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Sample records for steel-cr18ni10

  1. The influence of interstitial impurities on temperature ranges of deuterium retention in austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Morozov, O.M.; Kulish, V.G.; Zhurba, V.I.; Galytsky, A.G.; Piatenko, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen, oxygen and helium on the temperature range of deuterium retention in 18Cr10NiTi stainless steel (of AISI304L type) has been investigated. It is demonstrated that the introduction of oxygen, nitrogen or helium into 18Cr10NiTi steel extends the upper limit in the high-temperature range of deuterium retention. It has been found that for 18Cr10NiTi stainless steel, pre-irradiated with helium ions, the increase in the temperature range of deuterium retention occurs in steps: on attainment of helium concentration of ∼0.5 at.% He the temperature range increases by ∼100 K, and on attainment of helium concentration of ∼2.5 at.% He the temperature range increases by ∼350 K. The introduction of oxygen into 18Cr10NiTi stainless steel results in the increase of the temperature range of deuterium retention in the direction of rise in temperature. In the deuterium thermodesorption spectrum, this manifests itself by the occurrence of an additional low-amplitude peak with the maximum temperature T m ∼ 560 K. The introduction of nitric impurity into 18Cr10NiTi stainless steel results in the extension of the temperature range of deuterium retention towards higher temperatures.

  2. Electrochemical characterisation of X10CrNi 18-8 steel in artificial plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Przondziono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of applied guide wires conditions the course of treatment and its success to a great extent. In order to simulate conditions that can be found in blood vascular system samples were exposed to artificial blood plasma (T = 37 } 1 oC for the time of 8 h. In order to obtain information regarding physical and chemical properties of modified surface of wire made of X10CrNi 18-8 steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS test and tests of chemical composition of the surface layer X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were made. On the ground of performed EIS and XPS tests, favourable impact of steam sterilisation process on corrosion resistance of X10CrNi 18-8 steel was observed only for the case when chemical passivation was applied prior to sterilisation.

  3. Changes in mechanical properties and structure of electrolytic plasma treated X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurbanbekov, Sherzod; Baklanov, Viktor; Karakozov, Batyrzhan [Republican State Enterprise National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan). Inst. of Atomic Energy Branch; Skakov, Mazhyn [Republican State Enterprise National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)

    2017-05-01

    The paper addresses findings regarding the influence of electrolytic plasma treatment on the mechanical properties as well as structural and phase states of X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti steel. Electrolytic plasma treatment is based on carburizing of stainless steel heated in electrolytes. Treatment of steel samples has been performed as follows: the samples were heated up to a temperature between 850 and 950 C and then they were cured for 7 minutes in an electrolyte of an aqueous solution containing 10 % glycerol (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}O{sub 3}) and 15 % sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). It is found that, after plasma electrolytic treatment, the surface of X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti steel had a modified structure and high hardness. Increasing wear resistance of X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti steel has been observed after carburizing and the coefficient of friction has been reduced. X-ray analysis showed that retained austenite γ-Fe is a main phase, and there are some diffraction lines of orthorhombic Fe{sub 3}C phase as well as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cubic phase. It has been determined, that, after plasma electrolytic treatment, a carbide phase in the modified surface layer, irrespective of the location in the steel structure has the chemical composition Fe{sub 3}C. High concentration of carbon atoms in a solid solution based on γ- and α-iron, a large dislocation density, presence of particles of carbide phase and retained austenite layers have been found.

  4. Comparison of extrapolation methods for creep rupture stresses of 12Cr and 18Cr10NiTi steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivarsson, B.

    1979-01-01

    As a part of a Soviet-Swedish research programme the creep rupture properties of two heat resisting steels namely a 12% Cr steel and an 18% Cr12% Ni titanium stabilized steel have been studied. One heat from each country of both steels were creep tested. The strength of the 12% Cr steels was similar to earlier reported strength values, the Soviet steel being some-what stronger due to a higher tungsten content. The strength of the Swedish 18/12 Ti steel agreed with earlier results, while the properties of the Soviet steel were inferior to those reported from earlier Soviet creep testings. Three extrapolation methods were compared on creep rupture data collected in both countries. Isothermal extrapolation and an algebraic method of Soviet origin gave in many cases rather similar results, while the parameter method recommended by ISO resulted in higher rupture strength values at longer times. (author)

  5. Influence of Mn contents in 0Cr18Ni10Ti thin wall stainless steel tube on TIG girth weld quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Three kinds of cold worked 0Cr18Ni10Ti thin wall stainless steel tubes with the manganese contents of 1.27%, 1.35% and 1.44% and the cold worked 0Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel end plug with manganese content of 1.35% were used for TIG girth welding in the present investigation. The effect of different manganese contents in stainless steel tube on weld quality was studied. The results showed that under the same welding conditions, the metallographic performance of the girth weld for the thin wall stainless steel tube with the manganese element content 1.44% welded with end plug was the best. Under the appropriate welding conditions, the quality of the girth weld increased with the increase of the manganese content till 1.44%. It was found that in the case of the Mn content of 1.44%, and under the proper welding condition the welding defects, such as welding cracks were effectively avoided, and the qualified weld penetration can be obtained.. It is concluded that the appropriate increase of the manganese content can significantly improve the TIG girth weld quality of the cold worked 0Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel tube.

  6. Microstructure of reactive synthesis TiC/Cr18Ni8 stainless steel bonded carbides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Junsheng; Liu Junbo; Wang Limei

    2008-01-01

    TiC/Cr18Ni8 steel bonded carbides were synthesized by vacuum sintering with mixed powders of iron, ferrotitanium, ferrochromium, colloidal graphite and nickel as raw materials. The microstructure and microhardness of the steel bonded carbides were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rockwell hardometer. Results show that the phases of steel bonded carbides mainly consist of TiC and Fe-Cr-Ni solid solution. The synthesized TiC particles are fine. Most of them are not more than 1 μm With the increase of sintering temperature, the porosity of TiC/Cr18Ni8 steel bonded carbides decreases and the density and hardness increase, but the size of TiC panicles slightly increases. Under the same sintering conditions, the density and hardness of steel bonded carbides with C/Ti atomic ratio 0.9 are higher than those with C/Ti atomic ratio 1.0.The TiC particles with C/Ti atomic ratio 0.9 are much finer and more homogeneous.

  7. Numerical simulation on temperature field of TIG welding for 0Cr18Ni10Ti steel cladding and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Hongyi; Tang Xian; Luo Zhifu

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at tungsten inert gas (TIG) for 0Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel cladding for radioactive source, the numerical calculation of welding pool temperature field was carried out through adopting ANSYS software. The numerical model of non-steady TIG welding pool shape was established, the heat enthalpy and Gaussian electric arc heat source model of surface distribution were introduced, and the effects of welding current and welding speed to temperature field distribution were calculated. Comparing the experimental data and the calculation results under different welding currents and speeds, the reliability and correctness of the model were proved. The welding technological parameters of 0Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel were optimized based on the calculation results and the welding procedure was established. (authors)

  8. The effects of adding molybdenum and niobium on the creep strength of 18Cr-10Ni-20Co austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomono, Yutaka

    1987-01-01

    The decrease in the creep strength of structural materials during service at elevated temperatures is a very important problem that affects the security of plants and machinery. The improvement in the creep strength of 18Cr-10Ni-20Co austenitic steel achieved through the addition of molybdenum and niobium was studied in tests carried out at 973K and 1,073K. The creep strengthening mechanism was examined using transmission electron micrographs, X-ray diffraction, etc. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The creep strength of low C-18Cr-10Ni-20Co austenitic steel with molybdenum was greatly improved by the addition of niobium up to 1% by weight. In the case of long-term creep, no trend toward decreasing creep strength was observed. (2) The creep strength of austenitic steel possessing a matrix strengthened with molybdenum can be improved through the addition of niobium combined with precipitation hardening with fine carbides precipitated in the grains. (author)

  9. Determination of susceptibility to intergranular corrosion of stainless steels type X5CrNi18-10 in field

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    Bore V. Jegdic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the DL EPR method (electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation with double loop was modified and used to study the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of a stainless steel type X5CrNi18-10. The tests were performed in a special electrochemical cell, with the electrolyte in the gel form. Modified DL EPR method is characterized by simple and high accuracy measurements as well as repeatability of the test results. The indicator of susceptibility to intergranular corrosion (Qr/QpGBA obtained by modified DL EPR method is in a very good agreement with the same indicator obtained by standard DL EPR method. The modified DL EPR method is quantitative and highly selective method. Small differences in the susceptibility of the stainless steel type CrNi18-10 to intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking can be determined. Test results can be obtained in a short time. The cost of tests performed by modified DL EPR method is much lower than the cost of tests by conventional chemical methods. Modified DL EPR method can be applied in the field on the stainless steels constructions.

  10. Excellent corrosion resistance of 18Cr-20Ni-5Si steel in liquid Pb-Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Y.; Futakawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion properties of three austenitic steels with different Si contents were studied under oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi condition for 3000 h. The three austenitic steels did not exhibit appreciable dissolution of Ni and Cr at 450 deg. C. At 550 deg. C, the thick ferrite layer produced by dissolution of Ni and Cr was found in JPCA and 316SS with low Si contents while the protective oxide film composed of Si and O was formed on 18Cr-20Ni-5Si steel and prevented dissolution of Ni and Cr

  11. Random cyclic constitutive models of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing

    2004-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the random cyclic constitutive relations of a new pipe stainless steel, 0Cr18Ni10Ti, by an incremental strain-controlled fatigue test. In the test, it is verified that the random cyclic constitutive relations, like the wide recognized random cyclic strain-life relations, is an intrinsic fatigue phenomenon of engineering materials. Extrapolating the previous work by Zhao et al, probability-based constitutive models are constructed, respectively, on the bases of Ramberg-Osgood equation and its modified form. Scattering regularity and amount of the test data are taken into account. The models consist of the survival probability-strain-life curves, the confidence strain-life curves, and the survival probability-confidence-strain-life curves. Availability and feasibility of the models have been indicated by analysis of the present test data

  12. Formed electroslag welded joint from austenitic steel 18/10 CrNi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, L.; Kusak, L.; Martinak, A.

    1987-01-01

    The electroslag welded joint from titanium stabilized steel 18/10 CrNi of 150 mm in thickness showed positive results for both nondestructive and destructive testing. Czechoslovak flux VUZ-4F and the optimized welding mode were completely proven. The weldment was subject to deformation by forging with a removal of 20 to 50% and to bending deformation. A 40% to 50% deformation was necessary for breaking the coarse-grain casting structure. The bending deformation resulted in breaking the coarse-grain casting structure in the entire cross-section, it was, however, only acting in a narrow band corresponding to the largest curvature. At the same time, the heat affected zone decayed. Following heat treatment, especially forming, the delta ferrite content in the weld metal decreased, the mechanical properties of the weld metal and the welded joint following welding and heat treatment showed a relatively large scatter. Forming reduced the scatter and improved plastic properties. Machining within 40 and 50% resulted in good echogenicity of the welded joint in ultrasound testing. The welded joint showed equal properties as the base material of the weldment. (author). 15 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs

  13. Precipitation kinetics in austenitic 18Cr-30Ni-Nb cast steel

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    M. Garbiak

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of investigations on the precipitation kinetics in austenitic 18%Cr-30%Ni cast steel stabilised with an addition of 1.84 wt% niobium. Phase analysis of isolates extracted from the alloy subjected to annealing within the temperature range of 600–1000oC during 10–1000 h was made. The phase constitution of the isolates mainly comprised niobium carbides of the NbC type and complex chromium carbides of the Cr23C6 type. In specimens annealed within the temperature range of 700–900oC, a high-silicon G phase was additionally identified. The highest kinetics of the precipitation process was recorded after annealing at the temperatures of 800 and 900oC.

  14. Characteristics of centrifugally cast GX25CrNiSi18-9 steel

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    R. Zapała

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of microstructural examinations of the industrial heat-resistant centrifugally cast GX25CrNiSi18-9 steel characterised by increased content of Cu. The study included changes in the microstructure of base cast steel respective of the steel held at a temperature of 900 and 950°C for 48 hours. Based on the results obtained, an increase in microhardness of the examined cast steel matrix with increasing temperature was stated, which was probably caused by fine precipitates enriched in Cr, Mo, and C forming inside the matrix grains.The layer of scale formed on the tested cast steel oxidised in the atmosphere of air at 900 and 950°C was characterised by an increased tendency to degradation with increasing temperature of the conducted tests.

  15. The research of axial corrosion fatigue on 10Ni3CrMoV steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Yi, Hong; Xu, Jian; Xie, Kun

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue life had been studied with 10CrNi3MoV steel at different load ratios and in different environmental medias. The microstructure and micro-topography had been observed and analyzed by means of SEM, EDS and TEM. Our findings indicated that, the fatigue life of 10Ni3CrMoV steel in seawater was shorter than in air, the difference in longevity was larger with the decreasing of axis stress. Corrosion pits had a great influence on corrosion fatigue life.

  16. Investigation of Cr-Ni duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shiying

    1985-01-01

    At temperatures of 450 - 750 0 C, a laminate-shaped intermetallic phase Fe3Cr3Mo2Si2 has been observed. Intergranular brittle fracture is due to the precipitation of the Fe3Cr3Mo2SI2 phase, but quasi-cleavage fracture is connected with the precipitation of chi and σ phases. The formation of chi and σ during aging at 750 - 900 0 C results in a drastic decrease of the SCC resistance of Cr18Ni5 steel. In order to avoid a fully ferritic microstructure in Cr18Ni5 duplex steel after heating at high temperature or welding, the K value must be kept to 0.42 for thin wall tube. The decrease in SCC resistance after cold deformation is not due to the formation of strain-induced martensite but is connected with significant reduction in the resistance to pitting corrosion. (author)

  17. Effect of cold deformation on latent energy value and high-temperature mechanical properties of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, O.P.; Shiganakov, Sh.B.; Gusev, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    Energetic and magnetic characteristics and also the high-temperature mechanical properties depending on the preliminary cold deformation of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel are presented. It is shown that the value of storage energy in the steel has being grown with increase of the deformation. The rate of its growth has been increased after beginning of martensitic γ→α'- transformation when value of comparative storage energy at first decreased and then has been stay practically constant. Level of mechanical properties of the steel at 1073 K has been determined not only by value of cold deformation but and structural reconstruction corresponding to deformations 35-45% and accompanying with α'-phase martensite formation and change of energy accumulating rate. Preliminary cold deformation (40-60 %) does not improve high- temperature plasticity of steel samples implanted by helium. refs. 7, figs. 2

  18. [Studies on the tolerance of the organism to X 5 CrNiMo 18.10 steel (Königsee). II. Light microscopic studies of the surrounding tissue of metal implants (X 5 CrNiMo 18.10 steel) in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhndorf, H; Drössler, K; Stiehl, P

    1977-06-01

    The tissue around X 5 CrNiMo 18.10-steel implantates with different surfaces was examined in 72 guinea-pigs. Aside from controls, these animals were preoperatively sensibilized against chromium and nickel. The results can be summarized since the histologic findings showed no different peculiarities. The authors describe an intussusception of the implantate in connective tissue which evidently depends on time and surface. Further the spreading of alien material in the surrounding of the implantate, and morphologic findings are reported. The morphologic evidences are described and discussed in detail, since they are interpreted as signs of cell-mediated immune reactions. The presence of lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, histiocytes (mostly carrying alien material), and granulocytes, as well as proliferations at the arterioles suggest an overlapping of immune reactions.

