release stimulated by K+ or K+/AII was significantly augmented. Cortisol secretion was not significantly affected by 5% or 50% O2 but was significantly decreased under 0% O2. The effect of O2 on K+/AII stimulation of aldosterone release, as well as previous experiments with cAMP, progesterone and ACTH, suggest a final common post-receptor oxygen-sensitive component of the aldosterone synthetic pathway. It is suggested that one or more enzymes in the aldosterone synthetic pathway is/are exquisitely sensitive to small changes in O2 within the physiological range.

  8. Sensitization Profile to Allergens in Patients Using Multi-Test II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglia, Sergio Fabricio; Tsuru, Fernanda Miyoko; Santos, Victor Carvalho dos; Ueda, Denis Massatsugu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Medical intervention in allergies has broadened its perspective, also focusing in the quality of life of patients. Patients are instructed, before using pharmacotherapy agents, to avoid the causal agent. Objective This study aims to analyze the sensitization profile of patients with allergic complaints and identify possible characteristics specific to each age group and gender. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study included data collected from medical records (from Multi-Test II database, Lincoln Diagnostics Inc. Decatur, Illinois) of 1,912 patients who underwent skin prick test from March to October 2013. Patients were organized and analyzed according to gender, age, and results of the allergens subtypes tested. Results The study was composed of 1,912 patients (60% male and 40% female) of ages between 3 and 87 years. Positive tests were more prevalent in quantity and intensity with the mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, each with 60% of the total analyzed. In second place were pollens, especially Dactylis glomerata and Festuca pratensis. Conclusion The female and male sexes were equally atopic. Fungi and epithelia of dog and cat were not considered potential aeroallergens that could cause symptoms. However, mites are common in Paraná, Brazil. Further studies regarding the pollens are needed, as this study result diverged from the literature. PMID:25992129

  9. Vibrational bands of luminescent zinc(II)-octaethyl-porphyrin using a polarization-sensitive 'microcopic' multiplex CARS technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Cornelis; Voroshilov, A.; Voroshilov, Artemy; Kruglik, S.; Kruglik, S.G.; Greve, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Polarization-sensitive, multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (ps-MCARS) has been used to detect the vibrational bands of the highly luminescent zinc(II)-octaethylporphyrin (Zn-OEP). We show here that ps-MCARS can be used to measure the vibrational bands under resonant conditions.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Uncertainty Parameter based on MARS-LMR Code on SHRT-45R of EBR II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seok-Ju; Kang, Doo-Hyuk; Seo, Jae-Seung [System Engineering and Technology Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hae-Yong [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to assess the uncertainty quantification of the MARS-LMR code, the code has been improved by modifying the source code to accommodate calculation process required for uncertainty quantification. In the present study, a transient of Unprotected Loss of Flow(ULOF) is selected as typical cases of as Anticipated Transient without Scram(ATWS) which belongs to DEC category. The MARS-LMR input generation for EBR II SHRT-45R and execution works are performed by using the PAPIRUS program. The sensitivity analysis is carried out with Uncertainty Parameter of the MARS-LMR code for EBR-II SHRT-45R. Based on the results of sensitivity analysis, dominant parameters with large sensitivity to FoM are picked out. Dominant parameters selected are closely related to the development process of ULOF event.

  11. Selective and sensitive fluorescence-shift probes based on two dansyl groups for mercury(ii) ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Jun; Liu, Jialun; Deng, Lefang; Zhao, Meili; Deng, Zhifu; Li, Xutian; Tang, Jian; Yang, Liting

    2014-11-01

    Two probes ( and ) bearing two dansyl fluorophores were synthesized and applied to the detection of mercury(ii) ions in aqueous solution. These probes exhibited a selective response to Hg(2+) in a buffered solution, with high sensitivity and a unique fluorescence response signal which displayed a blue-shift effect in the fluorescence emission peak. The Hg(2+) recognition mechanisms of the probes were determined by NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results showed that probe and mercury(ii) ions formed an unusual 2:2 stoichiometric ratio complex, while probe and Hg(2+) formed a multidentate complex with a stoichiometric ratio of 2:1.

  12. A novel sensitive Cu(II) and Cd(II) nanosensor platform: Graphene oxide terminated p-aminophenyl modified glassy carbon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Atar, Necip; Ustundag, Zafer; Solak, Ali Osman

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We electrochemically prepared sensor based on graphene oxide. • The prepared electrode was characterized by using various techniques. • The proposed nanosensor showed good stability, selectivity and high sensitivity. • The proposed nanosensor electrode was used for the analysis of Cd(II) and Cu(II). - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) based glassy carbon (GC) electrode has been prepared. Firstly, p-nitrophenyl (NP) modified GC (NP/GC) electrode was prepared via the electrochemical reduction of its tetraflouroborate diazonium salt. After the formation of NP/GC electrode, the negative potential was applied to NP/GC electrode to reduce the nitro groups to amine. p-Aminophenyl (AP) modified GC (AP/GC) electrode was immersed into a graphene oxide solution containing 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethlyamino)propyl)-carbodiimide. Hence, we constructed GO terminated AP modified GC (GO/AP/GC) electrode. NP/GC, AP/GC and GO/AP/GC electrodes were characterized sequentially using cyclic voltammetry (CV) in the presence of 1.0 mM of potassium ferricyanide in 0.1 M KCl. In addition, GO and GO/AP/GC surfaces were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The GO/AP/GC electrode was used for the analysis of Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The linearity range and the detection limit of Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions were 1.0 × 10 −11 –5.0 × 10 −10 M and 3.3 × 10 −12 M (S/N = 3), respectively

  13. Sensitive detection of biothiols and histidine based on the recovered fluorescence of the carbon quantum dots–Hg(II) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Juan; Zhang, Fengshuang; Yan, Xu; Wang, Long; Yan, Jin [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding, Hong [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding, Lan, E-mail: dinglan@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Carbon quantum dots-based probe was used for detection of GSH, Cys or His. • The fluorescence of CQDs was quenched by Hg(II) and then recovered by GSH, Cys or His. • No further surface modification or purification of CQDs was required. • This sensor exhibits superior accuracy and sensitivity. • The proposed method was simple in design, fast in operation. - Abstract: In this paper, we presented a novel, rapid and highly sensitive sensor for glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys) and histidine (His) based on the recovered fluorescence of the carbon quantum dots (CQDs)–Hg(II) system. The CQDs were synthesized by microwave-assisted approach in one pot according to our previous report. The fluorescence of CQDs could be quenched in the presence of Hg(II) due to the coordination occurring between Hg(II) and functional groups on the surface of CQDs. Subsequently, the fluorescence of the CQDs–Hg(II) system was recovered gradually with the addition of GSH, Cys or His due to their stronger affinity with Hg(II). A good linear relationship was obtained from 0.10 to 20 μmol L{sup −1} for GSH, from 0.20 to 45 μmol L{sup −1} for Cys and from 0.50 to 60 μmol L{sup −1} for His, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to the trace detection of GSH, Cys or His in human serum samples with satisfactory results. The proposed method was simple in design and fast in operation, which demonstrated great potential in bio-sensing fields.

  14. Sensitive detection of biothiols and histidine based on the recovered fluorescence of the carbon quantum dots–Hg(II) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Juan; Zhang, Fengshuang; Yan, Xu; Wang, Long; Yan, Jin; Ding, Hong; Ding, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon quantum dots-based probe was used for detection of GSH, Cys or His. • The fluorescence of CQDs was quenched by Hg(II) and then recovered by GSH, Cys or His. • No further surface modification or purification of CQDs was required. • This sensor exhibits superior accuracy and sensitivity. • The proposed method was simple in design, fast in operation. - Abstract: In this paper, we presented a novel, rapid and highly sensitive sensor for glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys) and histidine (His) based on the recovered fluorescence of the carbon quantum dots (CQDs)–Hg(II) system. The CQDs were synthesized by microwave-assisted approach in one pot according to our previous report. The fluorescence of CQDs could be quenched in the presence of Hg(II) due to the coordination occurring between Hg(II) and functional groups on the surface of CQDs. Subsequently, the fluorescence of the CQDs–Hg(II) system was recovered gradually with the addition of GSH, Cys or His due to their stronger affinity with Hg(II). A good linear relationship was obtained from 0.10 to 20 μmol L −1 for GSH, from 0.20 to 45 μmol L −1 for Cys and from 0.50 to 60 μmol L −1 for His, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to the trace detection of GSH, Cys or His in human serum samples with satisfactory results. The proposed method was simple in design and fast in operation, which demonstrated great potential in bio-sensing fields

  15. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of dynamic reliability models based on Markov chains - II: Application to IFMIF reliability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacuci, D. G. [Commiss Energy Atom, Direct Energy Nucl, Saclay, (France); Cacuci, D. G.; Balan, I. [Univ Karlsruhe, Inst Nucl Technol and Reactor Safetly, Karlsruhe, (Germany); Ionescu-Bujor, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Fus Program, D-76021 Karlsruhe, (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In Part II of this work, the adjoint sensitivity analysis procedure developed in Part I is applied to perform sensitivity analysis of several dynamic reliability models of systems of increasing complexity, culminating with the consideration of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) accelerator system. Section II presents the main steps of a procedure for the automated generation of Markov chains for reliability analysis, including the abstraction of the physical system, construction of the Markov chain, and the generation and solution of the ensuing set of differential equations; all of these steps have been implemented in a stand-alone computer code system called QUEFT/MARKOMAG-S/MCADJSEN. This code system has been applied to sensitivity analysis of dynamic reliability measures for a paradigm '2-out-of-3' system comprising five components and also to a comprehensive dynamic reliability analysis of the IFMIF accelerator system facilities for the average availability and, respectively, the system's availability at the final mission time. The QUEFT/MARKOMAG-S/MCADJSEN has been used to efficiently compute sensitivities to 186 failure and repair rates characterizing components and subsystems of the first-level fault tree of the IFMIF accelerator system. (authors)

  16. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of dynamic reliability models based on Markov chains - II: Application to IFMIF reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D. G.; Cacuci, D. G.; Balan, I.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Part II of this work, the adjoint sensitivity analysis procedure developed in Part I is applied to perform sensitivity analysis of several dynamic reliability models of systems of increasing complexity, culminating with the consideration of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) accelerator system. Section II presents the main steps of a procedure for the automated generation of Markov chains for reliability analysis, including the abstraction of the physical system, construction of the Markov chain, and the generation and solution of the ensuing set of differential equations; all of these steps have been implemented in a stand-alone computer code system called QUEFT/MARKOMAG-S/MCADJSEN. This code system has been applied to sensitivity analysis of dynamic reliability measures for a paradigm '2-out-of-3' system comprising five components and also to a comprehensive dynamic reliability analysis of the IFMIF accelerator system facilities for the average availability and, respectively, the system's availability at the final mission time. The QUEFT/MARKOMAG-S/MCADJSEN has been used to efficiently compute sensitivities to 186 failure and repair rates characterizing components and subsystems of the first-level fault tree of the IFMIF accelerator system. (authors)

  17. Non-animal methods to predict skin sensitization (II): an assessment of defined approaches *.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Nicole C; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Allen, David; Ashikaga, Takao; Casey, Warren; Clouet, Elodie; Cluzel, Magalie; Desprez, Bertrand; Gellatly, Nichola; Göbel, Carsten; Kern, Petra S; Klaric, Martina; Kühnl, Jochen; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Mewes, Karsten; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Strickland, Judy; van Vliet, Erwin; Zang, Qingda; Petersohn, Dirk

    2018-05-01

    Skin sensitization is a toxicity endpoint of widespread concern, for which the mechanistic understanding and concurrent necessity for non-animal testing approaches have evolved to a critical juncture, with many available options for predicting sensitization without using animals. Cosmetics Europe and the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods collaborated to analyze the performance of multiple non-animal data integration approaches for the skin sensitization safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients. The Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force (STTF) collected and generated data on 128 substances in multiple in vitro and in chemico skin sensitization assays selected based on a systematic assessment by the STTF. These assays, together with certain in silico predictions, are key components of various non-animal testing strategies that have been submitted to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development as case studies for skin sensitization. Curated murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and human skin sensitization data were used to evaluate the performance of six defined approaches, comprising eight non-animal testing strategies, for both hazard and potency characterization. Defined approaches examined included consensus methods, artificial neural networks, support vector machine models, Bayesian networks, and decision trees, most of which were reproduced using open source software tools. Multiple non-animal testing strategies incorporating in vitro, in chemico, and in silico inputs demonstrated equivalent or superior performance to the LLNA when compared to both animal and human data for skin sensitization.

  18. A Near-Infrared Photon Counting Camera for High Sensitivity Astronomical Observation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a Near Infrared Photon-Counting Sensor (NIRPCS), an imaging device with sufficient sensitivity to capture the spectral signatures, in the...

  19. High Sensitivity Indium Phosphide Based Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — nLight has demonstrated highly-uniform APD arrays based on the highly sensitive InGaAs/InP material system. These results provide great promise for achieving the...

  20. Design of Ru(II) sensitizers endowed by three anchoring units for adsorption mode and light harvesting optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobello, Maria Grazia; Fantacci, Simona; Manfredi, Norberto; Coluccini, Carmine; Abbotto, Alessandro; Nazeeruddin, Mohammed K.; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis and computational investigation of a class of Ru(II)-dyes based on mixed bipyridine ligands for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. These dyes are designed to preserve the optimal anchoring mode of the prototypical N719 sensitizer by three carboxylic groups, yet allowing for tunable optimization of their electronic and optical properties by selective substitution at one of the 4-4′ positions of a single bipyridine ligand with π-excessive heteroaromatic groups. We used Density Functional Theory/Time Dependent Density Functional Theory calculations to analyze the electronic structure and optical properties of the dye and to investigate the dye adsorption mode on a TiO 2 nanoparticle model. Our results show that we are effectively able to introduce three carboxylic anchoring units into the dye and achieve at the same time an enhanced dye light harvesting, demonstrating the design concept. As a drawback of this type of dyes, the synthesis leads to a mixture of dye isomers, which are rather tedious to separate. - Highlights: • We designed heteroleptic Ru(II) sensitizers with three carboxylic anchoring groups. • The three carboxylic anchoring groups are essential for high open circuit potentials. • Introduction of the mixed bipyridine ligand increases the dye light absorption. • Computational simulations confirm the three anchoring sites on TiO 2

  1. Design of Ru(II) sensitizers endowed by three anchoring units for adsorption mode and light harvesting optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobello, Maria Grazia; Fantacci, Simona [Computational Laboratory for Hybrid/Organic Photovoltaics (CLHYO), Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Via elce di Sotto 8, I-06213 Perugia (Italy); Manfredi, Norberto; Coluccini, Carmine [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center-MIB-Solar, University of Milano-Bicocca and INSTM, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Abbotto, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.abbotto@unimib.it [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center-MIB-Solar, University of Milano-Bicocca and INSTM, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Nazeeruddin, Mohammed K., E-mail: mdkhaja.nazeeruddin@epfl.ch [Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Station 6, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); De Angelis, Filippo, E-mail: filippo@thch.unipg.it [Computational Laboratory for Hybrid/Organic Photovoltaics (CLHYO), Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Via elce di Sotto 8, I-06213 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-06-02

    We report the design, synthesis and computational investigation of a class of Ru(II)-dyes based on mixed bipyridine ligands for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. These dyes are designed to preserve the optimal anchoring mode of the prototypical N719 sensitizer by three carboxylic groups, yet allowing for tunable optimization of their electronic and optical properties by selective substitution at one of the 4-4′ positions of a single bipyridine ligand with π-excessive heteroaromatic groups. We used Density Functional Theory/Time Dependent Density Functional Theory calculations to analyze the electronic structure and optical properties of the dye and to investigate the dye adsorption mode on a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle model. Our results show that we are effectively able to introduce three carboxylic anchoring units into the dye and achieve at the same time an enhanced dye light harvesting, demonstrating the design concept. As a drawback of this type of dyes, the synthesis leads to a mixture of dye isomers, which are rather tedious to separate. - Highlights: • We designed heteroleptic Ru(II) sensitizers with three carboxylic anchoring groups. • The three carboxylic anchoring groups are essential for high open circuit potentials. • Introduction of the mixed bipyridine ligand increases the dye light absorption. • Computational simulations confirm the three anchoring sites on TiO{sub 2}.

  2. Electrochemical Properties of Cu(II/I)-Based Redox Mediators for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Saygili, Y.; Freitag, M.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Hagfeldt, A.; Grätzel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 227, FEB 2017 (2017), s. 194-202 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Graphene * Dye sensitized solar cell * Cu-complexes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  3. Inactivation of the Class II PI3K-C2β Potentiates Insulin Signaling and Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Alliouachene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks, the organismal roles of the kinase activity of the class II PI3Ks are less clear. Here, we report that class II PI3K-C2β kinase-dead mice are viable and healthy but display an unanticipated enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, as well as protection against high-fat-diet-induced liver steatosis. Despite having a broad tissue distribution, systemic PI3K-C2β inhibition selectively enhances insulin signaling only in metabolic tissues. In a primary hepatocyte model, basal PI3P lipid levels are reduced by 60% upon PI3K-C2β inhibition. This results in an expansion of the very early APPL1-positive endosomal compartment and altered insulin receptor trafficking, correlating with an amplification of insulin-induced, class I PI3K-dependent Akt signaling, without impacting MAPK activity. These data reveal PI3K-C2β as a critical regulator of endosomal trafficking, specifically in insulin signaling, and identify PI3K-C2β as a potential drug target for insulin sensitization.

  4. Graphene Nanoplatelet Cathode for Co(III)/(II) Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Yum, J. H.; Nazeeruddin, M. K.; Grätzel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 11 (2011), s. 9171-9178 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : graphene * dye sensitized solar cell * cobalt redox shuttle Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 10.774, year: 2011

  5. A highly sensitive PVC membrane iodide electrode based on complexes of mercury(II) as neutral carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Y-Q; Yuan, R; Xu, L; Xu, W-J; Dai, J-Y; Jiang, F

    2004-09-01

    A novel solvent polymeric membrane electrode based on bis(1,3,4-thiadiazole) complexes of Hg(II) is described which has excellent selectivity and sensitivity toward iodide ion. The electrode, containing 1,4-bis(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl-thio)butanemercury(II) [Hg(II)BMTB(NO3)4], has a Nernstian potentiometric response from 2.0 x 10(-8) to 2.0 x 10(-2) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 8.0 x 10(-9) mol L(-1) and a slope of -59.0+/-0.5 mV/decade in 0.01 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution (pH 3.0, 20 degrees C). The selectivity sequence observed is iodide>bromide>thiocyanate>nitrite>nitrate>chloride>perchlorate>acetate>sulfate. The selectivity behavior is discussed in terms of the UV-Vis spectrum, and the process of transfer of iodide across the membrane interface is investigated by use of the AC impedance technique. The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of iodide in Jialing River and Spring in Jinyun Mountains, with satisfactory results.

  6. Effect of angiotensin II on voltage-gated sodium currents in aortic baroreceptor neurons and arterial baroreflex sensitivity in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongze; Liu, Jinxu; Zheng, Hong; Tu, Huiyin; Muelleman, Robert L; Li, Yu-Long

    2015-07-01

    Impairment of arterial baroreflex sensitivity is associated with mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Elevation of plasma angiotension II (Ang II) contributes to arterial baroreflex dysfunction in CHF. A reduced number of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels in aortic baroreceptor neurons are involved in CHF-blunted arterial baroreflex. In this study, we investigated acute effect of Ang II on Nav currents in the aortic baroreceptor neuron and on arterial baroreflex in sham and coronary artery ligation-induced CHF rats. Using Ang II I radioimmunoassay, real-time reverse transcription-PCR and western blot, we found that Ang II levels, and mRNA and protein expression of angiotension II type 1 receptor in nodose ganglia from CHF rats were higher than that from sham rats. Local microinjection of Ang II (0.2  nmol) into the nodose ganglia decreased the arterial baroreflex sensitivity in sham rats, whereas losartan (1  nmol, an angiotension II type 1 receptor antagonist) improved the arterial baroreflex sensitivity in CHF rats. Data from patch-clamp recording showed that Ang II (100  nmol/l) acutely inhibited Nav currents in the aortic baroreceptor neurons from sham and CHF rats. In particular, inhibitory effect of Ang II on Nav currents in the aortic baroreceptor neurons was larger in CHF rats than that in sham rats. Losartan (1  μmol/l) totally abolished the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Nav currents in sham and CHF aortic baroreceptor neurons. These results suggest that elevation of endogenous Ang II in the nodose ganglia contributes to impairment of the arterial baroreflex function in CHF rats through inhibiting Nav channels.

  7. Converting Eucalyptus biomass into ethanol: Financial and sensitivity analysis in a co-current dilute acid process. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Treasure, T.; Phillips, R.; Jameel, H.; Saloni, D.; Wright, J.; Abt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The technical and financial performance of high yield Eucalyptus biomass in a co-current dilute acid pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis process was simulated using WinGEMS registered and Excel registered . Average ethanol yield per dry Mg of Eucalyptus biomass was approximately 347.6 L of ethanol (with average carbohydrate content in the biomass around 66.1%) at a cost of 0.49 L -1 of ethanol, cash cost of ∝0.46 L -1 and CAPEX of 1.03 L -1 of ethanol. The main cost drivers are: biomass, enzyme, tax, fuel (gasoline), depreciation and labor. Profitability of the process is very sensitive to biomass cost, carbohydrate content (%) in biomass and enzyme cost. Biomass delivered cost was simulated and financially evaluated in Part I; here in Part II the conversion of this raw material into cellulosic ethanol using the dilute acid process is evaluated. (author)

  8. GA(2)LEN skin test study II: clinical relevance of inhalant allergen sensitizations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbach, G J; Heinzerling, L M; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance was ...... the clinical relevance of positive skin prick tests and calls for further studies, which may, ultimately, help increase the positive predictive value of allergy testing.......BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance...... was used to determine the clinical relevance of sensitizations against the 18 most frequent inhalant allergens in Europe. The study population consisted of patients referred to one of the 17 allergy centres in 14 European countries (n = 3034, median age = 33 years). The aim of the study was to assess...

  9. Short stack modeling of degradation in solid oxide fuel cells. Part II. Sensitivity and interaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzarri, J. I.; Kesler, O.

    In the first part of this two-paper series, we presented a numerical model of the impedance behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) aimed at simulating the change in the impedance spectrum induced by contact degradation at the interconnect-electrode, and at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The purpose of that investigation was to develop a non-invasive diagnostic technique to identify degradation modes in situ. In the present paper, we appraise the predictive capabilities of the proposed method in terms of its robustness to uncertainties in the input parameters, many of which are very difficult to measure independently. We applied this technique to the degradation modes simulated in Part I, in addition to anode sulfur poisoning. Electrode delamination showed the highest robustness to input parameter variations, followed by interconnect oxidation and interconnect detachment. The most sensitive degradation mode was sulfur poisoning, due to strong parameter interactions. In addition, we simulate several simultaneous two-degradation-mode scenarios, assessing the method's capabilities and limitations for the prediction of electrochemical behaviour of SOFC's undergoing multiple simultaneous degradation modes.

  10. Short stack modeling of degradation in solid oxide fuel cells. Part II. Sensitivity and interaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzarri, J.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2008-01-21

    In the first part of this two-paper series, we presented a numerical model of the impedance behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) aimed at simulating the change in the impedance spectrum induced by contact degradation at the interconnect-electrode, and at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The purpose of that investigation was to develop a non-invasive diagnostic technique to identify degradation modes in situ. In the present paper, we appraise the predictive capabilities of the proposed method in terms of its robustness to uncertainties in the input parameters, many of which are very difficult to measure independently. We applied this technique to the degradation modes simulated in Part I, in addition to anode sulfur poisoning. Electrode delamination showed the highest robustness to input parameter variations, followed by interconnect oxidation and interconnect detachment. The most sensitive degradation mode was sulfur poisoning, due to strong parameter interactions. In addition, we simulate several simultaneous two-degradation-mode scenarios, assessing the method's capabilities and limitations for the prediction of electrochemical behaviour of SOFC's undergoing multiple simultaneous degradation modes. (author)

  11. Genetic and epigenetic features in radiation sensitivity. Part II: implications for clinical practice and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, Michel H.; Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria R.; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Giorgio, Marina di; Carosella, Edgardo D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress especially in the field of gene identification and expression has attracted greater attention to the genetic and epigenetic susceptibility to cancer, possibly enhanced by ionising radiation. This issue is especially important for radiation therapists since hypersensitive patients may suffer from adverse effects in normal tissues following standard radiation therapy, while normally sensitive patients could receive higher doses of radiation, offering a better likelihood of cure for malignant tumours. Although only a small percentage of individuals are ''hypersensitive'' to radiation effects, all medical specialists using ionising radiation should be aware of the aforementioned progress in medical knowledge. The present paper, the second of two parts, reviews human disorders known or strongly suspected to be associated with hypersensitivity to ionising radiation. The main tests capable of detecting such pathologies in advance are analysed, and ethical issues regarding genetic testing are considered. The implications for radiation protection of possible hypersensitivity to radiation in a part of the population are discussed, and some guidelines for nuclear medicine professionals are proposed. (orig.)

  12. Reliability of a new biokinetic model of zirconium in internal dosimetry: part II, parameter sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei Bo; Greiter, Matthias; Oeh, Uwe; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    The reliability of biokinetic models is essential for the assessment of internal doses and a radiation risk analysis for the public and occupational workers exposed to radionuclides. In the present study, a method for assessing the reliability of biokinetic models by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was developed. In the first part of the paper, the parameter uncertainty was analyzed for two biokinetic models of zirconium (Zr); one was reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and one was developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health (HMGU). In the second part of the paper, the parameter uncertainties and distributions of the Zr biokinetic models evaluated in Part I are used as the model inputs for identifying the most influential parameters in the models. Furthermore, the most influential model parameter on the integral of the radioactivity of Zr over 50 y in source organs after ingestion was identified. The results of the systemic HMGU Zr model showed that over the first 10 d, the parameters of transfer rates between blood and other soft tissues have the largest influence on the content of Zr in the blood and the daily urinary excretion; however, after day 1,000, the transfer rate from bone to blood becomes dominant. For the retention in bone, the transfer rate from blood to bone surfaces has the most influence out to the endpoint of the simulation; the transfer rate from blood to the upper larger intestine contributes a lot in the later days; i.e., after day 300. The alimentary tract absorption factor (fA) influences mostly the integral of radioactivity of Zr in most source organs after ingestion.

  13. Ruthenium(ii)-polypyridyl zirconium(iv) metal-organic frameworks as a new class of sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, W A; Haring, A J; Ahrenholtz, S R; Epley, C C; Lin, S Y; Morris, A J

    2016-01-01

    A series of Ru(ii)L 2 L' (L = 2,2'-bipyridyl, L' = 2,2'-bipyridine-5,5'-dicarboxylic acid), RuDCBPY, -containing zirconium(iv) coordination polymer thin films have been prepared as sensitizing materials for solar cell applications. These metal-organic framework (MOF) sensitized solar cells, MOFSCs, each are shown to generate photocurrent in response to simulated 1 sun illumination. Emission lifetime measurements indicate the excited state quenching of RuDCBPY at the MOF-TiO 2 interface is extremely efficient (>90%), presumably due to electron injection into TiO 2 . A mechanism is proposed in which RuDCBPY-centers photo-excited within the MOF-bulk undergo isotropic energy migration up to 25 nm from the point of origin. This work represents the first example in which a MOFSC is directly compared to the constituent dye adsorbed on TiO 2 (DSC). Importantly, the MOFSCs outperformed their RuDCBPY-TiO 2 DSC counterpart under the conditions used here and, thus, are solidified as promising solar cell platforms.

  14. Blebbistatin, a myosin II inhibitor, suppresses Ca(2+)-induced and "sensitized"-contraction of skinned tracheal muscles from guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Blebbistatin, a potent inhibitor of myosin II, has inhibiting effects on Ca(2+)-induced contraction and contractile filament organization without affecting the Ca(2+)-sensitivity to the force and phosphorylation level of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC20) in skinned (cell membrane permeabilized) taenia cecum from the guinea pig (Watanabe et al., Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010; 298: C1118-26). In the present study, we investigated blebbistatin effects on the contractile force of skinned tracheal muscle, in which myosin filaments organization is more labile than that in the taenia cecum. Blebbistatin at 10 μM or higher suppressed Ca(2+)-induced tension development at any given Ca(2+) concentration, but had little effects on the Ca(2+)- induced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Also blebbistatin at 10 μM and higher significantly suppressed GTP-γS-induced "sensitized" force development. Since the force inhibiting effects of blebbistatin on the skinned trachea were much stronger than those in skinned taenia cecum, blebbistatin might directly affect myosin filaments organization.

  15. The effect of potential on the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low alloy steels: Part II, electrochemical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshier, W.C.; James, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in low alloy steels was found to be dependent on externally applied potential in low sulfur steels in high temperature water. EAC could be turned on when the specimen was polarized anodically above a critical potential. However, hydrogen (H) additions inhibited the ability of potential to affect EAC. The behavior was related to formation of H ions during H oxidation at the crack mouth. A mechanism based on formation of H sulfide at the crack tip and H ions at the crack mouth is presented to describe the process by which sulfides and H ions affect the critical sulfide concentration at the crack tip

  16. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masanori, E-mail: ando.masanori@jaea.go.jp; Takaya, Shigeru, E-mail: takaya.shigeru@jaea.go.jp

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  17. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masanori; Takaya, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  18. High-sensitivity assay for Hg (II) and Ag (I) ion detection: A new class of droplet digital PCR logic gates for an intelligent DNA calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nan; Zhu, Pengyu; Xu, Yuancong; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Yang, Zhansen; Xu, Wentao

    2016-10-15

    The first example of droplet digital PCR logic gates ("YES", "OR" and "AND") for Hg (II) and Ag (I) ion detection has been constructed based on two amplification events triggered by a metal-ion-mediated base mispairing (T-Hg(II)-T and C-Ag(I)-C). In this work, Hg(II) and Ag(I) were used as the input, and the "true" hierarchical colors or "false" green were the output. Through accurate molecular recognition and high sensitivity amplification, positive droplets were generated by droplet digital PCR and viewed as the basis of hierarchical digital signals. Based on this principle, YES gate for Hg(II) (or Ag(I)) detection, OR gate for Hg(II) or Ag(I) detection and AND gate for Hg(II) and Ag(I) detection were developed, and their sensitively and selectivity were reported. The results indicate that the ddPCR logic system developed based on the different indicators for Hg(II) and Ag(I) ions provides a useful strategy for developing advanced detection methods, which are promising for multiplex metal ion analysis and intelligent DNA calculator design applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated ion imprinted polymers-paper composites for selective and sensitive detection of Cd(II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Environment Health - Incubation, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Wuhan, Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Hubei, 430030, Wuhan (China); Chen, Ying [Hubei Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 6 ZhuoDao Quan North Road, 430079, Wuhan (China); Zhou, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Environment Health - Incubation, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Wuhan, Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Hubei, 430030, Wuhan (China); Zhao, Xiaoya [Hubei Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of PRC, No.588 Qingtaidadao Road, Hubei, 430022, Wuhan (China); Liu, Jiafa [Hubei Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 6 ZhuoDao Quan North Road, 430079, Wuhan (China); Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai [State Key Laboratory of Environment Health - Incubation, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Wuhan, Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Hubei, 430030, Wuhan (China); Jing, Tao, E-mail: jingtao@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Health - Incubation, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Wuhan, Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Hubei, 430030, Wuhan (China)

    2017-07-05

    Highlights: • IIPs are first grafted on the low-cost A4 print paper to develop an integrated paper-based device. • As an imprinted composite, the adsorption capacity is 155.2 mg g{sup –1} and the imprinted factor is more than 3.0. • As an analytical method, the limit of detection is 0.4 ng mL{sup –1}. • Based on the water quality standards, it could be used to determine Cd(II) ions in drinking water. - Abstract: Paper-based sensor is a new alternative technology to develop a portable, low-cost, and rapid analysis system in environmental chemistry. In this study, ion imprinted polymers (IIPs) using cadmium ions as the template were directly grafted on the surface of low-cost print paper based on the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. It can be applied as a recognition element to selectively capture the target ions in the complex samples. The maximum adsorption capacity of IIPs composites was 155.2 mg g{sup –1} and the imprinted factor was more than 3.0. Then, IIPs-paper platform could be also applied as a detection element for highly selective and sensitive detection of Cd(II) ions without complex sample pretreatment and expensive instrument, due to the selective recognition, formation of dithizone-cadmium complexes and light transmission ability. Under the optimized condition, the linear range was changed from 1 to 100 ng mL{sup –1} and the limit of detection was 0.4 ng mL{sup –1}. The results were in good agreement with the classic ICP-MS method. Furthermore, the proposed method can also be developed for detection of other heavy metals by designing of new IIPs.

  20. High Molar Extinction Coefficient Ru(II-Mixed Ligand Polypyridyl Complexes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new ruthenium(II mixed ligand terpyridine complexes, “Ru(Htcterpy(NCS(L1 (N(C4H94, mLBD1” and Ru(Htcterpy(NCS(L2(N(C4H94, mLBD2 were synthesized and fully characterized by UV-Vis, emission, cyclic voltammogram, and other spectroscopic means, and the structures of the compounds are confirmed by 1H-NMR, ESI-MASS, and FT-IR spectroscopes. The influence of the substitution of L1 and L2 on solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency (η of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was evaluated relative to reference black dye. The dyes showed molar extinction coefficients of 17600 M−1 cm−1 for mLBD1 and 21300 M−1 cm−1 for mLBD2 both at λ maximum of 512 nm, while black dye has shown 8660 M−1 cm−1 at λ maximum of 615 nm. The monochromatic incident photon-to-collected electron conversion efficiencies of 60.71% and 75.89% were obtained for mLBD1 and mLBD2 dyes, respectively. The energy conversion efficiencies of mLBD1 and mLBD2 dyes are 3.15% (SC=11.86 mA/cm2, OC=613 mV, ff=0.4337 and 3.36% (SC=12.71 mA/cm2, OC=655 mV, ff=0.4042, respectively, measured at the AM1.5G conditions, the reference black dye-sensitized solar cell, fabricated and evaluated under identical conditions exhibited η-value of 2.69% (SC=10.95 mA/cm2, OC=655 mV, ff=0.3750.

  1. Versatile ruthenium(II) dye towards blue-light emitter and dye-sensitizer for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Kassio P. S.; Amaral, Ronaldo C.; Murakami Iha, Neyde Y.; Abreu, Felipe D.; de Carvalho, Idalina M. M.

    2018-06-01

    A versatile Ru(II) complex bearing an anthracene moiety was synthesized in our search for suitable compounds towards efficient molecular devices. The new engineered dye, cis‑[Ru(dcbH2)(NCS)2(mbpy‑anth)] (dcbH2 = 2,2‧‑bipyridyl‑4,4‧‑dicarboxylic acid, mbpy‑anth = 4‑[N‑(2‑anthryl)carbamoyl]‑4‧‑methyl‑2,2‧‑bipyridine), exhibits a blueish emission in a vibronically structured spectrum ascribed to the fluorescence of a 1LCAnth (ligand centered) excited state in the anthracene and has a potential to be exploited in the fields of smart lighting and displays. This complex was also employed in dye-sensitized solar cells with fairly efficient solar energy conversion with the use of self-assembled TiO2 compact layers beneath the TiO2 mesoporous film to prevent meso‑TiO2/dye back reactions. Further photoelectrochemical investigations through incident photon-to-current efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the all-nano-TiO2 compact layer acts as contact layers that increase the electron harvesting in the external circuit, enhancing efficiencies up to 50%.

  2. Spectral sensitization of SrTiO3 photoanodes with binuclear 1,10-phenanthroline bis(2,2'-bipyridine) complexes of ruthenium(II) and tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinnemans, A.H.A.; Mackor, A.

    1981-01-01

    A single crystal of strontium titanate, used as a photoanode for the photoelectrolysis of water, has been sensitized by mono‐ and binuclear ruthenium(II) complexes in acidic solution for visible light. The dependence of the photocurrent density on light intensity, dye concentration, wavelength and

  3. Zinc-sensitive MRI contrast agent detects differential release of Zn(II) ions from the healthy vs. malignant mouse prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo Jordan, M Veronica; Lo, Su-Tang; Chen, Shiuhwei; Preihs, Christian; Chirayil, Sara; Zhang, Shanrong; Kapur, Payal; Li, Wen-Hong; De Leon-Rodriguez, Luis M; Lubag, Angelo J M; Rofsky, Neil M; Sherry, A Dean

    2016-09-13

    Many secretory tissues release Zn(II) ions along with other molecules in response to external stimuli. Here we demonstrate that secretion of Zn(II) ions from normal, healthy prostate tissue is stimulated by glucose in fasted mice and that release of Zn(II) can be monitored by MRI. An ∼50% increase in water proton signal enhancement is observed in T1-weighted images of the healthy mouse prostate after infusion of a Gd-based Zn(II) sensor and an i.p. bolus of glucose. Release of Zn(II) from intracellular stores was validated in human epithelial prostate cells in vitro and in surgically exposed prostate tissue in vivo using a Zn(II)-sensitive fluorescent probe known to bind to the extracellular surface of cells. Given the known differences in intracellular Zn(II) stores in healthy versus malignant prostate tissues, the Zn(II) sensor was then evaluated in a transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model in vivo. The agent proved successful in detecting small malignant lesions as early as 11 wk of age, making this noninvasive MR imaging method potentially useful for identifying prostate cancer in situations where it may be difficult to detect using current multiparametric MRI protocols.

  4. Environmental Sensitivity in Nuclear Emergencies in Rural and Semi-natural Environments. Report of Working Group 8, Environmental Sensitivity of EMRAS II Topical Heading Approaches for Assessing Emergency Situations. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by comparison with measured values in the environment or by comparing them with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. The programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in transfer data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. The following topics were addressed in nine working groups: Reference Approaches for Human Dose Assessment - Working Group 1: Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases; - Working Group 2: Reference Approaches to Modelling for Management and Remediation at NORM and Legacy Sites; - Working Group 3: Reference Models for Waste Disposal Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment; - Working Group 4: Biota Modelling; - Working Group 5: Wildlife Transfer Coefficient Handbook; - Working Group 6: Biota Dose

  5. Evaluation of the highly sensitive Roche thyroglobulin II assay and establishment of a reference limit for thyroglobulin-negative patient samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien M. Rotteveel-de Groot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Thyroglobulin (Tg measurements are used to monitor for residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablative therapy. In recent years highly sensitive Tg assays have been developed. In this study the analytical performance of the new Roche Elecsys Tg II assay was evaluated and compared with the well documented Access2 Tg assay (Beckman–Coulter. Design and methods: Analytical performance was examined using various Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI evaluation protocols. Tg negative patient sera were used to establish an upper reference limit (URL for the Elecsys Tg II assay. Results: Non-linearity, drift and carry-over according to CLSI EP10 and EP6 in a measuring range of 0.04–500 ng/mL were non-significant. Total precision according to CLSI EP5 was 10% at a Tg concentration of 0.08 ng/mL. A patient serum comparison performed according to a modified CLSI EP9 protocol showed a significant difference of a factor of approximately 1.4, despite using an identical CRM calibrator. The Elecsys Tg II assay measured Tg with a two-fold higher sensitivity than the Access2 assay. Finally, using human sera without Tg, an URL of 0.05 ng/mL was determined. Conclusions: In our hands the highly sensitive Elecsys Tg II assay shows a good analytical performance and a higher sensitivity compared to the Access2 Tg assay. An URL of 0.05 ng/mL for the Elecsys Tg II assay was determined which may improve the clinical utility of the assay for the detection of residual DTC or disease recurrence. Keywords: Thyroglobulin, Roche Elecsys Tg II assay, validation, reporting limit

  6. Highly sensitive amperometric sensor for micromolar detection of trichloroacetic acid based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Fe(II)–phtalocyanine modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd, Masoumeh; Salimi, Abdollah; Hallaj, Rahman

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is developed by subsequent immobilization of phthalocyanine (Pc) and Fe(II) onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) electrode showed a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) with surface-confined characteristics. The surface coverage (Γ) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) of immobilized Fe(II)–Pc were calculated as 1.26 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 and 28.13 s −1 , respectively. Excellent electrocatalytic activity of the proposed GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) system toward TCA reduction has been indicated and the three consequent irreversible peaks for electroreduction of CCl 3 COOH to CH 3 COOH have been clearly seen. The observed chronoamperometric currents are linearly increased with the concentration of TCA at concentration range up to 20 mM. Detection limit and sensitivity of the modified electrode were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM −1 cm −2 , respectively. The applicability of the sensor for TCA detection in real samples was tested. The obtained results suggest that the proposed system can serve as a promising electrochemical platform for TCA detection. Highlights: ► Phthalocyanine (PC) and Fe(II) immobilized onto MWCNTs modified GC electrode. ► A pair of well-defined redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) observed. ► Modified electrode shows excellent catalytic activity to electroreduction of CCl 3 COOH. ► Amperometry and cyclic voltammetry techniques were used for detection of CCl 3 COOH. ► Detection limit and sensitivity were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM −1 cm −2 , respectively

  7. Evaluation of the highly sensitive Roche thyroglobulin II assay and establishment of a reference limit for thyroglobulin-negative patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotteveel-de Groot, Dorien M; Ross, H Alec; Janssen, Marcel J R; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Oosting, Janine D; Sweep, Fred C G J; van Herwaarden, Antonius E

    2016-08-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements are used to monitor for residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablative therapy. In recent years highly sensitive Tg assays have been developed. In this study the analytical performance of the new Roche Elecsys Tg II assay was evaluated and compared with the well documented Access2 Tg assay (Beckman-Coulter). Analytical performance was examined using various Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) evaluation protocols. Tg negative patient sera were used to establish an upper reference limit (URL) for the Elecsys Tg II assay. Non-linearity, drift and carry-over according to CLSI EP10 and EP6 in a measuring range of 0.04-500 ng/mL were non-significant. Total precision according to CLSI EP5 was 10% at a Tg concentration of 0.08 ng/mL. A patient serum comparison performed according to a modified CLSI EP9 protocol showed a significant difference of a factor of approximately 1.4, despite using an identical CRM calibrator. The Elecsys Tg II assay measured Tg with a two-fold higher sensitivity than the Access2 assay. Finally, using human sera without Tg, an URL of 0.05 ng/mL was determined. In our hands the highly sensitive Elecsys Tg II assay shows a good analytical performance and a higher sensitivity compared to the Access2 Tg assay. An URL of 0.05 ng/mL for the Elecsys Tg II assay was determined which may improve the clinical utility of the assay for the detection of residual DTC or disease recurrence.

