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Sample records for steel-kh18n9

  1. Additional materials for welding of the EP99 heat resisting alloy with the EI868 alloy and 12Kh18N9T steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, L.I.; Filippova, S.P.; Petrova, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    Presented are the results of the studies aimed at selecting an additive material for argon-arc welding process involving heat-resistant nickel EP99 alloy to be welded to the EI868 alloy and 12Kh18N9T steel. As the additive material use was made of wire made of nickel-chromium alloys and covered electrodes made of the EP367 alloy with additions of tungsten. It has been established that in order to improve the resistance of metal to hot-crack formation during argon arc welding of the EP99 alloy with the EI868 alloy, it is advisable to use an additive material of the EP533 alloy, and while welding the same alloy with the 12Kh18N9T steel, filler wire of the EP367 alloy is recommended

  2. Structural changes in surface layer of steel 08Kh18N10T during machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palenik, J.; Vodarek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The results are reported of a study of the surface layer of steel 08Kh18N10T affected by machining. Structural changes were studied caused by finish turning and by additional roller burnishing. Multiple deformation bands were observed to occur under the given cutting conditions; they mainly consisted of deformation doublets and only in isolated cases of ε-martensite. The presence of α'-martensite was not shown in the specimen surface layer following finish turning. The deformation shear bands in the roller-burnished specimen consisted of both ε-martensite and of deformation doublets. The amount of ε-martensite in the structure was significantly higher than in the specimen worked by turning. Local presence of α'-martensite formations was observed inside the deformation bands. It thus follows that roller burnishing is unsuitable as part of the manufacture of components from steel 08Kh18N10T. (J.B.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs

  3. Ultrasound surface treatment of Kh18N10T steel with different structural state. Ul'trazvukovaya poverkhnostnaya obrabotka stali Kh18N10T s razlichnym strukturnym sostoyaniem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksenov, V K; Danilov, P A; Mats, A V; Netesov, V M; Yaes, A A [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov (Ukrainian SSR). Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.

    1989-09-01

    Ultrasound surface treatment (USST) is studied for its effect on the structure and mechanical-and-physical properties of Kh18N10T steel with different prehistory. It is shown that surface treatment may both increase and decrease steel microhardness.

  4. Effect of rolling temperature on 12Kh18N10T steel tube hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkevich, P.M.; Stepanovich, V.E.; Manankova, L.V.; Usenko, V.N.; Semenov, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical properties and substructure of tubes at the constant reduction degree k(the ratio of deformation over wall thickness to deformation over diameter), depending on strain degree during cold and hot tube rolling, have been studied. The investigations are carried out using hot-rolled tubes with the dimensions 88x8 mm of 12Kh1hN10T steel. With the decrease of strain over the wall of the tube, produced of 12Kh18N10T steel as to strain over diameter the values of yield strength and ultimate strength increase with simultaneous decrease in ductility during warm rolling and yield strength and ultimate strength decrease with the increase in ductility-during cold rolling. During warm rolling of the tubes at 250 deg C the hardening of 12Kh18N10T steel is higher, than at the rolling temperature 150 deg C. The optimum temperature range of warm rolling is 120-150 deg C. Grain orientation in the metal of the tubes and degree of texture perfection increase with the temperature increase of the tube warm drolling as compared with col rolli

  5. Influence of local microplastic strains on stress corrosion of 08Kh18N10T steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Efimov, A.A.; Sherman, Ya.I.; Fedorova, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    Study on specific features of microhomogeneous strain in the process of plastic strain development and their role in stress corrosion of 08Kh18N10T steel sheet specimens subject to preliminary strain by 1, 3, 6, 16 and 23% and subsequent tests of stress corrosion in magnesium chloride solution at 150 deg C 140 MPa has been carried out. Analysis of test results has shown that microplastic strain is distributed over a specimen nonuniformly and is accompanied with the slip bands formation which are sources of corrosion crack origination and development. 08Kh18N10T steel manifests the highest trend to stress corrosion under 1% microplastic strain

  6. Development of plastic deformations in 12Kh18N10T steel under cyclic symmetrical bending of specimens of various length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarenko, G.S.; Leonets, V.A.; Bega, N.D. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Prochnosti)

    1983-08-01

    Effect of specimen length on intensity of plastic deformation development and cyclic strength is studied for annealed 12Kh18N10T steel under cyclic symmetrical bending. The intensity of microplastic deformations and cyclic strength of annealed 12Kh18N10T steel in the considered case is due to self-heating.

  7. On the corrosion resistance of 01Kh25 ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeeva, R.A.; Koval', E.K.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of non-ferrous metal ions on corrosion behaviour of 01Kh25 specific low carbon steel as compared to austenitic 12Kh18N10T and 06KhN28MDT steels in boiling solutions of sulfuric and nitric acids and their mixture is studied. Compositions initating commercial ones are chosen the media. It is shown that trough corrosion resistance of 01Kh25 steel in 10% H 2 SO 4 is two order below 06KhN28MDT austenitic steel in presence of Cu 2+ ions as a result of the surface passivation corrosion resistance of ferritic steel is an order higher the austenitic ones. Ferrite steel resistance in the nitric acid and its mixture with sulfuric acid is five timesas much as in 12Kh18N10T austenitic steel

  8. Effect of partial oxygen pressure on physicochemical properties of Kh18N10T steel at isothermal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, V.N.; Oshe, E.K.; Fokin, M.N.; Bogdanova, S.V.; Loskutov, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Auger-electron spectroscopy, photoelectric polarization, conductometry methods have been used to analyze chemical and defect composition of surface oxide layers, formed on stainless steel Kh18N10T in vacuum (10 -9 - 10 -2 torr) and at temperatures 593-673 K. The boundary conditions of manifestation of extermal behaviour of the dependence of the surface oxide growth rate at isothermal oxidation of this steel are determined. The relation between passivation properties of the surface oxide and the magnitude of the edge angle of the surface wetting with molten tin is revealed

  9. Effect of partial oxygen pressure on physicochemical properties of Kh18N10T steel at isothermal oxidation. Vliyanie partsial'nogo davleniya kisloroda na fiziko-khimicheskie svojstva poverkhnosti stali Kh18N10T pri izotermicheskom okislenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, V N; Oshe, E K; Fokin, M N; Bogdanova, S V; Loskutov, A I [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii

    1990-10-01

    Auger-electron spectroscopy, photoelectric polarization, conductometry methods have been used to analyze chemical and defect composition of surface oxide layers, formed on stainless steel Kh18N10T in vacuum (10{sup -9} - 10{sup -2} torr) and at temperatures 593-673 K. The boundary conditions of manifestation of extermal behaviour of the dependence of the surface oxide growth rate at isothermal oxidation of this steel are determined. The relation between passivation properties of the surface oxide and the magnitude of the edge angle of the surface wetting with molten tin is revealed.

  10. Mechanical properties and kinetics of bainite transformation in the 35KhN3MFA and 25KhN3MFA steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotushenko, G.V.; Grigorkin, V.I.; Kozlov, V.I.; Sandomirskij, M.M.; Krivonosova, L.F.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanical properties and phase composition of the 25KhN3M A and 25KhN3M A bainitic steels have been investigated under austenization temperature varying from 870 to 1180 deg C and quenching cooling rate varying from 1 to 18x10 3 deg/min. Roentgen and quantitative phase analyses were employed. When bainitic steels are subjected to quenching by cooling with slow rate, their structure reveals b.c.c.-bainite with carbon content below the steel average, tetragonal martensite with a higher carbon content, carbon-rich residual austenite and carbides. Decreasing quenching cooling rates increase the concentration of tetragonal martensite and residual austenite and correspondingly reduce the concentration of b.c.c.-bainite. This tends to degrade the structural strength of bainitic steels in cores of large-size forged products

  11. Evolution of secondary-phase precipitates during annealing of the 12Kh18N9T steel irradiated with neutrons to a dose of 5 DPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, K. V.; Maksimkin, O. P.; Turubarova, L. G.

    2007-03-01

    The formation and evolution of thermally-induced secondary precipitates in an austenitic stainless steel 12Kh18N9T irradiated in the core of a laboratory reactor VVR-K to a dose of 5 dpa and subjected to post-radiation isochronous annealings for 1 h in a temperature range from 450 to 1050°C have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microhardness measurements. It has been shown that the formation of stitch (secondary) titanium carbides and M 23C6 carbides at grain and twin boundaries after annealing at 1050°C is preceded by a complex evolution of fineparticles of secondary phases (titanium carbides and nitrides) precipitated at dislocation loops and dislocations during annealing at temperatures above 750°C.

  12. Metallographical procedure for detecting carburized layer in the 12Kh18N10T steel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmark, S.I.; Shmalenyuk, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    The various causes of the tendency to intercrystalline corrosion of stainless steel tubing were studied. 12Kh18N10T steel tube specimens were metallographically investigated to reveal the presence and depth of the carburized layer. Unlubricated specimens and specimens with the graphite-saltpeter lubrication applied on them were austenized in the temperature range from 950 to 1250 deg C and then exposed to a provoking anneal at 650 deg C for 24 h. All the lubricated specimens showed a carbide network along grain boundaries and intercrystalline cracks. The specimens treated without lubrication had no cracks. The method offered can differentiate poor tube cleaning and the undesirable effect of other processing steps on the tubes

  13. Effect of agressive medium movement of local corrosion of the steel - 12Kh18N10T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makartsev, V.V.; Pakhomov, V.S.; Abramova, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of agressive medium movement on the formation of pitting corrosion of the 12Kh18N10T stainless steel in the acidic chloride-nitrate solution at room temperature is studied. It is established that the agressive medium movement hinders the formation of pitting corrosion at potentials more negative than +0.4 V and practically does not affect it at more positive potentials. The investigations have been carried out on a disc electrode rotating at a speed from 0 to 2000 rot./min

  14. Features of argon-arc welding of aluminium alloy AD1 to stainless steel 12Kh18N10T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadov, I.I.

    1982-01-01

    Welding of pipes made of the 12Kh18N10T stainless steel and the AD1 aluminium alloy is proposed to perform using one-sided aluminizing. It is recommended to use shields in order to protect internal and external surfaces of pipes, aluminizing of which is impossible. It is shown that developed technological process for welded joints made of aluminium and stainless steel for cryogenic apparatus permits to create light-duty cryostat assembly using aluminium alloys instead of copper alloys, to increase reliability of apparatus (usage of welded joints instead of soldered ones), and to improve labour conditions

  15. Ductile fracture of two-phase welds under 77K. [Steel-EhP810, steel-EhP666, steel-08Kh18N10T, steel-EhP659-VI, steel-chP810

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushchenko, K.A.; Voronin, S.A.; Pustovit, A.I.; Shavel' , A.V.

    The effect of the type of welding and fillers on crack resistance of welded joints high-strength steel EhP810 and its various compounds with steels EhP666, 08Kh18N10T has been studied. For the welding of steel EhP810 with steels EhP810, EhP666, 08Kh18N10T electron-beam, automatic, argon tungsten arc with non-consumable electrode with various fillers, as well as argon metal-arc welding with consumable electrode, were used. It is shown, that for a joint, made by electron-beam welding, parameters sigmasub(u), Ksub(IcJ), KCV are higher than for a joint of a similar phase structure made using filler wire EhP659-VI. It is explained by the fact, that during electron-beam welding joint metal refining takes place, which removes gases. In welded joints of chP810 steel, having joints with austenitic structure, characteristic of crack resistance Ssub(c) increases by more than 0.2 mm in contrast to two-phase joints, which conventional yield strength at 77 K exceeds 1000 MPa. It is worth mentioning, that for other classes of steels formation of two-phase structure of joint increases welded joint resistance to brittle fracture. It is possible to obtain the required structure of joint with assigned level of resistance to brittle fracture by means of the use of different fillers, optimum and welding procedure, regulating the part of the basic metal in joint content.

  16. Welding of high-strength stainless steel 03Kh12N10MT for cryogenic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is being given to weld resistance to cold and hot cracking at 93 and 77K and to mechanical properties of welded joints of high-strength stainless steel 03Kh12N10MT, produced under the fluxes AN-17M, AN-18, AN-26, AN-45, ANF-5, 48-OF-6, ANK-45 and ANK-49 in combination with various welding wires. It is shown that welds on 03Kh12N10MT steel meet the requirements only when using 48-OF-6 or ANK-49 flux. It is noted that impact strength of welds at 77K is sufficiently affected by the volume fraction of non-metallic inclusions in weld metal

  17. Long-term strength and allowable stresses of grade 10Kh9MFB and X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91/P91) chromium heat-resistant steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Danyushevskiy, I. A.; Schenkova, I. A.; Prudnikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, grade X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91, P91) and 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) chromium steels are widely applied in equipment manufacturing for thermal power plants in Russia and abroad. Compilation and comparison of tensile, impact, and long-term strength tests results accumulated for many years of investigations of foreign grade X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, P91, and domestic grade 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) steels is carried out. The property identity of metals investigated is established. High strength and plastic properties of steels, from which pipes and other products are made, for operation under creep conditions are confirmed. Design characteristics of long-term strength on the basis of tests with more than one million of hour-samples are determined ( and at temperatures of 500-650°C). The table of recommended allowable stresses for grade 10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-SH, X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, and P91 steels is developed. The long-time properties of pipe welded joints of grade 10Kh9MFB+10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-Sh+10Kh9MFB-Sh, X10CrMoVNb9-1+X10CrMoVNb9-1, P91+P91, T91+T91, 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh)+X10CrMoVNb9-1(T/P91) steels is researched. The welded joint reduction factor is experimentally determined.

  18. Effect of heat treatment and plastic deformation on the structure and the mechanical properties of nitrogen-bearing 04N9Kh2A steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, V. M.; Bannykh, O. A.; Lukin, E. I.; Kostina, M. V.; Blinov, E. V.

    2014-11-01

    The effect of the conditions of heat treatment and plastic deformation on the structure and the mechanical properties of low-carbon martensitic nickel steel (9 wt % Ni) with an overequilibrium nitrogen content is studied. The limiting strain to failure of 04N9Kh2A steel is found to be 40% at a rolling temperature of 20°C and 80% at a rolling temperature of 900°C. Significant strengthening of the steel (σ0.2 = 1089 MPa) is obtained after rolling at a reduction of 40% at 20°C. The start and final temperatures of the α → γ transformation on heating and those of the γ → α transformation on cooling are determined by dilatometry. The specific features of the formation of the steel structure have been revealed as functions of the annealing and tempering temperatures. Electron-microscopic studies show that, after quenching from 850°C and tempering at 600°C for 1 h, the structure contains packet martensite with thin interlayers of retained austenite between martensite crystals. The strength of the nitrogen-bearing 04N9Kh2A steel after quenching from 850 and 900°C, cooling in water, and subsequent tempering at 500°C for 1 h is significantly higher than that of carboncontaining 0H9 steel used in cryogenic engineering.

  19. Nitrogen-containing superlow-carbon austenitic steel 02Kh25N22AM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe'ldgandler, É. G.; Svistunova, T. V.; Savkina, L. Ya.; Lapshina, O. B.

    1996-02-01

    At present the equipment for manufacturing carbamide mineral fertilizers is produced from domestic steel 03Kh17N14M3 having "carbamide quality." Imported equipment also used in the industry is produced from steel of the 25-22-2 (Cr -Ni-Mo) type shipped by various firms, namely, 2RE69 (Sandvik, Sweden), 254SFER (Avesta, Sweden), 2522LCN (VDM, Germany), DM 1.4466 (Germany), and X2CrNiMo 25-22-2 (Dalmine, Italy). The imported steels are used because in some units steel 03Khl7Nl4M3 does not provide the requisite corrosion resistance in an intensified process of carbamide manufacturing. We currently possess domestic high-alloyed steel for producing new and repairing imported equipment operating under the severe conditions of carbamide synthesis. The present paper concerns the structure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance of industrially produced steel 02Kh25N22AM2 (ChS-108) and the recommended range of its application.

  20. Heat affected zone structure in welded joints of 15Kh1M1FL, 25Kh2NMFA and 20KhN2MFA steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenberg, N.E.; German, S.I.; Fomina, O.P.; Netesa, E.M.; Tsaryuk, A.K.; Kornienko, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Heat affected zone (HAZ) structure of thick-walled, nature joints of 15Kh1M1FL steel for block structure of power reactors and 25Kh2NMFA and 20KhN2MFA steels for rotors - is investigated. Multi-layer arc welding is performed under conditions being created for standard components of turbines. Thermokinetics diagrams of austenite decomposition are built, phase composition and character of the structure forming at HAZ in the process of welding with preheating are studied. It is shown that at HAZ in joints of the steels under consideration in the process of welding with preheating is formed a structure of a grained bainite which is uniform in its structure and phase composition. Small volumes of round and elongated forms consisting of martensite and residual austenite are distributed in α-solid solution of the bainite. The bainite of the HAZ in welded joints possesses high hardness and great stability in the process of tempering

  1. Corrosion resistance of welded joints in 08Kh22N6T and 08Kh21N6M2T steels made with new electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorkina, Y.S.; Leibzon, V.M.; Mankevich, T.V.; Sidlin, E.A.; Zheltova, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the corrosion resistance of 08Kh22N6T and 08Kh21N6M2T steels which would make it possible to ensure equal properties of all the zones of the welded joints. The investigations were carried out on the welded joints in the steels produced with new OZL-40 and OZL-41 electrodes and with standard TsL-11 and EA-400/10u electrodes. The chemical compositions of the steels and deposited metal are presented. The tests of the intercrystalline corrosion resistances of the welded joints in the steels in the as-welded condition and after heat treatment showed that the weld metal is not attacked by intercrystalline corrosion. The tests also showed that the welded joints in 08Kh22N6T steel made with the OZL-40 and TsL-11 electrodes are resistant to corrosion in 55% phosphoric acid at 90 C in 1% sulfuric acid, and in 25% formic acid at 80 C. The investigated steels made with the OZL-40 and OZL-41 electrode respectively show that the welded joints are resistant to intercrystalline and general corrosion, have high mechanical and processing properties and the electrodes, and can be used for welding equipment designed for service in alkaline, neutral, and slightly acid media

  2. Welding procedure for 06Kh13N7D2 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muromtsev, B.I.; Turkov, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    Based on the results of investigations into the process strength, mechanical and corrosion properties of 08Kh13N7D2 steel welded joints, the optimal method of its welding and a possibility of applying it for high-strength mounting in nuclear power plants are determined

  3. Manufacture of rings of 08Kh18N10T sheet for internal structures of WWER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojta, A.; Nitka, B.

    1984-01-01

    Technology is presented of the manufacture of rings for the jacket, shaft, core catcher and shaft bottom of WWER-440 reactors produced by Vitkovice Steel Works. The rings are manufactured from sheets of austenitic steel 08Kh18N10T. The materials and technology problems are discussed of sheet production, ring welding technology and annealing following welding. The plastic properties are assessed of the welded joints and problems are outlined of ring production for WWER-1000 reactors. (B.S.)

  4. Low-temperature cyclic cracking resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Mn steels welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostash, O.P.; Zhmur-Klimenko, V.T.; Yarema, S.Ya.; Yushchenko, K.A.; Strok, L.P.; Belotserkovets, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    Results of further investigations into regularities of development of low-temperature fatigue fracture of welded oints in 07Kh13G20AN4 steel are presented, they are compared with analogous data traditional cryogenic 0Kh18N10T and 03Kh13AG19 steels. Welded joints have been prepared by means of automatic V-like level arc Welding of plates; 0Kh18N10T and 07Kh13G20AN4 steels have been welded by means of sv-04Kh19N9 wire, 03Kh13AG19 steel-by means of sv-07Kh13AG19 wire. Tests at almost zero (asymmetry coefficient R=0.05) cycle of extension at 15-20 Hz frequency have been conducted on 5 mm thick disk samples at 20 deg C and - 160 deg C according to the given methods. It is shown that by cyclic crack resistance of welded joint zones of 0Kh18N10T steel and chromium-manganese steels at normal temperature the 07Kh13G20AN4 steel exceeds 0Kh18N10T steel, at low temperature it yields to 0Kh18N10T only by fracture toughness of heat affected zones HAZ and weld metal (ne). 07Kh13G20AN4 steel and its welded joints as most hardened and cheap may be a good substituent for 0Kh18N10T steel. Optimization of WM alloying for increase of its cyclic fracture toughness at cryogenic temperatures is necessary

  5. Influence of structure and properties of tubular billets of the 12 Kh 18N10T steel on deformability of tubes at cold-rolling mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'yams, O.S.; Bol'shova, N.M.; Olejnik, O.V.; Velikotnaya, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    Metallographic analysis of the defects of the ''oblique cracks'' type on the surface of hot-rolled tubes of the 12Kh18N10T steel has been carried out. Recommended is the complex of mechanical properties and the structure factors (grain size) of conversion hot-rolled tubes, providing the combination of ductility and high rapture strength during rolling at pilger mills. At a grain size not coarser than number 5, a billet must have σsub(T) 5 >=40 %. Hot-rolled coarse-grained billet is not recommended for warm rolng because of high strain hardening

  6. Quality of austenite chrome-nickel steel made by gas-oxygen refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel'dgandler, Eh.G.; Levin, F.L.; Moshkevich, E.A.; Shifrin, Eh.V.; Movshovich, V.S.; Pargamonov, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Properties and structure were investigated of austenitic 03Kh18N11 and 08KhN10T steels melted at gas oxygen refining aggregates. It was established that mechanical and corrosion properties of rolling of such steels were in agreement with standard properties of metal of open melting. Sheet 08Kh18N10T steel has the level of strength and plasticity regulated for 12Kh18N10T steel. As steel of 08Kh18N10T holds the complex of high mechanical and corrosion properties, 08Kh18N10T is recommended to be replace by 12Kh18N10T with the aim of decrease of titanium usage and increase of process efficiency

  7. Welding of heterogeneous 12Kh2MFSR steels with the Mn-Cr-Si-Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.N.; Belogolov, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    The process of welding pipes of the 12Kh2MFSR pearlitic steels and austenitic steels of the Mn-Cr-Si-Ni system was studied. The filler materials were selected, and the working capacity of welded joints was examined in ageing and cyclic heatings. The microhardness of steels was measured, and the ultimate strength of welded joints was determined. The following has been established: the composite joints of steels of the Mn-Cr-Si-Ni system and 12Kh2MFSR steel are advisable to be welded on a coating layer welded by the EhA395/9 electrodes on the surface of a pipe of the 12Kh2MFSR pearlitic steel; this guarantees the sufficient working capacity of welded joints

  8. Simulation of Microdamage and Evaluation of Remaining Life of Steam Conduit Components from New-Generation Refractory Steel 10Kh9MF-Sh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladshtein, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of microdamage on the remaining life of high-temperature components of steam conduits from high-chromium steel 10Kh9MF-Sh and low-alloy steel 12Kh1M1F are compared. To simulate the microdamage, specimens with a circular notch and different relative diameters are fabricated. Specimens with a notch simulating the highest degree of microdamage and smooth specimens are tested for long-term strength. The coefficient of the remaining life of a conduit is computed for the range of relative damage presenting practical interest.

  9. Peculiarities of welding procedure for the 05Kh12K14N5M5T-VD maraging stainless steel with strength higher 1500 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of welding procedure of 05Kh12K14N5M5T-VD stainless steel on the properties of its welded joints is investigated. A new procedure of welding for pressure vessels made of this steel using Sv-03Kh15K14N5M3T-EL welding wire is suggested [ru

  10. Neutron diffraction study of a nitrogen martensitic steel 0Kh16N4AB under load

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sumin, V. V.; Papushkin, I.V.; Bannykh, O.A.; Blinov, V.M.; Lukáš, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 1 (2008), s. 88-91 ISSN 0031-918X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : steel 0Kh16N4AB * neutron diffraction * FSD Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2008

  11. Corrosion behaviour of stainless steels by internal friction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnikov, V.S.; Kovalevskij, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion of austenite chromium-nickel stainless steels 12 Kh18N9, 12Kh18N9T, 12Kh18N10 and 12Kh18N10T is investigated. Wire samples 0.7...0.8 mm in diameter before tests were subjected to quenching in water from the temperature of 1050...1100 deg C and part of them - to tempering at 650 deg C for 2 h. Pitting corrosion was brought about by different concentration of iron chloride solutions (C FeCl 3 ). Total corrosion has a slight effect on the character of IF (internal friction) variation that increases without the whole test period up to the moment when mechanical strength of the sample

  12. Tendency of the 18-8 type corrosion-resistant steel to cracking in automatic building-up of copper and copper base alloys in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovich, V.R.; Andronik, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studied was the tendency of the 18-8 type corrosion-resistant steel to cracking during automatic building-up of copper and bronze in argon. The investigation was carried out on the 0kh18n10t steel in argon. It had been established, that the degree of copper penetration into the steel inceases with the increase in the time of the 0Kh18n10t steel contact with liquid copper. Liquid copper and copper base alloys have a detrimental effect on mechanical properties of the steel under external tensile load during intercontant. It is shown that in building-up of copper base alloys on the steel-0Kh18n10t, tendency of the steel to cracking decreases with increase in stiffness of a surfaced weld metal plate and with decrease in building-up energy per unit length. The causes of macrocracking in steel at building-up non-ferrous metals are explained. The technological procedures to avoid cracking are suggested

  13. Study of surface layer on 08Kh15N5D2T steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyurin, A.G.; Povolotskij, V.D.; Zhivotovskij, Eh.A.; Berg, B.N.

    1986-01-01

    08Kh15N5D2T steel phase composition is investigated. Its surface layer was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis method. It is shown, that a subscale appears to be the reason for corrosion of products, made of EhP410 steel. Under the existing smelling technology the carbon content in it is ≥ 0.05%. Therefore to avoid the metal surface depletion with chromium, one must provide for titanium relation to carbon of not less than 4.5 and carry out the rolled product thermal treatment in a protective atmosphere; otherwise, the technology must include not only the removal of scale from steel but the metal subscale layer as well

  14. Investigation into the Cyclic Strength of the Bodies of Steam Shutoff Valves from 10Kh9MFB-Sh Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Kunavin, S. A.; Prudnikov, D. A.; Shchenkova, I. A.; Bazhenov, A. M.; Zadoinyi, V. A.; Starkovskii, G. L.

    2018-02-01

    Steam shutoff valves are operated under complex loading conditions at thermal and nuclear power stations. In addition to exposure to high temperature and stresses resulting in fatigue, these valves are subjected to cyclic loads in heating-up-cooling down, opening-closing, etc. cycles. The number of these cycles to be specified in designing the valves should not exceed the maximum allowable value. Hence, the problem of cyclic failure rate of steam shutoff valve bodies is critical. This paper continues the previous publications about properties of the construction material for steam shutoff valve bodies (grade 10Kh9MFB-Sh steel) produced by electroslag melting and gives the results of investigation into the cyclic strength of this material. Fatigue curves for the steal used for manufacturing steam shutoff valve bodies are presented. The experimental data are compared with the calculated fatigue curves plotted using the procedures outlined in PNAE G-002-986 and RD 10-249-98. It is confirmed that these procedures may be used in designing valve bodies from 10Kh9MFB-Sh steel. The effect of the cyclic damage after preliminary cyclic loading of the specimens according to the prescribed load conditions on the high-temperature strength of the steel is examined. The influence of cyclic failure rate on the long-term strength was investigated using cylindrical specimens with a smooth working section in the as-made conditions and after two regimes of preliminary cyclic loading (training) at a working temperature of 570°C and the number of load cycles exceeding the design value, which was 2 × 103 cycles. The experiments corroborated that the material (10Kh9MFB-Sh steel) of the body manufactured by the method of electroslag melting had high resistance to cyclic failure rate. No effect of cyclic damages in the metal of the investigated specimens on the high-temperature strength has been found.

  15. Heat treatment effect on impact strength of 40Kh steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, V.K.; Novikov, S.A.; Sobolev, Yu.S.; Yukina, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies on the effect of heat treatment on strength and pattern of 40Kh steel impact failure. Loading levels corresponding to macroscopic spalling microdamage initiation in the material are determined for three initial states. Metallographic study on the spalling failure pattern for 40Kh steel in different initial states and data on microhardness measurement are presented

  16. The effect of thermal treatment on corrosion properties of 0Kh15N16M3B stainless steel tested in the N2O4 boiling medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenev, A.Ya.; Kopets, Z.V.; Mel'nikova, N.N.; Dergaj, A.M.; Fedyushin, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on the effect of thermal treatment on corrosion properties of stainless steel 00Kh16n15m3b tested in the N 2 O 4 boiling medium at 8.0 MPa and 433 K are presented. The electron microscope data on steel microstructure after different heat treatments and phase composition of oxide films emerging at corrosion test are given. It is shown, that the rise of the heat treatment temperature from 823 up to 1023 K increases total corrosion of 00Kh16n15m3b steel under given test conditions and practically does't affect intercrystalline corrosion. Developed oxide layers are of deposited nature and doesn't affect markedly the rate of progress of the corrosive processes. Taking into account high chromium volatility in vacuum one can assume that at the initial stages of the coolant effect, the process of depletion of steel surface by chromium durng heat treatment affects markedly steel corrosion stability

  17. Irradiation and annealing behavior of 15Kh2MFA reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, K.; Bergmann, U.; Bergner, F.; Hampe, E.; Leonhardt, W.D.; Schuetzler, H.P.; Viehrig, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    This work deals with the mechanical properties of RPV steels used WWER-440. The materials under investigation were a forging (base metal 15Kh2MFA) and the corresponding weld. Charpy V-notch specimens and tensile test specimens were irradiated in the WWER-2 Rheinsberg at about 270 C up to the two neutron fluence levels of 4 x 10 18 and 5 x 10 19 n/cm 2 (E>1MeV). Post-irradiation annealing heat treatments were performed, among others a 475 C/152 h treatment of technical interest. (orig.)

  18. Effect of nonmetallic inclusions on anisotropy of ductility in 35KhN3MFA steel forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtremel', M.A.; Yavojskij, V.I.; Volkov, V.A.; Chursin, G.M.; Chukhlov, V.I.; Fetisov, G.I.; Mochalin, N.K.; Smol'yaninov, L.V.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristics of nonmetaltic inclusions and anizotropy of ductility and of impuct strength of forgings of the 35KhN3MFA steel are compared at different variants of melting and outer-furnace treatment. It is shown that method of melting rugulates anisotropy of ductility primarily through deformability of large inclusions during forging. Deformability of inclusions considerably changes due to introduction of silicocalcium in iron mold [ru

  19. Estimation of structural strength of 38KhN3MFA steel, melted using different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrya, A.V.; Mochalov, B.V.; Fadeev, Yu.I.

    1982-01-01

    Quantity of steel melted by different methods using criteria of fracture mechanics is evaluated. Three technological variants of the 38KhN3MFA steel melting: acid Martin steel prepared by the duplex-process (melt 1); the main Martin steel melting with deoxidation and alloying in a ladle by liquid alloy and treatment with synthetic slag with argon purging after production (melt 2) and its electroslag remelt - ESP process (melt 3) are investigated. The analysis of the investigated melts has revealed that crack resistances of the acid Martin steel is higher than that of other melts at practically similar standard mechanical properties with 0.35 probability at 0.05 significance level in the low-tempered state; in the tempered state the best crack resistance is observed in the ESP main Martin steel. Metal of the main Martin melting has lower crack resistance as compared with other meltings at both strength levels. The results of the work point out the necessity of applying the criteria of fracture mechanics for obtaining an objective evaluation of the steel quality

  20. Changes in structure and phase composition of chromium diffusion layer on stainless steels after long annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazev, E.V.; Voshedchenko, B.M.; Voskresenskij, Yu.A.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of elevated temperatures UU and long holdings at heat on structure, phase composition and properties of chromium diffusion layer on austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steels 10Kh18N10TVD, 10Kh15N30M4B, 10Kh11N23T3MR, 10Kh21N28V6M3. The following mechanism of processes taking place in diffusion chromium layer is presented. The steady drop of chromium concentrations is observed after diffusion saturation. Chromium redistribution related with system transformation to more equilibrium state and simultaneous decarburization of steel surfaces takes place in diffusion layers of 10Kh15N30M4B and 10Kh21N28V6M3 steels after annealing at different temperatures and holdings at heat. Decarburization of steel surface layers is practically excluded in diffusion layers of 10Kh18N10T-VD and 10Kh11N23T3MR steels. Diffusion chromium-saturated layer stays effective only on 10Kh18N10T-VD and 10Kh11N23T3MR steels on heating up to 1000 deq C with holding up to 250 h

  1. The permeation behavior of deuterium through 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with TiN+TiC-TiN multiple films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Y.; Song, J.; Luo, D.; Lei, Q.; Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    The prevention of tritium losses via permeation through structure components is an important issue in fusion technology. The production of thin layers on materials with low diffusivity and/or low surface recombination constants (so-called permeation barriers) seems to be the most practical method to reduce or hinder the permeation of tritium through materials. TiN+TiC+TiN multiple films are deposited on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel by ion-beam assisted deposition technology. The characteristics of films are tested by XPS ASEM and XRD, which shows that the film are compact and uniform with a thickness of about 15 μm, and have a good adherence with the substrate below 773 K. The diffraction peaks in the XRD patterns for TiC and TiN are broadened, implying that the multiple films are deposited on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel. Meanwhile, the C-H bonded CH 4 -appears in the infrared spectra of multiple films, suggesting that the CH 4 - is in a static state, so hydrogen atom cannot migrate from the site bonded with carbon to a neighboring site. The measured deuterium permeability in 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel coated with multiple films is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of pure 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate from 473 K to 773 K. However, this barrier is partly destroyed above 773 K

  2. Hardening and stress relaxation during repeated heating of 15Kh2MFA and 15Kh2NMFA steels welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Suslova, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Results of investigation of temperature-time conditions of hardening of welded joints of 15Kh2MFA and 15Kh2NMFA steels and their relaxation resistance, effect of metal structure of imitated heat affected zone (HAZ) on intensity of precipitation hardening at repeated heating are presented as well as the results of the process of relaxation of residual stresses at welded joints samples heating carried out by automatic welding under the flux with the use of adding materials and technology of manufacturing of vessels of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors. Peculiarities of the hardening at repeated heating of the HAZ metal imitated at these steels. Precipitation hardening of overheated 15Kh2MFA steel is connected with precipitations at repeated heating of carbides of the M 7 C 3 , M 3 C and VC type. Stress relaxation in welded joints runs more intensively at the initial stage of repeated heating, i.e. during the same period of the process of dispersed carbide precipitations

  3. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on phase transformations in Kh17N8 steel during deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshchenko, R.N.; Teplov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The phase composition and structure of Kh17N8 steel strained to different degrees under atmospheric pressure and 1700 MPa are investigated. It has been found that deformation at 1700 MPa causes α and epsilon-martensite formation, the same deformation under atmospheric pressure - only α-martensite formation. The amount of the formed α-martensite is not changed with application of hydrostatic pressure. Electron-microscopic observations have shown that the dispersion of α-martensite formed under pressure is higher than in the absence of pressure; no interconnection in formation of α and epsilon-martensite in samples strained under pressure has been observed

  4. Structure, mechanical and corrosion properties of powdered stainless steel Kh13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radomysel'skij, I.D.; Napara-Volgina, S.G.; Orlova, L.N.; Apininskaya, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    Structure, mechanical and corrosion properties are studied for compact powdered stainless steel, Grade Kh13, produced from prealloyed powder and a mixture of chromium and iron powders by hot vacuum pressing (HVP) following four schemes: HVP of unsintered billets; HVP of presintered billets; HVP of unsintered billets followed by diffusion annealing; HVP of sintered billets followed by diffusion annealing. Analysis of the structure, mechanical and corrosion properties of Kh13 steel produced according to the four schemes confirmed that production of this steel by the HVP method without presintering of porous billets and diffusion annealing of compact stampings is possible only when prealloyed powder of particular composition is used as a starting material

  5. Steel corrosion in tributyl phosphate in the presence of water and ethyl mercaptan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pischik, L.M.; Tsinman, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Studied is the corrosion of steels St3, 15Kh5M, 08Kh13, 10Kh14G14N4T, 08Kh18G8N2T, 10Kh17N13M2T in TBP, in mixtures of TBP with ethyl mercaptan (EM) and two-phase systems TBP-water and TBP-water-EM at 50-150 deg. In pure TBP St3 corrosion rate is low even at 150 deg. In the presence of water St 3 strongly corrodes at above 50 deg temperature in organic and water layers and also in gas phase. The steel-08Kh18G8N2T at 90 deg in acid TBP is passive and its corrosion rate is lower than 0.01 mm/year. In identical conditions the resistance of stainless steels increases together with chromium content but in TBP with acid number 100 and above at 150 deg all tested steels including steel-10Kh17N13M2T are slightly resistant. Thus, even in absence of corrosion active additions of EM the mixture of TBP-water at higher temperature is agressive in relation not only to carbon steel but also to stainless steels

  6. Stationary potentials and corrosion of metals and steels in sodium and potassium chloride eutectic melts saturated with hydrogen chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, V.N.; Ershova, T.K.; Kochergin, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    Stationary potentials have been measured at 850 deg C and corrosion rates found gravimetrically for a number of metals and steels in the eutectic NaCl-KCl melt saturated with HCl. Periodic shifts of the stationary potentials towards positive values have been established in the Ti-V-Cr-Fe-Ni, Cu-Zr-Nb-Mo, Ag-Ta-W-Pt systems, with the corrosion rate of metals decreasing in them. The stationary potentials are shown to shift towards positive values in the series: st.08 KP, st.3, Kh17N2, Kh22N6T, Kh13NChG9, 1Kh18N10T, Kh17N13M2T, OKh17N16M3T, Kh23N18, Kh25N16G7, Kh23N28M3D3T, with corrosive resistance in this series increasing

  7. Local corrosion of high alloy steels under biodeposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovyakova, M.D.; Nikitin, V.M.; Speshneva, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    Impact of the bacteriozenosis different structural-functional state under biodeposits on corrosion resistance of the 12Kh18N10T and Kh18N10T high-alloy steels in the natural seawater is studied. It is shown that saturation of natural micro communities by separate aerobic and facultative-anaerobic bacterial monocultures increases corrosion resistance of these steels by their overgrow with biodeposits [ru

  8. Strain ageing of the 15Kh2MFA steel at 500 and 550 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimovich, G.G.; Azbukin, V.G.; Krylova, R.P.; Tretyak, I.Yu.; Bardachevskaya, T.V.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of ageing at high temperatures and under high stresses on strength and plasticity of the 15Kh2MFA steel has been studied. The steel was kept at 500 and at 550 deg C for 100, 1000 and 2500 hours without stress and under stress of 0.5 and 0.9 of the long-term strength limit (sigmasub(ls)). Ageing at 500 deg C without stress and under 0.5 sigmasub(ls) changed neither strength nor plasticity of the steel; under 0.9 sigmasub(ls) the strength somewhat decreased. Ageing at 550 deg C for 1000 hours resulted in an appreciable stress drop

  9. Effect of smelt aluminium on mechanical properties of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, V.R.; Dykhno, I.S.; Deev, G.F.; Karikh, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of smelt aluminium on mechanical properties of armco-iron and 12 Kh18N10T steel is studied. It is stated that in smelt aluminium and aluminium alloy contact with armco-iron the sample ductility is decreased. Corrosion effect of smelt alluminium on (18Kh15N5AM3) steel in the form of reinforced wire in aluminium-steel KAS-1A composite material is investigted. It is stated in experiment that during smelt alluminium-steel contact interaction of heterogeneous phases takes place

  10. Preliminary tension effect on low-cycle fatigue of 40Kh13 steel in gaseous hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaniv, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Comparative bending tests of specimens deformed by tension at 65, 18 and 30% in hydrogen and vacuum were accomplished to reveal the effect of preliminary tension on low-cycle fatigue strength of 40Kh13 martensitic steel. It was found that small amounts of preliminary strains induced a considerable decrease in low-cycle durability in vacuum and hydrogen which was connected with developing defects arising at the early stages of plastic deformation. A rather high degree of preliminary tension promoted steel homogenization, hydrogen embrittlement decrease and service behaviour improvement

  11. Structural inheritance in cast 30KhGNM-type steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadovskij, V.D.; Bershtejn, L.I.; Mel'nikova, A.A.; Polyakova, A.M.; Schastlivtsev, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Structural inheritance in the cast 30KhGNM-type steel depending on the heating rate and the temperature of preliminary tempering is investigated. When eating the cast steel with a beinite structure at the rate of 1-150 deg/min, the restoration of austenite grain and the following recrystallization due to the phase cold work, are observed. Slow heating from room temperature or preliminary tempering hinder grain restoration during heating. A non-monotonous effect of tempering temperature on the structural inheritance is established which can be connected with the kinetics of decomposition of residual austenite in steel

  12. Corrosion cracking of 03N18K1M3TYu and 02N12Kh5M3 maraging steels in chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, V.N.; Chumalo, G.V.; Vereshchagin, A.N.; Melekhov, R.K.

    1987-07-01

    The authors investigate the electrochemical behavior in 0.5% NaCl solution and 42% MgCl/sub 2/ solution and the tendency toward corrosion cracking was determined in boiling 0.5% chloride solution of the cobalt-containing maraging steels in the title. Weld specimens and specimens of the base metal of 03N18K1M3TYu steel were tested in 3% NaCl solution for resistance to corrosion cracking. Additional investigations were made of specimens of that steel with previously created fatigue cracks of the base metal and the weld specimens in 3% NaCl solutions, since that steel is a promising material for structures operating in sea water and low concentration chloride solutions.

  13. Effect of Cr, Ni, and Mo additions on the susceptibility of the 0Kh6n7m7c steel to hot cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstykh, L.G.; Pryakhin, A.V.; Popov, A.N.; Usynin, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel on the tendency of surfacing materials to form hot cracks (Vsub(kp) was studied using the mathematical statistics method. The St3 steel and 38KhN3MFA steel were used in the study. A device facilitating the hot cracking tendency test procedure was developed. It was found that, in the concentration range involved, Ni and Mo produce no effect on Vsub(kp), and Cr enhances it. A new powder wire, PP-OKh7N8M6S, capable of increasing surface material resistance by 1.5-2 times, has been developed

  14. The Kinetics of Bainitic Transformation of Roll Steel 75Kh3MF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsova, O. A.; Krylova, S. E.; Priymak, E. Yu.; Gryzunov, V. I.; Kamantsev, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The critical points of steel 75Kh3MF and the temperature of the start of martensitic transformation are determined by a dilatometric method. The thermokinetic and isothermal diagrams of decomposition of supercooled austenite are plotted. The microstructure and microhardness of steel specimens cooled at different rates are studied. The kinetics of the occurrence of bainitic transformation in the steel is calculated using the Austin-Ricket equation.

  15. Preliminary heat treatment of 4KhM2Fch die steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonidov, V.M.; Berezkin, Y.A.; Nikitenko, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    To improve the machinability and preparation of the structure for hardening, die steels are given a preliminary treatment which provides a reduction in hardness as a result of separation in the structure of the carbide and ferrite phases, coagulation of the carbides, and acquisition by them of a granular form and also the obtaining of fine grains and a uniform distribution of the structural constituents. The microstructure was evaluated after etching in 4% nital on an MIM-8M microscope. The 4KhM2Fch steel was given a preliminary heat treatment of normalize and anneal. It was concluded that for 4KhM2Fch steel a preliminary heat treatment of normalizing from 950 0 C with a hold of 1.5-2 h, annealing at 750-760 0 C with a hold of 2-3 h, cooling to the isothermal temperature of 670-680 0 C with a hold of 3-4 h, and further air cooling is recommended. The structure after such a heat is granular pearlite with a rating 1-2 and a hardness of 220-250 HB

  16. Corrosion of austenitic steels and their components in vanadium-containing chloride melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A. V.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.; Lisienko, D. G.

    2014-08-01

    The corrosion of austenitic 12Kh18N10T, 10Kh17N13M2T, and 03Kh17N14M3 steels and their components (Cr, Fe, Ni, Mo) in NaCl-KCl-VCl2 melts with 5 wt % V at 750°C is studied. The rates and mechanisms of corrosion of the materials under these conditions are determined. The processes that occur during contact of the metals and steels with vanadium-containing chloride electrolytes are investigated.

  17. Investigation of Creep Processes and Microdamages in 10Kh9V2MFBR-Sh High-Chromium Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin', E. A.; Pchelintsev, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    During the modernization and the new construction of power units at TPPs in Russia, high-chromium martensitic steels with higher heat-resistant properties than the traditional perlite steels are increasingly used as structural materials. High-chromium steels have a necessary regulatory support for their use in domestic power engineering. However, up to the present time, the issue of assessing the quality of these steels at the analysis of their state during long-term operation remains open. The article proposed is one of the first attempts to create a system of quality criteria for martensitic steels based on their microdamage parameters. Tests were carried out on the long-term strength and creep of samples from 10Kh9V2MFBR-Sh steel at high temperatures with the construction of creep curves in relative coordinates "deformation related to the deformation of fracture, current time related to time to failure." For some samples, the tests were interrupted and the metal was subjected to metallographic studies consisting of the analysis of microdamage with reference to the accumulated creep strain. It has been shown experimentally that the deformation curve of high-chromium steel differs from the analogous curve of pearlitic steel by a longer and flat section of steady creep and by a sharper transition to the third accelerated creep stage, which has a very short time period (approximately 10% of the total durability). The tendency to the increase in the microdamage of the structure of steel as the accumulated creep strain increases with time was confirmed. The beginning of transition to the final creep phase is characterized by the formation of contours of future pore chains and by the appearance of individual large pores of up to 6 μm in size, the presence of which in the microstructure of the martensitic steel indicates a very significant accumulation of creep strain, and corresponds to the predestruction stage of metal. It is necessary to continue the research to

  18. Corrosion behavior of austenitic steels and their components in niobium-containing chloride melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A. V.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.; Volkovich, V. A.; Lisienko, D. G.

    2014-02-01

    The mechanism of corrosion of austenitic steels 12Kh18N10T, 10Kh17N13M2T, and 03Kh17N14M3 and metals Cr, Fe, Ni, and Mo in a NaCl-KCl-NbCl n ( n = 3.5, Nb content is 5 ± 0.1 wt %) melt at 750°C is studied. The metal and steel corrosion rates under these conditions are determined. The character of material fracture and the mechanisms of material corrosion are found.

  19. Successive carbon- and boron saturation of KhVG steel in powder mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimov, Yu A; Gordienko, S I

    1975-01-01

    Method of successive saturation of KhVG steel with carbon and boron in powder mixtures is described. After carbonization of steel in a charcoal carburator at 930 deg C during 3 hrs a domain of equiaxial large grains is formed there the latter representing carbides of Fe/sub 3/C and (Fe, M)/sub 3/C. The increase of duration of carbonization up to 5 hrs and above results in formation of a cement grid greatly impairing the mechanical properties of the metal. Carbonization is followed by borating in powdered technical boron carbide at 900 deg C for 4 hrs which ensures formation on the sample surface of a borated layer with depth up to 65 mkm covering the carbonized zone. As followed from metallographic and x-ray structural analysis, the borated layer consists of boride needles with complex composition (Fe, Cr, Mn)B. Oil hardening of carbonized KhVG steel from 850 deg C and low-temperature tempering at 180 deg C for 1 hr results in formation in the main metal of martensite-carbide structure and, respectively, in the decrease of the microhardness gradient between the diffusion layers, as compared with borated KhVG steel. Operation tests of strengthened matrices of preforming machines under the conditions of application of dynamic pressing forces up to 1500 kg Fce/cm/sup 2/ demonstrated that the cyclical strength of carboborated coverings is 2.0-3.0 times higher than that of borated ones. The method of carboborating is recommended for strengthening the details of stamp and press tools.

  20. Effect of zirconium on the structure and phase composition of steel 03Kh8SYu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarzhumanova, V.A.; Ryabchenkov, A.V.; Shatunova, A.V.; Yoganova, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Previously, the authors determined the optimum zirconium content providing retention of a fine-grained structure for steel 03Kh8SYu during high-temperature heating. It was suggested that this was caused by separation in the steel of intermetallic phase Fe 3 Zr. This paper presents results of further studies in this direction. X-ray analysis results for the anodic residues of the steels are presented. It can be seen that in steel without zirconium, carbides of the type M 23 C 6 and M 7 C 3 and aluminum nitride are present. On adding 0.05% Zr, zirconium nitride forms in addition to the existing aluminum nitride and carbides of the type M 7 C 3 . The authors also investigated the effect of zirconium on the tendency of the steel toward grain growth at higher temperature; they studied the structure of steel 03Kh8SYu with 0.61% Zr after soaking specimens for 100 h at 950-1100 C. Results are presented

  1. Influence of ion implanted helium on deuterium trapping in Kh18N10T stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstolutskaya, G.D.; Ruzhitskij, V.V.; Kopanets, I.E.

    2004-01-01

    The results are presented on evolution of distribution profiles and helium and deuterium thermal desorption ion implanted in steel 18Cr10NiTi. Accumulation, trapping, retention and microstructure evolution are studied; effect helium and hydrogen simultaneous implantation on these processes is also studied

  2. The effect of thermoplastic treatment regimes on the microplastic strain of nitrogen-containing steel Kh21G10N7MBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannykh, O.A.; Blinov, V.M.; Kostina, M.V.; Grachev, S.V.; Mal'tseva, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    A study is made into the influence of a percentage reduction during cold rolling and subsequent holdings at heat on development of microplastic deformation when bending sheet specimens of stainless austenitic high-nitrogen steel Kh21G10N7MBF. It is revealed that a maximum value of apparent limit of elasticity (∼1800 MPa) is attained due to plastic deformation by rolling at 20 Deg C with a total percentage reduction of 60 % and subsequent aging at 500 Deg C for 1-4 h [ru

  3. Influence of sulphur and phosphorus impurities on ductility of 25Kh2NMFA steel during forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Using cylindrical samples of the 25Kh2NMFA steel with sulfur and phosphorus content in the range of 0.001-0.030%, tensile test with the rate of deformation 10 -3 s -1 at the temperatures of 800-1200 deg C has been conducted. Analysis of fracture foci and plasticity diagrams has shown, that to ensure ductility during forging and high mechanical properties, the content of sulfur and phosphorus impurities in the 25Kh2NMFA steel must not exceed 0.015%

  4. Effect of nickel and MnS inclusions in the metal on the pitting corrosion of low-carbon stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejman, L.I.; Nguen, The Dong; Volkov, D.E.; Konnov, Yu.P.

    1986-01-01

    The resistance to pitting corrosion of steels on the 03Kh17-03Kh18 base containing up to 20 % Ni at different levels of S and Mn impurities contamination is investigated. It is shown that up to 50 % of nickel introduced into ordinary steels with 5-6 % Ni is spent to compensate the resistance decrease caused by MnS inclusions. Full compensation is not attained even in the 10-20 %. Ni range in which nickel practically does not affect the resistance of neither ordinary, nor pure (without MnS) steels. Titanium introduction into ordinary steel on the Kh22N6 base permits to surpass the level of 03Kh17N3 pure steel resistance and attain the level of 03Kh17N6 pure steel almost by all characteristics (including passivated characteristics in sulfuric acid) besides pitting repassivity. In this property pure steels with Ni >or approx. 3 % surpass even the molybdenum containing 03Kh21NbM2T ordinary steel though they by far concede by passivation in sulfuric acid

  5. Hydrogen effect on mechanical properties and flake formation in the 10KhSND steel rolled plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradova, R G; Zakharov, V A; Kuzin, A P; Gol' tsov, V A; Podgajskij, M S [Donetskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR); Donetskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii (Ukrainian SSR))

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on mechanical properties of the 10KhSND steel rolled plates during natural aging is studied. Optimum period of metal acceptance tests, which are advisable to conduct after 5-7 day natural aging of finished products, are found out. The technique is worked out and a safe hydrogen content to prevent flake formation in the 10KhSND steel is determined. It is shown that a safe hydrogen content is dependent on the experiment conditions (sample dimensions, conditions of cooling, and prehistory).

  6. Hydrogen effect on mechanical properties and flake formation in the 10KhSND steel rolled plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muradova, R.G.; Zakharov, V.A.; Kuzin, A.P.; Gol'tsov, V.A.; Podgajskij, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on mechanical properties of the 10KhSND steel rolled plates during natural aging is studied. Optimum period of metal acceptance tests, which are advisable to conduct after 5-7 day natural aging of finished products, are found out. The technique is worked out and a safe hydrogen content to prevent flake formation in the 10KhSND steel is determined. It is shown that a safe hydrogen content is dependent on the experiment conditions (sample dimensions, conditions of cooling, and prehistory)

  7. Study of 16KhSN high strength steel in different structural states and under working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skudnov, V.A.; Vorob'ev, I.A.; Kutyajkin, V.G.; Bugrov, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of deformation degree (up to 60%) during reducing, drawing and heat treatment (annealing at 750 deg C), quenching from 930 deg C and tempering at 350 deg C) on strength, plasticity, hardening degree, notch sensitivity, density and elasticity characteristics of the steel. The effect of test temperature (from-196 up to 1000 deg C) on tensile strength and plasticity was studied as well. It was established that drawing and reducing of 16KhSN steel in annealed state with strain degrees of up to 60% results to increase of strength characteristics 1.7...2.3 times and decrease of plasticity characteristics by 15...23%, strain hardening coefficient - 2.2 times and the maximum strain energy - by 80 MJ/m 3 . Hardening heat treatment (quenching from 930 deg C+temperating at 350 deg C) affects on mechanical properties of 16KhSN steel in much the same way as cold working, but strength characteristics of heat-treated steel increase 2.6...3.6 times and the maximum strain energy grows by 640 MJ/m 3 . Systematic data on the effect of temperature (-196...1000 deg C) and tensile rate (4 mm/min...5m/s) on strength and plasticity of 16KhSN steel in annealed state were obtained

  8. Protective effect of KhOSP-10 inhibitor during corrosion, hydrogenadsorption and corrosion cracking of a steel in sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindyuk, A K; Svist, E I; Savitskaya, O P; Goyan, E B; Gopanenko, A N [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Lvov. Fiziko-Mekhanicheskij Inst.

    1975-01-01

    The protective propeties of inhibitor KhOSP-10 in the time of corrosion and corrosive cracking of steel 40Kh are higher then those of inhibitors KPI-1, KI-1, I-I-V etc. Its ability to reduce steel hydrogenation is the same as in the case of KPI-1 inhibitor i.e. below that of KI-1. HCl additives enhance the efficiency of inhibitors KPI-1, KI-1, I-1-V etc. up to the protective ability of KhOSP-10. Kinetics of the electrode processes was estimated from polarization curves.