  19. The effect of cobalt and molybdenum on the creep strength of low C-18Cr-10Ni steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomono, Yutaka; Ueda, Jitsuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The improvement of creep strength through the addition of cobalt and molybdenum to low C-18Cr-10Ni steel was studied at a temperature range of between 700 and 800 0 C. Changes in mechanical and physical properties such as lattice parameter and stacking fault energy, related to the additional elements were investigated to estimate the strengthening effect. Dislocation structures corresponding to the various creep stages were observed through a transmission electron microscope to distinguish the solution hardening effect of the added elements from the precipitation hardening effects of carbide. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) Addition of cobalt of up to 20% by weight improved the creep strength of austenitic steel. Addition of molybdenum of up to 5% by weight remarkably improved the creep strength of austenitic steel having a cobalt content of 20% by weight. (2) The trend for creep strength to improve with the addition of these elements was closely coincident with increases in lattice parameter and did not necessarily coincide with changes in the stacking fault energy. (author)

  20. Experimental study on kinematic hardening of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel under low cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Er; Yang Xianjie; Mao Jianghui; Sun Yafang

    2006-01-01

    To study the effect of the monotonic loading on subsequent cyclic plastic hardening and flow properties of 1Cr18Ni9Ti steel, an experimental study of the low cycle fatigue tests with mean strains for 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel was carried out. An analysis on the evolutions of the yield surface radius and the back stresses under symmetric and asymmetric cyclic strain loading with different strain amplitudes was made. The dependence of the evolutions of the material kinematic hardening and isotropic hardening on the strain amplitude and mean strain was observed. These results provide the experimental foundation for the constitutive model of the material under combined monotonic and cyclic complicated loads. (authors)

  1. Long term properties and microstructural evolution of 18Cr-10Ni-3Cu-Ti-Nb austenitic stainless steel for boiler tube application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Y.; Fukui, T.; Ono, T. [TenarisNKK Tubes, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Caminada, S. [TenarisDalmine, Dalmine, BG (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The allowable tensile stress of 0.1C-18Cr-10Ni-3Cu-Ti-Nb steel (TEMPALOY AA-1; ASME C.C. 2512) is more than 30% higher compared with that of ASME SA-213 Grade TP347H in the temperature range 600-700 C. This high creep rupture strength is obtained by the precipitation of MC and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, and Cu-rich phase. Long term creep rupture tests over 10{sup 5}h enabled to verify the superior creep rupture strength of this steel. The investigation of microstructural evolution on the creep ruptured and aged specimens has shown the high structural stability of this material. Hardness and impact properties after high temperature aging reveal similar performance as conventional 18-8 stainless steels. Excellent steam oxidation resistance can be achieved by a shot-blasting method. The scale thickness of shot-blasted tube after 1000h at 750 C is below a few micron meters. These results have revealed that the mechanical properties and environmental resistance of this steel enable the use of TEMPALOY AA-1 in the latest generation of advanced USC boiler. (orig.)

  2. Changes of structure and properties of cast steels GX10NiCrNb32-20 and GX10NiCrNb3-25 after long-term tempering at 600-1000 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gommans, R.; Schrijen, H.; Sundermann, J.; Steinkusch, W.; Hering, W.

    2001-01-01

    Low-alloy cast steels of type GX 10NiCrNb 32.20 are commonly used for the outlet section of reformer and cracker tubes for the temperature range of 600-1000 C. There was a lack of data on the ductility of the 25%Cr alloyed cast steel GX10NiCrNb 35.25 at room temperature after tempering, which was investigated in a joint project of Pose-Marre and DSM. Mechanical tests were carried out at room temperature and at elevated temperatures. Apart from light microscopy, also SEM/EDX, SAM and TEM analyses were carried out. The 25% alloy has lower ductility than the 20% alloy, owing primarily to the more pronounced development of M 6 C carbide from primary NbC carbide, which takes up Ni and Si during tempering. The microstructure and composition of the M 6 C carbide wre not fully clarified. Information is presented on the potential application of low-carbon materials of the type GX10NiCrNb35.25 [de

  3. Alloying effect on hardening of martensite stainless steels of the Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Co systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel'dgandler, Eh.G.; Savkina, L.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of alloying elements is considered on the γ → a-transformation and hardening of certain compositions of the ternary Fe-Cr-Ni- and Fe-Cr-Co alloy systems with the martensite structure. In martensite Fe-(10 to 14)% Cr base steels the elements Co, Cu, W, Ni, Mo, Si, Cr decrease, Mn, Si, Mo, Cu increase, and Cr, Ni, Co decrease the temperature of α → γ-transition. The tempering of martensite steels of the Fe-Cr-Ni- and Fe-Cr-Co-systems containing 10 to 14% Cr, 4 to 9% Ni, and 7 to 12% Co does not lead to hardening. Alloyage of the martensite Fe-Cr-Ni-, Fe-Cr-Co- and Fe-Cr-Ni-Co base separately with Mo, W, Si or Cu leads to a hardening during tempering, the hardening being the higher, the higher is the content of Ni and, especially, of Co. The increase in the content of Mo or Si produces the same effect as the increase in the Co content. In on Fe-Cr-Co or Fe-Cr-Ni-Co based steels alloyed with Mo or Si, two temperature ranges of ageing have been revealed which, evidently, have different hardening natures. The compositions studied could serve as the base material for producing maraging stainless steels having a complex variety of properties

  4. Structural evolution of Fe-18Ni-16Cr-4Al steel during aging at 950 .deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Man; Jang, Jinsung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Zhangjian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, USTB, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-15

    Austenitic stainless steels are also among important structural materials for in-core components of nuclear reactors, and the performance, the oxidation resistance as well as the mechanical strength at high temperature are further expected after Fukushima accident. Alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steel was first developed by Y. Yamamoto et al. , which showed a good combination of oxidation resistance and creep resistance. The strengthening is achieved through nano-sized MX and Laves. Microstructural evolution of Fe-18Ni-16Cr-4Al during aging at 950 .deg. C was studied. This steel consists of two phases of austenite and ferrite. During aging, needle-shaped NiAl precipitates in austenite, while round shaped NiAl form in ferrite, which is supposed to be due to different crystal structural parameters.

  5. The permeation behavior of deuterium through 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with TiN+TiC-TiN multiple films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Y.; Song, J.; Luo, D.; Lei, Q.; Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    The prevention of tritium losses via permeation through structure components is an important issue in fusion technology. The production of thin layers on materials with low diffusivity and/or low surface recombination constants (so-called permeation barriers) seems to be the most practical method to reduce or hinder the permeation of tritium through materials. TiN+TiC+TiN multiple films are deposited on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel by ion-beam assisted deposition technology. The characteristics of films are tested by XPS ASEM and XRD, which shows that the film are compact and uniform with a thickness of about 15 μm, and have a good adherence with the substrate below 773 K. The diffraction peaks in the XRD patterns for TiC and TiN are broadened, implying that the multiple films are deposited on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel. Meanwhile, the C-H bonded CH 4 -appears in the infrared spectra of multiple films, suggesting that the CH 4 - is in a static state, so hydrogen atom cannot migrate from the site bonded with carbon to a neighboring site. The measured deuterium permeability in 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel coated with multiple films is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of pure 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate from 473 K to 773 K. However, this barrier is partly destroyed above 773 K

  6. Transformation and Precipitation Kinetics in 30Cr10Ni Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazarinc, Matevz; Terčelj, Milan; Bombač, David; Kugler, Goran

    2010-09-01

    To improve the microstructure during casting, hot forming, and heat treatment of 30Cr10Ni duplex stainless steel, accurate data on the precipitation and transformation processes at high temperatures are needed. In this article, the precipitation and transformation processes at various aging times in the temperature range 873 K to 1573 K (600 °C to 1300 °C) were studied. The 30Cr10Ni ferrous alloy contains a relatively large amount of Cr, Ni, and C, which results in a complex microstructure. In addition to the ferrite, austenite, and sigma phase, the M23C6 and MC carbides were also observed in the microstructure. The precipitation of the sigma phase was observed after just 3 minutes of aging, and after 30 minutes of aging at approximately 1053 K (780 °C), its fraction exceeded 40 pct. An intensive austenite-to-ferrite transformation was observed above 1423 K (1150 °C). Optical microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), as well as micro-indentation hardness, hardness, impact toughness, and tensile tests, were carried out to evaluate the obtained microstructures of aged samples.

  7. Heterogeneity of structure and properties of 12Cr18Ni10Ti and 08Cr16Ni11Mo3 stainless steels irradiated up to high damaging doses in reactor Bn-350

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, O.P.; Tivanova, O.V.; Turubarova, L.G.; Silnyagina, N.S.; Doronina, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Earlier, during investigation of post-operating properties and structure of responsible units of fast neutron reactors there was shown /1, 2/ that depending on character of preliminary treatment of austenite stainless steel (austenization, cold deformation, mechanical and thermal treatment) radiation effects could be different. In /2/ one could observe heterogeneity at swelling of cold- worked hexahedral ducts along perimeter, in particular, the swelling of corners was less than plates'. At the same time after mechanical-thermal treatment the corners swell in 3-5 times of magnitude higher than plates. By the present there are several assumptions about nature of this phenomenon. One of them is a difference of deformation degree of material in corners and plates of the duct. It is known that /3/ external effects (including deformation) induce martensitic γ→α transformation in austenitic steels, due to which the structure and properties of steel are changed. In particular, paramagnetic FCC matrix reveals sites with ferromagnetic BCC structure. Steel heating, containing martensitic α-phase higher than ∼ 450-800 deg C, results in reverse γ→α transformation in material, which in its turn leads to formation of phase phase-hardened austenite. We can expect that only peculiarities of processes of direct and reverse martensitic transformations, which took place during preliminary austenitic steel treatment, will predetermine its behavior under irradiation. Taking into account the above mentioned there have been carried out complex material-scientific investigations of 12Cr18Ni10Ti and 08Cr16Ni11Mo3 steel samples cut off from different sites (both adjacent to corners and far from them) of hexagonal ducts of spent fuel assemblies of BN-350 reactor. There were used samples in the form of plates of different sizes: 5x10x2 mm - for metallographic investigations (microscope Neophot-2) and determination of microhardness (PMT-3); 2x20x0,3 mm - for mechanical

  8. Analysis of a multi pass weld of a thick walled tube made of austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNiNb 18 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtes, B.; Zinn, W.; Ilg, U.; Backfisch, W.; Gibmeier, J.; Kirch, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, microstructure and residual stresses of a multi pass welding of a thick-walled tube made of austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNiNb 18 10 (1.4550) are systematically characterized and assessed. Results of microstructural and phase analyses, residual stress and hardness measurements as well as of a tensile test using micro specimen and SEM analyses are presented. Using these data, plastic deformations occurring during the welding process in the vicinity of the weld seam are evaluated. Finally, consequences of an additional heat treatment at 400 C/24 h are studied. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  9. Microstructure of the Transitional Area of the Connection of a High-temperature Ni-based Brazing Alloy and Stainless Steel AISI 321 (X6CrNiTi 1810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Augustin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed examination of the structure of the transitional area between a brazing alloy and the parent material, the dimensions of the diffusion zones that are created, and the influence on them of a change in the brazing parameters. Connections between Ni-based brazing alloys (NI 102 with a small content of B and AISI 321 stainless steel (X6CrNiTi 1810 were created in a vacuum (10−2 Pa at various brazing temperatures and for various holding times at the brazing temperature. Various specimens were tested. First, the brazing alloys were wetted and the dependence of the wetting on the brazing parameters was assessed. Then a chemical microanalysis was made of the interface between the brazing alloy and the parent material. The individual diffusion zones were identified on pictures from a light microscope and REM, and their dimensions, together with their dependence on the brazing parameters, were determined.

  10. High-temperature brazing of X5CrNi18 10 and NiCr20TiAl using the atmospherically plasma-sprayed L-Ni2 filler metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielage, B.; Drozak, J.

    1992-01-01

    The hybrid-technological combination of the atmospheric plasma spraying for the application of a high-temperature filler metal followed by a brazing process was analyzed in terms of structure and mechanical properties of X5CrNi18 10 and NiCr20TiAl brazing joints. The thickness of the filler metal layer was minimized at [de

  11. Hydrogen effect on different melts of steel 03Cr10Ni10Mo2(Ti,Al)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hruby, J.; Novosad, P.; Axamit, R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on martensitic 03Cr10Ni10Mo2(Ti,Al) steel was studied following vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting with and without the effect of radiation. Under the influence of hydrogen and under the same parameters of catodic hydrogen charging of steel after vacuum induction melting shows a 20 - 30% reduction in total ductility. Steels after electroslag remelting show a higher reduction in total ductility - within the range of 26 - 33%, i.e., 33 - 43% for different melts, and contraction Z shows a reduction of 23 - 59%. Electroslag remelted steels show a greater reduction in plasticity owing to hydrogen than steels melted in vacuum induction furnaces. The reduction of the yield point and the breaking strength owing to hydrogen are more explicit than in steel after vacuum melting. In non-irradiated hydrogenated samples a higher yield point was evident. (B.S.)

  12. Structure change in 25 Cr - 20 Ni steels as a function of their Cr, Ni, Si and W content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribaudo, L.M.; Durand, F.; Durand-Charre, M.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of varying the Cr, Ni, Si and W concentrations on the type and composition of the carbides of solidification and on the phase shift temperature is studied with 18 alloys of composition close to stainless steel-25-20 (AISI 310) composition. Experimental techniques used are differential thermal analysis, microprobe and scanning electron microscope. Crystallization is interpreted with the equilibrium diagram Ni-Cr-C. The formation of the interdendritic σ phase for a chromium rich alloys is interpreted with the phase equilibrium diagram of Fe-Ni-Cr-C. Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance are dependent on the morphology of the carbides M 7 C 3 and M 23 C 6 [fr

  13. Shot Peening Effects on Subsurface Layer Properties and Fatigue Performance of Case-Hardened 18CrNiMo7-6 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Ho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is conducted with a dual-aim: firstly, to examine the effect of several single shot peening conditions on the subsurface layer properties and fatigue performance of the case-hardened 18CrNiMo7-6 steel, and secondly, to propose an optimized peening condition for improved fatigue performance. By carrying out the subsurface integrity analysis and fatigue testing, the underlying relationships among the peening process, subsurface layer property and fatigue performance are investigated, the way peening conditions affect the fatigue life and its associated scatter for the case-hardened 18CrNiMo7-6 steel is quantitatively assessed. The in-depth study shows that dual peening can be an optimized solution, for it is able to produce a subsurface layer with enhanced properties and eventually gain a significant improvement in fatigue performance.

  14. Supercritical water corrosion of high Cr steels and Ni-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Han, Chang Hee; Hwang, Seong Sik

    2004-01-01

    High Cr steels (9 to 12% Cr) have been widely used for high temperature high pressure components in fossil power plants. Recently the concept of SCWR (supercritical water-cooled reactor) has aroused a keen interest as one of the next generation (Generation IV) reactors. Consequently Ni-base (or high Ni) alloys as well as high Cr steels that have already many experiences in the field are among the potential candidate alloys for the cladding or reactor internals. Tentative inlet and outlet temperatures of the anticipated SCWR are 280 and 510 .deg. C respectively. Among many candidate alloys there are austenitic stainless steels, Ni base alloys, ODS alloys as well as high Cr steels. In this study the corrosion behavior of the high Cr steels and Ni base (or high Ni) alloys in the supercritical water were investigated. The corrosion behavior of the unirradiated base metals could be used in the near future as a guideline for the out-of-pile or in-pile corrosion evaluation tests

  15. Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 10CrNi3MoV High Strength Steel and Its Undermatched Welds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Liu, Xuesong; Berto, Filippo; Razavi, S M J

    2018-04-24

    The use of high strength steel allows the design of lighter, more slender and simpler structures due to high strength and favorable ductility. Nevertheless, the increase of yield strength does not guarantee the corresponding improvement of fatigue resistance, which becomes a major concern for engineering structure design, especially for the welded joints. The paper presents a comparison of the low cycle fatigue behaviors between 10CrNi3MoV high strength steel and its undermatched weldments. Uniaxial tension tests, Push-pull, strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted on base metal and weldments in the strain range of 0.2⁻1.2%. The monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves, stress-life, strain-life and energy-life in terms of these materials were analyzed for fatigue assessment of materials discrepancy. The stress-life results of base metal and undermatched weld metal exhibit cyclic softening behaviors. Furthermore, the shapes of 10CrNi3MoV steel hysteresis loops show a satisfactory Masing-type behavior, while the weld metal shows a non-Masing type behavior. Strain, plastic and total strain energy density amplitudes against the number of reversals to failure results demonstrate that the undermatched weld metal presents a higher resistance to fatigue crack initiation than 10CrNi3MoV high strength steel. Finally, fatigue fracture surfaces of specimens were compared by scanning electron microscopy to identify the differences of crack initiation and the propagation between them.