  8. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R 2 = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q 2 ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin sensitization and

  9. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical–Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  10. Leptin Mediate High Fat Diet Sensitization of Angiotensin II-elicited Hypertension by Upregulating the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhongming; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G.; Thunhorst, Robert L.; Felder, Robert B.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased circulating levels of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, which can increase sympathetic nerve activity and raise blood pressure. A previous study revealed that rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) have an enhanced hypertensive response to subsequent angiotensin (Ang) II administration that is mediated at least in part by increased activity of brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). The present study tested whether leptin mediates this HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension by interacting with brain RAS and PICs mechanisms. Rats fed a HFD for 3 weeks had significant increases in white adipose tissue mass, plasma leptin levels and mRNA expression of leptin and its receptors in the lamina terminalis (LT) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Central infusion of a leptin receptor antagonist during HFD feeding abolished HFD sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension. Furthermore, central infusion of leptin mimicked the sensitizing action of HFD. Concomitant central infusions of the AT1-R antagonist irbesartan, the TNF-α synthesis inhibitor pentoxifylline, or the inhibitor of microglial activation minocycline prevented the sensitization produced by central infusion of leptin. RT-PCR analysis indicated that either HFD or leptin administration upregulated mRNA expression of several components of the RAS and PICs in the LT and PVN. The leptin antagonist and the inhibitors of AT1-R, TNF-α synthesis and microglial activation all reversed the expression of these genes. The results suggest that HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension is mediated by leptin through upregulation of central RAS and PICs. PMID:27021010

  11. Sensitive and selective detection of Cu(II) ion: A new effective 1,8-naphthalimide-based fluorescence 'turn off' sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guozhen; Li, Chuang; Han, Xintong; Aderinto, Stephen Opeyemi; Shen, Kesheng; Mao, Shanshan; Wu, Huilu

    2018-06-01

    The present study reports the development of a new 1,8-naphthalimide-based fluorescent sensor V for monitoring Cu(II) ions. The sensor exhibited pH independence over a wide pH range 2.52-9.58, and indicated its possible use for monitoring Cu(II) ions in a competitive pH medium. The sensor also showed high selectivity and sensitivity towards the Cu(II) ions over other competitive metal ions in DMSO-HEPES buffer (v/v, 1:1; pH 7.4) with a fluorescence 'turn off' mode of 79.79% observed. A Job plot indicated the formation of a 1:1 binding mode of the sensor with Cu(II) ions. The association constant and detection limit were 1.14 × 10 6  M -1 and 4.67 × 10 -8 M, respectively. The fluorescence spectrum of the sensor was quenched due to the powerful paramagnetic nature of the Cu(II) ions. Potential application of this sensor was also demonstrated when determining Cu(II) ion levels in two different water samples. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Sensitive stripping voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by a Bi/multi-walled carbon nanotube-emeraldine base polyaniline-Nafion composite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guo; Yin, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Gang; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A MWCNT-EBP-NA composite film modified GCE was fabricated and characterized. • The GCE modified with the MWCNT-EBP-NA composite film exhibited excellent performance in the analysis of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by SWASV. • The Cd(II) and Pb(II) detection limits of the developed electrode were approximately 0.06 μg/L and 0.08 μg/L, respectively. • Bi/MWCNT-EBP-NA/GCE was successfully used to determine metal ions in soil samples. - Abstract: In this study, a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-emeraldine base polyaniline (EBP)-Nafion (NA) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNT-EBP-NA/GCE) was prepared and used for the sensitive detection of trace Pb(II) and Cd(II), with a detection limit of 0.06 μg/L for Cd(II) and 0.08 μg/L for Pb(II) (S/N = 3), by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). A bismuth film was prepared through the in situ plating of bismuth on the MWCNT-EBP-NA/GCE. The morphologies and electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were characterized by SWASV, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The parameters affecting the stripping current response were investigated and optimized. The formed MWCNTs in the composite film enlarged the specific surface area of the electrode and significantly promoted electron transferring, and the formed polyaniline (PANI) enhanced the ion-exchange capacity and prevented the macromolecules in real samples from absorbing onto the surface of the electrode. The presence of NA effectively increased the stability and adhesion of the composite film, enhanced the cation-exchange capacity and improved the ability to preconcentrate metal ions. Under the optimized conditions, a linear range of 1.0 to 50.0 μg/L was achieved for both metal ions, with a detection limit of 0.06 μg/L for Cd(II) and 0.08 μg/L for Pb(II) (S/N = 3), offering good repeatability. Finally, the Bi/MWCNT-EBP-NA/GCE was used for the

  13. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R2=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q2ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. PMID:25560673

  14. Highly sensitive amperometric sensor for micromolar detection of trichloroacetic acid based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Fe(II)–phtalocyanine modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurd, Masoumeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hallaj, Rahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is developed by subsequent immobilization of phthalocyanine (Pc) and Fe(II) onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) electrode showed a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) with surface-confined characteristics. The surface coverage (Γ) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) of immobilized Fe(II)–Pc were calculated as 1.26 × 10{sup −10} mol cm{sup −2} and 28.13 s{sup −1}, respectively. Excellent electrocatalytic activity of the proposed GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) system toward TCA reduction has been indicated and the three consequent irreversible peaks for electroreduction of CCl{sub 3}COOH to CH{sub 3}COOH have been clearly seen. The observed chronoamperometric currents are linearly increased with the concentration of TCA at concentration range up to 20 mM. Detection limit and sensitivity of the modified electrode were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, respectively. The applicability of the sensor for TCA detection in real samples was tested. The obtained results suggest that the proposed system can serve as a promising electrochemical platform for TCA detection. Highlights: ► Phthalocyanine (PC) and Fe(II) immobilized onto MWCNTs modified GC electrode. ► A pair of well-defined redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) observed. ► Modified electrode shows excellent catalytic activity to electroreduction of CCl{sub 3}COOH. ► Amperometry and cyclic voltammetry techniques were used for detection of CCl{sub 3}COOH. ► Detection limit and sensitivity were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, respectively.

  15. Selective and sensitized spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of Ni(II) ion using α-benzyl dioxime in surfactant media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang

    2007-02-01

    Highly sensitive and interference-free sensitized spectrophotometric method for the determination of Ni(II) ions is described. The method is based on the reaction between Ni(II) ion and benzyl dioxime in micellar media in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The absorbance is linear from 0.1 up to 25.0 μg mL -1 in aqueous solution with repeatability (RSD) of 1.0% at a concentration of 1 μg mL -1 and a detection limit of 0.12 ng mL -1 and molar absorption coefficient of 68,600 L mol -1 cm -1. The influence of reaction variables including type and amount of surfactant, pH, and amount of ligand and complexation time and the effect of interfering ions are investigated. The proposed procedure was applied to the determination of trace amounts of Ni(II) ion in tap water, river water, chocolate and vegetable without separation or organic solvent extraction.

  16. Highly sensitive and selective voltammetric detection of mercury(II) using an ITO electrode modified with 5-methyl-2-thiouracil, graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, N.; Chen, H.; Li, J.; Chen, L.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an electrochemical sensor for highly selective and sensitive determination of Hg(II). It is based on the specific binding of 5-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU) and Hg(II) to the surface of an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode modified with a composite made from graphene oxide (GO) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). This leads to a largely enhanced differential pulse voltammetric response for Hg(II). Following optimization of the method, a good linear relationship (R = 0.9920) is found between peak current and the concentration of Hg(II) in the 5.0-110.0 nM range. The limit of detection (LOD) is 0.78 nM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. A study on the interference by several metal ions revealed no interferences. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by the analyses of real water samples. The LODs are 6.9, 1.0 and 1.9 nM for tap water, bottled water and lake water samples, respectively, and recoveries for the water samples spiked with 8.0, 50.0 and 100.0 nM were 83.9-96.8 %, with relative standard deviations ranging from 3.3 % to 5.2 %. (author)

  17. Towards the Development of Functionalized PolypyridineLigands for Ru(II Complexes as Photosensitizers inDye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale O. Adeloye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of novel ruthenium(II polypyridine complexes have been designedand synthesized for use as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs due totheir rich photophysical properties such as intense absorption, long-lived lifetimes, highemission quantum yields and unique redox characteristics. Many of these complexesexhibit photophysical behavior that can be readily controlled through a careful choice ofligands and/or substituents. With this perspective, we review the design and general syntheticmethods of some polypyridine ligands based on bipyridine, phenanthroline, terpyridine andquaterpyridine with/without anchoring groups with a view to correlate functionality ofligand structures with the observed photophysical, electroredox and power conversionefficiency of some examples of Ru(II polypyridyl complexes that have been reported andparticularly used in the DSSCs applications. The main interest, however, is focused onshowing the development of new polypyridine ligand materials containing long-rangeelectron transfer motifs such as the alkenyl, alkynyl and polyaromatic donor functionalities.

  18. An immuno-wall microdevice exhibits rapid and sensitive detection of IDH1-R132H mutation specific to grade II and III gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Akane; Kasama, Toshihiro; Ohka, Fumiharu; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kato, Akira; Motomura, Kazuya; Hirano, Masaki; Ranjit, Melissa; Chalise, Lushun; Kurimoto, Michihiro; Kondo, Goro; Aoki, Kosuke; Kaji, Noritada; Tokeshi, Manabu; Matsubara, Toshio; Senga, Takeshi; Kaneko, Mika K.; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hara, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Baba, Yoshinobu; Kato, Yukinari; Natsume, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas most frequently occur in the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Gliomas are not circumscribed; tumor edges are irregular and consist of tumor cells, normal brain tissue, and hyperplastic reactive glial cells. Therefore, the tumors are not fully resectable, resulting in recurrence, malignant progression, and eventual death. Approximately 69-80% of grade II and III gliomas harbor mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1), of which 83-90% are found to be the IDH1-R132H mutation. Detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation should help in the differential diagnosis of grade II and III gliomas from other types of CNS tumors and help determine the boundary between the tumor and normal brain tissue. In this study, we established a highly sensitive antibody-based device, referred to as the immuno-wall, to detect the IDH1-R132H mutation in gliomas. The immuno-wall causes an immunoreaction in microchannels fabricated using a photo-polymerizing polymer. This microdevice enables the analysis of the IDH1 status with a small sample within 15 min with substantially high sensitivity. Our results suggested that 10% content of the IDH1-R132H mutation in a sample of 0.33 μl volume, with 500 ng protein, or from 500 cells is theoretically sufficient for the analysis. The immuno-wall device will enable the rapid and highly sensitive detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation in routine clinical practice.

  19. Resistance to the photosystem II herbicide diuron is dominant to sensitivity in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942

    OpenAIRE

    Brusslan, Judy; Haselkorn, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The transformable cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, was used to study the genetics of resistance to the herbicide diuron. In wild-type cells, diuron binds to one of the core proteins, called D1, of photosystem II reaction centres. This binding prevents the transfer of electrons from QA, the primary quinone acceptor, to QB, which is necessary to create the charge separation that drives ATP synthesis. A single amino acid substitution in the D1 protein reduces diuron binding and confers...

  20. Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: an analysis from the Whitehall II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabák, A.G.; Jokela, M.; Akbaraly, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the timing of changes in glucose metabolism before occurrence of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to characterise trajectories of fasting and postload glucose, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We analysed data...... from our prospective occupational cohort study (Whitehall II study) of 6538 (71% male and 91% white) British civil servants without diabetes mellitus at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 9.7 years, 505 diabetes cases were diagnosed (49.1% on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test). We...... assessed retrospective trajectories of fasting and 2-h postload glucose, homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) insulin sensitivity, and HOMA beta-cell function from up to 13 years before diabetes diagnosis (diabetic group) or at the end of follow-up (non-diabetics). FINDINGS: Multilevel models adjusted...

  1. Optically Transparent Cathode for Co(III/II) Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Graphene Oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Yum, J. H.; Graetzel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 12 (2012), s. 6998-7005 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene oxide * reduced graphene oxide * dye-sensitized solar cell Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 5.008, year: 2012

  2. Improved Titanium Billet Inspection Sensitivity through Optimized Phased Array Design, Part II: Experimental Validation and Comparative Study with Multizone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, W.; Vensel, F.; Knowles, B.; Lupien, V.

    2006-01-01

    The inspection of critical rotating components of aircraft engines has made important advances over the last decade. The development of Phased Array (PA) inspection capability for billet and forging materials used in the manufacturing of critical engine rotating components has been a priority for Honeywell Aerospace. The demonstration of improved PA inspection system sensitivity over what is currently used at the inspection houses is a critical step in the development of this technology and its introduction to the supply base as a production inspection. As described in Part I (in these proceedings), a new phased array transducer was designed and manufactured for optimal inspection of eight inch diameter Ti-6Al-4V billets. After confirming that the transducer was manufactured in accordance with the design specifications a validation study was conducted to assess the sensitivity improvement of the PAI over the current capability of Multi-zone (MZ) inspection. The results of this study confirm the significant (≅ 6 dB in FBH number sign sensitivity) improvement of the PAI sensitivity over that of MZI

  3. Identification of four amino acid substitutions in hexokinase II and studies of relationships to NIDDM, glucose effectiveness, and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler; Bjørbaek, C; Hansen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    not predict any change in amino acid composition of the protein. One homozygous and nine heterozygous carriers of the codon 142 mutation were found among the NIDDM patients. The mutations at codons 148, 497, and 844 were each found in one diabetic subject and only on one allele. There were no carriers......Human hexokinase (HK) II, a glucose phosphorylating enzyme in muscle tissue, plays a central role in glucose metabolism. Since reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and reduced glucose-6-phosphate content in muscle have been demonstrated in pre-non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (pre...

  4. Novel highly active Pt/graphene catalyst for cathodes of Cu(II/I)-mediated dye-sensitized solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Krýsová, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Tarábková, Hana; Saygili, Y.; Freitag, M.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Hagfeldt, A.; Grätzel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 251, OCT 2017 (2017), s. 167-175 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 696656 - GrapheneCore1 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene * platinum * cathode catalyst * dye sensitized solar cell * Cu-complexes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  5. Bunch arrival time monitors; Concepts towards improving the sensitivity for low charge operation for FLASH II and XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penirschke, Andreas; Angelovski, Aleksandar; Jakoby, Rolf [TU Darmstadt, Institut fuer Mikrowellentechnik und Photonik, Merckstr. 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Sydlo, Cezary; Bousonville, Michael; Czwalinna, Marie Kristin; Schlarb, Holger [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kuhl, Alexander [University of Hamburg, Physics Department, Accelerator Physics Group (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2013-07-01

    High gain Free-Electron Lasers can generate ultra short X-ray pulses in the femtosecond range. For a stable operation of the FEL, the precise knowledge of the bunch arrival time is crucial. A novel high bandwidth Bunch Arrival time Monitor was recently installed at FLASH to allow a low charge operation mode with a sub-10 fs resolution for bunch charges of 20 pC or more. The BAM is equipped with cone shaped pickups for the precise measurement of both, the high and low bunch charge operation mode. For the extension of FLASH facility to FLASH II new pickups for the high bandwidth BAMs need to be developed. The new BAM needs to maximize the voltage level of the beam induced signal for low charge operation mode in order to provide sufficient signal strength for the subsequent electronics. In this talk, we present concepts to improve the signal strength at the electro-optic modulators for low charge operation at FLASH II and XFEL.

  6. Vitamin A active metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid, induces spinal cord sensitization. II. Effects after intrathecal administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alique, M; Lucio, F J; Herrero, J F

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: In our previous study (see accompanying paper) we observed that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) p.o. induces changes in spinal cord neuronal responses similar to those observed in inflammation-induced sensitization. In the present study we assessed the it. effects of ATRA, and its mechanisms of action. Experimental approach: The effects of all drugs were studied after it. administration in nociceptive withdrawal reflexes using behavioural tests in awake male Wistar rats. Key results: The administration of ATRA in normal rats induced a dose-dependent enhancement of nociceptive responses to noxious mechanical and thermal stimulation, as well as responses to innocuous stimulation. The intensity of the responses was similar to that observed in non-treated animals after carrageenan-induced inflammation. The effect induced by ATRA was fully prevented by the previous administration of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) pan-antagonist LE540 but not by the retinoid X receptor (RXR) pan-antagonist HX531, suggesting a selective action on spinal cord RARs. The COX inhibitor dexketoprofen and the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist IL-1ra inhibited ATRA effect. The results indicate that COX and interleukin-1 are involved in the effects of ATRA in the spinal cord, similar to that seen in inflammation. Conclusions and implications: In conclusion, ATRA induces changes in the spinal cord similar to those observed in inflammation. The sensitization-like effect induced by ATRA was mediated by RARs and associated with a modulation of COX-2 and interleukin-1 activities. ATRA might be involved in the mechanisms underlying the initiation and/or maintenance of sensitization in the spinal cord. PMID:16847438

  7. NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-mesh Bundle Test (BFBT) Benchmark. Volume II: uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of void distribution and critical power - Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydogan, F.; Hochreiter, L.; Ivanov, K.; Martin, M.; Utsuno, H.; Sartori, E.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides the specification for the uncertainty exercises of the international OECD/NEA, NRC and NUPEC BFBT benchmark problem including the elemental task. The specification was prepared jointly by Pennsylvania State University (PSU), USA and the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety (JNES) Organisation, in cooperation with the OECD/NEA and the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA Saclay, France). The work is sponsored by the US NRC, METI-Japan, the OECD/NEA and the Nuclear Engineering Program (NEP) of Pennsylvania State University. This uncertainty specification covers the fourth exercise of Phase I (Exercise-I-4), and the third exercise of Phase II (Exercise II-3) as well as the elemental task. The OECD/NRC BFBT benchmark provides a very good opportunity to apply uncertainty analysis (UA) and sensitivity analysis (SA) techniques and to assess the accuracy of thermal-hydraulic models for two-phase flows in rod bundles. During the previous OECD benchmarks, participants usually carried out sensitivity analysis on their models for the specification (initial conditions, boundary conditions, etc.) to identify the most sensitive models or/and to improve the computed results. The comprehensive BFBT experimental database (NEA, 2006) leads us one step further in investigating modelling capabilities by taking into account the uncertainty analysis in the benchmark. The uncertainties in input data (boundary conditions) and geometry (provided in the benchmark specification) as well as the uncertainties in code models can be accounted for to produce results with calculational uncertainties and compare them with the measurement uncertainties. Therefore, uncertainty analysis exercises were defined for the void distribution and critical power phases of the BFBT benchmark. This specification is intended to provide definitions related to UA/SA methods, sensitivity/ uncertainty parameters, suggested probability distribution functions (PDF) of sensitivity parameters, and selected

  8. Surface Grafting of Ru(II) Diazonium-Based Sensitizers on Metal Oxides Enhances Alkaline Stability for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangle, Rachel; Sampaio, Renato N; Troian-Gautier, Ludovic; Meyer, Gerald J

    2018-01-24

    The electrografting of [Ru(ttt)(tpy-C 6 H 4 -N 2 + )] 3+ , where "ttt" is 4,4',4″-tri-tert-butyl-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine, was investigated on several wide band gap metal oxide surfaces (TiO 2 , SnO 2 , ZrO 2 , ZnO, In 2 O 3 :Sn) and compared to structurally analogous sensitizers that differed only by the anchoring group, i.e., -PO 3 H 2 and -COOH. An optimized procedure for diazonium electrografting to semiconductor metal oxides is presented that allowed surface coverages that ranged between 4.7 × 10 -8 and 10.6 × 10 -8 mol cm -2 depending on the nature of the metal oxide. FTIR analysis showed the disappearance of the diazonium stretch at 2266 cm -1 after electrografting. XPS analysis revealed a characteristic peak of Ru 3d at 285 eV as well as a peak at 531.6 eV that was attributed to O 1s in Ti-O-C bonds. Photocurrents were measured to assess electron injection efficiency of these modified surfaces. The electrografted sensitizers exhibited excellent stability across a range of pHs spanning from 1 to 14, where classical binding groups such as carboxylic and phosphonic derivatives were hydrolyzed.

  9. Nuclear data sensitivity and uncertainty for the Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor II: Full core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, S.E.; Buijs, A.; Pencer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • H-2, Pu-239, and Th-232 make large contributions to SCWR modelling sensitivity. • H-2, Pu-239, and Th-232 make large contributions to SCWR modelling uncertainty. • Isotopes of Zr make large contributions to SCWR modelling uncertainty. - Abstract: Uncertainties in nuclear data are a fundamental source of uncertainty in reactor physics calculations. To determine their contribution to uncertainties in calculated reactor physics parameters, a nuclear data sensitivity and uncertainty study is performed on the Canadian supercritical water reactor (SCWR) concept. The nuclear data uncertainty contributions to the neutron multiplication factor k eff are 6.31 mk for the SCWR at the beginning of cycle (BOC) and 6.99 mk at the end of cycle (EOC). Both of these uncertainties have a statistical uncertainty of 0.02 mk. The nuclear data uncertainty contributions to Coolant Void Reactivity (CVR) are 1.0 mk and 0.9 mk for BOC and EOC, respectively, both with statistical uncertainties of 0.1 mk. The nuclear data uncertainty contributions to other reactivity parameters range from as low as 3% of to as high as ten times the values of the reactivity coefficients. The largest contributors to the uncertainties in the reactor physics parameters are Pu-239, Th-232, H-2, and isotopes of zirconium

  10. Electrochemical sensors based on gold nanoparticles modified with rhodamine B hydrazide to sensitively detect Cu(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Donglai; Hu, Bin; Kang, Mengmeng [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No. 136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Minghua [Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Environmental Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No.136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); He, Linghao [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No. 136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Zhihong, E-mail: mainzhh@163.com [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No. 136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Environmental Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No.136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Fang, Shaoming, E-mail: mingfang@zzuli.edu.cn [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No. 136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Environmental Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No.136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • An electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles modified with rhodamine B hydrazide (AuNPs-RBH) was developed. • The sensor was applied in the highly sensitive and selective detection of Cu{sup 2+} in water. • The electrochemical sensor displays excellent regeneration, stability, and practicability for Cu{sup 2+} detection. • EIS was used to determine Cu{sup 2+} ions in an aqueous solution with the developed AuNPs-RBH-based electrochemical sensor. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) modified with rhodamine B hydrazide (RBH) (AuNPs-RBH) was developed and applied in the highly sensitive and selective detection of Cu{sup 2+} in water. RBH molecules were bounded onto the surface of AuNPs via the strong interaction between the amino groups and Au NPs. The chemical structure variations were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fluoresence spectroscopy. Additionally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine Cu{sup 2+} ions in an aqueous solution with the developed AuNPs-RBH-based electrochemical sensor. Results show that the fabricated sensor exhibits good electrochemical performance because of the presence of Au NPs and high affinity with the Cu{sup 2+} resulting from the strong coordination chemistry between Cu{sup 2+} and RBH. The as-developed sensor towards detecting Cu{sup 2+} has a detection limitation of 12.5 fM within the concentration range of 0.1 pM–1 nM by using the electrochemical impedance technique. It also displays excellent selectivity, regeneration, stability, and practicability for Cu{sup 2+} detection. Therefore, the new strategy of the RBH-based electrochemical sensor exhibits great potential application in environment treatment and protection.

  11. German validation of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) II: reliability, validity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, H; Kis, B; Hirsch, O; Matthies, S; Hebebrand, J; Uekermann, J; Abdel-Hamid, M; Kraemer, M; Wiltfang, J; Graf, E; Colla, M; Sobanski, E; Alm, B; Rösler, M; Jacob, C; Jans, T; Huss, M; Schimmelmann, B G; Philipsen, A

    2012-07-01

    The German version of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) has proven to show very high model fit in confirmative factor analyses with the established factors inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept in both large healthy control and ADHD patient samples. This study now presents data on the psychometric properties of the German CAARS-self-report (CAARS-S) and observer-report (CAARS-O) questionnaires. CAARS-S/O and questions on sociodemographic variables were filled out by 466 patients with ADHD, 847 healthy control subjects that already participated in two prior studies, and a total of 896 observer data sets were available. Cronbach's-alpha was calculated to obtain internal reliability coefficients. Pearson correlations were performed to assess test-retest reliability, and concurrent, criterion, and discriminant validity. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC-analyses) were used to establish sensitivity and specificity for all subscales. Coefficient alphas ranged from .74 to .95, and test-retest reliability from .85 to .92 for the CAARS-S, and from .65 to .85 for the CAARS-O. All CAARS subscales, except problems with self-concept correlated significantly with the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), but not with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Criterion validity was established with ADHD subtype and diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were high for all four subscales. The reported results confirm our previous study and show that the German CAARS-S/O do indeed represent a reliable and cross-culturally valid measure of current ADHD symptoms in adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Copper (II) complexes of bidentate ligands exhibit potent anti-cancer activity regardless of platinum sensitivity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Mohamed; Lo, Cody; Leung, Ada W Y; Dragowska, Wieslawa H; Ryan, Gemma M; Bally, Marcel B

    2017-12-01

    Insensitivity to platinum, either through inherent or acquired resistance, is a major clinical problem in the treatment of many solid tumors. Here, we explored the therapeutic potential of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), pyrithione (Pyr), plumbagin (Plum), 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ), clioquinol (CQ) copper complexes in a panel of cancer cell lines that differ in their sensitivity to platins (cisplatin/carboplatin) using a high-content imaging system. Our data suggest that the copper complexes were effective against both platinum sensitive (IC 50  ~ 1 μM platinum) and insensitive (IC 50  > 5 μM platinum) cell lines. Furthermore, copper complexes of DDC, Pyr and 8-HQ had greater therapeutic activity compared to the copper-free ligands in all cell lines; whereas the copper-dependent activities of Plum and CQ were cell-line specific. Four of the copper complexes (Cu(DDC) 2 , Cu(Pyr) 2 , Cu(Plum) 2 and Cu(8-HQ) 2 ) showed IC 50 values less than that of cisplatin in all tested cell lines. The complex copper DDC (Cu(DDC) 2 ) was selected for in vivo evaluation due to its low nano-molar range activity in vitro and the availability of an injectable liposomal formulation. Liposomal (Cu(DDC) 2 ) was tested in a fast-growing platinum-resistant A2780-CP ovarian xenograft model and was found to achieve a statistically significant reduction (50%; p < 0.05) in tumour size. This work supports the potential use of copper-based therapeutics to treat cancers that are insensitive to platinum drugs.

  13. The Hybrid II assay: a sensitive and specific real-time hybridization assay for the diagnosis of Theileria parva infection in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Ronel; Potgieter, Fred T; Latif, Abdalla A; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Mans, Ben J

    2011-12-01

    Corridor disease is an acute, fatal disease of cattle caused by buffalo-adapted Theileria parva. This is a nationally controlled disease in South Africa and strict control measures apply for the movement of buffalo, which includes mandatory testing for the presence of T. parva and other controlled diseases. Accurate diagnosis of the T. parva carrier state in buffalo using the official real-time hybridization PCR assay (Sibeko et al. 2008), has been shown to be affected by concurrent infection with T. sp. (buffalo)-like parasites. We describe the Hybrid II assay, a real-time hybridization PCR method, which compares well with the official hybridization assay in terms of specificity and sensitivity. It is, however, not influenced by mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo)-like parasites and is as such a significant improvement on the current hybridization assay.

  14. Sensitive and selective colorimetric detection of cadmium(II) using gold nanoparticles modified with 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ai-Jun; Feng, Jiu-Ju; Guo, Han; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Zhou, Dan-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a simple, sensitive and selective colorimetric method for the detection of cadmium(II) (Cd 2+ ) using gold nanoparticles modified with 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole. Organic solvents or additives are not required. It is found that Cd 2+ induces the aggregation of the modified Au-NPs via chelation, leading to a color change from red to blue. This change can be seen with bare eyes, and monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The detection limit is 30 nM (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The new approach was successfully applied to the detection of Cd 2+ in spiked samples of tap water and lake water, and the results agree well with those obtained by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  15. The NAA system at the reactor BER II clinical analysis of fluorine, calcium, phosphorus and aluminium in bone biopsies, comparison with photon activation analysis and ion sensitive electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawlik, D.; Gatschke, W.; Behne, D.; Braetter, P.

    1981-01-01

    Over the past few years an irradiation and measuring system has been developed for the reactor BER II at the Hahn-Meitner-Institute. It was to be suited in particular to the neutron activation analysis of biological material via short lived radionuclides. The general characteristics of this equipment and some experimental details as the recycling facility and the device used for measuring the irradiation time, the waiting time and the neutron fluency are described. This equipment was used to determine physiological concentrations of the elements sodium, chlorine, aluminium, phosphorus, fluorine, calcium, copper and selenium in biological material. The results have been compared with those obtained by photon activation analysis or ion sensitive electrode. As an example of the application of the apparatus the authors report on the clinical analysis of Ca, F, P and Al in the control of the treatment of patients suffering from osteoporosis. (author)

  16. Field-Deployable Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) Assay for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambagala, A; Fisher, M; Goolia, M; Nfon, C; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Ortega Polo, R; Lung, O

    2017-10-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which can decimate the livestock industry and economy of countries previously free of this disease. Rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is critical to containing an FMD outbreak. Availability of a rapid, highly sensitive and specific, yet simple and field-deployable assay would support local decision-making during an FMDV outbreak. Here we report validation of a novel reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) assay that can be performed on a commercially available, compact and portable POCKIT ™ analyser that automatically analyses data and displays '+' or '-' results. The FMDV RT-iiPCR assay targets the 3D region of the FMDV genome and was capable of detecting 9 copies of in vitro-transcribed RNA standard with 95% confidence. It accurately identified 63 FMDV strains belonging to all seven serotypes and showed no cross-reactivity with viruses causing similar clinical diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. The assay was able to identify FMDV RNA in multiple sample types including oral, nasal and lesion swabs, epithelial tissue suspensions, vesicular and oral fluid samples, even before the appearance of clinical signs. Clinical sensitivity of the assay was comparable or slightly higher than the laboratory-based real-time RT-PCR assay in use. The assay was able to detect FMDV RNA in vesicular fluid samples without nucleic acid extraction. For RNA extraction from more complex sample types, a commercially available taco ™ mini transportable magnetic bead-based, automated extraction system was used. This assay provides a potentially useful field-deployable diagnostic tool for rapid detection of FMDV in an outbreak in FMD-free countries or for routine diagnostics in endemic countries with less structured laboratory systems. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.

  17. NEMA, a functional-structural model of nitrogen economy within wheat culms after flowering. II. Evaluation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheloot, Jessica; Wu, Qiongli; Cournède, Paul-Henry; Andrieu, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Simulating nitrogen economy in crop plants requires formalizing the interactions between soil nitrogen availability, root nitrogen acquisition, distribution between vegetative organs and remobilization towards grains. This study evaluates and analyses the functional-structural and mechanistic model of nitrogen economy, NEMA (Nitrogen Economy Model within plant Architecture), developed for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) after flowering. NEMA was calibrated for field plants under three nitrogen fertilization treatments at flowering. Model behaviour was investigated and sensitivity to parameter values was analysed. Nitrogen content of all photosynthetic organs and in particular nitrogen vertical distribution along the stem and remobilization patterns in response to fertilization were simulated accurately by the model, from Rubisco turnover modulated by light intercepted by the organ and a mobile nitrogen pool. This pool proved to be a reliable indicator of plant nitrogen status, allowing efficient regulation of nitrogen acquisition by roots, remobilization from vegetative organs and accumulation in grains in response to nitrogen treatments. In our simulations, root capacity to import carbon, rather than carbon availability, limited nitrogen acquisition and ultimately nitrogen accumulation in grains, while Rubisco turnover intensity mostly affected dry matter accumulation in grains. NEMA enabled interpretation of several key patterns usually observed in field conditions and the identification of plausible processes limiting for grain yield, protein content and root nitrogen acquisition that could be targets for plant breeding; however, further understanding requires more mechanistic formalization of carbon metabolism. Its strong physiological basis and its realistic behaviour support its use to gain insights into nitrogen economy after flowering.

  18. Gel electrolytes with I-/I3- redox mediator based on methylcellulose for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, S. Z.; Woo, H. J.; Careem, M. A.; Arof, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    A new gel electrolyte comprising methylcellulose (MC), LiBOB and succinonitrile (SN) has been prepared with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent. The electrolyte with composition 8.73 wt % MC-2.92 wt % LiBOB-1.01 wt % SN-87.34 wt % DMSO exhibits the highest conductivity of 1.18 mS cm-1 at 25 °C. On partially substituting LiBOB with TMAI, the sample designated as TMAI 95 has the highest conducting composition of 8.70 wt % MC-0.14 wt % LiBOB-1.01 wt % SN-2.77 wt % TMAI-0.35 wt % I2-87.03 wt % DMSO. The conductivity is 1.96 mS cm-1. This sample is used to fabricate a dye sensitized photovoltaic cell that converts photons to electricity at an efficiency of 3.46%. The conductivity of this sample has been enhanced to 3.08 mS cm-1 on addition of 1.0 wt % butyl-methyl immidazolium iodide (BMII) ionic liquid and the efficiency of the cell fabricated is 4.63%. Total replacement of LiBOB component in the electrolyte with the same amount of LiI results in a conductivity increase of ∼23.5% and the DSSC exhibits a 5.72% efficiency.

  19. Acid-base properties of the N3 ruthenium(II) solar cell sensitizer: a combined experimental and computational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzoli, Giuliano; Lobello, Maria Grazia; Carlotti, Benedetta; Elisei, Fausto; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Vitillaro, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Filippo

    2012-10-14

    We report a combined spectro-photometric and computational investigation of the acid-base equilibria of the N3 solar cell sensitizer [Ru(dcbpyH(2))(2)(NCS)(2)] (dcbpyH(2) = 4,4'-dicarboxyl-2,2' bipyridine) in aqueous/ethanol solutions. The absorption spectra of N3 recorded at various pH values were analyzed by Single Value Decomposition techniques, followed by Global Fitting procedures, allowing us to identify four separate acid-base equilibria and their corresponding ground state pK(a) values. DFT/TDDFT calculations were performed for the N3 dye in solution, investigating the possible relevant species obtained by sequential deprotonation of the four dye carboxylic groups. TDDFT excited state calculations provided UV-vis absorption spectra which nicely agree with the experimental spectral shapes at various pH values. The calculated pK(a) values are also in good agreement with experimental data, within <1 pK(a) unit. Based on the calculated energy differences a tentative assignment of the N3 deprotonation pathway is reported.

  20. Molecular Engineering, Photophysical and Electrochemical Characterizations of Novel Ru(II) and BODIPY Sensitizers for Mesoporous TiO2 Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Hammad Arshad

    To realize the dream of a low carbon society and ensure the wide spread application of renewable energy sources such as solar energy, photovoltaic devices should be highly efficient, cost-effective and stable for at least 20 years. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are photovoltaic cells that mimic the natural photosynthesis. In a DSC, the dye absorbs photons from incident light and converts those photons to electric charges, which are then extracted to the outer circuit through semiconductor TiO2, whereas the mediator regenerates the oxidized dye. A sensitizer is the pivotal component in the device in terms of determining the spectral response, color, photocurrent density, long term stability, and thickness of a DSC. The breakthrough report by O'Regan and Gratzel in 1991 has garnered more than 18,673 citations (as of October 9, 2014), which indicates the immense scientific interest to better understand and improve the fundamental science of this technology. With the aforementioned in mind, this study has focused on the molecular engineering of novel sensitizers to provide a better understanding of structure-property relationships of novel sensitizers for DSCs. The characterization of sensitizers (HD-1-mono, HD-2-mono and HD-2) for photovoltaic applications showed that the photocurrent response of DSCs can be increased by using mono-ancillary ligand instead of bis-ancillary ligands, which is of great commercial value considering the difference in the molecular weights of both dyes. The results of this work were published in Journal of Materials Chemistry A (doi:10.1039/c4ta01942c) and ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (doi: 10.1021/am502400b). Furthermore, structure-property relationships were investigated in Ru (II) sensitizers HL-41 and HL-42 in order to elucidate the steric effects of electron donating ancillary ligands on photocurrent and photovoltage, as discussed in Chapter 4. It was found that the electron donating group (ethoxy) ortho to the CH=CH spacer

  1. Electronic optimization of heteroleptic Ru(II) bipyridine complexes by remote substituents: synthesis, characterization, and application to dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Won-Sik; Han, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Young; Choi, Mi Jin; Kang, Yong-Soo; Pac, Chyongjin; Kang, Sang Ook

    2011-04-18

    We prepared a series of new heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complexes, Ru(NCS)(2)LL' (3a-3e), where L is 4,4'-di(hydroxycarbonyl)-2,2'-bipyridine and L' is 4,4'-di(p-X-phenyl)-2,2'-pyridine (X = CN (a), F (b), H (c), OMe (d), and NMe(2) (e)), in an attempt to explore the structure-activity relationships in their photophysical and electrochemical behavior and in their performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). When substituent X is changed from electron-donating NMe(2) to electron-withdrawing CN, the absorption and emission maxima reveal systematic bathochromic shifts. The redox potentials of these dyes are also significantly influenced by X. The electronic properties of the dyes were theoretically analyzed using density functional theory calculations; the results show good correlations with the experimental results. The solar-cell performance of DSSCs based on dye-grafted nanocrystalline TiO(2) using 3a-3e and standard N3 (bis[(4,4'-carboxy-2,2'-bipyridine)(thiocyanato)]ruthenium(II)) were compared, revealing substantial dependences on the dye structures, particularly on the remote substituent X. The 3d-based device showed the best performance: η = 8.30%, J(SC) = 16.0 mA·cm(-2), V(OC) = 717 mV, and ff = 0.72. These values are better than N3-based device.

  2. Activation of thiazide-sensitive co-transport by angiotensin II in the cyp1a1-Ren2 hypertensive rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ashek

    Full Text Available Transgenic rats with inducible expression of the mouse Ren2 gene were used to elucidate mechanisms leading to the development of hypertension and renal injury. Ren2 transgene activation was induced by administration of a naturally occurring aryl hydrocarbon, indole-3-carbinol (100 mg/kg/day by gastric gavage. Blood pressure and renal parameters were recorded in both conscious and anesthetized (butabarbital sodium; 120 mg/kg IP rats at selected time-points during the development of hypertension. Hypertension was evident by the second day of treatment, being preceded by reduced renal sodium excretion due to activation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride co-transporter. Renal injury was evident after the first day of transgene induction, being initially limited to the pre-glomerular vasculature. Mircoalbuminuria and tubuloinsterstitial injury developed once hypertension was established. Chronic treatment with either hydrochlorothiazide or an AT1 receptor antagonist normalized sodium reabsorption, significantly blunted hypertension and prevented renal injury. Urinary aldosterone excretion was increased ≈ 20 fold, but chronic mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism with spironolactone neither restored natriuretic capacity nor prevented hypertension. Spironolactone nevertheless ameliorated vascular damage and prevented albuminuria. This study finds activation of sodium-chloride co-transport to be a key mechanism in angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. Furthermore, renal vascular injury in this setting reflects both barotrauma and pressure-independent pathways associated with direct detrimental effects of angiotensin II and aldosterone.

  3. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme E2-EPF Is Overexpressed in Primary Breast Cancer and Modulates Sensitivity to Topoisomerase II Inhibition1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Donato; Zhang, Jianhuan; Trinh, Lan; Lalehzadeh, Guita; Meisner, Rene; Yamaguchi, Ken D; Ruderman, Daniel L; Dinter, Harald; Zajchowski, Deborah A

    2007-01-01

    We identified the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF mRNA as differentially expressed in breast tumors relative to normal tissues and performed studies to elucidate its putative role in cancer. We demonstrated that overexpression of E2-EPF protein correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) negativity in breast cancer specimens and that its expression is cell cycle-regulated, suggesting a potential function for E2-EPF in cell cycle progression. However, reduction of E2-EPF protein levels by > 80% using RNAi had no significant effects on the proliferation of HeLa cervical cancer cells or ER- MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. Because E2-EPF protein levels were elevated during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and because E2-EPF mRNA in tumor specimens was frequently coexpressed with genes involved in cell cycle control, spindle assembly, and mitotic surveillance, the possibility that E2-EPF might have a function in the cellular response to agents that induce a G2 checkpoint or an M checkpoint was investigated. E2-EPF knockdown sensitized HeLa cells to the topoisomerase (topo) II inhibitors etoposide and doxorubicin and also increased topo IIα protein levels. These data suggest that combined administration of topo II-directed drugs and E2-EPF inhibitors may enhance their clinical effectiveness. PMID:17710163

  4. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme E2-EPF Is Overexpressed in Primary Breast Cancer and Modulates Sensitivity to Topoisomerase II Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Tedesco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We identified the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2EPF mRNA as differentially expressed in breast tumors relative to normal tissues and performed studies to elucidate its putative role in cancer. We demonstrated that overexpression of E2-EPF protein correlated with estrogen receptor (ER negativity in breast cancer specimens and that its expression is cell cycleregulated, suggesting a potential function for E2-EPF in cell cycle progression. However, reduction of E2EPF protein levels by > 80% using RNAi had no significant effects on the proliferation of HeLa cervical cancer cells or ER- MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. Because E2-EPF protein levels were elevated during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and because E2-EPF mRNA in tumor specimens was frequently coexpressed with genes involved in cell cycle control, spindle assembly, and mitotic surveillance, the possibility that E2-EPF might have a function in the cellular response to agents that induce a G2 checkpoint or an M checkpoint was investigated. E2-EPF knockdown sensitized HeLa cells to the topoisomerase (topo II inhibitors etoposide and doxorubicin and also increased topo IIα protein levels. These data suggest that combined administration of topo II-directed drugs and E2-EPF inhibitors may enhance their clinical effectiveness.

  5. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF is overexpressed in primary breast cancer and modulates sensitivity to topoisomerase II inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Donato; Zhang, Jianhuan; Trinh, Lan; Lalehzadeh, Guita; Meisner, Rene; Yamaguchi, Ken D; Ruderman, Daniel L; Dinter, Harald; Zajchowski, Deborah A

    2007-07-01

    We identified the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF mRNA as differentially expressed in breast tumors relative to normal tissues and performed studies to elucidate its putative role in cancer. We demonstrated that overexpression of E2-EPF protein correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) negativity in breast cancer specimens and that its expression is cell cycle-regulated, suggesting a potential function for E2-EPF in cell cycle progression. However, reduction of E2-EPF protein levels by > 80% using RNAi had no significant effects on the proliferation of HeLa cervical cancer cells or ER(-) MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. Because E2-EPF protein levels were elevated during the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle and because E2-EPF mRNA in tumor specimens was frequently coexpressed with genes involved in cell cycle control, spindle assembly, and mitotic surveillance, the possibility that E2-EPF might have a function in the cellular response to agents that induce a G(2) checkpoint or an M checkpoint was investigated. E2-EPF knockdown sensitized HeLa cells to the topoisomerase (topo) II inhibitors etoposide and doxorubicin and also increased topo IIalpha protein levels. These data suggest that combined administration of topo II-directed drugs and E2-EPF inhibitors may enhance their clinical effectiveness.

  6. Exploitation of knowledge databases in the synthesis of zinc(II malonates with photo-sensitive and photo-insensitive N,N′-containing linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina N. Zorina-Tikhonova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Photoinitiated solid-state reactions are known to affect the physical properties of coordination polymers, such as fluorescence and sorption behaviour, and also afford extraordinary architectures (e.g. three-periodic structures with polyorganic ligands. However, the construction of novel photo-sensitive coordination polymers requires an understanding of the factors which govern the mutual disposition of reactive fragments. A series of zinc(II malonate complexes with 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-ylethylene and its photo-insensitive analogues has been synthesized for the purpose of systematic analysis of their underlying nets and mutual disposition of N-donor ligands. The application of a big data-set analysis for the prediction of a variety of possible complex compositions, coordination environments and networks for a four-component system has been demonstrated for the first time. Seven of the nine compounds possess one of the highly probable topologies for their underlying nets; in addition, two novel closely related four-coordinated networks were obtained. Complexes containing 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-ylethylene and 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-ylethane form isoreticular compounds more readily than those with 4,4′-bipyridine and 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-ylethylene. The effects of the precursor, either zinc(II nitrate or zinc(II acetate, on the composition and dimensionality of the resulting architecture are discussed. For three of the four novel complexes containing 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-ylethylene, the single-crystal-to-single-crystal [2 + 2] cycloaddition reactions were carried out. UV irradiation of these crystals afforded either the 0D→1D or the 3D→3D transformations, with and without network changes. One of the two 3D→3D transformations was accompanied by solvent (H2O cleavage.