  9. Effect of helium ion bombardment on hydrogen behaviour in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Stolyarova, V.G.; Gorbatov, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of helium ion bombardment on hydrogen behaviour in 12Kh18N10T stainless steel is investigated. Helium and hydrogen ion bombardment was conducted in the ILU-3 ion accelerator; the fluence and energy made up 10 16 -5x10 17 cm -2 , 30 keV and 10 16 -5x10 18 cm -2 , 10 keV respectively. The method of recoil nuclei was used for determination of helium and hydrogen content. Successive implantation of helium and hydrogen ions into 12Kh18N10T stainless steel results in hydrogen capture by defects formed by helium ions

  10. Effect of silicon on the structure, tribological behaviour, and mechanical properties of nitrogen-containing chromium-manganese austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, L.G.; Chernenko, N.L.; Gojkhenberg, Yu.N.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of silicon in quantity of 3.5-4.5 mass. % on tribological behaviour is studied for nitrogen-bearing (0.20-0.52 mass. % of nitrogen) chromium-manganese austenitic steels (10Kh15G23S4A0.20, 10Kh16G17N3S4A0.30, 10Kh19G20NS4A0.50, 12Kh19G19NS2A0.50, 10Kh18G19A0.50, 08Kh16G8N10S4A0.18). Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the steels are determined. Using metallographic, x-ray diffraction and electron microscopical methods a study is made into structural transformations running in the steels considered under friction and static tension. It is shown that additional silicon alloying of nitrogen-bearing chromium-manganese austenitic steels results in an essential increase of adhesion wear resistance of the materials on retention of low friction coefficient (f=0.25-0.33). A strong silicon effect on steel tribological behaviour is related with planar slip activation and with an increase of austenite strength and heat resistance [ru

  11. Cooling rate and microstructure of surface layers of 5KhNM steel, machined by electroerosion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foteev, N.K.; Ploshkin, V.V.; Lyakishev, V.A.; Shirokov, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    The cooling rate and microstructure of surface layers of steel 5KhNM machined by electroerosion method have been studied. It is shown that the difference in heating rate of the surface layers with electric discharge over the 5KhNM steel samples depth results in the intensive size reduction of the microstructure. In the surface layer alongside with martensite residual austenite is present, the lattice period of which increases with the increase of pulse duration, carbide phase of complex composition appears, and concentrational heterogeneity in alloying elements (except carbon) is absent

  12. Cooling rate and microstructure of surface layers of 5KhNM steel, machined by electroerosion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteev, N.K.; Ploshkin, V.V.; Lyakishev, V.A.; Shirokov, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    The cooling rate and microstructure of surface layers of steel 5KhNM machined by electroerosion method have been studied. It is shown that the difference in heating rate of the surface layers with electric discharge over the 5KhNM steel samples depth results in the intensive size reduction of the microstructure. In the surface layer alongside with martensite residual austenite is present, the lattice period of which increases with the increase of pulse duration, carbide phase of complex composition appears, and concentrational heterogeneity in alloying elements (except carbon) is absent.

  13. Specific features of precipitation hardening of austenitic steels with various base. 2. Kinetics and mechanism of carbide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kositsyna, I.I.; Sagaradze, V.V.; Khakimova, O.N.

    1997-01-01

    Electron microscopic studies were carried out to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of precipitation hardening in Fe-Mn, Fe-Mn-Cr, Fe-Cr-Mn-N, Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Ni base stainless steels (45G20M2F2, 50Kh16G15N6M2F2, 45Kh18N10G10M2F2, 40Kh18Ni18M2F2, 45N26M2F2). The steels were heat treated under various conditions. It is revealed that in manganese steels the particles of vanadium carbide nucleate according to homogeneous mechanism at all aging temperatures (600-750 deg C). The presence of chromium in the matrix promotes the transition to heterogeneous mechanism of carbide nucleation and growth. With nickel content increasing the plasticity of precipitation hardened steels gets better due to more intense diffusion of atoms and vacancies to grain boundaries and, hence, the widening of near-boundary zones free of carbide particles

  14. Corrosion of chromium, nickel, titanium and steels in solutions of sodium and ammonium thiosulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenshchikova, S.V.; Kochergin, V.P.; Doronina, I.V.

    1983-01-01

    Results of gravimetric determinatiion of average rate of chromium, nickel, titatnium and steels 12Kh18N10T and VSt.3 corrosion rate in solutions 50 mass.% (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 in the air and nitrogen atmosphere at 333 K have been generalized. Anodic polarization curves are recorded and stationary potentials of metals and steels under the conditions are measured. It is shown that in (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 solution the rate of metal and steels corrosion is higher than in Na 2 S 2 O 3 solution indepenent of the nature of gaseous medium contacting with solution. In the series Ni → VSt.3 → 12Kh18N10T → VT1 → chromium in (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 solutions at 333 K corrosion resistance increases. Chromium, titanium and chromium-nickel steel 12Kh18N10T possess a high corrosion resistance

  15. Coarsening of (Fe, Cr)23C6 carbide phase on the tempering of 14Kh17N2 chromium-nickel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psarev, V.I.

    2002-01-01

    Paper lists the results of computer analysis of distribution according to sizes (Fe, Cr) 23 C 6 microparticles resulting from 14Kh17N2 steel tempering under 700 Deg C. Data were obtained at the maximum beneficial magnification of a light microscope. The mentioned curves of distribution densities are characterized by more reliable run from most permissible sizes of dispersed particles. Application of general rules of distributions and of previously elaborated procedure to identify experimental histograms with theoretical distributions enables to derive valuable information on dynamics of coarsening of a disperse phase in this case, as well [ru

  16. Chromium surface alloying of structural steels during laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurov, I.E.; Nagornykh, S.N.; Sivukhin, G.A.; Solenov, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Results of matrix alloying from the surface layer and creation of considerably increased chromium concentration in the depth which permits to increase the efficiency of laser treatment of steels (12Kh18N10T and 38KhN3M) in the process of their further mechanical polishing, are presented. The treatment was realized by continuous CO 2 -laser at different power densities and scanning rates are presented. A model describing the creation of anomalous distributions of the alloying element in steels is plotted

  17. Effect of heat treatment regime on structural lamination in ferritic-austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizov, R.A.; Zakharova, M.I.; Novikov, I.I.; Bannykh, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of preliminary thermal treatment on lamination and viscosity of EhP-53 and KO-3 steels after durable aging at the temperature of 350 is studied. It is shown that preliminary heat treatment considerably affects lamination processes in the result of aging of 0Kh18G8N2T steel. The lowest rate of lamination and higher impact strength after aging at 350 deg C for 4500 hours corresponds to the following heat treatment: 10 hour aging at 650 deg C with cooling in the air, then quenching in water from 950 deg C after aging for 30 min and the following tempering (650 deg C, 5 hours). Unlike the 0Kh18G8N2T steel, lamination parameters of steel 0Kh22N6T practically do not change after the application of heat treatment. Nevertherless, taking into account results of impact strength, it is advisable to have thermal treatment according to the regime: quenching in water at 950 deg C after aging for 30 min

  18. Parametrical limits of SCC-susceptibility of austenitic and austenitic-ferritic Cr-Ni steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starosvetskij, D.I.; Baru, R.L.; Bondarenko, A.I.; Bogoyavlenskij, V.L.; Timonin, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Comparative investigations into corrosion cracking (CC) of austenitic (12Kh18N10T) and austenitic-ferritic (08Kh22N6T) chromium-nickel steels are performed for various chloride media in a wide range of chloride concentrations and temperatures. It is shown that the ratio between steels in terms of their CC-susceptibility is not definite and can undergo a reversal depending on parameters of medium, level and conditions of loading. Differences in mechanisms of corrosion cracking of austenitic and austenitic-ferritic steels are established

  19. On the protective effect of KhOSP-10 inhibitor during corrosion, hydrogenadsorption and corrosion cracking of a steel in sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mindyuk, A.K.; Svist, E.I.; Savitskaya, O.P.; Goyan, E.B.; Gopanenko, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    The protective propeties of inhibitor KhOSP-10 in the time of corrosion and corrosive cracking of steel 40Kh are higher then those of inhibitors KPI-1, KI-1, I-I-V etc. Its ability to reduce steel hydrogenation is the same as in the case of KPI-1 inhibitor i.e. below that of KI-1. HCl additives enhance the efficiency of inhibitors KPI-1, KI-1, I-1-V etc. up to the protective ability of KhOSP-10. Kinetics of the electrode processes was estimated from polarization curves

  20. Optimal control of conditions of deformation during rolling the bar alloy from alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inatovich, Yu.V.; Shilov, V.A.; Shvarts, D.L.; Kudelin, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    A complex of programs for determining the optimal gaps between rollers during rolling of simple merchant sections of alloy steels of a wide brand assortment (12KhN3A, Kh17N2, Kh18N10T) was elaborated. Experience in calculations made according to the programs suggests advisability of their use in the automated design systems for roller calibration and for adjustment of section mills [ru

  1. Effect of the isothermal transformation temperature on the fine structure of steel-12Kh1MF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mints, I.I.; Berezina, T.G.; Lanskaya, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    For detailed analysis of bainite and pearlite in steel 12Kh1MF, homogeneous structures were obtained by isothermal annealing at 350, 450, 500, and 650 0 for 1 h. Isothermal transformation of austenite leads to the formation of bainite at 350-500 0 and pearlite at 650 0 . The austenitizing temperature was 980 0 for both types of samples, with holding for 20 min. For comparison, the plates were quenched from 980 0 and 1050 0 in ice-cold brine. The investigation was conducted with use of light and electron microscopes and x-ray analysis. The long-term strength was also determined. Isothermal treatment of steel 12Kh1MF at 350-500 0 C leads to the formation of a structure consisting of upper and lower bainite. At 500 0 the structure consists primarily of upper bainite, and at 350 0 of lower bainite. With tempering of the steel with a structure of upper and lower bainite at 730 0 for 3 h the dislocations undergo redistribution of the polygonization type within ferrite needles, with development of a cellular substructure. The acicular structure of the matrix is retained in this case. The density and evenness of the distribution of carbides is higher in upper bainite than in lower bainite. Steel 12Kh1MF with a structure of upper bainite is more susceptible to recrystallization as compared with a structure of lower bainite, which is responsible for the higher heat resistance of the latter

  2. Plasticity of low carbon stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, S.I.; Fel'dgandler, Eh.G.; Kareva, E.N.

    1975-01-01

    In the temperature range 800-1200 0 C and with strain rates of from 10 -3 to 3 s -1 , austenitic (000Kh18N12) and austenitic-ferrite (000Kh26N6) very low carbon stainless steels containing 0.02-0.03% C exhibit no higher resilience than corresponding ordinary steels containing 0.10-0.12% C. However, the plasticity of such steels (particularly two-phase steels) at 900-1100 0 C is appreciably inferior owing to the development of intergranular brittle fracture. Pressure treatment preceded by partial cooling of the surface to 850 0 C yields rolled and forged products with acceptable indices but is inconvenient technically. At the Zlatoustovsk and Ashin metallurgical plants successful tests have been performed involving the forging and rolling of such steels heated to 1280-1300 0 C without partial cooling; it was necessary to improve the killing conditions, correct the chemical composition (increasing the proportion of ferrite) and take measures against heat loss. (author)

  3. Defect accumulation in welded joints of 12Kh1MF steel steam pipelines during creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhov, A.E.; Alekhova, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    Technique for investigation of micropore accumulation in 12Kh1MF steel welded joints is proposed. The micropore density in different zones of welded joints in non-uniform. It is shown that failure localization in welded joint in the softening zone during the creep takes place due to the micropore priority accumulation in this zone. It is found out that accumulation of residual deformations in different zones of 12Kh1MF welded joints under creep runs more uniformly as the level of working stresses decreases and test duration increases

  4. Electroplastic drawing of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Spitsyn, V.I.; Sokolov, N.V.; Ryzhkov, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    Effect of electroplastic drawing on mechanical, magnetic and electrical properties of wire of 12Kh18N10T and Kh13N13M2 steels was studied. Pulse, direct and alternating currents were used. Direct and alternating current densities were 400 A/mm 2 , mean density of pulse current was 200 A/mm 2 . The investigations have shown that the current density increase results in decreasing the wire strengthening intensity though in increasing plastic properties. As a result of electroplastic drawing the growth of magnetic characteristics of wire occurs

  5. On change of vanadium carbide state during 20Kh3MVF steel heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitgarts, M.I.; Maksimenko, V.N.

    1975-01-01

    The Xray diffraction study of vanadium carbide MC has been made in the steel-20KH3MVF quenched from 970 and 1040 deg and tempered at 660 deg for 210 hrs. It has been found that the constant of the MC crystal lattice regularly varies with the temperature of isothermal hold-up. In the steel tempered after quenching two vanadium carbides of different content could co-exist simultaneously: carbide formed in the quenching process and carbide formed during tempering. The discovered effect of the temperature dependence of the MC content is, evidently, inherent also to other steels containing vanadium

  6. Superheat effect on bainite steel hardenability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubachek, V.V.; Sklyuev, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    The bainite hardenability of 34KhN1M and 35 KhN1M2Ph steels has been investigated by the end-face hardening technique. It is established that, as the temperature of austenitization rises from 900 to 1280 deg C, the temperature of bainite transformation increases and bainite hardenability of the steels falls off. A repeated slow heating to 900 deg C of previously overheated 34KhN1M steel breaks up grain, lowers the temperature of the bainite transformation and raises the hardenability to values obtained with ordinary hardening from 900 deg C. A similar heating of previously overheated 35KhN1M2Ph steel is accompanied by restoration of initial coarse grains and maintenance of both the elevated bainite transformation temperature and to lower hardenability corresponding to hardening from the temperature of previous overheating

  7. Influence of quantity of non-martensite products of transformation on resistance to fracture of improving structural steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, A.P.; Golovanenko, Yu.S.; Zikeev, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    18KhNMFA, low-carbon, alloyed steel and 42KhMFA medium-carbon, alloyed steel have been examined. For the purpose of obtaining different structures in hardening the steel, different cooling rates, different temperatures and isothermal holding times are applied. The following has been shown: on tempering to the same hardness (HV 300), the presence of non-martensite structures in hardened state does not practically influence the standard mechanical properties of steel (sigmasub(B), sigmasub(0.2), delta, PSI). The resistance of steel to the brittle failure is enhanced by the uniform, fine-disperse distribution of the carbide phase in the structure of lower bainite (up to 80 % bainite in martensite for 42KhMF steel to be improved), as well as strongly fragmented packages of rack martensite-bainite (up to 50 % lower bainite in martensite of 18KhNMFA steel). The formation of the upper bainite in the structure of the hardened steels 18KhNMFA and 42KhMF results on tempering in the formation of coarse, non-uniform, branched carbide inclusions, and this, in its turn, leads to raising the cold-shortness threshold and to lowering the amount of work as required for propagation of a crack. The presence of ferritic-pearlitic structures in the structural steels hardened to martensite and bainite results in reducing the resistance of steel to the brittle failure; the presence of every 10 % ferritic-pearlitic component in martensite of the structural steels 18KhNMFA and 42KhMFA to be thermally improved, raises T 50 by 8 deg and 20 deg C, respectively

  8. Experimental verification of the statistical theories of scaling factor effect in fatigue fracture of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svistun, R.P.; Babej, Yu.I.; Tkachenko, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    Statistical theories of the scale effect in the fatigue failure of 40KH18N9T, 10 and 20 steels have been verified. The theories are shown to be not invariably suitable for a satisfactory exlanation of the fatigue strength of the samples with respect to their dimensions. One of the main reasons for displaying the scale effect in the process of steel fatigue is the sample self-heating, i.e. a temperature factor which in many cases overlaps a statistical one

  9. Experimental verification of the statistical theories of scaling factor effect in fatigue fracture of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svistun, R P; Babei, Yu I; Tkachenko, N N [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Lvov. Fiziko-Mekhanicheskij Inst.; L' vovskij Lesotekhnicheskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1976-01-01

    Statistical theories of the scale effect in the fatigue failure of 40KH18N9T, 10 and 20 steels have been verified. The theories are shown to be not invariably suitable for a satisfactory exlanation of the fatigue strength of the samples with respect to their dimensions. One of the main reasons for displaying the scale effect in the process of steel fatigue is the sample self-heating, i.e. a temperature factor which in many cases overlaps a statistical one.

  10. Effect of preliminary heat treatment on phase transformations and properties of the Kh15N5D2T (VNS-2) steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madyanov, S.A.; Voronenko, B.I.; Makhnev, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that preliminary heat treatment has a significant effect on the α→γ transformation kinetics, the quantity of residual austenite, the grain size and mechanical properties of the Kh15N5D2T steel after final heat treatment. The preliminary heat treatment regimes leading to the increase of the quantity of residual austenite and to grain refining increase the work of crack propagation in the finally strengthened state. The optimum properties were obtained after threefold preliminary tempering for 1h at 650 deg C. An approximately constant relation of α- and γ-phases (approximately 50%) is observed at 625 deg C irrespective of the investigated regimes of preliminary heat treatment

  11. Fouling and biocorrosion of a high-alloy steel in the Golden Horn bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakova, M.D.; Nikitin, V.M.; Suponina, A.P.; Kharchenko, U.V.; Zvyagintsev, A.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The studies on the effect of contamination of the Golden Horn bay waters (the Peter the Great Bay in the Japanese Sea) on formation of the community of the bacterio- and macrofouling and corrosion resistance of the Kh18N10T high-alloy steel are continued. The dissolved and chemically absorbed oxygen, pH, saprophytes, oil-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacteria and heavy metals are among the medium indicators, characterizing the level of pollution of the regions of the samples testing. It is shown, that the obtained experimental data extend our understanding of the dependent effect of three factors: the sea medium → fouling → corrosion resistance of the Kh18N10T high-alloy steel [ru

  12. Determination of constant of chemical reaction rate in the process of steel treatment in the endothermal atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulikhandanov, E.L.; Kislenkov, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The high-temperature method was applied to measuring a relative variation in the electrical resistance of a thin steel foil prepared from the 12KhN3A, 18Kh2N4VA, 20KhGNR, and 20Kh3MVF steels during its carburization and decarburization, and determined was the temperature dependence of the reaction rate of the interaction of the endothermal atmosphere of different compositions with the analloyed γ-Fe. A connection has been established between the reaction rate constant and the thermodynamic activity of carbon in the alloyed austenite at the temperature of about 925 deg C, corresponding to the cementation temperature. This provides the quantitative estimation of the above value for any alloyed steels and with the presence of numerical values of diffusion coefficients; this also enables one to carry out an accurate calculation of the distribution of carbon throughout the depth of a layer when effecting the cementation in the endothermal atmosphere

  13. Improving composition of protective coatings for steel casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'kina, N.N.; Pegov, V.G.; Bogatenkov, V.F.; Shub, L.G.; Raspopova, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    A radically new fuel-free slag-forming mixture used as protective coating for steel casting is introduced. The lack of combustible powders precludes explosion and fire Lazard in mixture preparation. Usage of the new mixture in stainless steel casting of Kh18N10T type permitted to improve the ingot surface quality and reduce spoilage from 1.16 to 0.66%

  14. On choice of tempered steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorov, A.A.; Pan'shin, I.F.; Rakhmanov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a graphical method for choosing structural steels, a change in the propagation work of a crack and in the critical temperature of brittleness of 40, 40Kh, 40KhN, and 40KhNM steels, was examined depending on the hardness after hardening and tempering. A diagram enabling to choose the grade of steel for making an article of known dimensions according to the preset values of its mechanical properties has been plotted. The developed selection scheme takes into account the hardenability of steels and the influence of the hardness after thermal treatment on the cold-shortness of steel

  15. Characteristics of centrifugally cast GX25CrNiSi18-9 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zapała

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of microstructural examinations of the industrial heat-resistant centrifugally cast GX25CrNiSi18-9 steel characterised by increased content of Cu. The study included changes in the microstructure of base cast steel respective of the steel held at a temperature of 900 and 950°C for 48 hours. Based on the results obtained, an increase in microhardness of the examined cast steel matrix with increasing temperature was stated, which was probably caused by fine precipitates enriched in Cr, Mo, and C forming inside the matrix grains.The layer of scale formed on the tested cast steel oxidised in the atmosphere of air at 900 and 950°C was characterised by an increased tendency to degradation with increasing temperature of the conducted tests.

  16. Effect of melting technique on grain size and heat resistance of the 12Kh1MF steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanskaya, K.A.; Kulikova, L.V.; Butneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated are the 12Kh1MF steel melted in open-hearth and arc furnaces (deoxidation by aluminium in 1.0 kg/t quantity) and then subjected to electroslag melting. The size of an austenitic grain depends on the residual contents of nitrogen and aluminium in steel. The open-hearth metal subjected to electroslag melting and containing a small quantity of nitrogen (0.006%) and aluminium (0.013%) has coarse austenitic grains and higher heat resistance compared to the steel melted in an arc furnace and also sub ected to electroslag melting. The nitride analysis of steel is carried out

  17. Study of cast and thermo-mechanically strengthened chromium-nickel nitrogen-containing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokoshkina, V.G.; Kaputkina, L.M.; Svyazhin, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on the structure and strength of corrosion-resistant chromium-nickel steels after thermal and thermomechanical treatment is studied. The 06Kh15N7AD and 07Kh15N7DAMB steels alloying by nitrogen was accomplished through the basic composition steels remelting in the molecular nitrogen atmosphere under the pressure of 0.1-2.5 MPa. The 02Kh15N5DAF and 05Kh15N5DAM steels ingots were obtained through melting in a plasma furnace under the nitrogen pressure of 0.4MPA. The high-temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTMT) was performed by rolling with preliminary blanks heating up to 1050 deg C and the rolling end temperature not below 950 deg C. It is shown, that the HTMT of the nitrogen-containing steels makes it possible to obtain strength characteristics by 1.5 times exceeding the properties of traditionally applicable corrosion-resistant steels, whereby sufficiently high plasticity of the nitrogen-containing steel is retained [ru

  18. Joint formation of dissimilar steels in pressure welding with superposition of ultrasonic oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surovtsev, A P; Golovanenko, S A; Sukhanov, V E; Kazantsev, V F

    1983-12-01

    Investigation results of kinetics and quality of carbon steel joints with the steel 12Kh18N10T, obtained by pressure welding with superposition of ultrasonic oscillations with the frequency 16.5-18.0 kHz are given. The effect of ultrasonic oscillations on the process of physical contact development of the surfaces welded, formation of microstructure and impact viscosity of the compound, is shown.

  19. Long-term Stability of 9- to 12 % Cr Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    In the recent 25 years creep rupture strength of 9- to 12 %Cr steels for steam pipes and turbines has been doubled by development of new alloys. This development has formed a basis for improved efficiency of fossil fired steam power plants by introduction of advanced steam temperatures...... and pressures. Newly developed steam pipe steels are based on modifications of well-established steels like the X 20CrMoV12 1. Balanced addition of V, Nb and N to a 9Cr 1 Mo steel led to the Modified 9 Cr steel P 91. Addition of 1% W to a 9Cr 1 MoVNbN base composition led to steel E 911 and partial replacement...... of Mo with 1.8 % W combined with a slight amount of Boron led to steel P 92. The creep rupture strength of these new alloys are now secured with long-term tests up to 100,000 hours, which demonstrate improvements of 50% (P 91), 75 % (E 911) and 100 % (P 92) in strength compared to X 20CrMoV12 1....

  20. Topic 1. Steels for light water reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Brynda, J.; Kepka, M.; Barackova, L.; Vacek, M.; Havel, S.; Cukr, B.; Protiva, K.; Petrman, I.; Tvrdy, M.; Hyspecka, L.; Mazanec, K.; Kupca, L.; Brezina, M.

    1980-01-01

    Part 1 of the Proceedings consists of papers on the criteria for the selection and comparison of the properties of steel for pressure vessels and on the metallurgy of the said steels, the selection of suitable material for internal tubing systems, the manufacture of high-alloy steels for WWER components, the mechanical and metallurgical properties of steel 22K for WWER 440 pressure components, and of steel 10MnNi2Mo for the WWER primary coolant circuit, and the metallographic assessment of steel 0Kh18N10T. (J.P.)

  1. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Structure and Properties of Die Steel 70Kh3G2FTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, S. E.; Kletsova, O. A.; Gryzunov, V. I.; Fot, A. P.; Tavtilov, I. Sh.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties and structural and phase composition of a promising die steel 70Kh3G2FTR for hot deformation is studied. The temperature-and-stress state of a hammer die under a heat treatment is simulated.

  2. Corrosion failure of a bolt made of the 25Kh1MF material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, V.; Cechova, D.; Velkoborsky, J.

    1989-01-01

    M36x4 bolts, of which there are 222 at each nuclear power plant unit, are made of the 25Kh1MF or 38KhN3MFA steel. They are located in an environment with elevated temperature, with damp air and with boric acid. Corrosion of these bolts is due to the rather poor metallurgical quality of the steel. No inadmissible inhomogeneities of the type of lines of inclusions occur in the bolt material produced by cold rolling but defects of the type of laps were found on the threads. It is suggested that if the cold rolling technology were obviated, corrosion failure of the bolts might not occur. (M.D.). 7 figs., 3 refs

  3. Ductility of high chromium stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretyat'ko, V.N.; Kazantsev, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Aimed to optimize the hot working conditions for high chromium stainless steels the experiments were carried in the temperature range of 800-1300 deg C using hot torsion tests and cylindrical specimens of ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels 08Kh13, 12Kh13, 20Kh13, 30Kh13 and 40Kh13. Testing results showed that steel plasticity varies in a wide range depending on carbon content. Steels of lesser carbon concentration (08Kh13 and 12Kh13) exhibit a sharp increase in plasticity with a temperature rise, especially in the interval of 1200-1250 deg C. Steels 20Kh13 and 30Kh13 display insignificant plasticity increasing, whereas plastic properties of steel 40Kh13 increase noticeably in the range of 1000-1300 deg C. It is shown that optimal hot working conditions for specific steel must be selected with account of steel phase composition at high temperatures

  4. Effect of laser absorption on picosecond laser ablation of Cr12MoV mold steel, 9Cr18 stainless steel and H13A cemented carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baoye; Liu, Peng; Wang, Xizhao; Zhang, Fei; Deng, Leimin; Duan, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-05-01

    Due to excellent properties, Cr12MoV mold steel, 9Cr18 stainless steel and H13A cemented carbide are widely used in industry. In this paper, the effect of absorption of laser light on ablation efficiency and roughness have been studied using a picosecond pulse Nd:YVO4 laser. The experimental results reveal that laser wavelength, original surface roughness and chemical composition play an important role in controlling ablation efficiency and roughness. Firstly, higher ablation efficiency with lower surface roughness is achieved on the ablation of 9Cr18 at 532, comparing with 1064 nm. Secondly, the ablation efficiency increases while the Ra of the ablated region decreases with the decrease of original surface roughness on ablation of Cr12MoV mold steel at 532 nm. Thirdly, the ablation efficiency of H13A cemented carbide is much higher than 9Cr18 stainless steel and Cr12MoV mold steel at 1064 nm. Scanning electron microscopy images reveals the formation of pores on the surface of 9Cr18 stainless steel and Cr12MoV mold steel at 532 nm while no pores are formed at 1064 nm. As to H13A cemented carbide, worm-like structure is formed at 1064 nm. The synergetic effects of the heat accumulation, plasma shielding and ablation threshold on laser ablation efficiency and machining quality were analyzed and discussed systematically in this paper.

  5. On the nature of anomalies in temperature dependence of the OKh18N1OT steel yield strength after thermal cycling in the low temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, E.M.; Lavrent'ev, F.F.; Kurmanova, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated were structural transformations in 0Kh18N10T steel as a result of heating and cooling and of deformation within the range of temperatures between 300 and 77 K, the quantity relationships between the said transformations and the variation of the yield limit with the temperature. The studies were conducted by metallography and mechanical test methods. It was shown that an increase in the number of heating and cooling cycles correlates with a loss in strength of the steel while deformation at 77 K. This anomaly in the temperature relationship of the yield limit is related to the appearance in the course of deformation of α-martensite with a BCC lattice. Deformation at 300 K increases the amount ea of epsilon-martensite, a decrses the effectve size of grain and, in consequence, increases the yield limit. The relationship between the yield limit and the grain size at the temperature of 300 K is described adequately by the Hall-Petch equation

  6. Comparison of mechanical behavior of TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC, TiN/TiNC films on 9Cr18 steel by PVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingguo; Zhang, Yanshuai; Hu, Hanjun; Zheng, Yugang; Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhou, Hui

    2017-11-01

    TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC and TiN/TiNC films were deposited on 9Cr18 steel using magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology, composition, chemical state and crystalline structure of the films were observed and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hardness and adhesion force were tested by nanoindentation and scratch tester, respectively. The friction and wear behavior of TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC and TiN/TiNC films sliding against GCr15 balls were investigated and compared synthetically using ball-on-disk tribometer. It was found that Tisbnd N, Tisbnd C, Tisbnd Nsbnd C and Csbnd C bonds were formed. The TiN/TiNC film was composed of TiN, TiC and TiNC phases. Hardness and adhesion force results indicated that although the TiN film possessed the highest hardness, its adhesion force was lowest among all the films. Tribological test results showed that the friction coefficient of TiN/TiNC was much lower than that of TiN and the wear rate decreases remarkably from 2.3 × 10-15 m3/Nm to 7.1 × 10-16 m3/Nm, which indicated the TiN/TiNC film has better wear resistance.

  7. Effect of austenitization conditions on kinetics of isothermal transformation of austenite of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, E.V.; Bayazitov, V.M.; Abramov, O.V.; Kozlova, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of austenization of kinetics of pearlite and bainite transformations for steels with different carbon content differing by alloying character and degree has been investigated. Austenization temperature increase is shown to leads to retardation of ferrite-pearlite transformation in low- and medium-carbon alloyed steels. Step-like holding in the region of austenite stable state (850, 950 deg) after high-temperature heating (1100 deg C) increases the rate of transformation partially recovering its kinetics and decomposition velocity after low-temperature heating in steels alloyed advantageously with carbide-forming elements (08Kh2G2F, 30Kh3) and does not affect kinetics in the 35Kh, 30KhGSN2A, 45N5 steels. Increase of heating temperature and growth of an austenite grain cause considerable acceleration of bainite transformation, increase of the temperaure of bainite transformation beginning and increase of the transformation amplitude in the 08Kh2G2F, 30Kh3 steels and affect weakly kinetics in steels with mixed alloying (30KhGSN2A) or low-alloy one (35Kh). The bainite transformation rate in the 45N5 steelite does not depend on austenization. The effect of additional acceleration of bainite transformation as a result holding after high-temperature heating in those steels, where activation of transformation occurs with increase of heating temperature

  8. Heating temperature effect on ferritic grain size of rotor steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheremnykh, V.G.; Derevyankin, E.V.; Sakulin, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The heating temperature effect on ferritic grain size of two steels 13Kh1M1FA and 25Kh1M1FA is evaluated. It is shown that exposure time increase at heating temperatures below 1000 deg C up to 10h changes but slightly the size of the Cr-Mo-V ferritic grain of rotor steel cooled with 25 deg C/h rate. Heating up to 1000 deg C and above leads to substantial ferritic grain growth. The kinetics of ferritic grain growth is determined by the behaviour of phases controlling the austenitic grain growth, such as carbonitrides VCsub(0.14)Nsub(0.78) in 13Kh1M1FA steel and VCsub(0.18)Nsub(0.72) in 25Kh1M1FA steel. Reduction of carbon and alloying elements content in steel composition observed at the liquation over rotor length leads to a certain decrease of ferritic grain resistance to super heating

  9. Influence of isothermal thermomechanical treatment on structure and properties of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.A.; Kaletin, A.Yu.; Schastlivthev, V.M.; Kaletina, Yu.V.

    1997-01-01

    A study is made into the structure and mechanical properties of steel 35KhGSA and 37KhN3A after isothermal hardening resulting in bainitic structure formation as well as after low-temperature thermomechanical treatment (LTTMT) combining the plastic deformation at the temperature of bainitic transformation and subsequent isothermal hardening. It is shown that LTTMT permits and essential enhancement of strength properties in steel 35KhGSA, high plasticity and impact strength being reserved. This is associated with bainitic structure refinement. In steel 37KhN3A the process of carbide formation takes place along with bainitic transformation, and LTTMT results in lesser strengthening. LTTMT is fount to not practically affect the tendency of structural steels to bainitic brittleness. This treatment promotes some shift of brittleness manifestation to lower temperatures

  10. Non-destructive automated express method for determining the inclination of chromium-nickel steels IGC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, A.A.; Kamenev, Yu.B.; Kuusk, L.V.; Kormin, E.G.; Vasil'ev, A.N.; Sumbaeva, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed and a corresponding automated testing complex (ATS) is created. 08Kh18N10T steel samples had two variants of thermal treatment: 1) 1200 deg (5 h), 600 deg (50 h); 2) 1200 deg (5 h). Methods of non-destructive automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed on the basis of potentiodynamic reactivation (PR) principle. Automated testing complex is developed, which has undergone experimental running and demonstrated a high confidence of results, reliability and easy operation

  11. Damping capacity of unstable steels on chromium-nickel-manganese base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, L.I.; Rudakov, A.A. (Kirovskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1982-02-01

    The paper deals with results of a study on the energy scattering in OKh13N3G8, 20Kh13N3G4 and 30Kh13N3G4 unstable steels. It is shown that the development of microplastic strains most easily occurs in low-carbon steel having a two-phase structure in the initial state. The proceeding of microplastic deformations in carbon unstable steels is limited by the interstitial atom effect on the dislocation movement. It is established that in OKh13N3G8 steel the martensite ..cap alpha --> gamma..- transformation begins under the cyclic stress amplitudes below the yield point of this steel. The steels studied possess a high vibrostrength.

  12. Effect of heat treatment and rotor steels composition on hydrogen solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.I.; Samojlenko, L.V.; Gorovaya, O.N.; Najdovskij, A.G.; Bilik, I.; Kret, Ya.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of equilibrium hydrogen adsorption in samples of 27KhN3MFA and 25Kh2NMFA steels were conducted. Carbide inclusions and doping additions, typical for rotor steels, don't produce noticeable effect on hydrogen solubility in

  13. Corrosion resistance of heat exchange equipment in hydrotreating Orenburg Condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teslya, B.M.; Burlov, V.V.; Parputs, I.V.; Parputs, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors study the corrosion resistance of materials of construction and select appropriate materials for the fabrication of heat exchange equipment that will be serviceable under hydrotreating conditions. This paper discusses the Orenburg condensate hydrotreating unit which has been shut down repeatedly for repair because of corrosion damage to components of heat exchangers in the reactor section: tube bundles (08Kh18N10T steel), corrugated compensators (12Kh18N10T steel), and pins of the floating heads (37Kh13N8G8MFB steel). The authors recommend that the tube bundles and the compensators in heat exchangers in the reaction section should be fabricated of 08Kh21N6M2T or 10Kh17N13M2T steel. The pins have been replaced by new pins made of 10Kh17N13 X M2T steel, increasing the service life from 6-12 months to 2 years

  14. Investigation of intergranular corrosion resistance of Cr16Ni25NMo6 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenev, Yu.B.; Nazarov, A.A.; Kuusk, L.V.; Majdeburova, T.F.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of 08Kh16N25AM6 steel susceptibility to intergranular corrosion on its intergranular cracking resistance in high-temperature water is investigated. In addition, the performed tests point to the susceptibility of sensibilized Kh16N25AM6 steel to intergranular corrosion in media simulating an agressive environment of power generation equipment; the latter requires a strict control over the resistance of weld joints of the above steel to intergranular corrosion. It is shown that Kh16N25AM6 type steel in sensibilized state is susceptible to intercrystalline corrosion cracking in high-temperature water which correlates with its susceptibility to intergranular corrosion established by AM GOST 6032-84 and potentiodynamic reactivation methods

  15. Investigation of 12Kh1MF steel resistance to brittle fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologov, G.A.; Rushchits, T.Yu.

    1977-01-01

    The metal of hot-rolled steam pipe made of 12Kh1MF steel, which has been subjected to thermal treatment under laboratory conditions, and metal samples from acting steam pipes after different exploitation periods at 510-565 deg C have been investigated. The dependence of impact viscosity and its constituents on conditions of thermal treatment has been established. The energy consumed by the developing crack has been used as an impact viscosity criterion. Appropriate thermal treatment is capable of rehabilitating the impact viscosity of embrittled metal. Cold plastic deformation increases crack propagation rate in the initial metal and promotes embrittlement during exploitation. Ageing of the working metal reduces its capacity of stopping the developing crack and shifts the temperature threshold of brittleness towards positive temperature

  16. Effect of boron control of environment on corrosion and resistance to low-cycle corrosion fatigue in structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babej, Yu.I.; Zhitkov, V.V.; Zvezdin, Yu.I.; Liskevich, I.Yu.; Nazarov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Tests of the specimens on total, contact and crevice corrosion, corrosion cracking and low-cycle fatigue are conducted for determination of corrosion and corrosion-fatigue characteristics in the 15Kh3NMFA, 10N3MFA, 10Kh16N4B, 05Kh13N6M2 structural steels, used in energetics. The environment is subjected to boron control and contacting with atmosphere for simulation of stop and operation modes of the facility. The experiments are carried out in the distilled water with 12g/l H 3 BO 3 and 10 mg/l Cl' at 25, 60, 100 deg C under contacting with atmosphere. It is established, that the pearlitic steels 15Kh3NMFA, 10N3MFA, as well as transition and martensitic 05Kh13N6M2 and 10Kh16N4B steels are highly stable to total, crevice and contact corrosion at the high parameters of aqueous boron-containing medium. Steel resistance to low-cycle fracture decreases slightly under the conditions similar to the operation ones, in the water with 12 g/l H 3 BO 3 . Durability of the pearlitic steels at the simulation of stop conditions decreases more noticeably, crack formation as a rule, initiating from corrosion spots

  17. Damping capacity of unstable steels on chromium-nickel-manganese base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochkin, L.I.; Rudakov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper deals with results of a study on the energy scattering in OKh13N3G8, 20Kh13N3G4 and 30Kh13N3G4 unstable steels. It is shown that the development of microplastic strains most easily occurs in low-carbon steel having a two-phase structure in the initial state. The proceeding of microplastic deformations in carbon unstable steels is limited by the interstitial atom effect on the dislocation movement. It is established that in OKh13N3G8 steel the martensite α→γ- transformation begins under the cyclic stress amplitudes below the yield point of this steel. The steels studied possess a high vibrostrength [ru

  18. Cyclic crack resistance of anticorrosion cladding-15Kh2MFA steel joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvezdin, Yu.I.; Nikiforchin, G.N.; Timofeev, B.T.; Zima, Yu.V.; Andrusiv, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    Cyclie crack resistance of transition zone in austenitic cladding steel 15Kh2MFA joint is studied, taking into account the geometry of fatigue cracks, fracture micromechanism and crack closure effect. Kinetics of crack development from the cladding to the basic metal and vice versa is considered. Microstructure of transition zone is investigated. The results obtained are considered as applied to WWER. It is emphasized, that the braking of fatigue cracks is observed at low asymmetry of loading cycle. Increased loading asymmetry accelerates sharply the alloy fracture due to the growth of subcladding crack, at that, the direction of crack propagation and the structure of transition zone are not of great importance

  19. Influence of heating temperature on bainite transformation proceeding in chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaletin, Yu.M.; Kaletin, A.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the effect of heating and cooling from austenization temperature on development of bainite transformation in 37KhN3MFA and 18Kh2N4MA structural alloyed steels. The metallographical analysis of specimens has revealed that first crystals of bainite under slow heating up to 770-790 deg C appear at the temperature of about 500 deg C and at 475 deg C there has been much bainite over the whole cross section of the specimen. It is revealed that an increase of heating temperature and cooling rate replace the starting point of bainite transformation upwards. The strongest displacement of the point Bsub(S) into hogh-temperature range takes place after heating steel with the initial bainite structure in intercritical temperature range

  20. Nitrogen effect on the tendency of Cr-Ni-MN steels to delayed fracture under stress and hydrogen effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorova, S.O.; Fillipov, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Austenitic steels types 03Kh17N16G10AM5, 03Kh6N12G10AM5 and 07Kh13AG20 with various nitrogen contents were studied for their tendency to delayed fracture using mechanical tests, fractography and X ray diffraction analysis. The steel type 07Kh13G20 exhibited the highest strength in the initial state but showed an increase tendency to delayed fracture after hydrogenation. It is underlined that nitrogen additions essentially intensify the tendency of cold worked steels to delayed fracture. This fact should be taken into account when using nitrogen-containing Cr-Ni-Mn steels under severe operational conditions. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  1. X-ray diffraction study of slags forming during corrosion resistant steel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, V.I.; Zadorozhnaya, V.N.; Shurygina, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    Using X-ray diffraction analysis slags, forming during corrosion-resistant 12Kh18N10T grade steel production by two flowsheets, are studied. Standard two-slag technology of steel production does not provide efficient disintegration of chromospinelides in slags, gives high steel contamination with respect to nonmetallic impurities, coarse structure and, as a consequence, presence of macrodefects on rolled products surface. One-slag steel melting technology with titanium alloying of the steel at vacuum causes fast removal of chromospinelides at the beginning of reduction period, promotes titanium absorption by the steel, refines nonmetallic inclusions, provides more fine structure and steel plasticity, removes surface defects

  2. Specific features of the occurrence, development, and re-compaction of spall and shear fractures in spherically-convergent shells made of unalloyed iron and some steels under their spherical explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, E.A.; Brichikov, S.A.; Gorbachev, D.M.; Brodova, I.G.; Yablonskikh, T.I.

    2007-01-01

    Results of comparative metallographic examination of recovered shells exposed to explosive loading in two modes (with and without a heavy casing confining explosion products scatter) are presented. The shells were made of high-purity and technical-grade unalloyed iron with the initial grain size 250 and 125 μm, steel 30KhGSA in delivery state and quenched up to HR C 35...40, austenitic stainless steel 12Kh18N10T. The heavy casing used in experiments is demonstrated to ensure a rather compact convergence of shells destroyed at high radii. In the described comparative experiments, one managed to compile the 12Kh18N10T steel shell, after it was spalled at high radii and exposed to shear fracture and spallation layer fragmentation at medium radii, into a compact sphere but failed to do the same with the 30KhGSA quenched steel shell after it was fractured according to spall and shear mechanisms at high and medium radii. Polar zones of this steel shell have obvious undercompressed areas due to significant dissipative losses to overcome the shear strength. Occurrence, development, and re-compaction of spall and shear fractures in spherically-convergent shells made of materials, which were already carefully investigated in 1D- and 2D-geometry experiments, were systematically studied in order to verify and validate new physical models of dynamic fractures, as well as up-to-date used in 1D-, 2D- and 3D-numerical algorithms [ru

  3. Tribological properties and surface structures of ion implanted 9Cr18Mo stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengbin, Liu; Guohao, Fu; Yan, Cui; Qiguo, Sun; Min, Qu; Yi, Sun

    2013-07-01

    The polished quenched-and-tempered 9Cr18Mo steels were implanted with N ions and Ti ions respectively at a fluence of 2 × 1017 ions/cm2. The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated by using nanoindenter and tribometer. The results showed that the ion implantations would improve the nanohardness and tribological property, especially N ion implantation. The surface analysis of the implanted samples was carried out by using XRD, XPS and AES. It indicated that the surface exhibits graded layers after ion implantation. For N ion implantation, the surface about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of supersaturated interstitial N solid solution, oxynitrides, CrxCy phase and metal nitrides. In the subsurface region, the metal nitrides dominate and the other phases disappear. For Ti ion implantation, the surface of about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of titanium oxides and carbon amorphous phase, the interstitial solid solution of Ti in Fe is abundant in the subsurface region. The surface components and structures have significant contributions to the improved mechanical properties.

  4. Tribological properties and surface structures of ion implanted 9Cr18Mo stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fengbin, Liu; Guohao, Fu; Yan, Cui; Qiguo, Sun; Min, Qu; Yi, Sun

    2013-01-01

    The polished quenched-and-tempered 9Cr18Mo steels were implanted with N ions and Ti ions respectively at a fluence of 2 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 . The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated by using nanoindenter and tribometer. The results showed that the ion implantations would improve the nanohardness and tribological property, especially N ion implantation. The surface analysis of the implanted samples was carried out by using XRD, XPS and AES. It indicated that the surface exhibits graded layers after ion implantation. For N ion implantation, the surface about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of supersaturated interstitial N solid solution, oxynitrides, Cr x C y phase and metal nitrides. In the subsurface region, the metal nitrides dominate and the other phases disappear. For Ti ion implantation, the surface of about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of titanium oxides and carbon amorphous phase, the interstitial solid solution of Ti in Fe is abundant in the subsurface region. The surface components and structures have significant contributions to the improved mechanical properties

  5. Inhibitor effect on corrosion of titanium alloys in muriatic solutions of titanium-magnesium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrunov, Yu.V.; Volynskij, V.V.; Kolobov, G.A.; Kuznetsov, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    Corrosion tests of titanium alloys VTI-0, OT4, VT5-1 and steel Kh18N1OT in 10% and 18% HCl with additions of carnallite at 40 deg C have been carried out. It has been established that titanium alloys in 10% and 18% HCl containing 5 and 10% carnallite are sufficiently corrosion resistant in the presence of 0.1-1% FeCl or HNO 3 and can be used for manufacturing the equipment of recirculation gas scrubbers. Steel Kh18N10T is unstable in all the media tested. It is subjected to intensive pitting. Specimens of steel Kh18N10T have also revealed edge cracking

  6. Pipes out of the chromium-molybdenum 12Kh2M1 steel intended for power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saf'yanov, A.V.; Plyatskovskij, O.A.; Khokhlov-Nekrasov, O.G.; Palatnikova, E.S.; Karpenko, N.P.

    1977-01-01

    Vanadiumless steel 12Kh2M1 (2.25%Cr, 1%Mo) known to be applied abroad has been used for production of 325x60 mm tubes. The technology involves heating of the blanks to 1270-1300 deg C, their piercing in a double-roller mill, rolling on a pilger mill 8-16'' in thick wall caliber rolls, thermal treatment (normalizing at 930-960 deg C for 1 hour and tempering at 730+-10 deg C for 4 hours and etching (12-22% H 2 SO 4 and up to 143 g/l FeSO 4 ) for 3-4 hours at 55-65 deg C. Good technological properties of the steel and its capacity of working at 540-580 deg C are confirmed. Vanadium alloying of boiler steels does not provide for essential improvement of oxydation resistance and long term strength, but decreases the workability and enhances scatter of working parameters on account of minor variations of chemical composition

  7. Effect of operational conditions of electroerosion machining on the surface microgeometry parameters of steels and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foteev, N.K.

    1976-01-01

    Studies the influence of pulse duration and a series of operating conditions of a ShGI-40-440 spark-machining generator on changes in the basic surface microgeometry characteristics of components of stainless steel 1Kh18N10T, steel St 45 and hard alloy T14K8. The microgeometry characteristics of spark-machined surfaces differ significantly from the corresponding characteristics of surfaces machined by cutting and vibro-rolling

  8. Chemical heat treatment of low alloyed maraging steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinov, L S; Korotich, I K [Zhdanovskij Metallurgicheskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1979-09-01

    The investigation concerned the nitriding, cementation, chromizing, borating of economically alloyed maraging grade 04Kh2N5MFYu steel. The investigated methods of chemothermal treatment were found to considerably increase the hardness of the surface layer of the maraging steel. The high tempering of the grade 04Kh2N5MFYu cemented and hardened steel was found to produce secondary hardening. On chromizing, the diffusion layer is an alloyed ferrite which strengthens because of the dispersion hardening on ageing. The formation of the plastic low-carbon martensite at relatively small cooling rates greatly decreases the tendency of the boride layer to cracking.

  9. Experimental study on kinematic hardening of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel under low cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Er; Yang Xianjie; Mao Jianghui; Sun Yafang

    2006-01-01

    To study the effect of the monotonic loading on subsequent cyclic plastic hardening and flow properties of 1Cr18Ni9Ti steel, an experimental study of the low cycle fatigue tests with mean strains for 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel was carried out. An analysis on the evolutions of the yield surface radius and the back stresses under symmetric and asymmetric cyclic strain loading with different strain amplitudes was made. The dependence of the evolutions of the material kinematic hardening and isotropic hardening on the strain amplitude and mean strain was observed. These results provide the experimental foundation for the constitutive model of the material under combined monotonic and cyclic complicated loads. (authors)

  10. Choice of corrosion-resistant metal for fluotitanic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reingeverts, M.D.; Lapchenko, E.P.; Semenyuk, E.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the corrosion and anodic behavior of steels 12Kh18N10T, 08Kh21N6M2T, and 06KhN28MDT, nickel, and molybdenum in 10-40% naturally aerated solutions of H 2 TiF 6 at 20 and 50 degrees C. The authors found that in solutions of fluotitanic acid, as also in tetrafluoroboric and hydrofluoric acids, the most stable alloys are chromium-nickel-molybdenum alloy of type 06KhN28MDT and (for acid concentrations above 20%) copper-nickel-alloys of the monel metal type. Steels 12Kh18N10T and 08Kh21N6M2T can be used in acid concentrations of less than 10% and temperatures up to 20 degrees C with anodic protection

  11. X-ray spectrum microanalysis of copper and stainless steel surface layer after electroerosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukarimov, Eh.T.; Saidinov, S.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the surface layer of copper and steel 12Kh18N10T after electroerrosion treatment by a rotating tungsten electrode in natural and distilled water are presented. It is established that the quantity of electrode material transferred to the surface of the steel treated grows with the spark discharge energy increase. Tungsten concentration in the surface layer reaches 5-10% with the average depth of penetration 40-50 μm

  12. Low-temperature nitriding of austenitic steel in a vibrofluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraz, V. R.; Grachev, S. V.

    1999-11-01

    The prospects for use of a vibrofluidized bed (VFB) for low-temperature nitrogen saturation of high-strength austenitic steel based on Cr-Ni-Mn (12Kh17N8G2S2MF) are considered. The positive effect of preliminary plastic deformation on the intensity of nitriding is described. The temperature and time parameters of nitriding in a VFB for strain-aging austenitic steel 12Kh17N8G2S2MF are shown to be adequate for the regimes of the final heat-treatment operation of aging. This creates the possibility of combining the operations of surface alloying and strain aging into a single cycle. This combined treatment increases substantially the resistance of the steel to cyclic loads while preserving the strength parameters. It is shown that the presented method of low-temperature nitriding in a VFB is expedient for improving the service characteristics of austenitic steel 12Kh17N8G2S2MF used for production of force springs of automobile brake systems.

  13. Hot working effect on austenite transformations in structural steel in continuous cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajmovskij, V.A.; Kisteh, N.V.; Samedov, O.V.

    1979-01-01

    Austenite transformations in 40, 40Kh, 40KhN and 40KhNMA steels under hot working at 900 deg C with 20% reduction degree and continuous cooling with 1,7-16 0 /s are investigated. Changing of cooling rate in various ways affects the temperature range of austenite transformation in pearlite and bainite regions. Regulating the cooling rate after hot working one can essentially change the impact strength and steel ductility as a result of high temperature thermomechanical treatment effect

  14. The structure of the alphinizing coat on alloy steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results of the structure of the coat alphinizing in AlSi5 silumin on alloy steels: acid-proof 1H18N9T (X6CrNiTi18-10 and high speed SW18 (HS18-0-1 were presented. The temperature of the alphinizing bath was amounts to750±5°C, and immersion time of the element τ = 180s. It was shown, that there is the different “g” coat thickness on testing steels. On the 1H18N9T steel it amounts to g = 52μm, and on the SW18 steel – g = 203μm. Regardless of a grade of testing alloy steels the coat consist of three layers with diversified phasic structure. There is different chemical composition of coat layers on testing steels. The first layer from the base consist of AlFe phase containing alloy addictions of steels: Cr and Ni (1H18N9T and W, V and Cr (SW18. On this layer crystallize the second layer of intermetallic phases. It is the phase containing the main alloy addiction of steels: AlFeCr (1H18N9T and AlFeW (SW18. The last, outside layer consist of silumin containing AlFeNi intermetallic phases on the 1H18N9T steel and AlFeW on the SW18 steel. Regardless of the grade of testing steels there is Si element in all layers of the coat. There are morphological differences in tested layers. The second layer (AlFeW phase inside the coat on the SW18 steel consist of faced crystals growing into in outside silumin layer. On the 1H18N9T steel a boundary between transient and outside layer is more uniform. Free separations of intermetallic phases inside silumin layer on the 1H18N9T steel have lamellar and on the SW18 steel – faced form.

  15. Effect of aging on the tribological and mechanical properties of a high-nitrogen stainless austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, L.G.; Chernenko, N.L.; Tereshchenko, N.A.; Uvarov, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of aging, associated with predominant precipitation of vanadium nitrides (VN), on tribological and mechanical properties of austenitic steel 10Kh18AG18N5MF hardened from 1100 Deg C is studied. Metallographic, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopical methods are used to study structural transformations proceeding in the steel on aging as well as on friction loading under conditions of dry slipping friction in steel-abrasive and steel-steel pairs. It is shown that the aging at temperatures of 600-700 Deg C resulting in a considerable increase of strength properties of the steel demonstrates a relatively weak positive effect on steel resistance to abrasive and adhesive wear. It is stated that the use of aging by continuous mechanism permits attaining favourable mechanical and tribological properties in vanadium-alloying nitrogen-bearing austenitic steels [ru

  16. Tribocorrosion behaviour of 08CH18N10T steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubecka, P.; Tvrdy, M.; Wenger, F.; Ponthiaux, P.

    2000-01-01

    Tribocorrosion of the 08CH18N10T austenitic stainless steel in a potassium sulphate solution was investigated with the help of pin-on-disk tribometer and polarisation curves method. The results indicate the occurrence of synergetic interactions between electrochemical and mechanical conditions: the damaging of the passive film by friction was pointed out, leading to an increase in the dissolution rate of the metal and simultaneously, the occurrence of electrochemical reactions (gas evolution, dissolution, passivation) was found to modify the tribological conditions (friction coefficient). (author)

  17. Investigation programme and procedure for creep and long-term rupture strength in materials with accounting for stress deviator and loading history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozharovskaya, T.N.

    1984-01-01

    A programme and procedure are given to study 08Kh18N9 steel at 600 deg C and 15Kh2MFA steel at 550 deg C for creep and long-term strength at different parameters of proportional loading as well as at different parameters under loading in two-link irregular trajectories. This makes it possible to estimate the effect of the kind of a stress deviator, history and prehistory of loading on plastic deformation in creep and on failure under long-term loading

  18. Investigation programme and procedure for creep and long-term rupture strength in materials with accounting for stress deviator and loading history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozharovskaya, T N [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Prochnosti

    1984-11-01

    A programme and procedure are given to study 08Kh18N9 steel at 600 deg C and 15Kh2MFA steel at 550 deg C for creep and long-term strength at different parameters of proportional loading as well as at different parameters under loading in two-link irregular trajectories. This makes it possible to estimate the effect of the kind of a stress deviator, history and prehistory of loading on plastic deformation in creep and on failure under long-term loading.

  19. Wear resistance and structural changes in nitrogen-containing high-chromium martensitic steels under conditions of abrasive wear and sliding friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, A.V.; Korshunov, L.G.; Schastlivtsev, V.M.; Chernenko, N.L.

    1998-01-01

    Martensitic nitrogen-containing steels Kh17N2A0.14, Kh13A0.14, Kh14G4A0.22 as well as steel 20Kh13 were studied for their wear resistance under conditions of friction and abrasion. Metallography, X ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural changes taking place in a thin surface layer on wearing. It is shown that an increase of nitrogen content of 0.14 to 0.22% promotes an enhancement of steel resistance to abrasive and adhesive wear, especially after tempering in the range of 500-550 deg C. Typically, the nitrogen-containing steels exhibit lower resistance to various types of wear in comparison with the steels with high-carbon martensite due to their lower deformability under conditions of friction loading

  20. Austenite strengthening and softening during hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushinskij, L.I.; Vlasov, V.S.; Kazimirova, I.E.; Tokarev, A.O.

    1981-01-01

    Processes of formation of austenite structure of 20 and 12Kh18N10T steels during hot deformation and postdeformation isothermal holdings have been investigated by the methods of analysis of curves of hot deformation, high-temperature metallography and light microscopy. Deformation has been exercised by extention in vacuum with average 4x10 -2 s -1 rate. Deformation temperatures of steel 20 are 930 and 1000 deg C, of steel 12Kh18N10T - 1100 deg C. It is stated that dynamic recrystallization takes place in both investigated steels during hot deformation. In the carbonic steel it is developed by shifting sections of high-angular boundaries, flow stress in this case remains constant. Recrystallization is developed by subgrain coalescence in austenite steel, that brings about preservation of increased defect density in recrystallized volumes. As a result strengthening of steel is continued up to fracture during the increase of the deformation degree. Postdeformation weakening of 12Kh18N10T steel is slowed down as compared with weakening of carbonic steel [ru

  1. Radiation embrittlement of WWER 440 pressure vessel steel and of some improved steels by western producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutsky, J.; Vacek, M.; Stoces, B.; Pav, T.; Otruba, J.; Novosad, P.; Brumovsky, M.