  16. Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 10CrNi3MoV High Strength Steel and Its Undermatched Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of high strength steel allows the design of lighter, more slender and simpler structures due to high strength and favorable ductility. Nevertheless, the increase of yield strength does not guarantee the corresponding improvement of fatigue resistance, which becomes a major concern for engineering structure design, especially for the welded joints. The paper presents a comparison of the low cycle fatigue behaviors between 10CrNi3MoV high strength steel and its undermatched weldments. Uniaxial tension tests, Push-pull, strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted on base metal and weldments in the strain range of 0.2–1.2%. The monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves, stress-life, strain-life and energy-life in terms of these materials were analyzed for fatigue assessment of materials discrepancy. The stress-life results of base metal and undermatched weld metal exhibit cyclic softening behaviors. Furthermore, the shapes of 10CrNi3MoV steel hysteresis loops show a satisfactory Masing-type behavior, while the weld metal shows a non-Masing type behavior. Strain, plastic and total strain energy density amplitudes against the number of reversals to failure results demonstrate that the undermatched weld metal presents a higher resistance to fatigue crack initiation than 10CrNi3MoV high strength steel. Finally, fatigue fracture surfaces of specimens were compared by scanning electron microscopy to identify the differences of crack initiation and the propagation between them.

  17. Effect of load ratio and saltwater corrosive environment on the initiation life of fatigue of 10Ni5CrMoV steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Yi, Hong; Xu, Jian; Gen, Liming; Chen, Luyun

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue initiation life has been studied with 10CrNi5MoV steel for use in ocean engineering at different load ratios and in different environmental media. The microstructure and micro-topography have been observed and analyzed by means of SEM, EDS and EBSD. Our findings indicate that, the initiation life of 10Ni5CrMoV steel in seawater is shorter than that in air, and the difference in longevity is larger with the increasing of load ratio. Corrosion pits had a great influence on initial corrosion fatigue life.

  18. The entire mean stress relaxation effects of 0Cr18Ni10Ti piping steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bing; Zhao Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the mean stress relaxation effects of the Chinese new piping material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti steel. Six sets of specimens are respectively fatigued under a strain-controlled mode with the six straining ratios (R ε ) of -1, -0.52, -0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48 by an improved test method implied with an maximum likelihood statistical principle. The test results reveal that the material exhibits a Masing behaviour and, surprisingly, involves an entire mean stress relaxation. A challenge is then emerging to the traditional same treat of straining ratio and stressing ratio (R σ ) in fatigue analysis and assessment. There is still no effective method to describe this kind of relaxation. However the R ε effects can represent the relaxation effects appropriately by investigation on the material random cyclic stress-strain (σ-ε) relations and strain-life (ε-N) relations with different R ε . The intrinsic randomness of the responses is taken into account on a probabilistic sense. Significant differences are observed of the material cyclic responses under different R ε . For σ-ε relations, the R ε effects act as a decreasing trend to the stress amplitudes with the increasing survival probability and confidence. The strongest effect appears at R ε of 0.029, and a weaker one acts as R ε is far away from zero. For ε-N relations, R ε greater than zero exhibits a positive effect on the fatigue lives of about 1.3 to 1.6 times under a survival probability of 0.999 and a confidence of 95%, while a negative effect is exhibited in case of R ε less than zero. Present work indicates that systematic researches should be made to give a reasonable fatigue prediction in service on a basis of cyclic strain inspection of structures. (authors)

  19. Attempts to improve the fatigue characteristics of the austenitic steel X5CrNi18-10 in the temperature range of 25-600 C by mechanical boundary layer hardening; Zur Verbesserung des Ermuedungsverhaltens des austenitischen Stahls X5CrNi18-10 im Temperaturbereich 25-600 C durch mechanische Randschichtverfestigungsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Ivan

    2007-01-31

    Pieces of the austenitic steel X5CrNi18-10 whose boundary layers had been hardened by different methods were investigated with a view to their fatigue deformation characteristics in the temperature range of 25-600 degC. Parallel to this, microstructural and X-ray analyses provided deeper understanding of fatigue deformation. The microstructure was characterized, among others, by TEM. Boundary layers were solidified by rolling, by a combination of mechanical and thermal processes, by high-temperature rolling, and by laser shock solidification. The analyses focused on microstructural processes and on the intrinsic stress stability and provided important information on the fabrication of structural components with optimised life. (orig.)

  20. Fatigue resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumchenkov, N.E.; Filimonova, O.V.; Borisov, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of additional alloying (Ni, Ni+Co), stress concentration, surface plastic strain on fatigue resistance of rotor steel of Cr-Ni-Mo-V-composition. It is shown that the steel with decreased carbon content possesses high complex of mechanical properties. Fatigue characteristics are not inferior to similar characteristics of steels of 25KhN3MFA type. Additional alloying of the steel containing 0.11...0.17% C and 4.5...4.7% N:, with niobium separately or niobium and cobalt in combination enabled to improve fatigue resistance of samles up to 25%. Strengthening of stress concentration zones by surface plastic strain is recommended for improving rotor suppporting 'nower under cyclic loading

  1. PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON THE MACHINED SURFACE OF STEEL Cr20Ni10MoTi AT DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Jurko

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about material machinability is very important for the machining technology. Precise and reliable information on the machinability of a material before it enters the machining process is a necessity, and this brings the verification of technological methods in practice. This article presents the conclusions of machinability tests on austenitic stainless steel according to EN-EU (ISO: steel Cr20Ni10MoTi. This article presents the conclusions of VEGA grant agency at the Ministry of Education SR for supporting research work and co-financing the projects: Grant work #01/3173/2006 with the title „Experimental investigation of cutting zones in drilled and milled stainless steels

  2. Influence of damage rate on physical and mechanical properties and swelling of 18Cr-9Ni austenitic steel in the range of 3.10-9 to 4.10-8 dpa/sec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, E.N.; Kozlov, A.V.; Yagovitin, R.I.; Evseev, M.V.; Kinev, E.A.; Isobe, Y.; Sagisaka, M.; Okita, T.; Sekimura, N.; Garner, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Whereas most data on radiation-induced changes in mechanical properties or dimensional stability needed for fusion - relevant dpa levels and dpa rates are generated at relatively high neutron flux in fast reactors, many fusion and fission components will operate at much lower dpa rates. Much less data are available from long-lived structural components operating at very low flux levels. In addition most published data were generated from relatively thin specimens (∼1-2 mm or less), while some actual fusion structural components can be on the order of 1-2 cm thick. In this study we have examined a 9 cm diameter pipe constructed from Fe-18Cr-9Ni steel analogous to AISI 304 that stayed outside the core of BN-600 for 22 years. The walls of the pipe were 2 cm thick and experienced temperatures in the range 370-375 deg. C. The walls were sectioned into 5 slices at a number of positions to yield doses in the range 1.5 to 22 dpa at 3 x 10 -9 to 4 x 10 -8 dpa/s. Changes in elastic moduli were studied using an ultrasonic technique and changes in electrical resistivity and mechanical properties of the 18Cr9Ni austenitic steel was examined. Swelling was measured both by immersion density and electron microscopy, reaching a maximum of ∼3 %. Swelling appears to be accelerated somewhat at these lower dpa rates as observed in other recent studies. Tensile properties were also measured. Radiation-induced changes of electrical resistivity, Young's and shear moduli were observed but did not agree fully with predictions based on voids alone. Strong contributions from second phase precipitates were found to be contributing to changes in both physical and mechanical properties. (authors)

  3. Influence of ion implanted helium on deuterium trapping in Kh18N10T stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstolutskaya, G.D.; Ruzhitskij, V.V.; Kopanets, I.E.

    2004-01-01

    The results are presented on evolution of distribution profiles and helium and deuterium thermal desorption ion implanted in steel 18Cr10NiTi. Accumulation, trapping, retention and microstructure evolution are studied; effect helium and hydrogen simultaneous implantation on these processes is also studied

  4. Dissipation and accumulation of energy during plastic deformation of Armco -iron and 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel irradiated by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toktogulova, D.; Maksimkin, O.; Gusev, M.; Garner, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Much attention is currently being paid in the fusion materials community to modeling of radiation damage and its consequences in structural alloys on mechanical properties. Such activities are best guided with experimental data on the fundamental microstructural and thermodynamic processes involved. This report addresses such fundamental concerns. During plastic deformation of metals some fraction of the externally-applied mechanical energy is converted into heat and is partially accumulated in the form of crystal lattice defects. The thermal release arises from gliding dislocations, their various interactions, their annihilation etc. With respect to irradiated material, one might expect additional heat release caused by interactions of dislocation and radiation-induced defects. To explore this possibility flat mini-tensile specimens of Armco-iron and 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel, both in the annealed condition, were irradiated in the range 2x10 18 to 1.3x10 20 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV) in the WWR-K reactor at T≤350 K. Mechanical tests of both irradiated and non-irradiated specimens were conducted at room temperature in a facility that was a combination of a Calvet calorimeter and a micro-tensile device. This allows simultaneous measurement of mechanical properties and thermodynamic parameters such as deformation work, dissipated heat and latent energy during deformation. The authors derived the kinetics of changes in thermodynamic characteristics versus the deformation level. As the neutron fluence rises, the material's capability to accumulate energy appears to be declining. For example, 12Cr18Ni10Ti irradiated to 1.3x10 20 n/cm 2 did not show any energy accumulation under deformation. In Armco-iron at 1.4x10 19 n/cm 2 the heat release considerably exceeded the deformation work value. The authors assume that such effects might be related with annihilation of point defects and their complexes introduced during irradiation. To test this

  5. The characteristics of precipitates in 18% Cr/30% Ni cast steel with additions of Nb and Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarski, B.

    1995-01-01

    The microstructure of austenitic cast steel with approx. 0.3%C, 4.37%Si, 0.69%Mn, 17.8%Cr, 29.3%Ni, 1.47%Nb and 1.07%Ti have been examined after ageing at 900 C for 300 h. There was found five precipitates: M 23 C 6 , MnS, Ni 3 Fe, (Ti,Nb)C and an intermetallic Ni-Nb-S phase. Ni, Nb, Si-rich precipitate could have been formed in as cast condition. (author)

  6. The Phase Transformations in Hypoeutectoid Steels Mn-Cr-Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RoŻniata E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a microstructure and hardness investigations of the hypoeutectoid steels Mn-Cr-Ni, imitating by its chemical composition toughening steels, are presented in the paper. The analysis of the kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite of steels containing different amounts of alloying elements in their chemical composition, constitutes the aim of investigations.

  7. Microstructural Characterization of Clad Interface in Welds of Ni-Cr-Mo High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong-Eun; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Keong-Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Hyoung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hee [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, in which Ni and Cr contents are higher than in commercial SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels, may be a candidate reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material with higher strength and toughness from its tempered martensitic microstructure. The inner surface of the RPV is weld-cladded with stainless steels to prevent corrosion. The goal of this study is to evaluate the microstructural properties of the clad interface between Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel and stainless weldment, and the effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the properties. The properties of the clad interface were compared with those of commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. Multi-layer welding of model alloys with ER308L and ER309L stainless steel by the SAW method was performed, and then PWHT was conducted at 610°C for 30 h. The microstructural changes of the clad interface were analyzed using OM, SEM and TEM, and micro-Vickers hardness tests were performed. Before PWHT, the heat affected zone (HAZ) showed higher hardness than base and weld metals due to formation of martensite after welding in both steels. In addition, the hardness of the HAZ in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel was higher than that in Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel due to a comparatively high martensite fraction. The hardness of the HAZ decreased after PWHT in both steels, but the dark region was formed near the fusion line in which the hardness was locally high. In the case of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, formation of fine Cr-carbides in the weld region near the fusion line by diffusion of C from the base metal resulted in locally high hardness in the dark region. However, the precipitates of the region in the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were similar to that in the base metal, and the hardness in the region was not greatly different from that in the base metal.

  8. Microstructural Characterization of Clad Interface in Welds of Ni-Cr-Mo High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong-Eun; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Keong-Ho; Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2011-01-01

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, in which Ni and Cr contents are higher than in commercial SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels, may be a candidate reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material with higher strength and toughness from its tempered martensitic microstructure. The inner surface of the RPV is weld-cladded with stainless steels to prevent corrosion. The goal of this study is to evaluate the microstructural properties of the clad interface between Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel and stainless weldment, and the effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the properties. The properties of the clad interface were compared with those of commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. Multi-layer welding of model alloys with ER308L and ER309L stainless steel by the SAW method was performed, and then PWHT was conducted at 610°C for 30 h. The microstructural changes of the clad interface were analyzed using OM, SEM and TEM, and micro-Vickers hardness tests were performed. Before PWHT, the heat affected zone (HAZ) showed higher hardness than base and weld metals due to formation of martensite after welding in both steels. In addition, the hardness of the HAZ in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel was higher than that in Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel due to a comparatively high martensite fraction. The hardness of the HAZ decreased after PWHT in both steels, but the dark region was formed near the fusion line in which the hardness was locally high. In the case of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, formation of fine Cr-carbides in the weld region near the fusion line by diffusion of C from the base metal resulted in locally high hardness in the dark region. However, the precipitates of the region in the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were similar to that in the base metal, and the hardness in the region was not greatly different from that in the base metal.

  9. Optimizing Heat Treatment Process of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni Martensitic Stainless of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. S.; Prifiharni, S.; Mabruri, E.

    2017-05-01

    The Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels are modified into martensitic stainless steels for steam turbine blades application. The working temperature of steam turbine was around 600 - 700 °C. The improvement properties of turbine blade material is necessary to maintain steam turbine work. The previous research revealed that it has corrosion resistance of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni which is better than 13Cr stainless steels in the chloride environment. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels has been studied. The steel was prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging. The steels were austenitized at 1000, 1050, and 1100 °C for 1 hour and were tempered at 600, 650, and 700 °C for 1 hour. The steels were then subjected to metallographic observation and hardness test of Rockwell C. The optimal heat treatment of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni was carried out austenitized in 1050 °C and tempered in 600 - 700 °C.

  10. Mechanical properties of steel 8 CrMoNiNb 9 10 in dependence on the microstructural condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabritius, H.; Schnabel, E.

    1976-01-01

    Tension tests at room temperature to 600 0 C and creep-rupture tests at 500 to 600 0 C lasting up to about 75,000 h on two casts of steel 8 CrMoNiNb 9 10 with about 0.08% C, 0.3% Si, 0.7% Mn, 0.012% N, 0.005% Al, 2.34% Cr, 0.95% Mo, 0.8% Nb and 0.64% Ni in bainitic and ferritic microstructural condition. Influence of annealing at 650 to 800 0 C on the properties in the tension test. Influence of aging at 500 to 600 0 C lasting up to 30,000 h with and without mechanical stress on the properties in the tension test at aging temperature and on the toughness behaviour in the notched bar impact bend test at room temperature. (orig.) [de

  11. Development of improved HP/IP rotor material 2% CrMoNiWV (23 CrMoNiWV 88)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemann, W.