  7. A highly sensitive amperometric sensor for oxygen based on iron(II) tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine and iron(III) tetra-(N-methyl-pyridyl)-porphyrin multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Juliana C.; Luz, Rita C.S.; Damos, Flavio S.; Tanaka, Auro A.; Kubota, Lauro T.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a highly sensitive sensor for oxygen is proposed using a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with alternated layers of iron(II) tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (FeTsPc) and iron(III) tetra-(N-methyl-pyridyl)-porphyrin (FeT4MPyP). The modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction. The reduction potential of the oxygen was shifted about 330 mV toward less negative values with this modified electrode, presenting a peak current much higher than those observed on a bare GC electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode (RDE) experiments indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction involves 4 electrons with a heterogenous rate constant (k obs ) of 3 x 10 5 mol -1 L s -1 . A linear response range from 0.2 up to 6.4 mg L -1 , with a sensitivity of 4.12 μA L mg -1 (or 20.65 μA cm -2 L mg -1 ) and a detection limit of 0.06 mg L -1 were obtained with this sensor. The repeatability of the proposed sensor, evaluated in terms of relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 2.0% for 10 measurements of a solution of 6.4 mg L -1 oxygen. The sensor was applied to determine oxygen in pond and tap water samples showing to be a promising tool for this purpose

  8. Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to global warming. Part II: sensitivity of permafrost carbon stock to global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvorostyanov, D.V.; Ciais, G. (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et l' Environnement, Saclay (France)); Krinner, G. (Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, St Martin d' Heres (France)). e-mail: Dimitry.Khvorostiyanov@lsce.ipsl.fr; Zimov, S.A. (Northeast Science Station, Cherskii (RU)); Corradi, C. (UNITUS, Univ. of Tuscia, Veterbo (Italy)); Guggenberger, G. (Inst. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Martin-Luther-Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (DE))

    2008-07-01

    In the companion paper (Part I), we presented a model of permafrost carbon cycle to study the sensitivity of frozen carbon stocks to future climate warming. The mobilization of deep carbon stock of the frozen Pleistocene soil in the case of rapid stepwise increase of atmospheric temperature was considered. In this work, we adapted the model to be used also for floodplain tundra sites and to account for the processes in the soil active layer. The new processes taken into account are litter input and decomposition, plant-mediated transport of methane, and leaching of exudates from plant roots. The SRES-A2 transient climate warming scenario of the IPSL CM4 climate model is used to study the carbon fluxes from the carbon-rich Pleistocene soil with seasonal active-layer carbon cycling on top of it. For a point to the southwest from the western branch of Yedoma Ice Complex, where the climate warming is strong enough to trigger self-sustainable decomposition processes, about 256 kg C/m2, or 70% of the initial soil carbon stock under present-day climate conditions, are emitted to the atmosphere in about 120 yr, including 20 kg C/m2 released as methane. The total average flux of CO{sub 2} and methane emissions to the atmosphere during this time is of 2.1 kg C/m2/yr. Within the Yedoma, whose most part of the territory remains relatively cold, the emissions are much smaller: 0.2 kg C/m2/yr between 2050 and 2100 for Yakutsk area. In a test case with saturated upper-soil meter, when the runoff is insufficient to evacuate the meltwater, 0.05 kg CH{sub 4}/m2/yr on average are emitted as methane during 250 yr starting from 2050. The latter can translate to the upper bound of 1 GtC/yr in CO{sub 2} equivalent from the 1 million km2 area of the Yedoma

  9. The effect of potential upon the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low-alloy steels. Part 1: Crack growth results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Moshier, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion-fatigue crack propagation experiments were conducted on several low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments, and experimental parameters included temperature, sulfur content of the steel, applied potential level, and dissolved hydrogen (and in one case, dissolved oxygen) concentration in the water. Specimen potentials were controlled potentiostatically, and the observation (or non-observation) of accelerated fatigue crack growth rates was a complex function of the above parameters. Electrochemical results and the postulated explanation for the complex behavior are given in Part II

  10. Investigation of Electrodeposited Alloys and Pure Metals as Substitutes for Zinc and Cadmium for Protective Finishes for Steel Parts of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-09-01

    H- iSt .»^iifeäu tau ji.j iÄüi ,j WtoSSWi.Ä^/VJSänssMSw Reproduced by n@ & © © [j cjiiiiL 10 DQCumtnTS Office WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR...as •a-s •a a 4 Ortrt O r-4 O ii ° ° _ ÖS3 III 8 a a «aw o •-< VC- VIH o • • «H O O •3-3 3 o o A an 4* & o CM CM •33

  11. Feasibility study for an airborne high-sensitivity gamma-ray survey of Alaska. Phase II (final) report: 1976--1979 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This study constitutes a determination of the extent to which it is feasible to use airborne, high-sensitivity gamma spectrometer systems for uranium reconnaissance in the State of Alaska, and specification of a preliminary plan for surveying the entire state of the 1975--1979 time frame. Phase I included the design of a program to survey the highest priority areas in 1975 using available aircraft and spectrometer equipment. This has now resulted in a contract for 10,305 flight line miles to cover about 11 of the 1:250,000 scale quadrangles using a DC-3 aircraft with an average 6.25 x 25 mile grid of flight line. Phase II includes the design of alternative programs to cover the remaining 128 quadrangles using either a DC-3 and a Bell 205A helicopter or a Helio Stallion STOL aircraft and a Bell 205A helicopter during 1976-1979. The 1976-1979 time frame allows some time for possible new system developments in both airborne gamma-ray spectrometers and in ancillary equipment, and these are outlined. (auth)

  12. Scattering amplitudes and static atomic correction factors for the composition-sensitive 002 reflection in sphalerite ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, M; Müller, K; Rosenauer, A

    2012-01-01

    Modified atomic scattering amplitudes (MASAs), taking into account the redistribution of charge due to bonds, and the respective correction factors considering the effect of static atomic displacements were computed for the chemically sensitive 002 reflection for ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors. MASAs were derived from computations within the density functional theory formalism. Binary eight-atom unit cells were strained according to each strain state s (thin, intermediate, thick and fully relaxed electron microscopic specimen) and each concentration (x = 0, …, 1 in 0.01 steps), where the lattice parameters for composition x in strain state s were calculated using continuum elasticity theory. The concentration dependence was derived by computing MASAs for each of these binary cells. Correction factors for static atomic displacements were computed from relaxed atom positions by generating 50 × 50 × 50 supercells using the lattice parameter of the eight-atom unit cells. Atoms were randomly distributed according to the required composition. Polynomials were fitted to the composition dependence of the MASAs and the correction factors for the different strain states. Fit parameters are given in the paper.

  13. Blood pressure, magnesium and other mineral balance in two rat models of salt-sensitive, induced hypertension: effects of a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón, Lusliany Josefina; Marcano, Eunice; Rodríguez, Fátima; del Castillo, Jesús Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is critically involved in regulating arterial blood pressure (BP). Inappropriate angiotensin type-1 receptor activation by angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is related to increased arterial BP. Mg has a role in BP; it can affect cardiac electrical activity, myocardial contractility, and vascular tone. To evaluate the relationship between high BP induced by a high sodium (Na) diet and Mg, and other mineral balances, two experimental rat models of salt-sensitive, induced-hypertension were used: Ang-II infused and Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We found that: 1) Ang-II infusion progressively increased BP, which was accompanied by hypomagnesuria and signs of secondary hyperaldosteronism; 2) an additive effect between Ang-II and a high Na load may have an effect on strontium (Sr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) balances; 3) Dahl SS rats fed a high Na diet had a slow pressor response, accompanied by altered Mg, Na, potassium (K), and phosphate (P) balances; and 4) losartan prevented BP increases induced by Ang II-NaCl, but did not modify mineral balances. In Dahl SS rats, losartan attenuated high BP and ameliorated magnesemia, Na and K balances. Mg metabolism maybe considered a possible defect in this strain of rat that may contribute to hypertension.

  14. Sensitivity and specificity of four assays to detect human T-lymphotropic virus type I or type I/II antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrielink, H.; Reesink, H. W.; Zaaijer, H. L.; van der Poel, C. L.; Cuypers, H. T.; Lelie, P. N.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assays that detect human T-lymphotropic virus type I and type II antibody (HTLV-I/II) are widely used in the routine screening of blood donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Four commercially available anti-HTLV-I (Fujirebio and Organon Teknika) or -HTLV-I/II assays (Murex and Ortho) were

  15. A randomized phase II study of carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus carboplatin plus paclitaxel in platinum sensitive ovarian cancer patients: a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briasoulis Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platinum-based combinations are the standard second-line treatment for platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer (OC. This randomized phase II study was undertaken in order to compare the combination of carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (LD with carboplatin and paclitaxel (CP in this setting. Methods Patients with histologically confirmed recurrent OC, at the time of or more than 6 months after platinum-based chemotherapy, were randomized to six cycles of CP (carboplatin AUC5 + paclitaxel 175 mg/m2, d1q21 or CLD (carboplatin AUC5 + pegylated LD 45 mg/m2, d1q28. Results A total of 189 eligible patients (CP 96, CLD 93, with a median age of 63 years, median Performance Status (PS 0 and a median platinum free interval (PFI of 16.5 months, entered the study. Discontinuation due to toxicity was higher in the CP patients (13.5% versus 3%, P = 0.016. The overall response rate was similar: CP 58% versus CLD 51%, P = 0.309 (Complete Response; CR 34% versus 23% and there was no statistical difference in time-to-progression (TTP or overall survival (OS; TTP 10.8 months CP versus 11.8 CLD, P = 0.904; OS 29.4 months CP versus 24.7 CLD, P = 0.454. No toxic deaths were recorded. Neutropenia was the most commonly seen severe toxicity (CP 30% versus CLD 35%. More frequent in CLD were severe thrombocytopenia (11% versus 2%, P = 0.016, skin toxicity and Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE grade 1-2 (38% versus 9%, PP = 0.029, 20% versus 5%, P = 0.003. PS and PFI were independent prognostic factors for TTP and OS. Conclusions The combination of pegylated LD with carboplatin is effective, showing less neurotoxicity and alopecia than paclitaxel-carboplatin. It thus warrants a further phase III evaluation as an alternative treatment option for platinum-sensitive OC patients. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000436279

  16. Detection of endotoxins in radiopharmaceutical preparations. II. Comparison of the sensitivity of methods using the rabbit and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate for the detection of endotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, J; Cohen, Y; Merlin, L; Peysson, S

    1986-01-01

    The rise of the rabbit internal temperature after i.v. injection of an endotoxin solution is proportional to concentration. Gelation of Limulus amoebocyte, when in presence of an endotoxin solution, is also related to concentration. We compared the sensitivity of these two methods. With our experimental procedure, the rabbit is sensitive to a 0.40 ng/mL solution and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate to a 0.14 ng/mL solution. The rabbit sensitivity increase is related to the per kilogramme injected volume, whereas sensitivity is not related to the volume to check in the case of the lysate.

  17. The calibration of spectrometers for Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers part II - the determination of the electron spectrometer transmission function and the detector sensitivity energy dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Seah, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    For the use of published general or theoretical sensitivity factors in quantitative AES and XPS the energy dependence of both the spectrometer transmission function and the detector sensitivity must be known. Here we develop simple procedures which allow these dependencies to be determined experimentally. Detailed measurements for a modified VG Scientific ESCALAB II, the metrology spectrometer, operated in both the constant ΔE/E and constant ΔE modes, are presented and compared with theoretical estimates. It is shown that an exceptionally detailed electron-optical calculation, involving proprietary information, would be required to match the accuracy of the experimental procedures developed. Removal of the spectrometer transmission function and the detector sensitivity terms allows the measured spectrum to be converted to the true electron emission spectrum irrespective of the mode of operation. This provides the first step to the provision of reference samples to calibrate the transmission functions and detector sensitivities of all instruments so that they, in turn, may produce true electron emission spectra. This is vital if (i) all instruments are to give consistent results, (ii) theoretical terms are to be used in quantifying either AES or XPS and (iii) reference data banks are to be established for AES or XPS

  18. THE PRESENCE OF A B SUBUNIT INCREASES SENSITIVITY OF SODIUM CHANNEL NAV1.3, BUT NOT NAV1.2, TO TYPE II PYRETHROIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) are a primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. VSSCs are comprised of a pore-forming ¿ and auxillary ß subunits, and multiple isoforms of both subunit types exist. The sensitivity of different isoform combinations to pyrethroids has not...

  19. Impact of triphenyltin acetate in microcosms simulating floodplain lakes; II comparison of species sensitivity distributions between laboratory and semi-field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Crum, S.J.H.; Brink, van den P.J.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The study objectives were to shed light on the types of freshwater organism that are sensitive to triphenyltin acetate (TPT) and to compare the laboratory and microcosm sensitivities of the invertebrate community. The responses of a wide array of freshwater taxa (including invertebrates,

  20. Emulsification based dispersive liquid microextraction prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the sensitive determination of Cd(II) in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Banan, Alireza; Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Nazari, Zakieh; Asghari, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    We report on the application of emulsification-based dispersive liquid micro extraction (EB-DLME) to the preconcentration of Cd(II). This procedure not only possesses all the advantages of routine DLLME, but also results in a more stable cloudy state which is particularly useful when coupling it to FAAS. In EB-DLME, appropriate amounts of the extraction solvent (a solution of dithizone in chloroform) and an aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; acting as a disperser) are injected into the samples. A stable cloudy microemulsion is formed and Cd(II) ion is extracted by chelation. After phase separation, the sedimented phase is subjected to FAAS. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curve for Cd(II) is linear in the range from 0.1 to 25 μg L −1 , the limit of detection (at S/N = 3) is 30 pg L −1 , the relative standard deviations for seven replicate analyses (at 0.56 μg L −1 of Cd(II)) is 4.6 %, and the enrichment factor is 151. EB-DLME in our opinion is a simple, efficient and rapid method for the preconcentration of Cd(II) (and most likely of many other ions) prior to FAAS determination. (author)

  1. Impact of triphenyltin acetate in microcosms simulating floodplain lakes. II. Comparison of species sensitivity distributions between laboratory and semi-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessink, I; Belgers, J D M; Crum, S J H; van den Brink, P J; Brock, T C M

    2006-07-01

    The study objectives were to shed light on the types of freshwater organism that are sensitive to triphenyltin acetate (TPT) and to compare the laboratory and microcosm sensitivities of the invertebrate community. The responses of a wide array of freshwater taxa (including invertebrates, phytoplankton and macrophytes) from acute laboratory Single Species Tests (SST) were compared with the concentration-response relationships of aquatic populations in two types of freshwater microcosms. Representatives of several taxonomic groups of invertebrates, and several phytoplankton and vascular plant species proved to be sensitive to TPT, illustrating its diverse modes of toxic action. Statistically calculated ecological risk thresholds (HC5 values) based on 96 h laboratory EC50 values for invertebrates were 1.3 microg/l, while these values on the basis of microcosm-Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD) for invertebrates in sampling weeks 2-8 after TPT treatment ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 microg/l based on nominal peak concentrations. Responses observed in the microcosms did not differ between system types and sampling dates, indicating that ecological threshold levels are not affected by different community structures including taxa sensitive to TPT. The laboratory-derived invertebrate SSD curve was less sensitive than the curves from the microcosms. Possible explanations for the more sensitive field response are delayed effects and/or additional chronic exposure via the food chain in the microcosms.

  2. A novel voltammetric sensor for sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions using glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene-based ion imprinted polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanei-Motlagh, Masoud, E-mail: m.ghaneimotlagh@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taher, Mohammad Ali; Heydari, Abolfazl [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanei-Motlagh, Reza [Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gupta, Vinod K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel strategy was proposed to prepare ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Polymerization was performed using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, 2,2′–((9E,10E)–1,4–dihydroxyanthracene–9,10–diylidene) bis(hydrazine–1–carbothioamide) (DDBHCT) as the chelating agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator, via surface imprinted technique. The RGO–IIP was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrochemical procedure was based on the accumulation of Hg(II) ions at the surface of a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with RGO–IIP. The prepared RGO–IIP sensor has higher voltammetric response compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), traditional IIP and RGO. The RGO–IIP modified electrode exhibited a linear relationship toward Hg(II) concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 80 μg L{sup −1}. The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.02 μg L{sup −1} (S/N = 3), below the guideline value from the World Health Organization (WHO). The applicability of the proposed electrochemical sensor to determination of mercury(II) ions in different water samples was reported. - Highlights: • The novel Hg(II)-imprinted polymer was synthesized and characterized. • The resulting RGO–IIP was applied for electrochemical monitoring of Hg(II) ions. • The proposed sensor was successfully applied for determination of Hg(II) in real water samples.

  3. Impact of triphenyltin acetate in microcosms simulating floodplain lakes; II comparison of species sensitivity distributions between laboratory and semi-field

    OpenAIRE

    Roessink, I.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Crum, S.J.H.; Brink, van den, P.J.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The study objectives were to shed light on the types of freshwater organism that are sensitive to triphenyltin acetate (TPT) and to compare the laboratory and microcosm sensitivities of the invertebrate community. The responses of a wide array of freshwater taxa (including invertebrates, phytoplankton and macrophytes) from acute laboratory Single Species Tests (SST) were compared with the concentration¿response relationships of aquatic populations in two types of freshwater microcosms. Repres...

  4. Sensitivity of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition (WASI-II) to the neurocognitive deficits associated with the semantic dementia variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontkovsky, Samuel T

    2017-01-01

    This case study of a 71-year-old woman illustrates the clinical utility of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition (WASI-II) in assessing the neurocognitive sequelae of the semantic dementia variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Obtained scores revealed a decline in estimated Full Scale IQ from the patient's expected premorbid level. Consistent with her initial onset of neuropathology in the left temporal lobe, the WASI-II yielded a difference of 53 standard score points between the Perceptual Reasoning and Verbal Comprehension composites, reflecting the patient's intact capabilities in visuospatial perception and construction in conjunction with marked disturbances of language. The similarities subtest was particularly sensitive to the patient's neurocognitive deficits. WASI-II scores corresponded well with the results obtained from other administered measures, in particular those from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Findings provide support for use of the WASI-II in the clinical evaluation of semantic dementia and offer preliminary evidence that the test may be helpful in both lateralization and localization of brain lesions.

  5. Fluorescent chemosensor based on urea/thiourea moiety for sensing of Hg(II) ions in an aqueous medium with high sensitivity and selectivity: A comparative account on effect of molecular architecture on chemosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jayanti; Kaur, Harpreet; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Kaur, Navneet

    2018-06-01

    Mercury is a well-known heavy metal ion which is extremely poisonous to health but is still employed in the form of mercury salts and organomercury compounds in various industrial, anthropological and agricultural activities. Henceforth, its sensing in aqueous medium is an area of great interest in order to avoid its hazardous effect. In the present manuscript, urea/thiourea linkage bearing four organic ligands (1a, 1b, 2a and 2b) are synthesized by a three-step synthetic approach. The organic ligands were then employed to develop organic nanoparticles by re-precipitation method which was further probed for their selective recognition behavior in an aqueous medium using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence emission profile of the ONPs is used as a tool for the tracking of sensing behavior. The ONPs of 1b has shown selective recognition towards Hg(II) in aqueous medium evidenced by enhancement of fluorescence emission intensity after complexation of 1b ONP with Hg(II), among several alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions with a detection limit of the order of 0.84 μM. The ability of the proposed sensor to sense Hg(II) ions with high selectivity and sensitivity could be accounted to photo-induced electron transfer (PET) "OFF" mechanism at λem = 390 nm. This study reveals the application of the proposed thiourea-based sensor for the selective recognition of the Hg(II) ions in an aqueous medium.

  6. 4D-π-1A type β-substituted ZnII-porphyrins: ideal green sensitizers for building-integrated photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covezzi, A; Orbelli Biroli, A; Tessore, F; Forni, A; Marinotto, D; Biagini, P; Di Carlo, G; Pizzotti, M

    2016-10-18

    Two novel green β-substituted Zn II -porphyrins, G1 and G2, based on a 4D-π-1A type substitution pattern have been synthesized. Their enhanced push-pull character, by reduction of H-L energy gaps, promotes broadening and red-shifting of absorption bands. The effective synthetic pathway and the remarkable spectroscopic properties make G2 ideal for BIPV application.

  7. Highly luminescent colloidal Eu(3)+-doped KZnF(3) nanoparticles for the selective and sensitive detection of Cu(II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Shyam; Chatti, Manjunath; Mahalingam, Venkataramanan

    2014-03-17

    This article describes a green synthetic approach to prepare water dispersible perovskite-type Eu3+-doped KZnF3 nanoparticles, carried out using environmentally friendly microwave irradiation at low temperature (85 8C) with water as a solvent. Incorporation of Eu3+ ions into the KZnF3 matrix is confirmed by strong red emission upon ultraviolet (UV) excitation of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are coated with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), which enhances the dispersibility of the nanoparticles in hydrophilic solvents. The strong red emission from Eu3+ ions is selectively quenched upon addition of CuII ions, thus making the nanoparticles a potential CuII sensing material. This sensing ability is highly reversible by the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), with recovery of almost 90% of the luminescence. If the nanoparticles are strongly attached to a positively charged surface, dipping the surface in a CuII solution leads to the quenching of Eu3+ luminescence, which can be recovered after dipping in an EDTA solution. This process can be repeated for more than five cycles with only a slight decrease in the sensing ability. In addition to sensing, the strong luminescence from Eu3+-doped KZnF3 nanoparticles could be used as a tool for bioimaging.

  8. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  9. Perinatal Na+ Overload Programs Raised Renal Proximal Na+ Transport and Enalapril-Sensitive Alterations of Ang II Signaling Pathways during Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Edjair V.; Vieira-Filho, Leucio D.; Silva, Paulo A.; Nascimento, Williams S.; Aires, Regina S.; Oliveira, Fabiana S. T.; Luzardo, Ricardo; Vieyra, Adalberto; Paixão, Ana D. O.

    2012-01-01

    Background High Na+ intake is a reality in nowadays and is frequently accompanied by renal and cardiovascular alterations. In this study, renal mechanisms underlying perinatal Na+ overload-programmed alterations in Na+ transporters and the renin/angiotensin system (RAS) were investigated, together with effects of short-term treatment with enalapril in terms of reprogramming molecular alterations in kidney. Methodology/Principal Findings Male adult Wistar rats were obtained from dams maintained throughout pregnancy and lactation on a standard diet and drinking water (control) or 0.17 M NaCl (saline group). Enalapril (100 mg/l), an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, was administered for three weeks after weaning. Ninety day old offspring from dams that drank saline presented with proximal tubules exhibiting increased (Na++K+)ATPase expression and activity. Ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase activity remained unchanged but its response to angiotensin II (Ang II) was lost. PKC, PKA, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), macrophage infiltration and collagen deposition markedly increased, and AT2 receptor expression decreased while AT1 expression was unaltered. Early treatment with enalapril reduced expression and activity of (Na++K+)ATPase, partially recovered the response of Na+-ATPase to Ang II, and reduced PKC and PKA activities independently of whether offspring were exposed to high perinatal Na+ or not. In addition, treatment with enalapril per se reduced AT2 receptor expression, and increased TBARS, macrophage infiltration and collagen deposition. The perinatally Na+-overloaded offspring presented high numbers of Ang II-positive cortical cells, and significantly lower circulating Ang I, indicating that programming/reprogramming impacted systemic and local RAS. Conclusions/Significance Maternal Na+ overload programmed alterations in renal Na+ transporters and in its regulation, as well as severe structural lesions in adult offspring. Enalapril

  10. A High Molar Extinction Coefficient Ru(II Complex Functionalized with cis-Dithiocyanato-bis-(9-anthracenyl-10-(2-methyl-2-butenoic acid-1,10-phenanthroline: Potential Sensitizer for Stable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale O. Adeloye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New heteroleptic ruthenium(II complex was formulated as [Ru(L12(NCS2], where L1 = 9-anthracenyl-10-(2-methyl-2-butenoic acid-1,10-phenanthroline was synthesized and its photophysical properties were studied and compared to previously reported analogue complex containing no anthracene moiety [Ru(L22(NCS2], L2 = (2-methyl-2-butenoic acid-1,10-phenanthroline. The two complexes though exhibit very strong molar extinction coefficient values; however, [Ru(L12(NCS2] shows better characteristic broad and intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT absorption band and higher molar absorptivity coefficient at (λmax=522 nm, ε=6.60×104 M−1 cm−1 than that of [Ru(L22(NCS2] complex, (λmax=446 nm, ε=4.82×104 M−1 cm−1. At room temperature, long wavelength emissions with strong intensity ratio centered at 660 nm were recorded for [Ru(L12(NCS2] complex with a bathochromic shift (λem=700 nm for [Ru(L22(NCS2] complex. It was shown that the luminescence wavelength characteristic of the complexes may be a function relating to the increasing length of π-conjugation and/or molecular weight. A preliminary cyclic voltammetry of [Ru(L12(NCS2] complex also exhibits good electroredox activity with oxidation potential of about 1.04 V, significantly better than other Ru(II polypyridine complexes containing bidentate ligands.

  11. Silica Aerogels Doped with Ru(II) Tris 1,l0-Phenanthro1ine)-Electron Acceptor Dyads: Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Oxygen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevebtusm Bucgikas; Rawashdeh, Abdel M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2005-01-01

    Complexes 1 and 2 were characterized in fluid and frozen solution and as dopants of silica aerogels. The intramolecular quenching efficiency of pendant 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium group (4BzPy) is solvent dependent: emission is quenched completely in acetonitrile but not in alcohols. On the other hand, N-benzyl-N'-methylviologen (BzMeV) quenches the emission in all solvents completely. The differences are traced electrochemically to a stronger solvation effect by the alcohol in the case of 1. In fiozen matrices or absorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both 1 and 2 are photoluminescent. The lack of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigidity. When doped aerogels are cooled to 77K, the emission shifts to the blue and its intensity increases in analogy to what is observed with Ru(II) complexes in media undergoing fluid-to-rigid transition. The photoluminescence of 1 and 2 from the aerogel is quenched by oxygen diffusing through the pores. In the presence of oxygen, aerogels doped with 1 can modulate their emission over a wider dynamic range than aerogels doped with 2, and both are more sensitive than aerogels doped with Ru(II) tris(1,l0- phenanthroline). In contrast to frozen solutions, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at 77K are still accessible, leading to more sensitive platforms for oxygen sensors than other ambient temperature configurations.

  12. A mixture theory model of fluid and solute transport in the microvasculature of normal and malignant tissues. II: Factor sensitivity analysis, calibration, and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuff, M M; Gore, J P; Nauman, E A

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of cancerous tumors is dependent upon the delivery of therapeutics through the blood by means of the microcirculation. Differences in the vasculature of normal and malignant tissues have been recognized, but it is not fully understood how these differences affect transport and the applicability of existing mathematical models has been questioned at the microscale due to the complex rheology of blood and fluid exchange with the tissue. In addition to determining an appropriate set of governing equations it is necessary to specify appropriate model parameters based on physiological data. To this end, a two stage sensitivity analysis is described which makes it possible to determine the set of parameters most important to the model's calibration. In the first stage, the fluid flow equations are examined and a sensitivity analysis is used to evaluate the importance of 11 different model parameters. Of these, only four substantially influence the intravascular axial flow providing a tractable set that could be calibrated using red blood cell velocity data from the literature. The second stage also utilizes a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the importance of 14 model parameters on extravascular flux. Of these, six exhibit high sensitivity and are integrated into the model calibration using a response surface methodology and experimental intra- and extravascular accumulation data from the literature (Dreher et al. in J Natl Cancer Inst 98(5):335-344, 2006). The model exhibits good agreement with the experimental results for both the mean extravascular concentration and the penetration depth as a function of time for inert dextran over a wide range of molecular weights.

  13. Glycolipid precursors for the membrane anchor of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoproteins. II. Lipid structures of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C sensitive and resistant glycolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayor, S.; Menon, A.K.; Cross, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    A common diagnostic feature of glycosylinositol phospholipid (GPI)-anchored proteins is their release from the membrane by a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). However, some GPI-anchored proteins are resistant to this enzyme. The best characterized example of this subclass is the human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase, where the structural basis of PI-PLC resistance has been shown to be the acylation of an inositol hydroxyl group(s). Both PI-PLC-sensitive and resistant GPI-anchor precursors (P2 and P3, respectively) have been found in Trypanosoma brucei, where the major surface glycoprotein is anchored by a PI-PLC-sensitive glycolipid anchor. The accompanying paper shows that P2 and P3 have identical glycans, indistinguishable from the common core glycan found on all the characterized GPI protein anchors. This paper shows that the single difference between P2 and P3, and the basis for the PI-PLC insusceptibility of P3, is a fatty acid, ester-linked to the inositol residue in P3. The inositol-linked fatty acid can be removed by treatment with mild base to restore PI-PLC sensitivity. Biosynthetic labeling experiments with [3H]palmitic acid and [3H]myristic acid show that [3H]palmitic acid specifically labels the inositol residue in P3 while [3H]myristic acid labels the diacylglycerol portion. Possible models to account for the simultaneous presence of PI-PLC-resistant and sensitive glycolipids are discussed in the context of available information on the biosynthesis of GPI-anchors

  14. Non-enzymatic N-acetylation of Lysine Residues by AcetylCoA Often Occurs via a Proximal S-acetylated Thiol Intermediate Sensitive to Glyoxalase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. James

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA, a key intermediate in mitochondrial metabolism, N-acetylates lysine residues, disrupting and, in some cases, regulating protein function. The mitochondrial lysine deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3 reverses this modification with benefits reported in diabetes, obesity, and aging. We show that non-enzymatic lysine N-acetylation by AcCoA is greatly enhanced by initial acetylation of a cysteine residue, followed by SN-transfer of the acetyl moiety to a nearby lysine on mitochondrial proteins and synthetic peptides. The frequent occurrence of an S-acetyl intermediate before lysine N-acetylation suggests that proximity to a thioester is a key determinant of lysine susceptibility to acetylation. The thioesterase glyoxalase II (Glo2 can limit protein S-acetylation, thereby preventing subsequent lysine N-acetylation. This suggests that the hitherto obscure role of Glo2 in mitochondria is to act upstream of Sirt3 in minimizing protein N-acetylation, thus limiting protein dysfunction when AcCoA accumulates. : James et al. show that the non-enzymatic N-acetylation of lysine residues in mitochondrial proteins frequently occurs via a proximal S-acetylated thiol intermediate. Glutathione equilibrates with this intermediate, allowing the thioesterase glyoxalase II to limit protein lysine N-acetylation. These findings expand our understanding of how protein acetylation arises. Keywords: AcetylCoA, lysine acetylation, glyoxalase

  15. A zinc(II)-based two-dimensional MOF for sensitive and selective sensing of HIV-1 ds-DNA sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hai-Qing; Qiu, Gui-Hua; Liang, Zhen [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Li, Min-Min [The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Sun, Bin; Qin, Liang; Yang, Shui-Ping; Chen, Wen-Hua [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Chen, Jin-Xiang, E-mail: jxchen@smu.edu.cn [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China)

    2016-05-30

    Coordination reaction of a known three-dimensional (3D) polymer precursor {Na_3[Na_9(Cbdcp)_6(H_2O)_1_8]}{sub n} (A, Cbdcp = N-(4-carboxybenzyl)-(3,5-dicarboxyl)pyridinium) with Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O in H{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}O/DMF at 100 °C and in the presence of aspirin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as modulators, trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (bpe) or 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (bpea) as ancillary ligands afforded six novel Zn(II)-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), that is, {[Zn(Cbdcp)(H_2O)_3]·H_2O}{sub n} (1, 1D zigzag chain), {[Zn(HCbdcp)_2]·H_2O}{sub n} (2, 2D sheet), {[Zn(Cbdcp)(bpe)_1_/_2]·2H_2O}{sub n} (3, 3D polymer), {[Zn(Cbdcp)(bpe)_1_/_2]·2H_2O}{sub n} (4, 2D network), {[Zn(Cbdcp)(bpea)_1_/_2]·2H_2O}{sub n} (5, 3D polymer) and {[Zn(Cbdcp)(bpea)_1_/_2]·2H_2O}{sub n} (6, 2D network). Among them, compound 2 contains aromatic rings, positively charged pyridinium, Zn{sup 2+} cation centers and carboxylic acid groups lined up on the 2D sheet structure with a certain extended surface exposure. The unique structure of 2 facilitates effective association with carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labeled probe single stranded DNA (probe ss-DNA, delineates as P-DNA) to yield a P-DNA@2 system, and leads to fluorescence quenching of FAM via a photoinduced electron transfer process. The P-DNA@2 system is effective and reliable for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 ds-DNA (HIV ds-DNA) sequences and capable of distinguishing complementary HIV ds-DNA from mismatched target sequences with the detection limit as low as 10 pM (S/N = 3). - Graphical abstract: Six water-stable zinc(II) zwitterionic carboxylate compounds with 1D chain, 2D and 3D networks were synthesized. Compound 2 can interact with the probe DNA through noncovalent bonds to form P-DNA@2 system. This system can be used as an effective, fluorescent sensing platform for the detection of HIV ds-DNA with the detection limit as low as 10 pM. - Highlights: • Six water-stable zinc(II

  16. Modelling ecological and human exposure to POPs in Venice lagoon - Part II: Quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in coupled exposure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomyski, Artur; Giubilato, Elisa; Ciffroy, Philippe; Critto, Andrea; Brochot, Céline; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The study is focused on applying uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to support the application and evaluation of large exposure models where a significant number of parameters and complex exposure scenarios might be involved. The recently developed MERLIN-Expo exposure modelling tool was applied to probabilistically assess the ecological and human exposure to PCB 126 and 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the Venice lagoon (Italy). The 'Phytoplankton', 'Aquatic Invertebrate', 'Fish', 'Human intake' and PBPK models available in MERLIN-Expo library were integrated to create a specific food web to dynamically simulate bioaccumulation in various aquatic species and in the human body over individual lifetimes from 1932 until 1998. MERLIN-Expo is a high tier exposure modelling tool allowing propagation of uncertainty on the model predictions through Monte Carlo simulation. Uncertainty in model output can be further apportioned between parameters by applying built-in sensitivity analysis tools. In this study, uncertainty has been extensively addressed in the distribution functions to describe the data input and the effect on model results by applying sensitivity analysis techniques (screening Morris method, regression analysis, and variance-based method EFAST). In the exposure scenario developed for the Lagoon of Venice, the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB 126 in human blood turned out to be mainly influenced by a combination of parameters (half-lives of the chemicals, body weight variability, lipid fraction, food assimilation efficiency), physiological processes (uptake/elimination rates), environmental exposure concentrations (sediment, water, food) and eating behaviours (amount of food eaten). In conclusion, this case study demonstrated feasibility of MERLIN-Expo to be successfully employed in integrated, high tier exposure assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of RET promoter CpG island methylation using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), pyrosequencing, and methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM): impact on stage II colon cancer patient outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draht, Muriel X G; Smits, Kim M; Jooste, Valérie; Tournier, Benjamin; Vervoort, Martijn; Ramaekers, Chantal; Chapusot, Caroline; Weijenberg, Matty P; van Engeland, Manon; Melotte, Veerle

    2016-01-01

    Already since the 1990s, promoter CpG island methylation markers have been considered promising diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive cancer biomarkers. However, so far, only a limited number of DNA methylation markers have been introduced into clinical practice. One reason why the vast majority of methylation markers do not translate into clinical applications is lack of independent validation of methylation markers, often caused by differences in methylation analysis techniques. We recently described RET promoter CpG island methylation as a potential prognostic marker in stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) patients of two independent series. In the current study, we analyzed the RET promoter CpG island methylation of 241 stage II colon cancer patients by direct methylation-specific PCR (MSP), nested-MSP, pyrosequencing, and methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM). All primers were designed as close as possible to the same genomic region. In order to investigate the effect of different DNA methylation assays on patient outcome, we assessed the clinical sensitivity and specificity as well as the association of RET methylation with overall survival for three and five years of follow-up. Using direct-MSP and nested-MSP, 12.0 % (25/209) and 29.6 % (71/240) of the patients showed RET promoter CpG island methylation. Methylation frequencies detected by pyrosequencing were related to the threshold for positivity that defined RET methylation. Methylation frequencies obtained by pyrosequencing (threshold for positivity at 20 %) and MS-HRM were 13.3 % (32/240) and 13.8 % (33/239), respectively. The pyrosequencing threshold for positivity of 20 % showed the best correlation with MS-HRM and direct-MSP results. Nested-MSP detected RET promoter CpG island methylation in deceased patients with a higher sensitivity (33.1 %) compared to direct-MSP (10.7 %), pyrosequencing (14.4 %), and MS-HRM (15.4 %). While RET methylation frequencies detected by nested

  18. A randomized, phase II study of pazopanib in castrate-sensitive prostate cancer: a University of Chicago Phase II Consortium/Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J E; Karrison, T; Chatta, G; Hussain, M; Shevrin, D; Szmulewitz, R Z; O'Donnell, P H; Stadler, W M; Posadas, E M

    2012-03-01

    Intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) is an increasingly popular treatment option for castrate-sensitive prostate cancer. On the basis of previous data with anti-angiogenic strategies, we hypothesized that pan-inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor using pazopanib during the IAS off period would result in prolonged time to PSA failure. Men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer, whose PSA was 4.0 ng ml(-1). Thirty-seven patients were randomized. Of 18 patients randomized to pazopanib, at the time of study closure, 4 had progressive disease, 1 remained on treatment and 13 (72%) electively disenrolled, the most common reason being patient request due to grade 1/2 toxicity (8 patients). Two additional patients were removed from treatment due to adverse events. Of 19 patients randomized to observation, at the time of study closure, 4 had progressive disease, 7 remained under protocol-defined observation and 8 (42%) had disenrolled, most commonly due to non-compliance with protocol visits (3 patients). Because of high dropout rates in both arms, the study was halted. IAS is a treatment approach that may facilitate investigation of novel agents in the hormone-sensitive state. This trial attempted to investigate the role of antiangiogenic therapy in this setting, but encountered several barriers, including toxicities and patient non-compliance, which can make implementation of such a study difficult. Future investigative efforts in this arena should carefully consider drug toxicity and employ a design that maximizes patient convenience to reduce the dropout rate.

  19. Aminoquinoline based highly sensitive fluorescent sensor for lead(II) and aluminum(III) and its application in live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, Thangaraj; Sivaraman, Gandhi; Mahesh, Ayyavu; Chellappa, Duraisamy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aminoquinoline derivative was synthesized and used to recognize Pb 2+ /Al 3+ . • ANQ was high sensitive, selective and turn-on sensor for Pb 2+ /Al 3+ . • The Pb 2+ detection limit (2.08 × 10 −9 mol L −1 ) is reported. • This fluorescence change was further supported by DFT/TD-DFT calculations. • The probe is applied successfully for recognizing intracellular Pb 2+ /Al 3+ within living cells. - Abstract: We have synthesized a new probe 5-((anthracen-9-ylmethylene) amino)quinolin-10-ol (ANQ) based on anthracene platform. The probe was tested for its sensing behavior toward heavy metal ions Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , light metal Al 3+ ion, alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal ions by UV–visible and fluorescent techniques in ACN/H 2 O mixture buffered with HEPES (pH 7.4). It shows high selectivity toward sensing Pb 2+ /Al 3+ metal ions. Importantly, 10-fold and 5- fold fluorescence enhancement at 429 nm was observed for probe upon complexation with Pb 2+ and Al 3+ ions, respectively. This fluorescence enhancement is attributable to the prevention of photoinduced electron transfer. The photonic studies indicate that the probe can be adopted as a sensitive fluorescent chemosensor for Pb 2+ and Al 3+ ions

  20. Highly sensitive and specific determination of mercury(II) ion in water, food and cosmetic samples with an ELISA based on a novel monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuzhen; Li, Yuan [Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu (China); Yang, Hong [Soochow University, College of Pharmacy, Suzhou (China); Pschenitza, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar [Technical University Munich, Chair for Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chemical Balneology, Munich (Germany); Deng, Anping [Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu (China); Soochow University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Suzhou (China)

    2012-07-15

    Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the environment. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of Hg{sup 2+} was developed. A new bifunctional ligand, 6-mercaptonicotinic acid (MNA), which contains a pyridine ring bearing a carboxylic group and a mercapto group, was selected for the preparation of immunogen. After immunization of mice and performing the hybridoma technique, the obtained mAb was characterized for its binding affinity and selectivity for Hg{sup 2+}. Based on this novel mAb, an ELISA was established. At optimal experimental conditions, the standard curve of the ELISA for Hg{sup 2+} was constructed in concentration range of 0.1-100 ng mL{sup -1}. The values of IC{sub 50} and LOD of the assay were found to be 1.12 and 0.08 ng mL{sup -1}. The cross-reactivity was lower than 2 % with MNA, CH{sub 3}Hg, and CH{sub 3}Hg-MNA and was 11.5 % and 4.4 % for Hg{sup +} and Au{sup 3+}, respectively. No cross-reactivity was found with other metal ions such as Cu{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and anions such as Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3} {sup -}, NO{sub 2} {sup -}, HCO{sub 3} {sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, indicating that the assay displays not only high sensitivity but also high selectivity. Different kinds of samples including water, milk, green vegetable, kelp, facial cleanser, and night cream were spiked with Hg{sup 2+} and the extracts were analyzed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 80.0-113.0 % and coefficients of variation of 1.9-18.6 % were obtained. A linear relationship between ELISA and cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) as indicated by a correlation coefficient of 0.97 for liquid samples (water samples) and 0.98 for other samples was obtained. The proposed mAb-based ELISA provides a

  1. Sensitivity mapping of the German North Sea Coast II. Data update and development of an operational model for precaution measures of oil spill response; Sensititivaetsraster Deutsche Nordseekueste II. Aktualisierung und Erstellung eines operationellen Modells zur Vorsorgeplanung bei der Oelbekaempfung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernem, K.H. van; Doerffer, R.; Heymann, K.; Kleeberg, U.; Krasemann, H.; Schiller, H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung; Grohnert, A.; Reichert, J. [IfaB - Institut fuer Angewandte Biologie Freiburg/Niederelbe (Germany); Reichert, M. [ARCADIS, Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Wadden Sea is an area of tidal flats and salt marshes extending between the North Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. It has enormous value as a cleansing site for North Sea water, as a nursery for young fish and as a feeding ground for many bird species. Due to the proximity of important shipping routes and harbours, this region is especially threatened by oil spills. Thus, for oil spill response and precaution measures, a sensitivity study of the entire intertidal area was badly needed in order to assess and minimize the potential ecological and economical damage. Based on comprehensive field surveys and in close cooperation with the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies, an automated expert-model for the german part of Wadden Sea areas was developed at the Institute for Coastal Research (GKSS-Research Centre). As an operational model it will serve as important instrument for decision making processes, precautionary measures and the further design of oil spill response strategies. Since it is not possible to protect the entire German North Sea coast equally at all levels, oil spill contingency planning requires a more detailed classification. For this reason, individual soft bottom habitats, communities and stocks of saltmarshes, macrofauna, waterfowl and estuarine biotop types were evaluated and classified according to their vulnerability to oil pollution. Hence, the fieldwork for habitat mapping during 2003-2006 was a central part of the study. For this part, the experiences and results obtained from the previous GKSS-project ''Thematic mapping and sensitivity study of Intertidal flats'' during the years 1987-1992 served as an valuable basis. For example, the documentation of changes during these periods of observation provides information on stability features of the ecosystems. During the first project nearly 5000 locations were processed and characterised using about 70 parameters for each site. The in-situ mapping

  2. Highly sensitive, colorimetric detection of mercury(II) in aqueous media by quaternary ammonium group-capped gold nanoparticles at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dingbin; Qu, Weisi; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Jiang, Xingyu

    2010-12-01

    We provide a highly sensitive and selective assay to detect Hg(2+) in aqueous solutions using gold nanoparticles modified with quaternary ammonium group-terminated thiols at room temperature. The mechanism is the abstraction of thiols by Hg(2+) that led to the aggregation of nanoparticles. With the assistance of solar light irradiation, the detection limit can be as low as 30 nM, which satisfies the guideline concentration of Hg(2+) in drinking water set by the WHO. In addition, the dynamic range of detection is wide (3 × 10(-8)-1 × 10(-2) M). This range, to our best knowledge, is the widest one that has been reported so far in gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based assays for Hg(2+).

  3. Efficiency Enhanced Colloidal Mn-Doped Type II Core/Shell ZnSe/CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamshidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal Mn-doped ZnSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs are synthesized for the first time and employed as a strategy to boost the power conversion efficiency of quantum dot sensitized solar cells. By using Mn-doping as a band gap engineering tool for core/shell QDs an effective improvement of absorption spectra could be obtained. The mid-states generated by a proper Mn content alleviate carrier separation and enhance the electron injection rate, thus facilitating electron transport to the TiO2 substrate. It is demonstrated that a device constructed with 0.25% Mn-doped ZnSe/CdS leads to an enhancement of the electron injection rate and power conversion efficiency by 4 times and 1.3, respectively.