    1982-01-01

    The resistance was studied of Cr-Mo-V type steel 15Kh2MFA to radiation embrittlement at an irradiation temperature of around 288 degC. Studied was the steel used for the manufacture of the pressure vessel of the Paks nuclear reactor in Hungary. The obtained results of radiation embrittlement and hardening of steel 15Kh2MFA were compared with similar values of Mn-Ni-Mo type steels A 533-B and A 508 manufactured by leading western manufacturers within the international research programme coordinated by the IAEA. It was found that the resistance of steel 15Kh2MFA to radiation embrittlement is comparable with steels A 533-B and A 508 by western manufacturers. (author)

  2. On effect of some thermodeformation parameters of welding cycle on tendency of pearlitic heat-resisting steels to fracture in reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, N.N.; Bardokin, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Studied is the inclination of the 12Kh1MF, 15Kh3M1F and N18K9M5T steels subject to thermodeformation cycle imitating a welding one, to fracture in reheating. A hot-rolled metal then subject to the same thermal treatment was used. The imitation of thermodeformation cycle of the welding permitted to vary maximum heating temperatures, the period during which the metal is kept at temperatures higher than 1100 deg C, and the cooling rate of ajacent zone metal. It is shown that the curve of the dependence of deformation ability and the tendency to fracture at the reheating of adjacent zone metal on the rate of its cooling at welding is U-shaped. Deformation ability has its maximum value at the cooling rate of 30 deg c/s in the range 1300 to 1000 deg C

  3. Effect of metal properties of casts of steel-15Kh1M1FL on the crack resistance at 565 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladshtejn, V.I.; Sheshenev, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    Results are given of prolonged tests of the metal of industrial casts with various fluidity limits. It has been shown experimentally that a quite satisfactory crack resistance is characteristic of a metal with a fluidity limit in the range 30-50 kgf/mm 2 . Metallographic studies have been conducted. Upon variation of the structure and properties of the 15Kh1M1FL steel during operation, the rate of growth of small cracks (up to 2.0 mm) decreases almost by 3 orders of ten (from 1.4x10 -4 to 2.0x10 -7 mm/hour). Subsequent structural changes during prolonged operation (over 50000 hours) result in a gradual increase in the rate of crack growth. At the same time resistance towards appearance of the impermissible high rate of the crack growth, Ksub(10sup(-3)), diminishes monotonically with the operation time. The metal of industrial 15Kh1M1FL steel casts has good crack resistance (Ksub(10sup(-3)) =30-70 kgf/mmsup(3/2) and Vsub(ef) =) kgf/mm 2 ) and a satisfactory local plasticity (critical opening being no more than 0.20 mm for 10 3 hours)

  4. Structural steels for power generating equipment and heat and chemical heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astaf'ev, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Development of structural steels for power generating equipment and for reactor engineering, in particular, is elucidated. Noted is utilization of the 15Kh2NMFA steels for the WWER-1000 reactor vessels, the 10GN2MFA steels for steam generators, pressurizers, vessels of the automatic emergency shut down and safety system; the 00Kh12N3DL steel for cast pump vessels and main locking bars. The recommendations on heat treatment of big forgings, for instance, ensuring the necessary complex of mechanical properties are given. Diffusion chromizing with subsequent nitriding of austenitic steels which increase durability of the components in BN reactors more than 4 times, is practised on a large scale

  5. Structural changes in complex steels with 12 % Cr during welding thermal cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanova, N.V.; Kurnosova, N.D.

    1981-01-01

    The structural changes in the heat affected zones of welded steam tubes of the 12Kh11V2MF and 18Kh12VMBFR steels, are investigated. A short-time heating of thin samples up to 1300-900 deg C with the aim of imitating the thermal welding cycle permits to determine temperatures of specific region formation in heat affeced zones of 12% Cr steels. The difference in the amounts and structure of σ-ferrite and γ-phase in these regions is established. A ''tongue'' nature of γ-phase grain growth is found in the temperature range of 1150-1100 deg C, while at 1300-1250 deg C σ-ferrite growth with the formation of saw-shape boundaries is observed. It is shown that tensile properties of imitated heat affected zone of 12Kh12VMBFP steel increase with heating temperature with the insignificant plasticity decrease. Impact strength on longitudinal samples decreases but remains higher than that determined by specifications [ru

  6. Corrosion resistance of chromium-nickel steel containing rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asatiani, G.N.; Mandzhgaladze, S.N.; Tavadze, L.F.; Chuvatina, S.N.; Saginadze, D.I.

    1983-01-01

    Effect of additional out-of-furnace treatment with complex alloy (foundry alloy) calcite-silicon-magnesium-rare earth metal on corrosion resistance of the 03Kh18N20M3D3C3B steel has been studied. It is shown that introduction of low additions of rare earths improves its corrosion resistance improves its corrosion resistance in agressive media (in 70% - sulfuric acid) in the range of transition from active to passive state. Effect of additional introduction of rare earth metals is not considerable, if potential of steel corrosion is in the range of stable passive state (32% - sulfuric acid). Additional out-of-furnace treatment with complex foundry alloy, containing rare earth metals, provides a possibility to use a steel with a lower content of Cr, Ni, Mo, than in conventional acid-resistant steels in highly agressive media

  7. KH in Paraffin - KH(P): A Useful Base for Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Nelson, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of KH as a one:one homogenate with paraffin, termed KH(P), is reported. KH(P), a solid at room temperature, is stable without special handling. On suspension in THF with a phosphonium salt, KH(P) rapidly generates the ylide. Wittig condensation with aromatic, aliphatic and α, β-unsaturated aldehydes proceeds with high Z-selectivity. KH(P) should be a generally useful base for organic synthesis. PMID:17081034

  8. Quality of the KhN73MBTYu alloy after electroslag remelting and vacuum arc remelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelgaeva, A.V.; Krichevets, M.I.; Shinkina, N.S.; Komissarov, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    The structure and properties of the heat-resisting KhN73MBTYu alloy are investigated after electroslag remelting (ESR) and vacuum arc (VAR) remelting in commercial furnaces. The complex investigations of the casted metal were carried out by modern methods along with the standard acceptance tests, and a number of service properties were determined. It is established that the ESR metal contains magnesium and has the reduced sulphur concentration; the alloy has more fine-grained structure at high isotropy of the properties at room and operating temperatures; higher endurance is achieved under reversal rotational bending; no laminated fractures are observed. According to the basic quality factors the ESR metal satisfies all requirements for the VAR metal. Due to exclusion of strippling of ESR electrodes and ingots the yield of steel forgings increases by 20-25% and the prime cost decreases in comparison with the industrial production of VAR metal

  9. Z-phase in 9-12% Cr Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    The complex nitride Z-phase, Cr(V,Nb)N, has recently been identified as a major cause for premature breakdown in creep strength of a number of new 9-12%Cr martensitic steels. A thermodynamic model of the Z-phase has been created based on the Thermo-Calc software. The model predicts the Z-phase to......The complex nitride Z-phase, Cr(V,Nb)N, has recently been identified as a major cause for premature breakdown in creep strength of a number of new 9-12%Cr martensitic steels. A thermodynamic model of the Z-phase has been created based on the Thermo-Calc software. The model predicts the Z......-phase to be stable in all of the new 9-12%Cr martensitic steels. This has generally been confirmed by the performed experiments. Z-phase precipitation seems to be a kinetic problem, and drivning force calculations using Thermo-Calc with the developed model have been used to predict steel compositions, which...

  10. Development of production technology and investigation of quality for forged-welded turbine rotors of steel 25Kh2NVFA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, I.A.; Merinov, G.N.; Slezkina, E.V.

    1997-01-01

    A study was made into mechanical properties and microstructure of turbine rotor components manufactured by forging and heat treated under various conditions. It is revealed that the optimal heat treatment of forgings must include double quenching with subsequent tempering at 630-640 deg C for 10-20 h. Forged and welded rotors should be tempered at 620-630 deg C for 50-100 h. Microscopic examination and mechanical tests showed that low alloy steel 25Kh2NMF can be successfully used for manufacturing rotors of high-, medium-and low-heat turbines

  11. Electron beam welding of flanges with tubular shafts of steel 40KhNMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskov, G.I.; Zhivaga, L.I.; Shipitsyn, B.N.; Savichev, R.V.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of elaborating the technological process for the electron beam welding of flanges with a tube of the 40KhNMA steel and of investigation into the quality of the welded joints. A welded piece has been fabricated conforming to the technology suggested observing the parameters worked-out in the following sequence: assembling the piece; pre-welding of the edges in some points; welding; high tempering; welds quality control; removal of the seam reinforcement inside of the tube and the weld root to the depth of 2 mm; quenching; tempering; welds quality control; finishing. The welds quality control consists in visual inspection, ultrasonic testing, magnetic flaw detection, as well as X-ray and metallographic analyses. The mechanical properties are studied on notched samples cut out of the welded joints. The test results have shown that the mechanical properties of the welded joints meet the requirements on the same level with the base metal

  12. Interaction of steel, titanium and zirconium with melted chlorides containing copper and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeryanaya, I.N.; Manukhina, T.I.; Shibanov, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Cu and Zn coatings were obtained by contact displacement of their molten chlorides. Cu was deposited on Kh18N10T stainless steel, and Zn was deposited on Ti or Zr at 400-550 0 . Cu was displaced from the electrolyte by all components in the steel. A smooth coating exhibited high adhesion. According to metallography there was a transition layer of a Ni-Cr solid solution between the surface Cu layer and steel. With electronegetiol Ti and Zr, contact deposition of Zn or Cu from chloride melts was possible. The coatings were multilayer and exhibited adequate adhesion. The coating consisted of an intermetallic compound of Ti or Zr with Zn

  13. Development and industrial mastering hot rolling procedure for low-ductile steels and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degterenko, V.K.; Sokolov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The technique for the development of the sheet hot rolling procedure for low-ductile steels and alloys (0Kh17N14M2, 12Kh21N5T, 20Kh25N20C2,40Kh13, 36NKhTYu etc.) is proposed, using plastometer which permits to obtain the data on the deformation resistance in the wide range of temperatures (800-1300 deg C), of deformation degrees (0.1-0.3) and deformation rates (0.001-300 c -1 ). With the help of the plastometric data processed on the computer the calculation of the rolling regimes for the sheet with improved surface quality is carried out at the more uniform loading on the mill stands

  14. Effects of Ti element on the microstructural stability of 9Cr–WVTiN reduced activation martensitic steel under ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fengfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jin, Shuoxue; Li, Tiecheng; Chen, Jihong [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Suo, Jinping; Yang, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yao, Z. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston K7L 3N6, ON (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    Microstructure of 9Cr–WVTiN reduced-activation martensitic steels with two different Ti concentrations irradiated with Fe{sup +}, He{sup +} and H{sup +} at 300 °C was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Small dislocation loops were observed in the irradiated steels. The mean size and number density of dislocation loops decreased with the increase of Ti concentration. The segregation of Cr and Fe in carbides was observed in both irradiated steels, and the enrichment of Cr and depletion of Fe were more severe in the low Ti-concentration 9Cr–WVTiN steel.

  15. Experience manufacturing and properties of the high-strength corrosion-resistant magnetic 03Kh12K12D2 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel'dgandler, Eh.G.; Moshkevich, E.I.; Bakuma, S.F.; Bulat, S.I.; Tikhonenko, V.D.

    1976-01-01

    In industrial conditions, steel 03Kh12K12D2 (DI48-VD) was melted in a 7-tinduction furnace with subsequent vacuum arc remelting. Ingots of dia 500 and 630 mm were forged into slabs and forgings. The slabs were rolled into sheets, 40 mm thick, and the forgings were rolled into sectional shapes. To obtain the optimum mechanical, corrosion, and magnetic properties, the metal was annealed at 600 deg C (10 hr) and 650 deg C (5 and 10 hr). The developed melting and remelting process enabled to obtain steel meeting all the requirements as for the chemical composition, workability, and mechanical magnetic properties. On testing in water with high parameters (200 deg C, 16 kgf/cm 2 ) and in synthetic sea water (70-90 deg C) the corrosion rate did not exceed 1 μm per year

  16. Study of effect of austenite prehistory of 03Ch20N16AG6 steel on it structure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demchuk, I S; Krakhmalev, V I; Manninen, A I [Leningradskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1981-01-01

    Effect of preliminary cold working and different procedures of thermal treatment on structure and mechanical properties of stable austenite of 03Kh20N16AG6 steel is found out. It is shown that the degree of defectability of initial austenite structure predetermines the further deformation behaviour of the steel (level of strength characteristics, plasticity storage, hardening degree etc.) in the wide temperature range. Close connection of structural changes with properties should determine the choice of preliminary treatment of stable austenitic steel as applied to concrete condition of operation.

  17. Quality of structural steel melted by single-slag process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, A.M.; Andreev, V.I.; Monastyrskij, A.V.; Drozdova, M.F.; Pashchenko, V.E.; Orzhekh, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    The 40Kh and 12KhN3A steels were used to compare the quality of the metal manufactured according to several variants of a single-slag process with the metal of a conventional melting technology. Investigation results show, that a single-slag process metal has higher sulfides and oxides contents as well as an increased anisotropy of mechanical properties while its tendency to flake formation is weaker due to a less degree of gas saturation. It is marked that anisotropy in the properties and a sulfide content may be decreased by out-of-furnace treatment of steels

  18. Properties of structural steels melted out of high-purity charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, V.N.; Sergeeva, T.K.; Kondakova, N.K.; Morozov, V.P.; Madorskij, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative evaluation has been made of impurities, mechanical properties and hydrogen embirittlement parameters for steels type 40Kh and 40KhS produced by electrometallurgical method with the use of direct reduced charge (DR-steels) and melted in an open-hearth furnace. Investigation results have shown that 40Kh and 40KhS Dr-steels have more coarse austenitic grains and experience more complete transformation of martensite into ferritic-pearlitic mixture on tempering. Threshold stresses increase 2.5 times due to purity enhancement at the expense of application of direct reduced charge

  19. Effect of hot rolling on the structure and the mechanical properties of nitrogen-bearing austenitic-martensitic 14Kh15AN4M steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannykh, O. A.; Betsofen, S. Ya.; Lukin, E. I.; Blinov, V. M.; Voznesenskaya, N. M.; Tonysheva, O. A.; Blinov, E. V.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of the rolling temperature and strain on the structure and the properties of corrosionresistant austenitic-martensitic 14Kh15AN4M steel is studied. The steel is shown to exhibit high ductility: upon rolling in the temperature range 700-1100°C at a reduction per pass up to 80%, wedge steel specimens are uniformly deformed along and across the rolling direction without cracking and other surface defects. Subsequent cold treatment and low-temperature tempering ensure a high hardness of the steel (50-56 HRC). Austenite mainly contributes to the hardening upon rolling in the temperature range 700-800°C at a reduction of 50-70%, and martensite makes the main contribution at higher temperatures and lower strains. Texture does not form under the chosen deformation conditions, which indicates dynamic recrystallization with the nucleation and growth of grains having no preferential orientation.

  20. Behaviour of Z phase in 9–12%Cr steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Hald, John

    2006-01-01

    The literature on the behaviour of modified Z phase Cr(V,Nb)N in creep resistant martensitic 9–12%Cr steels is briefly reviewed. Ten different 9–12%Cr steels were investigated after prolonged exposure at 600–660uC; the modified Z phase was found in all of them. In steels with high Cr content (11......–12%), Z phase precipitates much faster than in 9%Cr steels. Precipitation of Z phase is associated with dissolution of MX carbonitrides, and causes a breakdown in long term creep strength in 9–12%Cr steels. High Cr steels show creep instabilities accompanied with Z phase precipitation, whereas low Cr...... steels show good long term creep stability. A niobium free CrVN variant of the modified Z phase was observed for the first time during the course of this work. The solution temperature of the Cr(V,Nb)N and CrVN modified Z phases was found to be close to 800uC for 11–12%Cr steels, much lower than the 1200...

  1. Enhancement of tribological properties of 9Cr18 stainless steel by dual Mo and S Co implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Song Jiaohua; Li Guoqing; Chu, Paul K.; Brown, Ian G.

    2001-01-01

    Mo and S ions were simultaneously implanted into 9Cr18 stainless steel samples. The frictional properties of the implanted samples were assessed using a pin-on-disk tester and the elemental depth profiles were measured by Auger electron spectroscopy. The hardness of the samples was also measured. We find that this dual-element implantation process reduces the coefficient of friction by a factor of 2 and increases the low-friction lifetime by a factor of 4 compared to the 9Cr18 surface with Mo or S implantation alone. This enhancement is related to the synergistic coexistence of the implanted elements at the same place. We have also investigated the process using computer simulation. The simulation results help disclose the characteristics of the modified layer and explain the effects of dual-element ion implantation

  2. On the low-cycle fracture of chromium-nickel-molybdenum structural steels in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, G.V.; Kobzaruk, A.V.; Malyshevskij, V.A.; Shul'te, A.Yu.; Rybin, V.V.; Silaev, I.I.

    1977-01-01

    The processes of low-cycle fracture of the chrome-nickel-molybdenum steels 15KhN5MF, 12KhN4MF and 15KhN3M in air, and in sea water have been investigated by the optical microscopy method, and electron microscopic examination of thin films. Bringing no change in the fracture character, sea water produces a speeding-up effect on the low-cycle fatigue fracture process. During long-time corrosion fatigue testing considerable importance lies with the electrochemical corrosion factor expediting the occurrence of corrosive pits acting as crack-initiation nuclei, fatigue crack attack, accumulation of corrosion products in fatigue cracks, etc

  3. Fabrication of welded pipes of the KhN45Yu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyapunov, A.I.; Krichevskij, E.M.; L'vov, V.N.; Kozlov, N.N.; Kireeva, T.S.

    1977-01-01

    A highly heat-resistant KhN45Yu (EP 747) alloy has been developed; the alloy is designed to withstand prolonged service in the temperature range of 1000-1300 deg C, or short-term service at 1300-1400 deg C. The satisfactory ductility and good weldability of the alloy have made it possible to obtain sheets and pipes (32 x 2.0 mm) by argon arc welding. The ductility of pipes from EP 747 alloy exceeds that of pipes from KhN78T (EI 435) alloy by 5.10%, the strength being approximately equal. In regard to strength the welded joint differs little from the base metal. The ductility characteristics up to 900 deg C are also equal, since failure occurs in the base metal. At higher temperatures the welded joint fails in the metal of the weld, and its ductility drops sharply. The grain size of the base metal corresponds to No. 3-4. The welded joint has a cast structure with a grain size larger than No. 1, but its ductility characteristics are satisfactory. This structure ensures an increased long-term strength of the material at 1000-1200 deg C

  4. Reliability and durability of the 12Kh1MF steel tubes of electroslag remelting and their welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanskaya, K.A.; Kulikova, L.V.; Mazel', R.E.; Khromchenko, F.A.; Strizhenova, V.F.

    1978-01-01

    Results of investigating the positive effect of electrolag remelting (ESR) on the properties of the base metal and welded joint of the 12Kh1MF steel steam pipes with the aim of increasing their durability up to 20,000 hrs, are presented. To estimate the quality and properties of tube billet metal, microstructure, content and nature of nonmetallic inclusions, content of gases, austenite grain size, austenite transformations during continuous cooling, metal ductility, mechanical properties at different temperatures and heat resisting properties, have been investigated. It is established, that the base metal in tubes of electroslag remelting possess higher heat resistance, while welded joints besides, have high deformability and resistance to brittle fracture

  5. Stainless austenitic steels strengthened due to reversible phase transformations and by ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagaradze, V.V.; Kositsyna, I.I.; Ozhiganov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the reversible phase transformations, consisting in the conduction of the direct and reverse martensite transformations and aging, during which the intermetallide γ'-phase of the composition Ni 3 Ti is formed, on the streng-thening of alloys in the Fe-Cr-Ni-Ti system is considered. Stainless austenitic steels Kh12N12T3 and Kh12N14T3, which acquire high mechanical properties: σsub(0.2)=685-785 MPa, σsub(B)=1275 MPa, delta >= 20%, as a result of reversible phase transformations and aging, are suggested. After the reversible phase transformations and ageing the steels possess a high resistance to γ-α-transformation during cold treatment [ru

  6. Bubble formation upon crystallization of high nitrogen iron base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svyazhin, A.G.; Sivka, E.; Skuza, Z.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made into the conditions of nitrogen bubble formation during crystallization of unalloyed iron, alloys of Fe-O, Fe-O-S systems, steels 1Kh13, 0Kh18N9 and a two-phase Fe-11%Cr-1%Mo-0.2%V steel. It is revealed that the amount of bubbles in a high nitrogen steel casting increases with a degree of nitrogen supersaturation and decreases with a cooling rate growth and with a rise of surfactant concentration in the metal. In sound castings a nitrogen content can be increased due to a cooling rate growth, nitrogen dilution with inert gas, an increase of nitrogen pressure during crystallization as well as due to the introduction of such surfactants as sulphur, selenium, tellurium, tin [ru

  7. The effect of chromium diffusion redistribution on wear resistance of carburized 3Kh13 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbedinskij, G.V.; Shumakov, A.I.; Zemskij, S.V.; Pereverzev, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    The redistribution of chromium in steel 3Kh13 on carburization in a high-activity carburizer and the wear-resistance of the steel have been investigated. Surface layers with an increased chromium concentration show the highest wear-resistance. The chromium content in the surface layer increases due to its diffusion from the interior. The distribution of carbon and chromium in the carburized layers has been studied with the aid of the radioactive isotope 14 C by the method of layer-by-layer spectral analysis on a vacuum quantometer, layer-by-layer chemical and X-ray structure analysis. The composition of the carbides has been determined by physicochemical analysis. It has been established that the carburized layer can be divided into four zones with respect to its phase composition: first zone - hematite and spinal with 0.5-2.0% C; second zone - solid carbides (Fe,Cr) 7 C 3 ; up to 5% C; third zone - globular carbides in a troostite matrix (Cr,Fe) 7 C 3 and Cr 23 C 6 ; up to 3.5% C; fourth, transitional, zone - troostite carbide mixture Cr 23 C 6 ; up to 1% C. The chromium diffusion in the carburized layer is faster than in the initial austenite. The chromium counterdiffusion is due to the development of a zone of solid carbides M 7 C 3

  8. Properties of cast Ti-stabilised stainless steel after long-term ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrnsten, U.; Karjalainen-Roikonen, P.; Nenonen, P.; Ahlstrand, R.; Hietanen, O.; Timofeev, B.T.; Bloomin, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical properties and microstructure are studied and compared for two kinds of specimens of cast Ti-stabilized stainless steel 08Kh18N10T used for manufacturing of valves and pumps in nuclear power plants. One set of specimens represents the main gate valve material after 106000 h (∼ 12 years) operation at 270 deg C. The comparison is made with reference specimens in as-fabricated state. The results of impact tests, hardness measurements and microscopic examination show that 12 year operation gives rise to the shift of ductile-brittle transition temperature to higher values (from - 68 deg C - 103 deg C). The microstructure of both materials is similar. The microhardness of δ-ferrite in the steel after long-term operation is slightly higher [ru

  9. Effect of neutron irradiation on the properties of the repair welds of the 15Kh2MFA steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.M.; Khachaturyants, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of neutron irradiation on the tendency of the metal belonging to the heat affected zone of the weld toward brittle fracture (an increase in the critical temperature of brittleness). For comparison, the authors studied the radiation embrittlement of the original base metal (steel 15Kh2MFA) subjected to the conventional heat treatment of the reactor frames consisting of hardening and high-temperature tempering. Along with these materials, the radiational embrittlement of the base metal in the rehardened condition without tempering was studied. It was concluded that the presence of the regions repaired according to this technology and located in the frame at the level of the reactor core does not pose the problem of decreased resistance to brittle fracture

  10. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fe-18Mn-18Cr-0.5N Austenitic Nonmagnetic Stainless Steel in Asymmetric Hot Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. L.; Li, C. S.; Ma, B.; Han, Y. H.

    2017-05-01

    Asymmetric hot rolling (ASHR) with a mismatch speed ratio of 1.15 in a single pass was applied to Fe-18Mn-18Cr-0.5N steel and was compared with symmetric hot rolling (SHR). The results indicated that a through-thickness microstructure gradient was formed in the plate due to the shear strain (0.36) introduced by ASHR. A fine-grained layer with the average size of 3 μm was achieved at the top surface of ASHR plate, while numerous elongated grains with a few recrystallized grains were presented at the center layer. The texture was distributed randomly at the top surface of ASHR plate, and a weaker intensity of typical hot-rolled texture in austenitic steel was obtained at the center layer of ASHR plate compared to SHR plate. An excellent combination of microhardness, strength and ductility was obtained in the ASHR plate, which was attributed to gradient microstructure induced by ASHR.

  11. Structure and phase composition of titanium nitride coating on austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovitskaya, N.V.; Kolenchenko, L.D.; Larikov, L.N.

    1989-01-01

    Structure and phase composition of titanium nitride coating deposited on 08Kh18N10T steel substrate using ''Bulat'' device are studied. Use of complex investigation methods permitted despite small coating thickness (1μm) to aquire information on hardness, porosity, to study phase composition in all coating thickness. The surface layer (∼0.1 μm) consists of ε-Ti 2 N, TiN 0.6 , TiC 0.35 , that is formed with carbon participation from oil vacuum. In more deeper layers beside ε-Ti 2 N TiC 0.14 N 0.77 is present. Effect of carbon diffusion from substrate to forming coating is stated. Gradient of element concentrations in the substrate-coating interface causes recrystallization of austenite

  12. Influence of chemical heterogeneity of solid solutions on brittleness in chromium steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madyanov, S.A.; Sedov, V.K.; Apaev, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The role of chemical heterogeneity of solid solutions in formation of mechanical properties of Kh09, Kh15, Kh20, Kh19N2G5T chromium steels has been investigated. It is established that besides the known regioA of chemical heterogeneity in the vicinity of 475 deg C exists a high-temperature region (1000-1050 deg C), where maximum heteroge=- neity of chromium distribution in solid solution, is observed. Both types of chemical heterogeneity cause essential hardening of alloys, which becomes apparent in abrupt change of capability to microplastic deformation The mechanism of occurrence of the given temper brittleness consists in carbon diffusion into microvolunes enriched in carbide-forming elements

  13. On the adsorption-induced fatigue of structural steels in the presence of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loboiko, V.I.; Karpenko, G.V.; Vasilenko, I.I.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to study he effect of anhydrous alcohols on the cyclic fatigue of steels in the absence of contact of the alcohol with atmospheric moisture during the testing process. A vacuum was created in the operating space and then the vacuum annealing was carried out in a bath with the sample and through metal vacuum connection the bath was filled with anhydrous alcohol. Studies were made on several construction steels (20Kh, 40Kh, 50Kh, and ShKh15); steels 40Kh, 50Kh, and ShKh15 were quenched from 840-860 0 C in oil and then tempered at 200 0 C (2 h), steel 20Kh was studied in the as-received state. It was shown that with increase in the carbon content of steel with a martensite structure, the decrease in strength in the presence of anhydrous alcohol was greater than in dry air. Experiments showed that anhydrous alcohol causes an adsorption decrease in the strength both of samples with preliminarily formed cracks and V-shaped stress concentrators and of smooth samples. The greatest adsorption effect of alcohols in our case, as in static fatigue, was observed in samples with cracks. A dependence was shown between the length of the carbon chain and the fatigue limit. This dependence indicates the monotone nature of the decrease in the fatigue limit with transfer from methyl to butyl and then to octyl alcohol

  14. Annealing effect on restoration of irradiation steel properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishkarev, O.M.; Kolesova, T.N.; Myasnikova, K.P.; Pecherin, A.M.; Shamardin, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of temperature and annealing time on the restoration of properties of the 15Kh2NMFAA and 15Kh2MFA steels after irradiation at 285 deg with the fluence of 6x10 23 neutr/m 2 (E>0.5 MeV) is studied. Microhardness (H μ ) restoration in the irradiated 15Kh2NMFAA steel is shown to start from 350 deg C annealing temperature. The complete microhardness restoration is observed at the annealing temperature of 500 deg C for 10 hours

  15. Methods for protection of high-strength welded stainless steel from corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashchevskij, V.B.; Gurvich, L.Ya.; Batrakov, V.P.; Kozheurova, N.S.; Molotova, V.A.; Shvarts, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    The efficiency of protection from corrosion cracking under a bending stress of 100 kgf/mm 2 in a salt mist and in a sulphur dioxide atmosphere, of welded joints of steel 08Kh15N5D2T with metallizing, galvanic and varnish coatings and lubricants, and of steel 1Kh15N4AM3 with sealing compounds has been investigated. Metallization of welded joints with aluminium and zinc efficiently increases corrosion resistance in a salt mist. Galvanic coatings of Cd, Zn, and Cr increase the time to cracking in a salt mist from 2-3 to 60-80 days. The protective properties of varnishes under the effect of a salt mist decrease in the following sequence: epoxy-polyamide enamel EP-140, acrylic enamel C-38, silicone enamels KO-834, KO-811, and KO-814. In an atmosphere containing SO 2 0.15 vol.% at 100% relative humidity, the varnishes investigated, with the exception of the inhibited coating XC-596, show lower protective properties than in a salt mist. The high efficiency of protection from corrosion cracking in a salt mist of slots of steel 1Kh15N4AM3 when using organic sealing compounds U4-21 and U5-21, and also slushing lubricants and oils PVK, TsIATIM-201, K17, and AMS3 was established

  16. Design of the WWER-440 pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, L.

    1978-01-01

    The main specifications are presented of a pressurizer for the WWER-440 reactor as are factors securing operating reliability and the required life of the equipment. Ferritic-pearlite steel 22K is the basic material for the manufacture of the shell, support and couplings. The internal parts and the heads are manufactured from the 08KH18N10T chromium-nickel austenitic steel, the bolts and nuts of manholes from chromium-molybdenum steels 25KH1MF and 25KH2MFA. Quality testing of basic materials and quality control during the process of manufacture are briefly described. (Z.M.)

  17. Fatigue resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumchenkov, N.E.; Filimonova, O.V.; Borisov, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of additional alloying (Ni, Ni+Co), stress concentration, surface plastic strain on fatigue resistance of rotor steel of Cr-Ni-Mo-V-composition. It is shown that the steel with decreased carbon content possesses high complex of mechanical properties. Fatigue characteristics are not inferior to similar characteristics of steels of 25KhN3MFA type. Additional alloying of the steel containing 0.11...0.17% C and 4.5...4.7% N:, with niobium separately or niobium and cobalt in combination enabled to improve fatigue resistance of samles up to 25%. Strengthening of stress concentration zones by surface plastic strain is recommended for improving rotor suppporting 'nower under cyclic loading

  18. Increasing the brittle fracture resistance in manual arc welding and heat treatment of type 12KhM steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, V.P.; Bychenkova, G.A.; Gordeev, Y.V.; Ilyuhov, C.V.

    1984-01-01

    The extensive application of heat-resisting steels is delayed by their poor weldability. Optimum technology has been developed for manual arc welding and heat treatment of structures of type 12KhM steels resulting in high cracking resistance. Trials were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of removing the structural stresses in tempering the structures. On the basis of the experimental results, it may be assumed that the toughness properties of the welded joints produced by manual arc welding can be improved by optimizing the alloying system of the weld metal, with the parent metal treated in the optimum heat treatment conditions. The aim of subsequent investigations was to assess the properties of the weld metal made with vanadium-free electrodes. It was found that the impact toughness increased two to three times; the mean hardness and the maximum hardness were both less than 220. The reduction in hardness and increase of the toughness properties of the metal are caused by the lower degree of hardening of the bulk of the grain and, consequently, by the lower concentration of plastic strain at the grain boundaries

  19. Rupture of the steel-12KH1MF under creep at temperatures close to 0,5 Tsub(melt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezina, T.G.; Ashikhmina, L.A.; Karasev, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    Optical and transmission microscopy and fractography techniques have been employed in studying the peculiarities of nucleation and growth of micropores in steel 12Kh1MF at creep. The nucleation of micropores occurs at the initial stages of creep at stress concentration points, predominantly following the retarded shear mechanism. Micropores grow by the way of diffusion, as well as following the deslocation mechanism. An important role in the process of micropore growth is played by pore opening through grain-boundary slip. Pores of 1 to 5 microns in size can be formed along grain boundaries both due to the growth of individual micropores and by coalescence of micropores at points of their concentration. Transition of the creep to the critical phase coincides with the process of the pores blending together to

  20. Aging precipitation behavior and its influence on mechanical properties of Mn18Cr18N austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fengming; Li, Yajie; He, Wenwu; Zhao, Xiaodong; Chen, Huiqin

    2017-11-01

    The aging precipitation behavior in Mn18Cr18N austenitic stainless steel was investigated at temperatures from 600 °C to 900 °C. During isothermal aging treatment, the primary precipitate was Cr2N with a = 0.478 nm and c = 0.444 nm, and it preferentially nucleates along initial grain boundaries and gradually grows towards the interior of grains in discontinuous cellular way. Meanwhile, a small amount of granular face-centred cubic M23C6 with a = 1.066 nm also were observed, which mainly form along grain boundaries. The effect of these precipitates on mechanical properties of the alloy was studied. It was found that precipitates result in degeneration of the matrix hardness. Meanwhile, the SEM morphologies of aged tensile sample show that the brittle fracture predominates during deformation, i.e. the fracture mode transforms from intergranular fracture to transgranular fracture with the increasing of aging time. Compared with the solution-treated sample, the strength of the aged tensile samples slightly decreases and plasticity remarkably deteriorates.

  1. Fracture of ledeburitic steel during hot plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, V.P.; Borisov, Yu.A.; Bulat, S.I.; Zajtsev, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The mechanisms of the high-temperature failure of high-carbon chromium Kh6F1, Kh6T2 and Kh6VF steels and a possibility to avoid their overheating have been investigated. At 1190 deg C and over the failure occurs along boundaries of grains at points of formation of the initial portions of the liquid phase as carbides are dissolved. If after a holding at 1190-1210 deg C the steels are cooled to 1120-1150 deg C and held for a sufficiently long time, secondary carbides are formed in the eutectic areas and, if the steels are deformed, the discontinuities present a rounded shape. Holding of an overheated steel at 1120-1150 deg C ensures its satisfactory workability in rolling. By choosing adequate overheating and subsequent slight cooling conditions, it is possible not only to retain, but even to improve the plasticity of carbide high-carbon steels. The results of laboratory tests have been confirmed under industrial conditions

  2. Effect of 4-(N,N-diethylamino)benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone on the corrosion of aged 18 Ni 250 grade maraging steel in phosphoric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poornima, T.; Nayak, Jagannath; Nityananda Shetty, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → DEABT as corrosion inhibitor for maraging steel in phosphoric acid. → Inhibition efficiency increases with increase in inhibitor concentration. → Inhibition efficiency decreases with increase in temperature. → Adsorption obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: 4-(N,N-diethylamino)benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DEABT) was studied for its corrosion inhibition property on the corrosion of aged 18 Ni 250 grade maraging steel in 0.67 M phosphoric acid at 30-50 deg. C by potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and weight loss techniques. Inhibition efficiency of DEABT was found to increase with the increase in DEABT concentration and decrease with the increase in temperature. The activation energy E a and other thermodynamic parameters (ΔG ads 0 , ΔH ads 0 , ΔS ads 0 ) have been evaluated and discussed. The adsorption of DEABT on aged maraging steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and the inhibitor showed mixed type inhibition behavior.

  3. Irradiation hardening of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Woo-Seog; Kim, Sung-Ho; Choo, Kee-Nam; Kim, Do-Sik

    2009-01-01

    An irradiation test of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel was carried out in the OR5 test hole of HANARO of a 30 MW thermal power at 390±10degC up to a fast neutron fluence of 4.4x10 19 (n/cm 2 ) (E > 1.0 MeV). The dpa of the irradiated specimens was evaluated to be 0.034 - 0.07. Tensile and impact tests of the irradiated Mod.9Cr-1Mo were done in the hot cell of the IMEF. The change of the tensile strength by irradiation was similar to the change of the yield strength. The increase of the yield and tensile strengths was up to 18% and 10% respectively. The elongation reduction of the weldment was up to 65%. (author)

  4. Boron effect on fabrication properties and service behaviour of complex corrosion-resistant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dshtejn, Ya.E.; Piskunova, A.I.; Shmatko, M.N.

    1978-01-01

    In order to determine the optimum boron admixtures for the improvement of the technological plasticity without the considerable reduction in the corrosion resistance of the complex alloy Cr-Ni-Mo steels, industrial heats of the 03KH16N15M3, 03KH17N14M3 and other steels, containing 0.0005-0.003% boron, have been researched. The plasticity, corrosion resistance and microstructure of certain steels have been determined. It is shown that small additions of boron enhance the technological plasticity during the ingot rolling. In order to prevent a sharp reduction in the corrosion resistance, the boron content should be confined to 0.0015% and the quenching temperature raised to 1,120-1,150 deg C. The positive effect of the quenching temperature increase is accounted for by the solution of the excess phases and by the reduction of the dislocation density in the near-the-boundary zones

  5. Application of experiment planning during investigation of cementation process in solid carburizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisenkov, A.N.; Denisov, V.M.; Prigozhina, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model of cementation process in solid carburizirs is obtained, the most effective contents of carburizers are chosen. Specimens are produced out of St20, 12KhN3A, 40Kh13, KhVG steels. It is shown that specimens of St20 and 12KhN3A steels have the higher depth of cementated layer, specimens made of 40Kh13 and KhVG steels-the lower depth. It is shown that the quality of cementated layer structure at recommended regimes improved, cementated layer depth for low-carbon steels changed a little and for tool steels increased infficiently: for KhVG steel in 2-3 times for 40Kh13 steel in 1.5-2.5 times

  6. Strength of low-carbon rotor steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voropaev, V.I.; Filimonov, O.V.; Borisov, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of studying the effect of chemical composition and thermal treatment regimes on the structural strength of steels of the 25KhN3MFA type are presented. It is shown that alloying with niobium from 0.01 to 0.08% steels with the increased nickel content (4.2-4.5%) contributes to the increase of structural strength and reduction of semibrittleness temperature. To obtain high values of strength and plastic properties cooling with the rate of 10 3 -10 5 K/hr is recommended

  7. Effect of high-temperature exposure on the mechanical properties of 18Cr–8Ni–W–Nb–V–N stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, I.; Kipelova, A.; Kaibyshev, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Niobium stabilized 18Cr–8Ni austenitic steel was subjected to long-time aging. ► The main phases precipitated during aging are Z-phase and Laves-phase. ► Intragranular phases and solid solution are responsible for tensile strength. ► Intergranular particles affect impact toughness. - Abstract: The change in the mechanical properties of 18Cr–8Ni–W–Nb–V–N austenitic stainless steel due to aging was investigated at room temperature and 650 °C. It was shown that long-term aging decreases strength characteristics despite increasing hardness. The impact toughness decreases from 255 J/cm 2 for an un-aged steel to 135 J/cm 2 for the steel aged for 3000 h. However, evidence of ductile fracture was found even after long-term aging. This study suggests that the reduction in impact toughness occurs due to the precipitation of Z-phase and Laves-phase particles at the grain boundaries. The degradation of impact toughness and mechanical properties with aging is discussed in terms of microstructure evolution, secondary phase precipitations and fracture mechanisms.

  8. Study of regularities in propagation of thermal fatigue cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachkova, N.G.; Sobolev, N.D.; Egorov, V.I.; Rostovtsev, Yu.V.; Ivanov, Yu.S.; Sirotin, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    Regularities in the propagation of thermal fatigue cracks in the Cr-Ni steels of the austenite class depending upon deformation conditions in the crack zone, have been considered. Thin-walled tube samples of the Kh16N40, Kh18N20 and Kh16N15 steels have been tested in the 10O reversible 400 deg C and 100 reversible 500 deg C regimes. The samples have possessed a slot-shaped stress concentrator. Stress intensity pseudocoefficient has been calculated for the correlation of experimental data. The formula for determining crack propagation rate has been obtained. The experiments permit to conclude that propagation rate of thermal fatigue cracks in the above steels depends upon the scope of plastic deformation during a cycle and stress intensity pseudocoefficient, and is determined by plastic deformation resistance during thermal cyclic loading

  9. SCC growth behavior of cast stainless steels in high-temperature water. Influences of corrosion potential, steel type, thermal aging and cold-work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takuyo; Terachi, Takumi; Miyamoto, Tomoki; Arioka, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on crack growth rate (CGR) measurement in oxygenated high-temperature pure water conditions, such as normal water chemistry (NWC) in BWRs, using compact tension (CT) type specimens have shown that stainless steel weld metal are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). On the other hand, the authors reported that no significant SCC growth was observed on stainless steel weld metals in PWR primary water at temperatures from 250degC to 340degC. Cast austenitic stainless steels are widely used in light water reactors, and there is a similarity between welded and cast stainless steels in terms of the microstructure of the ferrite/austenite duplex structure. However, there are a few reports giving CGR data on cast stainless steels in the BWRs and PWRs. The principal purpose of this study was to examine the SCC growth behavior of cast stainless steels in simulated PWR primary water. A second objective was to examine the effects on SCC growth in hydrogenated and oxygenated water environments at 320degC of: (1) corrosion potential; (2) steels type (Mo in alloy); (3) thermal-aging (up to 400degC x 40 kh); and (4) cold-working (10%). The results were as follows: (1) No significant SCC growth was observed on all types of cast stainless steels: aged (400degC x 40 kh) of SCS14A and SCS13A and 10% cold-working, in hydrogenated (low-potential) water at 320degC. (2) Aging at 400degC x 40 kh SCS14A (10%CW) markedly accelerated the SCC growth of cast material in high-potential water at 320degC, but no significant SCC growth was observed in the hydrogenated water, even after long-term thermal aging (400degC x 40 kh). (3) Thus, cast stainless steels have excellent SCC resistance in PWR primary water. (4) On the other hand, significant SCC growth was observed on all types of cast stainless steels: 10%CW SCS14A and SCS13A, in 8 ppm-oxygenated (high-potential) water at 320degC. (5) No large difference in SCC growth was observed between SCS14A (Mo) and SCS13A. (6) No

  10. On abnormal decomposition of supercooled austenite in carbon and alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parusov, V.V.; Dolzhenkov, I.I.; Podobedov, L.V.; Vakulenko, I.A.

    1980-01-01

    Residual stresses which appear as a result of thermal cycling in the temperature range of 300-700 deg C are investigated in an austenitic class steel (03Kh18N11) to ground the assumption on the effect of plastic deformation, appearing due to thermal stresses, on the mechanism of supercooled austenite decomposition. The determination of residual stresses is carried out with the help of X-ray diffraction analysis. It is established that the deformation brings about an increase in density of dislocation the interaction of which leads to the formation of a typical austenite substructure which conditions the proceeding of the eutectoid transformation according to an abnormal mechanism. It is noted, that the grain pearlite formation due to plastic and microplastic deformation of supercooled austenite induced by thermal stresses should be taken into account when developing steel heat treatment shedules [ru

  11. Theoretical study of [Li(H2O)n]+ and [K(H2O)n]+ (n = 1-4) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, M.J.; Mains, G.J.; Devlin, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The geometries, successive binding energies, vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities are calculated for the [Li(H 2 O) n ] + and [K(H 2 O) n ] + (n = 1-4) complexes. The basis sets used are 6-31G * and LANL1DZ (Los Alamos ECP+DZ) at the SCF and MP2 levels. There is an agreement for calculated structures and frequencies between the MP2/6-31G * and MP2/LANL1DZ basis sets, which indicates that the latter can be used for calculations of water complexes with heavier ions. Our results are in a reasonable agreement with available experimental data and facilitate experimental study of these complexes. 19 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Microstructure of reactive synthesis TiC/Cr18Ni8 stainless steel bonded carbides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Junsheng; Liu Junbo; Wang Limei

    2008-01-01

    TiC/Cr18Ni8 steel bonded carbides were synthesized by vacuum sintering with mixed powders of iron, ferrotitanium, ferrochromium, colloidal graphite and nickel as raw materials. The microstructure and microhardness of the steel bonded carbides were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rockwell hardometer. Results show that the phases of steel bonded carbides mainly consist of TiC and Fe-Cr-Ni solid solution. The synthesized TiC particles are fine. Most of them are not more than 1 μm With the increase of sintering temperature, the porosity of TiC/Cr18Ni8 steel bonded carbides decreases and the density and hardness increase, but the size of TiC panicles slightly increases. Under the same sintering conditions, the density and hardness of steel bonded carbides with C/Ti atomic ratio 0.9 are higher than those with C/Ti atomic ratio 1.0.The TiC particles with C/Ti atomic ratio 0.9 are much finer and more homogeneous.

  13. Precipitation process of Z-phase in 9-12%CR steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation of Z-phase, Cr(V,Nb)N, is known to negatively affect creep properties of 9-12%Cr steels for power plant applications as it dissolves finely distributed MX particles, (V,Nb)N, especially in high Cr steels. As the Z-phase precipitates slowly as large particles, this causes a net drop ...... and crystallographically into Z-phase CrTaN particles. Copyright © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Distributed by ASM International®. All rights reserved....

  14. Corrosion-electrochemical behavior of metals in alkali solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, V.A.; Levina, E.Eh.

    1995-01-01

    Results of an investigation into corrosion-electrochemical behaviour of 12Kh18N10T, 10Kh17N13M2T, 08Kh21N6M2T and 15Kh25T steels, 06KhN28MDT and KhN78T alloys as well as NP-2 nickel in sodium, potassium and lithium hydroxide solutions at 95-180 deg C temperatures are considered. It is ascertained, that anode polarization curves of all metals irrespective of hydroxide nature, concentration, temperature, presence of chloride and chlorate additions, are of identic character. The movement of anode polarization curves in the direction of lower current of hydroxide type in NaOH-KOH-LiOH series, temperature and solution concentration reduction at other equal terms. 12 refs.; 6 figs

  15. Role of grain refinement in hardening of structural steels at preliminary thermomechanical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhvalov, A.B.; Grigor'eva, E.V.; Davydova, L.S.; Degtyarev, M.V.; Levit, V.I.; Smirnova, N.A.; Smirnov, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    The hardening mechanism during preliminary thermomechanical treatment with deformation by cold rolling or hydroextrusion is studied on structural 37KhN3M1 and 38KhN3MFA steels. Specimens have been tested on static tension, impact strength and fracture toughness. It is shown that hydroextrusion application instead of rolling does not change the hardening effect of preliminary thermomechanical treatment (PTMT). It is established that the increase of preliminary deformation degree and the use of accelerated short term hardening heating provides a bett er grain refinement and the increase of PTMT hardening effect [ru

  16. Structural features and properties of the laser-deposited nickel alloy layer on a KhV4F tool steel after heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, V. S.; Dikova, Ts. D.; Stavrev, D. S.

    2017-07-01

    The study and application of the materials that are stable in the temperature range up to 1000°C are necessary to repair forming dies operating in this range. Nickel-based alloys can be used for this purpose. The structural state of a nickel alloy layer deposited onto a KhV4F tool steel and then heat treated is investigated. KhV4F tool steel (RF GOST) samples are subjected to laser deposition using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A nickel-based material (0.02C-73.8Ni-2.5Nb-19.5Cr-1.9Fe-2.8Mn) is employed for laser deposition. After laser deposition, the samples are subjected to heat treatment at 400°C for 5 h, 600°C for 1 h, 800°C for 1 h, and 1000°C for 1 h. The microstructure, the phase composition, and the microhardness of the deposited layer are studied. The structure of the initial deposited layer has relatively large grains (20-40 μm in size). The morphology is characterized by a cellular-dendritic structure in the transition zone. The following two structural constituents with a characteristic dendritic structure are revealed: a supersaturated nickel-based γ solid solution and a chromium-based bcc α solid solution. In the initial state and after heat treatment, the hardness of the deposited material (210-240 HV 0.1) is lower than the hardness of the base material (400-440 HV 0.1). Only after heat treatment at 600°C for 1 h, the hardness increases to 240-250 HV0.1. Structure heredity in the form of a dendritic morphology is observed at temperatures of 400, 600, and 800°C. The following sharp change in the structural state is detected upon heat treatment at 1000°C for 1 h: the dendritic morphology changes into a typical α + γ crystalline structure. The hardness of the base material decreases significantly to 160-180 HV 0.1. The low hardness of the deposited layer implies the use of the layer material in limited volume to repair the forming surfaces of dies and molds for die casting. However, the high ductility of the deposited layer of the nickel

  17. Mechanical properties of permeable materials with an organized structure on the base of continuous metal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpinos, D.M.; Rutkovskij, A.E.; Zorin, V.A.; Ivanchuk, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanical properties were studied for permeable fibrous materials with an organized structure on the base of continuous metal fibers (from Kh18N9T steel) subjected to preliminary reprocessing volumetric net half-finished products. The effect of geometrical parameters of the net half-finished products and of their orientation in packing are shown to affect the mechanical properties within a wide range of porosities

  18. Effect of preliminary neutron irradiation on helium blistering of 0Kh16N15M3B steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, I.I.; Kalin, B.A.; Skorov, D.M.; Shishkin, G.N.; Ivanov, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    The method of electron microscopy has been applied to investigate the effect of preliminary neutron irradiation on the OKh16N15M3B steel blistering under irradiation by 20 keV helium ions with (1-10)x10 21 ion/m 2 doses at the temperature below 373 K. It is shown that neutron irradiation shifts critical doses of blister formation and intense scaling towards higher doses. But after the incubation period the erosion of steel preliminary neutron irradiated grows with the increase of helium ion dose above 7x10 21 ion/m 2 . Short-term heating of neutron irradiated samples during 15 min at 1173 K does not practically affect the beginning of intense scaling of the surface

  19. The effect of laser treatment on the wear resistance of steel in corrosive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyatsko, G.V.; Porter, A.I.; Prejs, G.A.; Mojsa, M.I.

    1975-01-01

    The corrosion mechanical wearing properties of steel 45 treated with a laser beam (H 100 =7800 Mn/sq.m) under friction with nitrated steel 40KhNMA (HV=7000 Mn/sq.m), chrome cast iron Kh15M (hardened and low-temperature tempered, modified), perlite cast iron and bronze are studied. The aqueous buffers with pH=6 and 11 are used as a corrosion active media. In a weakly acid medium the most intensive wearing of steel 40KhNMA is observed at P=8 Mn/sq.m. Its wearing reduces due to increase of pressure to 12 Mn/sq.m. Extent of steel 45 wearing increases with pressure increase from 8 to 12 Mn/sg.m. Friction coefficient of this pair changes by jumps at an increase of normal pressure and its variation range is smaller than that observed in an alkaline medium. The maximum value of friction coefficient is shifted to the higher pressure. The wearing of cast iron Kh15M-steel 45 pair has an alternative pattern. In an alkaline medium the cast iron wearing intensity shows a linear increase with the normal contact pressure but that of the steel changes jumpwise attaining extreme at 8 and 12 Mn/sq.m. In a weak acid medium the intensity of grasping and graphitization at the friction surface of cast iron Kh15M-steel 45 pair is higher than that in the alkaline medium. Experiments demonstrate an effectiveness of the laser beam treatment of steel 45 for its friction in the alkaline medium with nitrated steel 40KhNMA and with hardened low-temperature tempered cast iron 45 under friction contact pressure as high as 8 Mn/sq.m, and in acid medium at 12 and 8 Mn/sq.m respectively. The laser treatment provides high corrosion-mechanical stability of steel 45 and the counterbodies described, as well as the low friction coefficient of these pairs

  20. Welding wires for high-tensile steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laz'ko, V.E.; Starova, L.L.; Koval'chuk, V.G.; Maksimovich, T.L.; Labzina, I.E.; Yadrov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Strength of welded joints in arc welding of high-tensile steels of mean and high thickness by welding wires is equal to approximately 1300 MPa in thermohardened state and approximately 600 MPa without heat treatment. Sv-15Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EhK44-VI) -Sv-30Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EkK47-VI) welding wires are suggested for welding of medium-carbon alloyed steels. These wires provide monotonous growth of ultimate strength of weld metal in 1250-1900 MPa range with increase of C content in heat-treated state

  1. New method for NPP sodium coolant pipeline austenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malashonok, V.A.; Rotshtejn, A.V.; Gotshalk, A.L.; Miryushchenko, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Heat treatment technology is considered for pipelines intended for the NPP cooling systems employing sodium coolant. Various techniques are discussed which are used for protecting the pipeline internal surfaces against oxidation in the process of heat treatment. It is noted that the austenite formation of welded joints of steel 12Kh18N9 and steel Kh16N11M3 at temperatures of 1050 and 1100 deg C releases welding-induced stresses and reduces a possibility of local damages. Evacuation down to 1 mm Hg appears to be the most rational protective technique. The considered procedure of the pipeline heat treatment has been utilized for mounting the equipment of the BN-600 reactor at the Beloyarskaya NPP. The economic gain resulting from the use of the procedure, owing to decrease in argon consumption and reduction of labour input, makes up 150 000 roubles

  2. Mechanical properties of irradiated 9Cr-2WVTa steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Rieth, M.

    1998-01-01

    An Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) steel has excellent strength and impact toughness before and after irradiation in the Fast Flux Test Facility and the High Flux Reactor (HFR). The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) increased only 32 C after 28 dpa at 365 C in FFTF, compared to a shift of ∼60 C for a 9Cr-2WV steel--the same as the 9Cr-2WVTa steel but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile properties before and after irradiation. The 9Cr-2WVTa steel has a smaller prior-austenite grain size, but otherwise microstructures are similar before irradiation and show similar changes during irradiation. The irradiation behavior of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel differs from the 9Cr-2WV steel and other similar steels in two ways: (1) the shift in DBTT of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF does not saturate with fluence by ∼28 dpa, whereas for the 9Cr-2WV steel and most similar steels, saturation occurs at <10 dpa, and (2) the shift in DBTT for 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF and HFR increased with irradiation temperature, whereas it decreased for the 9Cr-2WV steel, as it does for most similar steels. The improved properties of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel and the differences with other steels were attributed to tantalum in solution

  3. Special Features of Induction Annealing of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Medium-Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priymak, E. Yu.; Stepanchukova, A. V.; Bashirova, E. V.; Fot, A. P.; Firsova, N. V.

    2018-01-01

    Welded joints of medium-alloy steels XJY750 and 40KhN2MA are studied in the initial condition and after different variants of annealing. Special features of the phase transformations occurring in the welded steels are determined. Optimum modes of annealing are recommended for the studied welded joints of drill pipes, which provide a high level of mechanical properties including the case of impact loading.

  4. Optimum conditions for aging of stainless maraging steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironenko, P.A.; Krasnikova, S.I.; Drobot, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    Aging kinetics of two 0Kh11N10M2T type steels in which 3 % Mo (steel 1), and 3 % Mo and 11 % Co (steel 2) had been additionally introduced instead of titanium were investigated. Electron microscopy and X-ray methods were used. It was ascertained that the process of steel aging proceeded in 3 stages. Steel 2 was hardened more intensively during the aging, had a higher degree of hardness and strength after the aging, weakened more slowly if overaged than steel 1. The intermetallide hcp-phase Fe 2 Mo was the hardening phase on steels extended aging. Optimum combination of impact strength and strength was was achieved using two-stage aging: the first stage - maximum strength aging was achieved, the second stage - aging at minimum temperatures of two-phase α+γ region

  5. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of GX12CrMoVNbN9-1 cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of multistage heat treatment on microstructure and properties of high-chromiummartensitic GX12CrMoVNbN9 – 1 (GP91 steel. The material under investigation were samples taken out from a test coupon. Heattreatment of GP91 cast steel was performed at the parameters of temperature and time typical of treatment for multi-ton steel casts. The research has proved that in the as-received condition (as-cast state GP91 cast steel was characterized by a coarse grain, martensitic microstructure which provided the required standard mechanical properties. The heat treatment of GP91 cast steel contributed to obtainment of a fine grain microstructure of high tempered martensite with numerous precipitations of carbides of diverse size. The GP91 cast steel structure received through heat treatment made it possible to obtain high plastic properties, particularly impact strength, maintaining strength properties on the level of the required minimum.