    1989-01-01

    The new 2% CrMoNiWV steel has a sufficient strength level, a very good creep (rupture) behaviour and an excellent toughness behaviour for a creep resistant steel. Even after long time high temperature exposure the toughness degradation is so small that it is still better than this of best 1% CrMo(Ni)V steels. The fatigue behaviour is well comparable to this of 1% CrMo(Ni)V. The 2% CrMoNiWV steel has the capability to substitute the traditional 1% CrMo(Ni)V. (orig.) With 26 annexes

  12. Effect of heat treatment on workability of Cr-Ni-Mo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcal, J.; Macek, K.

    1988-01-01

    The workability was studied of the new development generation of hardenable martensite Cr-Ni-Mo steels of the 10-10-2 and 6-11-3 types whose application is envisaged in future in nuclear engineering. Attention is paid to identification of inclusions and the phase analysis ofthe structure with respect to heat treatment and steel type. Face milling was used in the test of workability. In addition, tensile strength and impact bending strength testing was performed. The results showed that steel of the 6-11-3 type in the quenched condition was best workable. However, this steel showed a significant reduction in workability when in the hardened condition. Reduced workability can also be presumed for type 10-10-2 steel in the hardened condition when life is considered. Microstructure changes leading to softening of steel by aging had a favourable effect on workability, especially in steels of the 10-10-2 type. Hardened steels of the 6-11-3 type are recommended to be re-quenched. (Z.M.). 7 figs., 3 tabs., 9 refs

  13. Corrosion resistance of stainless steels and high Ni-Cr alloys to acid fluoride wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Mackey, D.B.; Pool, K.H.; Schwenk, E.B.

    1992-04-01

    TRUEX processing of Hanford Site waste will utilize potentially corrosive acid fluoride processing solutions. Appropriate construction materials for such a processing facility need to be identified. Toward this objective, candidate stainless steels and high Ni-Cr alloys have been corrosion tested in simulated acid fluoride process solutions at 333K. The high Ni-Cr alloys exhibited corrosion rates as low as 0.14 mm/y in a solution with an HF activity of about 1.2 M, much lower than the 19 to 94 mm/y observed for austenitic stainless steels. At a lower HF activity (about 0.008 M), stainless steels display delayed passivation while high Ni-Cr alloys display essentially no reaction

  14. Effect of cloric acid concentration on corrosion behavior of Ni/Cr coated on carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiati, Resetiana Dwi; Sugiarti, Eni; Thosin, K. A. Zaini

    2018-05-01

    Corrosion is one of the causes of metal degradation. Carbon steel (Fe) is easy to corrode in the extreme environment. Coating on carbon steel is required to improve corrosion resistance owing to protection or hindrance to extreme environmental conditions. In this present work, carbon steel was coated by electroplating techniques for nickel and pack cementation for chrome. The corrosion rate test was performed by Weight Loss method on FeNiCr, FeNi, FeCr and uncoated Fe as comparator which was dyed in 37% HCl and 25% HCl which had previously been measured dimension and mass. The immersion test result of FeNiCr and FeNi specimen were better than FeCr and uncoated Fe in terms of increasing corrosion resistance. The corrosion rate for 56 hours in 37% HCl for FeNiCr was 1.592 mm/y and FeNi was 3.208 mm/y, FeCr only lasted within 32 hours with corrosion rate was 6.494 mm/y. Surface of the sample after the corrosion test there was pitting, crevice corrosion and alloy cracking caused by chloride. The higher the concentration of HCl the faster the corrosion rate.

  15. Determination of chemical activities of Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn in stainless steel 316 by Knudsen effusion cell mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.; Kulkarni, S.G.; Subbanna, C.S.; Sood, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Cold-worked austenitic stainless steel of the type AISI 316 is being used as the cladding and wrapper materials in fast reactor fuel pins. Knowledge of the thermodynamic activities of the steel constituents is necessary to predict the possibility of fuel-cladding, coolant-cladding or fission product-cladding chemical reactions. The thermodynamic activities of Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn for stainless steel 316 were determined by measuring their partial pressures in the temperature range 1293-2120 K, using Knudsen effusion cell mass spectrometry. High purity Ag was used as an internal calibrant. The chemical activities of Fe (a Fe ), Cr (a Cr ), Ni (a Ni ) and Mn (a Mn ) were evaluated using literature data for the vapour pressures of pure metals. log a Fe ±0.18=-1.586+2074/T (T=1293-1872 K)log a Cr ±0.30=-2.350+2612/T (T=1293-2120 K)log a Ni ±0.20=-2.140+1794/T (T=1468-1974 K)log a Mn ±0.23=-2.041-5478/T (T=1302-1894 K) ((orig.))

  16. Mean strain effects on the random cyclic strain-life relations of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the mean strain effects on the random cyclic strain-life relations of the new nuclear material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel. In order to save costs of specimens and tests, an improved maximum likelihood fatigue test method is applied to manage the present strain-controlled fatigue tests. Six straining ratios, respectively, -1, -0.52, 0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48, are applied to study the effects. Total 104 specimens are fatigued. Since the material exhibits an entirely relaxation effect of mean stress under the six ratios and, in addition, there is no effectively method for the description of the mean straining effects under this case, previous Zhao's random strain-life relations are therefore applied for effective characterization of the scattering test data under the six ratios on a basis of Coffin-Manson equation.Then the effects of the ratios are analyzed respectively on the average fatigue lives, the standard deviations of the logarithms of fatigue lives, and the fatigue lives under different survival probabilities and confidences. The results reveal that the ratios greater than zero exhibit a positive effect of about 1.3 to 1.6 times under the survival probability of 0.999 and the confidence of 95%. A negative effect is exhibited for the case of the ratios less than zero. In addition, the assessment of the effects from the sense of average fatigue lives might result in a wrong conclusion for the practice of higher reliabilities. The effects can be appropriately assessed from a probabilistic sense to take into account the average lives, the scattering regularity of test data, and the size of sampling. (author)

  17. Interface bonding of NiCrAlY coating on laser modified H13 tool steel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M. S.; Aqida, S. N.; Ismail, I.

    2016-06-01

    Bonding strength of thermal spray coatings depends on the interfacial adhesion between bond coat and substrate material. In this paper, NiCrAlY (Ni-164/211 Ni22 %Cr10 %Al1.0 %Y) coatings were developed on laser modified H13 tool steel surface using atmospheric plasma spray (APS). Different laser peak power, P p, and duty cycle, DC, were investigated in order to improve the mechanical properties of H13 tool steel surface. The APS spraying parameters setting for coatings were set constant. The coating microstructure near the interface was analyzed using IM7000 inverted optical microscope. Interface bonding of NiCrAlY was investigated by interfacial indentation test (IIT) method using MMT-X7 Matsuzawa Hardness Tester Machine with Vickers indenter. Diffusion of atoms along NiCrAlY coating, laser modified and substrate layers was investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) using Hitachi Tabletop Microscope TM3030 Plus. Based on IIT method results, average interfacial toughness, K avg, for reference sample was 2.15 MPa m1/2 compared to sample L1 range of K avg from 6.02 to 6.96 MPa m1/2 and sample L2 range of K avg from 2.47 to 3.46 MPa m1/2. Hence, according to K avg, sample L1 has the highest interface bonding and is being laser modified at lower laser peak power, P p, and higher duty cycle, DC, prior to coating. The EDXS analysis indicated the presence of Fe in the NiCrAlY coating layer and increased Ni and Cr composition in the laser modified layer. Atomic diffusion occurred in both coating and laser modified layers involved in Fe, Ni and Cr elements. These findings introduce enhancement of coating system by substrate surface modification to allow atomic diffusion.

  18. The Effect of Si and Mn on Microstructure and Selected Properties of Cr-Ni Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandyk B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cast stainless steel of the Cr-Ni duplex type is used, among others, for the cast parts of pumps and valves handling various chemically aggressive media. Therefore, the main problem discussed in this article is the problem of abrasion wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water and resistance to electrochemical corrosion in a 3% NaCl-H2O solution of selected cast steel grades, i.e. typical duplex cast steel, high silicon and manganese duplex cast steel, and Cr-Ni austenitic cast steel (type AISI 316L. The study shows that the best abrasion wear resistance comparable to Ni-Hart cast iron was obtained in the cast duplex steel, where Ni was partially replaced with Mn and N. This cast steel was also characterized by the highest hardness and matrix microhardness among all the tested cast steel grades. The best resistance to electrochemical corrosion in 3% NaCl-H2O solution showed the cast duplex steel with high content of Cr, Mo and N. The addition of Ni plays rather insignificant role in the improvement of corrosion resistance of the materials tested.

  19. Formability of high-alloy dual-phase Cr-Ni steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfmark, J.

    2004-01-01

    The formability of dual-phase high-alloy Cr-Ni steel within the temperature range from 900 to 1250 C was studied using laboratory tensile and torsion tests. The dual-phase steels on 24% Cr basis are characterized by poor hot formability due to very low stable deformation values and slow recrystallization. Mathematical description of deformation stability exhaustion was derived, as well as a model of formability control based on analysis of the gradual diffuse deformation stability from the stability limit to the moment when the deformation starts to concentrate in a small volume of the test piece. Rolling simulation of dual-phase steel strip was used as an example demonstrating the draught scheme optimization technique which avoids the danger of crack occurrence during the rolling of dual-phase steel strip. (orig.)

  20. Chemical diffusion of Cr, Ni and Si in welded joints. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Ciha, K.

    1987-01-01

    The results are given of a study in chemical diffusion in welded joints P2/A and P3/A. P2 stands for the steel (Fe-17.48 Cr-8.15 Ni-0.14 Si), P3 for (Fe-18.52 Cr-8.20 Ni-1.78 Si) and A for the Fe-Arema. Triadic sandwiche-like samples were diffusion heated at temperatures from 920 to 1170 degC. The concentration distributions N(x,t) of the given elements were measured with microprobe JXA-3A. The evaluation of the experimental data was carried out either by Grube's method, or in some cases by the spline-polynomial method. The evaluated diffusivities D-bar satisfy the Arrhenius relation and yield the standard diffusion characteristics D 0 and H. The diffusivities D-bar of Cr, Ni and Si in P1/A, in P2/A and P3/A welded joints vary with Si content in P1, P2 and P3 alloys, similar to the Cr-51 and Ni-63 self-diffusivities in Fe-18 Cr-12 Ni-X Si steels, and tend to increase with increasing Si content. The values D-bar measured in the vicinity of grain boundaries are higher than the bulk diffusion coefficients. The most rapid diffusant is Si and the slowest one Ni. Thus, the relations D-bar Si :D-bar Cr :D-bar Ni ≅ 6:3:1 (P3/A) and D-bar Si :D-bar Cr :D-bar Ni ≅ 1.7:1.4:1 (P3/A) are valid at 1050 degC. Comparing the results with those published if can be noted that the Cr-51 and Ni-63 self-diffusion in Fe-18 Cr-12 Ni-X Si steels is faster than chemical diffusion of these elements in the said steel welded joints P2/A and P3/A; X varies from 0.14 to 1.98. (author). 7 tabs., 7 figs., 20 refs

  1. Gradient microstructure and microhardness in a nitrided 18CrNiMo7-6 gear steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R.; Wu, G. L.; Zhang, X.; Fu, W. T.; Huang, X.

    2017-07-01

    A commercial gear steel (18CrNiMo7-6) containing a tempered martensite structure was nitrided using a pressurized gas nitriding process under a pressure of 5 atm at 530 °C for 5 hours. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the nitrided sample were characterized by Vickers hardness measurements, X-ray diffraction, and backscatter electron imaging in a scanning electron microscope. A micro-hardness gradient was identified over a distance of 500 μm with hardness values of 900 HV at the top surface and 300 HV in the core. This micro-hardness gradient corresponds to a gradient in the microstructure that changes from a nitride compound layer at the top surface (∼ 20 μm thick) to a diffusion zone with a decreasing nitrogen concentration and precipitate density with distance from the surface, finally reaching the core matrix layer with a recovered martensite structure.

  2. Spectroscopic characterisation of iodine deposits on 18%Cr/8%Ni and mild steel surfaces oxidised in CO2/CH3I gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, J.W.

    1987-08-01

    An understanding and quantification of iodine-131 attenuation within the gas circuit of a Commercial Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor is required for reactor safety assessments. To this end it is desirable to identify the chemical state of iodine in the gas phase or when deposited on reactor surfaces. Samples of 18%Cr/8%Ni and mild steel pipe, with iodine deposited on their surfaces following oxidation in CO 2 /CH 3 I gas mixtures, have been characterised in the present work using a variety of different spectroscopic techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning Auger microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The chemical nature of the deposited iodine has been determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to be a metal iodide by correlating I 3d binding energies with those obtained from well characterised standards; the binding energies of the ejected I 3d photoelectrons being sensitive to the chemical environment experienced by the iodine atoms. The distribution of iodine throughout the oxide layers formed on these steels was determined by repeated cycles of argon-ion bombardment and analysis to build up an elemental depth profile whilst at the same time determining the chemical state of the elements present. Differences in oxide composition and morphology are discussed in relation to the deposition behaviour observed on 18%Cr/8%Ni and mild steel and it is suggested that gradual incorporation of the iodine occurs throughout the oxidation/deposition period. (U.K.)

  3. Microstructural defect evolution in neutron – Irradiated 12Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel during subsequent isochronous annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsay, K.V.; Maksimkin, O.P.; Turubarova, L.G.; Rofman, O.V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics NNC RK, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Garner, F.A., E-mail: frank.garner@dslextreme.com [Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements were used to examine changes in microstructure and associated strengthening induced in austenitic stainless steel 12Cr18Ni9Ti irradiated to ∼0.001 and ∼5 dpa in the WWR-K reactor before and after being subjected to post-irradiation isochronal annealing. The relatively low values of irradiation temperature and dpa rate (∼80 °C and ∼1.2 × 10{sup −8} dpa/s) experienced by this steel allowed characterization of defect microstructures over a wide range of defect ensembles, all at constant composition, produced first by irradiation and then by annealing at temperatures between 450 and 1050 °C. It was shown that the dispersed barrier hardening model with commonly accepted physical properties successfully predicted the observed hardening. It was also observed that when TiC precipitates form at higher annealing temperatures, the alloy does not change in hardness, reflecting a balance between precipitate-hardening and matrix-softening due to removal of solute-strengthening elements titanium and carbon. Such matrix-softening is not often considered in other studies, especially where the contribution of precipitates to hardening is a second-order effect.

  4. Microstructural defect evolution in neutron – Irradiated 12Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel during subsequent isochronous annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, K.V.; Maksimkin, O.P.; Turubarova, L.G.; Rofman, O.V.; Garner, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements were used to examine changes in microstructure and associated strengthening induced in austenitic stainless steel 12Cr18Ni9Ti irradiated to ∼0.001 and ∼5 dpa in the WWR-K reactor before and after being subjected to post-irradiation isochronal annealing. The relatively low values of irradiation temperature and dpa rate (∼80 °C and ∼1.2 × 10 −8 dpa/s) experienced by this steel allowed characterization of defect microstructures over a wide range of defect ensembles, all at constant composition, produced first by irradiation and then by annealing at temperatures between 450 and 1050 °C. It was shown that the dispersed barrier hardening model with commonly accepted physical properties successfully predicted the observed hardening. It was also observed that when TiC precipitates form at higher annealing temperatures, the alloy does not change in hardness, reflecting a balance between precipitate-hardening and matrix-softening due to removal of solute-strengthening elements titanium and carbon. Such matrix-softening is not often considered in other studies, especially where the contribution of precipitates to hardening is a second-order effect

  5. Fatigue damage evolution of cold-worked austenitic nickel-free high-nitrogen steel X13CrMnMoN18-14-3 (1.4452)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhovskiy, I.; Weiss, S.; Fischer, A. [Univ. of Duisburg-Essen, Materials Science and Engineering II, Duisburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the fact that the risk of Ni-allergies becomes more and more important for modern therapies, the necessity of Ni-free implant materials becomes increasingly important. Beside Co- and Ti-base alloys Ni-free high-nitrogen steels may offer an attractive alternative. The present work presents the austenitic high-nitrogen and nickel-free steel X13CrMnMoN18-14-3, (Material No.: 1.4452) after 20% cold-working. In addition this material was deformed under axial cyclic total strain controlled fatigue tests at room temperature. The development of dislocation structure due to different loading amplitudes was compared to none cyclically deformed material. The good mechanical und fatigue properties of these austenitic high-nitrogen steels as well as the better tribological, chemical and biological properties compared to CrNiMo-steels qualify these steels as a promising alternative in medical applications. (orig.)