  4. The Milankovitch theory and climate sensitivity. I - Equilibrium climate model solutions for the present surface conditions. II - Interaction between the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1988-01-01

    A seasonal climate model was developed to test the climate sensitivity and, in particular, the Milankovitch (1941) theory. Four climate model versions were implemented to investigate the range of uncertainty in the parameterizations of three basic feedback mechanisms: the ice albedo-temperature, the outgoing long-wave radiation-temperature, and the eddy transport-meridional temperature gradient. It was found that the differences between the simulation of the present climate by the four versions were generally small, especially for annually averaged results. The climate model was also used to study the effect of growing/shrinking of a continental ice sheet, bedrock sinking/uplifting, and sea level changes on the climate system, taking also into account the feedback effects on the climate of the building of the ice caps.

  5. Aminoquinoline based highly sensitive fluorescent sensor for lead(II) and aluminum(III) and its application in live cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, Thangaraj; Sivaraman, Gandhi [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Mahesh, Ayyavu, E-mail: mahesh.a06@gmail.com [School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Chellappa, Duraisamy, E-mail: dcmku123@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aminoquinoline derivative was synthesized and used to recognize Pb{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+}. • ANQ was high sensitive, selective and turn-on sensor for Pb{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+}. • The Pb{sup 2+} detection limit (2.08 × 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1}) is reported. • This fluorescence change was further supported by DFT/TD-DFT calculations. • The probe is applied successfully for recognizing intracellular Pb{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} within living cells. - Abstract: We have synthesized a new probe 5-((anthracen-9-ylmethylene) amino)quinolin-10-ol (ANQ) based on anthracene platform. The probe was tested for its sensing behavior toward heavy metal ions Hg{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, light metal Al{sup 3+} ion, alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal ions by UV–visible and fluorescent techniques in ACN/H{sub 2}O mixture buffered with HEPES (pH 7.4). It shows high selectivity toward sensing Pb{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} metal ions. Importantly, 10-fold and 5- fold fluorescence enhancement at 429 nm was observed for probe upon complexation with Pb{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} ions, respectively. This fluorescence enhancement is attributable to the prevention of photoinduced electron transfer. The photonic studies indicate that the probe can be adopted as a sensitive fluorescent chemosensor for Pb{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} ions.

  6. The CO_2 absorption spectrum in the 2.3 µm transparency window by high sensitivity CRDS: (II) Self-absorption continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelain, D.; Vasilchenko, S.; Čermák, P.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2017-01-01

    The CO_2 absorption continuum near 2.3 µm is determined for a series of sub atmospheric pressures (250–750 Torr) by high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy. An experimental procedure consisting in injecting successively a gas flow of CO_2 and synthetic air, keeping constant the gas pressure in the CRDS cell, has been developed. This procedure insures a high stability of the spectra baseline by avoiding changes of the optical alignment due to pressure changes. The CO_2 continuum was obtained as the difference between the CO_2 absorption coefficient and a local lines simulation using a Voigt profile truncated at ±25 cm"−"1. Following the results of the preceding analysis of the CO_2 rovibrational lines (Vasilchenko S et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer (10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.07.002), a CO_2 line list with intensities obtained by variational calculations and empirical line positions was preferred to the HITRAN line list. A quadratic pressure dependence of the absorption continuum is observed, with an average binary absorption coefficient increasing from 2 to 4×10"−"8 cm"−"1 amagat"−"2 between 4320 and 4380 cm"−"1. The obtained continuum is found in good agreement with a previous measurement using much higher densities (20 amagat) and a low resolution grating spectrograph and is consistent with values currently used in the analysis of Venus spectra. - Highlights: • The CO_2 absorption continuum is measured by CRDS in the 2.3 µm window. • The achieved sensitivity and stability allow measurements at sub-atmospheric pressure. • The absorption coefficient is on the order of 3×10"−"8 cm"−"1 amagat"−"2 near 4350 cm"−"1. • A good agreement is obtained with previous results at much higher density (20 amagat).

  7. submitter Search for Dark Matter in the Upgraded High Luminosity LHC at CERN: Sensitivity of ATLAS phase II upgrade to dark matter production

    CERN Document Server

    Hallsjö, Sven-Patrik; Johansson, Magnus

    The LHC at CERN is now undergoing a set of upgrades to increase the center of mass energy for the colliding particles to be able to explore new physical processes. The focus of this thesis lies on the so called phase II upgrade which will preliminarily be completed in 2023. After the upgrade the LHC will be able to accelerate proton beams to such a velocity thateach proton has a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. One disadvantage of the upgrade is that it will be harder for the atlas detector to isolate unique particle collisions since more and more collisions will occur simultaneously, so called pile-up. For 14 TeV there does not exist a full simulation of the atlas detector. This thesis instead uses data from Monte Carlo simulations for the particle collisions and then uses so called smearing functions to emulate the detector responses. This thesis focuses on how a mono-jet analysis looking for different wimp models of dark matter will be affected by this increase in pile-up rate. The signal models which are ...

  8. Non-enzymatic N-acetylation of Lysine Residues by AcetylCoA Often Occurs via a Proximal S-acetylated Thiol Intermediate Sensitive to Glyoxalase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew M; Hoogewijs, Kurt; Logan, Angela; Hall, Andrew R; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Murphy, Michael P

    2017-02-28

    Acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), a key intermediate in mitochondrial metabolism, N-acetylates lysine residues, disrupting and, in some cases, regulating protein function. The mitochondrial lysine deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) reverses this modification with benefits reported in diabetes, obesity, and aging. We show that non-enzymatic lysine N-acetylation by AcCoA is greatly enhanced by initial acetylation of a cysteine residue, followed by SN-transfer of the acetyl moiety to a nearby lysine on mitochondrial proteins and synthetic peptides. The frequent occurrence of an S-acetyl intermediate before lysine N-acetylation suggests that proximity to a thioester is a key determinant of lysine susceptibility to acetylation. The thioesterase glyoxalase II (Glo2) can limit protein S-acetylation, thereby preventing subsequent lysine N-acetylation. This suggests that the hitherto obscure role of Glo2 in mitochondria is to act upstream of Sirt3 in minimizing protein N-acetylation, thus limiting protein dysfunction when AcCoA accumulates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly sensitive simultaneous electrochemical determination of trace amounts of Pb(II) and Cd(II) using a carbon paste electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a newly synthesized Schiff base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Ghaedi, Hamed; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Rezaeivala, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new chemically modified carbon paste electrode was constructed and used. ► A new Schiff base and multi-walled carbon nanotube was used as modifiers. ► The electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were studied. ► The electrode was used to the simultaneous determination of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ . -- Abstract: A new chemically modified electrode was constructed for rapid, simple, accurate, selective and highly sensitive simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The electrode was prepared by incorporation of new synthesized Schiff base and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in carbon paste electrode. The limit of detection was found to be 0.25 ng mL −1 and 0.74 ng mL −1 for Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ , respectively. The stability constants of the complexes of the ligand with several metal cations in ethanol medium were determined. The effects of different cations and anions on the simultaneous determination of metal ions were studied and it was found that the electrode is highly selective. The proposed chemically modified electrode was used for the determination of lead and cadmium in several foodstuffs and water samples

  10. Double Solvent Sensing Method for Improving Sensitivity and Accuracy of Hg(II) Detection Based on Different Signal Transduction of a Tetrazine-Functionalized Pillared Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Sayed Ali Akbar; Masoomi, Mohammad Yaser; Morsali, Ali

    2017-08-21

    To design a robust, π-conjugated, low-cost, and easy to synthesize metal-organic framework (MOF) for cation sensing by the photoluminescence (PL) method, 4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid) (H 2 OBA) has been used in combination with 3,6-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DPT) as a tetrazine-functionalized spacer to construct [Zn(OBA)(DPT) 0.5 ]·DMF (TMU-34(-2H)). The tetrazine motif is a π-conjugated, water-soluble/stable fluorophore with relatively weak σ-donating Lewis basic sites. These characteristics of tetrazine make TMU-34(-2H) a good candidate for cation sensing. Because of hydrogen bonding between tetrazine moieties and water molecules, TMU-34(-2H) shows different PL emissions in water and acetonitrile. Cation sensing in these two solvents revealed that TMU-34(-2H) can selectively detect Hg 2+ in water (by 243% enhancement) and in acetonitrile (by 90% quenching). The contribution of electron-donating/accepting characteristics along with solvation effects on secondary interactions of the tetrazine motifs inside the TMU-34(-2H) framework results in different signal transductions. Improved sensitivity and accuracy of detection were obtained using the double solvent sensing method (DSSM), in which different signal transductions of TMU-34(-2H) in water and acetonitrile were combined simultaneously to construct a double solvent sensing curve and formulate a sensitivity factor. Calculation of sensitivity factors for all of the tested cations demonstrated that it is possible to detect Hg 2+ by DSSM with ultrahigh sensitivity. Such a tremendous distinction in the Hg 2+ sensitivity factor is visualizable in the double solvent sensing curve. Thus, by application of DSSM instead of one-dimensional sensing, the interfering effects of other cations are completely eliminated and the sensitivity toward Hg(II) is highly improved. Strong interactions between Hg 2+ and the nitrogen atoms of the tetrazine groups along with easy accessibility of Hg 2+ to the tetrazine groups lead

  11. The CO2 absorption spectrum in the 2.3 μm transparency window by high sensitivity CRDS: (II) Self-absorption continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelain, D.; Vasilchenko, S.; Čermák, P.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2017-01-01

    The CO2 absorption continuum near 2.3 μm is determined for a series of sub atmospheric pressures (250-750 Torr) by high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy. An experimental procedure consisting in injecting successively a gas flow of CO2 and synthetic air, keeping constant the gas pressure in the CRDS cell, has been developed. This procedure insures a high stability of the spectra baseline by avoiding changes of the optical alignment due to pressure changes. The CO2 continuum was obtained as the difference between the CO2 absorption coefficient and a local lines simulation using a Voigt profile truncated at ±25 cm-1. Following the results of the preceding analysis of the CO2 rovibrational lines (Vasilchenko S et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.07.002, a CO2 line list with intensities obtained by variational calculations and empirical line positions was preferred to the HITRAN line list. A quadratic pressure dependence of the absorption continuum is observed, with an average binary absorption coefficient increasing from 2 to 4×10-8 cm-1 amagat-2 between 4320 and 4380 cm-1. The obtained continuum is found in good agreement with a previous measurement using much higher densities (20 amagat) and a low resolution grating spectrograph and is consistent with values currently used in the analysis of Venus spectra.

  12. What Controls the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol? Relationships Between Process Sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and Inter-Model Variation from AeroCom Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one particular model, we investigate the effects of individual processes in HadGEM3-UKCA and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global-mean profile and, to a lesser extent, the zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. In HadGEM3-UKCA, convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number (e.g. total CN >3 nm), while the profiles of larger particles (e.g. CN>100 nm) are controlled by the

  13. Integration of biomass into urban energy systems for heat and power. Part II: Sensitivity assessment of main techno-economic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, Antonio M.; Giarola, Sara; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of a MILP tool for optimal sizing and location of heating and CHP plants to serve residential energy demand. • Trade-offs between local vs centralized heat generation, district heating vs natural gas distribution systems. • Assessment of the key factors influencing the use of biomass and district heating in residential areas. - Abstract: The paper presents the application of a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) methodology to optimize multi-biomass and natural gas supply chain strategic design for heat and power generation in urban areas. The focus is on spatial and temporal allocation of biomass supply, storage, processing, transport and energy conversion (heat and CHP) to match the heat demand of residential end users. The main aim lies on the assessment of the trade-offs between centralized district heating plants and local heat generation systems, and on the decoupling of the biomass processing and biofuel energy conversion steps. After a brief description of the methodology, which is presented in detail in Part I of the research, an application to a generic urban area is proposed. Moreover, the influence of energy demand typologies (urban areas energy density, heat consumption patterns, buildings energy efficiency levels, baseline energy costs and available infrastructures) and specific constraints of urban areas (transport logistics, air emission levels, space availability) on the selection of optimal bioenergy pathways for heat and power is assessed, by means of sensitivity analysis. On the basis of these results, broad considerations about the key factors influencing the use of bioenergy into urban energy systems are proposed. Potential further applications of this model are also described, together with main barriers for development of bioenergy routes for urban areas

  14. Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference on a Statistical Model of Sub-gridcolumn Moisture Variability Using High-resolution Cloud Observations . Part II; Sensitivity Tests and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Part I presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of GCM sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution MODIS cloud data, thereby permitting large-scale model parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation. This part performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed significantly reduce mean and standard deviation biases with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud top pressure, and that it also improves the simulated rotational-Ramman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the OMI instrument. Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does show skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows finite jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast where the background state has a clear swath. This paper also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in the cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification due to Riishojgaard (1998) provides some help in this respect, by better honoring inversion structures in the background state.

  15. Climatic and basin factors affecting the flood frequency curve: PART II – A full sensitivity analysis based on the continuous simulation approach combined with a factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Franchini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity analysis described in Hashemi et al. (2000 is based on one-at-a-time perturbations to the model parameters. This type of analysis cannot highlight the presence of parameter interactions which might indeed affect the characteristics of the flood frequency curve (ffc even more than the individual parameters. For this reason, the effects of the parameters of the rainfall, rainfall runoff models and of the potential evapotranspiration demand on the ffc are investigated here through an analysis of the results obtained from a factorial experimental design, where all the parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. This latter, more complex, analysis confirms the results obtained in Hashemi et al. (2000 thus making the conclusions drawn there of wider validity and not related strictly to the reference set selected. However, it is shown that two-factor interactions are present not only between different pairs of parameters of an individual model, but also between pairs of parameters of different models, such as rainfall and rainfall-runoff models, thus demonstrating the complex interaction between climate and basin characteristics affecting the ffc and in particular its curvature. Furthermore, the wider range of climatic regime behaviour produced within the factorial experimental design shows that the probability distribution of soil moisture content at the storm arrival time is no longer sufficient to explain the link between the perturbations to the parameters and their effects on the ffc, as was suggested in Hashemi et al. (2000. Other factors have to be considered, such as the probability distribution of the soil moisture capacity, and the rainfall regime, expressed through the annual maximum rainfalls over different durations. Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation; factorial experimental design; analysis of variance (ANOVA

  16. Irradiation of amelanotic melanoma cells with 532 nm high peak power pulsed laser radiation in the presence of the photothermal sensitizer Cu(II)-hematoporphyrin: a new approach to cell photoinactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncin, M; Busetti, A; Fusi, F; Jori, G; Rodgers, M A

    1999-06-01

    Cu(II)-hematoporphyrin (CuHp) was efficiently accumulated by B78H1 amelanotic melanoma cells upon incubation with porphyrin concentrations up to 52 microM. When the cells incubated for 18 h with 13 microM CuHp were irradiated with 532 nm light from a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser operated in a pulsed mode (10 ns pulses, 10 Hz) a significant decrease in cell survival was observed. The cell photoinactivation was not the consequence of a photodynamic process, as CuHp gave no detectable triplet signal upon laser flash photolysis excitation and no decrease in cell survival was observed upon continuous wave irradiation. Thus, it is likely that CuHp sensitization takes place by photothermal pathways. The efficiency of the photoprocess was modulated by different parameters; thus, while varying the amount of added CuHp in the 3.25-26 microM range had little effect, pulse energies larger than 50 mJ and irradiation times of at least 120 s were necessary to induce a cell inactivation of about 50%. The porphyrin-cell incubation time prior to irradiation had a major influence on cell survival, suggesting that the nature of the CuHp microenvironment can control the efficiency of photothermal sensitization.

  17. Development of a stable and sensitive semiconductor detector by using a mixture of lead(II) iodide and lead monoxide for NDT radiation dose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Y. J.; Kim, K. T.; Han, M. J.; Moon, C. W.; Kim, J. E.; Park, J. K.; Park, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, high-energy radiation has been widely used in various industrial fields, including the medical industry, and increasing research efforts have been devoted to the development of radiation detectors to be used with high-energy radiation. In particular, nondestructive industrial applications use high-energy radiation for ships and multilayered objects for accurate inspection. Therefore, it is crucial to verify the accuracy of radiation dose measurements and evaluate the precision and reproducibility of the radiation output dose. Representative detectors currently used for detecting the dose in high-energy regions include Si diodes, diamond diodes, and ionization chambers. However, the process of preparing these detectors is complex in addition to the processes of conducting dosimetric measurements, analysis, and evaluation. Furthermore, the minimum size that can be prepared for a detector is limited. In the present study, the disadvantages of original detectors are compensated by the development of a detector made of a mixture of polycrystalline PbI2 and PbO powder, which are both excellent semiconducting materials suitable for detecting high-energy gamma rays and X-rays. The proposed detector shows characteristics of excellent reproducibility and stable signal detection in response to the changes in energy, and was analyzed for its applicability. Moreover, the detector was prepared through a simple process of particle-in-binder to gain control over the thickness and meet the specific value designated by the user. A mixture mass ratio with the highest reproducibility was determined through reproducibility testing with respect to changes in the photon energy. The proposed detector was evaluated for its detection response characteristics with respect to high-energy photon beam, in terms of dose-rate dependence, sensitivity, and linearity evaluation. In the reproducibility assessment, the detector made with 15 wt% PbO powder showed the best characteristics of 0

  18. Diketopyrrolopyrrole Amphiphile-Based Micelle-Like Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Selective and Sensitive Detection of Mercury(II) Ions in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kaixuan; Dong, Bo; Shi, Huanhuan; Liu, Zhengchun; Liang, Bo

    2017-03-07

    A technique for encapsulating fluorescent organic probes in a micelle system offers an important alternative method to manufacture water-soluble organic nanoparticles (ONPs) for use in sensing Hg 2+ . This article reports on a study of a surfactant-free micelle-like ONPs based on a 3,6-di(2-thienyl)-2,5-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (TDPP) amphiphile, (2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-3,6-di(2-thiophyl)-2,5-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (NDPP) fabricated to monitor Hg 2+ in water. NDPP was synthesized through a simple one-step modification of a commercially available dye TDPP with a flexible and hydrophilic alkoxy. This study reports, for the first time, that TDPP dyes can respond reversibly, sensitively, and selectively to Hg 2+ through TDPP-Hg-TDPP complexation, similar to the well-known thymine(T)-Hg-thymine(T) model and the accompanying molecular aggregation. Interestingly, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) confirmed that, in water, NDPP forms loose micelle-like fluorescent ONPs with a hydrohobic TDPP portion encapsulated inside. These micelle-like nanoparticles offer an ideal location for TDPP-Hg complexation with a modest molecular aggregation, thereby providing both clear visual and spectroscopic signals for Hg 2+ sensing. An estimated detection limit of 11 nM for Hg 2+ sensing with this NDPP nanoparticle was obtained. In addition, NDPP ONPs show good water solubility and high selectivity to Hg 2+ in neutral or alkalescent water. It was superior to most micelle-based nanosensors, which require a complicated process in the selection or synthesis of suitable surfactants. The determinations in real samples (river water) were made and satisfactory results were achieved. This study provides a low-cost strategy for fabricating small molecule-based fluorescent nanomaterials for use in sensing Hg 2+ . Moreover, the NDPP nanoparticles show potential ability in Hg 2+ ion adsorption and recognization of cysteine

  19. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  20. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  1. Sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003741.htm Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  2. Cascading electron and hole transfer dynamics in a CdS/CdTe core-shell sensitized with bromo-pyrogallol red (Br-PGR): slow charge recombination in type II regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Partha; Debnath, Tushar; Chopra, Uday; Ghosh, Hirendra Nath

    2015-02-14

    Ultrafast cascading hole and electron transfer dynamics have been demonstrated in a CdS/CdTe type II core-shell sensitized with Br-PGR using transient absorption spectroscopy and the charge recombination dynamics have been compared with those of CdS/Br-PGR composite materials. Steady state optical absorption studies suggest that Br-PGR forms strong charge transfer (CT) complexes with both the CdS QD and CdS/CdTe core-shell. Hole transfer from the photo-excited QD and QD core-shell to Br-PGR was confirmed by both steady state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. Charge separation was also confirmed by detecting electrons in the conduction band of the QD and the cation radical of Br-PGR as measured from femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Charge separation in the CdS/Br-PGR composite materials was found to take place in three different pathways, by transferring the photo-excited hole of CdS to Br-PGR, electron injection from the photo-excited Br-PGR to the CdS QD, and direct electron transfer from the HOMO of Br-PGR to the conduction band of the CdS QD. However, in the CdS/CdTe/Br-PGR system hole transfer from the photo-excited CdS to Br-PGR and electron injection from the photo-excited Br-PGR to CdS take place after cascading through the CdTe shell QD. Charge separation also takes place via direct electron transfer from the Br-PGR HOMO to the conduction band of CdS/CdTe. Charge recombination (CR) dynamics between the electron in the conduction band of the CdS QD and the Br-PGR cation radical were determined by monitoring the bleach recovery kinetics. The CR dynamics were found to be much slower in the CdS/CdTe/Br-PGR system than in the CdS/Br-PGR system. The formation of the strong CT complex and the separation of charges cascading through the CdTe shell help to slow down charge recombination in the type II regime.

  3. N -annulated perylene as an efficient electron donor for porphyrin-based dyes: Enhanced light-harvesting ability and high-efficiency Co(II/III)-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie

    2014-01-08

    Porphyrin-based dyes recently have become good candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). However, the bottleneck is how to further improve their light-harvesting ability. In this work, N-annulated perylene (NP) was used to functionalize the Zn-porphyrin, and four "push-pull"-type NP-substituted and fused porphyrin dyes with intense absorption in the visible and even in the near-infrared (NIR) region were synthesized. Co(II/III)-based DSC device characterizations revealed that dyes WW-5 and WW-6, in which an ethynylene spacer is incorporated between the NP and porphyrin core, showed pantochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency action spectra in the visible and NIR region, with a further red-shift of about 90 and 60 nm, respectively, compared to the benchmark molecule YD2-o-C8. As a result, the short-circuit current density was largely increased, and the devices displayed power conversion efficiencies as high as 10.3% and 10.5%, respectively, which is comparable to that of the YD2-o-C8 cell (η = 10.5%) under the same conditions. On the other hand, the dye WW-3 in which the NP unit is directly attached to the porphyrin core showed a moderate power conversion efficiency (η = 5.6%) due to the inefficient π-conjugation, and the NP-fused dye WW-4 exhibited even poorer performance due to its low-lying LUMO energy level and nondisjointed HOMO/LUMO profile. Our detailed physical measurements (optical and electrochemical), density functional theory calculations, and photovoltaic characterizations disclosed that the energy level alignment, the molecular orbital profile, and dye aggregation all played very important roles on the interface electron transfer and charge recombination kinetics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation activity over TiO{sub 2} nanotubes co-sensitized by reduced graphene oxide and copper(II) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Meng; Wan, Junmin, E-mail: wwjm2001@126.com; Hu, Zhiwen; Peng, Zhiqin; Wang, Bing

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • CuTCPP/rGO-TNT photocatalysts are synthesized. • CuTCPP and rGO are helpful to induce interfacial charge transfer at surface junction. • CuTCPP and rGO are favorable for enhancing co-photocatalytic activity. • A deeper insight into the co-photocatalytic mechanism is put forward. • The photocatalyst are proven to be effective and chemically-stable catalysts. - Abstract: In this paper, TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TNT) co-sensitized with copper(II) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (CuTCPP) and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO), which was fabricated through two-step improved hydrothermal method and heating reflux process. The effect of rGO and CuTCPP on the co-photocatalytic behavior of TNT for the degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) were measured under visible light irradiation. The photocatalysts have been characterized and analyzed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electronic diffraction (SAED), elemental mapping by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The results provide a deeper insight into the co-photocatalytic mechanism of CuTCPP/rGO-TNT nanocomposites. The degradation results showed a purification of more than 95% MB in wastewater, which is about 5 times higher than that of the pure TNT. The results also confirm the prepared CuTCPP/rGO-TNT nanocomposites possess superior co-photocatalytic activities.

  5. Recent results from AMANDA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.; Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chen, A.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; De Young, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Doksus, P.; Ekstroem, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gaug, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herque, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Koci, B.; Koepke, L.; Kuehn, K.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sudhoff, P.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present new data taken with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope array. The AMANDA-II upgrade was completed at the beginning of 2000. It significantly extends the sensitivity of the 10-string AMANDA-B10 detector to high- and ultrahigh-energy neutrino fluxes into regions of interest for probing current astrophysical models which remain unexplored by other experiments

  6. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  7. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased pe...

  8. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  9. Climate Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindzen, Richard [M.I.T.

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  10. Radioecological sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Brenda J.; Strand, Per; Assimakopoulos, Panayotis

    2003-01-01

    After the release of radionuclide into the environment it is important to be able to readily identify major routes of radiation exposure, the most highly exposed individuals or populations and the geographical areas of most concern. Radioecological sensitivity can be broadly defined as the extent to which an ecosystem contributes to an enhanced radiation exposure to Man and biota. Radioecological sensitivity analysis integrates current knowledge on pathways, spatially attributes the underlying processes determining transfer and thereby identifies the most radioecologically sensitive areas leading to high radiation exposure. This identifies where high exposure may occur and why. A framework for the estimation of radioecological sensitivity with respect to humans is proposed and the various indicators by which it can be considered have been identified. These are (1) aggregated transfer coefficients (Tag), (2) action (and critical) loads, (3) fluxes and (4) individual exposure of humans. The importance of spatial and temporal consideration of all these outputs is emphasized. Information on the extent of radionuclide transfer and exposure to humans at different spatial scales is needed to reflect the spatial differences which can occur. Single values for large areas, such as countries, can often mask large variation within the country. Similarly, the relative importance of different pathways can change with time and therefore assessments of radiological sensitivity are needed over different time periods after contamination. Radioecological sensitivity analysis can be used in radiation protection, nuclear safety and emergency preparedness when there is a need to identify areas that have the potential of being of particular concern from a risk perspective. Prior identification of radioecologically sensitive areas and exposed individuals improve the focus of emergency preparedness and planning, and contribute to environmental impact assessment for future facilities. The

  11. EASI graphics - Version II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.

    1984-04-01

    EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) is an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. EASI Graphics is a computer graphics extension of EASI which provides a capability for performing sensitivity and trade-off analyses of the parameters of a physical protection system. This document reports on the implementation of the Version II of EASI Graphics and illustrates its application with some examples. 5 references, 15 figures, 6 tables

  12. Sensitive Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper engages with what we refer to as “sensitive media,” a concept associated with developments in the overall media environment, our relationships with media devices, and the quality of the media themselves. Those developments point to the increasing emotionality of the media world and its infrastructures. Mapping the trajectories of technological development and impact that the newer media exert on human condition, our analysis touches upon various forms of emergent affect, emotion, and feeling in order to trace the histories and motivations of the sensitization of “the media things” as well as the redefinition of our affective and emotional experiences through technologies that themselves “feel.”

  13. Sensitive innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    Present paper discusses sources of innovation as heterogenic and at times intangible processes. Arguing for heterogeneity and intangibility as sources of innovation originates from a theoretical reading in STS and ANT studies (e.g. Callon 1986, Latour 1996, Mol 2002, Pols 2005) and from field work...... in the area of mental health (Dupret Søndergaard 2009, 2010). The concept of sensitive innovation is developed to capture and conceptualise exactly those heterogenic and intangible processes. Sensitive innovation is therefore primarily a way to understand innovative sources that can be......, but are not necessarily, recognized and acknowledged as such in the outer organisational culture or by management. The added value that qualifies these processes to be defined as “innovative” are thus argued for along different lines than in more traditional innovation studies (e.g. studies that build on the classic...

  14. Phased array inspection of large size forged steel parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Marillia, Frederic; Jahazi, Mohammad; Belanger, Pierre

    2018-04-01

    High strength forged steel requires uncompromising quality to warrant advance performance for numerous critical applications. Ultrasonic inspection is commonly used in nondestructive testing to detect cracks and other defects. In steel blocks of relatively small dimensions (at least two directions not exceeding a few centimetres), phased array inspection is a trusted method to generate images of the inside of the blocks and therefore identify and size defects. However, casting of large size forged ingots introduces changes of mechanical parameters such as grain size, the Young's modulus, the Poisson's ratio, and the chemical composition. These heterogeneities affect the wave propagation, and consequently, the reliability of ultrasonic inspection and the imaging capabilities for these blocks. In this context, a custom phased array transducer designed for a 40-ton bainitic forged ingot was investigated. Following a previous study that provided local mechanical parameters for a similar block, two-dimensional simulations were made to compute the optimal transducer parameters including the pitch, width and number of elements. It appeared that depending on the number of elements, backwall reconstruction can generate high amplitude artefacts. Indeed, the large dimensions of the simulated block introduce numerous constructive interferences from backwall reflections which may lead to important artefacts. To increase image quality, the reconstruction algorithm was adapted and promising results were observed and compared with the scattering cone filter method available in the CIVA software.

  15. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in reactivity-initiated accident fuel modeling: synthesis of organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD/nuclear energy agency (NEA benchmark on reactivity-initiated accident codes phase-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Marchand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of OECD/NEA Working Group on Fuel Safety, a RIA fuel-rod-code Benchmark Phase I was organized in 2010–2013. It consisted of four experiments on highly irradiated fuel rodlets tested under different experimental conditions. This benchmark revealed the need to better understand the basic models incorporated in each code for realistic simulation of the complicated integral RIA tests with high burnup fuel rods. A second phase of the benchmark (Phase II was thus launched early in 2014, which has been organized in two complementary activities: (1 comparison of the results of different simulations on simplified cases in order to provide additional bases for understanding the differences in modelling of the concerned phenomena; (2 assessment of the uncertainty of the results. The present paper provides a summary and conclusions of the second activity of the Benchmark Phase II, which is based on the input uncertainty propagation methodology. The main conclusion is that uncertainties cannot fully explain the difference between the code predictions. Finally, based on the RIA benchmark Phase-I and Phase-II conclusions, some recommendations are made. Keywords: RIA, Codes Benchmarking, Fuel Modelling, OECD

  16. Sensitive Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive Ceramics is showing an interactive digital design tool for designing wall like composition with 3d ceramics. The experiment is working on two levels. One which has to do with designing compositions and patterns in a virtual 3d universe based on a digital dynamic system that responds on ...... with realizing the modules in ceramics by 3d printing directly in porcelain with a RapMan printer that coils up the 3d shape in layers. Finally the ceramic modules are mounted in a laser cut board that reflects the captured composition of the movement of the hands....

  17. N -annulated perylene as an efficient electron donor for porphyrin-based dyes: Enhanced light-harvesting ability and high-efficiency Co(II/III)-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Renzhi; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Jiang, Changyun; Qi, Qingbiao; Zeng, Wangdong; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Chunyan; Wang, Peng; Wu, Jishan

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrin-based dyes recently have become good candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). However, the bottleneck is how to further improve their light-harvesting ability. In this work, N-annulated perylene (NP) was used to functionalize

  18. TBscore II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

  19. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    This investigation describes the use of non-living biomass of Aspergillus caespitosus for removal of ... Pb(II) production has exceeded 3.5 million tons per year. It has been used in the ... This biomass was selected after screening a wide range of microbes. .... prolonged, which proved better biopolymer in metal uptake (Gadd ...

  20. Atomic structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I at pH 8.0 reveals the large disulfide-rich region in domain II to be sensitive to a pH change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Tetsuya, E-mail: t2masuda@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ohta, Keisuke [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Mikami, Bunzo [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kitabatake, Naofumi [Department of Foods and Human Nutrition, Notre Dame Seishin University, Okayama 700-8516 (Japan); Tani, Fumito [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of a recombinant thaumatin at pH 8.0 determined at a resolution of 1.0 A. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substantial fluctuations of a loop in domain II was found in the structure at pH 8.0. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B-factors for Lys137, Lys163, and Lys187 were significantly affected by pH change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in mobility might play an important role in the heat-induced aggregation. -- Abstract: Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting plant protein, elicits a sweet taste at 50 nM. Although the sweetness remains when thaumatin is heated at 80 Degree-Sign C for 4 h under acid conditions, it rapidly declines when heating at a pH above 6.5. To clarify the structural difference at high pH, the atomic structure of a recombinant thaumatin I at pH 8.0 was determined at a resolution of 1.0 A. Comparison to the crystal structure of thaumatin at pH 7.3 and 7.0 revealed the root-mean square deviation value of a C{alpha} atom to be substantially greater in the large disulfide-rich region of domain II, especially residues 154-164, suggesting that a loop region in domain II to be affected by solvent conditions. Furthermore, B-factors of Lys137, Lys163, and Lys187 were significantly affected by pH change, suggesting that a striking increase in the mobility of these lysine residues, which could facilitate a reaction with a free sulfhydryl residue produced via the {beta}-elimination of disulfide bonds by heating at a pH above 7.0. The increase in mobility of lysine residues as well as a loop region in domain II might play an important role in the heat-induced aggregation of thaumatin above pH 7.0.

  1. Further important sensitizers in patients sensitive to fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, P J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2002-01-01

    In order to find sensitizers additional to the current fragrance mix (FM) a series of fragrance materials (series II) was evaluated in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. 11 of the test materials were essential oils, the remaining 7 being either mixtures of isomers or simple chemicals of frequent...... materials with the highest reactivity after the FM were ylang-ylang oil (YY) I (2.6%), YY II (2.5%), lemongrass oil (1.6%), narcissus absolute (1.3%), jasmine absolute (1.2%) and sandalwood oil (0.9%). 48 (3.0%) of the patients reacted only to materials of series II and not to FM. 6.0% of 1606 patients gave...

  2. EU Transport GHG. Routes to 2050 II Project. Developing a better understanding of the secondary impacts and key sensitivities for the decarbonisation of the EU's transport sector by 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, N.; Brannigan, C. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom); Smokers, R. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Schroten, A.; Vam Essen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Skinner, I. [Transport and Environmental Policy Research TEPR, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The title study directly builds on the work previously completed under the EU Transport GHG: Routes to 2050 project. This new work (dubbed EU Transport GHG: Routes to 2050 II) started in January 2011 and was completed in March 2012. The outputs from this new project help to support the Commission in prioritising and developing their strategy for reducing GHG emissions from the transport sector. CE Delft successfully organised the stakeholder engagement as well as the in-depth research on several topics: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from vehicle production and infrastructure development, CO2 reduction costs, co-benefits of GHG policies and knock-on consequences of such policies. Also alternative economic development paths were investigated, such as paths that could be less transport intensive, but still deliver increasing levels of prosperity.

  3. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in the nucleus accumbens shell inhibits cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization to transient over-expression of α-Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lixia; Meng, Qing; Sun, Xi; Lu, Xiangtong; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Qinghua; Yang, Jianhua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen

    2018-01-04

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is a widely distributed neurotransmitter that attenuates cocaine-induced locomotor activity when injected into the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Our previous work first confirmed that the inhibitory mechanism of the CART peptide on cocaine-induced locomotor activity is related to a reduction in cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIα (pCaMKIIα) and the enhancement of cocaine-induced D3R function. This study investigated whether CART peptide inhibited cocaine-induced locomotor activity via inhibition of interactions between pCaMKIIα and the D3 dopamine receptor (D3R). We demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer transiently increased pCaMKIIα expression, which peaked at 10 days after microinjection into the rat NAc shell, and induced a significant increase in Ca 2+ influx along with greater behavioral sensitivity in the open field test after intraperitoneal injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg). However, western blot analysis and coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that CART peptide treatment in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing NAc rat tissues or cells prior to cocaine administration inhibited the cocaine-induced Ca 2+ influx and attenuated the cocaine-increased pCaMKIIα expression in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing cells. CART peptide decreased the cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) expression via inhibition of the pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, which may account for the prolonged locomotor sensitization induced by repeated cocaine treatment in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing cells. These results provide strong evidence for the inhibitory modulation of CART peptide in cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. © 2018 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Development of an in vitro skin sensitization test using human cell lines; human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT). II. An inter-laboratory study of the h-CLAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, H; Ashikaga, T; Miyazawa, M; Yoshida, Y; Ito, Y; Yoneyama, K; Hirota, M; Itagaki, H; Toyoda, H; Suzuki, H

    2006-08-01

    Recent regulatory changes have placed a major emphasis on in vitro safety testing and alternative models. In regard to skin sensitization tests, dendritic cells (DCs) derived from human peripheral blood have been considered in the development of new in vitro alternatives. Human cell lines have been also reported recently. In our previous study, we suggested that measuring CD86 and/or CD54 expression on THP-1 cells (human monocytic leukemia cell line) could be used as an in vitro skin sensitization method. An inter-laboratory study among two laboratories was undertaken in Japan in order to further develop an in vitro skin sensitization model. In the present study, we used two human cell lines: THP-1 and U-937 (human histiocytic lymphoma cell line). First we optimized our test protocol (refer to the related paper entitled "optimization of the h-CLAT protocol" within this journal) and then we did an inter-laboratory validation with nine chemicals using the optimized protocol. We measured the expression of CD86 and CD54 on the above cells using flow cytometry after a 24h and 48h exposure to six known allergens (e.g., DNCB, pPD, NiSO(4)) and three non-allergens (e.g., SLS, tween 80). For the sample test concentration, four doses (0.1x, 0.5x, 1x, and 2x of the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50))) were evaluated. IC(50) was calculated using MTT assay. We found that allergens/non-allergens were better predicted using THP-1 cells compared to U-937 cells following a 24 h and a 48 h exposure. We also found that the 24h treatment time tended to have a better accuracy than the 48 h treatment time for THP-1 cells. Expression of CD86 and CD54 were good predictive markers for THP-1 cells, but for U-937 cells, expression of CD86 was a better predictor than CD54, at the 24h and the 48 h treatment time. The accuracy also improved when both markers (CD86 and CD54) were used as compared with a single marker for THP-1 cells. Both laboratories gave a good prediction of allergen

  5. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  6. EU Transport GHG. Routes to 2050 II. Developing a better understanding of the secondary impacts and key sensitivities for the decarbonisation of the EU's transport sector by 2050. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, N.; Brannigan, C. [AEA, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Smokers, R. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Schroten, A.; Van Essen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Skinner, I. [Transport and Environmental Policy Research TEPR, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to: (1) Develop an enhanced understanding of the wider potential impacts of transport GHG reduction policies, as well as their possible significance in a critical path to GHG reductions to 2050; (2) Further develop the SULTAN (SUstainabLe TrANsport) illustrative scenarios tool to enhance its usefulness as a policy scoping tool and carry out further scenario analysis in support of the new project; (3) Use the new information in the evaluation of the sensitivities for transport GHG reduction to 2050, in the context of transport's 54-67% reduction target from the European Commission's Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050.

  7. A multicenter, non-randomized, phase II study of docetaxel and carboplatin administered every 3 weeks as second line chemotherapy in patients with first relapse of platinum sensitive epithelial ovarian, peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Herrstedt, Jørn; Havsteen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    of 398 cycles were given. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was seen in 80% (59 of 74) patients with an incidence of febrile neutropenia of 16%. Grade 2/3 sensory peripheral neuropathy occurred in 7% of patients, but no grade 4 sensory peripheral neuropathy was observed. Sixty patients were evaluable for response...... of platinum-sensitive ovarian, peritoneal and Fallopian tube cancer. The major toxicity was neutropenia, while the frequency of peripheral neuropathy was low.......BACKGROUND: In patients with ovarian cancer relapsing at least 6 months after end of primary treatment, the addition of paclitaxel to platinum treatment has been shown to improve survival but at the cost of significant neuropathy. In the first line setting, the carboplatin-docetaxel combination...

  8. Randomized phase II trial of carboplatin versus paclitaxel and carboplatin in platinum-sensitive recurrent advanced ovarian carcinoma: a GEICO (Grupo Espanol de Investigacion en Cancer de Ovario) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, A J; Calvo, E; Bover, I; Rubio, M J; Arcusa, A; Casado, A; Ojeda, B; Balañá, C; Martínez, E; Herrero, A; Pardo, B; Adrover, E; Rifá, J; Godes, M J; Moyano, A; Cervantes, A

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the response rate for the paclitaxel-carboplatin combination is superior to carboplatin alone in the treatment of patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian carcinoma. Patients with recurrent ovarian carcinoma, 6 months after treatment with a platinum-based regimen and with no more than two previous chemotherapy lines, were randomized to receive carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) 5 (arm A) or paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) + carboplatin AUC 5 (arm B). The primary end point was objective response, following a 'pick up the winner' design. Secondary end points included time to progression (TTP), overall survival, tolerability and quality of life (QoL). Eighty-one patients were randomized and included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The response rate in arm B was 75.6% [26.8% complete response (CR) + 48.8% partial response (PR)] [95% confidence interval (CI) 59.7% to 87.6%] and 50% in arm A (20% CR + 30% PR) (95% CI 33.8% to 66.2%). No significant differences were observed in grade 3-4 hematological toxicity. Conversely, mucositis, myalgia/arthralgia and peripheral neurophaty were more frequent in arm B. Median TTP was 49.1 weeks in arm B (95% CI 36.9-61.3) and 33.7 weeks in arm A (95% CI 25.8-41.5). No significant differences were found in the QoL analysis. Paclitaxel-carboplatin combination is a tolerable regimen with a higher response rate than carboplatin monotherapy in platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian carcinoma.

  9. Sonochemical synthesis of a multi-responsive regenerable water-stable zinc(II) fluorescent probe for highly selective, sensitive and real-time sensing of benzaldehyde, ferric ion and PH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin Rui; Wang, Xing Ze; Li, Yong; Liu, Kun; Liu, Shi Xin; Du, Jing; Huang, Zhuo; Luo, Yan; Huo, Jian Zhong; Wu, Xiang Xia; Liu, Yuan Yuan; Ding, Bin

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a novel water-stable coordination polymer with {4 4 } network topology {[Zn(L) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ]} n (1) (L = 4,4'-Bis(triazol-1-ylmethyl)biphenyl) has been synthesized through the hydrothermal and sonochemical approaches. 1 has been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectrum and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PXRD patterns of the as-synthesized samples 1 have confirmed the purity of the bulky samples. In the sonochemical preparation approaches, different ultrasound irradiation power and ultrasound time were also used in order to investigate the impact factor for morphology and size of nano-structured 1. Photo-luminescence studies have revealed that 1 can efficiently distinguish Fe 3+ from Fe 2+ and other metal ions. On the other hand, 1 also can exhibit a highly sensitive, excellently selective and real-time detection of benzaldehyde and pH through photo-luminescence quenching process. As for 1, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) theory has been applied to calculate these spectroscopic data, the result agree with the experimental results for detection of benzaldehyde. Photo-luminescent recyclability results indicated 1 can be reused at least five times in the detection process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a multi-responsive regenerable luminescent sensor for highly selective, sensitive and real-time sensing of Fe 3+ over Fe 2+ , benzaldehyde and pH values. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Generalized tolerance sensitivity and DEA metric sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Neralić, Luka; E. Wendell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between Tolerance sensitivity analysis in optimization and metric sensitivity analysis in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Herein, we extend the results on the generalized Tolerance framework proposed by Wendell and Chen and show how this framework includes DEA metric sensitivity as a special case. Further, we note how recent results in Tolerance sensitivity suggest some possible extensions of the results in DEA metric sensitivity.

  11. Generalized tolerance sensitivity and DEA metric sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Neralić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the relationship between Tolerance sensitivity analysis in optimization and metric sensitivity analysis in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Herein, we extend the results on the generalized Tolerance framework proposed by Wendell and Chen and show how this framework includes DEA metric sensitivity as a special case. Further, we note how recent results in Tolerance sensitivity suggest some possible extensions of the results in DEA metric sensitivity.

  12. Tomo II

    OpenAIRE

    Llano Zapata, José Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    Memorias, histórico, físicas, crítico, apologéticas de la América Meridional con unas breves advertencias y noticias útiles, a los que de orden de Su Majestad hubiesen de viajar y describir aquellas vastas regiones. Reino Vegetal, Tomo II. Por un anónimo americano en Cádiz por los años de 1757. Muy Señor mío, juzgo que los 20 artículos del libro que remití a Vuestra Merced le habrán hecho formar el concepto que merece la fecundidad de aquellos países en las producciones minerales. Y siendo es...