  6. Mechanical and fracture properties at impact loading of selected steels for nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchar, J.; Bilek, Z.

    1988-01-01

    The possibilities are briefly characterized of experimental research of mechanical and fracture properties of steels used in nuclear power engineering. Attention is paid to plastic deformation and the assessment of fracture formation during impact loading. The results are reported for steels 15Kh2MFA and 10GN2MFA. For steel 15Kh2MFA the effect was also studied of neutron radiation at different temperatures. From the theory developed for non-irradiated material 10GN2MFA, a prediction is made within the original model of the fracture stress value for steel 15Kh2MFA in both non-irradiated and irradiated states. The conclusion is arrived at that the existing methods of assessing steel properties at impact load allow obtaining knowledge of all significant effects during actual stress, this using only small specimens of the materials. (Z.M.). 4 figs., 8 refs

  7. History of the formerly top secret KH-9 Hexagon spy satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This paper is about the development, design, fabrication and use of the KH-9 Hexagon spy in the sky satellite camera system that was finally declassified by the National Reconnaissance Office on September 17, 2011 twenty five years after the program ended. It was the last film based reconnaissance camera and was known by experts in the field as "the most complicated system ever put up in orbit." It provided important intelligence for the United States government and was the reason that President Nixon was able to sign the SALT treaty, and when President Reagan said "Trust but Verify" it provided the means of verification. Each satellite weighed 30,000 pounds and carried two cameras thereby permitting photographs of the entire landmass of the earth to be taken in stereo. Each camera carried up to 30 miles of film for a total of 60 miles of film. Ultra-complex mechanisms controlled the structurally "wimpy" film that traveled at speeds up to 204 inches per second at the focal plane and was perfectly synchronized to the optical image.

  8. Composition of the spheroidal objects in KhN77TYuR-VD alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotkis, M.A.; Nabutovskii, L.S.; Ostrov, A.E.; Zil'berman, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors make an element analysis of the spheroidal objects in KhN77TYuR-VD alloy with the use of the energy dispersion microanalyzer with which the Stereoscan S-180 scanning electron microscope is equipped. Examples of the qualitative element analysis are shown. The results of the investigations show that the composition of the spheroidal inclusions includes nickel, chromium, titanium, iron, and also silicon and sulfur. The information obtained makes it possible to make an assumption on the mechanism of origin of these objects

  9. Substitution of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel for austentic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1982-04-01

    This report describes the current program to develop a high-strength ferritic-martensitic steel. The alloy is essentially Fe-9% Cr-1% Mo with small additions of V and Nb and is known as modifed 9 Cr-1 Mo steel. Its elevated-temperature properties and design allowable stresses match those of type 304 stainless steel for temperatures up to 600 0 C and exceed those of other ferritic steels by factors of 2 to 3. The improved strength of this alloy permits its use in place of stainless steels for many applications

  10. Unit rupture work as a criterion for quantitative estimation of hardenability in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarov, M.A.; Orlov, E.D.; Rybakov, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Shown is possible utilization of high sensitivity of resistance to fracture of structural steel to the hardenability degree in the course of hardening to find the quantitative estimation of the latter one. Proposed is a criterion kappa, the ratio of the unit rupture work in the case of incomplete hardenability (asub(Tsub(ih))) under investigation, and the analoguc value obtained in the case of complete hardenability Asub(Tsub(Ch)) at the testing temperature corresponding to the critical temperature Tsub(100(M). Confirmed is high criterion sensitivity of the hardened steel structure on the basis of experimental investigation of the 40Kh, 38KhNM and 38KhNMFA steels after isothermal hold-up at different temperatures, corresponding to production of various products of austenite decomposition

  11. Metastable structure formation during high velocity grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarin, A.N.; Klyuev, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Metastable structures in surface layers of samples are; investigated during force high-velocity abrasive grinding. Samples of martensitic (40Kh13), austenitic (12Kh18N10T), ferritic (05Kh23Yu5) steels and some alloys, in particular KhN77TYuR (EhI437B), were grinded for one pass at treatment depth from 0.17 up to 2.6 mm. It is established that processes of homogenizing, recrystallization and coagulation are; developed during force high-velocity grinding along with polymorphic transformations in the zone of thermomechanical effect, that leads to changes of physical and mechanical properties of the surface

  12. Relationship between thermal embrittlement and hydrogen cracking in 18Ni(250) maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The role of grain boundary precipitate structure on the stress corrosion susceptibility of 18Ni(250) maraging steel was examined. Varying solution treatment procedures were used to achieve either a precipitate-free grain boundary or one containing a high density of Ti(C,N) particles. The introduction of these treatments, although drastically affecting the monotonic fracture toughness, did not significantly alter the stress corrosion threshold in 100 percent relative humidity. These results are shown to be consistent with the previous suggestion that, under open circuit conditions, hydrogen-assisted cracking controls the environmental crack growth behavior of 18Ni maraging steels. (U.S.)

  13. Prognosis of 18 H7N9 avian influenza patients in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Lu

    Full Text Available To provide prognosis of an 18 patient cohort who were confirmed to have H7N9 lung infection in Shanghai.Patients' history, clinical manifestation, laboratory test, treatment strategy and mortality were followed and recorded for data analysis.A total of 18 patients had been admitted into Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from April 8th to July 29, 2013. 22.2% of the patients were found to have live poultry contact history and 80% were aged male patients with multiple co-morbidities including diabetes, hypertension and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This group of patients was admitted to the clinical center around 10 days after disease onset. According to laboratory examinations, increased C reactive protein (CRP, Procalcitonin (PCT, Plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA and virus positive time (days were indicative of patients' mortality. After multivariate analysis, only CRP level showed significant prediction of mortality (P = 0.013 while results of prothrombin time (PT analysis almost reached statistical significance (P = 0.056.H7N9 infection induced pneumonia of different severity ranging from mild to severe pneumonia or acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome to multiple organ failure. Certain laboratory parameters such as plasma CRP, PCT, PTA and virus positive days predicted mortality of H7N9 infection and plasma CRP is an independent predictor of mortality in these patients.

  14. Piercing by composite electrode tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukarimov, Eh.T.; Krakov, B.G.; Saidinov, S.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of the electrode consisting of a dielectric shell, where a working liquid enters, and a metal rod is designed for precision super-deep piercing by the electroerosion treatment method. Technological parameters of piercing with small diameter (0.5-1.9 mm) for 12Kh18N10T steel, copper and tungsten are presented. A possibility to use a new tool for treating components of any form and sizes is marked

  15. Analytical description of changes in the magnetic states of chromium-nickel steel under uniaxial elastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkunov, E. S.; Yakushenko, E. I.; Zadvorkin, S. M.; Mushnikov, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Dependences of magnetization and magnetic permeability of the 15KhN4D structural steel on the value of uniaxial stresses and magnetic field strength are obtained. A polynomial approximation fairly accurately describing the observed changes is proposed on the basis of experimental data.

  16. [Effect of KH2PO4 on the odonto- and osteogenic differentiation potential of human stem cells from apical papillae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-ping; Wu, Jin-tao; Wang, Zi-lu; Zheng, Yang-yu; Zhang, Guang-dong; Yu, Jin-hua

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of KH2PO4 on the odonto- and osteogenic differentiation potential of human stem cells from apical papillae (SCAP) in vitro. SCAP were isolated and cultured respectively in alpha minimum essential medium (α-MEM) or α-MEM containing 1.8 mmol/L KH2PO4. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to examine the odonto and osteogenic potential of SCAP in the two media. SCAP cultured in α-MEM containing 1.8 mmol/L KH2PO4 exhibited a higher ALP activity [(0.370 ± 0.013) Sigma unit×min(-1)×mg(-1)] at day 3 than control group [(0.285 ± 0.008) Sigma unit×min(-1)×mg(-1)] and KH2PO4-treated SCAP formed more calcified nodules at day 5 [(0.539 ± 0.007) µg/g] and day 7 [(1.617 ± 0.042) µg/g] than those in normal medium [(0.138 ± 0.037) µg/g, P odonto- and osteogenic markers were significantly up-regulated after the stimulation of KH2PO4 at day 3 and 7 respectively, as compared with control group. 1.8 mmol/L KH2PO4 can promote the odonto and osteogenic differentiation potential of human SCAP.

  17. Cooling intensification during quenching of power plant components - the way to increase reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    To enchance the complex of mechanical properties and to increase operation time of large components of power facilities, regimes of accelerated cooling are developed. Results of heat treatment with accelerated cooling of turbine rotor of steel 26KhN3M2FAA, disks of turbine welded rotor of steel 20KhN2MFAA, components of steel 35KhN3MFA, are given. Special steels with carbon content less than 0.30% for details of power machine-building are developed

  18. Fatigue damage evolution of cold-worked austenitic nickel-free high-nitrogen steel X13CrMnMoN18-14-3 (1.4452)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhovskiy, I.; Weiss, S.; Fischer, A. [Univ. of Duisburg-Essen, Materials Science and Engineering II, Duisburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the fact that the risk of Ni-allergies becomes more and more important for modern therapies, the necessity of Ni-free implant materials becomes increasingly important. Beside Co- and Ti-base alloys Ni-free high-nitrogen steels may offer an attractive alternative. The present work presents the austenitic high-nitrogen and nickel-free steel X13CrMnMoN18-14-3, (Material No.: 1.4452) after 20% cold-working. In addition this material was deformed under axial cyclic total strain controlled fatigue tests at room temperature. The development of dislocation structure due to different loading amplitudes was compared to none cyclically deformed material. The good mechanical und fatigue properties of these austenitic high-nitrogen steels as well as the better tribological, chemical and biological properties compared to CrNiMo-steels qualify these steels as a promising alternative in medical applications. (orig.)

  19. Close toleranoe forging of chromium steel blades for powerful steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastin, Eh.G.; Kositskij, Yu.N.; Lyubchits, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Work on simulating technological process on die-forging hammer was performed in order to reduce the preparation period bringing technology of close tolerance forging of turbine blades to a commercial level. A special attention was paid to development of accurate forming of forgings of 20Kh13Sh, 12Kh13 and 15Kh11MFSh steels on screw presses with nominal effort equal to 80 and 144 MN

  20. Structure and properties of joints of two-ply steel using ''elastic'' explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'man, A.S.; Savel'ev, S.A.; Kulakevich, Ya.S.; Sharypov, N.A.; Drogovejko, I.Z.; Domolego, I.E.

    1980-01-01

    Some experimental data on structure and properties of compounds during cladding of sheets made of St3 with sheets of nichrome and steel 12Kh18N10T with the use of ''elastic'' explosives are presented. It is shown that the use of ''elastic'' explosives permits to decrease r parameter sufficiently, (where r - is the ratio of explosive mass to the mass of throwen phate) that reduces considerably the specific consumption explosives in comparison with the consumption conventional mixture explosives. Peculiarities of tested ''elastic'' explosives make their application perspective in two cases - at cladding of complex curved surfaces (drums, tube blanks etc.), as sell as at applications of burst chambers, where explosive mass limits dimensions of cladding blanks and details [ru

  1. Helium-induced weld degradation of HT-9 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chin-An; Chin, B.A.; Lin, Hua T.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Helium-bearing Sandvik HT-9 ferritic steel was tested for weldability to simulate the welding of structural components of a fusion reactor after irradiation. Helium was introduced into HT-9 steel to 0.3 and 1 atomic parts per million (appm) by tritium doping and decay. Autogenous single pass full penetration welds were produced using the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process under laterally constrained conditions. Macroscopic examination showed no sign of any weld defect in HT-9 steel containing 0.3 appm helium. However, intergranular micro cracks were observed in the HAZ of HT-9 steel containing 1 appm helium. The microcracking was attributed to helium bubble growth at grain boundaries under the influence of high stresses and temperatures that were present during welding. Mechanical test results showed that both yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) decreased with increasing temperature, while the total elongation increased with increasing temperature for all control and helium-bearing HT-9 steels

  2. Parameter optimization for steel quenching by C02-laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moryashchev, S.F.; Kislitsyn, A.A.; Kosyrev, F.K.

    1984-01-01

    The dependence of average absorption factor on maximal temperature of the article surface during quenching by CO 2 -laser irradiation was determined empirically. The calculations of depth of a hardening zone and process productivity in 40 Kh, 4Kh13 steels and Armco-iron with regard to this dependence were conducted

  3. Account of internal friction when estimating recoverable creep strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidov, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    It is supposed that a difference of empirical and calculated data on the creep strain recovery for Kh18N10T steel under conditions of cyclic variations in stress is specified by the effect of internal friction. In the accepted model of creep β-flow is considered to be reversible and γ-flow- irreversible. Absorptivity is determined as a ratio of the difference between the expended work and work of strain recovery forces to the work expended in cycle. A notion of the equivalent stress acting in the period of the creep strain recovery is introduced. Results of the calculation according to the empirical formula where absorptivity was introduced into are compared with empirical data obtained for Kh18N10T steel at 750 deg C

  4. Sàng khôn as A Theorizing Tool in Mobility Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Ba Doan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current virtual and physical mobility of humans, ideas, knowledge and epistemologies has major implications for education, especially in settings where English is seen as the default medium of instruction. While diversity is inherent in mobility, English-only pedagogy is a denial of the richness and potential of diverse resources learners bring with them through their mobility. This paper reports a philosophical stance and pedagogical practices employed by a lecturer in English language education at an Australian university. It argues that students’ full linguistic resources and epistemologies, known as sàng khôn, contribute to their agency and can be used as tools to theorise new knowledge in the context of their mobility education.

  5. Microstructural defect evolution in neutron – Irradiated 12Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel during subsequent isochronous annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsay, K.V.; Maksimkin, O.P.; Turubarova, L.G.; Rofman, O.V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics NNC RK, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Garner, F.A., E-mail: frank.garner@dslextreme.com [Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements were used to examine changes in microstructure and associated strengthening induced in austenitic stainless steel 12Cr18Ni9Ti irradiated to ∼0.001 and ∼5 dpa in the WWR-K reactor before and after being subjected to post-irradiation isochronal annealing. The relatively low values of irradiation temperature and dpa rate (∼80 °C and ∼1.2 × 10{sup −8} dpa/s) experienced by this steel allowed characterization of defect microstructures over a wide range of defect ensembles, all at constant composition, produced first by irradiation and then by annealing at temperatures between 450 and 1050 °C. It was shown that the dispersed barrier hardening model with commonly accepted physical properties successfully predicted the observed hardening. It was also observed that when TiC precipitates form at higher annealing temperatures, the alloy does not change in hardness, reflecting a balance between precipitate-hardening and matrix-softening due to removal of solute-strengthening elements titanium and carbon. Such matrix-softening is not often considered in other studies, especially where the contribution of precipitates to hardening is a second-order effect.

  6. Microstructural defect evolution in neutron – Irradiated 12Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel during subsequent isochronous annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, K.V.; Maksimkin, O.P.; Turubarova, L.G.; Rofman, O.V.; Garner, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements were used to examine changes in microstructure and associated strengthening induced in austenitic stainless steel 12Cr18Ni9Ti irradiated to ∼0.001 and ∼5 dpa in the WWR-K reactor before and after being subjected to post-irradiation isochronal annealing. The relatively low values of irradiation temperature and dpa rate (∼80 °C and ∼1.2 × 10 −8 dpa/s) experienced by this steel allowed characterization of defect microstructures over a wide range of defect ensembles, all at constant composition, produced first by irradiation and then by annealing at temperatures between 450 and 1050 °C. It was shown that the dispersed barrier hardening model with commonly accepted physical properties successfully predicted the observed hardening. It was also observed that when TiC precipitates form at higher annealing temperatures, the alloy does not change in hardness, reflecting a balance between precipitate-hardening and matrix-softening due to removal of solute-strengthening elements titanium and carbon. Such matrix-softening is not often considered in other studies, especially where the contribution of precipitates to hardening is a second-order effect

  7. Fatigue Resistance of GX12CrMoVNbN9-1 Cast Steel after Ageing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław MROZIŃSKI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, low cycle fatigue behaviour of GX12CrMoVNbN9-1 (GP91 cast steel is presented. Fatigue tests were performed under isothermal conditions at room temperature and at 550 and 600oC, on five levels of total strain amplitude value ɛac = 0.25÷0.60%. The cast steel subject to investigation was in the as-received condition (after heat treatment and after 8000 hours of ageing at the temperature of 600oC. Performed research has shown an insignificant influence of the ageing process on mechanical properties of GP91 cast steel, determined with the static test of tension. Analysis of the performed tests has proved that GP91 cast steel in the as-received condition and after ageing process was characterized by strong cyclic softening without a clear period of stabilization of the hysteresis loop parameters. The fatigue lifetime curves at each temperature were obtained based on Basquin and Coffin – Manson equations. The process of ageing of GP91 cast steel contributed to a decrease in its fatigue life Nf from a few to a few dozen percent, and the level of fatigue life was dependent on the value of strain amplitude ɛac. It has also been stated that the fatigue life Nf of GP91 cast steel is determined by its plastic properties, and the degree of changes in fatigue life Nf was dependent not only on the temperature of testing, but also on the value of strain amplitude ɛac. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6077

  8. Nitrogen ion implantation effect on friction coefficient of tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, N.I.; Udovenko, V.F.; Markus, A.M.; Presnyakova, G.N.; Gamulya, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of nitrogen molecular ion implantation into KhVSG steel on the friction coefficient in the air and vacuum is investigated. Irradiation is carried out by the N 2 + beam with energy 120 keV and flux density 5 μ/cm 2 at room temperature in vacuum 5x10 -4 Pa. The integral dose of irradiation is 10 17 particle/cm 2 . Nitrogen ion implantation is shown to provide the formation of the modified layer changing friction properties of steel. The friction coefficient can either increase or decrease depending on implantation and test conditions. 4 refs.; 2 figs

  9. Estimation of the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Steel from Its HB and HV Hardness Numbers and Coercive Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandomirskii, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    A formula is derived to accurately describe the tabulated relation between the Brinell ( HB) and Vickers ( HV) hardnesses of steel over the entire range of their possible variation. This formula and the formulas describing the relation between the HB hardness of chromium-molybdenum and chromium-nickel steels and their ultimate tensile strength σu are used to analyze the change in σu of 38KhNM steel upon quenching and tempering. The data that reveal a relation between σu of 38KhNM steel and its coercive force are obtained.

  10. KH 2PO4 as a novel catalyst for regioselective monobromination of aralkyl ketones using N-bromosuccinimide: a green methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Md. Khaja Mohinuddin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple, regioselective and green method has been developed for the preparation of monobrominated ketones from various aralkyl ketones by using N-bromosuccinimide in presence of KH 2PO 4 in EtOH at reflux temperature. The present method is of short reaction time and simple with excellent isolated yields of products. The use of eco-friendly solvent, reuse of organic waste (succinimide and recyclable catalyst used for 4 times without loss of activity are advantageous. This is the first example of the use of KH 2PO 4 as a useful catalyst in organohalogen chemistry and the present method meets reduce-reuse-recycle (RRR principle towards development of green protocol.

  11. Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of stainless steels D9 and HT9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibowitz, L.; Blomquist, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Renewed interest in the use of metallic fuels in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors has prompted study of the thermodynamic and transport properties of its materials. Two stainless steels are of particular interest because of their good performance under irradiation. These are D9, an austenitic steel, and HT9, a ferritic steel. Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion data for these alloys are of particular interest in assessing in-reactor behavior. Because literature data were inadequate, measurements of these two properties for the two steels were performed and are reported to 1200 K. Of particular interest is the influence on these properties of a phase transition in HT9

  12. Influence of Nb content on grain size and mechanical properties of 18 wt% Cr ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Mao, W.M., E-mail: weiminmao@263.net [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen, Y.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Jing, J.; Cheng, M. [Taizhou Xinyu Precision Manufacture Company Limited, Jiangyan 225500, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-11-20

    The influence of Nb contents between 0.20 and 1.20 wt% on the grain size and mechanical properties of 18 wt% Cr ferritic stainless steel produced by investment casting was investigated. The average grain sizes of the three steels decreased apparently with increasing Nb content mainly due to the increasing number of pre-existing oxides formed at higher temperature, which were more likely to be the nuclei of heterogeneous nucleation. The thermodynamic analysis of Nb(C,N) formation was in conformity to the experimental result that the Nb(C,N) precipitates became larger with increasing Nb content. The as-cast specimen with the smallest grain size of steel C had the worse tensile strength and elongation in comparison with the as-cast specimens of steels A and B, mostly owing to the catenarian and dendritic Nb(C,N) particles distributed densely at the grain boundaries. The mechanical properties of specimens were not improved remarkably through high temperature solid-solution, whereas the mechanical properties of normalized specimens in the three steels were improved to different degrees. The coalescence and sparse distribution of smaller precipitates at grain boundaries after normalizing effectively weakened the local stress concentration arising from the reticular distribution of particles. The normalized specimen of steel A with 0.24 wt% Nb still showed good mechanical properties. Normalizing at 850 °C for 2 h is the appropriate heat treatment for the 18 wt% Cr ferritic stainless steel. The comparatively rational Nb content of the ferritic stainless steel is between 0.20 and 0.40 wt% for investment casting production.

  13. Synergistic enhancing effect of N+C alloying on cyclic deformation behaviors in austenitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, J. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, F.C., E-mail: zfc@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Long, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Z.N. [National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2014-07-29

    Cyclic plastic and elastic strain controlled deformation behaviors of Mn18Cr7 austenitic steel with N0.6C0.3 synergistic enhancing alloying have been investigated using tension-compression low cycle fatigue and three-point bending high cycle fatigue testing. Results of cyclic deformation characteristic and fatigue damage mechanism have been compared to that in Mn12C1.2 steel. Mn18Cr7N0.6C0.3 steel always shows cyclic softening caused by enhanced planar sliding due to the interaction between N+C and the substitutional atoms as well as the dislocation, which is totally different from cyclic hardening in Mn12C1.2 steel caused by the interaction between C members of C–Mn couples with the dislocation. Enhanced effective stress is obtained due to the solid solution strengthening effect caused by the short range order at low strain amplitude while this effect does not work at high strain amplitude. Internal stress contributes most to the cyclic softening with the increase of strain amplitudes. Significant planar slip characteristic can be observed resulting from low stacking fault energy and high short range order effects in Mn18Cr7N0.6C0.3 steel and finally the parallel or intersecting thin sheets with dislocation tangles separated by dislocation free sheets are obtained with the prolonged cycles under cyclic elastic or plastic strain controlled fatigue testing. There exist amounts of small cracks on the surface of the Mn18Cr7N0.6C0.3 steel because fatigue crack initiation is promoted by the cyclic plastic strain localization. However, the zigzag configuration of the cracks reveals that the fatigue crack propagation is highly inhibited by the planar slip characteristic, which eventually improves the fatigue life.

  14. Crustal Structure of Khövsgöl, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A. M.; Meltzer, A.; Stachnik, J.; Russo, R.; Munkhuu, U.; Tsagaan, B.

    2017-12-01

    Mongolia is part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, an accretionary event that spanned 800 million years from the mid-Proterozoic to mid-Phanerozoic. As a result of the past collisional and rifting events, the modern Khövsgöl rift system of northern Mongolia contains a heterogeneous lithospheric structure. The current rift system has three parallel N-S trending basins that roughly align with terrane boundaries. Structures inherited during the accretionary events may be a factor influencing regional deformation. The forces that drive local deformation are not well understood, but varying processes have been proposed: far-field effects of India-Eurasian plate convergence, westward subduction of the Pacific plate, magmatic underplating at the base of the crust, mantle plume activity, and asthenospheric mantle convection. Determining the nature of crustal features within this poorly understood region may illuminate processes that control rifting within intracontinental settings. A network of 26 broadband seismic stations encompassing 200 square kilometers of the Khövsgöl rift system were deployed from August 2014 to June 2016. More than 2100 events were detected, and most earthquakes were concentrated near rift structures. Events between Busiin-Gol and Darkhad, the westernmost and central basins of the Khövsgöl rift system, are distributed within the crust. An active fault is outlined along the eastern border of the Darkhad basin. Khövsgöl earthquakes bound both sides of the rift. Along the northern border of Lake Khövsgöl, seismic events define a shallow active fault orthogonal to the basin. The largest event recorded within the network was a magnitude ml=5.2 located near the northeastern border of Lake Khövsgöl on 12-05-2014. The focal mechanism of this earthquake is predominantly strike-slip, but also includes an extensional component. This work focuses on earthquake relocation and calculating moment tensors and focal mechanisms of larger regional

  15. Influence of damage rate on physical and mechanical properties and swelling of 18Cr-9Ni austenitic steel in the range of 3.10-9 to 4.10-8 dpa/sec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, E.N.; Kozlov, A.V.; Yagovitin, R.I.; Evseev, M.V.; Kinev, E.A.; Isobe, Y.; Sagisaka, M.; Okita, T.; Sekimura, N.; Garner, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Whereas most data on radiation-induced changes in mechanical properties or dimensional stability needed for fusion - relevant dpa levels and dpa rates are generated at relatively high neutron flux in fast reactors, many fusion and fission components will operate at much lower dpa rates. Much less data are available from long-lived structural components operating at very low flux levels. In addition most published data were generated from relatively thin specimens (∼1-2 mm or less), while some actual fusion structural components can be on the order of 1-2 cm thick. In this study we have examined a 9 cm diameter pipe constructed from Fe-18Cr-9Ni steel analogous to AISI 304 that stayed outside the core of BN-600 for 22 years. The walls of the pipe were 2 cm thick and experienced temperatures in the range 370-375 deg. C. The walls were sectioned into 5 slices at a number of positions to yield doses in the range 1.5 to 22 dpa at 3 x 10 -9 to 4 x 10 -8 dpa/s. Changes in elastic moduli were studied using an ultrasonic technique and changes in electrical resistivity and mechanical properties of the 18Cr9Ni austenitic steel was examined. Swelling was measured both by immersion density and electron microscopy, reaching a maximum of ∼3 %. Swelling appears to be accelerated somewhat at these lower dpa rates as observed in other recent studies. Tensile properties were also measured. Radiation-induced changes of electrical resistivity, Young's and shear moduli were observed but did not agree fully with predictions based on voids alone. Strong contributions from second phase precipitates were found to be contributing to changes in both physical and mechanical properties. (authors)

  16. Behaviour of glass and thermal protective coatings on stainless steels in the nitrogen tetroxide based coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalin, Yu.I.; Dobrunova, V.M.; Doroshkevich, V.N.; Nesterenko, V.B.; Trubnikov, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    The technology of application of glass and enamel protective coatings on stainless steel has been examined, their testing in the medium of nitrogen tetroxide based coolant with different content of nitric acid has been carried out, the basic characteristics of the coatings after testing have been defined. Chromium-nickel austenitic 12kh18n10t steel, widely used in the nuclear power, have been chosen as a basic object of examination. The coatings have been tested in nitrogen oxide at P=12.0 MPa, temperature 310 deg C and 0.1% HNO 3 , and also in the medium of vat residue of the rectifying tower with nitric acid content up to 25 mass %. Tests of the coatings have demonstrated their sufficiently high stability, especially of those based on enamels A-20 and BK-5. These coatings are characterised by satisfactory performance and can be used for corrosion protection of the materials used in nuclear power

  17. PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER MENURUT KH. WAHID HASYIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangga Sa’adillah S. A. P.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This library research examined two research questions. They are what thoughts of KH. Wahid Hasyim about the character education are and how the concept of character education by KH. Wahid Hasyim is relevant to the current condition of education in Indonesia. This study reveals two findings through an inductive analysis. The chief finding of this study is that there are eight characteristic values taught by KH.Wahid Hasyim including religious, tolerant, independent, democratic, patriotic, nasionalist, communicative, and keen on reading. Second, this study disclosed that the thought of character education by KH. Wahid Hasyim is in line with the goal of character education. He strove to build a multicultural national life, educate an intelligent civilization, build a noble character, encourage people to contribute to the development of human life, and develop the potential of having kind hearts, positive thoughts and good behavior as well as exemplary models. He also sought to generate enthusiasm of citizens to keep the peace, creativity, independence, and to be able to coexist with other nations in a harmony.

  18. Review of Z phase precipitation in 9–12 wt-%Cr steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2016-01-01

    For high temperature applications, 9–12 wt-%Cr steels in fossil fired power plants rely upon precipitate strengthening from (V,Nb)N MX nitrides for long term creep strength. During prolonged exposure at service temperature, another nitride precipitates: Cr(V,Nb)NZ phase. The Z phases lowly replace......MX, eventually causing a breakdown in creep strength. The present paper reviews the Z phase and its behaviour in 9–12 wt-%Cr steels including thermodynamic modelling, crystal structure, nucleation process and precipitation rate as a function of chemical composition. The influence of Z phase precipitation upon...

  19. Enhancement of strength properties of hot rolled 10KHSND steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasibov, A.G.; Popova, L.V.; Pikulin, S.A.; Globa, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    To find out the reasons of low hot rolling yield for 10KhSND steel sheets in mechanical properties, titanium effect in the range of 0.008-0.03% concentrations is studied. It is established that the titanium content in a solid solution is conserved within 0.003-0.005%, the rest of titanium is bound to carbonitrides Ti(C, N). It is shown that alloys with 0.025-0.03% titanium content possess the increased values of ultimate and yield strength the necessary level of impact strength and good wealdability. The good steel yield, when the titanium content is sustained at the given level, increases from 40 to 85%

  20. Cold-rolled sheets production of stainless martensite-ageing steel smelted by vacuum arc and electroslag techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, A A; Grishkov, A I; Suslin, A P; Nesterenko, A A; Lola, V N [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-05-01

    In cooperation with a number of metallurgical works the production of a high strength sheet stainless maraging steel EHP678 (000KH11N10M2T) has been tested by rolling cylindrical ingots of vacuum arc smelting at the blooming (the mass of rough ingots was 5.1 to 6.0 t, that of cleaned ingots - 3.8 to 5.1 t) or rectangular ingots of electroslag smelting (13 t) at the slabbing. The recommended regimes of heating and deformation are much similar to those used for the steel-KH18N10T. The output of valid cold-rolled sheets proved to be rather low (0.24 t/t for the vacuum arc smelting and 0.30 t/t for the electroslag smelting) mainly due to the losses on cleaning and a considerable portion of wrong-size slabs. The data are presented on the steel-EHP678 properties after various heat treatments. For the production of wide cold-rolled sheets of the steel EHP678 it is recommended to use steelmaking procedure with electroslag smelting including open-hearth melting in arc furnaces, rolling of ingots at the slabbing with heating up to 1260-1280 deg C (hold-up of 4.5 to 5 hrs); electroslag smelting for rectangular section slabs, rolling of ingots of electroslag smelting at the slabbing with their heating up to 1250 deg C (hold-up of 5.5 to 6 hrs), rolling at the 1680-type mill with heating up to 1250-1260 deg C (hold-up of 4 to 4.5 hrs ensuring the rolling temperature after a rough group not below 1100 deg C), quenching of hot-rolled sheets heating up to 920-940 deg C (hold-up of 3 to 3.5 min/mm), shot peening of sheets for descaling (provided the respective equipment is available) with a subsequent short-time pickling in an acid solution and cold rolling with a summary deformation of 35 to 45 %. The steelmaking with the electroslag smelting is much more profitable as regards to the fine technology of number of the main procedures, convenient cooperation of the works and a considerably greater output of the final products out of one ton of the steel produced.

  1. Microstructural characterization of 5-9% chromium reduced-activation steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaram, R.; Klueh, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The microstructures of a 9Cr-2W-0.25-0.1C (9Cr-2WV), a 9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa), a 7Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (7Cr-2WVTa), and a 5Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (5Cr-2WVTa) steel (all compositions are in weight percent) have been characterized by Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) and Atom Probe Field Ion Microscopy (APFIM). The matrix in all four reduced-activation steels was 100% martensite. In the two 9Cr steels, the stable precipitates were blocky M 23 C 6 and small spherical MC. The two lower-chromium steels contained blocky M 7 C 3 and small needle-shaped carbonitrides in addition to M 23 C 6 . AEM and APFIM analysis revealed that in the steels containing tantalum, the majority of the tantalum was in solid solution. The experimental observations were in good agreement with phases and compositions predicted by phase equilibria calculations

  2. Investigation of thermal fatigue of chromium-molybdenum steels, used for calcining and agglomeration constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyavskij, D.P.; Gorkalo, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    The technique for investigating thermal fatigue of materials is described. The data on sample stress deformed state and current temperature values are taken from the local volume of the material studied. Results of investigating thermal fatigue of the 15KhMl and 20KhMl steels are presented

  3. Measurement of high temperature elastic moduli of an 18Cr-9Ni-2.95 Cu-0.58 Nb-0.1C (Wt %) austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Sudha, C.; Raju, S.; Saibaba, Saroja

    2018-04-01

    The Young's modulus (E) and Shear modulus (G) of an indigenously developed 18Cr-9Ni-0.1C-2.95 Cu-0.58Nb (wt %) austenitic stainless steel has been evaluated in the temperature range 298 K to 1273 K (25 °C to 1000 °C), using Impulse excitation technique (IET). The Bulk modulus (K) and the poison's ratio have been estimated from the measured values of E and G. It is observed that the elastic constants (E, G and K) are found to decrease in a nonlinear fashion with increase in temperature. The Cu precipitation is found to influence the elastic moduli of the steel in the cooling cycle. The observed elastic moduli are fitted to 3rd order polynomial equations in order to describe the temperature dependence of E, G, K moduli in the temperature range 298-1273 K (25 °C to 1000 °C). The room temperature values of E,G and K moduli is found to be 207, 82 and 145 GPa respectively for the present steel.

  4. Resistance to pitting corrosion in ferritic and austenitic/ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bouvier, O.

    1995-01-01

    Stainless steel tubes carrying raw water are potentially vulnerable to pitting corrosion. With a view to minimizing the corrosion risk in the river-water-cooled condensers at PWR power plant, a study was conducted to determine initiation conditions and incubation durations for pitting corrosion in stagnant water. As a result, condenser tubes in Z2 CI 18 (439) or Z2 CT 18-10 (304L) steels were phased out in favour of Z2 CND 16-32 (316L) stainless steel. The same question can be yield for other applications and especially for all types of exchangers for use in electrical applications. This study sought to assess alternative methods for estimating pitting corrosion, and to check the results of these methods against the actual behaviour of studied steels. The study covered ferritic steels (439, 444, 290Mo), austenitic steel (316L) and austenitic/ferritic steels (Uranus 35N, 45N, 47N, 52N). Two approaches were adopted: laboratory tests to compare pitting corrosion risks on different materials, and tests for characterizing the behaviour of steels exposed to river water. The study begins with a laboratory tests that yield an arbitrary parameter for quantifying pitting corrosion resistance. One method involves measuring the pitting temperature in an aggressive ferric chloride solution. Other methods measure the pitting potential, either statistically (Multipit method) or deterministically (polarization curve). We then go on to discuss tests under simulated life-like conditions, involving repeated immersions in water from the Seine. (author). 9 refs., 13 figs, 9 tabs

  5. Microstructural stability of 21-6-9 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenzer, R.W.; Sanderson, E.C.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to better define parameters for thermomechanical processing of 21-6-9 stainless steel. This steel is one of the nitrogen-strengthened chromium, manganese, and nickel austenitic stainless steels having mechanical properties that can be improved by a combination of plastic deformation and heat treatments. By heat-treating coupons, the time-temperature relationship of the precipitate phase, and the solutionizing, recrystallizing, and stress-relieving temperature ranges in 21-6-9 were established. Secondly, mechanical properties and microstructure as a function of percent deformation and stress-relieving temperature are reported

  6. On superplasticity of corrosion resistant ferritic-austenitic chromium-nickel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surovtsev, A P; Sukhanov, V E

    1988-01-01

    The deformability of corrosion resistant chromium-nickel ferritic austenitic steel type O8Kh22N6T under tension, upsetting and torsion in the 600-1200 deg C temperature range is studied. For the deformation rate of the order of 10/sup -3/ s/sup -1/ the effect of superelasticity reveals itself at 850 deg C in the process of ferrite dynamic polymerization, in the 925-950 deg C range, at initial stages of dynamic recrystallization - the dynamic polygonization controlled by chromium carbide dissolving in steel and maximum at 1050 deg C in the process of development of austenite dynamic recrystallization with grain refinement with F/A ratio equalling 1. After upsetting in the elasticity mode at 1050 deg C the impact strength of the above steel is maximum.

  7. Relationships of quenching stresses to structural transformations in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loshkarev, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    Technique for accountancy of the effect of stresses on structural transformations in steel when solving problems of thermoplasticity is suggested. It is revealed on the basis of the conducted calculations that accountancy of interrelation of stressed and structural states of 20Kh2MF steel essentially affects forecasting of results of quenching

  8. Peculiar features of determination of plastic properties in bimetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, A.V.; Zhadan, V.T.; Osadchij, V.A.; Rumyantsev, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Method for calculating relative elongation of sheet bimetal on the basis of data of plastic characteristics of bimetal components has been developed. Results of calculation according to suggested method differ slightly from experimental values. It was shown analytically and supported by experiments (taking St3+12Kh18N10T samples, 45+Kh12 steel as examples), that the value of bimetal area reduction coincides with the value of area reduction of less plastic component

  9. Microstructural characterization of 5-9% chromium reduced-activation steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaram, R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The microstructures of a 9Cr-2W-0.25-0.1C (9Cr-2WV), a 9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa), a 7Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (7Cr-2WVTa), and a 5Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (5Cr-2WVTa) steel (all compositions are in weight percent) have been characterized by Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) and Atom Probe Field Ion Microscopy (APFIM). The matrix in all four reduced-activation steels was 100% martensite. In the two 9Cr steels, the stable precipitates were blocky M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and small spherical MC. The two lower-chromium steels contained blocky M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and small needle-shaped carbonitrides in addition to M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. AEM and APFIM analysis revealed that in the steels containing tantalum, the majority of the tantalum was in solid solution. The experimental observations were in good agreement with phases and compositions predicted by phase equilibria calculations.

  10. Influence of anisotropic hardening on longitudinal welding strains and stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatovskij, K.M.; Revutskij, M.N.

    1981-01-01

    The algorithm and program for estimation of longitudinal welding strains and stresses with account of hardening and Bauschinger effect, which expand the possibilities of more complete description of stress change during thermodeformation welding cycles at bead surfacing on plate made of the 06Kh18N9T steel and AMg61 alloy. It is shown that for metals, deformation curves which are characterized by considerable yield moduli (Esub(T)/E>=0.05) hardening effect is considerable and its account leads to the decrease of stress level in the heataffected zone (down to 20%) [ru

  11. Corrosion of stainless steel in alcohol solutions of the simplest carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigdorovich, V.I.; Korneeva, T.V.; Tsygankova, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    The behaviour of stainless Kh18N10T steel is considered in the methanol and ethanol solutions of formic and acetic acids, respectively. Consideration is given to the effect of the concentration (C) of the acid (0.01-1.00 N), water (0.1-20.0 mass.%) and temperature (room temperature, 40 and 60 deg C). Curves of anodic polarization were plotted. In the course of time in 1.0 and 0.5 N anhydrous methanol solutions of HCOOH at room temperature in the absence of the external anode current one can observe an increase in the electrode potential. Continued reduction of the formic acid concentration results in an improvement on the initial potential (psi) and a practical constancy of psi in time. It is shown that depending on the acid concentration the additions of water are capable of producing both a passivating and an activating effect. It is assumed that the growth in the length of the hydrocarbon radical of carboxylic acid promotes the adsorption displacement of water and alcohols from the metal surface and enhancement of the corrosion rate

  12. Influence of Z-phase on long-term creep stability of martensitic 9-12% Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsen, Hilmar K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hald, John [DONG Energy A/S (Denmark); Vattenfall (Denmark)

    2010-07-01

    The long-term creep strength of the new generation of martensitic creep resistant 9-12%Cr steels since the well-known steel Grade 91 relies strongly on particle strengthening by fine Mn nitrides based on V and Nb. During long-term high-temperature exposures the Mn nitrides may be replaced by the thermodynamically more stable Z-phases (Cr(V,Nb)N) causing a breakdown in creep strength. Cr contents above 10.5% strongly accelerate Z-phase precipitation, which explains the lack of success for all attempts to develop martensitic creep resistant steels with high Cr content for oxidation protection. However 9%Cr steels do not seem to be affected by the Z-phase. Careful control of the Z-phase precipitation process has led to the design of experimental 12%Cr martensitic steels strengthened by fine Z-phase nitrides based on Nb or Ta. Such steels may again enable the combination of high strength and oxidation resistance in the same alloy. This opens a new pathway for further alloy development of the heat resistant martensitic steels. (orig.)

  13. Effect of reactor irradiation on long-term strength and creep of 0Kh16N15M3B steel under plane stressed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristov, G.P.; Kosov, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of results of experimental studies in creep of the austenitic OKh16n15m3b steel with various size of initial-structure grain under conditions of high-intensity reactor irradiation and control tests. It is suggested to consider the material initial structure effect on intensity of minimum creep rates both under ordinary and intrareactor conditions of loading by means of the function grain size effect on the equivalent stress. It is shown that the criterial expression previously suggested by the authors is invariant to the type of stressed and structural states and relative to intensity of minimal creep rates. It is established that the creep rate of the irradiated steel may be calculated from dependence for nonirradiated steel using as an argument a certain reduced equivalent stress which is a function of the acting stress and irradiation parameter

  14. Kankaan tuotekehittäminen erikoisolosuhteisiin K&H Annala Oy:lle

    OpenAIRE

    Koski, Marjo

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö tehtiin yhteistyössä Suomen ainoan huonekalukankaita valmistavan yrityksen K&H Annala Oy:n kanssa. Työn aiheena oli suunnitella ja tuotteistaa kangasmallisto erikoisolosuhteisiin innovatiivisesta, Italiassa valmistettavasta Flyer-langasta. Projektin lähtökohtana oli opinnäytetyöntekijän kasvava kiinnostuneisuus kudottuja tekstiilejä kohtaan ja kankaan suunnitteluprosessin vieminen teollisen tuotannon puolelle. Projektissa tähdättiin uudentyyppiseen kankaaseen ilmeen ja materiaali...

  15. Optimum tungsten content in high strength 9 to 12% chromium containing creep resistant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Muraki, T.; Mimura, H.

    2000-01-01

    Tungsten containing ferritic creep resistant steels are the candidate materials for ultra-super-critical fossil power plant because of their high creep rupture strength. But the strengthening mechanisms by tungsten addition have not yet been completely studied. In this report, creep rupture time and creep strain rate measurement decided the optimum tungsten content in 9 to 12% chromium ferritic steels. The precipitation behavior of Laves phase and the precise discussion of creep strain rate analyses explain the contribution of Laves phase at the lath boundary and the contribution of tungsten in solid solution. P92 contains the optimum amount of tungsten and chromium, 1.8 mass% and 9 mass% respectively judging from the creep rupture strength point of view. (orig.)

  16. Manufacture of tube billets for fuel cans by vacuum centrifugal casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskij, V.F.; Neklyudov, I.M.; Chernyj, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Vacuum device for induction melting with centrifugal casting in the ingot mold with rotation vertical or horisontal axis is presented. Removing and grinding of nonmetallic inclusions are realized by selection of casting conditions and of chemically active reducer, sound metal with high ductility is obtained. Data on micro- and macrostructure of casted tube billets made of 08Kh18N10T and 06Kh16H15M3B stainless steels, designed for manufacture of fuel cans are presented

  17. Optimum alloy compositions in reduced-activation martensitic 9Cr steels for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Noda, T.; Okada, M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain potential reduced-activation ferritic steels suitable for fusion reactor structures, the effect of alloying elements W and V on the microstructural evolution, toughness, high-temperature creep and irradiation hardening behavior was investigated for simple 9Cr-W and 9Cr-V steels. The creep strength of the 9Cr-W steels increased but their toughness decreased with increasing W concentration. The 9Cr-V steels exhibited poor creep rupture strength, far below that of a conventional 9Cr-1MoVNb steel and poor toughness after aging at 873 K. It was also found that the Δ-ferrite should be avoided, because it degraded both the roughness and high-temperature creep strength. Based on the results on the simple steels, optimized martensitic 9Cr steels were alloy-designed from a standpoint of enough thoughness and high-temperature creep strength. Two kinds of optimized 9Cr steels with low and high levels of W were obtained; 9Cr-1WVTa and 9Cr-3WVTa. These steels indeed exhibited excellent toughness and creep strength, respectively. The 9Cr-1WVTa steel exhibiting an excellent roughness was shown to be the most promising for relatively low-temperature application below 500deg C, where irradiation embrittlement is significant. The 9Cr-3WVTa steel was the most promising for high temperature application above 500deg C from the standpoint of enough high-temperature strength. (orig.)

  18. Creep constitutive equation of dual phase 9Cr-ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasegawa, Hideo; Ukai, Shigeharu; Tamura, Manabu; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ogiwara, Hiroyuki; Kohyama, Akira; Fujiwara, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    9Cr-ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened) steels developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) have superior creep properties compared with conventional heat resistant steels. The ODS steels can enormously contribute to practical applications of fast breeder reactors and more attractive fusion reactors. Key issues are developments of material processing procedures for mass production and creep life prediction methods in present R and D. In this study, formulation of creep constitutive equation was performed against the backdrop. The 9Cr-ODS steel displaying an excellent creep property is a dual phase steel. The ODS steel is strengthened by the δ ferrite which has a finer dispersion of oxide particles and shows a higher hardness than the α' martensite. The δ ferrite functions as a reinforcement in the dual phase 9Cr-ODS steel. Its creep behavior is very unique and cannot be interpreted by conventional theories of heat resistant steels. Alternative qualitative model of creep mechanism was formulated at the start of this study using the results of microstructural observations. Based on the alternative creep mechanism model, a novel creep constitutive equation was formulated using the exponential type creep equation extended by a law of mixture

  19. Numerical simulation of Cr2N age-precipitation in high nitrogen stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Q.X.; Yuan, Z.Z.; Luo, X.M.; Cheng, X.N.

    2004-01-01

    At the temperature raging from 700 to 950 deg. C, the Cr 2 N age-precipitation in high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels Fe24Mn18Cr3Ni0.62N was investigated in this paper. A qualitative mathematical model of Cr 2 N age-precipitation, ln t S = f (Me,1/T), was established based on the thermodynamics and kinetics and phase transformation theories. Satisfactory results were obtained by means of the test of artificial neural network. This mathematical model can be applied to the calculation design and predication of Cr 2 N age-precipitation in high nitrogen stainless steels

  20. Hot deformation effect on the kinetics of austenite transformation under continuous cooling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernshtejn, M.L.; Zajmovskij, V.A.; Kisteh, N.V.; Samedov, O.V.; Faldin, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of hot deformation on the kinetics of austenite transformations in the commercial 4040Kh 40KhN, and 40KhNMA steels on continuous cooling was studied. The transformations were studied using a dilatometer of a special design which permits a specimen to be fixed quickly in holders after hot deformation. It is stated that in hot-deformed austenite the pearlite transformation proceeds at higher temperatures and in a narrower temperature range. Austenite deformation provides an opportunity to obtain a more fine ferrite-pearlite structure and ensures a uniform distribution of a structurally free ferrite in the steel bulk. The effect of hot deformation on the structure of ferrite decomposition products in the 40KhN and 40KhNMA steels is more complicated, which is connected with a substantial change in the kinetics of pearlite and intermediate transformations

  1. Long-term behaviour of heat-resistant steels and high-temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 10 lectures with the following subjects: On the effect of thermal pretreatment on the structure and creep behaviour of the alloy 800 H (V. Guttmann, J. Timm); Material properties of heat resistant ferritic and austenitic steels after cold forming (W. Bendick, H. Weber); Investigations for judging the working behaviour of components made of alloy 800 and alloy 617 under creep stress (H.J. Penkalla, F. Schubert); Creep behaviour of gas turbine materials in hot gas (K.H. Kloos et al.); Effect of small cold forming on the creep beahviour of gas turbine blades made of Nimonic 90 (K.H. Keienburg et al.); Investigations on creep fatigue alternating load strength of nickel alloys (G. Raule); Change of structure, creep fatigue behaviour and life of X20 Cr Mo V 12 1 (by G. Eggeler et al.); Investigations on thermal fatigue behaviour (K.H. Mayer et al.); Creep behaviour of similar welds of the steels 13 Cr Mo 4 4, 14 MoV 6 3, 10 Cr Mo 910 and GS-17 Cr Mo V 5 11 (K. Niel et al.); Determining the creep crack behaviour of heat resistant steels with samples of different geometry (K. Maile, R. Tscheuschner). (orig.,/MM) [de

  2. Account of low temperature hardening in calculation of permissible stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, N.V.; Ul'yanenko, A.P.; Gorodyskij, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    Suggested is a calculation scheme of permissible stresses with the account of temperature hardening for steels and alloys, the dependences of strength, plasticity and rupture work of which on cooling temperature do not have threshold changes in a wide range of low temperatures (from 300 to 4.2 K). Application of the suggested scheme is considered on the example of 12Kh18N10T austenitic chromium-nickel steel

  3. Analysis of nature of brazed joints fracture under operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.V.; Gura, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Technique establishing causes leading to brazed joint fracture in pressure boundary components, operating under heavy conditions of high temperature and corrosive medium is described. Some cases of tube brazed joint fractures in a superheater of 12Kh1MF and 08Kh18N10T steels are considered. The attention is paid on using metallography for determination of mechanical or corrosion fracture properties. The diagram is developed permitting to take into account the interrelation between the fracture area in the given zone and its strength

  4. Study of radiation damage of steels for light water pressure vessels at UJV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, N.; Stoces, B.

    1980-01-01

    Preoperational determination of radiation resistance of pressure vessel steels is performed at accelerated neutron exposure in a test or materials research reactor. The results obtained at accelerated and operating exposure are not fully identical and surveillance bodies are therefore used manufactured from the pressure vessel material. Currently, the following steels are used for the manufacture of light water reactor pressure vessels: Mn-Mo-Ni (ASTM-A533-B, ASTM-A508), Cr-Mo-V (15Kh2M1FA). At UJV Rez, for irradiation Chanca-M probes imported from France are used featuring electric temperature control. Almost identical radiation embrittlement was measured for all three steels after irradiation with a neutron fluence of 3x10 23 n.m -2 at a temperature of 290 degC. (H.S.)

  5. Evolution of the structure and the phase composition of a bainitic structural steel during plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, E. N.; Glezer, A. M.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Aksenova, K. V.; Gromov, V. E.; Kazimirov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of the phase composition and the imperfect substructure of the 30Kh2N2MFA bainitic structural steel subjected to compressive deformation by 36% is quantitatively analyzed. It is shown that deformation is accompanied by an increase in the scalar dislocation density, a decrease in the longitudinal fragment sizes, an increase in the number of stress concentrators, the dissolution of cementite particles, and the transformation of retained austenite.

  6. Corrosion resistance of metals and alloys in molten alkalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubitskij, O.G.; Dmitruk, B.F.; Minets, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Literature data on the corrosion of non-ferrous and noble metals, iron and steels in the molten alkalis and mixtures of their base are presented. It is shown that zirconium, niobium and tantalum are characterized by high corrosion stability in the molten NaOH. Additions of NaOH and KOH to the alkali chloride melts result in a 1000 time decrease of zirconium corrosion rate at 850 deg. The data testify to the characteristic passivating properties of OH - ions; Mo and W do not possess an ability to selfpassivation in hydroxide melts. Corrosion resistance of carbon and chromium-nickel steels in hydroxide melts depends considerably on the temperature, electrolyte composition and atmosphere over them. At the temperatures up to 600 deg C chromium-nickel steel is corrosion resistant in the molten alkali only in the inert atmosphere. Corrosion rate of chromium-nickel alloy is the lower the less chromium and the more nickel it contains. For the small installations the 4Kh18N25S2 and Kh23N28M3D3T steels can be recommended

  7. The effect of alloying and treatment on martensite transformation during deformation in Fe-Cr-Mn steels with unstable austenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinov, L.S.; Konop, V.I.; Sokolov, K.N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect is studied of alloying with chromium (6-10%), silicon (1-2%), molybdenum (1-3%), and copper (2%), the heat treatment conditions, and the deformation conditions, or the martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of Fe-Cr-Mn steels of the transitional class based on 0G8AM2S. It is shown that appropriate alloying and treatment, taking into account the degree of stability of the austenite, can ensure a complex of high mechanical properties of the steels investigated. For instance, the treatment of steel 0Kh10AG8MD2S by the technique: hardening+ 40% deformation at 400 deg C + 10% deformation at room temperature has yielded the following mechanical properties: sigmasub(B)=150 kgf/mm 2 , sigmasub(T)=110 kgf/mm 2 , sigma=18%, psi=32%

  8. Steamside Oxidation Behavior of Experimental 9%Cr Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, O.N.; Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.

    2007-10-01

    Reducing emissions and increasing economic competitiveness require more efficient steam power plants that utilize fossil fuels. One of the major challenges in designing these plants is the availability of materials that can stand the supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam conditions at a competitive cost. There are several programs around the world developing new ferritic and austenitic steels for superheater and reheater tubes exposed to the advanced steam conditions. The new steels must possess properties better than current steels in terms of creep strength, steamside oxidation resistance, fireside corrosion resistance, and thermal fatigue resistance. This paper introduces a series of experimental 9%Cr steels containing Cu, Co, and Ti. Stability of the phases in the new steels is discussed and compared to the phases in the commercially available materials. The steels were tested under both the dry and moist conditions at 650ºC for their cyclical oxidation resistance. Results of oxidation tests are presented. Under the moist conditions, the experimental steels exhibited significantly less mass gain compared to the commercial P91 steel. Microstructural characterization of the scale revealed different oxide compositions.

  9. Structural and phase studies of stainless wire after electroplastic drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Baldokhin, Yu.V.; Kir'yanchev, N.E.; Ryzhkov, V.G.; Kalugin, V.D.; Sokolov, N.V.; Klekovkin, A.A.; Klevtsur, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and phase properties of the 12Kh18N10T steel wire are studied after usual and electroplastic drawing from 0.40 up to 0.11 mm with 18-22% reduction per pass with passing 250 A/mm 2 electric current. The earlier made observation on a sharp decrease in content of deformation-induced martensite of α-phase takes place in the wire from stainless metastable austenitic steel as a result of electroplastic drawing. Distribution of the remained α-phase by the wire cross section is established

  10. Effects of Cr2N Precipitation on the Antibacterial Properties of AISI 430 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Kang Du

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on their mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, some commercial Ni-Cr stainless steels have been widely applied as biomaterials, including the austenitic 304 stainless steel, the austenitic 316 stainless steel, the duplex 2205 stainless steel, and the ferritic 430 stainless steel. In order to reduce the occurrence of infections resulting from biomaterial implants, instruments, and medical devices, Cu2+ and Ag2+ ions have been added onto biomaterials for increasing the antibacterial properties, but they are known to damage biofilm. The occurrence of nanoparticles can also improve the antibacterial properties of biomaterials through various methods. In this study, we used Escherichia coli and analyzed the microstructures of American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 430 stainless steel with a 0.18 mass % N alloy element. During a lower temperature aging, the microstructure of the as-quenched specimen is essentially a ferrite and martensite duplex matrix with some Cr2N precipitates formed. Additionally, the antibacterial properties of the alloy for E. coli ranged from 3% to 60%, consistent with the presence of Cr2N precipitates. When aged at a lower temperature, which resulted in nano-Cr2N precipitation, the specimen possessed the highest antibacterial activity.

  11. Creep rupture behavior of 9Cr–1.8W–0.5Mo–VNb (ASME grade 92) ferritic steel weld joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthivel, T., E-mail: tsakthivel@igcar.gov.in; Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K., E-mail: laha@igcar.gov.in; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Maduraimuthu, V.; Mathew, M.D.