  6. A Weakest-Link Approach for Fatigue Limit of 30CrNiMo8 Steels (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    34Application of a Weakest-Link Concept to the Fatigue Limit of the Bearing Steel Sae 52100 in a Bainitic Condition," Fatigue and Fracture of...AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4206 A WEAKEST-LINK APPROACH FOR FATIGUE LIMIT OF 30CrNiMo8 STEELS (PREPRINT) S. Ekwaro-Osire and H.V. Kulkarni Texas...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A WEAKEST-LINK APPROACH FOR FATIGUE LIMIT OF 30CrNiMo8 STEELS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT

  7. Oxidation and thermal shock behavior of thermal barrier coated 18/10CrNi alloy with coating modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guergen, Selim [Vocational School of Transportation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Diltemiz, Seyid Fehmi [Turkish Air Force1st Air Supply and Maintenance Center Command, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Kushan, Melih Cemal [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, substrates of 18/10CrNi alloy plates were initially sprayed with a Ni-21Cr-10Al-1Y bond coat and then with an yttria stabilized zirconia top coat by plasma spraying. Subsequently, plasma-sprayed Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were treated with two different modification methods, namely, vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing. The effects of modifications on the oxidation and thermal shock behavior of the coatings were evaluated. The effect of coat thickness on the bond strength of the coats was also investigated. Results showed enhancement of the oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance of TBCs following modifications. Although vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing exhibited comparable results as per oxidation resistance, the former generated the best improvement in the thermal shock resistance of the TBCs. Bond strength also decreased as coat thickness increased.

  8. Effects of mean strain on the random cyclic stress-strain relations of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed for the effects of the mean strain on the random cyclic stress-strain relations of the new nuclear material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel. From saving the size of specimens, an improved maximum likelihood fatigue test method is proposed to operate the present strain-controlled fatigue tests. Six straining ratios, -1, -0.52, -0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, are applied to study the effects. Fatigue test has been carried out on totally 104 specimens. The test results reveal that the material exhibits a Masing behaviour and the saturation hysteresis loops under the six ratios hold an entirely relaxation effect of mean stress. There is no effectively method for the description of the mean straining effects under this case. Previous Zhao's random stress-strain relations are therefore applied to characterizing effectively the scattering test data under the six ratios on a basis of Ramberg-Osgood equation. Then the effects of the ratios are analyzed respectively on the average stress amplitudes, the standard deviations of the stress amplitudes, and the stress amplitudes under different survival probabilities and confidences. The results reveal that the ratios act a relatively decreasing effect to the stress amplitudes under higher survival probabilities and confidences. The strongest effect appears at the ratio of 0.029, and a weaker effect acts as the distance increase of the ratio from the zero. In addition, it is indicated that the effects from the sense of average fatigue lives might result in a wrong conclusion. The effects can be appropriately assessed from a probabilistic sense to take into account the scattering regularity of test data and the size of sampling. (author)

  9. A New Method to Produce Ni-Cr Ferroalloy Used for Stainless Steel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Xian; Chu, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Guo-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A new electrosilicothermic method has been proposed in the present paper to produce Ni-Cr ferroalloy, which can be used for the production of 300 series stainless steel. Based on this new process, the Ni-Si ferroalloy is first produced as the intermediate alloy, and then the desiliconization process of Ni-Si ferroalloy melt with chromium concentrate is carried out to generate Ni-Cr ferroalloy. The silicon content in the Ni-Si ferroalloy produced in the submerged arc furnace should be more than 15 mass% (for the propose of reducing dephosphorization), in order to make sure the phosphorus content in the subsequently produced Ni-Cr ferroalloy is less than 0.03 mass%. A high utilization ratio of Si and a high recovery ratio of Cr can be obtained after the desiliconization reaction between Ni-Si ferroalloy and chromium concentrate in the electric arc furnace (EAF)-shaking ladle (SL) process.

  10. Welding of heterogeneous 12Kh2MFSR steels with the Mn-Cr-Si-Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.N.; Belogolov, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    The process of welding pipes of the 12Kh2MFSR pearlitic steels and austenitic steels of the Mn-Cr-Si-Ni system was studied. The filler materials were selected, and the working capacity of welded joints was examined in ageing and cyclic heatings. The microhardness of steels was measured, and the ultimate strength of welded joints was determined. The following has been established: the composite joints of steels of the Mn-Cr-Si-Ni system and 12Kh2MFSR steel are advisable to be welded on a coating layer welded by the EhA395/9 electrodes on the surface of a pipe of the 12Kh2MFSR pearlitic steel; this guarantees the sufficient working capacity of welded joints

  11. Effect of shot peening on the residual stress and mechanical behaviour of low-temperature and high-temperature annealed martensitic gear steel 18CrNiMo7-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, R.; Zhang, X.; Mallipeddi, D.

    2017-01-01

    A martensitic gear steel (18CrNiMo7-6) was annealed at 180 degrees C for 2h and at similar to 750 degrees C for 1h to design two different starting microstructures for shot peening. One maintains the original as-transformed martensite while the other contains irregular-shaped sorbite together...... with ferrite. These two materials were shot peened using two different peening conditions. The softer sorbite + ferrite microstructure was shot peened using 0.6 mm conditioned cut steel shots at an average speed of 25 m/s in a conventional shot peening machine, while the harder tempered martensite steel...

  12. Phase transformation and grain growth behavior of a nanocrystalline 18/8 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotan, Hasan, E-mail: hasankotan@gmail.com [Konya Necmettin Erbakan University, Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Konya 42090 (Turkey); Darling, Kris A. [US Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, RDRL-WMM-F, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States)

    2017-02-16

    Fe-18Cr-8Ni and Fe-18Cr-8Ni-1Y (at%) stainless steel powders were nanostructured by mechanical alloying from elemental powders and subjected to 90 min annealing treatments at various temperatures. The microstructural evolutions as a function of alloy compositions and temperatures were investigated by in-situ and ex-situ x-ray diffraction experiments, transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam microscopy. The dependence of hardness on the microstructure was utilized to study the mechanical changes. It was found that the resulting microstructures by mechanical alloying were bcc solid solution, the so-called α’-martensite structure. The high temperature in-situ x-ray diffraction experiments showed that the martensite-to-austenite reverse phase transformation was completed above 800 and 900 °C for Fe-18Cr-8Ni and Fe-18Cr-8Ni-1Y steels, respectively. A partial or complete retransformation to martensite was observed upon cooling to room temperature. Annealing of nanocrystalline Fe-18Cr-8Ni steel yielded grain growth reaching to micron sizes at 1100 °C while addition of 1 at% yttrium stabilized the microstructure around 160 nm grain size and 6 GPa hardness after 90 min annealing at 1200 °C.

  13. Mechanical and fatigue properties of martensitic 20X13 and austenitic 12X18H10T at interaction with lead nad lead-bismuth melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yas'kiv, O.I.; Fedirko, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Pb and Pb-Bi melts on mechanical properties and fatigue of Fe-13Cr and Fe-18Cr-10Ni-Ti steels in temperature interval 250...750 deg C has been investigated. It was shown that metal melts lead to increasing of strength of Fe-13Cr steel on 10...20 % as compared with vacuum and this effect increases with temperature rising. Fe-13Cr steel is prone to liquid metal embrittlement in temperature interval 350...450 deg C, particularly in Pb-Bi melt. Mechanical properties of Fe-18Cr-10Ni-Ti are not affected by metal melts. Both Pb and Pb-Bi assist in reducing of fatigue life of steels and this effect is more significant in Pb-Bi

  14. Austenite Formation from Martensite in a 13Cr6Ni2Mo Supermartensitic Stainless Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojack, A.; Zhao, L.; Morris, P.F.; Sietsma, J.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of austenitization treatment of a 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel (X2CrNiMoV13-5-2) on austenite formation during reheating and on the fraction of austenite retained after tempering treatment is measured and analyzed. The results show the formation of austenite in two

  15. Characteristics of Ni-Cr-Fe laser clad layers on EA4T steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjing; Chen, Hui; Wang, Yongjing; Li, Congchen; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-07-01

    The Ni-Cr-Fe metal powder was deposited on EA4T steel by laser cladding technology. The microstructure and chemical composition of the cladding layer were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The bonding ability between the cladding layer and the matrix was measured. The results showed that the bonding between the cladding layer and the EA4T steel was metallurgical bonding. The microstructure of cladding layer was composed of planar crystals, columnar crystals and dendrite, which consisted of Cr2Ni3, γ phase, M23C6 and Ni3B phases. When the powder feeding speed reached 4 g/min, the upper bainite occurred in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Moreover, the tensile strength of the joint increased, while the yield strength and the ductility decreased.

  16. TEM Studies of Boron-Modified 17Cr-7Ni Precipitation-Hardenable Stainless Steel via Rapid Solidification Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Bhargava, A. K.; Tewari, R.; Tiwari, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Commercial grade 17Cr-7Ni precipitation-hardenable stainless steel has been modified by adding boron in the range 0.45 to 1.8 wt pct and using the chill block melt-spinning technique of rapid solidification (RS). Application of RS has been found to increase the solid solubility of boron and hardness of 17Cr-7Ni precipitation-hardenable stainless steel. The hardness of the boron-modified rapidly solidified alloys has been found to increase up to ~280 pct after isochronal aging to peak hardness. A TEM study has been carried out to understand the aging behavior. The presence of M23(B,C)6 and M2(B,C) borocarbides and epsilon-carbide in the matrix of austenite and ferrite with a change in heat treatment temperature has been observed. A new equation for Creq is also developed which includes the boron factor on ferrite phase stability. The study also emphasizes that aluminum only takes part in ferrite phase stabilization and remains in the solution.

  17. Changes of surface structure of Ni, W and chromium-nickel steel Cr18Ni10 irradiated by high fluences of krypton ions with high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Semina, V.K.; Khalil, A.; Suvorov, A.L.; Stepanov, A.Eh.; Cheblukov, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    The surfaces of W single crystal, Ni polycrystal and chromium-nickel steel, irradiated by Kr ions with energy 305 and 245 MeV up to the fluences 2*10 15 and 3*10 15 ion/cm 2 , were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. The evaporation coefficients of material surfaces were estimated on the base of changes of surface relief. The values of these coefficients turned out much more than ones predicted by the inelastic sputtering model. The method of 'step' was offered and realized for the more correct estimations evaporation coefficient on the Ni example. The phenomenological model explaining the observed phenomena is introduced

  18. Effect of laser absorption on picosecond laser ablation of Cr12MoV mold steel, 9Cr18 stainless steel and H13A cemented carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baoye; Liu, Peng; Wang, Xizhao; Zhang, Fei; Deng, Leimin; Duan, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-05-01

    Due to excellent properties, Cr12MoV mold steel, 9Cr18 stainless steel and H13A cemented carbide are widely used in industry. In this paper, the effect of absorption of laser light on ablation efficiency and roughness have been studied using a picosecond pulse Nd:YVO4 laser. The experimental results reveal that laser wavelength, original surface roughness and chemical composition play an important role in controlling ablation efficiency and roughness. Firstly, higher ablation efficiency with lower surface roughness is achieved on the ablation of 9Cr18 at 532, comparing with 1064 nm. Secondly, the ablation efficiency increases while the Ra of the ablated region decreases with the decrease of original surface roughness on ablation of Cr12MoV mold steel at 532 nm. Thirdly, the ablation efficiency of H13A cemented carbide is much higher than 9Cr18 stainless steel and Cr12MoV mold steel at 1064 nm. Scanning electron microscopy images reveals the formation of pores on the surface of 9Cr18 stainless steel and Cr12MoV mold steel at 532 nm while no pores are formed at 1064 nm. As to H13A cemented carbide, worm-like structure is formed at 1064 nm. The synergetic effects of the heat accumulation, plasma shielding and ablation threshold on laser ablation efficiency and machining quality were analyzed and discussed systematically in this paper.

  19. Martensite shear phase reversion-induced nanograined/ultrafine-grained Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy: The effect of interstitial alloying elements and degree of austenite stability on phase reversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Madison Hall Room 217, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504-1430 (United States); Zhang, Z.; Venkatasurya, P.K.C. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Madison Hall Room 217, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504-1430 (United States); Somani, M.C.; Karjalainen, L.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, Oulu 90014 (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Development of a novel process involving phase-reversion annealing process. {yields} Austensite stability strongly influences development of nanograined structure. {yields} Interstitial elements influence microstructural evolution during annealing. - Abstract: We describe here an electron microscopy study of microstructural evolution associated with martensitic shear phase reversion-induced nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) structure in an experimental Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy with very low interstitial content. The primary objective is to understand and obtain fundamental insights on the influence of degree of austenite stability (Fe-16Cr-10Ni, 301LN, and 301 have different austenite stability index) and interstitial elements (carbon and nitrogen) in terms of phase reversion process, microstructural evolution during reversion annealing, and temperature-time annealing sequence. A relative comparison of Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy with 301LN and 301 austenitic stainless steels indicated that phase reversion in Fe-16Cr-10Ni occurred by shear mechanism, which is similar to that observed for 301, but is different from the diffusional mechanism in 301LN steel. While the phase reversion in the experimental Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy and 301 austenitic stainless steel occurred by shear mechanism, there were fundamental differences between these two alloys. The reversed strain-free austenite grains in Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy were characterized by nearly same crystallographic orientation, where as in 301 steel there was evidence of break-up of martensite laths during reversion annealing resulting in several regions of misoriented austenite grains in 301 steel. Furthermore, a higher phase reversion annealing temperature range (800-900 deg. C) was required to obtain a fully NG/UFG structure of grain size 200-600 nm. The difference in the phase reversion and the temperature-time sequence in the three stages is explained in terms of Gibbs free energy change that

  20. Effect of nitrogen alloying of stainless steels on their corrosion stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigal, V.; Knyazheva, V.M.; Pitter, Ya.; Babich, S.G.; Bogolyubskij, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    Results of corrosion tests and structural investigations of 03Cr18Ni10 and 03Cr18Ni10Mo3 steels without nitrogen and with nitrogen content of 0.15-0.3% are presented. Corrosion-electrochemical behaviour of Cr20Ni20 steel with ultralow carbon content (0.004-0.006%) and nitrogen content with 0-0.5% as well as Cr 2 N nitride behaviour are investigated. A conclusion is made on nitrogen and excessive nitride phase effect on corrosion stability of steel in corrosive media with different reduction-oxidation properties

  1. Hot Ductility Behaviors in the Weld Heat-Affected Zone of Nitrogen-Alloyed Fe-18Cr-10Mn Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joonoh; Lee, Tae-Ho; Hong, Hyun-Uk

    2015-04-01

    Hot ductility behaviors in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of nitrogen-alloyed Fe-18Cr-10Mn austenitic stainless steels with different nitrogen contents were evaluated through hot tension tests using Gleeble simulator. The results of Gleeble simulations indicated that hot ductility in the HAZs deteriorated due to the formation of δ-ferrite and intergranular Cr2N particles. In addition, the amount of hot ductility degradation was strongly affected by the fraction of δ-ferrite.

  2. Development of banded microstructure in 34CrNiMo6 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development of a banded microstructure in hot-rolled 34CrNiMo6 steel which consisted of bainitic and martensitic bands is explained. The chemical compositions of the bands were measured with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS, which showed that the martensitic bands contained more alloying elements (Mn, Cr, Mo, Si than bainitic bands. By using Oberhoffer reagent, the segregations of phosphorus were also revealed. These phosphorus segregations coincided with the positive segregations of the alloying elements. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams of steel were calculated. They confirmed the formation of martensite in positive segregations and the formation of bainite in negative segregations.