  13. Modification of the sensitivity and repair of potentially lethal damage by diethyldithiocarbamate during and following exposure of plateau-phase cultures of mammalian cells to radiation and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.G.; Engel, C.; Wheatley, C.; Nielsen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), a chelating agent known to reduce levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, appears to protect irradiated monolayers of mammalian cells when present for 1 hr before and during irradiation. To examine a possible cause of this modification, the repair of potentially lethal X-ray damage was examined with and without the presence of DDC in the medium overlying the cells postirradiation. Although little repair was seen in full medium alone when DDC was added to the full medium, the amount of repair was comparable to that seen under optimum repair conditions, that is, in Hanks' balanced salt solution. The t 1/2 of the repair process in Hanks' balanced salt solution or in full medium with DDC added was comparable and of the order of 1 to 1.5 hr. The cis-platinum sensitivity of the monolayers is significantly modified by the addition of DDC, and the nature of the modification is dependent upon the time at which the DDC is added to the cells following initiation of cis-platinum exposure. To investigate a possible reason for this protection by DDC, we examined the repair of potentially lethal cis-platinum damage in the cell monolayers. Minimal repair was noted in the presence of either Hanks' balanced salt solution or full medium, but when DDC was added to the full medium, the repair was tripled, and the t 1/2 of the repair process was approximately 2 hr. The ability of DDC to protect cells from exposure to both X-rays and cis-platinum, together with its augmentation of repair of potentially lethal damage following exposure to each, has broad clinical application and is being actively explored in tumor-bearing mice

  14. Comparison of 68Ga-OPS202 (68Ga-NODAGA-JR11) and 68Ga-DOTATOC (68Ga-Edotreotide) PET/CT in Patients with Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Evaluation of Sensitivity in a Prospective Phase II Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Guillaume P; Schreiter, Nils; Kaul, Felix; Uiters, John; Bouterfa, Hakim; Kaufmann, Jens; Erlanger, Tobias E; Cathomas, Richard; Christ, Emanuel; Fani, Melpomeni; Wild, Damian

    2017-11-30

    Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor (sst) agonists are integral to the diagnosis of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), but detection rates, especially of liver metastases, remain disappointing even with PET/CT. 68 Ga-OPS202 ( 68 Ga-NODAGA-JR11), a novel radiolabeled sst antagonist with a high affinity for sst 2 , has the potential to perform better than sst agonists. Here we present the results of the Phase II component of a Phase I/II study, which evaluated the sensitivity of 68 Ga-OPS202 PET/CT compared with the reference compound, 68 Ga-DOTATOC (sst agonist). Methods: Patients received a single intravenous administration of 68 Ga-DOTATOC (15 µg peptide) and 68 Ga-OPS202 (15 µg peptide at visit 1; 50 µg peptide at visit 2) with an activity of 150 MBq. Whole-body PET/CT acquisitions were performed 1 h post injection on the same calibrated PET/CT scanner. Diagnostic efficacy measures were compared against contrast medium-enhanced CT or MRI as gold standard. Two independent blinded experts read the scans and both outcomes were combined for analysis. Results: Twelve consecutive patients with G1 or G2 GEP-NETs took part in this prospective study. Image contrast for matched malignant liver lesions was significantly higher for 68 Ga-OPS202 scans than for the 68 Ga-DOTATOC scan: median of the mean [interquartile] tumor-to-normal-liver SUV max ratios for 15 µg and 50 µg 68 Ga-OPS202 (5.3 [2.9 - 5.7] and 4.3 [3.4 - 6.3], respectively) were significantly higher than for 68 Ga-DOTATOC (1.9 [1.4 - 2.9]; P = 0.004 and P = 0.008, respectively). The higher tumor-to-background ratio of 68 Ga-OPS202 resulted not only in a higher detection rate of liver metastases, but also in a significantly higher lesion-based overall sensitivity with the antagonist than with 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT: 94% and 88% for 50 µg and 15 µg 68 Ga-OPS202 and 59% for 15 µg 68 Ga-DOTATOC, respectively (pPET/CT and 68 Ga DOTATOC PET/CT were similar (approximately 98%). There were no

  15. Water radiological surveillance (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo San Martin de, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the characteristics of the Environmental Surveillance Radiological Networks (ESRN) currently operating in CEDEX. In the first part, the Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been presented. This second one describes Spanish Costal Waters ESRN and the High Sensitivity Networks in Continental and Marine Waters. It also presents the Radiological Surveillance of Drinking Waters that CEDEX carries out in waters of public consumption management by the Canal de Isabel II (CYII) and by the Mancomunity of Canals Taibilla (M.C.T.). The legislation applicable in each case is reviewed as well. Due to its extension the article has been divided into two parts. As Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been reviewed in the first part, the others ESRN are discussed in this second one. (Author) 10 refs

  16. Cd(II), Cu(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Depending on the way goethite was pretreated with oxalic acid, affinity for Cd(II) varied ...... Effects and mechanisms of oxalate on Cd(II) adsorption on goethite at different ... precipitation, surfactant mediation, hydrothermal and micro-emulsion.

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper (II) with 1-(2 pyridylazo)-2-naphthol in micellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.A.; Soomro, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) is carried out with 1-(2 pyridylazo)-2-naphthol as a complexing reagent in aqueous phase using non-ionic surfactant Tween 80. Beer's law is obeyed for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) over the range 0.5 - 4.0, 0.5 - 4.0 and 0.5 - 3.0 ngmL/sup -1/ with detection limit (2 σ) of 6.7, 3.2 and 3.9 ngmL/sup -1/. The max molar absorption, molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) are 580 nm, 570 nm and 555 nm; max (104 mol/sup -1/ cm /sup -1/) is 0.87, 1.8 and 1.6 and 6.8, 3.3 and 3.9 ng cm-2 respectively. The pH at which complex is formed for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) is 5, 5.5 and 6.5 respectively. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Tween 80 is 5%. The present method is compared with that of atomic absorption spectroscopy and no significant difference is noted between the two methods at 95% confidence level. The method has been applied to the determination of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) in industrial waste water and pharmaceutical samples. (author)

  18. Cu(II) AND Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SYNTHESIS OF 2,2-DIMETHYL-4-PHENYL-[1,3]-DIOXOLANE USING ZEOLITE. ENCAPSULATED Co(II), Cu(II) AND Zn(II) COMPLEXES. B.P. Nethravathi1, K. Rama Krishna Reddy2 and K.N. Mahendra1*. 1Department of Chemistry, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560001, India. 2Department of Chemistry, Government ...

  19. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  20. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N RAMAN*, Y PITCHAIKANI RAJA and A KULANDAISAMY. Department of Chemistry, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar 626 001, India e-mail: ra_man@123india.com.

  1. Context-Sensitive Augmented Reality for Mission Operations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current NASA missions to the International Space Station (ISS) are heavily dependent upon ground controllers to assist crew members in performing routine operations...

  2. Metodologia para obtenção do hidrograma de escoamento superficial em encostas e canais. Parte II: modelo computacional e análise de sensibilidade Methodology for obtention of superficial flow hydrograph in hillsides and canals. Part II: computer model and sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. A. Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimativas de vazão máxima de escoamento superficial são necessárias para o projeto de obras hidráulicas em bacias urbanas e rurais. A dificuldade em aplicar os procedimentos disponíveis para calcular a variação do escoamento superficial com o tempo e de seu valor máximo deve-se à inexatidão dos métodos usados para esse objetivo e à variabilidade nos resultados que podem ser obtidos por profissionais que usem o mesmo procedimento. Dessa forma, a investigação de um método que produza estimativas confiáveis da vazão máxima e do hidrograma de escoamento superficial é de grande interesse. Neste trabalho, desenvolveu-se e avaliou-se a sensibilidade de um software (HIDROGRAMA 2.1 que permite a obtenção do hidrograma de escoamento superficial, da vazão máxima e seu tempo de ocorrência, da altura e da velocidade máximas do escoamento, do volume e da lâmina de escoamento superficial em encosta e em canais. O modelo apresentou grande sensibilidade ao período de retorno, à taxa de infiltração estável e ao comprimento da encosta e do canal.Estimative of maximum runoff flow rates are essential for the projects of hydraulic urban and rural basins. The difficulty in applying the available procedures to estimate the temporary variation of the flow rate and its maximum value is due to the inaccuracy of some methods that are usually used and to the big variability of results that can be obtained by different professionals that use the same procedures. Therefore, research of a method that produces trustworthy assessment of peak-flow rates and hydrographs is of great interest. This paper describes the development and sensitivity analysis of a software (HIDROGRAMA 2.1 that allows obtaining surface runoff hydrograph, peak flow rate and its time of occurrence, runoff maximum height, runoff velocity and runoff volume. The model presented great sensibility to precipitation return period, infiltration rate after long time of wetting and

  3. Levels of Cd (II, Mn (II, Pb (II, Cu (II, and Zn (II in Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo from Sicily (Italy by Derivative Stripping Potentiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Licata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn in different organs (liver, kidney, muscle, lung, skin, and feathers of buzzards (Buteo buteo, utilized as a “biological indicator” for environmental contamination, from different areas of Sicily and to investigate the relationships between birds sex, age, and weight and metal levels in these samples. All samples of common buzzards were collected at the “Recovery Center of Wild Fauna” of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute. Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA was used to determine the content of Cd(II, Cu(II, Mn(II, Pb(II, and Zn(II in bird tissues. For toxic metals, the highest levels of Pb were in liver and those of Cd in lung; Zn levels were higher than Cu and Mn in all tissues analyzed. The concentrations in liver, lung, kidney, and muscle could be considered as an indicative of chronic exposure to metals while the presence of metals in skin could be consequential to storing and elimination processes. The found concentrations of metals in the studied matrices required a highly sensitive method for their determination and a simple sample preparation procedure, and the proposed method was well suited for this purpose.

  4. Chemical kinetic functional sensitivity analysis: Elementary sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, M.; Rabitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is considered for kinetics problems defined in the space--time domain. This extends an earlier temporal Green's function method to handle calculations of elementary functional sensitivities deltau/sub i//deltaα/sub j/ where u/sub i/ is the ith species concentration and α/sub j/ is the jth system parameter. The system parameters include rate constants, diffusion coefficients, initial conditions, boundary conditions, or any other well-defined variables in the kinetic equations. These parameters are generally considered to be functions of position and/or time. Derivation of the governing equations for the sensitivities and the Green's funciton are presented. The physical interpretation of the Green's function and sensitivities is given along with a discussion of the relation of this work to earlier research

  5. Propyl phthalimide-modified thiacalixphenyl[4]arene as a “turn on” chemosensor for Hg(II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Krunal; Panchal, Urvi; Mehta, Viren; Panchal, Manthan; Kongor, Anita; Jain, V.K., E-mail: drvkjain@hotmail.com

    2016-11-15

    Thiacalixphenyl[4]arene tetra N-(3-propyl) phthalimide (TPTN3PPh), a novel thiacalixarene bearing a N-(3-bromopropyl) phthalimide group, was synthesized and characterized by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) and NMR. The ability of TPTN3PPh to recognize the cations Fe(III), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cr(II), Ca(II), Co(II), Mg(II), Ag(I), Pb(II), Sr(II), Hg (II), Th(II), Ba(II), Bi(II), K(I), and Na(I) was evaluated. Only Hg(II) was selectively and sensitively detected using a spectrofluorimetric method, with a detection limit as low as 3.10×10{sup −9} M. Analysis of the binding behavior of TPTN3PPh with Hg(II) revealed 1:2 complex formation. Real sample analysis detected nano levels of mercury ions in a waste water samples.

  6. Fluorescent sensing and determination of mercury (II) ions in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we report on a fluorescent sensing probe based on a naphthyl azo dye modified dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether (DB18C6) for the detection and determination of mercury (II) ions in water. The probe showed high sensitivity and selectivity towards the mercury (II) ion among various alkali, alkaline earth, and transition ...

  7. (II) COMPLEX COMPOUND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    electrochemical sensors, as well as in various chromatographic ... were carried out using Jenway pH meter Model 3320 and a conductivity ... Figure 1: the proposed molecular structure of the copper (II) Schiff base complex. M = Cu (II) or Mn (II).

  8. and copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (II) and copper(II)–zinc(II) complexes. SUBODH KUMAR1, R N PATEL1*, P V KHADIKAR1 and. K B PANDEYA2. 1 Department of Chemistry, APS University, Rewa 486 003, India. 2 CSJM University, Kanpur 208 016, India e-mail: (R N Patel) ...

  9. Standardization of radioimmunoassay for dosage of angiotensin II (ang-II) and its methodological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovani, Milene; Mecawi, Andre S.; Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This paper standardizes the radioimmunoassay (RIA) for dosage of ANG-II of rats, after experimental conditions of saline hypertonic (2%), treating with losartan (antagonist of ANG-II), hydric privation, and acute hemorrhage (25%). After that, the plasmatic ANG-II was extracted for dosage of RIA, whose sensitiveness was of 1.95 pg/m L, with detection of 1.95 to 1000 pg/m L. The treatment with saline reduced the concentration of ANG-II, while the administration pf losartan, the hydric administration and the hemorrhage increase the values, related to the control group. Those results indicate variations in the plasmatic concentration of ANG-II according to the experimental protocols, validating the method for evaluation of activity renin-angiotensin

  10. Context Sensitive Modeling of Cancer Drug Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Juen Chen

    Full Text Available Recent screening of drug sensitivity in large panels of cancer cell lines provides a valuable resource towards developing algorithms that predict drug response. Since more samples provide increased statistical power, most approaches to prediction of drug sensitivity pool multiple cancer types together without distinction. However, pan-cancer results can be misleading due to the confounding effects of tissues or cancer subtypes. On the other hand, independent analysis for each cancer-type is hampered by small sample size. To balance this trade-off, we present CHER (Contextual Heterogeneity Enabled Regression, an algorithm that builds predictive models for drug sensitivity by selecting predictive genomic features and deciding which ones should-and should not-be shared across different cancers, tissues and drugs. CHER provides significantly more accurate models of drug sensitivity than comparable elastic-net-based models. Moreover, CHER provides better insight into the underlying biological processes by finding a sparse set of shared and type-specific genomic features.

  11. Pius II. a utrakvismus

    OpenAIRE

    Šimek, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Milan Šimek Pius II. a utrakvismus Pius II. and utraquism Based on sources work - out, the thesis aims the description and analysis of the attitude alternation of Enea Sylvio Piccolomini - Pius II to the utraquism. The conclusions stress the postulate that Pius II. did not change that attitude, but just did not succed in quelling the utraquist movement. In the sense of political background that finally led to fatal dissention among both leaders, king Jiří of Poděbrady and pope Pius II.

  12. Complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and dioxouranium(II) with thiophene-2-aldehydethiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balwan; Misra, Harihar

    1986-01-01

    Metal complexes of thiosemicarbazides have been known for their pharmacological applications. Significant antitubercular, fungicidal and antiviral activities have been reported for thiosemicarbazides and their derivatives. The present study describes the systhesis and characterisation of complexes of Co II , Cu II , Zn II ,Cd II and UO II with thiosemicarbazone obtained by condensing thiophene-2-aldehyde with thiosemicarbazide. 17 refs., 2 tables. (author)

  13. Structure sensitivity in adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Nielsen, Ole Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1997-01-01

    The structure sensitivity of CO adsorption on different flat, stepped, kinked and reconstructed Pt surfaces is studied using large-scale density-functional calculations. We find an extremely strong structure sensitivity in the adsorption energy with variations up to 1 eV (or 100%) from one...... structure to the next. We propose a model to explain this behavior, and use it to discuss more generally the origin of structure sensitivity in heterogeneous catalysis....

  14. How sensitizing is chlorocresol?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1984-01-01

    Chlorocresol is a biocide with widespread use in industry and pharmaceutical products. It is an occasional human contact sensitizer. The sensitizing potential of chlorocresol was judged strong using the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and doubtful in the less sensitive open epicutaneous test......% in pet. showed 11 reactions among 1462 patients tested, but none were explainable and reproducible during re-tests and provocative use tests, indicating that the GPMT overestimated the sensitization potential. The results from guinea pig allergy tests cannot stand alone but have to be validated by other...

  15. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cacuci, Dan G; Navon, Ionel Michael

    2005-01-01

    As computer-assisted modeling and analysis of physical processes have continued to grow and diversify, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have become indispensable scientific tools. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis. Volume I: Theory focused on the mathematical underpinnings of two important methods for such analyses: the Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure and the Global Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure. This volume concentrates on the practical aspects of performing these analyses for large-scale systems. The applications addressed include two-phase flow problems, a radiative c

  16. Accident analysis for PRC-II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yongren; Tang Gang; Wu Qing; Lu Yili; Liu Zhifeng

    1997-12-01

    The computer codes, calculation models, transient results, sensitivity research, design improvement, and safety evaluation used in accident analysis for PRC-II Reactor (The Second Pulsed Reactor in China) are introduced. PRC-II Reactor is built in big populous city, so the public pay close attention to reactor safety. Consequently, Some hypothetical accidents are analyzed. They include an uncontrolled control rod withdrawal at rated power, a pulse rod ejection at rated power, and loss of coolant accident. Calculation model which completely depict the principle and process for each accident is established and the relevant analysis code is developed. This work also includes comprehensive computing and analyzing transients for each accident of PRC-II Reactor; the influences in the reactor safety of all kind of sensitive parameters; evaluating the function of engineered safety feature. The measures to alleviate the consequence of accident are suggested and taken in the construction design of PRC-II Reactor. The properties of reactor safety are comprehensively evaluated. A new advanced calculation model (True Core Uncovered Model) of LOCA of PRC-II Reactor and the relevant code (MCRLOCA) are first put forward

  17. Rare kaon decays at LAMPF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.

    1982-06-01

    At LAMPF II, intense beams of kaons will be available that will enable the rare kaon-decay processes to be investigated. This note explores some of the possibilities, which divide into two classes: (1) those that test the standard model of Weinberg and Salam and (2) those that are sensitive to new interactions. For both classes, experiments have been limited not by systematic errors but rather by statistical ones. LAMPF II with its intense flux of kaons thus will enable the frontier of rare kaon decay to be realistically probed

  18. Tuned cavity magnetometer sensitivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (sensitivity levels.

  19. Cobalt sensitization and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P

    2012-01-01

    : This clinical review article presents clinical and scientific data on cobalt sensitization and dermatitis. It is concluded that cobalt despite being a strong sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen to come up on patch testing should be regarded as a very complex metal to test with. Exposure...

  20. Multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent, non-specific symptoms in response to chemically unrelated exposures in non-toxic concentrations. Although the pathophysiology of MCS remains unknown, central sensitization may be an important factor...

  1. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  2. Finnish Teachers’ Ethical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Kuusisto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the ethical sensitivity of Finnish teachers (=864 using a 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ. The psychometric qualities of this instrument were analyzed, as were the differences in self-reported ethical sensitivity between practicing and student teachers and teachers of different subjects. The results showed that the psychometric qualities of the ESSQ were satisfactory and enabled the use of an explorative factor analysis. All Finnish teachers rated their level of ethical sensitivity as high, which indicates that they had internalized the ethical professionalism of teaching. However, practicing teachers’ assessments were higher than student teachers’. Moreover, science as a subject was associated with lower self-ratings of ethical sensitivity.

  3. Insulin sensitivity and albuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Stefan; Rutters, Femke; Nijpels, Giel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests an association between insulin sensitivity and albuminuria, which, even in the normal range, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated whether insulin sensitivity is associated with albuminuria in healthy subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHODS: We investigated 1,415 healthy, nondiabetic participants (mean age 43.9 ± 8.3 years; 54.3% women) from the RISC (Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease) study, of whom 852 participated in a follow-up examination after 3 years. At baseline, insulin sensitivity...... was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, expressed as the M/I value. Oral glucose tolerance test-based insulin sensitivity (OGIS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were determined at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS...

  4. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.

    1979-05-01

    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  5. Resistance of Gram-positive bacteria to nisin is not determined by Lipid II levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, NE; Smid, EJ; Kok, J; de Kruijff, B; Kuipers, OP; Breukink, E; Kramer, Naomi E.; Smid, Eddy J.

    2004-01-01

    Lipid II is essential for nisin-mediated pore formation at nano-molar concentrations. We tested whether nisin resistance could result from different Lipid II levels, by comparing the maximal Lipid II pool in Micrococcus flavus (sensitive) and Listeria monocytogenes (relatively insensitive) and their

  6. Quininium tetrachloridozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhuang Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-1-ium-4-ylmethyl]-8-vinylquinuclidin-1-ium tetrachloridozinc(II}, (C20H26N2O2[ZnCl4], consists of a double protonated quininium cation and a tetrachloridozinc(II anion. The ZnII ion is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...Cl and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  7. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  8. Modeling Fe II Emission and Revised Fe II (UV) Empirical Templates for the Seyfert 1 Galaxy I Zw 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhweiler, F.; Verner, E.

    2008-03-01

    We use the narrow-lined broad-line region (BLR) of the Seyfert 1 galaxy, I Zw 1, as a laboratory for modeling the ultraviolet (UV) Fe II 2100-3050 Å emission complex. We calculate a grid of Fe II emission spectra representative of BLR clouds and compare them with the observed I Zw 1 spectrum. Our predicted spectrum for log [nH/(cm -3) ] = 11.0, log [ΦH/(cm -2 s-1) ] = 20.5, and ξ/(1 km s-1) = 20, using Cloudy and an 830 level model atom for Fe II with energies up to 14.06 eV, gives a better fit to the UV Fe II emission than models with fewer levels. Our analysis indicates (1) the observed UV Fe II emission must be corrected for an underlying Fe II pseudocontinuum; (2) Fe II emission peaks can be misidentified as that of other ions in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with narrow-lined BLRs possibly affecting deduced physical parameters; (3) the shape of 4200-4700 Å Fe II emission in I Zw 1 and other AGNs is a relative indicator of narrow-line region (NLR) and BLR Fe II emission; (4) predicted ratios of Lyα, C III], and Fe II emission relative to Mg II λ2800 agree with extinction corrected observed I Zw 1 fluxes, except for C IV λ1549 (5) the sensitivity of Fe II emission strength to microturbulence ξ casts doubt on existing relative Fe/Mg abundances derived from Fe II (UV)/Mg II flux ratios. Our calculated Fe II emission spectra, suitable for BLRs in AGNs, are available at http://iacs.cua.edu/people/verner/FeII. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 05-26555.

  9. Symptoms of depression as possible markers of bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Franco

    2006-05-01

    Underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of bipolar-II disorder (BP-II) as a major depressive disorder (MDD) are frequently reported. The study aim was to find which symptoms of depression could be possible cross-sectional markers of BP-II, in order to reduce underdiagnosing BP-II. Consecutive 379 BP-II and 271 MDD major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hypomania Interview Guide, and the Family History Screen, by a senior psychiatrist in a private practice. Inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms (elevated mood and increased self-esteem always absent by definition) were systematically assessed. Mixed depression was defined as an MDE plus 3 or more inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms, a definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi. The MDE symptoms significantly more common in BP-II versus MDD were weight gain, increased eating, hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation, worthlessness, and diminished ability to concentrate. The inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms significantly more common in BP-II were distractibility, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, psychomotor agitation, more talkativeness, increased risky and goal-directed activities. Multiple logistic regression showed that hypersomnia, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, and psychomotor agitation were independent predictors of BP-II. Irritability had the most balanced combination of sensitivity and specificity predicting BP-II. Psychomotor agitation had the highest specificity but the lowest sensitivity. Racing/crowded thoughts had the highest sensitivity but the lowest specificity. These symptoms had a similar positive predictive value (PPV) for BP-II, which was around 70% (PPV is more clinically useful than sensitivity and specificity), which in turn was similar to the PPV of mixed depression and atypical depression (two diagnostic clinical markers of BP-II). All possible combinations of these symptoms had a PPV similar to that of the individual symptoms. The

  10. cobalt(II), nickel(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    procedures. The supporting electrolyte, NaClO4 used in the voltammetric experiment was purchased from. Sigma. IR spectra were recorded in KBr medium on .... (13⋅6). L = Schiff base ligand form of one broad band envelope. The electronic spectra of Co(II) complex showed two spin-allowed transitions at 17856 and ...

  11. Receptor binding radiotracers for the angiotensin II receptor: radioiodinated [Sar1, Ile8]angiotensin II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.E.; Beauchamp, H.T.; Fioravanti, C.; Brenner, N.; Burns, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for imaging the angiotensin II receptor was evaluated using the radioiodinated peptide antagonist [ 125 I][Sar 1 , Ile 8 ]angiotensin II. The radioligand provides a receptor-mediated signal in several tissues in rat (kidneys, adrenal and liver). The receptor-mediated signal of 3% ID/g kidney cortex should be sufficient to permit imaging, at least via SPECT. The radiotracer is sensitive to reductions in receptor concentration and can be used to define in vivo dose-occupancy curves of angiotensin II receptor ligands. Receptor-mediated images of [ 123 I][Sar 1 , Ile 8 ]angiotensin II were obtained in the rat kidney and Rhesus monkey liver. (author)

  12. Developing cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle

    2007-01-01

    . Background. Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity......Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students...... and incorporate this into caregiving. Method. A Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2004 by using in-depth conversational interviews and analysed using the Turner method. Findings. Developing cultural sensitivity involves a complex interplay between becoming...

  13. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Petra; Bauer, Axel; Müller, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Low baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) indicates poor prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Noninvasive BRS assessment is complicated by nonstationarities and noise in electrocardiogram and pressure signals. Phase-rectified signal averaging is a novel signal processing technology overcoming thes...

  14. Nuclear physics II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elze, T.

    1988-01-01

    This script consisting of two parts contains the matter of the courses Nuclear Pyhsics I and II, as they were presented in the winter term 1987/88 and summer term 1988 for students of physics at Frankfurt University. In the present part II the matter of the summer term is summarized. (orig.) [de

  15. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  16. Comparison of SAND-II and FERRET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.; Schmittroth, F.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, SAND-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. This comparison involved an examination of the methodology and the operational performance of each code. The merits of each code were identified with respect to theoretical basis, directness of method, solution uniqueness, subjective influences, and sensitivity to various input parameters

  17. Synchronous determination of mercury (II) and copper (II) based on quantum dots-multilayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qiang; Ha Enna; Yang Fengping; Su Xingguang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We developed a sensitive sensor for synchronous detection of Hg (II) and Cu (II) based on the quenchedand recovered PL intensity of QDs-multilayer films. Solutions containing Hg (II) or Cu (II) were used to quench the fluorescence of the QDs-multilayer films firstly. Then, glutathione (GSH) was used to remove Hg (II) or Cu (II) from the QDs-multilayer films due to stronger affinity of GSH-metal ions than that of QDs metal ions. Thus, the fluorescence of QDs-multilayer films was recovered. Highlights: → QDs-multilayer films were developed for synchronous detection of Hg (II) and Cu (II). → Hg (II) and Cu (II) could quench the photoluminescence of the QDs-multilayer films. → Glutathione was used to remove metal ions and recovery photoluminescence of QDs-multilayer films. - Abstract: A sensitive sensor for mercury (II) and copper (II) synchronous detection was established via the changed photoluminescence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) multilayer films in this work. QDs were deposited on the quartz slides to form QDs-multilayer films by electrostatic interactions with poly(dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA). Hg 2+ or Cu 2+ could quench the photoluminescence of the QDs-multilayer films, and glutathione (GSH) was used to remove Hg 2+ or Cu 2+ from QDs-multilayer films due to strong affinity of GSH-metal ions, which resulted in the recovered photoluminescence of QDs-multilayer films. There are good linear relationships between the metal ions concentration and the photoluminescence intensity of QDs in the quenched and recovered process. It was found that the Stern-Volmer constants for Hg 2+ are higher than that for Cu 2+ . Based on different quenching and recovery constant between Hg 2+ and Cu 2+ , the synchronous detection of Hg 2+ and Cu 2+ can be achieved. The linear ranges of this assay were obtained from 0.005 to 0.5 μM for Hg 2+ and from 0.01 to 1 μM for Cu 2+ , respectively. And the artificial water samples were determined by this

  18. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  19. The water sensitive city: principles for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T H F; Brown, R R

    2009-01-01

    With the widespread realisation of the significance of climate change, urban communities are increasingly seeking to ensure resilience to future uncertainties in urban water supplies, yet change seems slow with many cities facing ongoing investment in the conventional approach. This is because transforming cities to more sustainable urban water cities, or to Water Sensitive Cities, requires a major overhaul of the hydro-social contract that underpins conventional approaches. This paper provides an overview of the emerging research and practice focused on system resilience and principles of sustainable urban water management Three key pillars that need to underpin the development and practice of a Water Sensitive City are proposed: (i) access to a diversity of water sources underpinned by a diversity of centralised and decentralised infrastructure; (ii) provision of ecosystem services for the built and natural environment; and (iii) socio-political capital for sustainability and water sensitive behaviours. While there is not one example in the world of a Water Sensitive City, there are cities that lead on distinct and varying attributes of the water sensitive approach and examples from Australia and Singapore are presented.

  20. High sensitivity cavity ring down spectroscopy of N_2O near 1.22 µm: (II) "1"4N_2"1"6O line intensity modeling and global fit of "1"4N_2"1"8O line positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashkun, S.A.; Perevalov, V.I.; Karlovets, E.V.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent work (Karlovets et al., 2016 [1]), we reported the measurement and rovibrational assignments of more than 3300 transitions belonging to 64 bands of five nitrous oxide isotopologues ("1"4N_2"1"6O, "1"4N"1"5N"1"6O, "1"5N"1"4N"1"6O, "1"4N_2"1"8O and "1"4N_2"1"7O) in the high sensitivity CRDS spectrum recorded in the 7915–8334 cm"−"1 spectral range. The assignments were performed by comparison with predictions of the effective Hamiltonian models developed for each isotopologue. In the present paper, the large amount of measurements from our previous work mentioned above and literature are gathered to refine the modeling of the nitrous oxide spectrum in two ways: (i) improvement of the intensity modeling for the principal isotopologue, "1"4N_2"1"6O, near 8000 cm"−"1 from a new fit of the relevant effective dipole moment parameters, (ii) global modeling of "1"4N_2"1"8O line positions from a new fit of the parameters of the global effective Hamiltonian using an exhaustive input dataset collected in the literature in the 12–8231 cm"−"1 region. The fitted set of 81 parameters allowed reproducing near 5800 measured line positions with an RMS deviation of 0.0016 cm"−"1. The dimensionless weighted standard deviation of the fit is 1.22. As an illustration of the improvement of the predictive capabilities of the obtained effective Hamiltonian, two new "1"4N_2"1"8O bands could be assigned in the CRDS spectrum in the 7915–8334 cm"−"1 spectral range. A line list at 296 K has been generated in the 0–10,700 cm"−"1 range for "1"4N_2"1"8O in natural abundance with a 10"−"3"0 cm/molecule intensity cutoff. - Highlights: • Line parameters of two new "1"4N_2"1"8O bands centered at 7966 cm"−"1 and at 8214 cm"−"1. • Refined sets of the "1"4N_2"1"6O effective dipole moment parameters for ΔP=13,14 series. • Global modeling of "1"4N_2"1"8O line positions and intensities in the 12–8231 cm"−"1 range. • 5800 observed of "1"4N_2"1"8O line positions

  1. Evolved H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.

    1975-01-01

    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  2. WHAT IF (Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian N. BUJOREANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity analysis represents such a well known and deeply analyzed subject that anyone to enter the field feels like not being able to add anything new. Still, there are so many facets to be taken into consideration.The paper introduces the reader to the various ways sensitivity analysis is implemented and the reasons for which it has to be implemented in most analyses in the decision making processes. Risk analysis is of outmost importance in dealing with resource allocation and is presented at the beginning of the paper as the initial cause to implement sensitivity analysis. Different views and approaches are added during the discussion about sensitivity analysis so that the reader develops an as thoroughly as possible opinion on the use and UTILITY of the sensitivity analysis. Finally, a round-up conclusion brings us to the question of the possibility of generating the future and analyzing it before it unfolds so that, when it happens it brings less uncertainty.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis Without Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Peng; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2016-05-01

    Unmeasured confounding may undermine the validity of causal inference with observational studies. Sensitivity analysis provides an attractive way to partially circumvent this issue by assessing the potential influence of unmeasured confounding on causal conclusions. However, previous sensitivity analysis approaches often make strong and untestable assumptions such as having an unmeasured confounder that is binary, or having no interaction between the effects of the exposure and the confounder on the outcome, or having only one unmeasured confounder. Without imposing any assumptions on the unmeasured confounder or confounders, we derive a bounding factor and a sharp inequality such that the sensitivity analysis parameters must satisfy the inequality if an unmeasured confounder is to explain away the observed effect estimate or reduce it to a particular level. Our approach is easy to implement and involves only two sensitivity parameters. Surprisingly, our bounding factor, which makes no simplifying assumptions, is no more conservative than a number of previous sensitivity analysis techniques that do make assumptions. Our new bounding factor implies not only the traditional Cornfield conditions that both the relative risk of the exposure on the confounder and that of the confounder on the outcome must satisfy but also a high threshold that the maximum of these relative risks must satisfy. Furthermore, this new bounding factor can be viewed as a measure of the strength of confounding between the exposure and the outcome induced by a confounder.

  4. Sensitivities of ionic explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Lane, Pat; Murray, Jane S.

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the relevance for ionic explosive sensitivity of three factors that have been demonstrated to be related to the sensitivities of molecular explosives. These are (1) the maximum available heat of detonation, (2) the amount of free space per molecule (or per formula unit) in the crystal lattice and (3) specific features of the electrostatic potential on the molecular or ionic surface. We find that for ionic explosives, just as for molecular ones, there is an overall tendency for impact sensitivity to increase as the maximum detonation heat release is greater. This means that the usual emphasis upon designing explosives with large heats of detonation needs to be tempered somewhat. We also show that a moderate detonation heat release does not preclude a high level of detonation performance for ionic explosives, as was already demonstrated for molecular ones. Relating the free space per formula unit to sensitivity may require a modified procedure for ionic explosives; this will continue to be investigated. Finally, an encouraging start has been made in linking impact sensitivities to the electrostatic potentials on ionic surfaces, although limited so far to ammonium salts.

  5. Managing a sensitive project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etcheber, Pascal

    1998-01-01

    A 'sensitive' project needs to be managed differently from a 'normal' project. This statement might seem simple enough. However, it does not seem to be a simple task to prove it in twenty minutes. This paper is an attempt to share with the audience some of the experiences the company had dealing with sensitive projects. It describes what a sensitive project is, though of all people, the 'nuclear' should know. Then the common mistakes are described, that are made in the hoping that some personal experiences are recognised. Finally the company's strategy is shown, how we foster third party support and the main tools to be used. Ultimately, success is ensured by having a sufficient quantity of allies. A sensitive project does not die because it has too many opponents, but because it has too few allies. Finding and helping allies to act is the thrust of our activity. It enables sensitive projects which deserve to succeed to do so, where traditional management fails miserably

  6. Preliminary PBFA II design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.; VanDevender, J.P.; Martin, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    The upgrade of Sandia National Laboratories particle beam fusion accelerator, PBFA I, to PBFA II presents several interesting and challenging pulsed power design problems. PBFA II requires increasing the PBFA I output parameters from 2 MV, 30 TW, 1 MJ to 4 MV, 100 TW, 3.5 MJ with the constraint of using much of the same PBFA I hardware. The increased PBFA II output will be obtained by doubling the number of modules (from 36 to 72), increasing the primary energy storage (from 4 MJ to 15 MJ), lowering the pulse forming line (PFL) output impedance, and adding a voltage doubling network

  7. Sensitizing properties of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Ladics, Gregory S; McClain, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The scope of allergy risk is diverse considering the myriad ways in which protein allergenicity is affected by physiochemical characteristics of proteins. The complexity created by the matrices of foods and the variability of the human immune system add additional challenges to understanding...... the relationship between sensitization potential and allergy disease. To address these and other issues, an April 2012 international symposium was held in Prague, Czech Republic, to review and discuss the state-of-the-science of sensitizing properties of protein allergens. The symposium, organized by the Protein...... Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute's Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, featured presentations on current methods, test systems, research trends, and unanswered questions in the field of protein sensitization. A diverse group of over 70 interdisciplinary...

  8. Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 3. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N Raman Y Pitchaikani Raja A Kulandaisamy. Inorganic Volume 113 Issue 3 June 2001 pp 183-189 ...

  9. Screening sensitivity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblow, E.M.; Perey, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive rigorous theory is developed for screening sensitivity coefficients in largescale modeling applications. The theory uses Bayesian inference and group theory to establish a probabilistic framework for solving an underdetermined system of linear equations. The underdetermined problem is directly related to statistical screening sensitivity theory as developed in recent years. Several examples of the new approach to screening are worked out in detail and comparisons are made with statistical approaches to the problem. The drawbacks of these latter methods are discussed at some length

  10. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  11. The Belle II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, J

    2017-01-01

    Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.

  12. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  13. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000549.htm Factor II deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  14. Ni(II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    analytical chemistry, catalysis, electrochemistry, ring-opening metathesis ... Ethanol was dried over anhydrous copper(II) sulfate and distilled over metallic sodium. ... All bacteria were inoculated into Nutrient Broth (Difco) and incubated for 24 h ...

  15. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected...

  16. Disruption Rose Tinted II

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    'Disruption - Rose Tinted II' continues to engage narratives of historical English china as previously explored in the work 'Rose Tinted'. This work engages the sleepy rural idyll which is overlaid with visual contemporary social commentary.

  17. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected...

  18. Gamble II Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Gamble II produces a high-voltage (2 MV), high-current (1 MA), short (100 ns) pulse of energy of either positive or negative polarity. This terawatt power...

  19. Leo II PC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...

  20. Tokapole II device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprott, J.G.

    1978-05-01

    A discussion is given of the design and operation of the Tokapole II device. The following topics are considered: physics considerations, vacuum vessel, poloidal field, ring and support design, toroidal field, vacuum system, initial results, and future plans

  1. copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptadionato)copper(II) ... Abstract. Equilibrium concentrations of various condensed and gaseous phases have been thermodyna- ... phere, over a wide range of substrate temperatures and total reactor pressures.

  2. Digital optical computer II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.

    1991-12-01

    OptiComp is currently completing a 32-bit, fully programmable digital optical computer (DOC II) that is designed to operate in a UNIX environment running RISC microcode. OptiComp's DOC II architecture is focused toward parallel microcode implementation where data is input in a dual rail format. By exploiting the physical principals inherent to optics (speed and low power consumption), an architectural balance of optical interconnects and software code efficiency can be achieved including high fan-in and fan-out. OptiComp's DOC II program is jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO), NASA space station group and Rome Laboratory (USAF). This paper not only describes the motivational basis behind DOC II but also provides an optical overview and architectural summary of the device that allows the emulation of any digital instruction set.

  3. The Bipolar II Depression Questionnaire: A Self-Report Tool for Detecting Bipolar II Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Ming Leung

    Full Text Available Bipolar II (BP-II depression is often misdiagnosed as unipolar (UP depression, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Tools for differentiating between these two types of depression are lacking. This study aimed to develop a simple, self-report screening instrument to help distinguish BP-II depression from UP depressive disorder. A prototype BP-II depression questionnaire (BPIIDQ-P was constructed following a literature review, panel discussions and a field trial. Consecutively assessed patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or BP with depressive episodes completed the BPIIDQ-P at a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Hong Kong between October and December 2013. Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Of the 298 subjects recruited, 65 (21.8% were males and 233 (78.2% females. There were 112 (37.6% subjects with BP depression [BP-I = 42 (14.1%, BP-II = 70 (23.5%] and 182 (62.4% with UP depression. Based on family history, age at onset, postpartum depression, episodic course, attacks of anxiety, hypersomnia, social phobia and agoraphobia, the 8-item BPIIDQ-8 was constructed. The BPIIDQ-8 differentiated subjects with BP-II from those with UP depression with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.75/0.63 for the whole sample and 0.77/0.72 for a female subgroup with a history of childbirth. The BPIIDQ-8 can differentiate BP-II from UP depression at the secondary care level with satisfactory to good reliability and validity. It has good potential as a screening tool for BP-II depression in primary care settings. Recall bias, the relatively small sample size, and the high proportion of females in the BP-II sample limit the generalization of the results.

  4. SPEAR II performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The single beam and colliding beam performance of the SLAC electron-positron storage ring SPEAR II is described. The sevenfold increase in harmonic number in SPEAR II in comparison to SPEAR I has made significant changes in single beam behavior. Strong synchrobetatron resonances and a new transverse instability are observed, and our first studies of these phenomena are described. Measurements on current dependent bunch lengthening are presented. (auth)

  5. Computing at Belle II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Belle II, a next-generation B-factory experiment, will search for new physics effects in a data sample about 50 times larger than the one collected by its predecessor, the Belle experiment. To match the advances in accelerator and detector technology, the computing system and the software have to be upgraded as well. The Belle II computing model is presented and an overview of the distributed computing system and the offline software framework is given.

  6. Nsls-II Boster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, S. M.; Akimov, A. V.; Akimov, V. E.; Anashin, V. V.; Anchugov, O. V.; Baranov, G. N.; Batrakov, A. M.; Belikov, O. V.; Bekhtenev, E. A.; Blum, E.; Bulatov, A. V.; Burenkov, D. B.; Cheblakov, P. B.; Chernyakin, A. D.; Cheskidov, V. G.; Churkin, I. N.; Davidsavier, M.; Derbenev, A. A.; Erokhin, A. I.; Fliller, R. P.; Fulkerson, M.; Gorchakov, K. M.; Ganetis, G.; Gao, F.; Gurov, D. S.; Hseuh, H.; Hu, Y.; Johanson, M.; Kadyrov, R. A.; Karnaev, S. E.; Karpov, G. V.; Kiselev, V. A.; Kobets, V. V.; Konstantinov, V. M.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Korepanov, A. A.; Kramer, S.; Krasnov, A. A.; Kremnev, A. A.; Kuper, E. A.; Kuzminykh, V. S.; Levichev, E. B.; Li, Y.; Long, J. De; Makeev, A. V.; Mamkin, V. R.; Medvedko, A. S.; Meshkov, O. I.; Nefedov, N. B.; Neyfeld, V. V.; Okunev, I. N.; Ozaki, S.; Padrazo, D.; Petrov, V. V.; Petrichenkov, M. V.; Philipchenko, A. V.; Polyansky, A. V.; Pureskin, D. N.; Rakhimov, A. R.; Rose, J.; Ruvinskiy, S. I.; Rybitskaya, T. V.; Sazonov, N. V.; Schegolev, L. M.; Semenov, A. M.; Semenov, E. P.; Senkov, D. V.; Serdakov, L. E.; Serednyakov, S. S.; Shaftan, T. V.; Sharma, S.; Shichkov, D. S.; Shiyankov, S. V.; Shvedov, D. A.; Simonov, E. A.; Singh, O.; Sinyatkin, S. V.; Smaluk, V. V.; Sukhanov, A. V.; Tian, Y.; Tsukanova, L. A.; Vakhrushev, R. V.; Vobly, P. D.; Utkin, A. V.; Wang, G.; Wahl, W.; Willeke, F.; Yaminov, K. R.; Yong, H.; Zhuravlev, A.; Zuhoski, P.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a third generation light source, which was constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This project includes a highly-optimized 3 GeV electron storage ring, linac preinjector, and full-energy synchrotron injector. Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics built and delivered the booster for NSLS-II. The commissioning of the booster was successfully completed. This paper reviews fulfilled work by participants.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: warfarin sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Warfarin sensitivity Warfarin sensitivity Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Warfarin sensitivity is a condition in which individuals have ...

  8. The Water Maser in II Zw 96: Scientific Justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Brandon Kerry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-06

    We propose a VLBI search to image and locate the water emission in II Zw 96. We propose 3 sites within II Zw 96 for VLBI followup (see the proposed target listing below). We request 2.5 hours of on-source integration time with the VLBA per source. The array will achieve ~ 65µJy sensitivity in K band in this time which will be sufficient to detect luminous water maser features.

  9. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  10. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  11. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion

  12. Radiation-sensitive diacrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demajistre, R.

    1976-01-01

    Novel diacrylates are prepared by reacting a monohydroxylated acrylic monomer with a polyisocyanate. The reaction product may be polymerized by subjecting to ionizing irradiation, actinic light or to free radical catalysts to form a useful coating material. The diacrylates may also be copolymerized with other radiation sensitive materials. 6 claims, no drawings

  13. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Anne Gram

    Et voksende antal mennesker i Danmark oplever at være overfølsomme over for dufte og kemikalier. Imidlertid er den tilskrevne diagnose Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) ikke medicinsk anerkendt i Danmark pga. mangel på organiske og patofysiologisk basis for symptomerne. Dette speciale bygger på...