    2014-01-03

    Creep rupture behavior of 9Cr–1.8W–0.5Mo–VNb (ASME grade 92) ferritic steel weld joint fabricated by activated TIG (A-TIG) welding process have been investigated at 923 K over a stress range of 80–150 MPa. The weld joint was comprise of fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal. The HAZ consisted of coarse prior-austenite grain (CGHAZ), fine prior-austenite grain (FGHAZ) and intercritical (ICHAZ) regions in an order away from the fusion zone to base metal. A hardness trough was observed at the outer edge of HAZ of the weld joint. TEM investigation revealed the presence of coarse M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates and recovery of martensite lath structure into subgrain in the ICHAZ of the weld joint, leading to the hardness trough. The weld joint exhibited lower creep rupture lives than the base metal at relatively lower stresses. Creep rupture failure location of the weld joint was found to shift with applied stress. At high stresses fracture occurred in the base metal, whereas failure location shifted to FGHAZ at lower stresses with significant decrease in rupture ductility. SEM investigation of the creep ruptured specimens revealed precipitation of Laves phase across the joint, more extensively in the FGHAZ. On creep exposure, the hardness trough was found to shift from the ICHAZ to FGHAZ. Extensive creep cavitation was observed in the FGHAZ and was accompanied with the Laves phase, leading to the premature type IV failure of the steel weld joint at the FGHAZ.

  12. Slag inclusions in vacuum-melted ingots of the KhN73MBTYu nickel base alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorin, V.A.; Kleshchev, A.S.; Kazharskaya, L.P.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of slag inclusions in ingots of the vacuum-arc-remelted nickel alloy KhN73MBTYu are considered. Type 1 inclusions are those in the surface zone; type 2 inclusions are agglomerations of nitrides and oxides formed due to the fall of lining slag; type 3 inclusions consist of agglomerations of nitrides and oxides as a result of interaction of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen with melt components. The inclusions are removed by machining of the lateral surface. It should be noted that the presence of a large amount of slag on the surface of the molten pool adversely affects the stability of the electrical regime of melting. Strict adherence to the recommendations on the melting and pouring of the initial metal reduces the pollution of the consumable electrode with nonmetallic inclusions

  13. Behavior of helium gas atoms and bubbles in low activation 9Cr martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Shiraishi, Haruki; Matsui, Hideki; Abe, Katsunori

    1994-09-01

    The behavior of helium-gas release from helium-implanted 9Cr martensitic steels (500 appm implanted at 873 K) during tensile testing at 873 K was studied. Modified 9Cr-1Mo, low-activation 9Cr-2W and 9Cr-0.5V were investigated. Cold-worked AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel was also investigated as a reference which was susceptible helium embrittlement at high temperature. A helium release peak was observed at the moment of rupture in all the specimens. The total quantity of helium released from these 9Cr steels was in the same range but smaller than that of 316CW steel. Helium gas in the 9Cr steels should be considered to remain in the matrix at their lath-packets even if deformed at 873 K. This is the reason why the martensitic steels have high resistance to helium embrittlement.

  14. Behavior of helium gas atoms and bubbles in low activation 9Cr martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Shiraishi, Haruki; Matsui, Hideki; Abe, Katsunori

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of helium-gas release from helium-implanted 9Cr martensitic steels (500 appm implanted at 873 K) during tensile testing at 873 K was studied. Modified 9Cr-1Mo, low-activation 9Cr-2W and 9Cr-0.5V were investigated. Cold-worked AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel was also investigated as a reference which was susceptible helium embrittlement at high temperature. A helium release peak was observed at the moment of rupture in all the specimens. The total quantity of helium released from these 9Cr steels was in the same range but smaller than that of 316CW steel. Helium gas in the 9Cr steels should be considered to remain in the matrix at their lath-packets even if deformed at 873 K. This is the reason why the martensitic steels have high resistance to helium embrittlement. ((orig.))

  15. Boron content effect on the high-temperature plasticity of corrosion resistant low-carbon austenite type steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dshtejn, Ya.E.; Shmatko, M.N.; Chuvatina, S.N.

    1976-01-01

    With the concept that the state of grain and subgrain boundaries influences the hot plasticity of corrosion resistant steel as a starting point, the study was undertaken of the effect of boron microalloying up on the intergranular strength and of the action boron exerts upon the distribution (redistribution) of other phases present in austenitic 03Kh16N14M3 steels. An electron microscope study of the composition of redundant phases and that of the fine structure of steel have shown the effect of small additions of boron upon the hot plasticity of steel to be linked directly to its influence upon austenite disintegration and the precipitation along the boundaries of crystals of redundant phases in the course of hot plastic deformation. The action of boron upon the process plasticity of steel depends on the temperature and the rate of deformation which govern the kinetics of the precipitation of the redundant phases

  16. Methodic recommendations on ultrasonic testing of pipeline austenitic butt joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebennik, V.S.; Lantukh, V.M.; Tajts, M.Z.; Ermolov, I.N.; Volkov, A.S.; Vyatskov, I.A.; Kesler, N.A.; Shchedrin, I.F.

    1989-01-01

    Recommendations for the application of ultrasonic testing of austenitic welded joints of the Du 500 pipelines with the walls 32-34 mm thick made of steel Kh18N10T are developed. The optimal values of the main parameters of ultrasonic testing are determined experimentally. Principles of calculation of the optimal parameters are considered. 1 ref.; 4 figs

  17. Microstructure of a high boron 9-12% chromium steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andren, H.O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2008-07-01

    Additions of small amounts of boron (10-100 ppm) to 9-12% chromium steels are often made since they have been found to be beneficial for the creep strength up to and above 600 C. The effect of boron is to restrict the coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates during service. It was found that increasing the boron content from 9 to 40 ppm gave a decrease in coarsening constant at 600 C by a factor of 2. The present understanding of boron solution, non-equilibrium grain boundary segregation, incorporation into M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, and diffusion is reviewed in the paper. A very high boron addition (300 ppm) was made in the trial TAF steel already in the 1950'ies. The microstructure of a similar trial steel, FT3B, has been studied detail. In this steel large Mo, Cr, Fe and V containing metal borides are formed rather than the expected BN, with the crystal structure M{sub 2}B{sub 2}. Nitrogen is therefore still available for the formation of VN. Due to tempering at a low temperature (690 C) to a high strength (830 MPa), this steel contained a dense distribution of very small VN precipitates, 5-15 nm in size. A similar VN distribution is probably the cause of the still unsurpassed creep strength of the TAF steel. (orig.)

  18. Effect of smelting method on the austenite grain size and properties of heat-resisting pearlitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakhovskaya, M.B.; Khusainova, N.A.; Davlyatova, L.N.

    1975-01-01

    Influence of smelting method on austenite grain size and properties of refractory perlite steel were studied. An opportunity was found to increase the steel refractoriness without deteriorating its other properties. The steel 12Kh1MF of electric or common open-hearth smelting was used. The dependence of kinetics of austenite grain growth on the smelting method was studied in the temperature range 950 deg - 1200 deg C with 1 hour exposure. The grain size of austenite in steel is supposedly determined by aluminium nitrides and vanadium carbides. In tests of normalized (kept for 20 minutes at 950-980 deg C) and tempered (kept for 3 hours at 730 deg C) transverse (tangential) pipe cross-section samples the electric steel had higher impact viscosity than the open-hearth metal. At working temperatures (540 deg -580 deg C) the difference in viscosity has its minimum. Viscosity of both steels 12Kh1MF begins to sharply decrease from 20 deg C. However, electric steel has rather high viscosity even at - 40 deg C, while the open-hearth one becomes brittle as early as at - 20 deg C. Long-term strength tests at 580 deg C under stresses 10-14 kG/mm 2 show that the coarse-grain steel is more refractory, i.e. time till fracture of open-hearth steel samples is twice as long as that of electric steel samples

  19. Influence of cold work on the diffusion of ion-implanted nitrogen in D9 steel using nuclear reaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunkumar, J.; David, C.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Nair, K.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    D9 steels and their modified versions are envisaged for use as fuel cladding and wrapper materials in the Indian fast breeder reactor (FBR) programme. The role played by interstitially dissolved nitrogen in steel matrices for the stabilization of austenitic phase, increase of strength and corrosion resistance is well known. Various factors: the role of grain boundaries and the their orientation, stress mediation, grain fragmentation and production of short circuit paths as a result of compressive stress are known to affect the diffusion of nitrogen. Basically, cold working produces plethora of defects throughout the sample as compared to its solution annealed state. Our earlier studies on 1 x10"1"5 and 5x10"1"5 N"1"5 implanted Solution Annealed D9 (SAD9) showed significant vacancy-nitrogen complexes for higher fluence. Hence, thermal diffusion behaviour of nitrogen was studied in 5 x10"1"5 -N"1"5 implanted samples in solution annealed state. In the present study, to understand the influence of cold work, similar thermal diffusion behaviour of nitrogen has been studied in Cold Worked D9 steel (CWD9) using nuclear reaction analysis

  20. Roentgenoelectronic investigation into oxidation of iron-chromium and iron-chromium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, A.G.; Rozenfel'd, I.L.; Kazanskij, L.P.; Machavariani, G.V.

    1978-01-01

    Kinetics of iron-chromium and iron-chromium-nickel alloy oxidation (of the Kh13 and Kh18N10T steels) in oxygen was investigated using X-ray electron spectroscopy. It was found that according to X-ray electron spectra chromium oxidation kinetics in the iron-chromium alloy differs significantly from oxidation kinetics of chromium pattern. Layer by layer X-ray electron analysis showed that chromium is subjected to a deeper oxidation as compared to iron, and accordingly, Cr 2 O 3 layer with pure iron impregnations is placed between the layer of mixed oxide (Fe 3 O 4 +Cr 2 O 3 ) and metal. A model of the iron-chromium alloy surface is suggested. The mixed oxide composition on the steel surface is presented as spinel Fesub(2+x)Crsub(1-x)Osub(y)

  1. A simplified one-pot synthesis of 9-[(3-[18F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine([18F]FHPG) and 9-(4-[18F]Fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([18F]FHBG) for gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiue, Grace G.; Shiue, Chyng-Yann; Lee, Roland L.; MacDonald, Douglas; Hustinx, Roland; Eck, Stephen L.; Alavi, Abass A.

    2001-01-01

    9-[(3-[ 18 F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([ 18 F]FHPG, 2) has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of N 2 -(p-anisyldiphenylmethyl)-9-{[1-(p-anisyldiphenylmethoxy)-3 -toluenesulfonyloxy-2-propoxy]methyl}guanine (1) with potassium [ 18 F]fluoride/Kryptofix 2.2.2 followed by deprotection with 1 N HCl and purification with different methods in variable yields. When both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 90 deg. C and the product was purified by HPLC (method A), the yield of compound 2 was 5-10% and the synthesis time was 90 min from EOB. However, if both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 120 deg. C and the product was purified by HPLC, the yield of compound 2 decreased to 2%. When compound 2 was synthesized at 90 deg. C and purified by Silica Sep-Pak (method B), the yield increased to 10-15% and the synthesis time was 60 min from EOB. Similarly, 9-(4-[ 18 F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([ 18 F]FHBG, 4) was synthesized with method A and method B in 9% and 10-15% yield, respectively, in a synthesis time of 90 and 60 min, respectively, from EOB. Compound 2 was relatively unstable in acidic medium at 120 deg. C while compound 4 was stable under the same condition. Both compound 2 and compound 4 had low lipid/water partition coefficient (0.126±0.022, n=5 and 0.165±0.023, n=5, respectively). Although it contains non-radioactive ganciclovir (∼5-30 μg) as a chemical by-product, compound 2 synthesized by method B has a similar uptake in 9L glioma cells as that synthesized by method A, and is a potential tracer for imaging herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene expression in tumors using PET. Similarly, compound 4 synthesized by method B contains ∼10-25 μg of penciclovir as a chemical by-product. Thus, the simplified one pot synthesis (method B) is a useful method for synthesizing both compound 2 and compound 4 in good yield for routine clinical use, and the method is

  2. Fundamental modelling of particle strengthened 9-12% Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Hans; Sandstroem, Rolf [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Brinell Centre

    2010-07-01

    Creep strength of particle strengthened 9-12% Cr steels can be predicted by fundamental modelling. The creep strength is evaluated from the state of the microstructure during creep. Particle hardening at high temperatures can be predicted by taking dislocation climb across particles into account. Work hardening is calculated from immobile dislocations in subgrain interiors and at boundaries using the composite theory. Subgrain coarsening will lower the influence of the mechanically hard boundaries. Recovery in dislocation density is predicted through static recovery by climb and dynamic recovery by locking and dipole formation. Solid solution hardening is needed in order to explain the difference in creep strength between different 9-12% Cr steels. The accumulation of large atoms such as Mo and W will slow down the dislocation climb velocity, and thereby the microstructure recovery rate. 100000h rupture strength is predicted for X20, P91, P92 steels without any use of fitting parameters. The creep strength of P91 steel with different microstructure due to Al additions. Z-phase transformation and heat affected material is presented. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of Steam Oxidation of 18%Cr Steels from Various Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Hald, John

    2015-01-01

    Lean austenitic steels such as the 18%Cr TP347H have been utilized in many power plants in Denmark. Steam oxidation has been investigated for both coarse-grained and fine-grained versions of TP347H. Oxidation for coarsegrained steels follows a parabolic rate however this is not always the case fo...

  4. Composition and corrosion properties of high-temperature oxide films on steel type 18-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulenko, B.F.; Morozov, O.N.; Chernysheva, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    The composition and propeties of oxide films, formed in the process of tube production of steel type 18-10, as well as the behaviour of the steels coated with oxide films under operating conditions of NPP heat-exchange equipment at the 20-300 deg C temperatures are determined. It is found, that the films have a good adhesion to the steel surface and repeat the metal structure without interfering with, the surface defect determination. Introduction of the NaNO 2 corrosion inhibitor decreases the film destruction rate to the level of the base metal corrosion. It is found acceptable to use tubes of steel 18-10 coated with dense oxide films in the heat-exchange and water supply systems of NPP

  5. The influence of heating rate on reheat-cracking in a commercial 2 1/4Cr1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippsley, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of elevated heating rate on stress-relief cracking in a commercial 2 1/4 Cr1Mo steel have been investigated. A SEN bend-specimen stress-relaxation test was used to assess reheat cracking susceptibility and fracture mechanisms for an initial post-weld heating rate of 1000 Kh - 1 . Two factors controlling the influence of heating rate on the final severity of cracking were identified, i.e. the rate of stress-relaxation with respect to temperature, and the time available for crack-growth. The factors were found to counteract each other, but in the case of commercial 2 1/4 Cr1Mo steel, the crack-growth factor outweighed the relaxation factor, resulting in a reduction in the propensity to stress-relief cracking at the elevated heating rate. However, by reference to the results of a separate investigation concerning A508/2 MnMoNiCr steel it was demonstrated that the balance between these two factors may be reversed in other alloy systems, with the consequence that reheat cracking is exacerbated by increasing the initial heating rate. A computer model was addressed to the stress-relaxation test conditions using data from the commercial 2 1/4 Cr1Mo steel. The model predictions exhibited reasonable agreement with experimental test results for both 100 Kh - 1 and 1000 Kh - 1 heating rates. (author)

  6. Damage development in 9%Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, M.; Maile, K.

    2003-01-01

    Modern 9-11% martensitic steels are candidate materials to be used in modern fossil fired power plants with high efficiency rates. The focus of the R and D work is put on the further development and optimisation, the determination of material characteristics but also on the identification and quantification of damage mechanisms and the damage evolution. For this purpose extensive experiments such as long creep tests on specimens under internal pressure, metallurgical examinations and theoretical investigations for determination of stress-strain state which have been conducted. The laboratory tests are completed by examination of real components. As a result an empirical description of the creep cavity density as a function of deformation and multiaxiality of stress state has been carried out which can be used in further FE-calculations determining the damage state. The results of all metallographical examinations on specimens with different heat treatments and service loads are summarised in a structure atlas and are published for further usage. Damage development, martensitic 9 % Cr steels, creep cavity density, creep tests under multiaxial load, metallographical investigations, and measurements on pipe bends. (author)

  7. Heat treatment effects on structure and proerties of the alloy type KhN73MBNYu (EhJ 698)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslenkov, S.B.; Maslenkova, E.A.; Solov'ev, Yu.V.; Zryumov, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Influence of quenching temperature and various ageing conditions on tensile properties and impact strength of wrought alloy type KhN73MBTYu has been investigated at room temperature and in the range of 500-850 deg C. Two-step quenching followed by ageing at 700-750 deg C. Two-step quenching followed by ageing at 700-750 deg C is shown to assure needed heat resistance of the alloy. Due to the whole complex of structural changes during heat treatments mechanical properties of the alloy preserv high level up to 750 deg C. This temperature is limiting value in the case of long-term operation

  8. Ductile fracture of two-phase welds under 77K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushchenko, K.A.; Voronin, S.A.; Pustovit, A.I.; Shavel', A.V.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the type of welding and fillers on crack resistance of welded joints high-strength steel EhP810 and its various compounds with steels EhP666, 08Kh18N10T has been studied. For the welding of steel EhP810 with steels EhP810, EhP666, 08Kh18N10T electron-beam, automatic, argon tungsten arc with non-consumable electrode with various fillers, as well as argon metal-arc welding with consumable electrode, were used. It is shown, that for a joint, made by electron-beam welding, parameters σsub(u), Ksub(IcJ), KCV are higher than for a joint of a similar phase structure made using filler wire EhP659-VI. It is explained by the fact, that during electron-beam welding joint metal refining takes place, which removes gases. In welded joints of chP810 steel, having joints with austenitic structure, characteristic of crack resistance Ssub(c) increases by more than 0.2 mm in contrast to two-phase joints, which conventional yield strength at 77 K exceeds 1000 MPa. It is worth mentioning, that for other classes of steels formation of two-phase structure of joint increases welded joint resistance to brittle fracture. It is possible to obtain the required structure of joint with assigned level of resistance to brittle fracture by means of the use of different fillers, optimum and welding procedure, regulaing the part of the basic metal in joint content

  9. Elevated temperature tensile properties of P9 steel towards ferritic steel wrapper development for sodium cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, B.K., E-mail: bkc@igcar.gov.in; Mathew, M.D.; Isaac Samuel, E.; Christopher, J.; Jayakumar, T.

    2013-11-15

    Tensile deformation and fracture behaviour of the three developmental heats of P9 steel for wrapper applications containing varying silicon in the range 0.24–0.60% have been examined in the temperature range 300–873 K. Yield and ultimate tensile strengths in all the three heats exhibited gradual decrease with increase in temperature from room to intermediate temperatures followed by rapid decrease at high temperatures. A gradual decrease in ductility to a minimum at intermediate temperatures followed by an increase at high temperatures has been observed. The fracture mode remained transgranular ductile. The steel displayed signatures of dynamic strain ageing at intermediate temperatures and dominance of recovery at high temperatures. No significant difference in the strength and ductility values was observed for varying silicon in the range 0.24–0.60% in P9 steel. P9 steel for wrapper application displayed strength and ductility values comparable to those reported in the literature.

  10. Elevated temperature tensile properties of P9 steel towards ferritic steel wrapper development for sodium cooled fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, B. K.; Mathew, M. D.; Isaac Samuel, E.; Christopher, J.; Jayakumar, T.

    2013-11-01

    Tensile deformation and fracture behaviour of the three developmental heats of P9 steel for wrapper applications containing varying silicon in the range 0.24-0.60% have been examined in the temperature range 300-873 K. Yield and ultimate tensile strengths in all the three heats exhibited gradual decrease with increase in temperature from room to intermediate temperatures followed by rapid decrease at high temperatures. A gradual decrease in ductility to a minimum at intermediate temperatures followed by an increase at high temperatures has been observed. The fracture mode remained transgranular ductile. The steel displayed signatures of dynamic strain ageing at intermediate temperatures and dominance of recovery at high temperatures. No significant difference in the strength and ductility values was observed for varying silicon in the range 0.24-0.60% in P9 steel. P9 steel for wrapper application displayed strength and ductility values comparable to those reported in the literature.

  11. Elevated temperature tensile properties of P9 steel towards ferritic steel wrapper development for sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, B.K.; Mathew, M.D.; Isaac Samuel, E.; Christopher, J.; Jayakumar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Tensile deformation and fracture behaviour of the three developmental heats of P9 steel for wrapper applications containing varying silicon in the range 0.24–0.60% have been examined in the temperature range 300–873 K. Yield and ultimate tensile strengths in all the three heats exhibited gradual decrease with increase in temperature from room to intermediate temperatures followed by rapid decrease at high temperatures. A gradual decrease in ductility to a minimum at intermediate temperatures followed by an increase at high temperatures has been observed. The fracture mode remained transgranular ductile. The steel displayed signatures of dynamic strain ageing at intermediate temperatures and dominance of recovery at high temperatures. No significant difference in the strength and ductility values was observed for varying silicon in the range 0.24–0.60% in P9 steel. P9 steel for wrapper application displayed strength and ductility values comparable to those reported in the literature

  12. The rate(time)- dependent mechanical behavior modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosbrugger, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, constitutive equations are presented for the nonisothermal small strain behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel between 25degC - 600degC. The basic framework uses the superposition of nonlinear kinematic hardening rules as proposed by Chaboche and coworkes. A framework for accounting for isotropic softening is presented wherein this softening can be included in a drag stress, in a yield stress or as a decrease in the saturation level of kinematic hardening or some combination of these; a single isotropic softening equation is used as determined from experiments. The behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel between 25degC - 600degC has been investigated by Swindeman, and Majors et. al. and many important features have been discussed. Here, model parameters are determined from available isothermal uniaxial data and some correlations with isothermal and nonisothermal tests are presented. (J.P.N.)

  13. Investigation of fretting corrosion of vacuum-chrome-plated vt3-1 titanium alloy in pair with unprotected vt3-1 alloy and 40khnma steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkh, I.L.; Koltunova, L.N.; Vejtsman, M.G.; Birman, Ya.N.; Skosarev, A.V.; Kogan, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The character of destruction of contacting surfaces in the process of fretting corrosion of titanium alloy VT3-1 chromized in vacuum in pair with unprotected alloy VT3-1 and steel 40KhNMA has been studied by scanning electron microscopy, electronography, and recording the surface profile. The specific load was 200 kg/cm 2 , vibration amplitude 50 mkm and frequency 500 Hz. It has been established that pairs unprotected with coating are subjected to intensive fretting corrosion especially when they are made of titanium alloy. For the pair chromized alloy VT3-1 - unprotected alloy VT3-1 no destruction of a chromized surface is observed. Vacuum chromium coating in the pair with steel 40KhNMA reveals similar properties as in pair with a titanium alloy. The surface of a steel sample is destroyed because of fretting corrosion, though the intensity of corrosion is lower than in the case of unprotected pairs. Vacuum chromium coating is recommended for protection of titanium alloy VT3-1 from fretting corrosion in pair with steel 40KhNMA or an alloy VT3-1 especially in those cases when various organic coatings are unsuitable

  14. Alloy spreading and filling of gaps in brazing of VDU-2 and KhN50VMTYuB heat resistant nickel alloys with VPr3K and VPr10 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, A.E.; Podol'skij, B.A.; Lepisko, M.R.; Borzyak, A.G.; Moryakov, V.F.; Rostislavskaya, T.T.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on contact interaction of VDU-2 and KhN50VMTYuB alloys with VPr3K and VPr10 alloys at 1325 and 1220 deg C in argon and industrial vacuum. The contact angles and wettability indexes were determined. The solders fill the vertical gaps of up to 0.25 mm width through 80 mm height. Spreading and filling of gaps proceeds better during soldering in argon with boron trifluoride addition as compared to soldering in industrial vacuum. VPr10 alloy is divided into two phases when wetting KhN50VMTYuB alloy: fusible one on the base of nickel-chromium-manganese solution and infusible one on the base of nickel-niobium eutectics. The square of fusible phase spreading is 2.5...3 times larger as compared to infusible one

  15. Electrochemical machining of internal built-up surfaces of large-sized vessels for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabchenko, N N; Pulin, V Ya [Vsesoyuznyj Proektno-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. Atomnogo Mashinostroeniya i Kotlostroeniya, Rostov-na-Donu (USSR)

    1977-01-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) has been employed for finishing of mechanically processed inner surfaces of large lateral parts of construction bodies with welded 0Kh18N10T steel overlayer. The finishing technology developed reduces the surface roughness from 10 mcm to the standard 2.5 mcm at the efficiency of machining of 2-4 m/sup 2/ per hour.

  16. Effect of smelting method on the austenite grain size and properties of heat-resisting pearlitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakhovskaya, M B; Khusainova, N A; Davlyatova, L N [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Teplotekhnicheskij Inst., Moscow (USSR)

    1975-12-01

    Influence of smelting method on austenite grain size and properties of refractory perlite steel were studied. An opportunity was found to increase the steel refractoriness without deteriorating its other properties. The steel 12Kh1MF of electric or common open-hearth smelting was used. The dependence of kinetics of austenite grain growth on the smelting method was studied in the temperature range 950 deg - 1200 deg C with 1 hour exposure. The grain size of austenite in steel is supposedly determined by aluminium nitrides and vanadium carbides. In tests of normalized (kept for 20 minutes at 950-980 deg C) and tempered (kept for 3 hours at 730 deg C) transverse (tangential) pipe cross-section samples the electric steel had higher impact viscosity than the open-hearth metal. At working temperatures (540 deg -580 deg C) the difference in viscosity has its minimum. Viscosity of both steels 12Kh1MF begins to sharply decrease from 20 deg C. However, electric steel has rather high viscosity even at /sup -/40 deg C, while the open-hearth one becomes brittle as early as at /sup -/20 deg C. Long-term strength tests at 580 deg C under stresses 10-14 kG/mm/sup 2/ show that the coarse-grain steel is more refractory, i.e. time till fracture of open-hearth steel samples is twice as long as that of electric steel samples.

  17. Room and elevated temperature Mechanical Behavior of 9-12% Cr Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2005-02-01

    The mechanical properties of medium Cr steels used in fossil fired power plants are very good because of their excellent high temperature microstructural stability. However, as the desire to increase the operating temperature (>650C) of the plant goes up, the need for steels that maintain their strength at these temperatures also increases. The mechanical properties of three medium Cr steels (0.08C-(9-12)Cr-1.2Ni-0.7Mo-3.0Cu-3.0Co-0.5Ti) were investigated through hardness, hot hardness and tensile measurements. The strength of the 9-12%Cr steels at room temperature after long-term isothermal aging (750C; 1000 hours) compares favorably with that of other power plant steels (e.g., P91). In addition, the elevated temperature strength and hot hardness also behave similarly. The mechanical behavior will be discussed in terms of the strength, elongation and tensile fracture characteristics.

  18. Phase transformation and grain growth behavior of a nanocrystalline 18/8 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotan, Hasan, E-mail: hasankotan@gmail.com [Konya Necmettin Erbakan University, Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Konya 42090 (Turkey); Darling, Kris A. [US Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, RDRL-WMM-F, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States)

    2017-02-16

    Fe-18Cr-8Ni and Fe-18Cr-8Ni-1Y (at%) stainless steel powders were nanostructured by mechanical alloying from elemental powders and subjected to 90 min annealing treatments at various temperatures. The microstructural evolutions as a function of alloy compositions and temperatures were investigated by in-situ and ex-situ x-ray diffraction experiments, transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam microscopy. The dependence of hardness on the microstructure was utilized to study the mechanical changes. It was found that the resulting microstructures by mechanical alloying were bcc solid solution, the so-called α’-martensite structure. The high temperature in-situ x-ray diffraction experiments showed that the martensite-to-austenite reverse phase transformation was completed above 800 and 900 °C for Fe-18Cr-8Ni and Fe-18Cr-8Ni-1Y steels, respectively. A partial or complete retransformation to martensite was observed upon cooling to room temperature. Annealing of nanocrystalline Fe-18Cr-8Ni steel yielded grain growth reaching to micron sizes at 1100 °C while addition of 1 at% yttrium stabilized the microstructure around 160 nm grain size and 6 GPa hardness after 90 min annealing at 1200 °C.

  19. Certain peculiarities of structural inheritance in phase recrystallization of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The structural inheritance in phase recrystallization of previously overheated to various temperatures industrially melted 40Kh steel and of Armco-iron has been investigated. The steels have been heated to 100O, 11O0, 1200 and 1260 deg C and cooled in the air, and in some instances, hardened (quenched) in water. The physical broadening of X-ray lines points to a nonmonotonous variation of fine structure parameters as a function of the temperature and the heating time. The inheritance effect of fine structure defects affects the steel properties obtained in a final heat treatment. The structural inheritance effect has an important bearing upon the wear resistance of steel. A purpose-oriented use of the structural inheritance effect can enhance service properties of steel parts

  20. Comparative estimation of weld-ability of medium-alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, Eh.L.; Laz'ko, V.E.

    1977-01-01

    Weldability of various industrial steels has been investigated as affected by mutual presence of carbon and alloying elements in a wide range of concentrations. Mechanical properties and technological strength of medium alloyed steel welded joints have been compared. Technological strength parameters have been found to sharply decrease with increasing carbon content, the decrease depending on the alloying system. Resistance to hot and cold cracking is somewhat decreased by nickel and increased by molibdenum and tungsten. The best mechanical properties are displayed by steels of the Kh2GSNVM type. Industrial evidence on argon arc welding of different constructions made of steels 1.5-20 mm thick is compared to laboratory results. Accordingly, the high strength steels are divided into three groups, i.e. those manifesting good, satisfactory and poor weldability

  1. Microstructure-based assessment of creep rupture strength in 9Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.

    2013-01-01

    A microstructure-based model to assess the long-term creep strength in 9Cr steels is proposed. The model takes into account a number of different key issues, including the presence and evolution of the most important families of precipitates (M 23 C 6 , MX, Laves and Z phases), the subgrain recovery process, the different strengthening mechanisms (solid solution strengthening and particle strengthening), and is able to give realistic values of the long-term creep strength in P9, P91 and P911 steels. If properly tuned to describe the mid/long-term precipitation of the Z-phase, and the concurrent dissolution of MX precipitates, the model can also predict the sigmoidal behaviour which leads to the early rupture of single heats of P91 steel. Highlights: ► Creep response at 600 °C of 9% Cr steels. ► Important effect of the different families of precipitates. ► The effect is described by introducing the grain size term in a previously developed model. ► Degradation of particle strengthening effect is considered by calculating the coarsening of the particles.

  2. Structural changes IN THE Kh20N45M4B nickel alloys and THE Kh16N15M3B steel due to helium ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.; Chernikov, U.N.; Chernov, I.I.; Kozhevnikov, O.A.; Shishkin, G.N.; Yakushin, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray structural analysis, and the thermal desorption techniques, the authors carried out a detailed study of the structural and phase changes, defect formation, and helium accumulation in the He + -bombarded 16-15 austenitic steels and 20-45 nickel alloys. Microstructure of the bombarded specimens was studied using the methods of transmission electron microscopy of thin foils in the EVM-100, and EM-301G electron microscopes. Results of x-ray studies on the bombarded specimens are presented. The conducted studies show that bombardment of structural materials with light ions can lead to significant structural damages and changes in the chemical and phase composition of the surface layer. The possible mechanisms of the changes in the chemical and phase composition include selective sputtering and radiation-induced accelerated diffusion of elements in the field of internal lateral stresses developing during the He + implantation process

  3. On the ways of improving mechanical properties of boiler steels subject to hydrogen effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.I.; Litvin, A.K.; Zvezdin, Yu.I.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of oxygen on the strength properties of boiler steels Kh15M2 and 48TS subjected to heat treatment and preliminary plastic deformation has been studied. It is shown that changes in the strength properties of the steel are determined by the heterogeneity of its structure. Treatment which contributes to homogenization of the metal structure increases the resistance of the steel to detrimental effect of hydrogen. Absorption of hydrogen during cathode polarization at various current densities is shown

  4. Heat treatment effect on the properties of the EhP767 maraging steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taver, E.I.; Piskarev, M.N.; Yushchenko, K.A.; Pustovit, A.I.; Anisimova, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Heat treatment effect on properties of welded joints of maraging 03Kh13N4K13M3T (EhP767) steel with yield strength over 150 kgs/mm 2 has been investigated. It is shown, that change in impact strength of aged joints at - 196 deg C depends on the amount of residual austenite and grain size. To stabilize 20-40 % residual austenite heat treatment regimes have been developed. Recommended are quenching at 1030-1050 deg C, sub-zero treatment and aging at 520 deg C for 16 hrs

  5. Influence of Z-phase on long-term creep stability of martensitic 9-12%Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, J. [DONG Energy (Denmark)]|[Vattenfall Europe AG, Berlin (Germany)]|[DTU Mechanical Engineering (Denmark); Danielsen, H.K. [DTU Mechanical Engineering (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    The long-term creep strength of the new generation of martensitic creep resistant 9- 12% Cr steels since the well-known steel Grade 91 relies strongly on particle strengthening by fine MN nitrides based on V and Nb. During long-term hightemperature exposures the MN nitrides may be replaced by the thermodynamically more stable Z-phases (Cr(V,Nb)N) causing a breakdown in creep strength. Cr contents above 10.5% strongly accelerate Z-phase precipitation, which explains the lack of success for all attempts to develop martensitic creep resistant steels with high Cr content for oxidation protection. The Z-phase nucleation process by Cr-diffusion into pre-existing MN nitrides is rate controlling for the Z-phase transformation. More work is needed before effects of chemical composition on the nucleation process can be reliably modeled. Careful control of the Z-phase precipitation process has led to the design of experimental 12%Cr martensitic steels strengthened by Z-phase. Such steels may again enable the combination of high strength and oxidation resistance in the same alloy. This opens a new pathway for further alloy development of the heat resistant martensitic steels. (orig.)

  6. Positron annihilation and Moessbauer studies of neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, G.; Matz, W.; Liszkay, L.; Molnar, B.

    1990-11-01

    Positron annihilation (lifetime, Doppler broadening) and Moessbauer studies on unirradiated, neutron irradiated and neutron irradiated plus annealed reactor pressure vessel steels (Soviet type 15Kh2NMFA) are presented. The role of microstructural properties and the formation of irradiation-induced precipitates is discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Creep strength and ductility of 9 to 12% chromium steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    The present paper focuses in on long-term creep properties of parent material of the new 9-12%Cr creep resistant steels, P91, E911 and P92 developed for use in advanced ultrasupercritical power plants. These steels have been at the center of activities in the ECCC Working Group 3A (WG3A) "Ferriti...

  8. Tensile and Charpy impact properties of an ODS ferritic/martensitic steel 9Cr–1.8W–0.5Ti–0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Zhangjian, E-mail: zhouzhj@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Wang, Man; Li, Shaofu; Zou, Lei; Zhang, Liwei

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • The tensile property and Charpy impact were tested. • Both strength and plasticity in LT direction are better than that of TL direction. • The LSE was more than 65% of the USE from absorbed energy curve. • The initiation and propagation energy at different temperatures were calculated. • High LSE and dimples on the fracture surface indicated good toughness at −60 °C. - Abstract: A 9Cr-ODS ferritic/martensitic steel with a composition of 9Cr–1.8W–0.5Ti–0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was fabricated by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing, followed by hot rolling. Tensile properties were measured at room temperature (23 °C) and 700 °C in the rolling direction (LT) and the transverse direction (TL). The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the as-rolled samples in both directions reached 990 MPa at 23 °C, and still maintained at 260 MPa at 700 °C. The tensile strength and elongation of the rolling direction was greater than that of the transverse direction. The Charpy impact was tested from −100 to 100 °C in the LT direction. The lower shelf energy (LSE) was more than 65% of the upper shelf energy (USE). The total absorbed energy was separated into the energies for crack initiation and propagation. The propagation energy was always higher than the initiation energy in the range of temperatures tested. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the rolled 9Cr ODS evaluated by an absorbed energy curve was about 0 °C. However, the high LSE and the fracture surface that still contained dimples at lower shelf indicated good toughness of the as-rolled 9Cr ODS steels at temperature of −60 °C.

  9. The Structure of the Silumin Coat on Alloy Cast Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Szymczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the analysis results of the structure of the coat obtained by dipping in silumin AlSi5 of two grades of alloy cast steel: GX6CrNiTi18-10 (LH18N9T and GX39Cr13 (LH14. The temperature of the silumin bath was 750±5°C, and the hold-up time of the cast steel element τ = 180 s. The absolute thickness of the coat obtained in the given conditions was g = 104 μm on cast steel GX6CrNiTi18-10 and g = 132 μm on GX39Cr13. The obtained coat consisted of three layers of different phase structure. The first layer from the base “g1`” was constructed of the phase AlFe including Si and alloy additives of the tested cast steel grades: Cr and Ni (GX6CrNiTi18-10 and Cr (GX39Cr13. The second layer “g1``” of intermetallic phases AlFe which also contains Si and Cr crystallizes on it. The last, external layer “g2” of the coat consists of the silumin containing the intermetallic phases AlFeSi which additionally can contain alloy additives of the cast steel. It was shown that there were no carbides on the coat of the tested cast steels which are the component of their microstructure, as it took place in the case of the coat on the high speed steels.

  10. Impact behavior of 9-Cr and 12-Cr ferritic steels after low-temperature irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Vitek, J.M.; Corwin, W.R.; Alexander, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Miniature Charpy impact specimens of 9Cr-1MoVNb and 12Cr-1MoVW steels and these steels with 1 and 2% Ni were irradiated in the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at 50 0 C to displacement damage levels of up to 9 dpa. Nickel was added to study the effect of transmutation helium. Irradiation caused an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The 9Cr-1MoVNb steels, with and without nickel, showed a larger shift than the 12Cr-1MoVW steels, with and without nickel. The results indicated that helium also increased the DBTT. The same steels were previously irradiated at higher temperatures. From the present and past tests, the effect of irradiation temperature on the DBTT behavior can be evaluated. For the 9Cr-1MoVNb steel, there is a continuous decrease in the magnitude of the DBTT increase up to an irradiation temperature of about 400 0 C, after which the shift drops rapidly to zero at about 450 0 C. The DBTT of the 12Cr-1MoVW steel shows a maximum increase at an irradiation temperature of about 400 0 C and less of an increase at either higher or lower irradiation temperatures

  11. A simplified one-pot synthesis of 9-[(3-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine([{sup 18}F]FHPG) and 9-(4-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([{sup 18}F]FHBG) for gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiue, Grace G.; Shiue, Chyng-Yann E-mail: Shiue@rad.upenn.edu; Lee, Roland L.; MacDonald, Douglas; Hustinx, Roland; Eck, Stephen L.; Alavi, Abass A

    2001-10-01

    9-[(3-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([{sup 18}F]FHPG, 2) has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of N{sup 2}-(p-anisyldiphenylmethyl)-9-{l_brace}[1-(p-anisyldiphenylmethoxy)-3 -toluenesulfonyloxy-2-propoxy]methyl{r_brace}guanine (1) with potassium [{sup 18}F]fluoride/Kryptofix 2.2.2 followed by deprotection with 1 N HCl and purification with different methods in variable yields. When both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 90 deg. C and the product was purified by HPLC (method A), the yield of compound 2 was 5-10% and the synthesis time was 90 min from EOB. However, if both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 120 deg. C and the product was purified by HPLC, the yield of compound 2 decreased to 2%. When compound 2 was synthesized at 90 deg. C and purified by Silica Sep-Pak (method B), the yield increased to 10-15% and the synthesis time was 60 min from EOB. Similarly, 9-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([{sup 18}F]FHBG, 4) was synthesized with method A and method B in 9% and 10-15% yield, respectively, in a synthesis time of 90 and 60 min, respectively, from EOB. Compound 2 was relatively unstable in acidic medium at 120 deg. C while compound 4 was stable under the same condition. Both compound 2 and compound 4 had low lipid/water partition coefficient (0.126{+-}0.022, n=5 and 0.165{+-}0.023, n=5, respectively). Although it contains non-radioactive ganciclovir ({approx}5-30 {mu}g) as a chemical by-product, compound 2 synthesized by method B has a similar uptake in 9L glioma cells as that synthesized by method A, and is a potential tracer for imaging herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene expression in tumors using PET. Similarly, compound 4 synthesized by method B contains {approx}10-25 {mu}g of penciclovir as a chemical by-product. Thus, the simplified one pot synthesis (method B) is a useful method for synthesizing both compound 2 and compound 4 in

  12. Calculation and experimental technique of determination of rolling procedure for cold-rolling tube mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igoshin, V.F.; Aleshin, V.A.; Khoroshikh, Yu.G.; Bogatov, A.A.; Mizhiritskij, O.I.

    1983-01-01

    Calculation and experimental technique of determination of tube cold rolling procedure has been developed. Rolling procedure based on the usage of regression equation epsilon=1.24 psi, where psi is the relative reduction of area, delta-permissible reduction during rolling, has been tested on 08Kh18N10T steel. The effect of tube geometry, tool calibration parameters, lubrication conditions etc. on metal deformability in taking into account experimentally. The use of the technique proposed has allowed to shorten the time of mastering of the production of tubes from different steels

  13. Conversion of MX Nitrides to Modified Z-Phase in 9-12%Cr Ferritic Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cipolla, Leonardo

    for Z-phase formation was highlighted during the studies. Several 9-12%Cr commercial steels with prolonged high-temperature exposures have been investigated, too. The same mechanism of Z-phase formation observed in 12%Cr model alloys was identified in industrial 9-12%Cr steels after thousands of hours......The 9-12%Cr ferritic steels are extensively used in modern steam power plants at service temperature up to 620°C. Currently the best perform ing ferritic creep resistance steel is the ASTM Grade 92, whose high temperature strength has recently been assessed by European Creep Collaborative Committee...... in 2005 as 600°C/113MPa/10 5h. All previous attempts made in the last twenty years to develop ferritic steels for 650°C applications have failed due to the incapacity to combine the superior oxidation resistance, given by 12%Cr content, with excellent creep resistance of high-alloyed ferritic steels...

  14. Feasibility study on decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel with HBF4 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ruilin; Zhang Yuan; Qiu Dangui; Huang Yuying; Ren Xianwen

    2002-01-01

    Decontamination experiments were carried out with HBF 4 solution on the following four kinds of sample: 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with and without welding line, 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with oxide layer formed in boiling concentrated nitric acid solution, natural uranium and 230 Th contaminated stainless steel pipe sample from one decommissioning nuclear facility. The results indicated that the oxide layer, the welding line of the 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel and itself can be dissolved in the HBF 4 decontamination solution. The solubility of the 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel in the HBF 4 solution used in the test is more than 5 g/L, which means that the 0.13 m 2 stainless steel could be dissolved up to a thickness of 5 μm in one liter of decontamination solution. The decontamination efficiency is more than 85% in 30 minutes for the 230 Th contaminated sample, and 87% in 2 hours for the natural uranium contaminated sample. Both samples could be decontaminated to the background level after several runs of the decontamination

  15. Phosphorus effect on fracture properties of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goritskij, V.M.; Guseva, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    Phosphorus content is studied for its effect on fracture peculiarities and fracture toughness. It is supposed that the phosphorus effect on ductile fractures is associated with phosphorus segregation on the ferrite-carbide interfaces. An increase of the phosphorus content in heat-treated 10KhSND steel from 0.020 up to 0.043 wt.% results in a decrease of the pore size and asub(p) value. Close linear correlation is established between critical temperature of embrittlement T 50 and √ asub(p) or √ KC values for a number of structural steels with different phosphorus content

  16. Structural sensitivity of cyclic crack resistance of rotor steel in gaseous hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaniv, O.N.; Nikiforchin, G.N.; Kozak, L.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of cyclic crack resistance of hardened rotor set steel 35KhN3MFA in different cstructural states during tesis in agea geseous hydrogen, in the air and in vacuum, has been mde made. It is shown, that structural sensitivity of near-threshold crack resistance of the studied rotor steel in gaseous hydrogen is to a high extent determined by the closing and morphology of fatigue crack. The decrease in crack closing (CC) observed during tests in hydrogen in low-strenght and crack branching in high-strength steels results in the fact, that in contrast to well-known notions on a higher sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement of high-strenght alloys the negative effect of hydrogen on the near-threshold cyclic crack resistance is manifested only in steel in low-strenght state. The considered regularities in crack growth in low-alloyed steel under the effect of gaseous hydrogen are just only for high-frequency loading. In all probability in the case of fatigue crack growth (GCG) at low frequencies of loading not only the medium activity, but also the role o, closing and crack geometty in the kinetics of fatigue fracture, the clarifying of which requires further studieds, will change

  17. Study on TV X-ray system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A.P.; Volkov, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative investigations into the main characteristics of TV X-ray systems (TXS) and X-ray radiography when X-raying of the 1Kh18N9T steel. The following characteristics are considered: the threshold contrast sensitivity, the sensitivity to revealing standard defects, and the dose rate of X-radiation at the input of the X-ray converter. Practical recommendations are given on the use of TXS in flaw detection of various materials. It is remarked to use introscopes for testing of thick welded products articles, and X-ray vidicon systems for study of low-contrast images (in testing of welds made by point welding, and of thin-wall products)

  18. Application of alternating current for dimensionally electrochemical machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacheev, M.K.; Kovalev, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    The results of comparative experimental investigations in dimensionally electrochemical machining of 1Kh18N9T steel using alternating and direct currents are presented. The effect of the electrolyte rate in the inter-electrode clearance, electrode voltage and oscillation amplitude of the electrode-tool on the metal output from the electrodes and the relief of the machined surface is studied. It is shown that the a.c. electrochemical machining permits to achieve the greater dimensional accuracy than the d.c. machining when choosing the proper voltage and electrolyte composition. It is connected with the fact that the prevailing part of the metal output is obtained in the impulse-asymmetrical regime when the inter-electrode clearance is minimum

  19. Comparison of extrapolation methods for creep rupture stresses of 12Cr and 18Cr10NiTi steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivarsson, B.

    1979-01-01

    As a part of a Soviet-Swedish research programme the creep rupture properties of two heat resisting steels namely a 12% Cr steel and an 18% Cr12% Ni titanium stabilized steel have been studied. One heat from each country of both steels were creep tested. The strength of the 12% Cr steels was similar to earlier reported strength values, the Soviet steel being some-what stronger due to a higher tungsten content. The strength of the Swedish 18/12 Ti steel agreed with earlier results, while the properties of the Soviet steel were inferior to those reported from earlier Soviet creep testings. Three extrapolation methods were compared on creep rupture data collected in both countries. Isothermal extrapolation and an algebraic method of Soviet origin gave in many cases rather similar results, while the parameter method recommended by ISO resulted in higher rupture strength values at longer times. (author)

  20. Properties of 40N3M powder structural steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvina, T.P.; Gulyaev, A.P.; Gulyaev, I.A.; Byakov, S.V.; Melent'ev, I.V.; Morgun, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Effect of the fabrication technique of compact slabs made of the 40N3M powder structural steel on mechanical properties with determination of a cold brittleness threshold was studied. It is established that after a thermal treatment at a density close to 100% a powder steel is sufficiently close to steel, rolled of an ingot, but is second in reference to steel in its ductility and impact strength. Properties of powder steel obtained by the method of dynamic hot forming (DHF) and hot extrusion are practically equal, but the first method has definite advantages as it allows to obtain details with a definitive form. The above investigation permits to recommend an application of the 40N3M powder steel fabricated by the DHF methods. The optimum thermal treatment course is: quenching+high annealing

  1. Creep-fatigue-environment interaction of 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Akiyoshi; Asada, Yasuhide

    1996-01-01

    An extension of the creep-fatigue damage model has been conducted in the present study. The original damage model has been developed to the predict the creep-fatigue life of 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb steel (Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel) in a very high vacuum environment. The present study is to extend an applicability of the model to the creep-fatigue damage accumulation in the air environment. (orig.)

  2. Study of nitrogen solubility in multicomponent iron alloys at its pressure in gaseous phase up to 1000kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarin, Yu.M.; Grigorenko, G.M.; Latash, Yu.V.; Kanibolotskij, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    A facility in which metal is melted in a weighed state and nitrogen partical pressure during relting may be charge from 0 to 1000 kPa is developed to investigate nitrogen solubility is liquim metals and alloys. Investigation of nitrogen solubility was performed using samples of 03Kh25N5AM3 steel and Kh20N5, Kh20N10, Kh40N10, Kh40N20 alloys. Positive deflection of [N]=f(√Psub(Nsub(2))) dependence from the Henry law is shown to be observed in the Kh40N10 alloy in the 100-1000 kPa pressure range. In this case the vatue of positive deflection decreases with temperature growth and at T=2273 K nitrogen solubility in the alloy submits to the law of square root. An equation permitting to calculate nitrogen solubility in alloys of Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Mn systems in the 0 to 1000 kPa range of nitrogen partial pressures is obtained

  3. Microstructure and elevated temperature stability of 9-12% Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-02-01

    Medium Cr steels have been used in fossil fired power plants for many years because of their excellent high temperature stability and mechanical properties. As the desire to increase the efficiency of power plants continues, the operating temperature (>650C) continues to go up. Currently available low and medium Cr containing steels will not withstand the new operating temperature and must be reassessed in terms of their solid-solution and precipitation strengthening schemes. Three medium Cr steels were developed to investigate high temperature alloy strengthening strategies: 0.08C-(9-12)Cr-1.2Ni-0.7Mo-3.0Cu-3.0Co-0.5Ti. The microstructure of the alloy will be described in the as-cast and thermo-mechanically worked states. In addition, the effect on microstructure from long-term high temperature exposure will also be discussed. Finally, the overall stability of these steels will be compared against currently available power plant steels.

  4. Movement of liquid metal in welding bath during welding in longitudinal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, I.M.; Rybakov, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The specific features are considered of liquid metal flow in a bath during welding of steel 12Kh18N10T plates with a non-consumable electrode in argon under interaction of the arc and bath with a longitudinal constant magnetic field. In controlling the velocity field of metal flow, the longitudinal magnetic field permits to form a seam at automatic welding of horizontal joints on a vertical plane

  5. Microstructure refinement and strengthening mechanisms of a 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel by zirconium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hai Jian; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Dong Mei; Liu, Chunming

    2017-01-01

    To study the effects of zirconium (Zr) addition on the microstructure, hardness and the tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels, two kinds of 9Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%) of Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Y_2O-3 and Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Zr-0.3Y_2O_3 were fabricated by the mechanical alloying (MA) of premixed powders and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. The experimental results showed that the average grain size decreases with Zr addition. The trigonal δ-phase Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 oxides and body-centered cubic Y_2O_3 oxides are formed in the 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel and 9Cr non-Zr ODS steel, respectively, and the average size of Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 particles is much smaller than that of Y_2O_3. The dispersion morphology of the oxide particles in 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel is significantly improved and the number density is 1.1 x 10"2"3/m"3 with Zr addition. The 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel shows much higher tensile ductility, ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time

  6. Surface finishing and levelling of thermomechanically hardened rolled steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosval'd, V.G.; Bashchenko, A.P.; Grishkov, A.I.; Gutnik, M.V.; Kanevskij, B.L.; Nikozov, A.I.; Sedov, N.D.; Prosin, K.A.; Safonov, L.I.

    1975-01-01

    The finishing of high-strength merchant shapes from alloy steel was tried out under industrial conditions with the equipment of metallurgical plants. After thermomechanical hardening in the production line of the rolling mill, 30KhGSN2A and 40Kh1NVA steel rounds 32 and 31 mm in diameter were straightened on a two-roller straightening machine designed by the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Metallurgical Machinery (VNII Metmash). This made possible subsequent turning and grinding of the rods. The conditions of straightening, turning and grinding have been worked so as to obtain thermomechanically strengthened and ground rolled products approximating the gauged and ground metal in shape geometry and surface finish. It is shown that the labour-consuming operation of turning can be eliminated by reducing the machining pass of the rolled product, and this lowers the labour required for the finishing operations by 75%. After grinding with 40- and 25-grain abrasive wheels, high strength rolled shapes were obtained with a diameter of 30-0.20 mm and a surface finish of class 6-5 satisfying the technical specifications. (author)

  7. Study on the process of calibration and deep centring of blanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapov, I.N.; Romantsev, B.A.; Popov, V.A.; Volodin, V.V.; Goncharuk, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Process of calibration and deep centring of blanks before broaching is developed and studied. Investigations are performed at a semi-industrial screw rolling mill MISiS-100 T. Blanks made of 40Kh, 60, 50, 45KhN2MFA, 30KhGSNA steels 80, 85, and 90 mm in diameter and 300 mm long were calibrated and centered after heating in a furnace to a depth of 200 mm at shafts and faces with different calibration. 30KhN2MFA steel is chosen for face material; heat treatment is conducted under the following conditions: heating up to 950-1000 deg C and hold-up during 30-35 min with the following cooling in the air. The above experimental investigations reveal that the process of calibration and deep centring accomplished at a three-shaft screw rolling mill is rather stable and provides a high accuracy of centering hollow marking

  8. Influence of Normalizing Temperature on the Microstructure and Hardness of 9Cr-1Mo ODS Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ki Nam; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyu Tae [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened(ODS) steel has superior high-temperature strength and creep properties because fine oxide particles having an excellent stability at high temperatures are uniformly distributed in the matrix. ODS steel has being developed for structure materials of sodium fast cooled reactor(SFR) because of its excellent irradiation resistance and mechanical properties. 9Cr-1Mo ODS steel has better high temperature strength and irradiation resistance than common 9Cr-1Mo steel because Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-sized particles which interrupt dislocation movement and grain boundary slip are uniformly dispersed in the martensite matrix. The mechanical properties of the ODS steels are mainly determined by their microstructures, and the microstructure is considerably decided by the heat-treatment conditions. This study focused on the effect of normalizing temperature on microstructure and hardness of 9Cr-1Mo martensitic ODS steel so as to optimize the heat-treatment condition. In this study, the effect of normalizing temperature on mechanical property and microstructures of 9Cr-1Mo martensitic ODS steel was investigated. It was shown that the microhardness was steadily increased with increasing of the normalizing temperature. According to TEM observation, mechanical property of 9Cr-1Mo ODS steel was significantly affected by lath width. These observations, could be useful to understand the relationship between normalizing temperature and microstructure.

  9. Hot ductility of structural steels melted with the use of direct reduction charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, V.N.; Bulat, S.I.; Litvinenko, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    A possibility of the use of direct reduction charge during the open arc melting of the 40Kh2N2MA steel with the subsequent electroslag remelting was investigated. It is shown that the use of such charge free from non-ferrous metal admixtures permits to increase an alloy hot ductility in the hot-brittleness range from 900 up to 1500 deg C. An increase of the deformation rate from 0.1 up to 1 s - 1 increases 1.5-3 times a level of minimum ductility within this temperature range. It is established that antimony and bismuth impurities considerably decrease hot ductility

  10. Effect of carbides on erosion resistance of 23-8-N steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8-N nitronic steel, carbides present in the form of bands are observed to accelerate the erosion rate. Coarse ... lar carbides, precipitating at random boundaries, were more likely to ... 23-8-N nitronic steel is basically austenitic stainless steel.

  11. Initial study on Z-phase strengthened 9-12% Cr steels by atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang; Andren, Hans-Olof [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2010-07-01

    The microstructure of two different types of Z-phase strengthened experimental steels, CrNbN-based or CrTaN-based, was investigated. Both steels underwent aging at 650 C for relatively short period of time, 24 hours or 1005 hours. Atom probe tomography was used to study the chemical composition of the matrix and precipitates, and the size and number density of the small precipitates. Both steels contain Laves phase at prior austenite grain boundaries and martensitic lath boundaries. The CrTaN-based steel was found more promising due to its finer and more densely distributed precipitates after 1005 hour aging. (orig.)