  3. Microstructure characterization in the weld joint of a high nickel austenitic alloy and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Na; Li, Yajiang; Wang, Juan [Shandong Univ., Jinan (CN). Key Lab. for Liquid - Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education)

    2012-06-15

    High nickel austenitic alloy, 6 mm thick, and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel with a thickness of 0.6 mm were joined by pulsed current tungsten inert gas arc welding without filler metal in this work. Metallographic examination, microhardness measurement and electron microprobe analysis were used to reveal microstructural characteristics in the joint. The results indicated that the weld metal consisted of {gamma}-austenite, {delta}-ferrite and carbides without the appearance of martensite. There were dendrite crystals at the edge of the weld metal near the high nickel austenitic alloy and isometric crystals in the center of the weld metal. The microhardness of the weld metal was the highest due to the existence of carbides and its finer structure. Graphite flakes were still embedded in the austenite matrix of the heat-affected zone without the formation of martensite. (orig.)

  4. Structure of Fe-Ni-Cr steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratukhin, A.G.; Maslenkov, S.B.; Logunov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Properties of a welded joint depend on the structure of metal of the joint and near the joint areas subjected to thermal effect in the process of welding. The well-known phenomena, accompanying the welding (grain growth in near the joint area, intergrain slip, stressed state related to crystallization and rapid cooling), as well as certain other processes, which have been insufficiently studied either due to their poor pronouncement or owing to imperfection of the equipment and methods employed, were analyzed, as applied to stainless hihg-strength Fe-Ni-Cr steels

  5. Estimation of the Temperature-Dependent Nitrogen Solubility in Stainless Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni-Si-C Steel Melts During Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Marco; Hauser, Michael; Sandig, Eckhard Frank; Volkova, Olena

    2018-04-01

    The influence of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure on the nitrogen solubility of various high alloy stainless steel grades, namely Fe-14Cr-(0.17-7.77)Mn-6Ni-0.5Si-0.03C [wt pct], Fe-15Cr-3Mn-4Ni-0.5Si-0.1C [wt pct], and Fe-19Cr-3Mn-4Ni-0.5Si-0.15C [wt pct], was studied in the melt. The temperature-dependent N-solubility was determined using an empirical approach proposed by Wada and Pehlke. The thus calculated N-concentrations overestimate the actual N-solubility of all the studied Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni-Si-C steel melts at a given temperature and pressure. Consequently, the calculation model has to be modified by Si and C because both elements are not recognized in the original equation. The addition of the 1st and 2nd order interaction parameters for Si and C to the model by Wada and Pehlke allows a precise estimation of the temperature-dependent nitrogen solubility in the liquid steel bath, and fits very well with the measured nitrogen concentrations during processing of the steels. Moreover, the N-solubility enhancing effect of Cr- and Mn-additions has been demonstrated.

  6. Creep and time to rupture of a 16/16 Cr Ni Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, R.; Garcia, R.; Bohm, H.; Schirra, M.

    1972-01-01

    The influence of different thermal-mechanical treatments on the creep and time to rupture of a 16/16 Cr.Ni steel is studied. The solution treated material after annealing at 700-800 degree centigree did not affect time to rupture. At the contrary a 12% cold-working and annealing at 800 degree centigree improve the time to rupture. This treatment is preserved up to 700 degree centigree 10 4 hours. The ductility is not strongly affected. A metallographic study of the fracture was carried out. (Author) 23 refs

  7. High Temperature Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in the Actual Coal-Fired Boiler Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2015-03-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a serious problem observed in steam-powered electricity generation plants, and industrial waste incinerators. In the present study, four compositions of Cr3C2-(Ni-20Cr) alloy coating powder were deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray technique on T-91 boiler tube steel. The cyclic studies were performed in a coal-fired boiler at 1123 K ± 10 K (850 °C ± 10 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping analysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All the coatings deposited on T-91 boiler tube steel imparted hot corrosion resistance. The 65 pctCr3C2 -35 pct (Ni-20Cr)-coated T-91 steel sample performed better than all other coated samples in the given environment.

  8. Capture cross sections for Cr, Fe and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvi, F.

    1990-01-01

    Since stainless steel represents about 25% of the volume of a fast power reactor, its constituent elements strongly influence its two main neutronic parameters: critical enrichment and breeding gain. Also, capture in the narrow p and d-wave resonances of Cr, Fe and Ni contributes as much as 10 to 15% of the Doppler coefficient of reactivity. Following sensitivity calculations, typical accuracy requirements in the energy range 0.1-100 keV are 5-10% for capture in Fe and 10-20% for capture in Ni and Cr. 11 refs, 2 tabs

  9. Efectos gammágenos del cobre en los aceros inoxidables 18Cr8Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botella, J.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available From a series of 22 typical 18Cr8Ni stainless steel 40 kg ingots, with copper variable concentrations from 0.6 to 3.0 weight %, δ-ferrite is measured with a ferrite-meter device, calculating a nickel equivalent of 0.27 for copper. Some differences between the 8-ferrite and that on calculated by DeLong -excluding the copper γ-gene action- have been found because of different solidification and cooling regimes in ingot and weld cases.

    A partir de una serie de 22 lingotes de 40 kg de aceros inoxidables típicos 18Cr8Ni, con concentraciones variables de cobre entre 0,6 y 3,0 % en masa, se mide la ferrita δ mediante un medidor de ferrita y se deduce para el cobre un equivalente en níquel de 0,27, a la vez que se establecen ciertas diferencias entre los contenidos de ferrita δ medida y la deducida según DeLong -excluida la acción gammágena del cobre- por el hecho de solidificar en lingotes en vez de la típica solidificación de soldaduras.

  10. Quasicrystalline and crystalline precipitation during isothermal tempering in a 12Cr-9Ni-4Mo maraging stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Stigenberg, A.H.; Nilsson, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    A thorough microstructural investigation has been performed on a high strength maraging steel of the type 12%Cr-9%Ni-4%Mo-2%Cu-1%Ti. The major precipitate formed during isothermal aging at 475 C is a quasicrystalline phase possessing icosahedral symmetry termed R'-phase with a typical chemical composition of 48%Mo-33%Fe-13%Cr-2%Ni-4%Si. At 550 C the major precipitate is trigonal R-phase with a typical composition of 45%Mo-31%Fe-18%Cr-4%Ni-2%Si. At 550 C also Laves phase with a composition of 48%Mo-35%Fe-13%Cr-2%Ni-2%Si could be observed. At both 475 and 550 C an ordered phase termed L-phase precipitated. This minority phase has an ordered face centered cubic (f.c.c.) structure of type L1 0 . Its composition is typically 9%Fe-4%Cr-52%Ni-15%Mo.-16%Ti-4%Al. R'-phase formed at 475 C transformed to R-phase and Laves phase during aging at 550 C. In an analogous manner, R-phase and Laves phase formed at 550 C transformed to R'-phase during subsequent aging at 475 C. This transformation was rationalized by a strong similarity in crystal structure between quasicrystalline R'-phase of icosahedral symmetry and Frank-Kasper phases such as R-phase and Laves phase

  11. Kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite in 18CrNiMo7-6 steel applied for toothed wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Toothed wheels constitute essential part of the steel structural elements market. The most often hypereutectoid structural steels forcarburizing are used for toothed wheels. The final producers of toothed wheels are not demanding regarding a microstructure, providedthat the determined requirements will be fulfilled (e.g. metallurgical purity determined by ultrasounds. Therefore delivered forgings can be in an annealed or quenched state. This results from the situation that the final heat treatment or heat-chemical one is being done at one of the last stages of the toothed wheel production. An essential factor allowing to develop the proper heat treatment is the knowledge of the kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite and its relating to technological conditions, being at the producer disposal, as well as to forging dimensions. Such investigations should be carried out on real melts used for forgings for toothed wheels production together with an analysis of microstructure changes on the forging cross-section. They should be based on calculation methods determining the distribution of cooling rates on its cross-section in dependence of an applied cooling medium.The mentioned above problems in relation to 18CrNiMo7-6 steel - are elucidated in this paper. The aim of the investigations wasthe description of the kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite in this steel. The CCT diagram was constructed for the austenitizing temperature determined on the basis of phase transformations temperatures (the so-called critical points.

  12. Evaluation of austenitic stainless steels for transpassive corrosion by metal purification technology. Synergistic effect of Si and P on intergranular corrosion of Fe-18Cr-14Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayuzumi, Masami; Ohta, Joji; Kako, Kenji; Kawakami, Eishi

    2001-01-01

    The synergistic effect of Si, Mn, C, P, and S on the transpassive corrosion of HP18Cr-14Ni alloys was studied in 13N nitric acid. The specimens were fabricated using a cold crucible method in a high-vacuum chamber to reduce contamination. The additions of Si<1% and Mn<2% had no effect on the corrosion behavior of HP18Cr-14Ni alloys, and the addition of Si<1% also had no effect on the corrosion behavior of HP18Cr-14Ni-1Mn alloys, although 1% Si induced intergranular corrosion in both the alloys. Thus, HP18Cr-14Ni-1Mn-0.5Si alloys were selected to evaluate the effects of C, P and S (100 ppm each). The addition of P, and the co-addition of C, P, and S to HP18Cr-14Ni-1Mn-0.5Si induced intergranular corrosion of the same degree in the solution annealed condition. This result suggests the synergistic effect of Si and P to induce intergranular corrosion, since the single addition of Si or P to this level did not lead to intergranular corrosion of HP18Cr-14Ni alloys. HP18Cr-14Ni-1Mn-0.5Si alloys containing C, P, and S at the 100 ppm level each showed superior corrosion resistance compared to a commercial Type 304L in 13N nitric acid. (author)

  13. The Structure of the Silumin Coat on Alloy Cast Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Szymczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the analysis results of the structure of the coat obtained by dipping in silumin AlSi5 of two grades of alloy cast steel: GX6CrNiTi18-10 (LH18N9T and GX39Cr13 (LH14. The temperature of the silumin bath was 750±5°C, and the hold-up time of the cast steel element τ = 180 s. The absolute thickness of the coat obtained in the given conditions was g = 104 μm on cast steel GX6CrNiTi18-10 and g = 132 μm on GX39Cr13. The obtained coat consisted of three layers of different phase structure. The first layer from the base “g1`” was constructed of the phase AlFe including Si and alloy additives of the tested cast steel grades: Cr and Ni (GX6CrNiTi18-10 and Cr (GX39Cr13. The second layer “g1``” of intermetallic phases AlFe which also contains Si and Cr crystallizes on it. The last, external layer “g2” of the coat consists of the silumin containing the intermetallic phases AlFeSi which additionally can contain alloy additives of the cast steel. It was shown that there were no carbides on the coat of the tested cast steels which are the component of their microstructure, as it took place in the case of the coat on the high speed steels.

  14. Effect of carbon content on microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled low carbon 12Cr-Ni stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, H.; Ye, X.N.; Li, J.D.; Jiang, L.Z.; Liu, Z.Y.; Wang, G.D.; Wang, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hot-rolled ultra low carbon martensite is characterized by dislocation cells substructure. → The formation of dislocation cells is attributed to high Ms and low interstitial atoms content. → Hot-rolled ultra low carbon 12Cr-Ni stainless steel has excellent impact toughness. → Delta ferrite deteriorates the impact toughness of hot-rolled 12Cr-Ni stainless steel. - Abstract: 12Cr-Ni stainless steels containing different carbon contents from 0.004 wt.% to 0.034 wt.% were hot-rolled and air-cooled. Their corresponding microstructures were observed with optical microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the Vickers hardness, tensile and impact tests were also carried out. It was found that the martensitic morphology was significantly influenced by carbon content. The as-received ultra low carbon martensite in the steel containing 0.004 wt.% C is characterized by dislocation cells substructure. The formation of dislocation cells is attributed to high martensite finishing point (above 400 deg. C) and low interstitial atoms content. On the other hand, the martensite in the steel containing 0.034 wt.% C consists mainly of typical martensite laths because of low martensite finishing point and high interstitial atoms content which hinder dislocation motion. Furthermore, carbon content has an evident effect on the mechanical properties of 12Cr-Ni steels. The hardness and strength of the as-received steels increase with an increase in carbon content, but their elongation and impact toughness decrease with the carbon content. The steel containing 0.004 wt.% C has excellent impact toughness due to the ultra low carbon content in the martensite composed of dislocation cells.

  15. Observations on thermally cycled 20% Cr/25% Ni/Nb stabilised stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, R.C.

    1984-06-01

    A variety of optical and electron techniques, such as optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, have been used to study the morphology and composition of oxides formed on 20 Cr/25 Ni/Nb stainless steel during oxidation at 850 0 C and subsequent thermal cycling in simulated reactor gas. (author)

  16. Nitrogen effect on the tendency of Cr-Ni-MN steels to delayed fracture under stress and hydrogen effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorova, S.O.; Fillipov, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Austenitic steels types 03Kh17N16G10AM5, 03Kh6N12G10AM5 and 07Kh13AG20 with various nitrogen contents were studied for their tendency to delayed fracture using mechanical tests, fractography and X ray diffraction analysis. The steel type 07Kh13G20 exhibited the highest strength in the initial state but showed an increase tendency to delayed fracture after hydrogenation. It is underlined that nitrogen additions essentially intensify the tendency of cold worked steels to delayed fracture. This fact should be taken into account when using nitrogen-containing Cr-Ni-Mn steels under severe operational conditions. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  17. A new and unusual deformation behavior observed in 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel irradiated at 307 deg. C to 55 dpa in BN-350

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, M.; Maksimkin, O.; Osipov, I.S.; Garner, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: It is currently accepted that neutron irradiation of stainless steels in general leads to increased strength, reduction of ductility and inevitably to embrittlement. The microstructural origins of such changes in mechanical behavior are well understood. Occasionally, however, a new phenomenon is observed at higher fluences. Void-induced embrittlement is an example whereby the ductility loss is strongly accelerated when new microstructural conditions develop from voids that cause stress concentration, removal of nickel from the matrix and thereby induce a martensitic transformation. This process occurs at moderately high temperatures where high void swelling can occur. It now appears that there is another, previously unobserved phenomenon that develops in austenitic steel irradiated to relatively high dose and relatively low temperature. In this case, however, the loss of plasticity commonly developed at lower dose is reversed and is replaced by an unusually high deformation. The plastic deformation was studied of miniature flat tensile specimens of 12Cr18Ni10Ti austenitic steel cut from a fuel assembly wrapper irradiated in the BN-350 reactor to 55 dpa at 580 K (307 deg. C). A new optical extensometry technique was employed that uses a video camera and multiple tiny markers painted on the specimen, allowing visualization and recording of the strain distribution as it develops along the specimen. The total deformation derived from the engineering diagrams for these specimens was 35-40%, while 3-7% was expected from previous studies conducted at lower dpa levels. The video record showed that the material resists necking and involves a moving deformation wave that initiates near one of the tensile grippers and spreads along ∼3/4 of the gauge length before failure occurs. Such behavior, often called a 'moving neck' has been observed previously in pure iron and Al-Mg alloys but has not been observed in irradiated stainless steels

  18. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Ni-Alloy/CrN Nanolayered Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Hsiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ni-alloy/CrN nanolayered coatings, Ni-Al/CrN and Ni-P/CrN, were deposited on (100 silicon wafer and AISI 420 stainless steel substrates by dual-gun sputtering technique. The influences of the layer microstructure on corrosion behavior of the nanolayered thin films were investigated. The bilayer thickness was controlled approximately 10 nm with a total coating thickness of 1m. The single-layer Ni-alloy and CrN coatings deposited at 350∘C were also evaluated for comparison. Through phase identification, phases of Ni-P and Ni-Al compounds were observed in the single Ni-alloy layers. On the other hand, the nanolayered Ni-P/CrN and Ni-Al/CrN coatings showed an amorphous/nanocrystalline microstructure. The precipitation of Ni-Al and Ni-P intermetallic compounds was suppressed by the nanolayered configuration of Ni-alloy/CrN coatings. Through Tafel analysis, the corr and corr values ranged from –0.64 to –0.33 V and 1.42×10−5 to 1.14×10−6 A/cm2, respectively, were deduced for various coating assemblies. The corrosion mechanisms and related behaviors of the coatings were compared. The coatings with a nanolayered Ni-alloy/CrN configuration exhibited a superior corrosion resistance to single-layer alloy or nitride coatings.