  14. Neutrino telescopes sensitivity to dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Lamoureux, J.; Smoot, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    The nature of the dark matter of the Universe is yet unknown and most likely is connected with new physics. The search for its composition is underway through direct and indirect detection. Fundamental physical aspects such as energy threshold, geometry and location are taken into account to investigate proposed neutrino telescopes of km3 volume sensitivities to dark matter. These sensitivities are just sufficient to test a few weakly interacting massive particle scenarios. Telescopes of km3 volume, such as IceCube, can definitely discover or exclude superheavy (M>1010 GeV) strong interacting massive particles (simpzillas). Smaller neutrino telescopes such as ANTARES, AMANDA-II and NESTOR can probe a large region of simpzilla parameter space

  15. Modification of the Charlesby law. Pt. 2. Macroscopic sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiltz, A.; Weil, A.; Paniez, P.

    1984-01-01

    In part II, results are presented showing that for doses below macroscopic sensitivity, Qsub(sm), degradation due to fluence of the particles seems to be non-uniform over the entire area. In the light of this, a modification of the Charlesby's law is proposed providing a solution to the problems considered in part I [fr

  16. The Insulin-Sensitive Side of SHIP2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Schurmans

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A substantial and increasing proportion of death and disability in the EU (and elsewhere is attributable to diseases associated with insulin resistance (i.e., decreased insulin sensitivity. Beside type II diabetes, other diseases like obesity, hypertension, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and acromegaly are indeed associated with insulin resistance [1].

  17. Sensitivity analysis and related analysis : A survey of statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in five related types of analysis, namely (i) sensitivity or what-if analysis, (ii) uncertainty or risk analysis, (iii) screening, (iv) validation, and (v) optimization. The main question is: when should which type of analysis be applied; which statistical

  18. N -annulated perylene-based push-pull-type sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qingbiao; Wang, Xingzhu; Fan, Li; Zheng, Bin; Zeng, Wangdong; Luo, Jie; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wang, Qing; Wu, Jishan

    2015-01-01

    Alkoxy-wrapped N-annulated perylene (NP) was synthesized and used as a rigid and coplanar π-linker for three push-pull type metal-free sensitizers QB1-QB3. Their optical and electrochemical properties were tuned by varying the structure of acceptor. These new dyes were applied in Co(II)/(III) based dye-sensitized solar cells, and power conversion efficiency up to 6.95% was achieved, indicating that NP could be used as a new building block for the design of high-performance sensitizers in the future.

  19. N -annulated perylene-based push-pull-type sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qingbiao

    2015-02-06

    Alkoxy-wrapped N-annulated perylene (NP) was synthesized and used as a rigid and coplanar π-linker for three push-pull type metal-free sensitizers QB1-QB3. Their optical and electrochemical properties were tuned by varying the structure of acceptor. These new dyes were applied in Co(II)/(III) based dye-sensitized solar cells, and power conversion efficiency up to 6.95% was achieved, indicating that NP could be used as a new building block for the design of high-performance sensitizers in the future.

  20. Comparative Pharmacokinetics Study of Icariin and Icariside II in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To explore the pharmacokinetic properties of icariin (ICA and icariside II (ICA II following intragastric and intravenous administration in rats, a rapid and sensitive method by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ICA and ICA II in rat plasma. The quantification was performed by using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions m/z 677.1/531.1 for ICA, 515.1/369.1 for ICA II and 463.1/301.1 for diosmetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (IS. The assay showed linearity over the concentration range of 1.03–1032 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients of 0.9983 and 0.9977. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 15%. The lower limit of quantification for both ICA and ICA II was 1.03 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery of ICA and ICA II was more than 86.2%. The LC-MS/MS method has been successfully used in the pharmacokinetic studies of ICA and ICA II in rats. The results indicated that 91.2% of ICA was transformed into ICA II after oral administration by rats, whereas only 0.4% of ICA was transformed into ICA II after intravenous administration. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of ICA and ICA II after oral administration revealed that the Cmax and AUC0–t of ICA II were 3.8 and 13.0 times higher, respectively, than those of ICA. However, after intravenous administration, the Cmax and AUC0–t of ICA II were about only 12.1% and 4.2% of those of ICA. These results suggest that ICA and ICA II have distinct pharmacokinetic properties, and the insights obtained facilitate future pharmacological action studies.

  1. Standardization of radioimmunoassay for dosage of angiotensin II (ang-II) and its methodological evaluation; Padronizacao do radioimunoensaio para dosagem de angiotensina II (ang-II) e sua validacao metodologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, Milene; Mecawi, Andre S.; Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose, E-mail: llelias@fmrp.usp.b, E-mail: antunes@fmrp.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2011-10-26

    This paper standardizes the radioimmunoassay (RIA) for dosage of ANG-II of rats, after experimental conditions of saline hypertonic (2%), treating with losartan (antagonist of ANG-II), hydric privation, and acute hemorrhage (25%). After that, the plasmatic ANG-II was extracted for dosage of RIA, whose sensitiveness was of 1.95 pg/m L, with detection of 1.95 to 1000 pg/m L. The treatment with saline reduced the concentration of ANG-II, while the administration pf losartan, the hydric administration and the hemorrhage increase the values, related to the control group. Those results indicate variations in the plasmatic concentration of ANG-II according to the experimental protocols, validating the method for evaluation of activity renin-angiotensin

  2. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on the sensitivity of the corporate payment capacity. Through the nature of the subject, the research is based on simulating variations of the forecasted cash-flows of the companies included in the sample. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flows statements collected from 50 companies from Timis County (Romania), as well as the detailed hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main se...

  3. Mutagenic sensitivity to triticales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V.R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate and their combined treatments on germination, survival, seedling height and sterility were studied in one winter Triticale var. 6TA 87 and one sprig Triticale var. cinnamon. Based on LD 50 , degree of reduction in seedling height and increase in seed and pollen sterility, it was concluded that Triticale var. cinnamon is highly sensitive and mutable compared to Triticale 6TA 876. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Interference and Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Causal inference with interference is a rapidly growing area. The literature has begun to relax the "no-interference" assumption that the treatment received by one individual does not affect the outcomes of other individuals. In this paper we briefly review the literature on causal inference in the presence of interference when treatments have been randomized. We then consider settings in which causal effects in the presence of interference are not identified, either because randomization alone does not suffice for identification, or because treatment is not randomized and there may be unmeasured confounders of the treatment-outcome relationship. We develop sensitivity analysis techniques for these settings. We describe several sensitivity analysis techniques for the infectiousness effect which, in a vaccine trial, captures the effect of the vaccine of one person on protecting a second person from infection even if the first is infected. We also develop two sensitivity analysis techniques for causal effects in the presence of unmeasured confounding which generalize analogous techniques when interference is absent. These two techniques for unmeasured confounding are compared and contrasted.

  5. Tactual sensitivity in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenen, M A; Schmidi, A J; Schoenmakers, M; van den Hout, M A

    1997-01-01

    In his article on amplification, somatization and somatoform disorders Barsky [Psychosomatics 1992; 33:28-34] pointed out the importance of studying the perception and processing of somatic and visceral symptoms. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that hypochondriacal patients are not more accurately aware of cardiac activity than a group of non-hypochondriacal patients. Authors concluded that hypochondriacal somatic complaints do not result from an unusually fine discriminative ability to detect normal physiological sensations that non-hypochondriacal patients are unable to perceive. The aim of the present study was to investigate tactual sensitivity to non-painful stimuli in hypochondriacal patients and healthy subjects. Twenty-seven outpatients with DSM-III-R hypochondriasis and 27 healthy control subjects were compared. In all subjects the two-point discrimination threshold was measured, as well as subjective sensitivity to harmless bodily sensations as measured by the Somatosensory Amplification Scale. It was found that hypochondriacal patients reported more distress and discomfort with benign bodily sensations. The two-point discrimination threshold of hypochondriacal patients was not significantly lower in patients as compared to controls. Hypochondriacal subjects considered themselves more sensitive to benign bodily sensations without being better able to discriminate between two tactual bodily signals. These findings of the present study correspond quite closely to those reported earlier.

  6. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  7. About APPLE II Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented

  8. VATICANO II CONCILIO DOCTRINAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Bojorge

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a century since the army of Victor Manuel invaded Rome and put an end to Vatican I. In this article we try to understand Vatican II linking it to the previous circumtances and binding it to its doctrinal and pastoral character. Vatican II omitted many subjects that seemed important, e. g. not giving any dogmatic definitions. Contrasting with the Tridentine and Vatican I, that were mostly doctrinal, Vatican II was pastoral. But it was also doctrinal as were the two previous also pastoral. The Constitution "Dei Verbum" brings forth the intentions that led John XXIII to summon the Council in 5-8-1962. The world looked confused and agitated. What could the Church do?

  9. Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuskovic, Marko I.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

  10. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  11. Phase sensitive multichannel OCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trasischker, W.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to develop and improve phase sensitive, multichannel methods for optical coherence tomography (OCT) using light in the 840 nm and 1040 nm regime. Conventional OCT provides purely structural information by illuminating the sample by one beam and recording the backscattered signal with one detection channel. Combination of this approach with a raster scan enables the acquisition of 2D and 3D structural information with a resolution in the micrometer regime. However, sometimes additional image contrast or information is desired. Amongst other approaches, this can be provided by a phase sensitive analysis of the interference pattern. Combining phase sensitivity with the illumination of the sample by more than one beam and/or by recording the data using more than one data acquisition channel allows for even more enhanced imaging. While phase sensitive OCT gives access to additional contrast and information, multichannel OCT can provide higher imaging speed, scan eld size and exible dierential measurements. Amongst the dierential, phase sensitive approaches, Doppler OCT (DOCT) and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) are two of the most promising OCT modalities. While the former targets information on the movement of backscattering particles, the latter measures alterations of the polarization state of the light induced by the sample. Both techniques provide additional image contrast and are, due to the non-invasive and fast character of OCT, well suited for in vivo imaging of the human eye. In the course of this thesis, two dierent multichannel, phase sensitive OCT systems will be presented. First, a D-OCT system with three dierent sampling beams is described. With a central wavelength of 840 nm these three beams are emitted by three individual laser sources. This eectively eliminates any cross talk and provides the full depth range for each channel. Furthermore, by illuminating the sample from three dierent directions, the absolute

  12. Electrochemical Microsensors for the Detection of Cadmium(II and Lead(II Ions in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Krystofova

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Routine determination of trace metals in complex media is still a difficult task for many analytical instruments. The aim of this work was to compare three electro-chemical instruments [a standard potentiostat (Autolab, a commercially available miniaturized potentiostat (PalmSens and a homemade micropotentiostat] for easy-to-use and sensitive determination of cadmium(II and lead(II ions. The lowest detection limits (hundreds of pM for both metals was achieved by using of the standard potentiostat, followed by the miniaturized potentiostat (tens of nM and the homemade instrument (hundreds of nM. Nevertheless, all potentiostats were sensitive enough to evaluate contamination of the environment, because the environmental limits for both metals are higher than detection limits of the instruments. Further, we tested all used potentiostats and working electrodes on analysis of environmental samples (rainwater, flour and plant extract with artificially added cadmium(II and lead(II. Based on the similar results obtained for all potentiostats we choose a homemade instrument with a carbon tip working electrode for our subsequent environmental experiments, in which we analyzed maize and sunflower seedlings and rainwater obtained from various sites in the Czech Republic.

  13. Datalogger usando nios ii

    OpenAIRE

    Campoverde Rugel, Luis Enrique; Velásquez Vargas, Washington Adrián; Ponguillo, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto consiste en la implementación de un Datalogger utilizando el microprocesador NIOS II el cual fue embebido en el FPGA CYCLONE II que se encuentra integrada en la tarjeta de desarrollo ALTERA DE2, el cual obtiene datos de distintos sensores y los almacena en una tarjeta SD Card. Para la realización del proyecto se aplican cuatro etapas. La primera etapa está basada en obtener los datos mediante el uso de sensores y la transmisión usando un PIC, la siguiente etapa se basa...

  14. Results from SAGE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66 -13 +18 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73 -16 +18 (stat) -7 5 (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69 -11 +11 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models

  15. Information on Asse II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The brochure published by BfS describes the actual situation of Asse II with respect to the debate on an interim storage and the status of the realization of a final repository search law. During the visit of the new environment minister Hendricks in the underground facility repository Asse II the issue interim storage site and the retrieval of the corroded casks with radioactive waste were discussed. The challenges for BFS include the acceleration of the retrieval process and the safety of the procedure.

  16. TJ-II project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejaldre, C.; Gozalo, J.J.A.; Perez, J.B.; Magaria, F.C.; Diaz, J.R.C.; Perez, J.G.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Garcia, L.; Krivenski, V.I.; Martin, R.; Navarro, A.P.; Perea, A.; Rodriguez-Yunta, A.; Ayza, M.S.; Varias, A.

    1990-01-01

    The TJ-II device is a medium-size helical-axis stellarator to be built in Madrid. Its main characteristics are potential for high-beta operation; flexibility, i.e., its rotational transform can be varied over a wide range and its shear to some extent; and bean-shaped plasma cross section. The latest understanding of TJ-II physics in the fields of electron cyclotron resonance heating, transport, and magneto-hydrodynamics, and the engineering solutions introduced in its final design are discussed

  17. ECLESIOLOGIA DO VATICANO II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Codina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Não se pode compreender a eclesiologia do Vaticano II sem conhecer a vida, o estilo pastoral e o carisma de João XXIII, que convocou o Concílio e abriu o caminho em direção a uma nova configuração eclesial que acabava com séculos de uma Igreja de Cristandade. O Vaticano II implica uma transição de uma Igreja clerical a uma Igreja Povo de Deus, povo de batizados. A passagem de uma Igreja juridicista e legalista a uma Igreja Mistério de comunhão em Cristo. Mudar de uma Igreja triunfalista e ligada ao poder mundano a uma Igreja vivificada pela força renovadora do Espírito. A Igreja está a caminho rumo ao Reino de Deus juntamente com todos os cristãos e com toda a humanidade. A recepção do Vaticano II supõe uma conversão pastoral: voltar ao Evangelho e abrir-se aos novos sinais dos tempos seguindo o Espírito que inspirou João XXIII. ABSTRACT: You cannot understand the Ecclesiology of Vatican II without knowing the life, the pastoral style and the charisma of John XXIII, who convened the Council and opened the way toward a new ecclesial setting that ended centuries of a church of Christendom. The Vatican II involves a transition from a clerical Church to a “People (baptized people of God” Church. The Vatican II implies the passage from a juridical and legalistic Church to a Church as the Mystery of the communion in Christ. The Vatican II implies the change from a triumphalistic Church and connected to worldly power to a Church vivified by the renewing force of the Spirit. The Church is on its way toward the Kingdom of God together with all Christians and all mankind. The reception of the Vatican II supposes a pastoral conversion: a return to the Gospel and openness to new signs of the times following the Spirit that inspired John XXIII.

  18. Galaxy S II

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you

  19. Calculus II For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zegarelli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-understand primer on advanced calculus topics Calculus II is a prerequisite for many popular college majors, including pre-med, engineering, and physics. Calculus II For Dummies offers expert instruction, advice, and tips to help second semester calculus students get a handle on the subject and ace their exams. It covers intermediate calculus topics in plain English, featuring in-depth coverage of integration, including substitution, integration techniques and when to use them, approximate integration, and improper integrals. This hands-on guide also covers sequences and series, wit

  20. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix detects additional patients sensitive to perfumes and missed by the current fragrance mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Peter J; Pirker, Claudia; Rastogi, Suresh C; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Goossens, An; White, Ian R; Uter, Wolfgang; Arnau, Elena Giménez; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-04-01

    The currently used 8% fragrance mix (FM I) does not identify all patients with a positive history of adverse reactions to fragrances. A new FM II with 6 frequently used chemicals was evaluated in 1701 consecutive patients patch tested in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. FM II was tested in 3 concentrations - 28% FM II contained 5% hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral), 2% citral, 5% farnesol, 5% coumarin, 1% citronellol and 10%alpha-hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde; in 14% FM II, the single constituents' concentration was lowered to 50% and in 2.8% FM II to 10%. Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to fragrances: certain, probable, questionable, none. Positive reactions to FM I occurred in 6.5% of the patients. Positive reactions to FM II were dose-dependent and increased from 1.3% (2.8% FM II), through 2.9% (14% FM II) to 4.1% (28% FM II). Reactions classified as doubtful or irritant varied considerably between the 6 centres, with a mean value of 7.2% for FM I and means ranging from 1.8% to 10.6% for FM II. 8.7% of the tested patients had a certain fragrance history. Of these, 25.2% were positive to FM I; reactivity to FM II was again dose-dependent and ranged from 8.1% to 17.6% in this subgroup. Comparing 2 groups of history - certain and none - values for sensitivity and specificity were calculated: sensitivity: FM I, 25.2%; 2.8% FM II, 8.1%; 14% FM II, 13.5%; 28% FM II, 17.6%; specificity: FM I, 96.5%; 2.8% FM II, 99.5%; 14% FM II, 98.8%; 28% FM II, 98.1%. 31/70 patients (44.3%) positive to 28% FM II were negative to FM I, with 14% FM II this proportion being 16/50 (32%). In the group of patients with a certain history, a total of 7 patients were found reacting to FM II only. Conversely, in the group of patients without any fragrance history, there were significantly more positive reactions to FM I than to any concentration of FM II. In conclusion, the new FM II detects additional patients sensitive to fragrances missed

  1. Status of the Gerda phase II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, Andrea [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Gerda experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge. The first phase of the experiment collected 21.6 kg. yr of exposure with a background index (BI) of 0.01 cts/(keV . kg . yr). No signal was observed and a lower limit for the 0νββ half-life was set to T{sup 0νββ}{sub 1/2} < 2.1 . 10{sup 25} yr (90% C.L). The apparatus has now been upgraded to the Phase II configuration. In Phase II 38 kg of HPGe detectors will be operated to reach an exposure of 100 kg . yr. The goal of Gerda Phase II is to lower the BI to 10{sup -3} cts/(keV . kg . y), in order to reach the sensitivity for T{sup 0νββ}{sub 1/2} = O(10{sup 26}) yr. The additional target mass is constituted of 30 custom made BEGe detectors with higher energy resolution and better pulse shape discrimination performance. The detectors are operated in new radio-pure low-mass holders. The liquid argon surrounding the detectors has been instrumented to veto the background events which produce scintillation light. In this talk the current status and the performance of the Gerda Phase II are presented.

  2. Kinetics of FeII-polyaminocarboxylate oxidation by molecular oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jessica M.; Farley, Kevin J.; Carbonaro, Richard F.

    2018-03-01

    rates at higher pH. Finally, this work demonstrates that the rate of FeII oxidation is very sensitive to the identity and structure of the polyaminocarboxylate chelating agent, which has implications for any metal or organic chemical that reacts either directly or indirectly with iron.

  3. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuziemsky, Craig; Nøhr, Christian; Aarts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Context is a key consideration when designing and evaluating health information technology (HIT) and cannot be overstated. Unintended consequences are common post HIT implementation and even well designed technology may not achieve desired outcomes because of contextual issues. While context should...... be considered in the design and evaluation of health information systems (HISs) there is a shortcoming of empirical research on contextual aspects of HIT. This conference integrates the sociotechnical and Human-Centered-Design (HCD) approaches and showcases current research on context sensitive health...... informatics. The papers and presentations outlines theories and models for studying contextual issues and insights on how we can better design HIT to accommodate different healthcare contexts....

  4. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  5. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic disorder characterized by reports of symptoms from various organ systems attributed by the individuals to exposure to common odors and airborne chemicals in doses far below those known to induce toxic effects. There exists a general lack of knowledge......, significantly reduced levels of IL-13 in the MCS group and no group differences in the allergen specific IgE measures. The differences were independent of factors such as sex, age, Body Mass Index, asthma, smoking, depression, anxiety and allergen-specific IgE. In conclusion, the study identified a distinct...

  6. Flight performance summary for three NASA Terrier-Malemute II sounding rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the presentation of flight data for three Terrier-Malemute II sounding rocket vehicles. The Malemute motor was modified by adding insulation and using a propellant that produced less Al2O3 agglomerate in the chamber. This modification, designated Malemute II, reduced the sensitivity of the motor to the roll rate induced motor case burnthrough experienced on some earlier Malemute flights. Two flight tests, including a single stage Malemute II and a Terrier-Malemute II, were made by Sandia to qualify this modification. The three NASA operational flights that are the subject of this paper were made using the modified Malemute II motors.

  7. Some recriticality studies with SIMMER-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The SIMMER-II code was applied to the problem of evaluating the potential for recriticality in an LMFBR HCDA. The phenomenology examined was based on the post SAS3D behavior in a CRBR LOF accident. The SIMMER-II results were found to be sensitive to the development of fuel blockages. If blockages were formed close to the core, the core-disruption phase of the behavior resulted from the significant energy required following SAS3D termination to raise the average steel temperature to saturation conditions; also material deposition near heat sinks eliminated condensation surfaces and induced core pressurization and fuel collapse. Excessive ramp rates (greater than $100/s) were judged to be unlikely, but improved knowledge and calculational treatments of the applicable phenomenology would be desirable

  8. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  9. Workshop 96. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.).

  10. Experiment CATETO II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, J.A.; Freudenreich, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    In the irradiation experiment CATETO II different reduced activation (RA) steels will be irradiated up to 2.5 dpa at a temperature of 300 C. The results of the calculation of the nuclear constants, the reactivity effect, and the activity of the steel samples are presented. (orig.)

  11. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  12. Workshop 96. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.)

  13. UNISIST II: Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattery, Lowell H., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The major part of this report of the Intergovernmental Conference on Scientific and Technical Information (UNISIST II), held in Paris May 28-June 1, 1979, focuses on three sets of recommendations which were unanimously approved after combining the recommendations proposed by various groups and blocs: (1) recommendations to the United Nations…

  14. Photosystem II and photoinhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feikema, Willem Onno

    2006-01-01

    Plants harvest light energy and convert it into chemical energy. Light absorption by photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) results in charge separations in their reaction centers (RCs), initiating a chain of redox reactions with PSI generating the reducing power for CO2 assimilation into sugars, and

  15. Toxic clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers plus radiation-induced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The operational definition espoused twelve years ago that clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers should be nontoxic interferes with the recognition and research of useful radiation sensitizers. Eight years ago the toxic antitumor drug cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) was reported to be a hypoxic radiation sensitizer and the selective antitumor action of this drug was stressed as potentially creating tumor-targeted radiation sensitization. This rationale of oxidative antitumor drugs as toxic and targeted clinical sensitizers is useful, and has led to the study reported here. The antitumor drug cis-(1,1-cyclobutane-dicarboxylato)diammineplatinum(II), or JM-8, is being tested in clinical trials. Cells of S. typhimurium in PBS in the presence of 0.2mM JM-8 are found to be sensitized to irradiation under hypoxic, but not oxic, conditions. JM-8 is nontoxic to bacteria at this concentration, but upon irradiation the JM-8 solution becomes highly toxic. This radiation induced toxicity of JM-8 preferentially develops from hypoxic solution, and thus contributes to the rationale of hypoxic tumor cell destruction

  16. Procedures for Sensitive Immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givol, D. [Department of Chemical Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    1970-02-15

    Sensitive immunoassay methods should be applied to small molecules of biological importance, which are non-immunogenic by themselves, such as small peptide hormones (e.g. bradykinin), plant hormones (e.g. indoleacetic acid), nucleotides and other small molecules. Methods of binding these small molecules, as haptens, to immunogenic carriers by various cross-linking agents are described (dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, tolylene-diisocyanate and glutaraldehyde), and the considerations involved in relation to the methods of binding and the specificity of the antibodies formed are discussed. Some uses of antibody bound to bromoacetyl cellulose as an immuno adsorbent convenient for assay of immunoglobulins are described. Finally, the sensitive immunoassay method of chemically modified phage is described. This includes methods of binding small molecules (such as the dinitrophenyl group, penicillin, indoleacetic acid) or proteins (such as insulin, immunoglobulins) to phages. Methods of direct chemical conjugation, or an indirect binding via anti-phage Fab, are described. The phage inactivation method by direct plating and its modifications (such as decision technique and complex inactivation) are compared with the more simple end-point titration method. The inhibition of phage inactivation has some advantages as it does not require radioactive material, or expensive radioactive counters, and avoids the need for separation between bound and unbound antigen. Hence, if developed, it could be used as an alternative to radioimmunoassay. (author)

  17. [Sensitization to Lyral].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, F; Díaz-Recuero, J L; Cabello, M J; Conde-Salazar, L

    2006-01-01

    Lyral is a fragrance that is present in many cosmetic products. It has turned into an emergent allergen during the last years. In studies carried out in other European countries, the prevalence of sensitization to Lyral has been found to be 1.9-2.7 %, but it is unknown the prevalence in Spain, as well as the need to include it or not in the standard series of the Spanish Group of Contact Dermatitis (GEIDC). We have patch-tested to Lyral all patients with suspicion of contact dermatitis of any origin who attended our Service between April and May-2005. From a total of 170 patients included in our study, 2 of them had a sensitization to Lyral (1.2 %). One of these two patients had an axillae contact dermatitis caused by a deodorant containing Lyral. The other patient was a masseur-woman with a contact dermatitis on both hands, with periods of dissemination to upper extremities and trunk, and who used several cosmetics products for private reasons and during her job. Although the sample of this study is quite small, we think that the results allow to suspect that Lyral is one of the main allergens, or even the most important, in causing allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances in our environment. Therefore, we believe that we must raise the inclusion of Lyral in the standard series of GEIDC, either as independent allergen, or including it in a new mixture of fragrances.

  18. Simulation of the hot flow behaviour of a medium carbon microalloyed steel. Part 1. Theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J.M.; Prado, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The constitutive equations to model the hot flow behaviour of metallic materials in general, and of microalloyed steels in particular (see part 2 of this work) are established in this work. Special emphasis is done on the dynamic softening mechanisms, i.e., dynamic recovery and recrystallization phenomena. The equations developed are physic-based, not empirical, and the modelling allows an easy implementation in an analysis by numerical methods. The resulting equations are even able to predict the final grain size. (Author) 39 refs

  19. Some aspects of thermomechanical fatigue of AISI 304L stainless steel: Part I. creep- fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauter, R.; Christ, H. J.; Mughrabi, H.

    1994-02-01

    Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests on the austenitic stainless steel AISI 304L have been conducted under “true≓ plastic-strain control in vacuum. This report considers the damage oc-curring during TMF loading. It is shown how the temperature interval and the phasing (in-phase, out-of-phase) determine the mechanical response and the lifetime of the specimens. If creep-fatigue interaction takes place during in-phase cycling, the damage occurs inside the ma-terial, leading to intergranular cracks which reduce the lifetime considerably. Out-of-phase cy-cling inhibits creep-induced damage, and no lifetime reduction occurs, even if the material is exposed periodically to temperatures in the creep regime. A formula is proposed which allows prediction of the failure mode, depending on whether creep-fatigue damage occurs or not. At a given strain rate, the formula is able to estimate the temperature of transition between pure fatigue and creep-fatigue damage.

  20. Coating and Interface Degradation of Coated steel, Part 2: Accelerated Laboratory Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambier, S.M.; Frankel, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, it was demonstrated that the measurement of cathodic delamination by the Scanning Kelvin Probe can assess the interface stability of poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) coated steel after field exposure. This technique was utilized to characterize the degradation of the polymer/metal interface in several outdoor climates. In this paper, the effects of environmental factors on the interface degradation were investigated in the laboratory. The mechanisms measured in the field were reproduced to provide input in the development of an appropriate accelerated test for PVB coated steel. The ASTM B117 and G154 standardized tests were investigated individually and sequentially. The interface stability improved after 24 h of ASTM G154 exposure. After 144 h of exposure to ASTM G154 exposure, polymer oxidation took place simultaneously with interface degradation. The condensation phase of the ASTM G154 test was responsible for the interface improvement while the ultraviolet radiation triggered the interface degradation. Pre-exposure to ASTM G154 delayed wet de-adhesion during ASTM B117 exposure. After wet de-adhesion caused by 6 h of ASTM B117, exposure to ASTM G154 for 24 h increased the interface stability. The effects of ultraviolet radiation, relative humidity, temperature and environment on interface degradation were investigated in a special chamber. Humidity was the primary factor found to influence the interface improvement during G154 exposure. A wet/dry salt fog cycle with irradiation by an ultraviolet or filtered xenon arc lamp around room temperature was suggested to reproduce the competition between the interface improvement and the interface degradation that takes place in the field

  1. Electrocoagulation applied to the decontamination of stainless steel parts contaminated with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol P, A. A.; Monroy G, F.; Bustos B, E.

    2017-09-01

    The decontamination of non-compact able radioactive waste, such as tools and equipment, has the purpose of removing surface radioactive waste from waste, in order to reduce its volume to be conditioned and stored. The application of treatment techniques based on electrochemistry, such as electro-coagulation (Ec) in the decontamination of waste or non-compact able radioactive materials of stainless steel containing uranium, was studied in the present work and its technical feasibility was evaluated. For this, tests were carried out, first with stainless steel plates coated with WO 3 , to simulate a fixed contamination and to determine the best conditions of tungsten removal by Ec as: ph, support electrolyte, cell potential, type of counter electrode material and distance between the anode/cathode electrodes. In addition, different arrangements of configurations were tested for a rectangular acrylic cell and for a circular configuration cell, using flat plate electrodes and cylindrical electrodes to perform the removal process of the contaminant with the best conditions. In the case of the Ec, the mechanism that occurs is an electrodisolution of the iron plate, with the release of oxygen at the anode and detachment of the WO 3 layer, all the material passing to the solution with the formation of iron hydroxides. Subsequently, from the best experimental conditions to remove WO 3 , UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 was used as radioactive contaminant to evaluate the feasibility of the decontamination process. Removal efficiencies of 90% uranium were obtained in 1 hour, ph = 1, using a molar solution of H 2 SO 4 as support electrolyte and potential of 2.4 V. Finally, after testing the different electrochemical cell (Ec) arrays at the laboratory level, radioactive decontamination of real pieces contaminated with U-238 was performed using the circular configuration arrangement under the best experimental conditions previously determined. (Author)

  2. Fatigue cracks in Eurofer 97 steel: Part I. Nucleation and small crack growth kinetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kruml, Tomáš; Polák, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 412, 1 (2011), s. 2-6 ISSN 0022-3115 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/1954; GA ČR GA101/09/0867 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ferritic-martensitic steel * low cycle fatigue * small crack growth * fatigue life prediction Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.052, year: 2011

  3. Metallurgy of high-silicon steel parts produced using Selective Laser Melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, Michele; Ashcroft, Ian; Simonelli, Marco; Hague, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The metallurgy of high-silicon steel (6.9%wt.Si) processed using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is presented for the first time in this study. High-silicon steel has great potential as a soft magnetic alloy, but its employment has been limited due to its poor workability. The effect of SLM-processing on the metallurgy of the alloy is investigated in this work using microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). XRD analysis suggests that the SLM high-silicon steel is a single ferritic phase (solid solution), with no sign of phase ordering. This is expected to have beneficial effects on the material properties, since ordering has been shown to make silicon steels more brittle and electrically conductive. For near-fully dense samples, columnar grains with a high aspect ratio and oriented along the build direction are found. Most importantly, a <001> fibre-texture along the build direction can be changed into a cube-texture when the qualitative shape of the melt-pool is altered (from shallow to deep) by increasing the energy input of the scanning laser. This feature could potentially open the path to the manufacture of three-dimensional grain-oriented high-silicon steels for electromechanical applications.

  4. Influence of the Lubricant Type on the Surface Quality of Steel Parts Obtained by Ironing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Adamović

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available If it is needed to achieve a higher strain rate during the ironing process, which is possible without inter-stage annealing, the ironing is performed in succession through multiple dies. During that process, changes of friction conditions occur due to the change of contact conditions (dislodging of lubricants, changes of surface roughness, formation of friction junctions, etc.. In the multistage ironing, after each stage, the completely new conditions on the contact surfaces occur, which will significantly affect the quality of the workpiece surface. Lubricant has a very important role during the steel sheet metal ironing process; to separate the sheet metal surface from the tool and to reduce the friction between the contact surfaces. The influence of tribological conditions in ironing process is extremely important and it was a subject of study among researches in recent years, both in the real processes and on the tribo-models. Investigation of tribological conditions in the real processes is much longer and more expensive, so testing on the tribo-models is more frequent. Experimental research on the original tribo-model presented in this paper was aimed to indicate the changes that occur during multistage ironing, as well as to consider the impact of some factors (tool material, lubricant on die and punch on increase or decrease of the sheet metal surface roughness in ironing stages.

  5. Structural properties of H13 tool steel parts produced with use of selective laser melting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šafka, J; Ackermann, M; Voleský, L

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with establishing of building parameters for 1.2344 (H13) tool steel processed using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) technology with layer thickness of 50 µm. In the first part of the work, testing matrix of models in the form of a cube with chamfered edge were built under various building parameters such as laser scanning speed and laser power. Resulting models were subjected to set of tests including measurement of surface roughness, inspection of inner structure with aid of Light Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy and evaluation of micro-hardness. These tests helped us to evaluate an influence of changes in building strategy to the properties of the resulting model. In the second part of the work, mechanical properties of the H13 steel were examined. For this purpose, the set of samples in the form of “dog bone” were printed under three different alignments towards the building plate and tested on universal testing machine. Mechanical testing of the samples should then reveal if the different orientation and thus different layering of the material somehow influence its mechanical properties. For this type of material, the producer provides the parameters for layer thickness of 30 µm only. Thus, our 50 µm building strategy brings shortening of the building time which is valuable especially for large models. Results of mechanical tests show slight variation in mechanical properties for various alignment of the sample. (paper)

  6. Optimization and Simulation of SLM Process for High Density H13 Tool Steel Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Petri; Riipinen, Tuomas; Laukkanen, Anssi; Andersson, Tom; Jokinen, Antero; Revuelta, Alejandro; Ruusuvuori, Kimmo

    This paper demonstrates the successful printing and optimization of processing parameters of high-strength H13 tool steel by Selective Laser Melting (SLM). D-Optimal Design of Experiments (DOE) approach is used for parameter optimization of laser power, scanning speed and hatch width. With 50 test samples (1×1×1cm) we establish parameter windows for these three parameters in relation to part density. The calculated numerical model is found to be in good agreement with the density data obtained from the samples using image analysis. A thermomechanical finite element simulation model is constructed of the SLM process and validated by comparing the calculated densities retrieved from the model with the experimentally determined densities. With the simulation tool one can explore the effect of different parameters on density before making any printed samples. Establishing a parameter window provides the user with freedom for parameter selection such as choosing parameters that result in fastest print speed.

  7. Structural properties of H13 tool steel parts produced with use of selective laser melting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafka, J.; Ackermann, M.; Voleský, L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with establishing of building parameters for 1.2344 (H13) tool steel processed using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) technology with layer thickness of 50 µm. In the first part of the work, testing matrix of models in the form of a cube with chamfered edge were built under various building parameters such as laser scanning speed and laser power. Resulting models were subjected to set of tests including measurement of surface roughness, inspection of inner structure with aid of Light Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy and evaluation of micro-hardness. These tests helped us to evaluate an influence of changes in building strategy to the properties of the resulting model. In the second part of the work, mechanical properties of the H13 steel were examined. For this purpose, the set of samples in the form of “dog bone” were printed under three different alignments towards the building plate and tested on universal testing machine. Mechanical testing of the samples should then reveal if the different orientation and thus different layering of the material somehow influence its mechanical properties. For this type of material, the producer provides the parameters for layer thickness of 30 µm only. Thus, our 50 µm building strategy brings shortening of the building time which is valuable especially for large models. Results of mechanical tests show slight variation in mechanical properties for various alignment of the sample.

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer Console Upgrade for a Type II Quantum Computer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cory, David

    2003-01-01

    ...) spectrometer to enable an improved implementation of type II quantum computers (TTQC). This upgrade is fully functional and has permitted our NMR studies to be moved to higher strength magnetic fields for better sensitivity and spectral dispersion...

  9. Probabilistic Safety Assessment Of It TRIGA Mark-II Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergun, E; Kadiroglu, O.S.

    1999-01-01

    The probabilistic safety assessment for Istanbul Technical University (ITU) TRIGA Mark-II reactor is performed. Qualitative analysis, which includes fault and event trees and quantitative analysis which includes the collection of data for basic events, determination of minimal cut sets, calculation of quantitative values of top events, sensitivity analysis and importance measures, uncertainty analysis and radiation release from fuel elements are considered

  10. 12 CFR 268.205 - Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive... Complaints § 268.205 Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive information. (a) Definitions. The definitions...— (i) A citizen or National of the United States, (ii) An alien who: (A) Meets the conditions set forth...

  11. European Telecommunications Satellite II (EUTELSAT II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmel, G.; Brittinger, P.

    1991-01-01

    EUTELSAT II is a regional public telecommunications system for Europe. The services which will be provided are telephone and television. The satellites will be placed at a geostationary orbit within the arcs of 6 degrees east to 19 degrees east or 26 degrees to 36 degrees east. The designed lifetime is 7 years. After separation of the satellites from the launch vehicles, telemetry, telecommand, and ranging will be performed within the S-band frequencies. After positioning of the satellite at its final geostationary orbit, the Ku-band telecommunication equipment will be activated. From this time on, all satellite control operations will be performed in Ku-band. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. The coverage will consist of the 26-m antennas at Goldstone and Canberra as prime support for the transfer and drift orbits. Maximum support will consist of a 7-day period, plus 14 days of contingency support. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  12. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Ulrich; Bryant, Richard A.; Ehlers, Anke; Foa, Edna B.; Hasan, Aram; Mwiti, Gladys; Kristensen, Christian H.; Neuner, Frank; Oe, Misari; Yule, William

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-)stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions In summary, culture-sensitive

  13. Upgrade for Phase II of the Gerda experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaïdic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2018-05-01

    The Gerda collaboration is performing a sensitive search for neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{76}Ge at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The upgrade of the Gerda experiment from Phase I to Phase II has been concluded in December 2015. The first Phase II data release shows that the goal to suppress the background by one order of magnitude compared to Phase I has been achieved. Gerda is thus the first experiment that will remain "background-free" up to its design exposure (100 kg year). It will reach thereby a half-life sensitivity of more than 10^{26} year within 3 years of data collection. This paper describes in detail the modifications and improvements of the experimental setup for Phase II and discusses the performance of individual detector components.

  14. Proteasome phosphorylation regulates cocaine-induced sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Frankie R; Howell, Kristin K; Dozier, Lara E; Anagnostaras, Stephan G; Patrick, Gentry N

    2018-04-01

    Repeated exposure to cocaine produces structural and functional modifications at synapses from neurons in several brain regions including the nucleus accumbens. These changes are thought to underlie cocaine-induced sensitization. The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a crucial role in the remodeling of synapses and has recently been implicated in addiction-related behavior. The ATPase Rpt6 subunit of the 26S proteasome is phosphorylated by Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II alpha at ser120 which is thought to regulate proteasome activity and distribution in neurons. Here, we demonstrate that Rpt6 phosphorylation is involved in cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Cocaine concomitantly increases proteasome activity and Rpt6 S120 phosphorylation in cultured neurons and in various brain regions of wild type mice including the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. In contrast, cocaine does not increase proteasome activity in Rpt6 phospho-mimetic (ser120Asp) mice. Strikingly, we found a complete absence of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in the Rpt6 ser120Asp mice. Together, these findings suggest a critical role for Rpt6 phosphorylation and proteasome function in the regulation cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitivity to temperature of nuclear energy generation by hydrogen burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitalas, R.

    1981-01-01

    The sensitivity to temperature of nuclear energy generation by hydrogen burning is discussed. The complexity of the sensitivity is due to the different equilibration time-scales of the constituents of the p-p chain and CN cycle and the dependence of their abundances and time-scales on temperature. The time-scale of the temperature perturbation, compared to the equilibrium time-scale of a constituent, determines whether the constituent is in equilibrium and affects the sensitivity. The temperature sensitivity of the p-p chain for different values of hydrogen abundance, when different constituents come into equilibrium is presented, as well as its variation with 3 He abundance. The temperature sensitivity is drastically different from n 11 , the temperature sensitivity of the proton-proton reaction, unless the time-scale of temperature perturbation is long enough for 3 He to remain in equilibrium. Even in this case the sensitivity of the p-p chain differs significantly from n 11 , unless the temperature is so low that PP II and PP III chains can be neglected. The variation of the sensitivity of CN energy generation is small for different time-scales of temperature variation, because the temperature sensitivities of individual reactions are so similar. The combined sensitivity to temperature of energy generation by hydrogen burning is presented and shown to have a maximum of 16.4 at T 6 = 24.5. For T 6 > 25 the temperature sensitivity is given by the sensitivity of 14 N + p reaction. (author)

  16. SOX sensitivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyn, Johann [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: BOREXINO-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    To this day most experimental results on neutrino oscillations can be explained in the standard three neutrino model. There are however a few experiments that show anomalous behaviour at a very short baselines. These anomalies can hypothetically be explained with the existence of one or additional more light neutrino states that do not take part in weak interactions and are thus called sterile. Although the anomalies only give a hint that such sterile neutrinos could exist the prospect for physics beyond the standard model is a major motivation to investigate the neutrino oscillations in new very short baseline experiments. The SOX (Short distance Oscillations in BoreXino) experiment will use the Borexino detector and a {sup 144}Ce source to search for sterile neutrinos via the occurance of an oscillation pattern at a baseline of several meters. This talk examines the impact of the Borexino detector systematics on the experimental sensitivity of SOX.

  17. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human...... different healthcare contexts. Healthcare organizations, health policy makers and regulatory bodies globally are starting to acknowledge this essential role of human and organizational factors for safe and effective health information technology. This book will be of interest to all those involved......Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...

  18. Beyond sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sorknæs, Peter; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2018-01-01

    of electricity, which have been introduced in recent decades. These uncertainties pose a challenge to the design and assessment of future energy strategies and investments, especially in the economic assessment of renewable energy versus business-as-usual scenarios based on fossil fuels. From a methodological...... point of view, the typical way of handling this challenge has been to predict future prices as accurately as possible and then conduct a sensitivity analysis. This paper includes a historical analysis of such predictions, leading to the conclusion that they are almost always wrong. Not only...... are they wrong in their prediction of price levels, but also in the sense that they always seem to predict a smooth growth or decrease. This paper introduces a new method and reports the results of applying it on the case of energy scenarios for Denmark. The method implies the expectation of fluctuating fuel...

  19. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  20. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schnyder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods: The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results: As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions: In summary

  1. MOVES regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The MOVES Regional Level Sensitivity Analysis was conducted to increase understanding of the operations of the MOVES Model in regional emissions analysis and to highlight the following: : the relative sensitivity of selected MOVES Model input paramet...

  2. Ni (II) and Cu(II) complexes of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial activity of novel. Schiff base metal complexes. The resistance of micro-organisms to classical antimicrobial compounds poses a challenge to effective management and treatment of some diseases. In line with this, copper (II), nickel (II) and cobalt (II) ...

  3. Comparison of four HTLV-I and HTLV-I + II ELISAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrielink, H.; Reesink, H.; Habibuw, M.; Schuller, M.; van der Meer, C.; Lelie, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various countries require blood donor screening using assays applying specific HTLV-I and HTLV-II antigens. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of 4 anti-HTLV-I + II ELISAs (Abbott, Murex, Organon Teknika and Ortho). METHODS: Panel A consisted of HTLV-I-positive individuals (n =

  4. Diuretic response to acute hypertension is blunted during angiotensin II clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Zhang, Yibin; Yang, Li E

    2002-01-01

    and endogenous lithium clearance increased two- and threefold, respectively. We conclude that HOE-140, an inhibitor of the B(2) receptor, potentiates the sensitivity of arterial pressure to ANG II and that clamping systemic ANG II levels during acute hypertension blunts the magnitude of the pressure diuretic...