  12. Thermal tests of large recirculation cooling installations for nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balunov, B. F.; Lychakov, V. D.; Il'in, V. A.; Shcheglov, A. A.; Maslov, O. P.; Rasskazova, N. A.; Rakhimov, R. Z.; Boyarov, R. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results from thermal tests of some recirculation installations for cooling air in nuclear power plant premises, including the volume under the containment. The cooling effect in such installations is produced by pumping water through their heat-transfer tubes. Air from the cooled room is blown by a fan through a bundle of transversely finned tubes and is removed to the same room after having been cooled. The finning of tubes used in the tested installations was made of Grade 08Kh18N10T and Grade 08Kh18N10 stainless steels or Grade AD1 aluminum. Steel fins were attached to the tube over their entire length by means of high-frequency welding. Aluminum fins were extruded on a lathe from the external tube sheath into which a steel tube had preliminarily been placed. Although the fin extrusion operation was accompanied by pressing the sheath inner part to the steel tube, tight contact between them over the entire surface was not fully achieved. In view of this, the air gap's thermal resistance coefficient was introduced in calculating the heat transfer between the heat-transferring media. The air gap average thickness was determined from the test results taking into account the gap variation with temperature due to different linear expansion coefficients of steel and aluminum. These tests, which are part of the acceptance tests of the considered installations, were carried out at the NPO TsKTI test facility and were mainly aimed at checking if the obtained thermal characteristics were consistent with the values calculated according to the standard recommendations with introduction, if necessary, of modifications to those recommendations.

  13. Microstructure refinement and strengthening mechanisms of a 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel by zirconium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hai Jian; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Dong Mei; Liu, Chunming [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2017-02-15

    To study the effects of zirconium (Zr) addition on the microstructure, hardness and the tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels, two kinds of 9Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%) of Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Y{sub 2}O-3 and Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Zr-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were fabricated by the mechanical alloying (MA) of premixed powders and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. The experimental results showed that the average grain size decreases with Zr addition. The trigonal δ-phase Y{sub 4}Zr{sub 3}O{sub 12} oxides and body-centered cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides are formed in the 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel and 9Cr non-Zr ODS steel, respectively, and the average size of Y{sub 4}Zr{sub 3}O{sub 12} particles is much smaller than that of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The dispersion morphology of the oxide particles in 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel is significantly improved and the number density is 1.1 x 10{sup 23}/m{sup 3} with Zr addition. The 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel shows much higher tensile ductility, ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time.

  14. Starting of H9ANFNb(P91) steel tubing production for energetics in domestic steel-works; Uruchomienie w krajowych hutach produkcji rur ze stali H9AMFNb(P91) przeznaczonych dla energetyki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedermann, J. [Instytut Metalurgii Zelaza, Gliwice (Poland); Bieniek, K. [Huta Jednosc, Siemianowice Slaskie (Poland); Pogoda, K. [Huta Batory, Chorzow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The results of primary investigations and attempt of ferritic steel H9AMFNb production in domestic steel-works have been reported. The prototype series of tubes for energetic boilers have been tested and their mechanical properties determined. It has been found the applicability of the material for use in energetics. 9 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  15. Microhardness of boron, titanium, and nitrogen implanted steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, M.; Szyszko, W.; Sielanko, J.; Glusiec, L.

    1989-01-01

    Mechanically polished steel (1H18N9T) and (15GTM) samples are implanted with boron, titanium, and nitrogen ions, with dose ranging from 10 16 to 10 17 ions/cm 2 . The implantation energy varied from 100 to 250 keV. Implanted samples are heat-treated at 400 to 800 0 C in vacuum. The microhardness of implanted samples is measured by using a Hanneman tester with loads ranging from 2 to 40 g. The influence of annealing temperature on microhardness of the implanted layers is determined. The diffusion of boron from the implanted layers is also investigated by using the secondary ion mass spectrometer. The diffusion coefficients of boron in steel are determined. (author)

  16. Thermal creep properties of alloy D9 stainless steel and 316 stainless steel fuel clad tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latha, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Parameswaran, P.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Mannan, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Uniaxial thermal creep rupture properties of 20% cold worked alloy D9 stainless steel (alloy D9 SS) fuel clad tubes for fast breeder reactors have been evaluated at 973 K in the stress range 125-250 MPa. The rupture lives were in the range 90-8100 h. The results are compared with the properties of 20% cold worked type 316 stainless steel (316 SS) clad tubes. Alloy D9 SS were found to have higher creep rupture strengths, lower creep rates and lower rupture ductility than 316 SS. The deformation and damage processes were related through Monkman Grant relationship and modified Monkman Grant relationship. The creep damage tolerance parameter indicates that creep fracture takes place by intergranular cavitation. Precipitation of titanium carbides in the matrix and chromium carbides on the grain boundaries, dislocation substructure and twins were observed in transmission electron microscopic investigations of alloy D9 SS. The improvement in strength is attributed to the precipitation of fine titanium carbides in the matrix which prevents the recovery and recrystallisation of the cold worked microstructure

  17. Stainless steels for cryogenic bolts and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, F.; Rabbe, P.; Odin, G.

    1975-01-01

    Stainless steel for cryogenic applications are generally austenitic steels which, under the effect of cold-drawing, can or cannot undergo a partial martensitic transformation according to their composition. It has been shown that very high ductility and endurance characteristics at low temperatures, together with very high yield strength and resistances values, can be attained with grades of nitrogenous steels of types Z2CN18-10N and Z3CMN18-8-6N. Optimum ductility values are obtained by employing to the best possible, the martensitic transformations which develop during cold-drawing. From the plotting of the rational traction curves, it is possible to analyse very simply the influence of the composition on the martensitic transformations [fr

  18. Structure and friction properties of cermet and oxide explosion coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RGrigorov, A.I.; Semenov, A.P.; Fed'ko, Yu.P.; Shtejn, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Conditions have been specified for spraying explosion coatings of cermets over Kh18N10T stainless steel and an aluminum alloy. A mixture of WC and CO powders served as a material for spraying. The method of micro-X-ray spectrum analysis has been used to study the structure of the transition zone between the coating and the substrate and to establish the mechanism responsible for the formation of a cermet layer

  19. Surface deformation effects on stainless steel, Ni, Cu and Mo produced by medium energy He ions irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Florescu, V.; Sarbu, C.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate dose and energy dependence of surface deformation effects (blistering and flaking), different kinds of candidate CTR first wall materials as 12KH18N10T, W-4541, W-4016 and SS-304 stainless steels, Ni, Cu, Mo were irradiated at room temperature with 3.0, 4.7 and 6.8 MeV He + ions at IAP Cyclotron. The effects were investigated by means of a TEMSCAN 200 CX electron microscope and two metallographic Orthoplan Pol Leitz and Olympus microscopes. We observed two dose dependent main phenomena: blistering and flaking (craters). So, blisters occurrence on the irradiated surface is almost instantaneous when a critical dose (number of He ions accumulated in the region at the end of alpha particles range) is reached. Increasing irradiation dose, we reached flaking stage. So, isolated submicronic fissures along grain boundaries were observed on the blister skin, chronologically followed by large (5-20 μm) deep cracks of hundreds of microns in length, blisters opening and, finally, flaking appearance. (author) 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER MENURUT K.H. HASYIM ASY’ARI DALAM KITAB ADÂB AL-‘ÂLIM WA AL-MUTA‘ALLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sholikah Sholikah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with K.H. Hasyim Asy’ari’s thought of character education. The result of the study indicates that according to K.H. Hasyim Asy’ari the characters of teachers and students in his work Adab al-‘Âlim wa al-Muta’allim can be classified into three parts, are mentality or character, which should be possessed by teachers and learners: attempts to be done in order to become characterized teachers and learners, and: teaching strategies employed by educators and learning strategies used by learners. These three parts have compatible indicators with the competence of educators stated in UU Sisdiknas (The Legislation of National Educational System year 2003 along with 18 values of character promulgated by Pusat Kurikulum Pengembangan dan Pendidikan Budaya dan Karakter Bangsa. Moreover, according to K.H. Hasyim Asy’ari, the relevance of character education with the context of character education in Indonesia consists of a number of character education elements, namely the meaning and goal of character education, the values of character for both teachers and students, the rationale of character education, the method of character education, the media of character education, and the evaluation of character education

  1. Shear velocities in the oceanic crust at the East Pacific Rise 9° 18' N to 10° 30' N from compliance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooner, S. L.; Webb, S. C.; Crawford, W. C.

    2007-12-01

    Compliance was measured at 21 sites along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) from 9° 18' N to 10° 30' N during the MADCAP (Melt And Diking from Compliance And Pressure) experiment on the R/V Atlantis from February 13 to March 19, 2007. Measurements at 10° 30' N across the ridge segment 22 km north of the Clipperton transform fault show a stiff lower crust, which suggests that there is little crustal melt. This is consistent with previous descriptions of this segment as "magmatically starved" based on its morphology. Most of the compliance measurements were made on the EPR segment south of the Clipperton transform fault. At the northern end of this ridge segment, a compliance transect at 10° 2' N spans the ridge axis and continues to a seamount 16 km east. These measurements indicate that shear velocities are low beneath the ridge axis but increase rapidly off axis to the east, suggesting no magmatic connection between the ridge axis and the Watchstander seamount chain. Shear velocities beneath the nearest (and most recently active) seamount are similar to other off axis sites, suggesting that there is little or no crustal melt there. A 26 km long compliance transect across the ridge axis near 9° 20' N suggests that the region of low crustal shear velocities is constrained to within 3-4 km of the ridge axis. The compliance measurements preclude the existence of a melt body 18-20 km east of the ridge axis as had been inferred from an apparent mid-crustal reflector observed in a recent OBS experiment. The compliance over that site show low shear velocities only in the uppermost crust associated with a thick layer 2A. A final compliance transect stretches northward along the ridge axis and across the Clipperton ridge-transform intersection (RTI). Measurements made north of where the ridge crosses the inferred location of the RTI show lower crustal shear velocities than normal for off-axis crust, but this observation is consistent with previous refraction work that

  2. Konsep Pendidikan Akhlak dan Dakwah dalam Perspektif Dr. KH. Zakky Mubarak, MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchtar Muchtar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Research aims to understand role, and the concept of education and dakwah in perspective Dr. KH. Zakky Mubarak, MA. This research departs from looking at the phenomenon of human life is increasingly complex, entered the modern life and globalization present and the future, wich is characterized by technical and professional paced lives, is forecast to many people ignore the moral and religious in individual and social life. The concept of moral education in the perspective of Dr. KH. Zakky Mubarak, MA that establishes the character of the learners, provide good role models, develop the moral high level, and then apply the knowledge of good character and exemplary in real life so it can become an ingrained habit. The concept of dakwah in perspective Dr. KH. Zakky Mubarak, MA at least two steps that need to be understood by a preacher, first that of bringing the wisdom, it means explaining the wisdoms contained in worship and other Islamic activities without patronizing impression, meaning a preacher should put the words and appropriate sentence appropriate to the circumstances . The second is to mau'idlah hasanah , means giving advice that touch the heart so that the message can be embedded in the memories of audience. Dr. KH. Zakky Mubarak, MA is one of the Nahdlatul Ulama cleric who spend their time preaching, either through a lecture or through scientific papers, scientific papers written contains a lot of moral education that can be used as a reference.  Keywords: Concept of Education and Dakwah, Zakky Mubarak, Nahdlatul Ulama Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran, serta konsep pendidikan akhlak dan dakwah dalam perspektif Dr. KH. Zakky Mubarak, MA. Kesimpulan penelitian ini bahwa Konsep pendidikan akhlak dalam perspektif Dr. KH. Zakky Mubarak, MA yaitu menanamkan pemahaman tentang akhlak terhadap peserta didik, memberikan keteladanan yang baik, mengembangkan pada akhlak tingkat tinggi, dan kemudian mengaplikasikan

  3. Characteristics of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel for Reactor Pressure Vessel of Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Ryu, W. S.; Han, Chang Hee; Yoon, J. H.; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2004-11-15

    Many researches and developments have been progressed for the construction of VHTR by 2020 in Korea. Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has been receiving attention for the application to the reactor pressure vessel material of VHTR. We collected and analyzed the research data for modified 9Cr-1Mo steel in order to understand the characteristics of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is a modified alloy system similar to conventional 9Cr-1Mo grade ferritic steel. Modifications include additions of vanadium, niobium, and nitrogen, as well as lower carbon content. In this report, we summarized the change of microstructure and mechanical properties after tempering, thermal aging, and irradiation. Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has high strength and thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and good resistance to corrosion. But the irradiation embrittlement behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel should be evaluated and the evaluation methodology also should be developed. At the same time, the characteristics of weldment which is the weak part in pressure vessel should be evaluated.

  4. 9% Cr steel high temperature oxidation. Solutions investigated for improving corrosion resistance of the steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evin, Harold Nicolas; Heintz, Olivier; Chevalier, Sebastien [UMR 5209 CNRS-Bourgogne Univ. (France). Lab. Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne; Foejer, Cecilia; Jakani, Saad; Dhont, Annick; Claessens, Serge [OCAS N.V. ArcelorMittal Global R and D, Gent (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The improvement of high temperature oxidation resistance of low chromium content steels, such as T/P91, is of great interest in regards with their application in thermal power generating plants. Indeed, they possess good creep properties, but are facing their limits of use at temperature higher than 600 C, due to accelerated corrosion phenomena. Good knowledge of the mechanisms involved during their oxidation process is needed to prevent the degradation of the materials and to extend life time of the power plants components. Oxide layers thermally grown, on 9% Cr steels (provided by OCAS N.V), during isothermal tests between 600 C and 750 C in laboratory air under atmospheric pressure were investigated, by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The oxidation behaviour appeared very limited at 750 C, due to the presence of a breakaway, which can be linked to iron porous oxide grown over the surface of the samples. ''In situ'' X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were performed in air at 600 C after short exposures (between 5 min and 25 h). A complex mixture of iron oxide, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr (VI) species were characterized in the scales. The in-situ analyses were compared and related to XPS analyses performed on thick oxide scales formed on samples oxidized in air at 600 C for 100h. An oxidation mechanism is then proposed to understand the oxide scale growth in the temperature range 600 - 750 C. The second step of this study consists in improving the high temperature corrosion resistance of these steels without modifying their mechanical properties. Thus several solutions were investigated such as MOCVD coatings, pack cementation coatings, and tested in cycle conditions prior. (orig.)

  5. Microstructural Stability and Oxidation Resistance of 9-12 Chromium Steels at Elevated Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, O.N.; Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.; Hawk, J.A.

    2006-05-01

    Various martensitic 9-12 Cr steels are utilized currently in fossil fuel powered energy plants for their good elevated temperature properties such as creep strength, steam side oxidation resistance, fire side corrosion resistance, and thermal fatigue resistance. Need for further improvements on the properties of 9-12 Cr steels for higher temperature (>600oC) use is driven by the environmental concerns (i.e., improve efficiency to reduce emissions and fossil fuel consumption). In this paper, we will discuss the results of the research done to explore new subsitutional solute solution and precipitate hardening mechanisms for improved strength of 9-12 Cr martensitic steels. Stability of the phases present in the steels will be evaluated for various temperature and time exposures. A comparison of microstructural properties of the experimental steels and commercial steels will also be presented.

    The influence of a Ce surface treatment on oxidation behavior of a commercial (P91) and several experimental steels containing 9 to 12 weight percent Cr was examined at 650ºC in flowing dry and moist air. The oxidation behavior of all the alloys without the Ce modification was significantly degraded by the presence of moisture in the air during testing. For instance the weight gain for P91 was two orders of magnitude greater in moist air than in dry air. This was accompanied by a change in oxide scale from the formation of Cr-based scales in dry air to the formation of Fe-based scales in moist air. The Ce surface treatment was very effective in improving the oxidation resistance of the experimental steels in both moist and dry air. For instance, after exposure to moist air at 650ºC for 2000 hours, an experimental alloy with the cerium surface modification had a weight gain three orders of magnitude lower than the alloy without the Ce modification and two orders of magnitude lower than P91. The Ce surface treatment suppressed the formation of Fe-based scales and

  6. On the hypothesis of agressive environment effect evaluation on the cyclic cracking resistance in metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaniv, O.N.; Gladkij, Ya.N.; Nikiforchin, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental data on studying static and cyclic cracking resistances of steels in water and inert gaseous media are given. Presented are experimental values of threshold coefficients of stress intensities for a series of the systems: metal (the 4340 steel of the 45KhN2MFA type, 12Ni-5Cr-3Mo steel, 9Ni-4Co-0.25C steel and others)-medium. On the base of the above data analysis and representations on the mechanism of crack growth under conditions of permanent and variable load effects the conclusion is drawn on the groundlessness of the hypothesis of contribution superposition resulted from pure fatigue and corrosion-static factors when estimating cracking resistance of metals and alloys

  7. Creep Strength of Dissimilar Welded Joints Using High B-9Cr Steel for Advanced USC Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Masaaki; Hongo, Hiromichi; Abe, Fujio

    2014-10-01

    The commercialization of a 973 K (700 °C) class pulverized coal power system, advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) pressure power generation, is the target of an ongoing research project initiated in Japan in 2008. In the A-USC boiler, Ni or Ni-Fe base alloys are used for high-temperature parts at 923 K to 973 K (650 °C to 700 °C), and advanced high-Cr ferritic steels are planned to be used at temperatures lower than 923 K (650 °C). In the dissimilar welds between Ni base alloys and high-Cr ferritic steels, Type IV failure in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is a concern. Thus, the high B-9Cr steel developed at the National Institute for Materials Science, which has improved creep strength in weldments, is a candidate material for the Japanese A-USC boiler. In the present study, creep tests were conducted on the dissimilar welded joints between Ni base alloys and high B-9Cr steels. Microstructures and creep damage in the dissimilar welded joints were investigated. In the HAZ of the high B-9Cr steels, fine-grained microstructures were not formed and the grain size of the base metal was retained. Consequently, the creep rupture life of the dissimilar welded joints using high B-9Cr steel was 5 to 10 times longer than that of the conventional 9Cr steel welded joints at 923 K (650 °C).

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 9Cr ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Hyoung Kee; Kang, Suk Hoon; Noh, Sanghoon; Lee, Jung Gu; Jang, Jinsung; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the welding of ODS steel with a conventional melting.solidification process is not adequate to reserve nano-oxide particles in the matrix homogeneously. To reserve nano-oxide particles in the matrix homogeneously, friction stir welding (FSW) is the most promising technique to join ODS alloys. In this study, the effects of FSW on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a ODS steel were studied to apply the FSW process to 9Cr ODS steels. Microstructures were observed by means of optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A tensile test and hardness test were carried out to the investigate mechanical properties. FSW could successfully produce defect-free welds on ODS plates. FSW produced a fine grain structure consisting of ferrite and martensite. Tensile strengths and elongations of the SZs were excellent at 298 K, compared to those of the BM. This study suggests that FSW might be an appropriate welding method of ODS steels. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic (FM) steel containing 9 wt%Cr is a promising candidate material for high temperature components operating in aggressive environments such as nuclear fusion and fission systems because of the excellent elevated temperature strength, corrosion and radiation resistance. These characteristics come from microstructures consisting of fine grains and nano-oxide particles dispersed in high number density. However, for more applications of ODS steel in nuclear systems, its weldability is the one of the barrier to be solved

  9. Microstructures and mechanical properties of 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel produced by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Rui [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Lu, Zheng, E-mail: luz@atm.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Lu, Chenyang; Li, Zhengyuan [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Ding, Xueyong [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Chunming [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A 9Cr-ODS steel was produced by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. • Bimodal grain size distribution was observed. • Formation mechanism of bimodal grain size distribution was discussed. • The size and number density of nanoscale particles were obtained by SAXS and HRTEM. • The contribution of nano-sized particles to yield strength is dominating. - Abstract: 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel was fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The nano-sized particles, grain size distribution and mechanical properties of 9Cr-ODS steel sintered at 950 °C were studied by synchrotron radiation small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and tensile experiment. The results showed that bimodal grain size distribution in the matrix is observed, which is attributed to the heterogeneous recrystallization process during the SPS. High-density nano-sized Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and some large oxides of Cr{sub 2}Mn(Ti)O{sub 4} are formed in 9Cr-ODS steel. The number density and average size of Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} obtained from SAXS are 4.72 × 10{sup 22}/m{sup 3} and 4.4 nm, respectively. The yield strengths of 9Cr-ODS steel fabricated by SPS are compared with the typical 9Cr-ODS steel produced by HIP.

  10. Safety conditions of using structural steels under high temperature and pressures in hydrogen containing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asviyan, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    The method for establishing full-strength conditions was suggested on the base of results of creep-rupture test of tube samples under hydrogen pressure and according to permissible stresses in neutral medium. Applicability of the method was considered taking St3 and 12KhM steels as examples. It was shown that the use of suggested dependences and special efficiency factors enables to forecast endurance limit for the given steel grade and assigned partial hydrogen pressure without labour-intensive test conducting

  11. Analysis of ductile-brittle transition shifts for standard and miniature bending specimens of irradiated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, M.E.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Krasikov, E.A.; Gabuev, N.N.; Tykhmeev, D.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    A study is made to reveal if there is a correlation between shifts in temperature curves obtained when testing thin plates and standard specimens on impact bending and fracture toughness. The tests were carried out using steel 25Kh3NM specimens irradiated by 6 x 10 19 cm -2 neutron fluence. A conclusion is made about the possibility to evaluate the degree of radiation-induced embrittlement of reactor steels on the basis of thin plate testing under quasistatic loads [ru

  12. 9 CFR 3.18 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.18 Section 3.18... Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.18 Terminal facilities. (a) Placement. Any person subject to the... inanimate cargo in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. (b) Cleaning, sanitization, and pest control...

  13. Excellent corrosion resistance of 18Cr-20Ni-5Si steel in liquid Pb-Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Y.; Futakawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion properties of three austenitic steels with different Si contents were studied under oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi condition for 3000 h. The three austenitic steels did not exhibit appreciable dissolution of Ni and Cr at 450 deg. C. At 550 deg. C, the thick ferrite layer produced by dissolution of Ni and Cr was found in JPCA and 316SS with low Si contents while the protective oxide film composed of Si and O was formed on 18Cr-20Ni-5Si steel and prevented dissolution of Ni and Cr

  14. The influence of interstitial impurities on temperature ranges of deuterium retention in austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Morozov, O.M.; Kulish, V.G.; Zhurba, V.I.; Galytsky, A.G.; Piatenko, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen, oxygen and helium on the temperature range of deuterium retention in 18Cr10NiTi stainless steel (of AISI304L type) has been investigated. It is demonstrated that the introduction of oxygen, nitrogen or helium into 18Cr10NiTi steel extends the upper limit in the high-temperature range of deuterium retention. It has been found that for 18Cr10NiTi stainless steel, pre-irradiated with helium ions, the increase in the temperature range of deuterium retention occurs in steps: on attainment of helium concentration of ∼0.5 at.% He the temperature range increases by ∼100 K, and on attainment of helium concentration of ∼2.5 at.% He the temperature range increases by ∼350 K. The introduction of oxygen into 18Cr10NiTi stainless steel results in the increase of the temperature range of deuterium retention in the direction of rise in temperature. In the deuterium thermodesorption spectrum, this manifests itself by the occurrence of an additional low-amplitude peak with the maximum temperature T m ∼ 560 K. The introduction of nitric impurity into 18Cr10NiTi stainless steel results in the extension of the temperature range of deuterium retention towards higher temperatures.

  15. Stress-controlled inelastic behavior of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Kosei.

    1989-01-01

    Interest in the ferritic steels of higher chromium concentration has increased recently because of an economical combination of mechanical and corrosion properties at elevated temperatures. A modified 9 Cr-1 Mo ferritic steel, developed in the United States, has been expected as an alternative structural material for fast breeder reactor components, in which Type 304 stainless steel or 2.25 Cr-1 Mo steel is currently used. For application of this material to the structural components, a lot of work has been done to develop evaluation methods for the deformation behavior and strength properties. The authors have studied the inelastic behavior and the creep-fatigue properties of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel at elevated temperatures, and proposed a constitutive equation and a creep-fatigue damage equation based on the overstress concept. In this paper, the applicability is discussed of the constitutive equation to stress-controlled inelastic behavior, such as creep strain hardening and stress cycling

  16. TRANSFORMASI KURIKULUM PESANTREN: Telaah Pemikiran KH. MA. Sahal Mahfudh dan Nurcholish Madjid

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhlison Effendi; Suradi Suradi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract; Islamic boarding school is an indigenous Indonesia. Some contribution that given in the Islamization process, create a good community literacy and culture are very large. One reason, because there are Islamic boarding school curriculum transformation. Most influential enticement are KH. MA. Sahal Mahfudh and Nurcholish Madjid enticement. To knowing and determine the transformation both of those figures, the researcher take focus of study as: 1) the speculation of KH. MA. Sahal Mahfu...

  17. Metodologi Fatwa K.H. Muhammad Syaf’i Hadzami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ardiansyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatwa is one of the heavy mandates on the shoulders of Moslem scholars. There are some conditions that must be fulflled before the fatwa could be used to solve the problems of the people. Basically, the fatwa replaces the task of the Prophet in conveying the shari’a law, then the scholars did not dare to be reckless in declaring any fatwa. Therefore, being a mufti is not only required by reading the translation of al-Qur’an or Hadith, or by searching on the google, or by copying broadcasts in social media. According to al-Shirazi, the intellectual condition that must be required to be a mufti is deep understanding toward al-Qur’an and Hadith, also understanding sources of speech such as ḥaqîqah-majâz, ‘âmm-khâṣṣ, Arabic language, nâsikh-mansûkh, ijmâ’, ikhtilaf, and tartîb al-adillah. While the moral requirements to be a mufti according to Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal are having pure intention, having broad knowledge, patience, and soul, having strong mentality to fulfl the task, having suffciency of life to avoid being influenced by others, and understanding the condition of society. This paper attempts to examine the fatwas of a mufti from Betawi who had lived in the modern era known as Mu’allim Syaf’i Hadzami. The fatwas were collected in a work entitled Tawḍîḥ al-Adillah. In this article, the author has concluded that Mu’allim uses eight complementary and relevant fatwa methodologies to solve today’s problems

  18. Effect of N+Cr alloying on the microstructures and tensile properties of Hadfield steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Zhang, F.C.; Wang, F.; Liu, H.; Yu, B.D.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructures and tensile behaviors of traditional Hadfield steel, named Mn12 steel, and Hadfield steel alloyed with N+Cr, named Mn12CrN steel were studied through optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, among others. Three different tensile strain rates of 5×10 −4 , 5×10 −3 , and 5×10 −2 s −1 were selected in the tensile test. The deformation microstructures and fracture morphologies of the two steels after fracture in the tensile test were observed to analyze the tensile deformation response to different tensile strain rates. Results showed that the grain size of Mn12CrN steel was evidently refined after alloying with N+Cr. The grain would not become abnormally coarse even with increasing austenitizing temperature. During tensile deformation, the strength and plasticity of Mn12CrN steel were superior to those of Mn12 steel at the same strain rate. With increasing the strain rate, the changes in strength and plasticity of Mn12CrN steel were less sensitive to tensile strain rate compared with Mn12 steel. The effects of grain refinement and N+Cr alloying on dynamic strain aging and deformation twining behaviors were responsible for this lack of sensitivity to strain rate.

  19. Development of ferritic-martensitic P9 steel for wrapper application in future SFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, B.K.; Mathew, M.D.; Isaac Samuel, E.; Moitra, A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the outcome of the research and development efforts directed towards the development of ferritic-martensitic P9 steel for wrapper application in future sodium cooled fast reactors with an objective to achieve high fuel burnup and more economical nuclear energy. The important and critical issues involved for the development of P9 wrappers such as optimisation of chemical composition in terms of trace elements like sulphur and phosphorous and appropriate thermo-mechanical treatments along with thermal ageing and irradiation effects on fracture properties have been discussed. Tensile properties evaluated at temperatures ranging from 300 to 873 K on the experimental three heats of P9 steel with different silicon contents and made using primary vacuum induction melting followed by secondary electro slag refining route, have been presented. Fracture behaviour examined mainly in terms of ductile to brittle transition temperature and upper shelf energy provided encouraging results. Based on these investigations, a roadmap has been drawn to make experimental P9 steel wrappers for tests in fast breeder test reactor and prototype fast breeder reactor. (author)

  20. Precipitation and impact toughness of Nb–V stabilised 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel during isothermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jian; Li, Huijun; Barbaro, Frank; Jiang, Laizhu; Zhu, Zhixiong; Xu, Haigang; Ma, Li

    2014-01-01

    The effect of isothermal aging on precipitation behaviour and Charpy impact toughness of Nb–V stabilised 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel was investigated by means of Thermo-Calc prediction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Charpy impact toughness testing. The results show that, niobium, vanadium carbides and nitrides, Fe 2 Nb (Laves phase) and Cr 23 C 6 formed after 2 h aging at 800 °C, and the equilibrium solvus temperature of Fe 2 Nb phase increases to above 750 °C, higher than the calculated temperature (730 °C) using Thermo-Calc. After isothermal aging at 750–950 °C, 2 h aging resulted in a decrease in toughness due to the formation of precipitation, especially (Nb,V)(C,N) and Fe 2 Nb. When isothermally aged at 800 °C for up to 24 h, the coarsening rate of Fe 2 Nb particle is much higher than that of (Nb,V)(C,N), and the impact toughness of the steel is dependent on quantity and sizes of (Nb,V)(C,N) and Fe 2 Nb particles

  1. Precipitation and impact toughness of Nb–V stabilised 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel during isothermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jian, E-mail: jh595@uowmail.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Li, Huijun [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Barbaro, Frank [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); CBMM Technology Suisse, 14, Rue du Rhone, Geneve 1204 (Switzerland); Jiang, Laizhu [Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200431 (China); Zhu, Zhixiong [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Xu, Haigang; Ma, Li [Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200431 (China)

    2014-08-26

    The effect of isothermal aging on precipitation behaviour and Charpy impact toughness of Nb–V stabilised 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel was investigated by means of Thermo-Calc prediction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Charpy impact toughness testing. The results show that, niobium, vanadium carbides and nitrides, Fe{sub 2}Nb (Laves phase) and Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} formed after 2 h aging at 800 °C, and the equilibrium solvus temperature of Fe{sub 2}Nb phase increases to above 750 °C, higher than the calculated temperature (730 °C) using Thermo-Calc. After isothermal aging at 750–950 °C, 2 h aging resulted in a decrease in toughness due to the formation of precipitation, especially (Nb,V)(C,N) and Fe{sub 2}Nb. When isothermally aged at 800 °C for up to 24 h, the coarsening rate of Fe{sub 2}Nb particle is much higher than that of (Nb,V)(C,N), and the impact toughness of the steel is dependent on quantity and sizes of (Nb,V)(C,N) and Fe{sub 2}Nb particles.

  2. Analysis of High Temperature Deformed Structure and Dynamic Precipitation in W9Mo3Cr4V Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With TEM、SEM, various high-temperature deformed structures inW9Mo3Cr4V steel were investigated. The sub-structures,recrystallized nuclei, as well as the dynamic precipitation were also studied and analyzed. The relationship between recrystallized structures and dynamic precipitation was discussed. The results showed that the deformed structures in W9Mo3Cr4V steel are more complicated than those in low alloy steels. Because W9Mo3Cr4V steel is a high-speed steel, there are a large number of residual carbides on the matrix. Also, much dynamic precipitating carbides will precipitate during deformation at high temperature.

  3. Praktik Pemikiran Inklusif-Sosial KH M Sholeh Bahruddin Ngalah sebagai Manifestasi Pendidikan Multikultural Pesantren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anang Sholikhudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam sejarah hidupnya, praktik pemikiran inklusif-sosial Kiai Sholeh sangat dipengaruhi oleh beberapa hal. Pertama, atas perintah ayahanda dengan pesan seperti berikut: “sak temene dek pasar, dek masjid, dek dalan, kabeh iku dulurmu (sesungguhnya baik di pasar, di masjid, maupun di jalanan, di seluruh tempat itu ada saudaramu.” Kedua, penerapan teori Abraham, yakni mencontoh perilaku ayahanda KH M Bahruddin Kalam (almarhum dan juga perilaku kakek KH M Kalam (almarhum. Ketiga, praktik dari rukun Tarekat Naqshabandiyah pada poin kelima dan keenam, yakni “ambugusi kabeh konco, cilik gede, lanang wadon, enom tuo, lan ambagusi kabeh makhluk (bergaul secara baik dengan semua teman, baik kecil maupun besar, laki-laki maupun perempuan, muda maupun tua, dan bergaul secara baik dengan semua makhluk.” Penelitian ini memfokuskan pada praktik pemikiran inklusif-sosial KH M Sholeh Bahruddin dengan model studi kasus, pendekatan yang dipakai adalah expose facto. Data diambil melalui observasi, wawancara serta dokumentasi. Penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa praktik pemikiran inklusif-sosial KH.. M. Sholeh Bahruddin sebenarnya mempertemukan misi perintah masing-masing agama (Islam, Kristen, Katolik, Budha dan Konghucu untuk membangun perdamaian, keamanan dan memelihara kasih sayang bersama-sama dan meminimalisir terjadinya konflik agama. || In the history of his life, the practice of inclusive social thought by Kiai Sholeh greatly influenced by several things. First, on the orders of his father with the following message: “In the markets, in the mosques, as well as on the streets, all over the places there are your brothers.” Secondly, the application of Abraham’s theory, which was practiced by KH M Bahruddin Kalam, the father (deceased of Kiai Sholeh, as well as KH M Kalam, the grandfather (deceased of Kiai Sholeh. Third, the practice of the Naqshabandi pillars that say: “being good with all friends, both small and great, both men and women, young

  4. Electrochemical characterisation of X10CrNi 18-8 steel in artificial plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Przondziono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of applied guide wires conditions the course of treatment and its success to a great extent. In order to simulate conditions that can be found in blood vascular system samples were exposed to artificial blood plasma (T = 37 } 1 oC for the time of 8 h. In order to obtain information regarding physical and chemical properties of modified surface of wire made of X10CrNi 18-8 steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS test and tests of chemical composition of the surface layer X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were made. On the ground of performed EIS and XPS tests, favourable impact of steam sterilisation process on corrosion resistance of X10CrNi 18-8 steel was observed only for the case when chemical passivation was applied prior to sterilisation.

  5. Creep and long-term strength of heat-resistant steels with different structures with the account taken of the type of stress deviator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giginyak, F.F.; Dragunov, Yu.G.; Mozharovskaya, T.N.; Titov, V.F.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the experimental investigations into creep and long-term strength of heat-resistant steels 15Kh2MFA and 15Kh2NMFA in the initial state and after heat-treatment simulating the metal irradiation embrittlement at the end of the product service date under static loading at the complex stress state and at high temperatures are presented. The experimentally substantiated equations of state describing creep and long-term stability of materials taking into account the type of the stress state are derived. (author)

  6. The effects of N+ implantation on the wear and friction of type 304 and 15-5 PH stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, F.G.; Picraux, S.T.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Pope, L.E.; Knapp, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ion implantation of N + into mechanically polished type 304 and 15-5 PH stainless steels was studied to determine its effect on dry wear and friction behavior. Implantation of 4.0 X 10 17 N + cm -2 at 50 keV yielded a depth profile with a peak concentration of about 45 at.% at a depth of 70 nm which dropped to about 10 at.% at 120 nm. Wear and friction were studied in an unlubricated pin-on-disc configuration using type 304 and 440C stainless steel pins. Both N + -implanted steels exhibited reduced wear at low loads but no significant reduction in the coefficient of friction was found. At the lowest normal load studied (12.3 gf), the average maximum wear depth of the implanted 15-5 PH stainless steel disc (about 0.1 μm) was reduced to approximately 10% of that for the corresponding unimplanted pin-on-disc pair after 1000 cycles. At normal loads of 50 gf or above (corresponding to hertzian stresses of 1160 MPa or higher) all beneficial effects were gone. Vacuum heat treatment at 923 K for 1.8 ks of an identically implanted type 304 stainless steel specimen eradicated the beneficial effects of the nitrogen implantation. The N + -implanted discs show similar reductions in wear to discs implanted with titanium and carbon, but the N + -implanted discs do not exhibit the reductions in the coefficient of friction seen with the discs implanted with titanium and carbon. (Auth.)

  7. Quaternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria of aqueous two-phase polyethylene glycol, poly-N-vinylcaprolactam, and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}: Experimental and the generalized Flory-Huggins theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroutan, Masumeh [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Enghelab Ave., Tehran 14155-6455 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: foroutan@khayam.ut.ac.ir; Zarrabi, Mona [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Enghelab Ave., Tehran 14155-6455 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    A quaternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium study was performed to focus attention on the interaction parameters between poly-N-vinylcaprolactam (PVCL) and poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) as well as between other species. At first, the new experimental data of (liquid + liquid) equilibria for aqueous two-phase systems containing PEG, KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, and PVCL at T = 303.15 K have been determined. Then the Flory-Huggins theory with two electrostatic terms (the Debye-Huckel and the Pitzer-Debye-Huckel equations) has been generalized to correlate the phase behavior of the quaternary system. Good agreement has been found between experimental and calculated data from both models especially from the Pitzer-Debye-Huckel equation. Also an effort was done to compare the effect of temperature as well as addition of PVCL on the binodal curves of PEG, KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, and water. The effect of the type of salt on the binodals has been also studied, and the salting out power of the salts has been determined.

  8. Influence of crystallization conditions on formation and distribution of nonmetallic inclusions in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The processes were studied of the formation and the distribution of nonmetallic inclusions and the chemical inhomogeneity formation during the solidification of h steel. The variation of the character of oxides and sulfides across ingots was shown by considering st 25 and 20 Kh steels. To improve the distribution of inclusions and the stability of properties throughout the body of ingots, it is recommended to throughly deoxidize the metal, to raise the rate of solidification, to reduce the temperature gradient, to employ powder cooling agents, to use casting under a blanket of slag, to modify steel by active elements (r.e.e., Ca, Ba, Zr, B) which affect favourably the nature and the shape of the nonmetallic phase

  9. Precipitation Kinetics of Cr2N in High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Feng; WANG Li-jun; CUI Wen-fang; LIU Chun-ming

    2008-01-01

    The precipitation behavior of Cr2N during isothermal aging in the temperature range from 700℃to 950℃ in Fe-18Cr-12Mn-0.48N(in mass percent)high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel,including morphology and content of precipitate,was investigated using optical microscopy,scanning electron microscopy,and transmission electron microscopy.The isothermal precipitation kinetics curve of Cr2N and the corresponding precipitation activation energy were obtained.The results show that Cr2N phase precipitates in a cellular way and its morphology is transformed from initial granular precipitates to lamellar ones in the cell with increasing aging time.The nose temperature of Cr2N precipitation is about 800℃,with a corresponding incubation period of 30 min,and the ceiling temperature of Cr2N precipitation is 950℃.The diffusion activation energy of Cr2N precipitation is 296 kJ/mol.

  10. MTS-MD of Biomolecules Steered with 3D-RISM-KH Mean Solvation Forces Accelerated with Generalized Solvation Force Extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelyan, Igor; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2015-04-14

    with explicit solvent. We have been able to fold the miniprotein from a fully denatured, extended state in about 60 ns of quasidynamics steered with 3D-RISM-KH mean solvation forces, compared to the average physical folding time of 4-9 μs observed in experiment.

  11. Effect of N+Cr alloying on the microstructures and tensile properties of Hadfield steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, F.C., E-mail: zfc@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, F. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, H.; Yu, B.D. [China Railway Shanhaiguan Bridge Group Co. LTD, Qinhuangdao 066205 (China)

    2017-01-02

    The microstructures and tensile behaviors of traditional Hadfield steel, named Mn12 steel, and Hadfield steel alloyed with N+Cr, named Mn12CrN steel were studied through optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, among others. Three different tensile strain rates of 5×10{sup −4}, 5×10{sup −3}, and 5×10{sup −2} s{sup −1} were selected in the tensile test. The deformation microstructures and fracture morphologies of the two steels after fracture in the tensile test were observed to analyze the tensile deformation response to different tensile strain rates. Results showed that the grain size of Mn12CrN steel was evidently refined after alloying with N+Cr. The grain would not become abnormally coarse even with increasing austenitizing temperature. During tensile deformation, the strength and plasticity of Mn12CrN steel were superior to those of Mn12 steel at the same strain rate. With increasing the strain rate, the changes in strength and plasticity of Mn12CrN steel were less sensitive to tensile strain rate compared with Mn12 steel. The effects of grain refinement and N+Cr alloying on dynamic strain aging and deformation twining behaviors were responsible for this lack of sensitivity to strain rate.

  12. Effect of Al and N on the toughness of heavy section steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikutake, Tetsuo; Tokunaga, Yoshikuni; Nakao, Hitoji; Ito, Kametaro; Takaishi, Shogo.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of Al and N on the notch toughness and tensile strength of heavy section pressure vessel steel plates is investigated. Notch toughness of steel A533B (Mn-Mo-Ni), which has mixed microstructure of ferrite and bainite, is drastically changed by the ratio of sol.N/sol.Al. With metallurgical observations, it is revealed that AlN morphology is influenced by the ratio of sol.N/sol.Al through the level of solute Al(C Al ). At the heat treatment of heavy section steel plate, AlN shows OSTWALD ripening and its speed depends upon C Al . When Al is added (Al ≥ 0.010%) in steel and sol.N/sol.Al ≤ 0.5, C Al remains low. This prevents AlN ripening, and brings fine austenite grain size and high toughness. On the other hand, when sol.N/sol.Al Al becomes high and this gives poor toughness through coarse AlN precipitates and coarse austenite grain. Therefore, controll of sol.N/sol.Al over 0.5 is favorable to keep high toughness in A533B steel. In steel A387-22 (Cr-Mo) which has full bainitic microstructure, too fine austenite grain brings about poor hardenability, and polygonal ferrite, which brings about both poor strength and tughness, appears in microstructure. Then sol.N/sol.Al < 0.5 is better to give high hardenability in steel A387-22. (author)

  13. Killing Effects of an Isolated Serratia marcescens KH-001 on Diaphorina citri via Lowering the Endosymbiont Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is the most devastating citrus disease worldwide, and suppression of the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri is regarded as an effective method to inhibit the spread of HLB. In this study, we isolated a strain named as Serratia marcescens KH-001 from D. citri nymphs suffering from disease, and evaluated its killing effect on D. citri via toxicity test and effect on microbial community in D. citri using high-throughput sequencing. Our results indicated that S. marcescens KH-001 could effectively kill 83% of D. citri nymphs, while the fermentation products of S. marcescens KH-001 only killed 40% of the D. citrinymphs. High-throughput sequencing results indicated that the S. marcescens KH-001 increased the OTU numbers from 62.5 (PBS buffer to 81.5, while significantly lowered the Shannon index compared with Escherichia coli DH5α (group E (p < 0.05. OTU analysis showed that the S. marcescens KH-001 had significantly reduced the relative abundance of endosymbionts Wolbachia, Profftella, and Carsonella in group S compared with that in other groups (p < 0.05. Therefore, the direct killing effect of the fermentation products of S. marcescens KH-001 and the indirect effect via reducing the numbers of endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Profftella, and Carsonella of D. citri endow S. marcescens KH-001 a sound killing effect on D. citri. Further work need to do before this strain is used as a sound biological control agents.

  14. Diffusion bonding of 9Cr ODS ferritic/martensitic steel with a phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon, E-mail: shnoh@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Kim, Tae Kyu [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Diffusion bonding was employed to join 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel under uniaxial hydrostatic pressure, and the microstructure and tensile properties of the joints were investigated. • ODS steel was successfully diffusion bonded at an austenization temperature to migrate a residual diffusion bonding interface. • The tensile properties of the joint region were comparable with that of the base metal with a ductile fracture occurred far from the bonding interface. • It is considered that diffusion bonding with a phase transformation can be a very useful joining method for fabricating components in next-generation nuclear systems using 9Cr ODS ferritic/martensitic steel. - Abstract: Diffusion bonding was employed to join oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel under uniaxial hydrostatic pressure using a high vacuum hot press, and the microstructure and tensile properties of the joints were investigated. 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel was successfully diffusion bonded at 1150 °C for 1 h to migrate a residual bonding interface. Following heat treatment, including normalising at 1050 °C and tempering at 800 °C for 1 h, comparable results without inclusions or micro-voids at the bonding interface, or degradation in the base metal were achieved. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation revealed that the nano-oxide particles in the bonding region were uniformly distributed in the matrix. At room temperature, the joint had nearly the same tensile properties with that of the base metal. The tensile strength of the joint region at elevated temperatures was comparable with that of the base metal. The total elongation of the joint region decreased slightly, but reached 80% of the base metal at 700 °C, and a ductile fracture occurred far from the bonding interface. Therefore, it is considered that diffusion bonding with a phase transformation can be a very useful joining method for

  15. Consideration of the oxide particle-dislocation interaction in 9Cr-ODS steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Yuta; Oono, N.; Ukai, S.; Yu, Hao; Ohtsuka, S.; Abe, Y.; Matsukawa, Y.

    2017-05-01

    The interaction between oxide particles and dislocations in a 9Cr-ODS ferritic steel is investigated by both static and in situ TEM observation under dynamic straining conditions and room temperature. The measured obstacle strength (?) of the oxide particles was no greater than 0.80 and the average was 0.63. The dislocation loops around some coarsened particles were also observed. The calculated obstacle strength by a stress formula of the Orowan interaction is nearly equaled to the average experimental value. Not only cross-slip system but also the Orowan interaction should be considered as the main interaction mechanism between oxide particles and dislocation in 9CrODS ferritic steel.

  16. Evaluation of dynamic fracture toughness of cold worked 9Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayanan, S.; Sasikala, G.; Ray, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic J-R curves for cold worked 9Cr-1Mo steel have been estimated from instrumented impact test data at ambient temperature on pre-cracked Charpy specimens using three methods of analysis, namely those by Ray et al., Schindler, and Sreenivasan and Mannan. It is concluded that of these three, Schindler's method is the best suited for the purpose since it gives consistent variations with cold work of dynamic J-R curves and dynamic fracture toughness. Cold work results in substantial degradation in dynamic fracture toughness of 9Cr-1Mo steel

  17. Cathode-sputtered Ti-Zr-N-C-O base hard coatings and stability of said coatings on hard metals and working steels. Kathodenzerstaeubte Hartstoffschichten auf Basis Ti-Zr-N-C-O und deren Stabilitaet auf Hartmetall und Gebrauchsstaehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, M.

    1986-02-26

    This paper deals with the examination of the metallurgical and thermal stability of the resistant material layers of titanium in connection with the substrate material influence. As substrate material were chosen: hard metal (81% WC, 12% TiC+TaC, 7% Co), high speed steel (DIN 1.3343), austenitic nickel chromium steel (X5 CrNi 18 9) and unalloyed tool steel (DIN 1.1545). The hard materials of titanium were deposited by means of cathode evaporation.

  18. An Experimental Investigation on Hardness and Microstructure of Heat Treated EN 9 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Palash; Kundu, Arnab; Mondal, Dhiraj

    2017-08-01

    In the modern engineering world, extensive research has led to the development of some special grades of steel, often suited for enhanced functions. EN 9 steel is one such grade, having major applications in power plants, automobile and aerospace industry. Different heat treatment processes are employed to achieve high hardness and high wear resistance, but machinability subsequently decreases. Existing literature is not sufficient to achieve a balance between hardness and machinability. The aim of this experimental work is to determine the hardness values and observe microstructural changes in EN9 steel, when it is subjected to annealing, normalizing and quenching. Finally, the effects of tempering after each of these heat treatments on hardness and microstructure have also been shown. It is seen that the tempering after normalizing the specimen achieved satisfactory results. The microstructure was also observed to be consisting of fine grains.

  19. Bench-mark experiments to study the neutron distribution in a heterogeneous reactor shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolyatko, V.V.; Vyrskij, M.Yu.; Mashkovich, V.P.; Nagaev, R.Kh.; Prit'mov, A.P.; Sakharov, V.K.; Troshin, V.S.; Tikhonov, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The bench-mark experiments performed at the B-2 facility of the BR-10 reactor to investigate the spatial and energy neutron distributions are described. The experimental facility includes the neutron beam channel with a slide, a mo shielding composition investigated consisted of sequential layers of steel (1KH18N9T) and graphite slabs. The neutron spectra were measured by activation method, a set of treshold and resonance detectors having been used. The detectors made it possible to obtain the absolute neutron spectra in the 1.4 eV-10 MeV range. The comparison of calculations with the results of the bench-mark experiments made it possible to prove the neutron transport calculational model realized in the ROZ-9 and ARAMAKO-2F computer codes and evaluate the validity of the ARAMAKO constants for the class of shielding compositions in question [ru

  20. Hydrogen degradation of 21-6-9 and medium carbon steel by disc pressure test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.H.; Zhou, W.X.; Xu, Z.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports the method of disc pressure test and the results for 21-6-9 stainless steel and medium carbon steel in hydrogen gas with different pressures and time of storage. The results show the hydrogen induced degradation of these two kinds of steel. An attempt was made to establish an index which uses variation of area of deformed disc to determine the degradation of ductility in a hydrogen environment. (orig.)

  1. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.; Aoto, K.

    1997-01-01

    As creep-fatigue evaluation methods on normalized and tempered Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for design use, the time fraction rule and the simplified conventional ductility exhaustion rule are investigated for the prediction of tension strain hold creep-fatigue damage of this material. For the above investigation, stress relaxation behaviour during strain hold has to be analyzed using stress-strain-time relation. The initial value of stress relaxation was determined by cyclic stress-strain curves in continuous cycling fatigue tests. Cyclic stress-strain behaviour of Mod.9Cr-1Mo(NT) steel is different from that of austenitic stainless steels, so this effect was considered. Stress relaxation analysis was performed using static creep strain-time relation and conventional hardening rule. The time fraction by using the above stress relaxation analysis results can give good prediction for creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo(NT) steel. For design use it is practical to be able to estimate creep damages conservatively by both strain behaviour of cyclic plastic (in continuous cycling fatigue tests) and monotonic creep (in standard creep tests). The life reduction by strain hold at the minimum peak of compressive stress in creep-fatigue tests was examined, and this effects can be evaluated by the relationship between the location of oxidation and the effective deformation at crack tip. In an accelerated oxidation environment, for example in high temperature and high pressure steam, a different approach for life reduction should be developed based on the mechanism of growth of oxide and crack growth with oxidation. However, in the creep damage dominant region, its effect is saturated and the effect of cavity growth along grain boundary becomes dominant for long-term strain hold in the high temperature conditions. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  2. Circumferential nonuniformity of cladding radiation swelling of fast reactor peripheral fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutov, V.F.; Farkhutdinov, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of the investigation into the perimeter radiation swelling of Kh18N10T stainless steel cladding in different cross sections of a peripheral fuel element of the BR-5 reactor. The fluence on the cladding is 1.8-2.9 x 10 22 fast neutr/cm 2 , the operating temperatures in different parts of the fuel element being 430 deg to 585 deg C. There has been observed circumferential non-uniformity of the distribution, concentration, and of the total volume of radiation cavities, which is due to temperature non-uniformity along the cladding perimeter. It is shown that such non-uniformity of radiation swelling of the cladding material may result in bending of the peripheral fuel element with regard to the fuel assembly sheath walls

  3. Microstructure and long-term creep properties of 9–12% Cr steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, John

    2008-01-01

    Advanced microstructure characterisation and microstructure modelling has demonstrated that long-term microstructure stability in 9–12% Cr steels under technical loading conditions is equivalent to precipitate stability. Mo and W can have a positive influence on long-term creep strength of 9–12% Cr...

  4. SCC growth behavior of stainless steel weld metals in high-temperature water. Influence of corrosion potential, weld type, thermal aging, cold-work and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takuyo; Terachi, Takumi; Miyamoto, Tomoki; Arioka, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies on crack growth rate measurement in oxygenated high-temperature pure water conditions, such as normal water chemistry in boiling water reactors, using compact tension type specimens have shown that weld stainless steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. However, to our knowledge, there is no crack growth data of weld stainless steels in pressurized water reactor primary water. The principal purpose of this study was to examine the SCC growth behavior of stainless steel weld metals in simulated PWR primary water. A second objective was to examine the effect of (1) corrosion potential, (2) thermal-aging, (3) Mo in alloy and (4) cold-working on SCC growth in hydrogenated and oxygenated water environments at 320degC. In addition, the temperature dependence of SCC growth in simulated PWR primary water was also studied. The results were as follows: (1) No significant SCC growth was observed on all types of stainless steel weld metals: as-welded, aged (400degC x 10 kh) 308L and 316L, in 2.7 ppm-hydrogenated (low-potential) water at 320degC. (2) 20% cold-working markedly accelerated the SCC growth of weld metals in high-potential water at 320degC, but no significant SCC growth was observed in the hydrogenated water, even after 20% cold-working. (3) No significant SCC growth was observed on stainless steel weld metals in low-potential water at 250degC and 340degC. Thus, stainless steel weld metals have excellent SCC resistance in PWR primary water. On the other hand, (4) significant SCC growth was observed on all types of stainless steel weld metals: as-weld, aged (400degC x 10 kh) and 20% cold-worked 308L and 316L, in 8 ppm-oxygenated (high-potential) water at 320degC. (5) No large difference in SCC growth was observed between 316L (Mo) and 308L. (6) No large effect on SCC growth was observed between before and after aging up to 400degC for 10 kh. (7) 20% cold-working markedly accelerated the SCC growth of stainless steel weld metals. (author)

  5. Killing Effects of an Isolated Serratia marcescens KH-001 on Diaphorina citri via Lowering the Endosymbiont Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Kuang, Fan; Lu, Zhanjun; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Tingtao

    2018-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most devastating citrus disease worldwide, and suppression of the Asian citrus psyllid ( Diaphorina citri ) is regarded as an effective method to inhibit the spread of HLB. In this study, we isolated a strain named as Serratia marcescens KH-001 from D. citri nymphs suffering from disease, and evaluated its killing effect on D. citri via toxicity test and effect on microbial community in D. citri using high-throughput sequencing. Our results indicated that S. marcescens KH-001 could effectively kill 83% of D. citri nymphs, while the fermentation products of S. marcescens KH-001 only killed 40% of the D. citri nymphs. High-throughput sequencing results indicated that the S. marcescens KH-001 increased the OTU numbers from 62.5 (PBS buffer) to 81.5, while significantly lowered the Shannon index compared with Escherichia coli DH5α (group E) ( p citri endow S. marcescens KH-001 a sound killing effect on D. citri . Further work need to do before this strain is used as a sound biological control agents.

  6. On the guanidine hydrochloride method for determination of oxygen-18 content in orthophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjun; Gu Zhennan

    1985-01-01

    The guanidine hydrochloride method is an accurate and simple procedure for oxygen-18 determination in KH 2 PO 4 and Ba 3 (PO 4 ) 2 . The method is based on heating the samples with guanidine hydrochloride at 300 deg C. Two Oxygen atoms per molecule of KH 2 PO 4 or Ba 3 (PO 4 ) 2 are converted into CO 2 which is then analysed by a mass spectrometer of model MAT-CH5. Only 5 mg of KH 2 PO 4 or Ba 3 (PO 4 ) 2 is required for each determination and reproducibility of assays is better than +-1%. (Author)

  7. Effect of cobalt on microstructure and creep deformation behaviour of tempered martensitic 9% Cr steel for USC power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helis, L.; Toda, Y.; Abe, F. [NIMS, Tsukuba (Japan). Structural Metals Center; Hara, T. [NIMS, Tsukuba (Japan). Advanced Nano Characterization Center; Miyazaki, H. [NIMS, Tokyo (Japan). Materials Data Sheet Station

    2008-07-01

    Four ingots with chemical composition 9Cr-3W-0/5Co-0.2V-0.05Nb-0.08C-0.05N, varying in the amount of Co addition were studied. Creep tests were conducted at temperature of 923K. Steels with 3% and 5% Co showed creep resistance superior to those with 1% and 0% Co at stresses above 140MPa. On the other hand 5% Co steel showed a significant deterioration in long term creep properties at 80MPa. Calculation by Thermo-Calc. suggested and observation of microstructure before the creep test confirmed the presence of about 6% and 0.4% of delta-ferrite in Co free and 1% Co steel, respectively. ICP mass spectrometry measurement showed that the amount of precipitation in steels after heat treatment increased with increase in Co addition, especially significant gap was found between 1% and 3% Co steels. Distribution of precipitation was studied by SEM and TEM. Particles of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and MX carbonitrides preferentially precipitated around prior austenitic grain boundaries. Density of precipitation around these boundaries was found to depend on prior austenitic grain size, which is affected by the presence of anti o-ferrite and precipitation at normalizing temperature. Particles of Laves phase precipitated in the microstructure during the creep tests at 923K at all stresses. Its precipitation at the early stage was also enhanced by the addition of Co. It is known that creep properties of steels with fine grain deteriorate faster than those with coarse grains, due to the faster recovering during the keep at high temperatures. Combination of larger prior austenitic grains and higher precipitation contributes to the prolonged life of steels with higher amount of Co after testing at 923K and 160MPa. Deterioration in long term creep strength of steels with high amount of Co can be attributed to the precipitation Cr(V,Nb)N particles known as Z-phase, which is associated with dissolution of MX carbonitrides. (orig.)