  19. Effects of Bond Coating on NiCrBSi-Mo Composite Functional Coating Properties in Plasma Spraying NiCrBSi-Mo/Ni Coating

    OpenAIRE

    DU Ji-yu; LI Fang-yi; LU Hai-yang; SHANG Jian-tong; LI Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-based bond coating and composite functional coating were sprayed on leaf blade steel material FV520B successively by using air plasma spraying system. NiCrBSi-Mo powder deposition rate, coating porosity, bonding strength and surface hardness were tested. The results indicate that, for the NiCrBSi-Mo/Ni coating, bond coating with 180-220μm thickness can improve NiCrBSi-Mo powder deposition rate while the surface coating with lower porosity, higher bonding strength and high hardness is p...

  20. Influence of creep ductility on creep-fatigue behaviour of 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladwin, D.; Miller, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of creep ductility on creep-fatigue endurance of 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb stainless steel has been examined. In order to induce different creep ductilities in the 20/25/Nb stainless steel, three different thermo-mechanical routes were employed. These resulted in a range of ductilities (3-36%) being obtained at the strain rates of interest. Strain controlled slow-fast creep-fatigue cycles were used with strain rates of 10 -6 s -1 , 10 -7 s -1 in tension and 10 -3 s -1 in compression. It was found that creep ductility strongly influenced the creep-fatigue endurance of the 20/25/Nb stainless steel. When failure was creep dominated endurance was found to be directly proportional to the creep ductility. A ductility exhaustion model has been used to successfully predict creep-fatigue endurance when failure was creep dominated. (author)

  1. Microstructural evolution in 13Cr-8Ni-2.5Mo-2Al martensitic precipitation-hardened stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, D.H.; Ohnuma, M.; Hirakawa, Y.; Kadoya, Y.; Hono, K.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure of 13Cr-8Ni-2.5Mo-2Al martensitic precipitation-hardened (PH) stainless steel has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy, three-dimensional atom probe and small-angle X-ray scattering. A high number density (∼10 23-25 m -3 ) of ultra-fine (1-6 nm) β-NiAl precipitates are formed during aging at 450-620 deg. C, which are spherical in shape and dispersed uniformly with perfect coherency with the matrix. As the annealing temperature increases, the size and concentration of the precipitates increase concurrently while the number density decreases. The Mo and Cr segregation to the precipitate-matrix interface has been detected and is suggested to suppress precipitate coarsening. In the sample aged for 500 h at 450 deg. C, the matrix decomposes into Cr-rich (α') and Cr-poor (α) regions. The decrease in the strength at higher temperature (above 550 deg. C) is attributed to the formation of larger carbides and reverted austenite

  2. Improved hardness of laser alloyed X12CrNiMo martensitic stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebiyi, DI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in hardness of X12CrNiMo martensitic stainless steel laser alloyed with 99.9% pure titanium carbide, stellite 6 and two cases of premixed ratio of titanium carbide and stellite 6 [TiC (30 wt.%)- stellite 6 (70 wt.%) and TiC (70 wt...

  3. Study of mechanical properties and high temperature oxidation behavior of a novel cold-spray Ni-20Cr coating on boiler steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Narinder [Semiconductor Materials and Device Laboratory, Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, Seoul 100715 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Manoj [School of Mechanical, Materials & Energy Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab (India); Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Kim, Deuk Young [Semiconductor Materials and Device Laboratory, Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, Seoul 100715 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, S.; Chavan, N.M.; Joshi, S.V. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI), Hyderabad 500005 (India); Singh, Narinder [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab (India); Singh, Harpreet, E-mail: harpreetsingh@iitrpr.ac.in [School of Mechanical, Materials & Energy Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab (India)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A presynthesized Ni-20Cr nanocrystalline powder was successfully deposited on T22 and SA 516 boilers steels using cold spray process. • The coatings are observed to have more than 2-folds microhardness in comparison with the base steels. • The coating was successful in reducing the weight gain of T22 and SA 516 steel by 71% and 94%. - Abstract: In the current investigation, high temperature oxidation behavior of a novel cold-spray Ni-20Cr nanostructured coating was studied. The nanocrystalline Ni-20Cr powder was synthesized by the investigators using ball milling, which was deposited on T22 and SA 516 steels by cold spraying. The crystallite size based upon Scherrer's formula for the developed coatings was found to be in nano-range for both the substrates. The accelerated oxidation testing was performed in a laboratory tube furnace at a temperature 900 °C under thermal cyclic conditions. Each cycle comprised heating for one hour at 900 °C followed by cooling for 20 min in ambient air. The kinetics of oxidation was established using weight change measurements for the bare and the coated steels. The oxidation products were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray mapping techniques. It was found from the results that the coating was successful in reducing the weight gain of SA213-T22 and SA 516-Grade 70 steel by 71% and 94%, respectively. This may be attributed to relatively denser structure, lower porosity and lower oxide content of the coating. Moreover, the developed nano-structured Ni-20Cr powder coating was found to perform better than its counterpart micron-sized Ni-20Cr powder coating, in terms of offering higher oxidation resistance and hardness.

  4. Microstructure of Vacuum-Brazed Joints of Super-Ni/NiCr Laminated Composite Using Nickel-Based Amorphous Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qunshuang; Li, Yajiang; Wu, Na; Wang, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum brazing of super-Ni/NiCr laminated composite and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel was carried out using Ni-Cr-Si-B amorphous filler metal at 1060, 1080, and 1100 °C, respectively. Microstructure and phase constitution were investigated by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and micro-hardness tester. When brazed at 1060-1080 °C, the brazed region can be divided into two distinct zones: isothermally solidified zone (ISZ) consisting of γ-Ni solid solution and athermally solidified zone (ASZ) consisting of Cr-rich borides. Micro-hardness of the Cr-rich borides formed in the ASZ was as high as 809 HV50 g. ASZ decreased with increase of the brazing temperature. Isothermal solidification occurred sufficiently at 1100 °C and an excellent joint composed of γ-Ni solid solution formed. The segregation of boron from ISZ to residual liquid phase is the reason of Cr-rich borides formed in ASZ. The formation of secondary precipitates in diffusion-affected zone is mainly controlled by diffusion of B.

  5. Behavior of X 6 CrNi 18 11 under sequential testing of creep and fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husslage, W [TNO, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Breitling, H [INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany)

    1977-07-01

    The behaviour of the austenitic stainless steel X 6 CrNi 18 11 with about 0.05% C, 18% Cr and 11% Ni was investigated under combined creep and cyclic loading at 550 degrees C. Base metal specimens and specimens containing a weld were tested by: prior cyclic loading followed by creep loading to rupture; prior creep loading followed by cyclic loading to rupture; alternating periods of creep and cyclic loading to rupture. The results were evaluated using the linear cumulative fatigue and creep damage rule. The damage factor D determined on basis of the respective behaviour of base material and welds varied between 0.5 and 1.6 if specimens containing a weld defect were not taken into consideration. Weld defects, which had predominantly an influence on fatigue, lowered the damage factor D up to 0.2. Evaluation of the results on welds with the pure creep and fatigue behaviour of base material shows damage factors between 0.4 and 0.9. By the high margins between allowable creep and fatigue life and life measured with specimens, the cumulative damages of base material and welded joints are much better than the allowable values according to CCI 1592 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (author)

  6. Anomaly in the dynamic strength of austenitic stainless steel 12Cr19Ni10Ti under shock wave loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkushin, G. V.; Kanel, G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Savinykh, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    Measurement results for the shock wave compression profiles of 12Cr19Ni10Ti steel and its dynamic strength in the strain rate range 105-106 s-1 are presented. The protracted viscous character of the spall fracture is revealed. With the previously obtained data taken into account, the measurement results are described by a polynomial relation, which can be used to construct the fracture kinetics. On the lower boundary of the range, the resistance to spall fracture is close to the value of the true strength of the material under standard low-rate strain conditions; on the upper boundary, the spall strength is more than twice greater than this quantity. An increase in the temperature results in a decrease in both the dynamic limit of elasticity and the spall fracture strength of steel. The most interesting result is the anomaly in the dependence of the spall fracture strength on the duration of the shock wave compression pulse, which is related to the formation of deformation martensite near the growing discontinuities.

  7. Welded joint properties of steel 2.25Cr1MoNiNb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladis, R.; Ivanek, J.; Gottwald, M.

    1981-01-01

    Welded joints of steel 08Cr2.25Mo1NiNb for fast reactor steam generators made using manual arc welding with electrodes of identical compositions attain short-term mechanical properties and times to fracture when creep tested that match those of the base material. The reduction of the carbidic phase content in the steel and the welded joint metal did not adversely affect the tensile properties of the welded joint while increasing notch toughness of the heat-affected zone. Reduced carbon and niobium contents in the steel and the welded joint resulted in significant reduction in the proportion of carbidic eutectic particles in both the heat-affected zone and the weld metal. (Ha)

  8. Research of Technological Properties of Steel X6CRNITI18-10 Welded Joints Exploited in Nitric Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Mikalauskas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chemical industry equipments often requires to replace long time operated pipes or welded inserts with the simi-lar chemical composition. During the study the joints from corro-sion resistant steel X6CrNiTi18-10 were welded by manual metal arc welding with covered electrodes (MMA process 111 and tungsten inert gas welding (TIG process 141 at different welding parameters. The visual, radiographic, penetrant control and ferrite content analysis were carried out. The transverse tensile and bending samples were produced from welded samples; also the macroscopic and microscopic analyse were carried out.

  9. Precipitation sequences in austenitic Fe-22Cr-21Ni-6Mo-(N) stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.-J.; Lee, T.-H.

    1999-01-01

    Precipitation sequence of nitrogen containing Fe-22Cr-21Ni-6Mo-N austenitic stainless steel has been investigated after aging at high temperatures, and compared with nitrogen free steel. The σ phases and M 23 C 6 carbides were observed along the grain boundaries as well as in the matrix in both of the solution treated specimens. The M 6 C carbides and chi phase appeared successively in between 3 hours and 24 hours depending on the nitrogen content. Main difference in aging behavior was the precipitation of fine nitrides. Aging for 24 hours and 168 hours of nitrogen containing steel resulted in the formation of fine Cr 2 N and faceted AlN nitrides. The crystallography, structure and morphology were analyzed with analytical electron microscopy. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of corrosion resistant on NiCoCr coating layer exposed to 5%NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarti, E.; Sundawa, R.; Desiati, R. D.; Zaini, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    Highly corrosion resistant of carbon steel coated NiCoCr was applied in corrosive of marine environtment. Carbon steel coated NiCoCr was prepared by a two step technique of NiCo electro-deposition and Cr pack cementation. The samples were exposed to 5 wt.% NaCl for 48 and 168 hours. The microstructure and corrosion product were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated NiCoCr was found to be better than that of carbon steel substrate without coating. The results showed the microstructure of 48 h corroded sample has duplex layer composed of inner α-(Ni,Co), α-Cr and outer Cr2O3, while a quite thin and continues protective oxide of Cr2O3 was observed in outer layer of 168 h corroded sample. The formation of oxide scale rich in Cr2O3 has contributed for the better corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated NiCoCr, whereas the formation of non protective oxide of iron might caused low corrosion resistance of carbon steel substrate.

  11. Numerical simulation of Cr2N age-precipitation in high nitrogen stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Q.X.; Yuan, Z.Z.; Luo, X.M.; Cheng, X.N.

    2004-01-01

    At the temperature raging from 700 to 950 deg. C, the Cr 2 N age-precipitation in high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels Fe24Mn18Cr3Ni0.62N was investigated in this paper. A qualitative mathematical model of Cr 2 N age-precipitation, ln t S = f (Me,1/T), was established based on the thermodynamics and kinetics and phase transformation theories. Satisfactory results were obtained by means of the test of artificial neural network. This mathematical model can be applied to the calculation design and predication of Cr 2 N age-precipitation in high nitrogen stainless steels

  12. Measurement of high temperature elastic moduli of an 18Cr-9Ni-2.95 Cu-0.58 Nb-0.1C (Wt %) austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Sudha, C.; Raju, S.; Saibaba, Saroja

    2018-04-01

    The Young's modulus (E) and Shear modulus (G) of an indigenously developed 18Cr-9Ni-0.1C-2.95 Cu-0.58Nb (wt %) austenitic stainless steel has been evaluated in the temperature range 298 K to 1273 K (25 °C to 1000 °C), using Impulse excitation technique (IET). The Bulk modulus (K) and the poison's ratio have been estimated from the measured values of E and G. It is observed that the elastic constants (E, G and K) are found to decrease in a nonlinear fashion with increase in temperature. The Cu precipitation is found to influence the elastic moduli of the steel in the cooling cycle. The observed elastic moduli are fitted to 3rd order polynomial equations in order to describe the temperature dependence of E, G, K moduli in the temperature range 298-1273 K (25 °C to 1000 °C). The room temperature values of E,G and K moduli is found to be 207, 82 and 145 GPa respectively for the present steel.

  13. Contamination assessment of heavy metals in the soils around Khouzestan Steel Company (Ni, Mn, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormozi Nejad, F.; Rastmanesh, F.; Zarasvandi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The highest concentrations were found at soil samples 4 and 12. Comparison of heavy metals concentration with unpolluted soil standard indicated that, concentrations of Cr, Zn, Fe, Ni and Pb is higher than that of unpolluted soil standard. In general, Manganese, Chromium, Zinc and Lead are the most important elements that are found in emissions of steel plants. The soil samples near the steel plant and downwind direction have much higher pollution level. The results showed that Mn, Pb and Zn is related to human activity and Cr have geogenic source and Fe and Ni have both geogenic and anthropogenic source in the study area in the city of Ahwaz.

  14. Microstructural aspects of crack formation and propagation in the austenitic steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under low cycle fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soppa, E.; Kohler, C.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X.

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the crack initiation mechanisms and crack growth in apparently monolithic materials like X6CrNiNb18-10 stainless steel under cyclic loading requires the explicit analysis of the phenomena underlying fatigue on both atomistic and microscopic levels. The permanent delivery of mechanical energy through cyclic loading evokes changes in the microstructure that can lead to a martensitic transformation. The transformation of a metastable cubic face centered austenite and formation of a cubic body centered α'-martensite under cyclic loading at room temperature was found, both, in the experiment and in molecular dynamics simulations. The martensite nucleates prevalently at grain boundaries, triple points and at the specimen free surface and forms small (∝ 1 μm) differently oriented grains, also in the same parent austenitic grain. By a combination of interrupted low cycle fatigue tests (LCF) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements the martensitic transformation and subsequent fatigue crack formation were observed at the same area in the microstructure at different stages of the specimen lifetime. The EBSD measurements showed the following crack initiation scenarios: Cracks started (a) at the phase boundary between austenite and α'-martensite, (b) inside fully martensitic areas in the matrix, (c) at broken or debonded coarse NbCs. It is obvious that formation of a hard α'-martensite in a ductile and soft austenite and forming two-phase material causes a heterogeneous stress and strain distribution on the microscopic level. α'-martensite enhances locally the stress amplitude whereas in a soft austenite the plastic strain amplitude increases. Strain concentration in the austenite along the phase boundary is connected with a stress increase along the interface and can initiate fatigue crack there. Also at the crack tip, a permanent martensitic transformation occurs, so that the growth of the fatigue cracks at room temperature seems

  15. Creep Strength of Dissimilar Welded Joints Using High B-9Cr Steel for Advanced USC Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Masaaki; Hongo, Hiromichi; Abe, Fujio

    2014-10-01

    The commercialization of a 973 K (700 °C) class pulverized coal power system, advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) pressure power generation, is the target of an ongoing research project initiated in Japan in 2008. In the A-USC boiler, Ni or Ni-Fe base alloys are used for high-temperature parts at 923 K to 973 K (650 °C to 700 °C), and advanced high-Cr ferritic steels are planned to be used at temperatures lower than 923 K (650 °C). In the dissimilar welds between Ni base alloys and high-Cr ferritic steels, Type IV failure in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is a concern. Thus, the high B-9Cr steel developed at the National Institute for Materials Science, which has improved creep strength in weldments, is a candidate material for the Japanese A-USC boiler. In the present study, creep tests were conducted on the dissimilar welded joints between Ni base alloys and high B-9Cr steels. Microstructures and creep damage in the dissimilar welded joints were investigated. In the HAZ of the high B-9Cr steels, fine-grained microstructures were not formed and the grain size of the base metal was retained. Consequently, the creep rupture life of the dissimilar welded joints using high B-9Cr steel was 5 to 10 times longer than that of the conventional 9Cr steel welded joints at 923 K (650 °C).