  5. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  6. Information on Asse II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The information brochure on Asse II describes the situation in the repository for radioactive wastes that was closed by law due to the violations of safety standards. The discussed topics include the necessity of waste retrieval, the problems with public anxiety and public information, the hazard of an uncontrolled water ingress (worst case scenario), the work sites in the cavern, man-machine interactions and the cost of the project.

  7. Information on Asse II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The information on Asse II include the following topics: The image and what is behind - the barrier building Dammjoch built 1914; Fact finding - underground explorations; concept for a site comparison; Learning from experiences - the final repository projects Asse, Gorleben and Morsleben show what should not be done; At first drilling - thereafter building - progress of the recovery duct; The retrieval can only go on in dialogue with the public.

  8. Heat transfer II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1988-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  9. Numerical analysis II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association

    1989-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  10. Review on technology II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroziewicz, B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important requirements for the spectral properties of photodetectors are reviewed with particular attention to the fiber optics applications. Data on a number of materials are collected and presented. Pros and cons are pointed out for each type of photodetector-photoconductor, p-i-n photodiode and APD. A review is given of the relevant papers presented in the poster session 'Technology II' of the Symposium

  11. Algebra & trigonometry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry II includes logarithms, sequences and series, permutations, combinations and probability, vectors, matrices, determinants and systems of equations, mathematica

  12. BeII** revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    Doubly excited 1s2snl and 1s2pnl quartet states of BeII** are readily populated in beam-foil experiments and line-rich spectra have been obtained covering 600 to 5500 A wavelength range. In spite of several theoretical calculations a substantial number of observed lines have not been identified. The quartet system in BeII is an intersting one from a theoretical point of view. Three electron systems are simple enough that a fairly high level of accuracy is attainable without the calculations becoming horrendous. The important correlation effects are between the outer two electrons and, to a good approximation, the three-electrons system may be treated as a two-electron system outside a 1s-core. The multi-configuration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) method has been used successfully in a number of studies. Programs are under development that take into account the non-orthogonality of orbitals in the initial and final state, and allow for some non-orthogonal orbitals in a wavefunction expansion. LS dependent relativistic effects are also included. A study of BeII** was undertaken to evaluate the MCHF techniques being developed and to assit in the identification of observed lines. Most of the earlier calculations concentrated on the lower-lying levels. In this work particular attention was given to the more highly-excited states, though calculations for lower-lying states had to be repeated in order to predict life-times

  13. What is LAMPF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The present conception of LAMPF II is a high-intensity 16-GeV synchrotron injected by the LAMPF 800-MeV H - beam. The proton beam will be used to make secondary beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons more intense than those of any existing or proposed accelerator. For example, by taking maximum advantage of a thick target, modern beam optics, and the LAMPF II proton beam, it will be possible to make a negative muon beam with nearly 100% duty factor and nearly 100 times the flux of the existing Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). Because the unique features of the proposed machine are most applicable to beams of the same momentum as LAMPF (that is, < 2 GeV/c), it may be possible to use most of the experimental areas and some of the auxiliary equipment, including spectrometers, with the new accelerator. The complete facility will provide improved technology for many areas of physics already available at LAMPF and will allow expansion of medium-energy physics to include kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons. When LAMPF II comes on line in 1990 LAMPF will have been operational for 18 years and a major upgrade such as this proposal will be reasonable and prudent

  14. What is LAMPF II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The present conception of LAMPF II is a high-intensity 16-GeV synchrotron injected by the LAMPF 800-MeV H/sup -/ beam. The proton beam will be used to make secondary beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons more intense than those of any existing or proposed accelerator. For example, by taking maximum advantage of a thick target, modern beam optics, and the LAMPF II proton beam, it will be possible to make a negative muon beam with nearly 100% duty factor and nearly 100 times the flux of the existing Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). Because the unique features of the proposed machine are most applicable to beams of the same momentum as LAMPF (that is, < 2 GeV/c), it may be possible to use most of the experimental areas and some of the auxiliary equipment, including spectrometers, with the new accelerator. The complete facility will provide improved technology for many areas of physics already available at LAMPF and will allow expansion of medium-energy physics to include kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons. When LAMPF II comes on line in 1990 LAMPF will have been operational for 18 years and a major upgrade such as this proposal will be reasonable and prudent.

  15. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis: Description of techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storlie, Curtis B.; Helton, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (i) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (ii) additive models, (iii) projection pursuit regression, and (iv) recursive partitioning regression. Then, in the second and concluding part of this presentation, the indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  16. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis: Example results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storlie, Curtis B.; Helton, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described in the first part of this presentation: (i) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (ii) additive models, (iii) projection pursuit regression, and (iv) recursive partitioning regression. In this, the second and concluding part of the presentation, the indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  17. Evaluation of diatomea algae Thalassiosira weissflogii sensitivity to chloride mercury and methylmercury by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graevskaya, E. E.; Antal, T. K.; Matorin, D. N.; Voronova, E. N.; Pogosyan, S. I.; Rubin, A. B.

    2003-05-01

    Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence has been shown to be a rapid, non-invasive, and reliable method to assess photosynthetic performance in a changing environment. In our study, the pulseamplitude-modulation (PAM) - fluorometric method was used to evaluate the sensitivity to chloride mercury and methylmercury chloride of diatomea microalgae Thalassiosira weissflogii. We found that 10^{-6} and 10^{-7} M MeHg led to a slow decrease in the PS II activity following for prolonged lag phase, whereas the algae was not sensitive to the same concentrations of HgCl2. However observed PS II inactivation by methylmercury was not complete and about 10 percents ofthe cells kept the high level of PS II activity as it was shown by microfluorometric analysis. These cells could determine adaptation of algae to methylmercury effect. Both toxicants decreased the rate of PS II reparation, as well as increased a heat pathway of excitation dissipation in PS II antennae complex.

  18. Developmental and transcriptional consequences of mutations in Drosophila TAF(II)60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, N; Wassarman, D A

    2001-10-01

    In vitro, the TAF(II)60 component of the TFIID complex contributes to RNA polymerase II transcription initiation by serving as a coactivator that interacts with specific activator proteins and possibly as a promoter selectivity factor that interacts with the downstream promoter element. In vivo roles for TAF(II)60 in metazoan transcription are not as clear. Here we have investigated the developmental and transcriptional requirements for TAF(II)60 by analyzing four independent Drosophila melanogaster TAF(II)60 mutants. Loss-of-function mutations in Drosophila TAF(II)60 result in lethality, indicating that TAF(II)60 provides a nonredundant function in vivo. Molecular analysis of TAF(II)60 alleles revealed that essential TAF(II)60 functions are provided by two evolutionarily conserved regions located in the N-terminal half of the protein. TAF(II)60 is required at all stages of Drosophila development, in both germ cells and somatic cells. Expression of TAF(II)60 from a transgene rescued the lethality of TAF(II)60 mutants and exposed requirements for TAF(II)60 during imaginal development, spermatogenesis, and oogenesis. Phenotypes of rescued TAF(II)60 mutant flies implicate TAF(II)60 in transcriptional mechanisms that regulate cell growth and cell fate specification and suggest that TAF(II)60 is a limiting component of the machinery that regulates the transcription of dosage-sensitive genes. Finally, TAF(II)60 plays roles in developmental regulation of gene expression that are distinct from those of other TAF(II) proteins.

  19. Genotoxicity of topoisomerase II inhibitors: An anti-infective perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    At present, an inevitable consequence of a chemical's inhibitory activity on key regulators of DNA topology in bacteria, the type II topoisomerases, is a less pronounced effect on their eukaryotic counterparts. In the context of anti-infectives drug development, this may pose a risk to patient safety as inhibition of eukaryotic type II topoisomerases (TOPO II) can result in the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which have the potential to manifest as mutations, chromosome breakage or cell death. The biological effects of several TOPO II inhibitors in mammalian cells are described herein; their modulation of DSB damage response parameters is examined and evidence for the existence of a threshold concept for genotoxicity and its relevance in safety assessment is discussed. The potential utility of γH2AX, a promising and highly sensitive molecular marker for DSBs, in a novel genotoxicity 'pre-screen' to conventional assays is also highlighted

  20. Sex: a sensitive issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Health care workers and educators may need to improve their skills in discussing sensitive issues in order to elicit and understand what influences people's attitudes toward sex. While the health worker may be bent upon preventing HIV infection, advising on family planning, or teaching youth about sexual relationships, his or her audience may have other priorities. A good counselor/teacher must learn what people's concerns are and discuss sexual health within that context. It can be difficult talking about sex because sex is a private concern and many people are embarrassed discussing it. Even sex partners often find it difficult to talk to each other about sex. Appropriate communication techniques vary depending upon the situation. It depends upon whether one is addressing people on an individual basis or in groups, which people are being addressed, which organization one is representing, and what one's role is. Good communication is a two-way sharing of information. The different stages of life, common beliefs and myths, culture and religion, relationships between men and women, reasons for having sex, and sex practices are discussed.

  1. Hypoxic sensitizers (A review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tadao; Shikita, Mikio

    1976-01-01

    Since the early works of Bridges (1960) and Adams (1963), electron-affinic compounds have long been the subject of a number of studies in the search for a drug which sensitizes radio-resistant hypoxic tumor cells for improvement of radiotherapy of cancer. However, clinical application of this kind of drugs has been hampered by the fact that most of the compounds which exhibited radiosensitizing action in vitro exerted no such action against hypoxic tumor cells in vivo, because of rapid metabolical decomposition or because of great toxicity in vivo. Low solubility of these compounds in aqueous solution was another problem which made it difficult to use the compounds in proper concentrations. The authors have found that furylfuramide (AF-2), possesses a typical radiosensitizing potency. The radiosensitizing action of AF-2 was demonstrated in hypoxic yeasts as well as in mouse leukemic cells (L-5178 Y). Injection of 4.7 μg of AF-2 into a mouse mammary carcinoma 5 min before a single dose (3500 rad) of x-irradiation reduced regrowth of the tumors to a greater extent than irradiation alone, giving an enhancing ratio of 1.6. The effect of AF-2 was insignificant when radiation was given in divided doses (800 rad for 5 times) with the drug injected each time prior to irradiation. (auth.)

  2. Radiation Sensitivity of Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uray, I.; Hille, R.; Rohloff, F.

    1998-01-01

    Investigating the mean dose values as well as dose distributions of the inhabitants in a large number of settlements maybe set down, that the generally calculated mean exposure is a good measure to estimate the collective dose for a settlement or for a large region. Its uncertainty is however too high, and the dose distribution is very broad (250-300%) to estimate the external exposure of any single person. However, models may take into account more details of influencing factors. First of all the surveying of the local contamination density distribution could be more detailed and more accurate. Measure and distribution of the internal exposure (is not the subject of the present work, but it is similarly problematic. In this situation it is very difficult to search the dose-effect relationships exactly, and is also difficult to satisfy the people that their fears are unjustified. Society pays the costs of the nuclear industry and of the possible consequences as well. But society can neither control the nuclear industry nor the possible consequences at all. Both science and single people are waiting for more and detailed information. If we can not decrease the r adiation sensitivity of societies , then the consequences of Chernobyl will be growing unnecessarily, and it can strongly retard the justified development of the nuclear industry as well. (author)

  3. Hypoxic-cell sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dische, S.

    1983-01-01

    There is now 6 years of clinical experience with misonidazole as a hypoxic-cell sensitizer. Neurotoxicity limits the total dose which may be given, and so relatively low concentrations of radiosensitizing drugs are likely to be achieved in hypoxic cells in man as compared with those in animal tumors. It is likely that benefit will only be shown in those situations where radioresistant hypoxic cells strongly dominate as a cause of radiation failure. Many clinical trials are underway, and thus far some show no benefit while in others there is a definite advantage to the patients given the drug. These trials must be continued to their conclusion, but misonidazole must be regarded as the first of a series of radiosensitizers to reach the clinic for trial. There is a promise of more effective drugs becoming available within the next few years. Those showing a lower lipophilicity than misonidazole have been found to have a shorter half-life and a lower uptake in neural tissue in animal studies. One such drug, desmethylmisonidazole, is presently undergoing clinical trial

  4. Skeletal Muscle Angiogenesis and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Anna Maria Charlotte K

    mediator of angiogenesis) are reduced in insulin resistant individuals. Exercise training can improve skeletal muscle capillarization and the angiogenic potential and physical activity has also been proven to enhance muscle insulin sensitivity. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated......) or by overexpression of VEGF-A in the tibialis anterior muscle (transfection; study II) and the effect of the increased muscle capillarization on muscle insulin sensitivity was examined. In study I skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by administering an α1-adrenergic antagonist (prazosin) to healthy...

  5. Average [O II] nebular emission associated with Mg II absorbers: dependence on Fe II absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ravi; Srianand, Raghunathan; Petitjean, Patrick; Noterdaeme, Pasquier

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effect of Fe II equivalent width (W2600) and fibre size on the average luminosity of [O II] λλ3727, 3729 nebular emission associated with Mg II absorbers (at 0.55 ≤ z ≤ 1.3) in the composite spectra of quasars obtained with 3 and 2 arcsec fibres in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We confirm the presence of strong correlations between [O II] luminosity (L_{[O II]}) and equivalent width (W2796) and redshift of Mg II absorbers. However, we show L_{[O II]} and average luminosity surface density suffer from fibre size effects. More importantly, for a given fibre size, the average L_{[O II]} strongly depends on the equivalent width of Fe II absorption lines and found to be higher for Mg II absorbers with R ≡W2600/W2796 ≥ 0.5. In fact, we show the observed strong correlations of L_{[O II]} with W2796 and z of Mg II absorbers are mainly driven by such systems. Direct [O II] detections also confirm the link between L_{[O II]} and R. Therefore, one has to pay attention to the fibre losses and dependence of redshift evolution of Mg II absorbers on W2600 before using them as a luminosity unbiased probe of global star formation rate density. We show that the [O II] nebular emission detected in the stacked spectrum is not dominated by few direct detections (i.e. detections ≥3σ significant level). On an average, the systems with R ≥ 0.5 and W2796 ≥ 2 Å are more reddened, showing colour excess E(B - V) ˜ 0.02, with respect to the systems with R < 0.5 and most likely trace the high H I column density systems.

  6. Algebra II workbook for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    To succeed in Algebra II, start practicing now Algebra II builds on your Algebra I skills to prepare you for trigonometry, calculus, and a of myriad STEM topics. Working through practice problems helps students better ingest and retain lesson content, creating a solid foundation to build on for future success. Algebra II Workbook For Dummies, 2nd Edition helps you learn Algebra II by doing Algebra II. Author and math professor Mary Jane Sterling walks you through the entire course, showing you how to approach and solve the problems you encounter in class. You'll begin by refreshing your Algebr

  7. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of biologically active tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II were synthesized with the macrocyclic ligand, i.e., 2,3,9,10-tetraketo-1,4,8,11-tetraazacycoletradecane. The ligand was prepared by the [2 + 2] condensation of diethyloxalate and 1,3-diamino propane and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes in DMF correspond to non electrolyte nature, whereas Pd(II and Pt(II complexes are 1:2 electrolyte. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, whereas square planar geometry assigned for Pd(II and Pt(II. In vitro the ligand and its metal complexes were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium odum, Aspergillus niger and Rhizoctonia bataticola and some compounds found to be more active as commercially available fungicide like Chlorothalonil.

  8. Removal of Ni (II), Co (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of Ni (II), Co (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using Starch ... The results showed that 0.025 % loaded SSMNPs gave the optimal sorption ... constants (Lagergren and Pseudo-2nd-order) for Ni2+ and Co2+ adsorption were ... Langmuir correlation coefficients showed a better fit for the adsorption isotherms.

  9. Further important sensitizers in patients sensitive to fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2002-01-01

    usage in the perfume industry. 1606 patients were consecutively tested with series II and 8% FM. Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to scented products: certain, probable, questionable, none. Reactions to FM occurred most frequently in 11.4% of the subjects. The 6...... a history of adverse reactions to fragrances which was classified as certain. This group reacted to FM only in 22.9%, to series II and FM in 15.6% and to series II only in 5.2%. 63.5% of the patients reacting to both FM and 1 of the materials of series II had some type of positive fragrance history, which...

  10. Antimicrobial and mutagenic activity of some carbono- and thiocarbonohydrazone ligands and their copper(II), iron(II) and zinc(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, A; Carcelli, M; Pelagatti, P; Pelizzi, C; Pelizzi, G; Zani, F

    1999-06-15

    Several mono- and bis- carbono- and thiocarbonohydrazone ligands have been synthesised and characterised; the X-ray diffraction analysis of bis(phenyl 2-pyridyl ketone) thiocarbonohydrazone is reported. The coordinating properties of the ligands have been studied towards Cu(II), Fe(II), and Zn(II) salts. The ligands and the metal complexes were tested in vitro against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds. In general, the bisthiocarbonohydrazones possess the best antimicrobial properties and Gram positive bacteria are the most sensitive microorganisms. Bis(ethyl 2-pyridyl ketone) thiocarbonohydrazone, bis(butyl 2-pyridyl ketone)thiocarbonohydrazone and Cu(H2nft)Cl2 (H2nft, bis(5-nitrofuraldehyde)thiocarbonohydrazone) reveal a strong activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.7 microgram ml-1 against Bacillus subtilis and of 3 micrograms ml-1 against Staphylococcus aureus. Cu(II) complexes are more effective than Fe(II) and Zn(II) ones. All bisthiocarbono- and carbonohydrazones are devoid of mutagenic properties, with the exception of the compounds derived from 5-nitrofuraldehyde. On the contrary a weak mutagenicity, that disappears in the copper complexes, is exhibited by monosubstituted thiocarbonohydrazones.

  11. Electronics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics II covers operational amplifiers, feedback and frequency compensation of OP amps, multivibrators, logic gates and families, Boolean algebra, registers, counters, arithmet

  12. Engineering mathematics-II

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, A

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: This book Engineering Mathematics-II is designed as a self-contained, comprehensive classroom text for the second semester B.E. Classes of Visveswaraiah Technological University as per the Revised new Syllabus. The topics included are Differential Calculus, Integral Calculus and Vector Integration, Differential Equations and Laplace Transforms. The book is written in a simple way and is accompanied with explanatory figures. All this make the students enjoy the subject while they learn. Inclusion of selected exercises and problems make the book educational in nature. It shou

  13. Thermodynamics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics II includes review of thermodynamic relations, power and refrigeration cycles, mixtures and solutions, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and flow through nozzl

  14. Physics II for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    A plain-English guide to advanced physics. Does just thinking about the laws of motion make your head spin? Does studying electricity short your circuits? Physics II For Dummies walks you through the essentials and gives you easy-to-understand and digestible guidance on this often intimidating course. Thanks to this book, you don?t have to be Einstein to understand physics. As you learn about mechanical waves and sound, forces and fields, electric potential and electric energy, and much more, you?ll appreciate the For Dummies law: The easier we make it, the faster you'll understand it!

  15. Physical chemistry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1992-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.

  16. Graphics gems II

    CERN Document Server

    Arvo, James

    1991-01-01

    Graphics Gems II is a collection of articles shared by a diverse group of people that reflect ideas and approaches in graphics programming which can benefit other computer graphics programmers.This volume presents techniques for doing well-known graphics operations faster or easier. The book contains chapters devoted to topics on two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry and algorithms, image processing, frame buffer techniques, and ray tracing techniques. The radiosity approach, matrix techniques, and numerical and programming techniques are likewise discussed.Graphics artists and comput

  17. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  18. Statistics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se

  19. Data structures II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Smolarski, Dennis C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures II includes sets, trees, advanced sorting, elementary graph theory, hashing, memory management and garbage collection, and appendices on recursion vs. iteration, alge

  20. Computer science II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Raus, Randall

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science II includes organization of a computer, memory and input/output, coding, data structures, and program development. Also included is an overview of the most commonly

  1. HIDiC - Design, Sensitivity and Graphical Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, K.; Ianniciello, L.; Nielsen, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    We have explored the applicability of recent design methods based on H-xy diagrams for the HIDiC [i,ii] also for non-ideal and azeotropic systems. When applied together with sensitivity analysis and verification through rigorous simulations based on a newly developed and detailed HIDiC model......, these concepts widen the scope of HIDiC design of a larger range of industrially relevant separations....

  2. Synthesis and spectral studies of manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) complexes of 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxaldehyde hydrazone derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawar, N.; Khattab, M.A.; Bekheit, M.M.; El-Kaddah, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    A few complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-(carboxaldehyde-4-chlorobenzylhydrazone) (BCBH) and 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-(carboxaldehyde-4-methylbenzylhydrazone) (BMBH) have been synthesised and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivities, magnetic measurements and infrared (IR) and visible spectral studies. The IR spectra show that BCBH and BMBH behave as bidentate ligands either in the keto or enol form. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  3. A TOUCH-SENSITIVE DEVICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical touch-sensitive device and a method of determining a position and determining a position change of an object contacting an optical touch sensitive device. In particular, the present invention relates to an optical touch pad and a method of determining...... a position and determining a position change of an object contacting an optical touch pad. A touch-sensitive device, according to the present invention may comprise a light source, a touch- sensitive waveguide, a detector array, and a first light redirecting member, wherein at least a part of the light...... propagating towards a specific point of the detector array is prevented from being incident upon the specific point of the detector array when an object contacts a touch-sensitive surface of the touch-sensitive waveguide at a corresponding specific contact point....

  4. Sensitivity Enhancement of a PPM Level Capacitive Moisture Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of moisture at ppm or ppb level is very difficult and the fabrication of such sensors at low cost is always challenging. High sensitivity is an important parameter for trace level (ppm humidity sensors. Anelectronic detection circuit for interfacing the humidity sensor with high sensitivity requires a simple hardware circuit with few active devices. The recent trends for increasing the sensitivity include fabricating nanoporous film with a very large surface area. In the present work, the sensitivity of a parallel plate capacitive type sensor with metal oxide sensing film has been significantly improved with an aim to detect moisture from 3 to 100 ppm in the industrial process gases used to fabricate semiconductors and other sensitive electronic devices. The sensitivity has been increased by (i fabricating a nanoporous film of aluminum oxide using the sol-gel method and (ii increasing the cross-sectional area of a parallel plate capacitor. A novel double sided capacitive structure has been proposed where two capacitors have been fabricated—one on the top and one on the bottom side of a flat alumina substrate—and then the capacitors are connected in parallel. The structure has twice the sensitivity of a single sensor in the same ppm range but the size of the structure remains unchanged. The important characteristics of the sensors such as the sensitivity (S = Δ C Δ p p m × 100 , the response time (tr, and the recovery time (tc are determined and compared with a commercial SHAW, UKdew point meter. The fabricated double sided sensor has comparable sensitivity (S = 100%, tr (s = 28, tc (s = 40 with the commercial meter (S = 100.5%, tr (s = 258 but has a faster response time. The proposed method of sensitivity enhancement is simple, and mass producible.

  5. Spectroscopic, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of Pt(ii) and Pd(ii) complexes of a chelating 1,10-phenanthroline appended perylene diimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işık Büyükekşi, Sebile; Şengül, Abdurrahman; Erdönmez, Seda; Altındal, Ahmet; Orman, Efe Baturhan; Özkaya, Ali Rıza

    2018-02-20

    In this study, a bis-chelating bridging perylene diimide ditopic ligand, namely N,N'-di(1,10-phenanthroline)-1,6,7,12-tetrakis-(4-methoxyphenoxy)perylene tetracarboxylic acid diimide (1), was synthesized and characterized. Further reactions of 1 with d 8 metal ions such as Pt(ii) and Pd(ii) having preferential square-planar geometry afforded the novel triads [(Cl 2 )M(ii)-(1)-M(ii)(Cl 2 )] where M(ii) = Pt(ii) (2), and Pd(ii) (3), respectively. The isolated triads and the key precursor were fully characterized by FT-IR, 1D-NMR ( 1 H NMR and 13 C DEPT NMR), 2D-NMR ( 1 H- 1 H COSY, 1 H- 13 C HSQC, 1 H- 13 C HMBC), MALDI-TOF mass and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The electrochemical properties of 1, 2 and 3 were investigated by cyclic voltammetry as well as in situ spectroelectrochemistry and also in situ electrocolorimetric measurements. These compounds were shown to exhibit net colour changes suitable for electrochromic applications. The compounds exhibited remarkably narrow HOMO-LUMO gaps, leading to their ease of reduction at low negative potentials. More importantly, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were also fabricated using 1-3 to clarify the potential use of these complexes as a sensitizer. Analysis of the experimental data indicated that 2 has good potential as a sensitizer material for DSSCs.

  6. Analytical evaluation of actinide sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, A.

    1977-01-01

    The analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of actinides to various parameters such as cross sections, decay constants, flux and time is presented. The formulae are applied to isotopes of the Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium series. The agreement between analytically obtained and computer evaluated sensitivities being always good, it is throught that the formulation includes all the important parameters entering in the evaluation of sensitivities. A study of the published data is made

  7. Infrared sensing based sensitive skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zheng-cai; FU Yi-li; WANG Shu-guo; JIN Bao

    2006-01-01

    Developed robotics sensitive skin is a modularized, flexible, mini-type array of infrared sensors with data processing capabilities, which can be used to cover the body of a robot. Depending on the infrared sensors and periphery processing circuit, robotics sensitive skin can in real-time provide existence and distance information about obstacles for robots within sensory areas. The methodology of designing sensitive skin and the algorithm of a mass of IR data fusion are presented. The experimental results show that the multi-joint robot with this sensitive skin can work autonomously in an unknown environment.

  8. Maternal sensitivity: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjeong; Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Seomun, Gyeong-Ae

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a concept analysis of maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity is a broad concept encompassing a variety of interrelated affective and behavioural caregiving attributes. It is used interchangeably with the terms maternal responsiveness or maternal competency, with no consistency of use. There is a need to clarify the concept of maternal sensitivity for research and practice. A search was performed on the CINAHL and Ovid MEDLINE databases using 'maternal sensitivity', 'maternal responsiveness' and 'sensitive mothering' as key words. The searches yielded 54 records for the years 1981-2007. Rodgers' method of evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyse the material. Four critical attributes of maternal sensitivity were identified: (a) dynamic process involving maternal abilities; (b) reciprocal give-and-take with the infant; (c) contingency on the infant's behaviour and (d) quality of maternal behaviours. Maternal identity and infant's needs and cues are antecedents for these attributes. The consequences are infant's comfort, mother-infant attachment and infant development. In addition, three positive affecting factors (social support, maternal-foetal attachment and high self-esteem) and three negative affecting factors (maternal depression, maternal stress and maternal anxiety) were identified. A clear understanding of the concept of maternal sensitivity could be useful for developing ways to enhance maternal sensitivity and to maximize the developmental potential of infants. Knowledge of the attributes of maternal sensitivity identified in this concept analysis may be helpful for constructing measuring items or dimensions.

  9. Evaluation of the computerized procedures Manual II (COPMA II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converse, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computerized procedure system, the Computerized Procedure Manual II (COPMA-II), on the performance and mental workload of licensed reactor operators. To evaluate COPMA-II, eight teams of two operators were trained to operate a scaled pressurized water reactor facility (SPWRF) with traditional paper procedures and with COPMA-II. Following training, each team operated the SPWRF under normal operating conditions with both paper procedures and COPMA-II. The teams then performed one of two accident scenarios with paper procedures, but performed the remaining accident scenario with COPMA-II. Performance measures and subjective estimates of mental workload were recorded for each performance trial. The most important finding of the study was that the operators committed only half as many errors during the accident scenarios with COPMA-II as they committed with paper procedures. However, time to initiate a procedure was fastest for paper procedures for accident scenario trials. For performance under normal operating conditions, there was no difference in time to initiate or to complete a procedure, or in the number of errors committed with paper procedures and with COPMA-II. There were no consistent differences in the mental workload ratings operators recorded for trials with paper procedures and COPMA-II

  10. MAGIICAT II. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Mg II ABSORBING CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Nikole M.; Churchill, Christopher W. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kacprzak, Glenn G., E-mail: nnielsen@nmsu.edu, E-mail: cwc@nmsu.edu, E-mail: gkacprzak@astro.swin.edu.au [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2013-10-20

    We examine the Mg II absorbing circumgalactic medium (CGM) for the 182 intermediate redshift (0.072 ≤ z ≤ 1.120) galaxies in the 'Mg II Absorber-Galaxy Catalog' (MAGIICAT). We parameterize the anti-correlation between equivalent width, W{sub r} (2796), and impact parameter, D, with a log-linear fit, and show that a power law poorly describes the data. We find that higher luminosity galaxies have larger W{sub r} (2796) at larger D (4.3σ). The covering fractions, f{sub c} , decrease with increasing D and W{sub r} (2796) detection threshold. Higher luminosity galaxies have larger f{sub c} ; no absorption is detected in lower luminosity galaxies beyond 100 kpc. Bluer and redder galaxies have similar f{sub c} for D < 100 kpc, but for D > 100 kpc, bluer galaxies have larger f{sub c} , as do higher redshift galaxies. The 'absorption radius', R(L) = R{sub *}(L/L*){sup β}, which we examine for four different W{sub r} (2796) detection thresholds, is more luminosity sensitive to the B-band than the K-band, more sensitive for redder galaxies than for bluer galaxies, and does not evolve with redshift for the K-band, but becomes more luminosity sensitive toward lower redshift for the B-band. These trends clearly indicate a more extended Mg II absorbing CGM around higher luminosity, bluer, and higher redshift galaxies. Several of our findings are in conflict with other works. We address these conflicts and discuss the implications of our results for the low-ionization, intermediate redshift CGM.

  11. SPAK deficiency corrects pseudohypoaldosteronism II caused by WNK4 mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yi Chu

    Full Text Available Stimulation of the OSR1 (Oxidative stress-responsive kinase-1/SPAK [STE20 (sterile 20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase]-NCC (Na(+-Cl(- cotransporter signaling cascade plays an important role in the WNK [With-No-Lysine (K] kinase 4 D561A knock-in mouse model of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA II characterized by salt-sensitive hypertension and hyperkalemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the respective roles of Osr1 and Spak in the pathogenesis of PHA II in vivo. Wnk4 (D561A/+ mice were crossed with kidney tubule-specific (KSP Osr1 knockout (KSP-Osr1 (-/- and Spak knockout (Spak (-/- mice. Blood pressure, plasma and urine biochemistries, and the relevant protein expression in the kidneys were examined. Wnk4 (D561A/+, KSP-Osr1 (-/-, and Spak (-/- mice recapitulated the phenotypes of PHA II, Bartter-like syndrome, and Gitelman syndrome, respectively. Wnk4 (D561A/+.KSP-Osr1 (-/- remained phenotypically PHA II while Wnk4 (D561A/+.Spak (-/- mice became normotensive and lacked the PHA II phenotype. Phosphorylated Spak and Ncc were similarly increased in both Wnk4 (D561A/+ and Wnk4 (D561A/+.KSP-Osr1 (-/- mice while phosphorylated Ncc normalized in Wnk4 (D561A/+.Spak (-/- mice. Furthermore, Wnk4 (D561A/+.KSP-Osr1 (-/- mice exhibited exaggerated salt excretion in response to thiazide diuretics while Wnk4 (D561A/+.Spak (-/- mice exhibited normal responses. Wnk4(D561A/+.Spak (-/-.KSP-Osr1 (-/- triple mutant mice had low blood pressure and diminished phosphorylated Ncc. Both SPAK and OSR1 are important in the maintenance of blood pressure but activation of SPAK-NCC plays the dominant role in PHA II. SPAK may be a therapeutic target for disorders with salt-sensitive hypertension related to WNK4 activation.

  12. Artificial neural networks study of the catalytic reduction of resazurin: stopped-flow injection kinetic-spectrophotometric determination of Cu(II) and Ni(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magni, Diana M.; Olivieri, Alejandro C.; Bonivardi, Adrian L.

    2005-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) procedure was used in the development of a catalytic spectrophotometric method for the determination of Cu(II) and Ni(II) employing a stopped-flow injection system. The method is based on the catalytic action of these ions on the reduction of resazurin by sulfide. ANNs trained by back-propagation of errors allowed us to model the systems in a concentration range of 0.5-6 and 1-15 mg l -1 for Cu(II) and Ni(II), respectively, with a low relative error of prediction (REP) for each cation: REP Cu(II) = 0.85% and REP Ni(II) = 0.79%. The standard deviations of the repeatability (s r ) and of the within-laboratory reproducibility (s w ) were measured using standard solutions of Cu(II) and Ni(II) equal to 2.75 and 3.5 mg l -1 , respectively: s r [Cu(II)] = 0.039 mg l -1 , s r [Ni(II)] = 0.044 mg l -1 , s w [Ni(II)] = 0.045 mg l -1 and s w [Ni(II)] = 0.050 mg l -1 . The ANNs-kinetic method has been applied to the determination of Cu(II) and Ni(II) in electroplating solutions and provided satisfactory results as compared with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The effect of resazurin, NaOH and Na 2 S concentrations and the reaction temperature on the analytical sensitivity is discussed

  13. RTNS-II utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Panayotou, N.F.; Powell, R.W.

    1979-12-01

    The objective of the several RTNS-II irradation programs is to maximize information gained from the small test volume available in this unique irradiation facility for application in the fusion materials program. While this facility provides the highest 14 MeV neutron flux available, the flux is generally too low and the irradiation volume too small for testing of engineering materials. Emphasis, therefore, is on identifying damage mechanisms of high energy neutrons and correlating them quantitatively with effects produced by fission neutrons. The information gained will be used to evaluate and calibrate damage and correlation models under development. The scope of the program includes in-situ experiments, postirradiation experiments, irradiation temperatures ranging from 4 0 K to 1,000 0 K, and fluences ranging from 3 x 10 16 to about 3 x 10 19 n/cm 2

  14. Belle II Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, T; Ritter, M

    2016-01-01

    Belle II is a next generation B factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle. The higher luminosity at the SuperKEKB accelerator leads to higher background levels and requires a major upgrade of the detector. As a consequence, the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software must also be upgraded substantially. Most of the software has been redesigned from scratch, taking into account the experience from Belle and other experiments and utilizing new technologies. The large amount of experimental and simulated data requires a high level of reliability and reproducibility, even in parallel environments. Several technologies, tools, and organizational measures are employed to evaluate and monitor the performance of the software during development. (paper)

  15. Inside ISIS II

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    ISIS stands for Identification of Secondaries by Ionization Sampling. It was a drift chamber with an active volume of about 40 m3 built by Oxford University as a particle identifier for the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS). The photo shows the electrostatic grading structure and the central anode-wire plane, with Roger Giles standing just under it (Annual Report 1981 p. 57, Fig. 4). ISIS-II differed from the prototype ISIS-I only in the depth of the track (4 m instead of 1 m) thus extending the momentum range for particle identification to 50 GeV/c. See Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 224 (1984) 396, and Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 258 (1987) 26.

  16. PEP-II Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Gaydosh, M

    2003-01-01

    The PEP-II Asymmetric B-factory consists of two independent storage rings, one located atop the other in the 2200m-circumference PEP tunnel. The high-energy ring, which stores a 9-GeV electron beam, is an upgrade of the existing PEP collider. It re-utilizes all of the PEP magnets and incorporates a state-of-the-art copper vacuum chamber and a new RF system capable of supporting a one-amp stored beam. The low-energy ring, which stores 3.1-GeV positrons, is new construction. Injection is achieved by extracting electrons and positrons at collision energies from the SLC and transporting them each in a dedicated bypass line. The low-emittance SLC beams will be used for the injection process.

  17. Stage II Seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagerman, R.H.; Kotlove, D.J.; Regine, W.; Chung, C.T.; King, G.A.; Dalai, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1985, 32 patients with stage II (21 A,11 B) testicular seminoma were treated with postorchiectomy irradiation to the retroperitoneal and ipsilateral iliac nodes; 28 received elective mediastinal-supraclavicular irradiation. The median follow-up was 8 1/2 years; 29 patients were followed up for over 3 years and 24 for over 5 years. Twenty-eight patients remain alive and well and four have die, two of a second primary cancer. Two patients developed recurrent seminoma in the mediastinum; these patients showed a variant lymphangiographic pattern. Both remain well after further irradiation or irradiation plus chemotherapy. A third patient developed nonseminomatous ''recurrence'' in the radiation field and is well after chemotherapy

  18. Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuknecht, Nate [Project Manager; White, David [Principle Investigator; Hoste, Graeme [Research Engineer

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  19. Thermoluminescence in fluorite: sensitization mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, M.T. da; Watanabe, S.; Mayhugh, M.R.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitization of the major glow peaks (approximately to 100 and 200 0 C) in fluorite correlates with population of traps causing higher temperature glow peaks. When considered with supralinearity results, it is concluded that either the sensitization results from an increase in trap-filling efficiencies, or the deeper traps are not filled during irradiation

  20. Netlist Oriented Sensitivity Evaluation (NOSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the Defense Advanced Research... Heuristics for generating an alternative netlist implementation for the same logic function to achieve a better robustness measure 2...sensitivity study: 1. Tools to calculate sensitivity of netlist nodes (signals) and heuristics for generating alternative netlist implementations

  1. Sensitization to palladium in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muris, Joris; Goossens, An; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, sodium tetrachloropalladate (Na2 PdCl4 ) was found to be a more sensitive palladium patch test allergen than palladium dichloride (PdCl2 ). OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimal test concentration of Na2 PdCl4 , to evaluate the prevalence of palladium sensitization with Na2 P...... patch test concentration. Sensitization to palladium is almost as prevalent as sensitization to nickel. The sex distribution is different between nickel-sensitized and palladium-sensitized patients, suggesting different sources of exposure.......Cl4 and PdCl2 , and to compare the results with nickel sensitization in a European multicentre study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to the European or national baseline series including NiSO4 ·6H2 0 5% pet., consecutive patients were tested with PdCl2 and Na2 PdCl4 2%, 3% and 4% pet. in eight...... European dermatology clinics. The age and sex distributions were also evaluated in patients sensitized to nickel and palladium. RESULTS: In total, 1651 patients were tested. Relative to 3% Na2 PdCl4 , 4% Na2 PdCl4 did not add any information. Two per cent Na2 PdCl4 resulted in more doubtful reactions...

  2. Local Sensitivity and Diagnostic Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnus, J.R.; Vasnev, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we confront sensitivity analysis with diagnostic testing.Every model is misspecified, but a model is useful if the parameters of interest (the focus) are not sensitive to small perturbations in the underlying assumptions. The study of the e ect of these violations on the focus is

  3. Cheat Sensitive Quantum Bit Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We give an example of an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive non-relativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  4. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    2004-04-16

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  5. Thermoluminescence in fluorite: sensitization mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, M.T. da; Watanabe, S; Mayhugh, M R

    1974-11-01

    The sensitization of the major glow peaks (approximately to 100 and 200/sup 0/ C) in fluorite correlates with population of traps causing higher temperature glow peaks. When considered with supralinearity results, it is concluded that either the sensitization results from an increase in trap-filling efficiencies, or the deeper traps are not filled during irradiation.

  6. Radiation sensitive solid state devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.M.; Ralph, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A solid state radiation sensitive device is described employing JFETs as the sensitive elements. Two terminal construction is achieved by using a common conductor to capacitively couple to the JFET gate and to one of the source and drain connections. (auth)

  7. Interactions of Hg(ii) with oligonucleotides having thymine-thymine mispairs. Optimization of an impedimetric Hg(ii) sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ajar; She, Zhe; Sharma, Renu; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2017-05-21

    The present work describes the effect of the number of thymine-thymine mispairs in single strand DNA probes on Hg(ii) interactions and further to develop a highly sensitive DNA based impedimetric sensor for Hg(ii) detection. To achieve this goal, the influence of the number of T-T mispairs on the signal response prompted by DNA-Hg(ii) binding interactions was examined on three designed DNA probes: 5'-OH-(CH 2 ) 6 -S-S-(CH 2 ) 6 -AGTCCACACGTTCCTTACGC-3', 5'-OH-(CH 2 ) 6 -S-S-(CH 2 ) 6 -AGTCCACATTTTCCTTTTGC-3', 5'-OH-(CH 2 ) 6 -S-S-(CH 2 ) 6 -AGTCCATTTTTTCCTTTTTT-3' having 2T-T, 4T-T and 6T-T mispairs with identical length, respectively. This study revealed that the number of T-T mispairs plays a critical role in maximizing the signal intensity of DNA-Hg(ii) binding interactions. Based on these results, DNA comprising maximum number of T-T mispairs was further utilized for construction of the Hg(ii) sensor, which exhibited a linear correlation between the change in charge transfer resistance (ΔR CT ) and the concentration of Hg(ii) over the range of 1.0 × 10 -5 M to 1.0 × 10 -10 M with a lower detection limit of 3.2 × 10 -11 M. The selectivity was tested against 12 different metal ions including Hg(ii). The ΔR CT response from Hg(ii) is 3 times higher than the nearest competitor Pb(ii) and approximately 10 times than other ions. The potential application of such a robust and label-free DNA sensor was demonstrated by analyzing environmental samples collected from Lake Ontario.

  8. Aerospace Systems Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposal Title: Aerospace Systems Monitor PHASE 1 Technical Abstract: This Phase II STTR project will continue development and commercialization of the Aerospace...

  9. Time-sensitive remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lippitt, Christopher; Coulter, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the use of remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements. Specifically, it brings together a group of authors who are both researchers and practitioners, who work toward or are currently using remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements with the goal of advancing the effective use of remote sensing to supply time-sensitive information. The book addresses the theoretical implications of time-sensitivity on the remote sensing process, assessments or descriptions of methods for expediting the delivery and improving the quality of information derived from remote sensing, and describes and analyzes time-sensitive remote sensing applications, with an emphasis on lessons learned. This book is intended for remote sensing scientists, practitioners (e.g., emergency responders or administrators of emergency response agencies), and students, but will also be of use to those seeking to understand the potential of remote sensing to addres...

  10. Ultra-sensitive detection of plutonium by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; Ditada, M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Day, J.P.; Clacher, A. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Priest, N.D. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    On the bases of the measurements performed to date, a sensitivity of 10{sup 6} atoms is achievable with accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) for each of the plutonium isotopes. Not only does this open the way to the sort of study outlined, but it also makes possible other novel applications, of which two examples are given: (i)the ration of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu as a sensitive indicator of the source of the plutonium; (ii) the biochemistry of plutonium in humans. The ultra-sensitive atom counting capability of AMS will make it possible to use the very long-lived {sup 244}Pu (8x10{sup 7}a) in human volunteer studies without any significant increase in radiation body burden. This paper will describe the AMS technique as applied to plutonium using the ANU`s 14UD accelerator, will present the results obtained to date, and will discuss the prospects for the future.

  11. Nickel acts as an adjuvant during cobalt sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Vennegaard, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Metal allergy is the most frequent form of contact allergy with nickel and cobalt being the main culprits. Typically, exposure comes from metal-alloys where nickel and cobalt co-exist. Importantly, very little is known about how co-exposure to nickel and cobalt affects the immune system. We...... investigated these effects by using a recently developed mouse model. Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with i) nickel alone, ii) nickel in the presence of cobalt, iii) cobalt alone, or iv) cobalt in the presence of nickel, and then followed by challenge with either nickel or cobalt alone. We found...... that sensitization with nickel alone induced more local inflammation than cobalt alone as measured by increased ear-swelling. Furthermore, the presence of nickel during sensitization to cobalt led to a stronger challenge response to cobalt as seen by increased ear-swelling and increased B and T cell responses...

  12. Ultra-sensitive detection of plutonium by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L K; Cresswell, R G; Ophel, T R; Ditada, M [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Day, J P; Clacher, A [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Priest, N D [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    On the bases of the measurements performed to date, a sensitivity of 10{sup 6} atoms is achievable with accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) for each of the plutonium isotopes. Not only does this open the way to the sort of study outlined, but it also makes possible other novel applications, of which two examples are given: (i)the ration of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu as a sensitive indicator of the source of the plutonium; (ii) the biochemistry of plutonium in humans. The ultra-sensitive atom counting capability of AMS will make it possible to use the very long-lived {sup 244}Pu (8x10{sup 7}a) in human volunteer studies without any significant increase in radiation body burden. This paper will describe the AMS technique as applied to plutonium using the ANU`s 14UD accelerator, will present the results obtained to date, and will discuss the prospects for the future.