  8. Hot Ductility Behaviors in the Weld Heat-Affected Zone of Nitrogen-Alloyed Fe-18Cr-10Mn Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joonoh; Lee, Tae-Ho; Hong, Hyun-Uk

    2015-04-01

    Hot ductility behaviors in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of nitrogen-alloyed Fe-18Cr-10Mn austenitic stainless steels with different nitrogen contents were evaluated through hot tension tests using Gleeble simulator. The results of Gleeble simulations indicated that hot ductility in the HAZs deteriorated due to the formation of δ-ferrite and intergranular Cr2N particles. In addition, the amount of hot ductility degradation was strongly affected by the fraction of δ-ferrite.

  9. A prominent figure in tatar dryhaeology. A. Kh. Khalikov’S 85th birthday anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuzin Fayaz Sh.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to scientific activity of Alfred Khasanovich Khalikov (May 30, 1929–July 24, 1994, an outstanding scholar, Dr. habil. (History, Professor, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of Tatarstan, a renowned specialist in archaeology and ancient history of the Turkic and Finno-Ugric peoples of the Volga-Ural region. A.Kh. Khalikov was a pioneer discoverer of hundreds of monuments referring to different archaeological periods, from the Paleolithic to modern times. However, the principal sphere of his scientific interests was medieval archaeology and history of the Volga region peoples. As head of major archaeological expeditions, such as the Mari, Tatar, Bilyar, “The Kazan Kremlin”, etc. ones, A.Kh. Khalikov had emerged as organizer of large-scale research in the territory of Tatarstan and other republics and regions of the Middle Volga region for 40 years,. A.Kh. Khalikov created an extensive cultural-chronological scheme of the Stone, the Chalcolithic, the Bronze and Early Iron ages in the Volga region, offered his own concept of ethnogenesis of the Finno-Ugric and Turkic peoples of the region. A.Kh. Khalikov authored over 400 articles and 20 books covering the origin and early history of the peoples of the Middle Volga and Ural regions. On his initiative, a complete list of archaeological monuments of Tatarstan in 6 volumes was created. Preservation of monuments of history and culture was an important direction of his activities. Professor A.Kh. Khalikov was engaged in fruitful teaching process at Kazan State University and created his own scientific school.

  10. The Historiography of Islamic Law: The Case of Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Maftuhin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ (the history of sharia affairs is a relatively new genre of Islamic historiography and very popular among students of Islamic Law. Despite its popularity, academics of Islamic historiography seem not interested in studying it. There is hardly any academic paper seriously studied the literature. This paper is a first effort to explore the Tārīkhu’t-tashrī‘ literature through a historiographical analysis. As an initial exploration, it argues that Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ is the latest development of Islamic historiography, developed in the 19th century, but it is a genre of the old Islamic historiography with some new elements. The new elements are influenced by both modern Western historiography and the need to re-open the supposedly closed gate of ijtihād. The paper studied books of Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ available during the research between 2013-2015. [Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ adalah genre yang relatif ‘baru’ dalam matarantai perkembangan historiografi Islam­. Literatur ini sangat popular dan menjadi mata kuliah wajib di fakultas-fakultas Syariah di Indonesia maupun Timur Tengah. Hanya saja, meskipun ia sangat populer sebagai mata pelajaran, Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ belum banyak menarik minat para peneliti historiografi. Makalah in berusaha mengeksplorasi literatur Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ dengan pendekatan historiografi. Makalah ini berpendapat bahwa Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘, meski terlihat ‘modern’ dari segi kelahirannya, tidak banyak berbeda dengan literatur historiografi klasik. Perbedaan terjadi karena adanya pengaruh historiografi Barat dalam model penulisannya dan karena kebutuhan untuk membuka kembali pintu ijtihad yang tertutup. Kajian dilakukan terhadap kitab-kitab Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ yang dapat ditemukan selama riset antara 2013-2015 

  11. Study of the decarburization of 18-8 stainless steel by oxygen at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armand, G.; Lapujoulade, J.

    1964-01-01

    The kinetic of the decarburization of a 18-8 stainless-steel by oxygen at low pressure has been studied between 1050 and 1200 C. The measurement of the carbon content of the sample is carried out by chemical analysis. Three mechanisms take place in that decarburization: diffusion of carbon in the steel; velocity at the superficial reaction C + 1/2 O 2 ↔ CO; pumping out of CO. The second mechanism seems to govern the overall kinetic. The activation energy of the phenomenon is 108 ± 24 Kcal/mole. (authors) [fr

  12. Reduction factors for creep strength and fatigue life of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blass, J.J.; Battiste, R.L.; O'Connor, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The provisions of ASME B ampersand PV Code Case N-47 currently include reduction factors for creep strength and fatigue life of weldments. To provide experimental confirmation of such factors for modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel, tests of tubular specimens were conducted at 538 degree C (1000 degree F). Three creep-rupture specimens with longitudinal welds were tested in tension; and, of three with circumferential welds, two were tested in tension and one in torsion. In each specimen with a circumferential weld, a nonuniform axial distribution of strain was easily visible. The test results were compared to an existing empirical model of creep-rupture life. For the torsion test, the comparison was based on a definition of equivalent normal stress recently adopted in Code Case N-47. Some 27 fatigue specimens, with longitudinal, circumferential, or no welds, were tested under axial or torsional strain control. In specimens with welds, fatigue cracking initiated at fusion lines. In axial tests cracks grew in the circumferential direction, and in torsional tests cracks grew along fusion lines. The test results were compared to empirical models of fatigue life based on two definition of equivalent normal strain range. The results have provided some needed confirmation of the reduction factors for creep strength and fatigue life of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel weldments currently under consideration by ASME Code committees. 8 refs., 5 figs

  13. The comparison of 18C(n; γ)19C and 18C(α; n)21O reaction rates: consequences for the r-process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, M.; Singh, G.; Chatterjee, R.; Shubhchintak

    2017-01-01

    Neutron rich light and medium mass nuclei play a major role in determining the reaction flow towards the r-process seed nuclei production. In this text, we calculate the neutron capture rate of 18 C and compare it with that of α-capture by the same nucleus in the temperature range T 9 = 0:1 - 10. This temperature range roughly equals to an energy range of 1 keV to 1 MeV in centre of mass frame, where it is very difficult to perform direct reaction experiments. Further, the theoretical construction of 18 C-n continuum state for the 18 C(n; γ) 19 C direct reaction is a tedious job

  14. Nature in corrosion-erosion surface for [TiN/TiAlN]n nanometric multilayers growth on AISI 1045 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caicedo, J.C., E-mail: jcaicedoangulo@gmail.com [Thin Films Group Universidad del Valle, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Advanced Materials for Micro and NanoTechnology Research Group Universidad Autonoma de Occidente (Colombia); Cabrera, G. [Thin Films Group Universidad del Valle, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, H.H. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Amaya, C. [Thin Films Group Universidad del Valle, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Hard Coating Laboratory CDT-ASTIN SENA, Cali (Colombia); Aperador, W. [Ingenieria Mecatronica, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia)

    2012-04-30

    The aim of this work is to characterize the electrochemical behavior of [TiN/TiAlN]n multilayer coatings under corrosion-erosion condition. The multilayers with bilayer numbers (n) of 2, 6, 12, and 24 and/or bilayer period ({Lambda}) of 1500 nm, 500 nm, 250 nm, 150 nm and 125 nm were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Si (100) and AISI 1045 steel substrates. Both, the TiN and the TiAlN structures for multilayer coatings were evaluated via X-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated via nanoindentation measurements and scratch test respectively. Silica particles were used as abrasive material on corrosion-erosion test in 0.5 M of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at impact angles of 30 Degree-Sign and 90 Degree-Sign over surface. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using polarization resistance technique (Tafel), in order to observe changes in corrosion rate as a function of the bilayer number (n) or the bilayer period ({Lambda}) and the impact angle. Corrosion rate values of 9115 {mu}m y for uncoated steel substrate and 2615 {mu}m y for substrate coated with n = 24 ({Lambda} = 125 nm) under an impact angle of 30 Degree-Sign were found. On the other hand, for an impact angle of 90 Degree-Sign the corrosion rate exhibited 16401 {mu}m y for uncoated steel substrate and 5331 {mu}m y for substrate coated with n = 24 ({Lambda} = 125 nm). This behavior was correlated with the curves of mass loss for both coated samples and the surface damage was analyzed via scanning electron microscopy images for the two different impact angles. These results indicate that TiN/TiAlN multilayer coatings deposited on AISI 1045 steel represent a practical solution for applications in corrosive-erosive environments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of superficial phenomenon that occurs in surface of multilayer films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Innovative multilayer system [TiN/TiAlN]n electrochemical

  15. Nature in corrosion–erosion surface for [TiN/TiAlN]n nanometric multilayers growth on AISI 1045 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo, J.C.; Cabrera, G.; Caicedo, H.H.; Amaya, C.; Aperador, W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the electrochemical behavior of [TiN/TiAlN]n multilayer coatings under corrosion–erosion condition. The multilayers with bilayer numbers (n) of 2, 6, 12, and 24 and/or bilayer period (Λ) of 1500 nm, 500 nm, 250 nm, 150 nm and 125 nm were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Si (100) and AISI 1045 steel substrates. Both, the TiN and the TiAlN structures for multilayer coatings were evaluated via X-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated via nanoindentation measurements and scratch test respectively. Silica particles were used as abrasive material on corrosion–erosion test in 0.5 M of H 2 SO 4 solution at impact angles of 30° and 90° over surface. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using polarization resistance technique (Tafel), in order to observe changes in corrosion rate as a function of the bilayer number (n) or the bilayer period (Λ) and the impact angle. Corrosion rate values of 9115 μm y for uncoated steel substrate and 2615 μm y for substrate coated with n = 24 (Λ = 125 nm) under an impact angle of 30° were found. On the other hand, for an impact angle of 90° the corrosion rate exhibited 16401 μm y for uncoated steel substrate and 5331 μm y for substrate coated with n = 24 (Λ = 125 nm). This behavior was correlated with the curves of mass loss for both coated samples and the surface damage was analyzed via scanning electron microscopy images for the two different impact angles. These results indicate that TiN/TiAlN multilayer coatings deposited on AISI 1045 steel represent a practical solution for applications in corrosive–erosive environments. - Highlights: ► Determination of superficial phenomenon that occurs in surface of multilayer films. ► Innovative multilayer system [TiN/TiAlN]n electrochemical response. ► Improvement of surface mechanical properties and response to surface corrosion attack. ► Nature of [TiN/TiAlN]n

  16. Controlling the ductile to brittle transition in Fe–9%Cr ODS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Martino, S.F., E-mail: s.f.di-martino@lboro.ac.uk; Riddle, N.B.; Faulkner, R.G.

    2013-11-15

    Probably the most important range of materials for consideration as the blanket material for the tokamak design for fusion reactors ITER and DEMO is the high alloy Fe–9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels. Ferritic steels possess exceptional thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion and are resistant to void swelling. Their main drawback is high ductile to brittle transition temperatures, particularly in the oxide dispersion strengthened versions. This paper describes attempts to reduce the DBTT in an un-irradiated ferritic steel by a novel heat treatment procedure. New batches of high alloy Fe–9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (Eurofer) ferritic steel have been produced by a powder metallurgy route, and relatively homogeneous material has been produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Mini-Charpy test specimens were made from materials which had been subjected to a matrix of heat treatments with varying solution treatment temperature (ST), cooling rate from the ST temperature, and tempering treatment. The initial DBTT was in the range of 150–200 °C (423–473 K). Downward shifts of up to approximately 200 °C (473 K) have been observed after solution treatment at 1300 °C (1573 K) followed by slow cooling. This paper describes the microstructure of this material, and discussion is made of the likely microstructural factors needed to produce these DBTT downward shifts.

  17. Excellent enhancement of corrosion properties of Fe–9Al–30Mn–1.8C alloy in 3.5% NaCl and 10% HCl aqueous solutions using gas nitriding treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-Chang; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chao, Chuen-Guang; Liu, Tzeng-Feng, E-mail: Lewischen815@gmail.com

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • The FeAlMnC alloy was gas-nitrided to simultaneously achieve the aging effect. • Anti-corrosion components AlN, Fe{sub 3}N and Fe{sub 4}N were identified by using GIXRD method. • The present nitrided alloy showed a great improvement in corrosion resistance. • The nitrided sample showed an excellent coherence between nitrided layer and matrix. • The nitrided and then stretched sample maintained satisfactory corrosion behavior. - Abstract: The as-quenched Fe–9.0Al–30Mn–1.8C (in wt.%) alloy gas nitrided at 550 °C for 4 h show excellent corrosion resistance investigated in 3.5% NaCl and 10% HCl solutions. Owing to the high corrosion resistance components, the gas-nitrided layer consists mainly of AlN with a slight amount of Fe{sub 3}N and Fe{sub 4}N identified by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction technique. Therefore, the pitting potential and corrosion potential of the nitrided sample are +1860 mV and +30 mV, respectively. Surprisingly, it is worthy to be pointed out that the nitrided and then tensile-tested alloy reveals very shallow in fracture depth and the excellent lattice coherence is shown between the nitrided layer and the substrate. Moreover, due to the extremely high nitrogen concentration (about 17–18 wt.%) at stretched surface, the corrosion resistance of present gas-nitrided and then tensile-tested alloy is superior to those optimally gas-nitrided or plasma-nitrided high-strength alloy steels, as well as martensitic stainless steels. The nitrided and then stretched alloy still retains a satisfactory corrosion resistance (E{sub pit} = +890 mV; E{sub corr} = +10 mV). Furthermore, only nanoscale-size pits were observed on the corroded surface after being immersed in 10% HCl for 24 h.

  18. Evaluation of mechanical properties and nano-meso structures of 9–11%Cr ODS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanno, Takashi, E-mail: tanno.takashi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Kaito, Takeji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Oba, Yojiro; Ohnuma, Masato [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-1195 (Japan); Koyama, Shinichi; Tanaka, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We successfully manufactured 11Cr-ODS steels with residual α-ferrite controlled. • Dispersion conditions of nano oxide particles were quantitatively characterized. • Tungsten solid solution could improve only tensile strength of ODS steels at 973 K. • Oxide dispersion strengthening was dominant in creep strength of ODS steels at 973 K. -- Abstract: This study carried out mechanical tests and microstructural characterizations of several 9Cr and 11Cr-ODS tempered martensitic steels. From those results, the appropriate chemical composition range of 11Cr-ODS tempered martensitic steel was discussed from the viewpoint of high temperature strength improvement. It was shown that the residual α-ferrite fraction in 11Cr-ODS steel was successfully controlled to the same level as the 9Cr-ODS steel, which has excellent high temperature strength, by selecting the chemical compositions on the basis of the multi-component phase diagram. The tensile strength decreased with decreasing W content from 2.0 to 1.4 wt%. On the other hand, creep strength at 973 K did not degrade by the decreasing W content. Both tensile strength and creep strength increased with increasing population of the nano-sized oxide particles. Small angle X-ray scattering analysis revealed that titanium and excess oxygen contents were key parameters in order to improve the dispersion conditions of nano-sized oxide particles.

  19. High-cycle fatigue characteristics of weldable steel for light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klesnil, M.; Polak, J.; Obrtlik, K.; Troshchenko, V.T.; Mishchenko, Yu.I.; Khamaza, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Czechoslovak and Soviet 15Kh2NMFA steel was used for running fatigue tests at temperatures of 20, 350 and 400 degC in the high-cycle range with various loading regimes. The results show that at the given temperatures in this type of steel a cyclic softening occurs. The fatigue characteristics were measured with great dispersion of results, but within this dispersion they are almost identical for various steels at the same temperature. Increased temperature results in the decrease in the amplitude of cyclic deformation stress and in the increase in the amplitude of plastic deformation. The diversity in the values of cyclic plasticity and stress response measured in the given mode may be explained by the lower level of softening and the non-homogeneous cyclic plastic deformation of material under the given constant conditions. (J.B.)

  20. Susceptibility to stress corrosion in stainless steels type AISI 321 and 12X18H10T used in PWR type reactors (WWER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matadamas C, N.

    1995-01-01

    Titanium stabilized stainless steels have been utilized in sovietic pressurized water reactors (VVER) for avoid the susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion (IGC) present in other austenitic stainless steels. However the Intergranular Corrosion resistance of this kind of materials has been questioned because of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking failures (IGSCC) have been reported. This paper study the electrochemical behavior of the AISI 321 stainless steel in a H 3 BO 3 Solution contaminated with chlorides and its susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion.Electrochemical prediction diagrams of the stainless steels AISI 321 and 12X18H10T (sovietic) sensitized (600 Centigrade, 3 h.) were compared. Cylindrical and conical samples were used in Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT), to determine the susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in AISI 321 and 12X18H10T stainless steels. The results obtained showed that the temperature of the solution is a very important factor to detect this susceptibility. Fractography studies on the fracture surfaces of the samples obtained in the SSRT at high temperature were realized. Corrosion velocities of both AISI 321 and 12X18H10T stainless steels were determined using conical samples in the CERT system at high temperature. E.D.A.X. analysis was employed in both AISI 321 and 12X18H10T stainless steels in order to explain the degree of sensitization. (Author)

  1. Silicon coating treatment to improve high temperature corrosion resistance of 9%Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    A silicon coating process is described which confers good protection on 9%Cr steels and alloys in CO 2 based atmospheres at high temperatures and pressures. The coatings are formed by decomposition of silane at temperatures above 720 K. Protective layers are typically up to 1 μm thick. The optimum coating conditions are discussed. The chemical state of the coatings has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and has demonstrated the importance of avoiding silicon oxide formation during processing. Corrosion testing has been carried out for extended periods, up to 20 000 h, at temperatures between 753 and 853 K, in a simulated advanced gas cooled reactor gas at 4 MPa pressure. Benefit factors of up to 60 times have been measured for 9%Cr steels. Even higher values have been measured for 9Cr-Fe binary alloy on which a 1 μm coating was sufficient to eliminate significant oxidation over 19 000 h except at the specimen edges. The mechanism of protection is discussed. It is suggested that a silicon surface coating for protecting steels from high temperature corrosion has some advantages over adding silicon to the bulk metal. (author)

  2. Specific electrical conductivity in molten potassium dihydrogen phosphate KH2PO4 - An electrolyte for water electrolysis at ∼300°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; Berg, Rolf W.; Petrushina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The conductivity of pure molten KH2PO4 salt and four mixtures with more or less water (KH2PO4-H2O and KH2PO4-KPO3 systems, respectively) were measured at temperatures of 240-320°C and under their own water vapor pressures. Molten KH2PO4 has been proven to be a promising electrolyte for an elevated...

  3. Changes in mechanical properties and structure of electrolytic plasma treated X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurbanbekov, Sherzod; Baklanov, Viktor; Karakozov, Batyrzhan [Republican State Enterprise National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan). Inst. of Atomic Energy Branch; Skakov, Mazhyn [Republican State Enterprise National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)

    2017-05-01

    The paper addresses findings regarding the influence of electrolytic plasma treatment on the mechanical properties as well as structural and phase states of X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti steel. Electrolytic plasma treatment is based on carburizing of stainless steel heated in electrolytes. Treatment of steel samples has been performed as follows: the samples were heated up to a temperature between 850 and 950 C and then they were cured for 7 minutes in an electrolyte of an aqueous solution containing 10 % glycerol (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}O{sub 3}) and 15 % sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). It is found that, after plasma electrolytic treatment, the surface of X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti steel had a modified structure and high hardness. Increasing wear resistance of X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti steel has been observed after carburizing and the coefficient of friction has been reduced. X-ray analysis showed that retained austenite γ-Fe is a main phase, and there are some diffraction lines of orthorhombic Fe{sub 3}C phase as well as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cubic phase. It has been determined, that, after plasma electrolytic treatment, a carbide phase in the modified surface layer, irrespective of the location in the steel structure has the chemical composition Fe{sub 3}C. High concentration of carbon atoms in a solid solution based on γ- and α-iron, a large dislocation density, presence of particles of carbide phase and retained austenite layers have been found.

  4. Some regularities of structure and surface layer properties changing of metal materials after electro-erosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostyntsev, K.I.; Kuz'mina, T.S.; Kruglov, V.V.; Lukovkin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of electoerosion machining on the surface state of pearlitic class steel of the 12KhN4MFA type, bronzes BrAMts 9-2 and BrAZhNMts 9-4-4-1, of the alloy PT-3V has been studied. As a result of electroerosion machining (EEM) a transformed layer, presenting overheated and partially melted metal, the structure and hardness of which depend on chemical composition of the materials treated, their tendency to phase transformatins and saturation with introduction elements, is formed on the surface of metal materials

  5. Some regularities of structure and surface layer properties changing of metal materials after electro-erosion machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvostyntsev, K.I.; Kuz' mina, T.S.; Kruglov, V.V.; Lukovkin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of electoerosion machining on the surface state of pearlitic class steel of the 12KhN4MFA type, bronzes BrAMts 9-2 and BrAZhNMts 9-4-4-1, of the alloy PT-3V has been studied. As a result of electroerosion machining (EEM) a transformed layer, presenting overheated and partially melted metal, the structure and hardness of which depend on chemical composition of the materials treated, their tendency to phase transformatins and saturation with introduction elements, is formed on the surface of metal materials.

  6. Influence of time presetting procedure for rapid local heat;.ng on brazing temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezhnin, G.P.; Tul'skikh, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    Correlation of known and suggested presetting procedures for heating period during induction brazing was conducted. It is shown that brazing time must be established considering heat propagation during heating in order to obtain the assigned joint temperature regardless of heating rate change. Methods for temperature calculation in assigned zones of the joint are suggested. The suggested presetting procedure for heating time was applied for induction vacuum brazing of a tube of 12Kh18N10T steel to a pipe connection of VT20 alloy

  7. Heat treated 9 Cr-1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-08-21

    The invention relates to a composition and heat treatment for a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The novel combination of composition and heat treatment produces a heat treated material containing both large primary titanium carbides and small secondary titanium carbides. The primary titanium carbides contribute to creep strength while the secondary titanium carbides act to maintain a higher level of chromium in the finished steel for increased oxidation resistance, and strengthen the steel by impeding the movement of dislocations through the crystal structure. The heat treated material provides improved performance at comparable cost to commonly used high-temperature steels such as ASTM P91 and ASTM P92, and requires heat treatment consisting solely of austenization, rapid cooling, tempering, and final cooling, avoiding the need for any hot-working in the austenite temperature range.

  8. 12 CFR 18.9 - Disclosure of examination reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of examination reports. 18.9 Section 18.9 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DISCLOSURE OF... permitted under part 4 of this chapter, a national bank may not disclose any report of examination or report...

  9. Fracture Resistances of Y_2O_3 Particle Dispersion Strengthened 9Cr Steel at Room Temperature and High Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Kang, Suk Hoon; Lee, Yongbok; Kim, Sung Soo

    2012-01-01

    The fracture resistance and tensile properties of Y_2O_3 oxide dispersion strengthened steel containing 9 wt% Cr (9Cr-ODS) were measured at various temperatures up to 700°C. The fracture characteristics were compared with those of commercial E911 ferritic/martensitic steel. The strength of 9Cr-ODS was at least 30% higher than that of E911 steel at the test temperatures below 500°C. The strength difference between the two materials was almost diminished at 700°C. 9Cr-ODS showed cleavage fracture behavior at room temperature and unstable crack growth behaviors at 300°C and 500°C. The J-R fracture resistance of 9Cr-ODS was much lower than that of E911 steel at all temperatures. It was deduced that the coarse Cr_2O_3 particles that were formed during the alloying process provided the crack initiation sites of cleavage fracture in 9Cr-ODS.

  10. Creep behaviour of modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, B.K.; Isaac Samuel, E.

    2011-01-01

    Creep deformation and fracture behaviour of indigenously developed modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for steam generator (SG) tube application has been examined at 823, 848 and 873 K. Creep tests were performed on flat creep specimens machined from normalised and tempered SG tubes at stresses ranging from 125 to 275 MPa. The stress dependence of minimum creep rate obeyed Norton's power law. Similarly, the rupture life dependence on stress obeyed a power law. The fracture mode remained transgranular at all test conditions examined. The analysis of creep data indicated that the steel obey Monkman-Grant and modified Monkman-Grant relationships and display high creep damage tolerance factor. The tertiary creep was examined in terms of the variations of time to onset of tertiary creep with rupture life, and a recently proposed concept of time to reach Monkman-Grant ductility, and its relationship with rupture life that depends only on damage tolerance factor. SG tube steel exhibited creep-rupture strength comparable to those reported in literature and specified in the nuclear design code RCC-MR.

  11. Thermal fatigue crack growth tests and analyses of thick wall cylinder made of Mod.9Cr–1Mo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, Takashi, E-mail: wakai.takashi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho Oarai, Ibaraki 3111393 (Japan); Inoue, Osamu [IX Knowledge Inc., 3-22-23 MSC Center Bldg, Kaigan Minato-ku, Tokyo 1080022 Japan (Japan); Ando, Masanori; Kobayashi, Sumio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho Oarai, Ibaraki 3111393 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A thermal fatigue crack growth test was performed using Mod.9Cr–1Mo steel cylinder. • Axial/circumferential notches were machined on the inner surface of the cylinder. • Simplified analytical results were compared to the test data. • Crack length could not be predicted by the analyses because of crack conjunctions. • If there are no surface cracks, the calculations might agree with the observations. - Abstract: In Japan, the basic designing works for a demonstration plant of Japan Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) are now conducted. JSFR is an advanced loop type reactor concept. To enhance the safety and the economic competitiveness, JSFR employs modified 9% chromium–1% molybdenum (Mod.9Cr–1Mo) steel as a material for coolant pipes and components, because the steel has both excellent high temperature strength and thermal properties. The steel has been standardized as a nuclear material in Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME) code in 2012. In JSFR pipes, demonstration of Leak Before Break (LBB) aspect is strongly expected because the safety assessment may be performed on the premise of leak rate where the LBB aspect is assured. Although the authors have already performed a series of thermal fatigue crack growth tests of austenitic stainless steel cylinders (Wakai et al., 2005), crack growth behavior in the structures made of Mod.9Cr–1Mo steel has not been investigated yet. Especially for the welded joints of Mod.9Cr–1Mo steel, “Type-IV” cracking may occur at heat affected zone (HAZ). Therefore, this study performed a series of thermal fatigue crack growth tests of thick wall cylinders made of Mod.9Cr–1Mo steel including welds, to obtain the crack growth data under cyclic thermal transients. The test results were compared to the analytical results obtained from JAEA's simplified methods (Wakai et al., 2005).

  12. Determination of plasticity and strength under long-term rupture of refractory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunin, I.I.

    1981-01-01

    A possibility to obtain the equations of temperature- strength dependence of high-heat characteristics on the basis of previously obtained mechanical equation of state is studied, taking account of the accumulation of creep plastic strain. The calculation method of the resource of the material safe work with an account of fracture resistance and deformability at long-term rupture is considered. The 03Kh16N9M2 type steel used in power engeneering industry is examined [ru

  13. An examination of the potential for 9%Cr1%Mo steel as thick section tubeplates in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, J.; Sanderson, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The steam generator units of future commercial demonstration fast reactors are likely to have a requirement for heavy section tubeplates (up to 500mm thick) with good elevated temperature strength and creep-fatigue resistance. A comparison of the mechanical properties available for ferritic steels has suggested that 9%Cr1%Mo steel would be a strong candidate material for this application. Although this steel is covered in some national specifications for tubes, pipes, plates and forgings and is also well established in the UK nuclear industry, international experience to date is confined to sections less than ca 150mm. The potential of 9%Cr1%Mo steel for use in thick sections has therefore been assessed in the present study by using simulation heat treatments. The work reported here involved the laboratory-scale cooling of bar samples to simulate water-quenching rates in cylindrical sections up to 720mm diameter (ie: equivalent to 500mm thick plate). The tensile properties at ambient and 525 0 C and impact fracture appearance transition temperatures were determined for material tempered after cooling at simulated thick section rates; the transformation characteristics as influenced by the net chromium equivalent were also established. The results of this work show that 9%Cr1%Mo steel may be fully hardened in the equivalent of the section sizes examined,and the mechanical properties of tempered material show only a small reduction from those of thin section normalised and tempered 9%Cr1%Mo steel. These findings support the potential usage of heavy section 9%Cr1%Mo steel envisaged for fast reactor steam generator tubeplates

  14. Nontoxic corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in hydrochloric acid

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yadav; Debasis Behera; Usha Sharma

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the protective ability of 1-(2-aminoethyl)-2-oleylimidazoline (AEOI) and 1-(2-oleylamidoethyl)-2-oleylimidazoline (OAEOI) as corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in 15% hydrochloric acid, which may find application as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors in acidizing processes in petroleum industry. Different concentrations of synthesized inhibitors AEOI and OAEOI were added to the test solution (15% HCl) and the corrosion inhibition of N80 steel in hydroch...

  15. Investigation into mechanical properties of joints of heterogeneous materials brazed with high-temperature solders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenko, V.I.; Merkushev, V.P.; Borodina, L.M.; Sycheva, T.S.; Tokhtina, O.A.; Frolov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanical properties of copper joints with copper, 12Kh18M10T steel and KhD50 composite obtained by vacuum brazing by copper-titanium solder as compared with properties of joints brazed by PSr 72 and PMFOTsr 6-4-0.03 solders in hydrogen are studied. Dependences of joints strength on temperature of contact - reactive vacuum brazing are obtained. Possible applications of joints of dissimilar materials in electrovacuum devices subjected to the effect of dynamic loadings are established

  16. KOMPARASI PENDIDIKAN ISLAM K.H. AHMAD DAHLAN DAN MUHAMMAD FETHULLAH GÜLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Islamic education is considered only oriented to the hereafter alone, teach rituals and develop a defensive posture and formisme paradigm. On the other hand, Islamic education is faced with the phenomenon of discontinuity which marked the waning value of respect for the basic values and ethics, such as honesty, discipline, tolerance. This Problem is what ignited K.H. Ahmad Dahlan (1868-1923 and Muhammad Fethullah Gülen (1838 - ... strengthening Islamic education. This study aims to understand the concepts, practices, and comparative Islamic education K.H. Ahmad Dahlan and Muhammad Fethullah Gülen. This type of research is the study of literature  with historical and philosophical approach. The results show: first, the concept of Islamic education K.H. Ahmad Dahlan stressed intregration of religious sciences and the modern sciences, tolerance, open to modernity and perfection of mind (intellect; for Fethullah Gülen education is a manifestation of Allah, which emphasizes ethics, science, and theology. Secondly, the common the sharing concept between the two are at: ideas, foundation, educational goals and teaching methods. Third, while the point of difference lies in the educational materials, dormitory educational models (boarding school and implementing a system of moving class.

  17. Boundary and sub-boundary hardening in tempered martensitic 9Cr steel during long-term creep at 650 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Fujio [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The boundary and sub-boundary hardening is shown to be the most important strengthening mechanism in creep of the 9% Cr steel base metal and welded joints. The addition of boron reduces the coarsening rate of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides along boundaries near prior austenite grain boundaries during creep, enhancing the boundary and sub-boundary hardening. This improves long-term creep strength of base metal. The enhancement of boundary and sub-boundary hardening is significantly reduced in fine-grained region of Ac{sub 3} HAZ simulated specimens of conventional steel P92. In NIMS 9Cr boron steel welded joints, the grain size and distribution of carbonitrides are substantially the same between the HAZ and base metal, where fine carbonitrides are distributed along the lath and block boundaries as well as along prior austenite grain boundaries. This is essential for the suppression of Type IV fracture in NIMS 9% Cr boron steel welded joints. Newly alloy-designed 9Cr steel with 160 ppm boron and 85 ppm nitrogen exhibits much higher creep rupture strength of base metal than P92 and also no Tpe-IV fracture in welded joints at 650 C. (orig.)

  18. Tool life equation for blanking 18-8 stainless steel strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faura, F.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Hereinafter it is presented a model for the behaviour and life of circular blanking tool used in sheet forming processes of 18-8 stainless steel (sheet thickness: 1 mm. Firstly it has analyzed the different studies that have previously delt with this problem. Secondly taking into account recently made experiments, it is proposed a simple formulation to predict tool life with enough reliability. To this purpose it has examined different parameters in the wear process, inferring from these the fundamental parameters that regulate them and about which the different equations have been configurated. Blanking tests were performed using a 20 t press at a speed of 150 strokes/min. Punch materials used in these tests were AISI A2 and AISI D2 with diameters between 1.5 and 10 mm. The blanking tests were performed at a clearance between 5 and 20 % of the work material thickness.

    En el presente artículo se presenta un modelo de ecuación de vida de herramientas para punzonado circular de chapa de acero inoxidable 18-8 (1 mm de espesor. Se han analizado inicialmente los diferentes estudios que previamente han abordado este problema. Posteriormente, teniendo en cuenta los experimentos realizados recientemente, se propone una formulación simple para predecir con Habilidad suficiente la vida de la herramienta. Para este propósito se han examinado los diferentes parámetros que afectan al proceso de desgaste, infiriendo a partir de estos, los parámetros fundamentales que lo regulan y sobre los cuales se han configurado las diferentes ecuaciones. Los ensayos fueron realizados en una prensa de 20 t y una velocidad de punzonado de 150 golpes/min. Los materiales de los punzones usados en los ensayos fueron AISI A2 y AISI D2 con diámetros comprendidos entre 1,5 y 10 mm. Los ensayos se realizaron para juegos de corte comprendidos entre un 5 y 20 % del espesor de la chapa.

  19. Resistance to small plastic strains during martensite tempering under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabil' skij, V.V.; Sarrak, V.I. (AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)

    1982-11-01

    The mechanism of plastic deformation of martensite of a series of hardened steels (N18, 20KhG, 50KhFA and others) during tempering under tension and the role of residual internal microstresses and phase transformations are studied. It is shown that martensite low resistance to small plastic deformations during tempering under tension which is usually associated with phase transformations depends as well on the level of residual internal microstresses in the martensite structure. The decrease of resistance to deformation in the course of the decomposition of a solid solution is due to weakening of martensitic matrix because of carbon departure from the solid solution and carbide coarsening. An assumption is made that martensite plastic deformation during tempering under tension is realized at the expense of the directed microplastic deformation in the regions of higher concentration of internal stresses.

  20. Effect of nitrogen alloying of stainless steels on their corrosion stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigal, V.; Knyazheva, V.M.; Pitter, Ya.; Babich, S.G.; Bogolyubskij, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    Results of corrosion tests and structural investigations of 03Cr18Ni10 and 03Cr18Ni10Mo3 steels without nitrogen and with nitrogen content of 0.15-0.3% are presented. Corrosion-electrochemical behaviour of Cr20Ni20 steel with ultralow carbon content (0.004-0.006%) and nitrogen content with 0-0.5% as well as Cr 2 N nitride behaviour are investigated. A conclusion is made on nitrogen and excessive nitride phase effect on corrosion stability of steel in corrosive media with different reduction-oxidation properties

  1. Effects of welding on toughness of Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, W. S.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy is being seriously considered to meet the increasing demand for a world-wide energy supply without environmental effects. Generation IV reactors are being developed to produce a reliable energy safely and with an economic benefit. Since these new reactors require an elevated temperature, ferritic/martensitic steels are attracting attention as candidate materials for the reactor vessel of a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) and the cladding of a sodium fast reactor (SFR,) due to their high strength and thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and good resistance to corrosion. in recent years, new ferritic/martensitic steels have been developed for ultra supercritical fossil power plants. Advanced technologies for a steel fabrication have improved the elevated temperature properties of ferritic/martensitic steels to make them comparable with austenitic stainless steels. The microstructural stability of the pressure vessel, cladding and core structural materials of the VHTR and SCWR is very important. Welding process affects the microstructure and residual stress, so the toughness of ferritic/martensitic steels decreases in general. In this paper; Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel is welded by SMAW with V-groove, and the effects of welding on tensile and impact properties are evaluated. The upper self energy of the weldment was only 57% of that of the base metal, and the DBTT T 41J and T 68J index temperatures of the weldment were higher than those of the base metal by 17 deg. C, 38 deg. C and 37 deg. C, respectively. (authors)

  2. REVIVALISME PENDIDIKAN ISLAM AWAL ABAD 20 (STUDI KRITIS PEMBARUAN PENDIDIKAN ISLAM PERSPEKTIF KH. AHMAD DAHLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetty Azizatun Ni'mah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of Islamic educational reform in Indonesia began in the early twentieth century. This was caused by out of concerns Muslim intellectual leaders of the secular education system which implemented the Dutch East Indies and then has a negative impact on the condition of Islamic education in Indonesia. KH. Ahmad Dahlan is pioneer figure of Islamic educational reform in Indonesia. He is of leaders respond to the condition of Islamic education in Indonesia needs to be updated in terms of objectives, materials, methods and management. This article aims to analyze thoughts KH. Ahmad Dahlan. KH. Ahmad Dahlan reform of Islamic education as well as his correlation with the current education system. This issues is examined using research methods “library research” using written materials in the form of books, magazines, journals, articles and other literatures relevant to the discussion. For data analysis the authors use the approach of history, sociology and anthropology. The results of the research that has been conducted by the author suggests that the concept of Islamic education reform in perspective KH. Ahmad: the aim of Islamic education leads to increased economic, politic, social race with modernism education, the Qur’an and Hadits are direct material examined by leaving the classic are often assessed the traditionalists, Islamic education methods abandon traditional methods, the Islamic educational institutions organized under auspices of the Muhammadiyah organization with a model of organizational leadership. Educational issues such as character building, problem solving, integration of scientific and educational innovation are concepts of education offered by KH.Ahmad Dahlan which it is an attempt to anticipate the renewal of the times and the situation in the subsequent periods.

  3. Influence of Mn contents in 0Cr18Ni10Ti thin wall stainless steel tube on TIG girth weld quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Three kinds of cold worked 0Cr18Ni10Ti thin wall stainless steel tubes with the manganese contents of 1.27%, 1.35% and 1.44% and the cold worked 0Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel end plug with manganese content of 1.35% were used for TIG girth welding in the present investigation. The effect of different manganese contents in stainless steel tube on weld quality was studied. The results showed that under the same welding conditions, the metallographic performance of the girth weld for the thin wall stainless steel tube with the manganese element content 1.44% welded with end plug was the best. Under the appropriate welding conditions, the quality of the girth weld increased with the increase of the manganese content till 1.44%. It was found that in the case of the Mn content of 1.44%, and under the proper welding condition the welding defects, such as welding cracks were effectively avoided, and the qualified weld penetration can be obtained.. It is concluded that the appropriate increase of the manganese content can significantly improve the TIG girth weld quality of the cold worked 0Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel tube.

  4. Residual stress relief in MAG welded joints of dissimilar steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seodek, P.; Brozda, J.; Wang, L.; Withers, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the relief of residual stress in welded joints between austenitic and non-alloyed ferritic-pearlitic steels. A series of similar and dissimilar steel joints based on the 18G2A (ferritic-pearlitic) and 1H18N10T (austenitic) steels were produced, some of which were stress relieved by annealing and some by mechanical prestressing. For the as-welded and stress relieved test joints the residual stresses were measured by trepanning. To aid the interpretation of these results, 2D plane stress finite element analysis has been performed to simulate the residual stress relieving methods. Analysis of the results has shown that thermal stress relieving of welded joints between dissimilar steels is not effective and may even increase residual stresses, due to the considerable difference in thermal expansion of the joined steels. It was found that, for the loads imposed, the effectiveness of the mechanical stress relieving of dissimilar steel welded joints was much lower than that of similar steel joints

  5. Menstrual Characteristics and Related Problems in 9-18 Year- Old Turkish School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Gül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Gül, Ülkü

    2018-03-14

    To determine the cross-sectional characteristics of menstruating girls, dysmenorrhea and the frequencies of related problems. Descripitive, cross-sectional study. Randomly selected primary, junior and high schools in the city center of Kayseri. 2000 female adolescents of ages between 9 and 18 years. We used a questionnaire addressing the epidemiological characteristics of menstruation, such as age at menarche, duration of menstrual intervals, average days of bleeding, and any menstrual problems and their frequencies. This study consists of a sufficient number of participants from all age groups. Of the participant (n= 2000) girls, 63.7% (n: 1274) had started menstruating. The mean age at menarche was 12.74 ± 1.03 years. With a prevalence of 84.8% (n: 1080), dysmenorrhea was the most prevalent menstrual problem and the average pain score was 5.87 ± 2.45. Of the menstruating girls, 34% (n: 439) used painkillers, the most commonly used was acetaminophen; during their period the prevalence of non-medical methods to relieve pain was % 35.2; the rate of seeking medical help for dysmenorrhea was 9.3 % (n: 119). In menstruating participants, 90.8 % was discussed their menstrual problems with their mothers. The rate of school absenteeism in menstruating girls was 15.9 % in general and 18 % in those with dysmenorrhea. Problems related to menstruation are common in adolescents and these problems affect their social life. In adolescent girls, the most common menstrual problem is dysmenorrhea and it affects school performance and attendance. Girls with menstrual problems showed a low rate of seeking medical help. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Investigation of technology for manufacturing the non-magnetic temperature-sensitive composite materials and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobelev, A.G.; Kolesnikov, F.V.; Gul'bin, V.N.; Nikitin, I.S.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation results are presented on structure and properties of nonmagnetic thermobimetals on the basis of beryllium bronze which is used both as active and passive layers. The second layer of thermosensitive element consists of stainless steel 12Kh18N10T, titanium base alloy VT1-0 and aluminum base alloy AD1. The manufacturing of the layered composite materials includes explosion welding, plastic deformation and heat treatment. It is established that strain hardening of the thermobimetals results in an increase of yield strength, microstresses, hardness and specific resistance [ru

  7. Using the ''Epiquant'' automatic analyzer for quantitative estimation of grain size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsivirko, E I; Ulitenko, A N; Stetsenko, I A; Burova, N M [Zaporozhskij Mashinostroitel' nyj Inst. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1979-01-01

    Application possibility of the ''Epiquant'' automatic analyzer to estimate qualitatively austenite grain in the 18Kh2N4VA steel has been investigated. Austenite grain has been clarified using the methods of cementation, oxidation and etching of the grain boundaries. Average linear size of grain at the length of 15 mm has been determined according to the total length of grain intersection line and the number of intersections at the boundaries. It is shown that the ''Epiquant'' analyzer ensures quantitative estimation of austenite grain size with relative error of 2-4 %.

  8. Specific features of corrosion processes in a crack tip in chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurov, O.V.; Vasilenko, I.I.

    1981-01-01

    Electrode potentials of metal and pH solution are measured by means of microelectrodes on structural materials-45 and 12Kh18N10T steels, AT3 titanium alloy and D16 aluminium alloy in the vertex of corrosion crack formed during corrosion cracking in 3% NaCl solution. Metal corrosion is shown to be followed by hydrogen liberation on all the investigated materials at corrosion potentials. The effects of chemical composition of alloys as well as external polarization on the solution pH in the crack vertex are determined

  9. A theory of piezoelectric, elastic, and dielectric properties of the KH2PO4 family crystals under the strain u6. Phase transition and the piezoelectric effect in the KH2PO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levits'kij, R.R.; Lyisnij, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the dielectric, piezoelectric and elastic properties of ferroelectrics and antiferroelectrics of the KH 2 PO 4 family, we consider an extended proton tunneling model that takes into account the shear strain u 6 . In the four-particle cluster approximation for the short-range interactions and the mean field approximation for the long-range interaction we calculate the transverse components of the dielectric susceptibility tensor of the KH 2 PO 4 family ferroelectrics

  10. Effect of normalization heat treatment on creep and tensile properties of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panneer Selvi, S.; Sakthivel, T.; Parameswaran, P.; Laha, K.

    2016-01-01

    Creep and tensile properties have been investigated on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel subjected to single and double normalization heat treatments. Optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopic investigation revealed the presence of refined prior austenite grain size and fine M 23 C 6 precipitates in the double normalized steel compared to the steel subjected to single normalization heat treatment. Increased creep strain and significant reduction in creep rupture life were observed with the double normalized steel in comparison with single normalized steel. Increased tensile ductility coupled with marginal decrease in tensile strength at higher test temperature was observed with double normalized steel compared to single normalized steel. It has been attributed to the presence of refined prior austenite grain size and coarsening of Nb rich MX precipitates in double normalized steel. (author)

  11. Water vapor pressure over molten KH_2PO_4 and demonstration of water electrolysis at ∼300 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.W.; Nikiforov, A.V.; Petrushina, I.M.; Bjerrum, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The vapor pressure over molten KH_2PO_4 was measured by Raman spectroscopy to be about 8 bars at ∼300 °C. • Raman spectroscopy shows that molten KH_2PO_4 under its own vapor pressure contains much dissolved water. • It is demonstrated spectroscopically that water electrolysis is possible in KH_2PO_4 electrolyte forming H_2 and O_2 at 300 °C. • Molten KH_2PO_4 is a possible electrolyte for water electrolysis. - Abstract: A new potentially high-efficiency electrolyte for water electrolysis: molten monobasic potassium phosphate, KH_2PO_4 or KDP has been investigated at temperatures ∼275–325 °C. At these temperatures, KH_2PO_4 was found to dissociate into H_2O gas in equilibrium with a melt mixture of KH_2PO_4−K_2H_2P_2O_7−KPO_3−H_2O. The water vapor pressure above the melt, when contained in a closed ampoule, was determined quantitatively vs. temperature by use of Raman spectroscopy with methane or hydrogen gas as an internal calibration standard, using newly established relative ratios of Raman scattering cross sections of water and methane or hydrogen to be 0.40 ± 0.02 or 1.2 ± 0.03. At equilibrium the vapor pressure was much lower than the vapor pressure above liquid water at the same temperature. Electrolysis was realized by passing current through closed ampoules (vacuum sealed quartz glass electrolysis cells with platinum electrodes and the electrolyte melt). The formation of mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen gases as well as the water vapor was detected by Raman spectroscopy. In this way it was demonstrated that water is present in the new electrolyte: molten KH_2PO_4 can be split by electrolysis via the reaction 2H_2O → 2H_2 + O_2 at temperatures ∼275–325 °C. At these temperatures, before the start of the electrolysis, the KH_2PO_4 melt gives off H_2O gas that pressurizes the cell according to the following dissociations: 2KH_2PO_4 ↔ K_2H_2P_2O_7 + H_2O ↔ 2KPO_3 + 2H_2O. The spectra show however that the water by

  12. Creep characterization of type 316LN and HT-9 stainless steels by the K-R creep damage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Kim, Sung Ho; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2001-01-01

    The Kachanov and Rabotnov (K-R) creep damage model was interpreted and applied to type 316LN and HT-9 stainless steels. Seven creep constants of the model, A, B, k, m, λ, γ, and q were determined for type 316LN stainless steel. In order to quantify a damage parameter, the cavity was interruptedly traced during creep for measuring cavity area to be reflected into the damage equation. For type 316LN stainless steel, λ=ε R /ε * and λ f =ε/ε R were 3.1 and increased with creep strain. The creep curve with λ=3.1 depicted well the experimental data to the full lifetime and its damage curve showed a good agreement when γ=24. However for the HT-9 stainless steel, the values of λ and λ f were different as λ=6.2 and λ f =8.5, and their K-R creep curves did not agree with the experimental data. This mismatch in the HT-9 steel was due to the ductile fracture by softening of materials rather than the brittle fracture by cavity growth. The differences of the values in the above steels were attributed to creep ductilities at the secondary and the tertiary creep stages

  13. Development of CMOS MEMS inductive type tactile sensor with the integration of chrome steel ball force interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sheng-Kai; Chang, Heng-Chung; Fang, Weileun

    2018-04-01

    This study presents an inductive tactile sensor with a chrome steel ball sensing interface based on the commercially available standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process (the TSMC 0.18 µm 1P6M CMOS process). The tactile senor has a deformable polymer layer as the spring of the device and no fragile suspended thin film structures are required. As a tactile force is applied on the chrome steel ball, the polymer would deform. The distance between the chrome steel ball and the sensing coil would changed. Thus, the tactile force can be detected by the inductance change of the sensing coil. In short, the chrome steel ball acts as a tactile bump as well as the sensing interface. Experimental results show that the proposed inductive tactile sensor has a sensing range of 0-1.4 N with a sensitivity of 9.22(%/N) and nonlinearity of 2%. Preliminary wireless sensing test is also demonstrated. Moreover, the influence of the process and material issues on the sensor performances have also been investigated.

  14. Relationship of acoustic emission to the kinetics and micromechanism of fatigue failure of high-strength steel with a martensitic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaniv, O.N.; Kirillov, K.I.; Zima, Yu.V.; Nikiforchin, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques and results are presented for the rules of change in acoustic emission in fatigue crack propagation in hardened and low-temperature tempered 40Kh steel intended, in this study, for use as a reactor material. The results of the acoustic measurements are compared with data of quantitative aimed microfractography conducted during mechanical fracture tests

  15. Operational reliability of high pressure steam lines of pearlitic steels after 150-200 thousand h service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, E.Ya.; Chajkovskij, V.M.; Osasyuk, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    Usage of both calculational and physical methods is recommended to estimate a service operating life of long-term working steam line materials. Application of these methods is demonstrated when studying steam line bends made of 12MKh and 12Kh1MF pearlitic steels. Good coincidence of results for the determination of residual durability of steam lines is obtained using these two methods [ru

  16. Development of ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Corwin, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Chromium-molybdenum ferritic (martensitic) steels are leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment will produce long-lived radioactive isotopes that will lead to difficult waste-disposal problems. Such problems could be reduced by replacing the elements in the steels (i.e., Mo, Nb, Ni, N, and Cu) that lead to long-lived radioactive isotopes. We have proposed the development of ferritic steels analogous to conventional Cr-Mo steels, which contain molybdenum and niobium. It is proposed that molybdenum be replaced by tungsten and niobium be replaced by tantalum. Eight experimental steels were produced. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% were used (all concentrations are in wt %). Steels with these chromium compositions, each containing 2% W and 0.25% V, were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, 2.25 Cr steels were produced with 2% W and no vanadium and with 0.25% V and O and 1% W. A 9Cr steel containing 2% W, 0.25 V, and 0.07% Ta was also studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1%. Tempering studies on the normalized steels indicated that the tempering behavior of the new Cr-W steels was similar to that of the analogous Cr-Mo steels. Microscopy studies indicated that 2% tungsten was required in the 2.25 Cr steels to produce 100% bainite in 15.9-mm-thick plate during normalization. The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100% martensite, but the 12 Cr steel contained about 75% martensite with the balance delta-ferrite. 33 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Development of ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Corwin, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Chromium-molybdenum ferritic (martensitic) steels are leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment will produce long-lived radioactive isotopes that will lead to difficult waste-disposal problems. Such problems could be reduced by replacing the elements in the steels (i.e., Mo, Nb, Ni, N, and Cu) that lead to long-lived radioactive isotopes. We have proposed the development of ferritic steels analogous to conventional Cr-Mo steels, which contain molybdenum and niobium. It is proposed that molybdenum be replaced by tungsten and niobium be replaced by tantalum. Eight experimental steels were produced. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% were used (all concentrations are in wt %). Steels with these chromium compositions, each containing 2% W and 0.25% V, were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, 2.25 Cr steels were produced with 2% W and no vanadium and with 0.25% V and O and 1% W. A 9Cr steel containing 2% W, 0.25 V, and 0.07% Ta was also studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1%. Tempering studies on the normalized steels indicated that the tempering behavior of the new Cr-W steels was similar to that of the analogous Cr-Mo steels. Microscopy studies indicated that 2% tungsten was required in the 2.25 Cr steels to produce 100% bainite in 15.9-mm-thick plate during normalization. The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100% martensite, but the 12 Cr steel contained about 75% martensite with the balance delta-ferrite. 33 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Influence of corrosion environment composition on crack propagation in high-strength martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaniv, O.N.; Nikiforchin, G.N.; Tsirul'nik, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    The 40 Kh steel is taken as an example to investigate the dependence of electrochemical parameters in the crack tip and characteristics of corrosion static cracking resistance of martensitic steel on the composition of environment. The tests are performed in acidic and alkaline solutions prepared by adding HC or NaOH in distilled water. It is established that growth of pH value of initial solutions trom 0 to 13 brings about linear increase of a threshold stress intensity factor. It is found that acidic medium in the crack tip preserves up to pH 13 of initial medium. The possibility of corrosion crack propagation in alkaline solutions according to the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is proved

  19. Smelting of high-quality boiler steel in large-load arc furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kablukovskij, A F; Breus, V M; Tyurin, E I; Khristich, V D; Dumchev, Ya P [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-02-01

    High-grade steel can be obtained in large-capacity furnaces if the smelting technology used takes account of the size of the aggregates, the course of the metal fusion process, interaction with slag, furnace atmosphere, reducing agents, and other process characteristics. 12Kh1MF boiler steel smelted in a 100-ton electric arc furnace by an oxidizing process with oxygen bath blow and cast by the siphon method into 6.5-ton ingots using a slag-forming mixture (240 mm diameter billets and 219 to 245 mm diameter tubes) is satisfactory with regard to macro and microstructure, oxygen and nonmetallic oxide inclusion content, and mechanical properties. The stress rupture strength of 10/sup 5/ h at 570/sup 0/C is similar to that of open-hearth steel. Sulfides larger than a 3.5 spheroid have been detected in it. The nitrogen content of the electric steel is 0.0090 to 0.0120%, which is somewhat greater than usual in open-hearth metal. Of the oxygen inclusions in the steel, spinel-alumina predominates. Large inclusions were represented mainly by brittle silicates which appeared to be of exogenous origin.

  20. No-carrier-added (NCA) N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine and N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine -synthesis, anatomical distribution in mice and rats, and tomographic studies in a baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanqin Bai; Renrui Teng; Chyngyann Shiue; Wolf, A.P.; Dewey, S.L.; Holland, M.J.; Simon, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    N-(3-Fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine (3a) and N-(3-fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine (4a) were synthesized by N-alkylation of norbuprenorphine (1) and nordiprenorphine (2) with 1-bromo-3-fluoropropane. The corresponding no-carrier-added (NCA) N-(3-[ 18 F]fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine (3b) and N-(3-[ 18 F]fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine (4b) were synthesized by N-alkylation of 1 and 2 with NCA 1-[ 18 F]fluoro-3-iodopropane. In vitro studies indicate that in the absence of sodium chloride, compounds 3a, 4a, N-propyl-N-norbuprenorphine (5), buprenorphine and diprenorphine are reasonably comparable in binding affinity for opioid receptors. In the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride, however, compounds 3a, 4a and 5, are clearly less potent than buprenorphine and diprenorphine. The anatomical distribution study of compound 3b in mice shows radioactivity accumulating in bone. Rat studies of both compounds 3b and 4b indicate the specific distribution of these two radioligands within certain cortical and subcortical regions of rat brain. However, the absolute uptake of compound 4b in rat brain was only half that of compound 3b. PET studies of 3b in a baboon revealed specific binding of compound 3b in striatum and cerebellum. At 1 h after injection, ratios of specific/non-specific binding of 3b in striatum and cerebellum of a baboon were 1.9 and 1.7 respectively. (author)

  1. Strength behaviour of 10CrMo9.10 steel in nonsteady-state applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.

    2 testing runs with cyclic temperature increase were conducted on steel 10CrMo9.10 samples, i.e., at 500 degC and cyclic increase by 10, 25 and 50 degC, and at 550 degC and cyclic increase by 50 degC. Long-term strength was studied under a strain of 6.1 to 25.6 kp/mm 2 for 22,000 hours and the effect of periodical unloading was investigated on long-term strength at 550 degC. Sample loading and unloading proceeded within the range of 8.8 to 24.7 kp/mm 2 at an unloading rate of 8 to 100 %/min. Steel lifetime was not affected by the number of cycles. The effect of the changing load and of constant temperature without load on the long-term strength of the steel at 550 degC is shown graphically. The results showed a clear dependence of steel life on dwell time at the given temperature without load. (J.P.)

  2. Removal of corrosion products of construction materials in heat carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A review of reported data has been made on the removal of structural material corrosion products into the heat-carrying agent of power reactors. The corrosion rate, and at the same time, removal of corrosion products into the heat-carrying agent (water) decreases with time. Thus, for example, the corrosion rate of carbon steel in boiling water at 250 deg C and O 2 concentration of 0.1 mg/1 after 3000 hr is 0.083 g/m 2 . day; after 9000 hr the corrosion rate has been reduced 2.5 times. Under static conditions the transfer rate of corrosion products into water has been smaller than in the stream and also depends on time. The corrosion rate of carbon steel under nuclear plant operating conditions is almost an order higher over that of steel Kh18N10T

  3. N,N′-Diphenyl-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2,7-disulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Guan Yuan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C26H18N2O6S2, has an overall Z-shaped conformation, in which the benzene rings are inclined to the anthraquinone mean plane by 60.60 (9 and 50.66 (13°. In the crystal, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into layers parallel to the bc plane.

  4. Study of the Weldability of Austenitic PH Steel for Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziewiec A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of Transvarestraint test of a modern precipitation hardened steel X10CrNiCuNb18-9-3 with copper. For comparison, the results of tests of conventional steel without the addition of copper X5CrNi18-10 are presented. The total length of all cracks and the maximum length of cracks were measured. The study of microstructure (LM, SEM showed that the austenitic stainless steel X10CrNiCuNb18-9-3 is very prone to hot cracking. After performing the Transvarestraint tests three types of cracks were observed: solidification cracks occurring during crystallization, liquation cracks due to segregation in the heat affected zone (HAZ and surface cracks. Niobium carbonitrides dispersed in the bands of segregation are the reason of high susceptibility to liquation cracking. Segregation of copper occurring during solidification causes of surface cracking. A combined effect of copper and stresses contributes to formation of hot microcracks. These microcracks propagate to a depth of 20-30 μm.

  5. Creep rupture properties of oxidised 20%Cr austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, R.C.; Ecob, R.C.

    1989-02-01

    Sheet specimens of stabilised 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb and nitrided 20%Cr/25%Ni/Ti stainless steels, both used as fuel cladding materials in CAGRs, have been oxidised in simulated reactor gas (Co 2 /1-2%CO) for up to l.9kh at 850 0 C, including intermediate thermal cycles to room temperature. The oxidised specimens have been creep tested subsequently at 750 0 C, under conditions of constant stress. The creep rupture properties are affected differently for the two materials. For 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb stainless steel, there was no effect of oxidation on the intrinsic microstructure, when compared with thermally aged, non-oxidised material. Any differences in creep ductility were ascribed to geometric effects in specimens of this alloy. Lower ductilities were associated with an increased incidence of pitting attack (higher oxide spallation) and it was concluded that the extent of local, rather than general, loss of section controlled the ductility. For nitrided 20%Cr/25%Ni/Ti stainless steel, the intrinsic microstructure was affected by oxidation, such that increased grain boundary precipitation of M 23 C 6 occurred. The resultant effect was for a greater tendency for intergranular failure at lower ductility than for the thermally aged material. The magnitude of this reduction could not be quantified because the specimen geometry was also changed by oxidation. In this instance, the oxidation mode that produced the most severe loss of section was grain boundary, rather than pitting, attack. This mode of attack was not linked directly to oxide fracture/spallation, but to the period of oxidation. (author)

  6. Improved creep and oxidation behavior of a martensitic 9Cr steel by the controlled addition of boron and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, Peter [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science; Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Material Science and Welding; Holzer, Ivan; Mendez-Martin, Francisca [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Material Science and Welding; Albu, Mihaela; Mitsche, Stefan [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. for Electron Microscopy; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Agueero, Alina [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Torrejon de Ardoz (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    This manuscript gives an overview on recent developments of a martensitic steel grade based on 9Cr3W3CoVNb with controlled additions of boron and nitrogen. Alloy design by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and calculation of boron-nitrogen solubility is discussed. Out of this alloy design process, two melts of a 9Cr3W3CoVNbBN steel were produced. The investigation focused on microstructural evolution during high temperature exposure, creep properties and oxidation resistance in steam at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of ''as-received'' and creep exposed material was carried out using conventional optical as well as advanced electron microscopic methods. Creep data at 650 was obtained at various stress levels. Longest-running specimens have reached more than 20,000 hours of testing time. In parallel, long-term oxidation resistance has been studied at 650 C in steam atmosphere up to 5,000 hours. Preliminary results of the extensive testing program on a 9Cr3W3CoVNbBN steel show significant improvement in respect to creep strength and oxidation resistance compared to the state-of-the-art 9 wt. % Cr martensitic steel grades. Up to current testing times, the creep strength is significantly beyond the +20% scatterband of standard grade P92 material. Despite the chromium content of 9 wt % the material exhibits excellent oxidation resistance. Steam exposed plain base material shows comparable oxidation behavior to coated material, and the corrosion rate of the boron-nitrogen controlled steel is much lower compared to standard 9 wt % Cr steel grades, P91 and P92. (orig.)

  7. Creep strength and microstructural evolution of 9-12% Cr heat resistant steels during creep exposure at 600 C and 650 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Martin, Francisca [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. for Materials Science and Welding; Panait, Clara Gabriela [MINES ParisTech, UMR CNRS, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux; V et M France CEV, Aulnoye-Aymeries (France); Bendick, Walter [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH (SZMF), Duisburg (DE)] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    9-12% Cr heat resistant steels are used for applications at high temperatures and pressures in steam power plants. 12% Cr steels show higher creep strength and higher corrosion resistance compared to 9% Cr steels for short term creep exposure. However, the higher creep strength of 12 %Cr steels drops increasingly after 10,000-20,000 h of creep. This is probably due to a microstructural instability such as the precipitation of new phases (e.g. Laves phases and Z-phases), the growth of the precipitates and the recovery of the matrix. 9% Cr and 12% Cr tempered martensitic steels that have been creep tested for times up to 50,000 h at 600 C and 650 C were investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) on extractive replicas and thin foils together with Backscatter Scanning Electron Microscopy (BSE-SEM) to better understand the different creep behaviour of the two different steels. A significant precipitation of Laves phase and low amounts of Z-phase was observed in the 9% Cr steels after long-term creep exposure. The size distribution of Laves phases was measured by image analysis of SEM-BSE images. In the 12% Cr steel two new phases were identified, Laves phase and Z-phase after almost 30,000 h of creep test. The quantification of the different precipitated phases was studied. (orig.)

  8. Nontoxic corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yadav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the protective ability of 1-(2-aminoethyl-2-oleylimidazoline (AEOI and 1-(2-oleylamidoethyl-2-oleylimidazoline (OAEOI as corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in 15% hydrochloric acid, which may find application as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors in acidizing processes in petroleum industry. Different concentrations of synthesized inhibitors AEOI and OAEOI were added to the test solution (15% HCl and the corrosion inhibition of N80 steel in hydrochloric acid medium containing inhibitors was tested by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and AC impedance measurements. Influence of temperature (298–323 K on the inhibition behavior was studied. Surface studies were performed by using FTIR spectra and SEM. Both the inhibitors, AEOI and OAEOI at 150 ppm concentration show maximum efficiency 90.26% and 96.23%, respectively at 298 K in 15% HCl solution. Both the inhibitors act as mixed corrosion inhibitors. The adsorption of the corrosion inhibitors at the surface of N80 steel is the root cause of corrosion inhibition.

  9. Comparison of 68Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 and 18F-Fluorodeoxyribose-Siglec-9: Inflammation Imaging and Radiation Dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Helena; Silvola, Johanna M U; Autio, Anu; Li, Xiang-Guo; Liljenbäck, Heidi; Hellberg, Sanna; Siitonen, Riikka; Ståhle, Mia; Käkelä, Meeri; Airaksinen, Anu J; Helariutta, Kerttuli; Tolvanen, Tuula; Veres, Tibor Z; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Roivainen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9) is a ligand of inflammation-inducible vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1). We compared 68 Ga-DOTA- and 18 F-fluorodeoxyribose- (FDR-) labeled Siglec-9 motif peptides for PET imaging of inflammation. Methods . Firstly, we examined 68 Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 and 18 F-FDR-Siglec-9 in rats with skin/muscle inflammation. We then studied 18 F-FDR-Siglec-9 for the detection of inflamed atherosclerotic plaques in mice and compared it with previous 68 Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 results. Lastly, we estimated human radiation dosimetry from the rat data. Results . In rats, 68 Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 (SUV, 0.88 ± 0.087) and 18 F-FDR-Siglec-9 (SUV, 0.77 ± 0.22) showed comparable ( P = 0.29) imaging of inflammation. In atherosclerotic mice, 18 F-FDR-Siglec-9 detected inflamed plaques with a target-to-background ratio (1.6 ± 0.078) similar to previously tested 68 Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 ( P = 0.35). Human effective dose estimates for 68 Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 and 18 F-FDR-Siglec-9 were 0.024 and 0.022 mSv/MBq, respectively. Conclusion . Both tracers are suitable for PET imaging of inflammation. The easier production and lower cost of 68 Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 present advantages over 18 F-FDR-Siglec-9, indicating it as a primary choice for clinical studies.

  10. Measurement of the 19F(n,2n)18F cross section from 18 to 27 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, C.L.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    the 19 F(n,2n) 18 F cross section was measured at neutron energies of 18, 21, 23, and 27 MeV. Nearly monoenergetic neutrons bombarded teflon (CF 2 ), Zr, and Au samples. 19 F(n,2n) 18 F cross section values were determined relative to nat Zr(n,xn) 89 Zr and 197 Au(n,2n) 196 Au from measurements of the 18 F, 89 Zr, and 196 Au activities. Our results are in agreement with previous measurements below 20 MeV and extend the usefulness of this reaction to 27 MeV. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. 40 CFR 721.10175 - 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-sulfo-, N-(C12-18 and C18-unsatd...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2... 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-sulfo-, N-(C12-18 and C18-unsatd. acyl... chemical substance identified as 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-sulfo-, N-(C12...

  12. Effect of Welding Processes on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Residual Stresses of Plain 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, S.; Vasantharaja, P.; Brahadees, G.; Vasudevan, M.; Mahadevan, S.

    2017-12-01

    9Cr-1Mo steel designated as P9 is widely used in the construction of power plants and high-temperature applications. It is chosen for fabricating hexcan fuel subassembly wrapper components of fast breeder reactors. Arc welding processes are generally used for fabricating 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. A-TIG welding process is increasingly being adopted by the industries. In the present study, shielded metal arc (SMA), tungsten inert gas (TIG) and A-TIG welding processes are used for fabricating the 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints of 10 mm thickness. Effect of the above welding processes on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties and residual stresses of the weld joints has been studied in detail. All the three weld joints exhibited comparable strength and ductility values. 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint fabricated by SMAW process exhibited lower impact toughness values caused by coarser grain size and inclusions. 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint fabricated by TIG welding exhibited higher toughness due to finer grain size, while the weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process exhibited adequate toughness values. SMA steel weld joint exhibited compressive residual stresses in the weld metal and HAZ, while TIG and A-TIG weld joint exhibited tensile residual stresses in the weld metal and HAZ.

  13. Mutation and crystallization of the first KH domain of human polycytosine-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) in complex with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoga, Yano M. K.; Traore, Daouda A. K.; Wilce, Jacqueline A.; Wilce, Matthew C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The successful preparation of a mutant KH domain representing the first KH domain of PCBP1 and its crystallization in complex with a C-rich DNA are reported. This structure is anticipated to provide high-resolution information that will allow better understanding of the basis of cytosine specificity by PCBPs. Polycytosine-binding proteins (PCBPs) are triple KH-domain proteins that play an important role in the regulation of translation of eukaryotic mRNA. They are also utilized by viral RNA and have been shown to interact with ssDNA. Underlying their function is the specific recognition of C-rich nucleotides by their KH domains. However, the structural basis of this recognition is only partially understood. Here, the preparation of a His-tagged KH domain is described, representing the first domain of PCBP1 that incorporates a C54S mutation as well as the addition of a C-terminal tryptophan. This construct has facilitated the preparation of highly diffracting crystals in complex with C-rich DNA (sequence ACCCCA). Crystals of the KH1–DNA complex were grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in 0.1 M phosphate–citrate pH 4.2, 40%(v/v) PEG 300. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.77 Å resolution and the diffraction was consistent with space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 38.59, b = 111.88, c = 43.42 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 93.37°. The structure of the KH1–DNA complex will further our insight into the basis of cytosine specificity by PCBPs

  14. Fabrication of Hadfield-Cored Multi-layer Steel Sheet by Roll-Bonding with 1.8-GPa-Strength-Grade Hot-Press-Forming Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kwang-Geun; Kang, Chung-Yun; Park, Jaeyeong; Lee, Sunghak

    2018-05-01

    An austenitic Hadfield steel was roll-bonded with a 1.8-GPa-strength-grade martensitic hot-press-forming (HPF) steel to fabricate a multi-layer steel (MLS) sheet. Near the Hadfield/HPF interface, the carburized and decarburized layers were formed by the carbon diffusion from the Hadfield (1.2%C) to HPF (0.35%C) layers, and could be regarded as kinds of very thin multi-layers of 35 μm in thickness. The tensile test and fractographic data indicated that the MLS sheet was fractured abruptly within the elastic range by the intergranular fracture occurred in the carburized layer. This was because C was mainly segregated at prior austenite grain boundaries in the carburized layer, which weakened grain boundaries to induce the intergranular fracture. In order to solve the intergranular facture problem, the MLS sheet was tempered at 200 °C. The stress-strain curve of the tempered MLS sheet lay between those of the HPF and Hadfield sheets, and a rule of mixtures was roughly satisfied. Tensile properties of the MLS sheet were dramatically improved after the tempering, and the intergranular fracture was erased completely. In particular, the yield strength up to 1073 MPa along with the high strain hardening and excellent ductility of 32.4% were outstanding because the yield strength over 1 GPa was hardly achieved in conventional austenitic steels.

  15. Experimental and computational studies of naphthyridine derivatives as corrosion inhibitor for N80 steel in 15% hydrochloric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, K. R.; Quraishi, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    The inhibition effect of three naphthyridine derivatives namely 2-amino-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (ANC-1), 2-amino-4-(4-methylphenyl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (ANC-2) and 2-amino-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (ANC-3) as corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in 15% HCl by using gravimetric, electrochemical techniques (EIS and potentiodynamic polarization), SEM, EDX and quantum chemical calculation. The order of inhibition efficiency is ANC-1>ANC-2>ANC-3. Potentiodynamic polarization reveals that these inhibitors are mixed type with predominant cathodic control. Studied inhibitors obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The quantum calculation is in good agreement with experimental results.

  16. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened 9Cr ferritic-martensitic steel clad tube for fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laha, K.; Saroja, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T.; Vijay, R.; Venugopal Reddy, A.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Kapoor, Komal; Jha, S.K.; Tonpe, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key issues in the economical operation of FBR is to achieve high burn-up of fuel (200-250 GWd/t) which considerably reduces the fuel cycle cost. This imposes stringent requirements of void swelling resistance upto 200 dpa for the core structural materials. Presently used alloy 09 (a modified austenitic stainless steel, 15Cr-15Ni-Ti) for PFBR has void swelling limit less than 150 dpa. Because of the inherent void swelling resistance, 9-12Cr steels ferritic/martensitic steels are qualified for irradiation upto 200 dpa but their low creep strength at temperatures above 600 deg C restricts their application as a clad material. Oxide dispersion strengthening is found to be promising means of extending the creep resistance of ferritic/martensitic steels beyond 650 deg C without sacrificing the inherent advantages of high thermal conductivity and low swelling of ferritic steels

  17. Impression creep behaviour of Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridhin Raj, V.R.; Kottda, Ravi Sankar; Kamaraj, M.; Maduraimuthu, V.M.; Vasudevan, M.

    2016-01-01

    P91 steel (9Cr-1Mo) steel is extensively used in power plants for super heater coils, headers and steam piping. The aim of the present work is to study the creep behaviour of different zones of A-TIG weld joint using impression creep technique and compare it with that of the TIG weld joint. P91 steel weld joints were made by A-TIG welding without using any filler material and multi-pass TIG welding is done using ER90S-B9 filler rods. Welds were subjected to post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). Impression creep tests were carried out at 650 °C on the base metal, weld metal and HAZ regions. Optical Microscope and TEM were used to correlate microstructures with observed creep rates. The FGHAZ showed significantly higher impression creep rate compared to that of the base metal and weld metal. Fine grain size and relatively coarser M 23 C 6 carbide particles are responsible for higher creep rate. The impression creep rate of A-TIG weld metal and coarse grain HAZ was found to be lower than that of base metal. This is attributed to the higher grain size in weld metal and coarse HAZ attributed to the higher grain size in weld metal and to the higher peak temperature observed during A-TIG welding. (author)

  18. Reflection of K.H. Ahmad Dahlan’s educational ideas for school development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suripto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to reflect the form of K.H. Ahmad Dahlan’s educational ideas in schools. The kind of this research was qualitative with multi sites approach.  The research was conducted at MTs Muhammadiyah 2 and Muhammadiyah 1 Vocational School – Trenggalek.The object of this research was the form of K.H. Ahmad Dahlan’s educational ideas whereas the subject was all the school's administrators. Data were collected through deep interview, documentation and observation techniques. Data validity was tested with; credibility, transferability, and confirmability. Data analysis model was interractionally each other; data reduction, data presentation, conclusion withdrawal, and verification. The research result were; first, at MTs Muhammadiyah 2, the form of K.H. Ahmad Dahlan’s educational ideas covered: Muhammadiyah values, such as a. TBC eradication, worry attitude towards the improvement of fundamentalist religious culture in the society (LDII, b. Willingness to sacrifice attitude grown by the school founders’ core team, organizers, and administrators; c. The spirit of dakwah and dedication for the nation and the religion. Second, at Muhammadiyah 1 Vocational School, it covered a. Charity effort movement for all (rahmatan lilalamin; b. Amar maruf nahy munkar was formed in the construction of all field of life, c. Working was the spirit of movement organization. Keywords: educational ideas, school development

  19. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion...

  20. Irradiation performance of 9--12 Cr ferritic/martensitic stainless steels and their potential for in-core application in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Gelles, D.S.

    1993-08-01

    Ferritic-martensitic stainless steels exhibit radiation stability and stress corrosion resistance that make them attractive replacement materials for austenitic stainless steels for in-core applications. Recent radiation studies have demonstrated that 9% Cr ferritic/martensitic stainless steel had less than a 30C shift in ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) following irradiation at 365C to a dose of 14 dpa. These steels also exhibit very low swelling rates, a result of the microstructural stability of these alloys during radiation. The 9 to 12% Cr alloys to also exhibit excellent corrosion and stress corrosion resistance in out-of-core applications. Demonstration of the applicability of ferritic/martensitic stainless steels for in-core LWR application will require verification of the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking behavior, measurement of DBTT following irradiation at 288C, and corrosion rates measurements for in-core water chemistry

  1. Comparative studies of epibatidine derivatives [{sup 18}F]NFEP and [{sup 18}F]N-Methyl-NFEP: kinetics, nicotine effect, and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Yushin E-mail: ding@bnl.gov; Molina, Patricia E.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Volkow, Nora D.; Kuhar, Michael J.; Carroll, F. Ivy

    1999-01-01

    We have previously shown that [{sup 18}F]norchlorofluoroepibatidine ([{sup 18}F]NFEP) would be an ideal radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR); however, its high toxicity is a limiting factor for human studies. We, therefore, synthesized its N-methyl derivative ([{sup 18}F]N-Me-NFEP) and carried out comparative studies. The distribution volumes for different brain regions were higher for [{sup 18}F]N-Me-NFEP than those for [{sup 18}F]NFEP (average: 52.5 {+-} 0.9 vs. 36.4 {+-} 0.7 for thalamus), though the distribution volume (DV) ratios were similar (3.93 {+-} 0.27 vs. 3.65 {+-} 0.19 for thalamus to cerebellum). Treatment with nicotine reduced the binding of both radiotracers. Toxicology studies in awake rats showed that N-methyl-NFEP has a lower mortality (0 vs. 30%) and smaller effect on plasma catecholamines than NFEP at a dose of 1.5 {mu}g/kg. However, marked alterations in cardiorespiratory parameters were observed after injection of N-methyl-NFEP (0.5 {mu}g/kg, IV) to an awake dog. methresults suggest that although the binding characteristics of [{sup 18}F]NFEP and [{sup 18}F]N-Me-NFEP appear to be ideally suited for PET imaging studies of the human brain, their relatively small safety margin will limit their use in humans.

  2. 18 CFR 341.9 - Index of tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Index of tariffs. 341.9... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.9 Index of tariffs. (a) In general. Each carrier must publish as a separate tariff publication under its FERC Tariff numbering system, a complete index...

  3. Kinetics of Z-Phase Precipitation in 9 to 12 pct Cr Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Nunzio, Paolo Emilio di; Hald, John

    2013-01-01

    precipitated Z-phase 20 to 50 times faster than the 9 pct Cr steel. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to follow the Z-phase precipitation, using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) line scans and atomic resolution imaging. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International...

  4. Specific Features of Structural-Phase State and Properties of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel at Elevated Irradiation Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kuleshova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers influence of elevated irradiation temperature on structure and properties of 15Kh2NMFAA reactor pressure vessel (RPV steel. The steel is investigated after accelerated irradiation at 300°C (operating temperature of VVER-1000-type RPV and 400°C supposed to be the operating temperature of advanced RPVs. Irradiation at 300°C leads to formation of radiation-induced precipitates and radiation defects-dislocation loops, while no carbide phase transformation is observed. Irradiation at a higher temperature (400°C neither causes formation of radiation-induced precipitates nor provides formation of dislocation loops, but it does increase the number density of the main initial hardening phase—of the carbonitrides. Increase of phosphorus concentration in grain boundaries is more pronounced for irradiation at 400°C as compared to irradiation at 300°C due to influence of thermally enhanced diffusion at a higher temperature. The structural-phase changes determine the changes of mechanical properties: at both irradiation temperatures irradiation embrittlement is mainly due to the hardening mechanism with some contribution of the nonhardening one for irradiation at 400°C. Lack of formation of radiation-induced precipitates at T = 400°C provides a small ΔTK shift (17°C. The obtained results demonstrate that the investigated 15Kh2NMFAA steel may be a promising material for advanced reactors with an elevated operating temperature.

  5. Mechanical behavior of 9Cr-1Mo-1V steel due to creep fatigue deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Kim, Jae Kyoung; Lee, Hak Sun; Oh, Sang Hyun; Kwun, Sook In; Kim, Chung Seok

    2005-01-01

    Creep-fatigue tests with trapezoid load wave were performed on a 9Cr-1Mo-1V steel at high temperature(550 .deg. C). Trapezoid load wave is considering about hold time for creep effects. we could find out some information in the relationship between number of cycles to failure and hold time. The number of cycles to failure depended on hold time. The cyclic behavior of 9Cr-1Mo-1V steel was characterized by cyclic softening with increasing number of cycles in high temperature. Also we could observe some cavity in the specimens. The size of cavity was different from each hold time

  6. Preliminary results of effect of environment on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of type 316 stainless steel and 9% Cr ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.; Slattery, G.F.; Wynn, J.; Connaughton, M.D.; Lambert, M.E.

    1976-06-01

    Strain controlled fatigue tests on Type 316 steel at 625 0 C and 9% Cr steel at 525 0 C have been performed in air and in helium containing 200 μ atm H 2 and 1 μ atm H 2 O. In rapid cycling the endurance of Type 316 steel in this helium mixture was found to be about five times longer than in air. When a hold time was introduced into the tension part of the cycle however the endurance in the two environments was found to be virtually identical. Fractomicrographic examinations have been performed which have helped to explain some of these findings which are attributed to differences in oxidation behaviour at the crack tip. In the case of the 90% Cr steel the endurance in the helium mixture was found to be only slightly better than in air. The implications of these results are considered in relation to thermal shock effects on sodium cooled fast reactor components. (author)

  7. A luminary of tatar archaeology. To the 85th anniversary of the birth of A.Kh. Khalikov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuzin Fayaz Sh.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to scientific activity of Alfred Khasanovich Khalikov (May 30, 1929–July 24, 1994, an outstanding scholar, Dr. habil. (History, Professor, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of Tatarstan, a renowned specialist in archaeology and ancient history of the Turkic and Finno-Ugric peoples of the Volga-Ural region. A.Kh. Khalikov was a pioneer discoverer of hundreds of monuments referring to different archaeological periods, from the Paleolithic to modern times. However, the principal sphere of his scientific interests was medieval archaeology and history of the Volga region peoples. As head of major archaeological expeditions, such as the Mari, Tatar, Bilyar, “The Kazan Kremlin”, etc. ones, A.Kh. Khalikov had emerged as organizer of large-scale research in the territory of Tatarstan and other republics and regions of the Middle Volga region for 40 years,. A.Kh. Khalikov created an extensive cultural-chronological scheme of the Stone, the Chalcolithic, the Bronze and Early Iron ages in the Volga region, offered his own concept of ethnogenesis of the Finno-Ugric and Turkic peoples of the region. A.Kh. Khalikov authored over 400 articles and 20 books covering the origin and early history of the peoples of the Middle Volga and Ural regions. On his initiative, a complete list of archaeological monuments of Tatarstan in 6 volumes was created. Preservation of monuments of history and culture was an important direction of his activities. Professor A.Kh. Khalikov was engaged in fruitful teaching process at Kazan State University and created his own scientific school.

  8. No-carrier-added (NCA) N-(3-( sup 18 F)fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine and N-(3-( sup 18 F)fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine -synthesis, anatomical distribution in mice and rats, and tomographic studies in a baboon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Lanqin; Teng, Renrui; Shiue, Chyngyann; Wolf, A P; Dewey, S L [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Holland, M J; Simon, E J [New York Univ., NY (USA). Medical Center

    1990-01-01

    N-(3-Fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine (3a) and N-(3-fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine (4a) were synthesized by N-alkylation of norbuprenorphine (1) and nordiprenorphine (2) with 1-bromo-3-fluoropropane. The corresponding no-carrier-added (NCA) N-(3-({sup 18}F)fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine (3b) and N-(3-({sup 18}F)fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine (4b) were synthesized by N-alkylation of 1 and 2 with NCA 1-({sup 18}F)fluoro-3-iodopropane. In vitro studies indicate that in the absence of sodium chloride, compounds 3a, 4a, N-propyl-N-norbuprenorphine (5), buprenorphine and diprenorphine are reasonably comparable in binding affinity for opioid receptors. In the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride, however, compounds 3a, 4a and 5, are clearly less potent than buprenorphine and diprenorphine. The anatomical distribution study of compound 3b in mice shows radioactivity accumulating in bone. Rat studies of both compounds 3b and 4b indicate the specific distribution of these two radioligands within certain cortical and subcortical regions of rat brain. However, the absolute uptake of compound 4b in rat brain was only half that of compound 3b. PET studies of 3b in a baboon revealed specific binding of compound 3b in striatum and cerebellum. At 1 h after injection, ratios of specific/non-specific binding of 3b in striatum and cerebellum of a baboon were 1.9 and 1.7 respectively. (author).

  9. Comparison of the mechanical strength properties of several high-chromium ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, M.K.; Sikka, V.K.; Booker, B.L.P.

    1981-01-01

    A modified 9 Cr-1 Mo ferritic steel has been selected as an alternative material for breeder reactors. Different 9 Cr-1 Mo steels are already being used commercially in UK and USA and a 9 Cr-2 Mo steel (EM12) is being used commercially in France. The 12% Cr steel alloy HT9 is also often recommended for high-temperature service. Creep-rupture data for all six seels were analyzed to yield rupture life as a function of stress, temperature, and lot-to-lot variations. Yield and tensile strength data for the three 9 Cr-1 Mo materials were also examined. All results were compared with Type 304 stainless steel, and the tensile and creep properties of the modified and British 9 Cr-1 Mo materials were used to calculate allowable stress values S 0 per Section VIII, Division 1 and S/sub m/ per code Case N-47 to section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. these values were compared with code listings for American commercial 9 Cr-1 Mo steel, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, and Type 304 stainless steel. The conclusion is made that the modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel displays tensile and creep strengths superior to those of the other ferritic materials examined and is at least comparable to Type 304 stainless steel from room temperature to about 625 0 C. 31 figures

  10. Structural evolution of Fe-18Ni-16Cr-4Al steel during aging at 950 .deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Man; Jang, Jinsung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Zhangjian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, USTB, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-15

    Austenitic stainless steels are also among important structural materials for in-core components of nuclear reactors, and the performance, the oxidation resistance as well as the mechanical strength at high temperature are further expected after Fukushima accident. Alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steel was first developed by Y. Yamamoto et al. , which showed a good combination of oxidation resistance and creep resistance. The strengthening is achieved through nano-sized MX and Laves. Microstructural evolution of Fe-18Ni-16Cr-4Al during aging at 950 .deg. C was studied. This steel consists of two phases of austenite and ferrite. During aging, needle-shaped NiAl precipitates in austenite, while round shaped NiAl form in ferrite, which is supposed to be due to different crystal structural parameters.

  11. Effect of cyclic electron irradiation on mechanical properties of austenite steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsepelev, A.B.; Sadykhov, S.I.O.; Chernov, A.I.; Sevost'yanov, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    To check the supposition on the possibility of radiation-stimulated process enhancement under cyclic irradiation conditions an experimental investigation is carried out to elucidate the effect of the mode of irradiation (continuous or cyclic) on mechanical properties of chromium-manganese austenitic stainless steel type 10Kh12G20V. The effect of some radiation hardening is observed under cyclic irradiation, however, the data obtained cannot be considered as good evidence for the validity of proposed model of dynamic preference if the scatter in experimental data is taken into account [ru

  12. Self-protective powder wire for semiautomatic welding of corrosion resistant chromium-nickel type 18-10 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipodaev, V.N.; Kakhovskij, N.I.; Fadeeva, G.V.

    1977-01-01

    Self-protecting NP-ANV1 powder wire has been developed for welding 18-10 type stainless steels. The use of the wire provides for the same running properties of the welds as the TsL-11 electrodes, the welding being 3-5 times more efficient

  13. Effect of elevated temperature on the composition, structure, and mechanical properties of diffusion chromized steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osintsev, V.D.

    1986-01-01

    The author studies the effect of operating temperature for equipment in contact sections of sulfuric acid workshops on the structure and mechanical properties of the chromized coatings and core of chromized articles. The ferrite lattice spacing was determined in a DRON-0.5 diffractometer according to the line in copper K /sub alpha/ radiation exposure was carried out after layer-by-layer anodic etching of the coating in an aqueous solution. It was shown that diffusion chromizing may lead to a reduction in strength properties compared with those of unchromized steel. As a base for chromized articles intended for operation at temperatures up to 475 0 C it is desirable to use steels 09G2 or 09G25, or for operation at temperatures up to 540 0 C, steels 12KhM and 12MKh

  14. The MMP inhibitor (R)-2-(N-benzyl-4-(2-[18F]fluoroethoxy)phenylsulphonamido) -N-hydroxy-3-methylbutanamide: Improved precursor synthesis and fully automated radiosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Stefan; Faust, Andreas; Breyholz, Hans-Joerg; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael; Kopka, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The CGS 25966 derivative (R)-2-(N-Benzyl-4-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethoxy)phenyl-sulphonamido) -N-hydroxy-3-methylbutanamide [ 18 F]9 represents a very potent radiolabelled matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. For first human PET studies it is mandatory to have a fully automated radiosynthesis and a straightforward precursor synthesis available. The realisation of both requirements is reported herein. In particular, the corresponding precursor 8 was obtained in a reliable 7 step synthesis with an overall chemical yield of 2.3%. Furthermore, the target compound [ 18 F]9 was prepared with a radiochemical yield of 14.8±3.9% (not corrected for decay).

  15. Work of plastic deformation in local zone of crack apex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'tsev, V.Yu.; Matvienko, Yu.G.; Rivkin, E.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    For substantiating application of criteria of viscous fracture and deeoer understanding of this. process one should know strain distribution and energy consumption for plastic deformation in crack top zone. For this purpose plane samples of 300x70x1.5 mm dimension with central notch of 23, 36 and 46 mm length have been subjected to tensile testing. The samples have been cut out from sheet steel 1Kh18N9T perpendicularly to the rolling direction. It is shown that the suggested viscous fracture conception ensures general approach to the viscous and elastoplastic fracture based on the concept on specific work of plastic deformation in the localized zone νsub(l). The νsub(l) value characterizes maximum plastic material energy consumption and may serve as criterion of viscous material fracture parallel to the critical opening of the deltasub(c) crack top

  16. Influence of microstructure on impact properties of 918%Cr ODS steels for fusion/fission applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadraba, Hynek; Fournier, B.; Stratil, Luděk; Malaplate, J.; Rouffié, A.-L.; Wident, P.; Ziolek, L.; Béchade, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 411, 1-3 (2011), s. 112-118 ISSN 0022-3115 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ODS steel * extrusion shape * crystallographic texture * morphologic texture * brittle fracture mechanisms Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.052, year: 2011

  17. Strength of joints brazed with two-phase solders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shnyakin, N.S.; Parfenova, L.V.; Ekatova, A.S.; Prilepskaya, I.V.

    1976-01-01

    Dependence of the structure and strength of soldered joints upon a gap size in case of 1Kh18N10T stainless steel soldering with a double-phase solder of Ni-Zn-Cu system is described. Butt and lap joints have been subjected to soldering with gas-flame and induction heating. The optimum conditions of the solder crystallization are determined with wedge-gap samples. The studies show that the character of distribution of a fusible β-phase in metal depends upon a gap size. With gaps up to 0.1 mm the β-phase enriched with a fusible component (zinc) runs as a continuous thin interlayer in the middle of the seam. As a result of zinc evaporation from the β-phase this interlayer becomes internally oxidized. After the sample is broken an oxidized fracture gives one the impression of a poor fusion in the middle part of the joint. The ultimate strength of butt joints is 15-20 kgf/sq.mm. A value of thermal expansion of 1Kh18N10T steel samples, 1-5 mm thick, has been experimentally determined for butt soldering. The elongation of two halves of the sample is measured by an indicator and proved to be 0.89 mm for a 50x50x2 mm sample at a soldering temperature of 1.100 deg C. The paper presents methods for the calculation of an optimal gap value for butt soldering with a local gas-flame and induction heating

  18. Specific electrical conductivity in molten potassium dihydrogen phosphate KH2PO4 - An electrolyte for water electrolysis at ∼300°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; Berg, Rolf W.; Petrushina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The conductivity of pure molten KH2PO4 salt and four mixtures with more or less water (KH2PO4-H2O and KH2PO4-KPO3 systems, respectively) were measured at temperatures of 240-320°C and under their own water vapor pressures. Molten KH2PO4 has been proven to be a promising electrolyte for an elevated...... temperature pressurized water electrolyzer demonstrating high conductivity of ∼0.30Scm-1 at 300°C. The conductivity data are given as polynomial functions of temperature and composition. The melting point of the pure salt under its own water vapor pressure was determined to be ∼272°C....

  19. Study of some excited states in 21Ne-21Na, 18O-18F and 15N-15O nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drain, D.

    1977-01-01

    The study of 21 Ne- 21 Na, 18 O- 18 F and 15 N- 15 O nuclei was performed through proton capture and transfer reactions and allows to determine the spins and parities of some excited states, give the gamma deexcitation schemes of these levels, compute the neutron and proton reduced width γ 2 sub(n) and γ 2 sub(p). The levels studied are: in 21 Na 4.15 20 Ne(p,p), (p,p'), (p,p'γ) and (pγ) reactions) and in 21 Ne: E(exc)=4.73, 5.69 and 5.78 MeV ( 20 Ne (p,p) reaction); in 18 O: E(exc) 17 O(d,p) reaction); in 15 O: 8.92 MeV doublet and 8.98 MeV level (angular correlation 14 N(p,γγ) and in 15 N: 9.05 14 N(d,p) reaction). A comparison with theoretical results is discussed and analog states are pointed out [fr

  20. Experimental assessment of welded joints brittle fracture on the crack arrest criterion for WWER-1000 RPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumin, A.A.; Timofeev, B.T.

    2000-01-01

    The crack arrest fracture toughness in a vessel steel used in WWER-1000 reactor, namely in steel 15Kh2NMFA and its submerged arc welded joints, produced with Sv-08KhGNMTA, Sv-12 Kh2NMFA welding wires and NF-18 M, FZ-16 A welding fluxes, is under study. Experimental studies are carried out using three heats with the chemical composition meeting the specifications. Weld specimens 100-200 mm thick are subjected to tempering according various regimes to induce the embrittlement and simulate mechanical properties (yield strength and ductile-brittle transition temperature) corresponding to those at the end of service life under neutron radiation effect. Base metal and weld properties are compared. The wide scatter is noted for experimental data on fracture toughness temperature dependences. A possibility to use the dependence of K Ia = f (T-T k ) for determining the crack arrest fracture toughness is discussed taking in account that K Ia is a stress intensity factor calculated within the frame of static fracture mechanics [ru

  1. Thermal Aging Evaluation of Mod. 9Cr-1Mo Steel using Nonlinear Rayleigh Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young-Sang; Kim, Hoe-Woong; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Marino, Daniel; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, L.J [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States); Ruiz, Alberto [UMSNH, Morelia (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Thermal aging can pose a high risk to decreases in the mechanical properties such as strength or creep resistance. This can lead to an unexpected failure during long term operation. Nonlinear NDE techniques are preferred over conventional NDE techniques (linear ultrasonic measurements) because nonlinear ultrasonic techniques have shown their capability to detect a microstructural damage in the structures undergoing fatigue and creep. These nonlinear ultrasonic techniques make use of the fact that the dislocation density increases, which will create a nonlinear distortion of an ultrasonic wave; this damage causes the generation of measurable higher harmonic components in an initially mono-chromatic ultrasonic signal. This study investigates the recently developed non-contact nonlinear ultrasonic technique to detect the microstructural damage of mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel based on nonlinear Rayleigh wave with varying propagation distances. Nonlinear Rayleigh surface wave measurements using a non-contact, air-coupled ultrasonic transducer have been applied for the thermal aging evaluation of modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic-martensitic steel. Thermal aging for various heat treatment times of mod.. 9Cr-1Mo steel specimens is performed to obtain the nucleation and growth of precipitated particles in specimens. The amplitudes of the first and second harmonics are measured along the propagation distance and the relative nonlinearity parameter is obtained from these amplitudes. The relative nonlinearity parameter shows a similar trend with the Rockwell C hardness.

  2. Characterizing microstructural changes in ferritic steels by positron annihilation spectroscopy: Studies on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari Babu, S., E-mail: shb@igcar.gov.in [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India); Rajkumar, K.V. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India); Hussain, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kokilamedu 603 104, TN (India); Amarendra, G.; Sundar, C.S. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India); Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Positron lifetime technique probing microstructure of ferritic/martensitic steels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation between positron lifetime, ultrasonic and hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complementary nature of positron annihilation spectroscopy in probing defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Distinguishing precipitation stages by positron annihilation spectroscopy. - Abstract: Applicability of positron annihilation spectroscopy in probing the microstructural changes in ferritic steels has been investigated with thermal treatment studies on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, during 300-1273 K. Positron lifetime results are compared with those of ultrasonic velocity and hardness techniques with two initial microstructural conditions i.e., normalized and tempered condition as well as only normalized condition. In first case, positron lifetime is found to be sensitive to small changes in metal carbide precipitation which could not be probed by other two techniques. In later case, positron lifetime is found to be sensitive to defect annealing until 673 K and in distinguishing the growth and coarsening of metal carbide precipitation stages during 773-1073 K. The present study suggests that by combining positron lifetime, ultrasonic velocity and hardness measurements, it is possible to distinguish distinct microstructures occurring at different stages.

  3. Effect of silicon contents on the microstructures and mechanical properties of heat affected zones for 9Cr2WVTa steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China); Lu, Shanping, E-mail: shplu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China); Rong, Lijian [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China); Li, Dianzhong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China)

    2016-03-15

    The weldability of 9Cr2WVTa steels with silicon content varying from 0.30 wt.% to 1.36 wt.% was studied to meet the requirement of Generation-Ⅳ nuclear reactor. Samples of enlarged HAZs were fabricated by a thermal-mechanical simulator based on the simulation and measurement of non-equilibrium phase transformation. The content of δ-ferrite in the HAZs increased with the silicon content and the peak temperature of welding thermal cycle. The impact toughness in the HAZs decreased in different degrees when the δ-ferrite exhibits stripe (lower than 4.82%) or blocky types (higher than 4.82%). Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) has a significant role on improving the toughness. Adding silicon content increased the volume of δ-ferrite and therefore, decreased the tensile strength of the HAZs for 9Cr2WVTa steels. Silicon also as solid solution strengthening element increased the tensile strength. The 9Cr2WVTa steel has good weldability when the silicon content is lower than 0.60 wt.%. - Highlights: • The weldability of 9Cr2WVTa steel with different silicon contents was studied. • The impact toughness decreased in different degrees owing to the δ-ferrite. • PWHT has a significant role on improving the impact toughness. • The 9Cr2WVTa steel with silicon content not exceeding 0.60 wt.% has good weldability.

  4. AERODYNAMIC IMPROVEMENT OF KhADI 33 RACING CAR RADIATOR COMPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Avershyn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic characteristics of radiator compartment of KhADI 33 racing car on the basis of the decision of the interfaced problem of internal and external aerodynamics are numerically investigated. The rational variant of radiator compartment which is characterized by high throughput and low level of non-uniformity of speed field at the input is offered.

  5. 9 CFR 114.18 - Reprocessing of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for all tests conducted shall be submitted to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. The licensee... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reprocessing of biological products. 114.18 Section 114.18 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...

  6. Friction and wear behaviour of 18 polymers in contact with steel in environments of air and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, J.W.M.; de Gee, A.W.J.

    1991-01-01

    18 polymers were characterized with respect to their friction and wear behaviour in contact with steel in environments of air and water. These were six unfilled materials, i.e. polyamide 66 (PA 66), polyoxymethylene (POM), polyethyleneterephthalate (PETP), polyetheretherketone (PEEK),

  7. Identification of Precipitates in Cr-Mn-N Based Steel After Thermal Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondruška Michal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the identification of precipitates in the Cr-Mn-N steels after thermal exposure. The purpose of the study is to clarify the M2N precipitation by isothermal annealing at the temperatures of 750 and 900 °C with a holding time of 5, 10, 30 min, 1 hr. and 10 hrs. Microstructure of austenitic steel was characterised by the typical presence of annealing twins. Stepwise etching was observed at the holding time of 5 and 10 minutes, but at the holding time of 30 minutes, secondary particles were precipitated at the grain boundaries. Corrosion tests revealed that holding time significantly affected steel structure. M2N is the dominant precipitate, but the occurrence of σ-phase was occasionally observed especially at the interface of discontinuous precipitation and austenitic matrix. Slight increase of hardness at the grain boundaries was caused due to the precipitation of secondary phases during isothermal holding. The maximum hardness of 294 HV was measured on the sample isothermally annealed at 750 °C and holding for 10 hrs. The research provides theoretical basis for the heat affecting of steels, such as, for example, in welding.

  8. Development status und future possibilities for martensitic creep resistant steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, J. [Technical Univ. Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In the last four decades new stronger modified 9%Cr martensitic creep resistant steels have been introduced in power plants, which has enabled increases in maximum achievable steam conditions from the previous 250 bar and 540-560 C up to the values of 300 bar and 600-620 C currently being introduced all over the world. In order to further increase the steam parameters of steel based power plants up to a target value of 650 C/325 bar it is necessary to double the creep strength of the martensitic steels. At the same time the resistance against steam oxidation must be improved by an increase of the chromium content in the steels from 9% to 12%. However, so far all attempts to make stronger 12%Cr steels have led to breakdowns in long-term creep strength. Significant progress has been achieved in the understanding of microstructure stability of the martensitic 9-12%Cr steels: Observed microstructure instabilities in 11-12%Cr steels are explained by Z-phase precipitation, which dissolves fine MN nitrides. Improved understanding of effects of B and N on long-term creep properties has formed the basis of a series of new stronger 9%Cr test alloys with improved creep strength. In parallel 9%Cr test steels with low C content show very promising behavior in long-term tests. However, the 9%Cr steels must be surface coated to protect against steam oxidation at high temperature applications above 620%C. A possibility to use fine Z-phases for strengthening of the martensitic steels has been identified, and this opens a new pathway for development of stable strong 12%Cr steels. There are still good prospects for the realization of a 325 bar / 650 C steam power plant all based on steel. (orig.)

  9. Effects of iron spallation products Ti, P and S on the physical metallurgy of 9Cr martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danylova, O.; Carlan, Y. de; Hamon, D.; Brachet, J.C.; Alamo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The design of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) requires that the 'window', which separates the proton accelerator from the spallation target, be able to withstand very severe irradiation conditions. Fe-9/12Cr martensitic steels are good candidates for the window material due to their intrinsic stability under neutron irradiation, but the influence of iron spallation elements on their behaviour is not known. To elucidate the effects of the spallation elements titanium, phosphorus and sulphur on the behaviour of martensitic steels, it was decides to obtain different castings of 9Cr 1Mo steels doped with these elements. The aim of this paper is to present the data obtained on the physical metallurgy of these steels and to show the possible methods of obtaining titanium, phosphorus and sulphur in solid solution for subsequent study of the evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties. (authors)

  10. Device for measuring high temperature heat conductivity of solids and melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magomedov, Ya.B.; Gadzhiev, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    A modification of a device for measuring heat conductivity by a compensation method when a thermocouple with gadolinium sulfide being used is suggested. Such a device has less error of measurement (8%), wider interval of working temperatures (300-1600K) and it permits to investigate the material in the wide range of heat conductivity values (0.5-30 W/(mxK)). The stainless steel 12Kh18N10T, lanthanum sulfide and melted quartz were used for the device calibration. The results obtained and the literature data on these materials agree well between each other

  11. Effect of elemental composition of ion beam on the phase formation and surface strengthening of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdienko, K.I.; Avdienko, A.A.; Kovalenko, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    The investigation results are reported on the influence of ion beam element composition on phase formation, wear resistance and microhardness of surface layers of titanium alloys VT-4 and VT-16 as well as stainless steel 12Kh18N10T implanted with nitrogen, oxygen and boron. It is stated that ion implantation into structural materials results in surface hardening and is directly dependent on element composition of implanted ion beam. The presence of oxygen in boron or nitrogen ion beams prevents the formation of boride and nitride phases thus decreasing a hardening effect [ru

  12. Comparative study between two austenitic steels with the EPR (Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen M, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    In the mid 19704s, the intergranular corrosion with stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) have been identified as a greater problem in Boiling Water Reactors BWR in several places of the world. The Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation - Single Loop (EPR-SL) test and the Double Loop (EPR-DL) test, were developed as methods for measuring the Degree of Sensitization (DOS), show sensitised materials at subject to Intergranular Corrosion. In Mexico, the Laguna Verde4s reactor is BWR type and many of its principal components was built with AISI 304 stainless steels, while that in VVER reactors as well as Juragua4s reactor in Cuba is used 321 Stainless stell in its Russian equivalent designation 08Ch18N10T. In this work, were studied 304 and 08Ch18N10T stainless steels by means of EPR-SL, EPR-DL and ASTM A-262 techniques, they have been found a good correlation for 304 steel but not in 08Ch18N10T steel and was proposed one modification in the criterion by the evaluation on the sensitisation in this steels. Finally, both materials were welded with procedures used in the nuclear industry, by Slow Strain Rate Test (SSRT) to determine the Stress Corrosion Cracking SCC susceptibility, and subsequently the susceptibility to localized corrosion was studied by means of Cyclic Polarization test and the uniform corrosion rate in a solution with chlorides by the Tafel plot, Potentiodynamic Anodic Polarization Resistance. (Author)

  13. Atomic resolution investigations of phase transformation from TaN to CrTaN in a steel matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Hald, John

    2012-01-01

    strength of the steel. The Cr content promotes Z-phase precipitation, making MN strengthening of these materials unfeasible, since 12%Cr is necessary for oxidation resistance. The authors have suggested an acceleration of Z-phase precipitation to obtain a fine and stable distribution of CrMN instead of MN...... atoms diffuse from the steel matrix into TaN precipitates and physically transform them into CrTaN. The crystal structure of the precipitates changes from that of a typical MN NaCl type crystal structure to a Z-phase crystal structure with alternating double layers of Cr and TaN. Since there is a large......In development of 12%Cr high temperature steels used for fossil fired power plants, the precipitation of large Z-phase particles, CrMN, has been identified as a major problem since they replace small and finely distributed MN particles. This causes a premature breakdown in the longterm creep...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of the Fe-18%Ni-12%Co-4,9%Mo-1,5%Ti alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, G.C.S.; Biondo, V.; Nunes, M.V.S.; Paesano Junior, A.; Sarvezuk, P.W.C.; Blanco, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The Fe-18%Ni-12%Co-4,9%Mo-1,5%Ti was made by arc-melting and submitted to different heat treatments, for solubilization in the γ - phase (austenite), followed by cooling to the room temperature, and also for further aging. The prepared alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction (Rietveld method) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that the cooling induced the system to a martensitic transformation, crystallizing it into a cubic structure (martensite). The crystallographic parameters and the hyperfine parameters obtained by Mössbauer Spectroscopy are consistent with those found in literature for Maraging-350 steels. The aging treatments generates the formation of reversed austenite in relative amounts that vary with the temperature and time of treatment. (author)

  15. Fireside corrosion and steamside oxidation of 9-12% Cr martensitic steels exposed for long term testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Jensen, S. A.; Rasmussen, F.

    2009-01-01

    MoV121 and HCM12 for the 12% Cr steels. The test tubes were welded in as part of the existing final superheaters in actual plants and exposure has been conducted over a ten year period (1994-2005). Compared to the older steel types, T92 and HCM12 utilise tungsten to improve their creep strength. From......To obtain long term corrosion and steam oxidation data for the 9-12%Cr ferritic steels, test tube sections have been exposed in Amager 3 and Avedore 1 coal fired power plants in Denmark (formerly run by ENERGI E2). Thus direct comparisons can be made for T91 and T92 for the 9% Cr steels and X20Cr...... Avedore I testing, T91 and T92 can be compared for exposure times up to similar to 48 000 h exposure. From Amager 3 testing, X20, HCM12 and T92 were tested; T92 has been exposed for up to 31 000 h and X20 and HCM12 have had 84 500 h exposure. Tube sections were removed for various exposure durations...

  16. Tensile properties of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel by shear punch testing and correlation with microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthik, V., E-mail: karthik@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India)

    2011-10-15

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel (P91) is subjected to a series of heat treatments consisting of soaking for 5 min at the selected temperatures in the range 973 K-1623 K (below Ac{sub 1} to above Ac{sub 4}) followed by oil quenching and tempering at 1033 K for 1 h to obtain different microstructural conditions. The tensile properties of the different microstructural conditions are evaluated from small volumes of material by shear punch test technique. A new methodology for evaluating yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and strain hardening exponent from shear punch test by using correlation equations without employing empirical constants is presented and validated. The changes in the tensile properties are related to the microstructural changes of the steel investigated by electron microscopic studies. The steel exhibits minimum strength and hardness when soaked between Ac{sub 1} and Ac{sub 3} (intercritical range) temperatures due to the replacement of original lath martensitic structure with subgrains. The finer martensitic microstructure produced in the steel after soaking at temperatures above Ac{sub 3} leads to a monotonic increase in hardness and strength with decreasing strain hardening exponent. For soaking temperatures above Ac{sub 4}, the hardness and strength of the steel increases marginally due to the formation of soft {delta} ferrite. - Highlights: > A methodology presented for computing tensile properties from shear punch test. > UTS and strain hardening estimated using extended analysis of blanking models. > The analysis methodology validated for different heat treated 9Cr-1Mo steel. > Changes in tensile properties of steel correlated with microstructures.

  17. MLEP-Fail calibration for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the work presented in this memo was to calibrate the Sierra material model Multilinear Elastic-Plastic Hardening Model with Failure (MLEP-Fail) for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel. The calibration approach is essentially the same as that recently used in a previous memo using data from smooth and notched tensile specimens. The notched specimens were manufactured with three notch radii R = 1=8, 1/32 and 1/64 inches. The dimensions of the smooth and notched specimens are given in the prints in Appendix A. Two cast plates, Plate 3 and Plate 4, with nominally identical properties were considered.

  18. Water vapor pressure over molten KH2PO4 and demonstration of water electrolysis at ∼300ºC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; Petrushina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    A new potentially high-efficiency electrolyte for water electrolysis: molten monobasic potassium phosphate, KH2PO4 or KDP has been investigated at temperatures ∼275–325 °C. At these temperatures, KH2PO4 was found to dissociate into H2O gas in equilibrium with a melt mixture of KH2PO4—K2H2P2O7—KPO3...... of water and methane or hydrogen to be 0.40 ± 0.02 or 1.2 ± 0.03. At equilibrium the vapor pressure was much lower than the vapor pressure above liquid water at the same temperature. Electrolysis was realized by passing current through closed ampoules (vacuum sealed quartz glass electrolysis cells...... with platinum electrodes and the electrolyte melt). The formation of mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen gases as well as the water vapor was detected by Raman spectroscopy. In this way it was demonstrated that water is present in the new electrolyte: molten KH2PO4 can be split by electrolysis via the reaction 2H2O...

  19. Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for advanced steam generator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkman, C.R.; Alexander, D.J.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from several types of mechanical property tests conducted on a number of commercial heats of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. Data from long term creep-rupture tests conducted on base and weldment material were compared with an analytical model which has been shown to give good agreement between measured and predicted values. Weldment material had somewhat inferior creep-rupture strength in comparison to base material due to a soft zone at the edge of the HAZ. Data are presented from elevated temperature tensile and creep-rupture tests conducted n material thermally aged for periods of up to 75,000 h (8.6 years). Some reduction in strength was shown to occur in comparison to unaged material. Models were developed for predicting the reduction in short term elevated temperature tensile and yield strength for material thermally aged in the temperature range of 482 to 704 degree C. Results from Charpy impact tests conducted on material thermally aged at 538 degree C for periods of up to 75,000 h showed an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature. Finally, results from transmission electron microscopy studies were presented to explain changes in mechanical properties due to thermal aging. These observations showed that Laves phase precipitation and recovery occurs on prolonged exposure of this alloy in this temperature range. 9 refs

  20. Glass enamel and glass-ceramic coatings for chemical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Es'kov, A.S.; Oleinik, M.I.; Shabrova, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Among the known anticorrosion coatings used in chemical engineering, glass enamel base coatings are distinguished by such advantages as a high degree of continuity and chemical resistance. The paper describes basic principles for the creation of acid and alkali resistant glass enamel and ceramic coatings for chemical apparatus. As the result of investgations, glass enamel coatings with increased electrical conductivity and also experimental production compositions of chemical, temperature and radiation resistant coatings for protection of chemical equipment of 12Kh18N10T stainless steel have been developed. The coatings have successfully passed testing under service conditions. A new type of coating is short-term glass enamel, which may be recommended for use in chemical machinery manufacturing and other branches of industry in oxidation-free heating and forming of stainless steels