  13. Lead (II) and nickel (II) adsorption kinetics from aqueous metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the kinetics of lead (II) and Nickel (II) ions adsorption from aqueous solutions using chemically modified and unmodified agricultural adsorbents at 28°C, pH 6.2 and 0.01M NaCl ionic strength. The removal of the two metals were found to increase with increase in chemical modification, the sequence ...

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Ru(II) Tris(1,1O-phenanthroline)-Electron Acceptor Dyads Incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium Cation or N-Benzyl-N'-methyl-viologen. Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Optical Oxygen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monen M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2004-01-01

    The title compounds (1 and 2, above) were synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reactions of appropriate Ru(1I) complexes with the electron a cceptors. Characterization was conducted in solution and in frozen ma trices. Finally, the title compounds were evaluated as dopants of sol-gel materials. It was found that the intramolecular quenching efficie ncy of 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridinium cation in solution depends on the solvent: photoluminescence is quenched completely in CH,CN, but not i n methanol or ethanol. On the other hand, intramolecular emission que nching by 4-benzyl-N-methyl viologen is complete in all solvents. The difference between the two quenchers is traced electrochemically to t he solvation of the 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridiniums by alcohol. In froze n matrices or adsorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both Ru(I1) complex/electron acceptor dyads of this study are photoluminescent, and the absence of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigi dity. When doped aerogels are cooled at 77 K, the emission intensity increases by approximately 4x, and the spectra shift to the blue, analogous to what is observed with Ru(I1) complexes in solutions undergoi ng fluid-to-rigid transition. However, in contrast to frozen solution s, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at low tempe ratures are still accessible to gas-phase quenchers diffusing through the mesopores, leading to more sensitive platforms for sensors than o ther room-temperature configurations. Thus the photoluminescence of o ur Ru(I1) complex dyads adsorbed on aerogel is quenchable by O2 both at room temperature and at 77 K. Furthermore, it was also found that O 2 modulates the photoluminescence of aerogels doped with 4-benzoyl -N -methylpyridinium-based dyads over a wider dynamic range compared wi th aerogels doped with either our vislogen-based dyads or with Ru(I1) tris(1,lO-phenanthroline) itself.

  15. The new numbers contrast sensitivity chart for contrast sensitivity measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharkbhum Khambhiphant

    2011-10-01

    Conclusions: These charts show reasonable agreement and can be used interchangeably with the MARS. It is helpful for Thai people who can only read numbers in doing the test. We can use them in routinely contrast sensitivity measurement.

  16. Environmental Sensitivity in Children: Development of the Highly Sensitive Child Scale and Identification of Sensitivity Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Assary, Elham; Lionetti, Francesca; Lester, Kathryn J.; Krapohl, Eva; Aron, Elaine N.; Aron, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    A large number of studies document that children differ in the degree they are shaped by their developmental context with some being more sensitive to environmental influences than others. Multiple theories suggest that "Environmental Sensitivity" is a common trait predicting the response to negative as well as positive exposures.…

  17. Dual Globalizations and Intercultural Sensitivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Reza Ameli

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to investigate the intercultural sensitivities between Sunnite Turkmen groups and Shiite groups in Golestan province of Iran through considering the most important factors influenced it. The intercultural development inventory (IDI, which designed according to Milton Bennet's the intercultural sensitivities theory, was utilised to examine the intercultural sensitivities between those Muslim groups. The intercultural sensitivities theory essentially states that the more communication among people leads them to have the less intercultural sensitivities. In other words, the development of communications among people causes to diminish their intercultural sensitivities. In this study, both virtual and actual measurement domains were used in order to measure the communications development of two groups. The development of virtual communications was measured according people's interactivity with different types of media, especially Satellite and Internet, whereas the actual one was measured based on three cities varying according to different religious distribution. Finally this article concluded that the development of virtual and actual communications led to decreasing intercultural sensitivities among people in this area.

  18. Dye Sensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold S. Freeman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Photofrin® was first approved in the 1990s as a sensitizer for use in treating cancer via photodynamic therapy (PDT. Since then a wide variety of dye sensitizers have been developed and a few have been approved for PDT treatment of skin and organ cancers and skin diseases such as acne vulgaris. Porphyrinoid derivatives and precursors have been the most successful in producing requisite singlet oxygen, with Photofrin® still remaining the most efficient sensitizer (quantum yield = 0.89 and having broad food and drug administration (FDA approval for treatment of multiple cancer types. Other porphyrinoid compounds that have received approval from US FDA and regulatory authorities in other countries include benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, meta-tetra(hydroxyphenylchlorin (m-THPC, N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6, and precursors to endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX: 1,5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, methyl aminolevulinate (MAL, hexaminolevulinate (HAL. Although no non-porphyrin sensitizer has been approved for PDT applications, a small number of anthraquinone, phenothiazine, xanthene, cyanine, and curcuminoid sensitizers are under consideration and some are being evaluated in clinical trials. This review focuses on the nature of PDT, dye sensitizers that have been approved for use in PDT, and compounds that have entered or completed clinical trials as PDT sensitizers.

  19. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  20. Further important sensitizers in patients sensitive to fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2002-01-01

    usage in the perfume industry. 1606 patients were consecutively tested with series II and 8% FM. Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to scented products: certain, probable, questionable, none. Reactions to FM occurred most frequently in 11.4% of the subjects. The 6...

  1. Sensitive Interviewing in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Laura; Dowling, Maura; Larkin, Philip; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we focus on important considerations when planning and conducting qualitative interviews on sensitive topics. Drawing on experiences of conducting interviews with dementia caregivers, a framework of essential elements in qualitative interviewing was developed to emphasize study participants' needs while also providing guidance for researchers. Starting with a definition of sensitive research, the framework includes preparing for interviews, interacting with gatekeepers of vulnerable groups, planning for interview timing, and location, building relationships and conducting therapeutic interactions, protecting ethically vulnerable participants, and planning for disengagement. This framework has the potential to improve the effectiveness of sensitive interviewing with vulnerable groups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and thermal studies of nickel (II), copper (II), zinc (II) and cadmium (II) complexes with some mixed ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Samiran; Kundu, Parimal; Singh, Rajkumar Bhubon

    1998-01-01

    Dichloro-(DCA) and trichloroacetate(TCA) -cyclic ligand morpholine (Morph)/thiomorpholine (Tmorph)/methylmorpholine (Mmorph)/dimethyl-piperazine (DMP) complexes of nickel (II), copper (II), zinc (II) and cadmium (II) with the compositions [Ni(tmorph) 2 (DCA) 2 ], [Ni(tmorph) 2 (TCA) 2 ].2H 2 O, [Cu(DMP) 2 (TCA) 2 ],[ML 2 X 2 ].nH 2 O where M=Zn II or Cd II , L=Morph, DMP or tmorph and X=DCA or TCA and n=O except in case of [Cd (Morph) 2 (TCA) 2 ] where n=1 have been synthesised. Some intermediate complexes have been isolated by temperature arrest technique (pyrolysis) and characterised. Configurational and conformational changes have been studied by elemental analyses, IR and electronic spectra, magnetic moment data (in the case of Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes) and thermal analysis. E a * , ΔH, and ΔS for the decomposition reaction of these complexes are evaluated and the stability of the complexes with respect to activation energy has also been compared. The linear correlation has been found between E a * and ΔS for the decomposition of the complexes. (author)

  3. Improved cytometry - Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.R.N.

    1995-09-01

    One shortcoming of biological dosimetry based on the detection and quantitation of chromosome aberrations, is the labor intensive nature of the analysis. State-of-the-art imaging software cannot recognize the wide variety of shapes that can be assumed by dicentric chromosomes nor the algorithms available to accommodate translocation analysis. In this project, relatively simple computer routines have been used to reduce the time necessary to perform the repetitive tasks associated with radiation dosimetry. Repetitive tasks that can be computerized include data reduction and collation, verification of the number of chromosomes in each metaphase spread and, with the help of a motorized microscope stage and computer-assisted focus control, the automated location of metaphase chromosome spreads. The task of automated metaphase location is addressed in this project. The tasks of data reduction and computer-assisted chromosome counting have been addressed in a previous report to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) research project no.7.164.1. The preliminary evaluation of the performance of the metaphase finder, indicates a false positive rate of less than or equal to 7% and a false negative rate of less than or equal to 23%, using a limited data set of 1289 events and threshold values at 25, 26, 27, or 28. Over the 4 threshold levels, the average system sensitivity was calculated to be 75% and positive predictability to be 85%. Sensitivity is the fraction of real events which are correctly detected, and positive predictability, the fraction of detections which are real events. In a perfect detector, these values would be 100%. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  4. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; hide

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make as they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC (Silicone carbide) telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visible-wavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights in the US followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  5. Simultaneous Femtosecond X-ray Spectroscopy and Diffraction of Photosystem II at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Gildea, Richard J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond G.; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Koroidov, Sergey; Lampe, Alyssa; Han, Guangye; Gul, Sheraz; DiFiore, Dörte; Milathianaki, Despina; Fry, Alan R.; Miahnahri, Alan; Schafer, Donald W.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Koglin, Jason E.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Sellberg, Jonas; Latimer, Matthew J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Zwart, Petrus H.; White, William E.; Glatzel, Pieter; Adams, Paul D.; Bogan, Michael J.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko

    2013-01-01

    Intense femtosecond X-ray pulses produced at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) were used for simultaneous X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) of microcrystals of Photosystem II (PS II) at room temperature. This method probes the overall protein structure and the electronic structure of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex of PS II. XRD data are presented from both the dark state (S1) and the first illuminated state (S2) of PS II. Our simultaneous XRD/XES study shows that the PS II crystals are intact during our measurements at the LCLS, not only with respect to the structure of PS II, but also with regard to the electronic structure of the highly radiation sensitive Mn4CaO5 cluster, opening new directions for future dynamics studies. PMID:23413188

  6. Irradiation experience with KNK II Fast Breeder Fuel Subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, B.

    1993-02-01

    During the operation of the second core of KNK II fuel pin failures occurred, which were caused by local cladding weakening due to mechanical interaction between fuel pins and pin spacers. The present report gives a summarizing presentation of the consequences of these interactions, of the experimental and theoretical investigations to clarify the reason for the interactions and of measures to reduce their consequences in the extended residence time of the second core of KNK II. This type of interaction is caused by thermo-elastic instabilities of the fuel pin bundle, and its strength depends sensitively on the geometry of the pin bundle and the pin power. Finally, measures are described, which were taken for the fuel subassemblies of the third core of KNK II to avoid the wear causing instabilities [de

  7. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, Aaron D.; Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno; Hannover Univ.

    2016-09-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  8. Dust in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, S.

    1977-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that H II regions may contain dust: 1) the continuum light scattered by dust grains (O'Dell and Hubbard, 1965), 2) thermal radiation from dust grains at infrared wavelengths (Ney and Allen, 1969), 3) the abnormal helium abundance in some H II regions (Peimbert and Costero, 1969), etc. Although observations of the scattered continuum suggest that the H II region cores may be dust-free, dust grains and gas must be well mixed in view of the infrared observations. This difficulty may be solved by introducing globules with sizes approximately 0.001 pc. These globules and the molecular clouds adjacent to H II regions are the main sources supplying dust to H II regions. (Auth.)

  9. RTNS-II operations guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This guidebook is intended to provide training criteria, procedures and guidelines for operation of the RTNS-II neutron sources and ancilliary equipment. Use of this document requires full knowledge of the RTNS-II Facility Safety Procedure (FSP) and any Operational Safety Procedures (OSP) in effect. The RTNS-II FSP defines the hazards which may be encountered at RTNS-II and defines the procedures which must be followed in performing any task including operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a central source of detailed information concerning systems and equipment used in operating the RTNS-II neutron sources on a day-to-day basis. All members of the Operations Group are expected to be familiar with its contents. It is also intended to be used in training new members of the Operations Group

  10. What's new in ALPS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette; Collaboration: ALPS-II collaboration

    2013-09-15

    This proceedings contribution gives a brief experimental update of the 'Any light particle search (ALPS) -II' at DESY which will be sensitive to sub-eV, very weakly coupled particles beyond the Standard Model. First data on hidden sector photon parameter space through photon-hidden photon oscillations in vacuum is expected in 2014. Axion-like particle search (implying the installation of superconducting HERA magnets) could be realized in 2017.

  11. Recent validation tests of the Edelweiss II detector holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwamm, F.; Chapellier, M.; Herve, S.; Karolak, M.; Navick, X.-F.

    2006-01-01

    A very good understanding of noise sources is highly important for the sensitivity of a dark matter search experiment. One of these noise contributions in the Edelweiss experiment could be the microphonics and temperature variations caused by vibrations of the cryostat. Recent studies complement an earlier work in describing the effect of the Edelweiss II detector holders on the amplitude of the vibrations seen by the detector. The results of these studies will be presented in this article

  12. BEPC II positron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Guoxi; Sun Yaolin; Liu Jintong; Chi Yunlong; Liu Yucheng; Liu Nianzong

    2006-01-01

    BEPC II-an upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) is a factory type of e + e - collider. The fundamental requirements for its injector linac are the beam energy of 1.89 GeV for on-energy injection and a 40 mA positron beam current at the linac end with a low beam emittance of 1.6 μm and a low energy spread of ±0.5% so as to guarantee a higher injection rate (≥50 mA/min) to the storage ring. Since the positron flux is proportional to the primary electron beam power on the target, the authors will increase the electron gun current from 4A to 10A by using a new electron gun system and increase the primary electron energy from 120 MeV to 240 MeV. The positron source itself is an extremely important system for producing more positrons, including a positron converter target chamber, a 12kA flux modulator, the 7m focusing module with DC power supplies and the support. The new positron production linac from the electron gun to the positron source has been installed into the tunnel. In what follows, the authors will emphasize the positron source design, manufacture and tests. (authors)

  13. Dark matter detection - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  14. Textos sobre Sostenibilidad II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciudades para un futuro más sostenible http://habitat.aq.upm.es

    2004-12-01

    This issue assembles a selection of articles publicly available on the website Ciudades para un Futuro más Sostenible (CF+S: http://habitat.aq.upm.es. This selection was originally used as a printed companion guide to the public lecture series on ‘‘Sustainability in the Architecture and Urban Project’’, held on March 2004 and organized by the Madrid School of Architecture within the Initiative for a more Sustainable Architecture and Urbanism (IAU+S. The compilation an overall vision on sustainability presents to average audience. The basic criterion to select these articles was therefore a pedagogical one, including those simpler and clearer papers dealing with all main topics in CF+S. However, due to space limitations, many excellent articles available on the website are unfortunately not included within this selection. CF+S was created in 1996 as a partnership between the Spanish Ministry of Works and Madrid School of Architecture. The objective was to translate into Spanish and publish the experiences selected at the International Award for Best Practices in Improving the Living Environment, organized by United Nations after the Istanbul Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II. CF+S aims to gather documents concerning any kind of actions and experiences both on the territory and the city actually improving people’s living conditions according to the sustainability concept in its strongest sense. It also offers papers, reports and theoretical reflections on the state of and the possible alternatives to urban development nowadays.

  15. Thickly Syndetical Sensitivity of Topological Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider the surjective continuous map f:X→X, where X is a compact metric space. In this paper we give several stronger versions of sensitivity, such as thick sensitivity, syndetic sensitivity, thickly syndetic sensitivity, and strong sensitivity. We establish the following. (1 If (X,f is minimal and sensitive, then (X,f is syndetically sensitive. (2 Weak mixing implies thick sensitivity. (3 If (X,f is minimal and weakly mixing, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. (4 If (X,f is a nonminimal M-system, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. Devaney chaos implies thickly periodic sensitivity. (5 We give a syndetically sensitive system which is not thickly sensitive. (6 We give thickly syndetically sensitive examples but not cofinitely sensitive ones.

  16. Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  17. Electron-impact excitation of Zn II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msezane, A.Z.; Henry, R.J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Collision strengths are calculated for excitation of Zn II from the 4s ground state to excited states 4p, 3d 9 4s 2 , 5s, and 4d in a five-state close-coupling approximation for the electron-impact energy range 15 5 3d 10 4s 2 in a two-state close-coupling approximation for the same energy range. Accurate target functions are used in the expansion. Very good agreement with measurements of absolute emission cross sections of Rogers et al. is obtained for energy region 15< E<100 eV, when cascade contributions are included. Poorer agreement is obtained with experiment for excitation of the 5s state, owing to sensitivities in the close-coupling approximation

  18. Research in Aeroelasticity EFP-2007-II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    is demonstrated. For attached flow over thin airfoils (18%) 2D computations provide good results while a combination of Detached Eddy Simulation and laminar/ turbulent transition modeling improve the results in stalled conditions for a thick airfoil. • The unsteady flow in the nacelle region of a wind turbine......This report contains results from the EFP-2007-II project "Program for Research in Applied Aeroelasticity". The main results can be summed up into the following bullets: • 2D CFD was used to investigate tower shadow effects on both upwind and downwind turbines, and was used to validate the tower...... is dominated by large flow gradients caused by unsteady shedding of vortices from the root sections of the blades. • The averaged nacelle wind speed compares well to the freestream wind speed, whereas the nacelle flow angle is highly sensitive to vertical positioning and tilt in the inflow. • The trailing edge...

  19. High order depletion sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, K.; Adib, M.; Morcos, H.N.

    2002-01-01

    A high order depletion sensitivity method was applied to calculate the sensitivities of build-up of actinides in the irradiated fuel due to cross-section uncertainties. An iteration method based on Taylor series expansion was applied to construct stationary principle, from which all orders of perturbations were calculated. The irradiated EK-10 and MTR-20 fuels at their maximum burn-up of 25% and 65% respectively were considered for sensitivity analysis. The results of calculation show that, in case of EK-10 fuel (low burn-up), the first order sensitivity was found to be enough to perform an accuracy of 1%. While in case of MTR-20 (high burn-up) the fifth order was found to provide 3% accuracy. A computer code SENS was developed to provide the required calculations

  20. Measuring sensitivity in pharmacoeconomic studies. Refining point sensitivity and range sensitivity by incorporating probability distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijten, M J

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe a refinement of a previously presented method, based on the concept of point sensitivity, to deal with uncertainty in economic studies. The original method was refined by the incorporation of probability distributions which allow a more accurate assessment of the level of uncertainty in the model. In addition, a bootstrap method was used to create a probability distribution for a fixed input variable based on a limited number of data points. The original method was limited in that the sensitivity measurement was based on a uniform distribution of the variables and that the overall sensitivity measure was based on a subjectively chosen range which excludes the impact of values outside the range on the overall sensitivity. The concepts of the refined method were illustrated using a Markov model of depression. The application of the refined method substantially changed the ranking of the most sensitive variables compared with the original method. The response rate became the most sensitive variable instead of the 'per diem' for hospitalisation. The refinement of the original method yields sensitivity outcomes, which greater reflect the real uncertainty in economic studies.

  1. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    O. N. Korinovskaya; V. N. Gryshko

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen) G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart.) Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC)) in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderm...

  2. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) specifically increased in Italian hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiani, Valentina; Palombi, Sara; Gennarini, Giuseppina; D'Ettorre, Gabriella; De Vito, Corrado; Angeloni, Antonio; Frati, Luigi; Anastasi, Emanuela

    2016-10-01

    As a marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence II (PIVKA-II) seems to be superior to alpha fetoprotein (AFP). To better characterize the role of PIVKA-II, both AFP and PIVKA-II have been measured in Italian patients with diagnosis of HCC compared with patients affected by non-oncological liver pathologies. Sixty serum samples from patients with HCC, 60 samples from patients with benign liver disease and 60 samples obtained from healthy blood donors were included in the study. PIVKA-II and AFP were measured by LUMIPULSE(®) G1200 (Fujirebio-Europe, Belgium). We considered as PIVKA-II cutoff 70 mAU/ml (mean +3SD) of the values observed in healthy subjects. The evaluation of PIVKA-II showed a positivity of 70% in patients with HCC and 5% in patients with benign diseases (p < 0.0001) whereas high levels of AFP were observed in 55% of HCC patients and in 47% of patients with benign diseases. The combined Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis of the two analytes revealed a higher sensitivity (75%) compared to those observed for the individual biomarkers. In conclusion, we demonstrate that as a marker for HCC, PIVKA-II is more specific for HCC and less prone to elevation during chronic liver diseases. The combination of the two biomarkers, evaluated by the ROC analysis, improved the specificity compared to a single marker. These data suggest that the combined analysis of the two markers could be a useful tool in clinical practice.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of EQ3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwedel, J.E.; Wright, R.Q.; Maerker, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of EQ3, a computer code which has been proposed to be used as one link in the overall performance assessment of a national high-level waste repository, has been performed. EQ3 is a geochemical modeling code used to calculate the speciation of a water and its saturation state with respect to mineral phases. The model chosen for the sensitivity analysis is one which is used as a test problem in the documentation of the EQ3 code. Sensitivities are calculated using both the CHAIN and ADGEN options of the GRESS code compiled under G-float FORTRAN on the VAX/VMS and verified by perturbation runs. The analyses were performed with a preliminary Version 1.0 of GRESS which contains several new algorithms that significantly improve the application of ADGEN. Use of ADGEN automates the implementation of the well-known adjoint technique for the efficient calculation of sensitivities of a given response to all the input data. Application of ADGEN to EQ3 results in the calculation of sensitivities of a particular response to 31,000 input parameters in a run time of only 27 times that of the original model. Moreover, calculation of the sensitivities for each additional response increases this factor by only 2.5 percent. This compares very favorably with a running-time factor of 31,000 if direct perturbation runs were used instead. 6 refs., 8 tabs

  4. Measuring value sensitivity in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineichen, Christian; Christen, Markus; Tanner, Carmen

    2017-01-28

    Value sensitivity - the ability to recognize value-related issues when they arise in practice - is an indispensable competence for medical practitioners to enter decision-making processes related to ethical questions. However, the psychological competence of value sensitivity is seldom an explicit subject in the training of medical professionals. In this contribution, we outline the traditional concept of moral sensitivity in medicine and its revised form conceptualized as value sensitivity and we propose an instrument that measures value sensitivity. We developed an instrument for assessing the sensitivity for three value groups (moral-related values, values related to the principles of biomedical ethics, strategy-related values) in a four step procedure: 1) value identification (n = 317); 2) value representation (n = 317); 3) vignette construction and quality evaluation (n = 37); and 4) instrument validation by comparing nursing professionals with hospital managers (n = 48). We find that nursing professionals recognize and ascribe importance to principle-related issues more than professionals from hospital management. The latter are more likely to recognize and ascribe importance to strategy-related issues. These hypothesis-driven results demonstrate the discriminatory power of our newly developed instrument, which makes it useful not only for health care professionals in practice but for students and people working in the clinical context as well.

  5. HLA-DR-specific suppressor cells after repeated allogeneic sensitizations of human lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasportes, M.; Fradelizi, D.; Dausset, J.

    1978-01-01

    In conclusion, DR-specific suppressor cells can be induced by repeated in vitro sensitizations. They were able to decrease a secondary proliferation, to suppress consistently, in a primary proliferative assay, when added as third cells (primed twice against a DR antigen [PLT II] and γ-irradiated), the response of unprimed cells towards stimulating cells, which share a DR specificity with the priming cell of the PLT II. The suppression follows the D part of the recombinant haplotype within an HLA-B/D recombinant family and is specific for the DR antigen used twice as stimulator for production of the PLT II

  6. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck-Insitut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-06-21

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10{sup −2} cts/(keV·kg·yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge was set to 2.1·10{sup 25} yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 10{sup 26} yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208}Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10{sup −3} cts/(keV·kg·yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  7. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10-2 cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge was set to 2.1.1025 yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 1026 yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from 214Bi and 208Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10-3 cts/(keV.kg.yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  8. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of "7"6Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10"−"2 cts/(keV·kg·yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of "7"6Ge was set to 2.1·10"2"5 yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 10"2"6 yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from "2"1"4Bi and "2"0"8Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10"−"3 cts/(keV·kg·yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  9. Search for Bs Oscillations at CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzemer, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    We report updated results in the search for Bs flavor oscillations performed at CDF II. We analyze a dataset of approximately 355 pb-1 from proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV collected in 2002-2004 with the CDF II detector at the Tevatron Collider. Samples of both fully reconstructed Bs → Ds(3)π, and partially reconstructed, Bs → DslX, decays have been studied. A combination of opposite side tagging algorithms has been used to determine the flavor of the Bs mesons at production time. Information about the oscillation frequency of the system, Δms, is obtained by performing an amplitude scan of the data, from which an exclusion limit Δms ≥ 8.6 ps -1 (at 95% C.L.), with a measured sensitivity of 13.0 ps-1 has been derived; Combination with previously available measurements increases the world exclusion limit from 14.5 ps-1 to 16.6 ps-1 (at 95% C.L.)

  10. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  11. National Energy Plan II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the Administration's second National Energy Plan, as required by section 801 of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91). A second volume will contain an assessment of the environmental trends associated with the energy futures reported here. Detailed appendices to the Plan will be published separately. The eight chapters and their subtitles are: Crisis and Uncertainty in the World Energy Future (The Immediate Crisis and the Continuing Problem, The Emergence of the Energy Problem, The Uncertainties of the World Energy Future, World Oil Prices, Consequences for the U.S.); The U.S. Energy Future: The Implications for Policy (The Near-, Mid-, and Long-Term, The Strategy in Perspective); Conservation (Historical Changes in Energy Use, Post-Embargo Changes - In Detail, Conservation Policies and Programs, The Role of Conservation); Oil and Gas (Oil, Natural Gas); Coal and Nuclear (Coal, Nuclear, Policy for Coal and Nuclear Power); Solar and Other Inexhaustible Energy Sources (Solar Energy, Geothermal, Fusion, A Strategy for Inexhaustible Resources); Making Decisions Promptly and Fairly (Managing Future Energy Crises: Emergency Planning, Managing the Current Shortfall: The Iranian Response Plan, Managing the Long-Term Energy Problem: The Institutional Framework, Fairness in Energy Policy, Public Participation in the Development of Energy Policy); and NEP-II and the Future (The Second National Energy Plan and the Nation's Energy Future, The Second National Energy Plan and the Economy, Employment and Energy Policy, The Second National Energy Plan and Individuals, The Second National Energy Plan and Capital Markets, and The Second National Energy Plan and the Environment). (ERA citation 04:041097)

  12. Stiffnites. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pareschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The dynamics of a stiffnite are here inferred. A stiffnite is a sheet-shaped, gravity-driven submarine sediment flow, with a fabric made up of marine ooze. To infer stiffnite dynamics, order of magnitude estimations are used. Field deposits and experiments on materials taken from the literature are also used. Stiffnites can be tens or hundreds of kilometers wide, and a few centimeters/ meters thick. They move on the sea slopes over hundreds of kilometers, reaching submarine velocities as high as 100 m/s. Hard grain friction favors grain fragmentation and formation of triboelectrically electrified particles and triboplasma (i.e., ions + electrons. Marine lipids favor isolation of electrical charges. At first, two basic assumptions are introduced, and checked a posteriori: (a in a flowing stiffnite, magnetic dipole moments develop, with the magnetization proportional to the shear rate. I have named those dipoles as Ambigua. (b Ambigua are ‘vertically frozen’ along stiffnite streamlines. From (a and (b, it follows that: (i Ambigua create a magnetic field (at peak, >1 T. (ii Lorentz forces sort stiffnite particles into two superimposed sheets. The lower sheet, L+, has a sandy granulometry and a net positive electrical charge density. The upper sheet, L–, has a silty muddy granulometry and a net negative electrical charge density; the grains of sheet L– become finer upwards. (iii Faraday forces push ferromagnetic grains towards the base of a stiffnite, so that a peak of magnetic susceptibility characterizes a stiffnite deposit. (iv Stiffnites harden considerably during their motion, due to magnetic confinement. Stiffnite deposits and inferred stiffnite characteristics are compatible with a stable flow behavior against bending, pinch, or other macro instabilities. In the present report, a consistent hypothesis about the nature of Ambigua is provided.

  13. Kursk Operation Simulation and Validation Exercise - Phase II (KOSAVE II)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauman, Walter

    1998-01-01

    ... (KOSAVE) Study (KOSAVE II) documents, in this report a statistical record of the Kursk battle, as represented in the KDB, for use as both a standalone descriptive record for historians, and as a baseline for a subsequent Phase...

  14. RTNS-II [Rotating Target Neutron Source II] operational summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source II facility (RTNS-II) operated for over nine years. Its purpose was to provide high intensities of 14 MeV neutrons for materials studies in the fusion energy program. For the period from 1982-1987, the facility was supported by both the US (Department of Energy) and Japan (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science). RTNS-II contains two accelerator-based neutron sources which use the T(d,n) 4 He reaction. In this paper, we will summarize the operational history of RTNS-II. Typical operating parameters are given. In addition, a brief description of the experimental program is presented. The current status and future options for the facility are discussed. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  15. Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II binary complexes of l-methionine in 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Padma Latha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-methionine in 0.0-60 % v/v 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 M at 303 K has been studied pH metrically. The active forms of ligand are LH2+, LH and L-. The predominant species detected are ML, MLH, ML2, ML2H, ML2H2 and MLOH. Models containing different numbers of species were refined by using the computer program MINIQUAD 75. The best-fit chemical models were arrived at based on statistical parameters. The trend in variation of complex stability constants with change in the dielectric constant of the medium is explained on the basis of electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces.

  16. New instruments at IPNS: POSY II and SAD II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.K.; Felcher, G.P.; Kleb, R.; Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Three new instruments are currently in varying degrees of development/construction at IPNS. One of these, the Glass, Liquid, and Amorphous Materials Diffractometer (GLAD) is the subject of a separate paper in these Proceedings, and so will not be discussed further here. The other two, a second neutron reflectometer (POSY II) and a second small-angle diffractometer (SAD II) are described briefly below. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Semiconducting oxide gas-sensitive resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusastre, V.J.

    1998-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to describe the gas sensing behaviour of a wide range of metal oxide semiconductors which exhibit tremendous changes in their electrical resistance at high temperatures (typically > 300 deg. C) upon exposure to traces (ppm) of reactive gases present in the air. The effects of surface segregation in antimony-doped tin dioxide (Sn 1-y Sb y O 2 ) on both the electrical response to water vapour and the catalytic combustion of methane in the presence of water vapour were demonstrated. Effects of microstructure, and especially particle size, on the behaviour (sensitivity and selectivity) of these compounds to carbon monoxide and methane were also demonstrated. A change in behaviour correlating with the Debye length was shown. Theoretical calculation methods were used to model surface segregation and surface defects. Antimony segregates as Sb 3+ and the complex (Sn(II).V o ) is a stable surface species. A model for gas response and surface reaction involving this complex is proposed. The properties of solid solution series prepared by systematic cation substitution as a way of understanding the gas response mechanism linked to the surface chemistry has been examined in (CrNbO 4 )x(Sn 1-y Sb y O 2 ) 1-x , Ti x (Sn 1-y Sb y ) 1-x O 2 , and (MWO 4 )x([Sn-Ti]O 2 ) 1x [with M: Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn]. Effects of stoichiometry, microstructure, combustion gradient and surface segregation on gas (water, carbon monoxide, methane, propane and ammonia) sensitivity and selectivity have been observed and discussed. (author)

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin; Maiaugree, Wasan; Suriharn, Bhalang; Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  19. Effect of noisy stimulation on neurobiological sensitization systems and its role for normal and pathological physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Martin; Braun, Hans; Krieg, J.\\:Urgen-Christian

    2004-03-01

    Sensitization is discussed as an important phenomenon playing a role in normal physiology but also with respect to the initiation and progression of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsia, substance-related disorders or recurrent affective disorders. The relevance to understand the dynamics of sensitization phenomena is emphasized by recent findings that even single stimulations can induce longlasting changes in biological systems. To address specific questions associated with the sensitization dynamics, we use a computational approach and develop simple but physiologically-plausible models. In the present study we examine the effect of noisy stimulation on sensitization development in the model. We consider sub- and suprathresold stimulations with varying noise intensities and determine as response measures the (i) absolute number of stimulus-induced sensitzations and (ii) the temporal relsation of stimulus-sensitization coupling. The findings indicate that stochastic effects including stochastic resonance might well contribute to the physiology of sensitization mechanisms under both nomal and pathological conditions.

  20. Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II (IPMS II) is online/ batch system for collecting developing, managing and disseminating procurementrelated data at NASA Johnson Space Center. Portions of IPMS II adaptable to other procurement situations.

  1. Bose Condensate in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Condensate Saga, now halfway through its fifth decade, is reviewed. The recent neutron-scattering work which has at last convincingly established that there is indeed a Bose Condensate in He II is described

  2. Tier II Chemical Storage Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities that store hazardous chemicals above certain quantities must submit an annual emergency and hazardous chemical inventory on a Tier II form. This is a...

  3. Penetrating Internet Information Services (IIS).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... Information Services (IIS) packages have been presented. Note that while some of ... encompasses a variety of services including FTP, SMTP ..... for Web-based Distributed Authoring ... denial-of-service vulnerabilities we have.

  4. Coordination compounds of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) with pantothenic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabilalov, A.A.; Yunuskhodzhaev, A.N.; Khodzhaev, O.F.; Azizov, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The compounds Ni(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x 4H/sub 2/O (PANA stands for pantothenic acid, and - H indicates a deprotonated ligand), Cu(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x 2H/sub 2/O, Zn(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/O, Co(PANA - H)Cl x H/sub 2/O, and Ni(PANA - H)Cl x 3H/sub 2/O have been synthesized on the basis of pantothenic acid and Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) salts in aqueous media. The compounds have been identified by elemental and x-ray diffraction analysis. Some physicochemical properties (solubility, melting point, molar conductivity) of the compounds obtained have been studied. The structure of the compounds isolated has been established on the basis of an analysis of their IR, ESR, and electronic spectra, as well as derivatograms.

  5. Lunar Health Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  6. Australia; Basel II Implementation Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    The key findings of Australia’s BASEL II implementation assessment are presented. The Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA) allocated sufficient resources, including highly skilled staff, prior to the Basel II start date, and the outcome has been a robust and high-quality implementation that has built upon and substantially strengthened the risk-management capabilities of major banks. The quality of leadership and commitment by all involved has been instrumental in the success of ...

  7. Global optimization and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    A new direction for the analysis of nonlinear models of nuclear systems is suggested to overcome fundamental limitations of sensitivity analysis and optimization methods currently prevalent in nuclear engineering usage. This direction is toward a global analysis of the behavior of the respective system as its design parameters are allowed to vary over their respective design ranges. Presented is a methodology for global analysis that unifies and extends the current scopes of sensitivity analysis and optimization by identifying all the critical points (maxima, minima) and solution bifurcation points together with corresponding sensitivities at any design point of interest. The potential applicability of this methodology is illustrated with test problems involving multiple critical points and bifurcations and comprising both equality and inequality constraints

  8. Selective sensitivity in Kerr microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, I V; Schäfer, R

    2017-07-01

    A new technique for contrast separation in wide-field magneto-optical Kerr microscopy is introduced. Utilizing the light from eight light emitting diodes, guided to the microscope by glass fibers and being switched synchronously with the camera exposure, domain images with orthogonal in-plane sensitivity can be displayed simultaneously at real-time, and images with pure in-plane or polar contrast can be obtained. The benefit of this new method of contrast separation is demonstrated for Permalloy films, a NdFeB sinter magnet, and a cobalt crystal. Moreover, the new technique is shown to strongly enhance the sensitivity of Kerr microscopy by eliminating parasitic contrast contributions occurring in conventional setups. A doubling of the in-plane domain contrast and a sensitivity to Kerr rotations as low as 0.6 mdeg is demonstrated.

  9. Phase-sensitive flow cytometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes phase-sensitive flow cytometer (FCM) which provides additional FCM capability to use the fluorescence lifetime of one or more fluorochromes bound to single cells to provide additional information regarding the cells. The resulting fluorescence emission can be resolved into individual fluorescence signals if two fluorochromes are present or can be converted directly to a decay lifetime from a single fluorochrome. The excitation light for the fluorochromes is modulated to produce an amplitude modulated fluorescence pulse as the fluorochrome is excited in the FCM. The modulation signal also forms a reference signal that is phase-shifted a selected amount for subsequent mixing with the output modulated fluorescence intensity signal in phase-sensitive detection circuitry. The output from the phase-sensitive circuitry is then an individual resolved fluorochrome signal or a single fluorochrome decay lifetime, depending on the applied phase shifts.

  10. Selective sensitivity in Kerr microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, I. V.; Schäfer, R.

    2017-07-01

    A new technique for contrast separation in wide-field magneto-optical Kerr microscopy is introduced. Utilizing the light from eight light emitting diodes, guided to the microscope by glass fibers and being switched synchronously with the camera exposure, domain images with orthogonal in-plane sensitivity can be displayed simultaneously at real-time, and images with pure in-plane or polar contrast can be obtained. The benefit of this new method of contrast separation is demonstrated for Permalloy films, a NdFeB sinter magnet, and a cobalt crystal. Moreover, the new technique is shown to strongly enhance the sensitivity of Kerr microscopy by eliminating parasitic contrast contributions occurring in conventional setups. A doubling of the in-plane domain contrast and a sensitivity to Kerr rotations as low as 0.6 mdeg is demonstrated.

  11. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project

  12. complexes as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compared to N719, H112 sensitizer showed enhanced molar extinction coefficient and relatively better monochromatic incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) across the spectral range of 400 to 800 nm with solar energy-to-electrical conversion efficiency () of 2.43% [open circuit photovoltage (VOC) ...

  13. Lessening Sensitivity: Student Experiences of Teaching and Learning Sensitive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing interest in learning and teaching as emotional activities, there is still very little research on experiences of sensitive issues. Using qualitative data from students from a range of social science disciplines, this study investigates student's experiences. The paper highlights how, although they found it difficult and distressing…

  14. ACh-induced hyperpolarization and decreased resistance in mammalian type II vestibular hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppi, Lauren A; Tabatabaee, Hessam; Drury, Hannah R; Jobling, Phillip; Callister, Robert J; Migliaccio, Americo A; Jordan, Paivi M; Holt, Joseph C; Rabbitt, Richard D; Lim, Rebecca; Brichta, Alan M

    2018-01-01

    In the mammalian vestibular periphery, electrical activation of the efferent vestibular system (EVS) has two effects on afferent activity: 1) it increases background afferent discharge and 2) decreases afferent sensitivity to rotational stimuli. Although the cellular mechanisms underlying these two contrasting afferent responses remain obscure, we postulated that the reduction in afferent sensitivity was attributed, in part, to the activation of α9- containing nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (α9*nAChRs) and small-conductance potassium channels (SK) in vestibular type II hair cells, as demonstrated in the peripheral vestibular system of other vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of the predominant EVS neurotransmitter ACh on vestibular type II hair cells from wild-type (wt) and α9-subunit nAChR knockout (α9 -/- ) mice. Immunostaining for choline acetyltransferase revealed there were no obvious gross morphological differences in the peripheral EVS innervation among any of these strains. ACh application onto wt type II hair cells, at resting potentials, produced a fast inward current followed by a slower outward current, resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and decreased membrane resistance. Hyperpolarization and decreased resistance were due to gating of SK channels. Consistent with activation of α9*nAChRs and SK channels, these ACh-sensitive currents were antagonized by the α9*nAChR blocker strychnine and SK blockers apamin and tamapin. Type II hair cells from α9 -/- mice, however, failed to respond to ACh at all. These results confirm the critical importance of α9nAChRs in efferent modulation of mammalian type II vestibular hair cells. Application of exogenous ACh reduces electrical impedance, thereby decreasing type II hair cell sensitivity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Expression of α9 nicotinic subunit was crucial for fast cholinergic modulation of mammalian vestibular type II hair cells. These findings show a multifaceted

  15. Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) adsorption on low grade manganese ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low grade manganese ore (LMO) of Orissa containing 58.37% SiO2, 25.05% MnO2, 8.8% Al2O3, and 5.03% Fe2O3 as the main constituents was taken to study its adsorption behaviour for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. The XRD studies showed the crystalline phases to be quartz, ß-MnO2, d-MnO2 and ...

  16. Childhood Adversity and Pain Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Dokyoung Sophia; Meagher, Mary W

    Childhood adversity is a vulnerability factor for chronic pain. However, the underlying pain mechanisms influenced by childhood adversity remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of childhood adversity on dynamic pain sensitivity in young adults. After screening for childhood adverse events and health status, healthy individuals reporting low (below median; n = 75) or high levels of adversity (the top 5%; n = 51) were invited for pain testing. Both groups underwent heat pain threshold and temporal summation of second pain (TSSP) testing after reporting depressive symptoms. TSSP refers to a progressive increase in pain intensity with repetition of identical noxious stimuli and is attributed to central sensitization. Changes in pain ratings over time (slope) were computed for TSSP sensitization and decay of subsequent aftersensations. The high-adversity group showed greater TSSP sensitization (meanslope, 0.75; SDpositive slope, 1.78), and a trend toward a slower decay (meanslope, -11.9; SD, 3.4), whereas the low-adversity group showed minimal sensitization (meanslope, 0.07; SDnear-zero slope, 1.77), F(1,123) = 5.84, p = .017 and faster decay (meanslope, -13.1; SD, 3.4), F(1,123) = 3.79, p = .054. This group difference remained significant even after adjusting for adult depressive symptoms (p = .033). No group difference was found in heat pain threshold (p = .85). Lastly, the high-adversity group showed blunted cardiac and skin conductance responses. These findings suggest that enhancement of central sensitization may provide a mechanism underlying the pain hypersensitivity and chronicity linked to childhood adversity.

  17. Technical assessment of continued wet storage of EBR-II fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Franklin, E.M.; Ebner, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    A technical assessment of the continued wet storage of EBR-II fuel has been made. Previous experience has shown that in-basin cladding failure occurs by intergranular attack of sensitized cladding, likely assisted by basin water chlorides. Subsequent fuel oxidation is rapid and leads to loss of configuration and release of fission products. The current inventory of EBR-II fuel stored in the ICPP basins is at risk from similar corrosion reactions

  18. Novelionic Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Shibi Fang; Yuan Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, dye-sensitized solar cells(DSC) based on nanocrystalline porous TiO2 films have attracted much attention because of their relatively higher efficiency and low cost compared with conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices[1]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive photo-to-energy conversion efficiency of over 10% where the electrolyte is volatile organic liquid solvents containing I-/I-3- as redox couple. Because of high volatilities, solvent losses occur during long-term operations, resulting in lowered DSC performances.And leakage of liquid electrolyte also limits the durability of DSC.

  19. Analysis of DNA Cytosine Methylation Patterns Using Methylation-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, María Ángeles; de María, Nuria; Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Vélez, María Dolores; Cervera, María Teresa; Cabezas, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Different molecular techniques have been developed to study either the global level of methylated cytosines or methylation at specific gene sequences. One of them is the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique (MSAP) which is a modification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). It has been used to study methylation of anonymous CCGG sequences in different fungi, plants, and animal species. The main variation of this technique resides on the use of isoschizomers with different methylation sensitivity (such as HpaII and MspI) as a frequent-cutter restriction enzyme. For each sample, MSAP analysis is performed using both EcoRI/HpaII- and EcoRI/MspI-digested samples. A comparative analysis between EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI fragment patterns allows the identification of two types of polymorphisms: (1) methylation-insensitive polymorphisms that show common EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI patterns but are detected as polymorphic amplified fragments among samples and (2) methylation-sensitive polymorphisms which are associated with the amplified fragments that differ in their presence or absence or in their intensity between EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI patterns. This chapter describes a detailed protocol of this technique and discusses the modifications that can be applied to adjust the technology to different species of interest.

  20. Identifying School Psychologists' Intercultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyana, Olivia E.; Edwards, Oliver W.

    2016-01-01

    School psychologists are encouraged to analyze their intercultural sensitivity because they may be subject to personal attitudes and beliefs that pejoratively influence their work with students and clients who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD). However, gaps remain in the literature regarding whether school psychologists are prepared…