  16. Slurry Erosion Studies on Surface Modified 13Cr-4Ni Steels: Effect of Angle of Impingement and Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manisekaran, T.; Kamaraj, M.; Sharrif, S. M.; Joshi, S. V.

    2007-10-01

    Hydroturbine steels, such as 13Cr-4Ni martensitic steels, are generally subjected to heavy-erosive wear and loss of efficiency due to solid particulate entrainment in the water. Surface-modified steels have proven to give better performance in terms of erosive wear resistance. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the effect of angle of impingement and particle size on slurry-jet erosion behavior of pulsed plasma nitrided and laser hardened 13Cr-4Ni steels. Laser hardening process has shown good performance at all angles of impingement due to martensitic transformation of retained austenite. Plastic deformation mode of material removal was also an evident feature of all laser-hardened surface damage locations. However, pulsed-plasma nitrided steels have exhibited chip formation and micro-cutting mode of erosive wear. Erosion with 150-300 μm size was twice compared to 150 μm size slurry particulates.

  17. Creep and creep fatigue crack behavior of 1Cr- and 9Cr-steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maile, K.; Klenk, A.; Schellenberg, G.; Granacher, J.; Tramer, M.

    2000-01-01

    A large database for creep crack initiation and propagation under constant load conditions is available on conventional power plant steels of types 1%Cr and 12%Cr. Modern plants are often used in the medium and peak load regime, thus the dominant loading situation in high temperature components is creep fatigue. For life assessment data about crack initiation and growth under creep fatigue loading are required. These characteristics can not be substituted by pure fatigue or creep crack data. Therefore, a comprehensive test programme was started to investigate the creep fatigue crack behaviour of a 1%CrMoNiV turbine rotor steel (30CrMoNiV 4 11) at 550 C and a new 9%CrMoVNb pipe steel (type P 9 1) at 600 C. DENT-specimen with 15 and 60 mm thickness as well as side grooved CT-specimen with 25 and 50 mm thickness have been tested to determine possible influences of geometry and thus to check the transferability of the data to components. The creep fatigue crack growth results of tests with dwell times between t H = 0,32h and 10 h lie in the scatterbands given by creep crack growth results. Nevertheless a higher crack growth rate under creep fatigue conditions can be stated. An increase in crack growth rate due to creep fatigue is clearly visible. Loading situations with frequencies higher than 1.10 -4 Hz should be not assessed with pure creep crack results or sufficient safety margins have to be applied. (orig.)

  18. Study of magnetism in Ni-Cr hardface alloy deposit on 316LN stainless steel using magnetic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, G. V. K.; Kumar, Anish; Chakraborty, Gopa; Albert, S. K.; Rao, B. Purna Chandra; Bhaduri, A. K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2015-07-01

    Nickel base Ni-Cr alloy variants are extensively used for hardfacing of austenitic stainless steel components in sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) to avoid self-welding and galling. Considerable difference in the compositions and melting points of the substrate and the Ni-Cr alloy results in significant dilution of the hardface deposit from the substrate. Even though, both the deposit and the substrate are non-magnetic, the diluted region exhibits ferromagnetic behavior. The present paper reports a systematic study carried out on the variations in microstructures and magnetic behavior of American Welding Society (AWS) Ni Cr-C deposited layers on 316 LN austenitic stainless steels, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The phase variations of the oscillations of a Co-Cr alloy coated magnetic field sensitive cantilever is used to quantitatively study the magnetic strength of the evolved microstructure in the diluted region as a function of the distance from the deposit/substrate interface, with the spatial resolution of about 100 nm. The acquired AFM/MFM images and the magnetic property profiles have been correlated with the variations in the chemical compositions in the diluted layers obtained by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The study indicates that both the volume fraction of the ferromagnetic phase and its ferromagnetic strength decrease with increasing distance from the deposit/substrate interface. A distinct difference is observed in the ferromagnetic strength in the first few layers and the ferromagnetism is observed only near to the precipitates in the fifth layer. The study provides a better insight of the evolution of ferromagnetism in the diluted layers of Ni-Cr alloy deposits on stainless steel.

  19. Low-temperature monocrystal elastic constants of Fe-19Cr-10Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    By a pulse-echo-overlap ultrasonic method, we determined the monocrystal elastic constants (C 11 , C 12 , C 44 ) of an Fe-19Cr-10Ni alloy between 295 and 4 K. In composition this laboratory alloy approximates a technological austenitic stainless steel: AISI 304. Many previous studies on polycrystalline steels found a low-temperature magnetic phase transition that affects physical properties, including elastic constants. At the transition, anomalies occur in all polycrystal elastic constants: Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and Poisson's ratio. The present study found that the transition, near 50 K, does not affect one monocrystal elastic constant: C 44 , the resistance to shear on a (100) plane in a [100]-type direction. We interpret this new observation from the viewpoint of a Born-type lattice model. Also, we comment about the relationship between the elastic-constant changes and the low-temperature magnetic state

  20. Comparison of Steam Oxidation of 18%Cr Steels from Various Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Hald, John

    2015-01-01

    Lean austenitic steels such as the 18%Cr TP347H have been utilized in many power plants in Denmark. Steam oxidation has been investigated for both coarse-grained and fine-grained versions of TP347H. Oxidation for coarsegrained steels follows a parabolic rate however this is not always the case fo...

  1. Structure of steel 8 CrMoNiNb 9 10 and its variations in long-term thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabritius, H.; Schnabel, E.

    1976-01-01

    On four casts of steel 8 CrMoNiNb 9 10 with about 0.06% C, 0.25; Si, 0.7% Mn, 0.012% N, 0.002 to 0.020% Al, 2.25% Cr, 0.94% Mo, 0.63 to 0.91% Nb and 0.67% Ni, transformation behaviour and structural changes during long-time annealing at 500 to 750 degC lasting up to 30,000 h were studied in unformed condition and after previous cold forming. The carbon content was largely bound in form of primary niobium carbonitrides so that during quenching and tempering low-carbon bainite was formed, or at very slow cooling a ferritic structure without pearlite. Martensite occurred only after fast cooling from temperatures above 1200 degC. Bainite exhibited a very high dislocation density and a large number of coherent niobium carbonitrides. During tempering, the precipitates overaged, and the dislocations started to arrange themselves to subgrain boundaries. Hardness and strength in quenched and tempered condition were essentially governed by dislocation density and size of subgrains. In the whole range of bainite transformation, they are only slightly dependent upon the cooling rate and hence upon the dimensions of the products. The structural changes which occurred in bainitic material during long-time aging and led to a ferritic structure in the final state were interpreted as recovery and recrystallization. In unformed and slightly formed material recrystallization led to a very coarse-grained structure. In highly formed material a very fine-grained structure was achieved by recrystallization. By a high degree of cold forming the recrystallization process was considerably promoted. With an annealing time of 10 5 h, no recrystallization is to be expected for unformed specimens of the studied cast up to 580 degC, but above 650 degC complete recrystallization. (author)

  2. Si effects on radiation induced segregation in high purity Fe-18Cr-14Ni alloys irradiated by Ni ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Joji; Kako, Kenji; Mayuzumi, Masami; Kusanagi, Hideo; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    1999-01-01

    To illustrate the effects of the element Si on radiation induced segregation, which causes irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), we investigated grain boundary chemistry of high purity Fe-18Cr-14Ni-Si alloys irradiated by Ni ions using FE-TEM. The addition of Si up to 1% does not affect the Cr depletion at grain boundaries, while it slightly enhances the depletion of Fe and the segregation of Ni and Si. The addition of 2% Si causes the depletion of Cr and Fe and the segregation of Ni and Si at grain boundaries. Thus, the Si content should be as low as possible. In order to reduce the depletion of Cr at grain boundaries, which is one of the major causes of IASCC, Si content should be less than 1%. (author)

  3. Tensile strength and creep behaviour of austenitic stainless steel type 18Cr - 12Ni with niobium additions at 700°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordi, V. L.; Bueno, L. O.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of niobium additions up to 2.36 wt% on the creep behavior of a series of seven extra low carbon 18Cr-12Ni austenitic stainless steels at 700°C has been investigated. Grain size and hardness measurements, hot tensile tests and constant stress creep tests from 90 to 180 MPa were carried out for each alloy, in the solution treated condition at 1050, 1200 and 1300°C followed by quench in water. The mechanical behavior at high temperature was related to the amount of NbC precipitation occurring during the tests. Solid solution and intermetallic compound effects were also considered. Creep data analysis was done to determine the parameters of the creep power-law equation dot epsilon = A.σn and the Monkman-Grant relation dot epsilon.tmR = K. Niobium-carbide precipitation in these steels reduces the secondary stage dependence of strain rate with applied stress, resulting in n-values which indicate the possibility of operation of various creep mechanisms. The creep strength during the secondary stage is primarily controlled by the amount of NbC available for precipitation. However, the rupture times increase progressively with niobium content, as the amount of undissolved carbide particles in grain boundaries and the Laves phase precipitation increase.

  4. Microstructure and Properties of the Interface Area in the Laser Cladded Ni Based Coatings on the 1Cr10Mo1NiWVNbN Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxia Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ni-based coatings were deposited on the 1Cr10Mo1NiWVNbN steel by using laser cladding process. The microstructure and properties of the coatings interface area were investigated by OM (Optical Microscopy, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope, XRD (X-Ray Diffraction microhardness test and EDS (Energy Spectrum Analysis analysis. The results show that the bonding condition of the coatings interface is different in the monolayer and the trilayer. The monolayer coatings have a small dilution area. The dilution rate in a coating layer increases by layers. The scale of ferrite (α phase increases with the layer increases. The surface cladding quality of a monolayer is better than that of the trilayer coatings. The width of the interface increases with the increase of the layer. The width of the interface region in the trilayer coatings increases significantly. The microhardness of the interface zone is much higher than that in the coatings zone and the substrate zone. The microhardness of trilayer coatings is higher than that of the monolayer.

  5. Mechanical properties of steel X 6 CrNi 18 11 after creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heesen, E te; Lorenz, H; Grosser, E D [INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany)

    1977-07-01

    Test series were conducted to determine the influence of prior creep on the mechanical properties of X 6 CrNi 18 11 base material, weld joint and weld metal. Creep and tensile tests on base and weld joint were performed at 600 degrees C, the weld metal was Investigated at 550, 600, and 650 degrees C. With regard to the base materials, prior creep leads to a significant reduction in tensile ductility combined with an increase of the 0.2 % proof stress. Residual ductility represents a sufficient ductility reserve. For the weld joint tensile strength remains unchanged up to the end of the secondary creep stage. Although tensile elongation and reduction of area decrease, the relative reduction is less compared to the base material. Concerning the weld metal the 0.2 % proof stress reveals a marked decrease due to the test temperature leading to a stress relief heat treatment. Ultimate tensile strength and ductility Indicate little or no deviations from the original values. Thermal exposures in the absence of stress nearly gave the same properties as were found on precrept specimens. (author)

  6. Determination of Cr, Mn, Si, and Ni in carbon steels by optical emission spectrometry with spark source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gonzalez, M.A.; Pomares Alfonso, M.; Mora Lopez, L.

    1995-01-01

    Elemental composition of steels determines some important of his characteristic moreover it is necessary to obtain their quality certification. Analytical procedure has performed for determination of Cr, Mn, Si and Ni in carbon steels by optical emission spectrometry with spark source. reproducibility of results is 5-11 %. Exactitude has tested with results that have obtained by internationally recognised methods-

  7. Stainless steel corrosion in conditions simulating WWER-1000 primary coolant. Corrosion behaviour in mixed core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnorutskij, V.S.; Petel'guzov, I.A.; Gritsina, V.M.; Zuek, V.A.; Tret'yakov, M.V.; Rud', R.A.; Svichkar', N.V.; Slabospitskaya, E.A.; Ishchenko, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    Research into corrosion kinetics of austenitic stainless steels (06Cr18Ni10Ti, 08Cr18Ni10Ti, 12Cr18Ni10Ti) in medium which corresponds to composition and parameters of WWER-1000 primary coolant with different pH values in autoclave out-pile conditions during 14000 hours is given. Surface of oxide films on stainless steels is investigated. Visual inspection of Westinghouse and TVEL fuel was carried out after 4 cycles in WWER-1000 primary water chemistry conditions at South Ukraine NPP. Westinghouse and TVEL fuel cladding materials possess high corrosion resistance. Blushing of weldments was observed. No visual corrosion defects or deposits were observed on fuel rods.

  8. Effects of the Microstructure on Segregation behavior of Ni-Cr-Mo High Strength Low Alloy RPV Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gyu; Wee, Dang Moon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel has an improved fracture toughness and strength, compared to commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy RPV steel SA508 Gr.3. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels could be achieved by adding Ni and Cr. So there are several researches on SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a RPV application. The operation temperature and time of a reactor pressure vessel is more than 300 .deg. C and over 40 years. Therefore, in order to apply the SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a reactor pressure vessel, it requires a resistance of thermal embrittlement in the high temperature range including temper embrittlement resistance. S. Raoul reported that the susceptibility to temper embrittlement was increasing a function of the cooling rate in SA533 steel, which suggests the martensitic microstructures resulting from increased cooling rates are more susceptible to temper embrittlement. However, this result has not been proved yet. So the comparison of temper embrittlement behavior was made between martensitic microstructure and bainitic microstructure with a viewpoint of boundary features in SA508 Gr.4N, which have mixture of tempered bainite/martensite. In this study, we have compared temper embrittlement behaviors of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with changing volume fraction of martensite. The mechanical properties of these low alloy steels) were evaluated after a long-term heat treatment(450 .deg. C, 2000hr. Then, the images of the segregated boundaries were observed and segregation behavior was analyzed by AES. In order to compare the misorientation distributions of model alloys, grain boundary structures were measured with EBSD

  9. Welding and corrosion resistance of the new nitrogen alloyed steel X2 CrNiMnMoN241764

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arit, N.; Henser, H.; GroB, V.

    1994-01-01

    Remanit 4565 S is a new developed nitrogen alloyed austenitic stainless steel. Characteristic features are: improved strength and toughness, delayed precipitation of carbides and intermetallic phases, improved corrosion resistance. Welding fabrication is possible without the risk of pore formation. TIG-welded joints are as resistant as the base metal, using filler metal SG-NiCr 20 Mo 15 (Thermanit Nimo C) respectively SG-NiCr 28 Mo(Thermanit 30/40 E) according to the area of application. (Author) 8 refs

  10. Relationship between thermal embrittlement and hydrogen cracking in 18Ni(250) maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The role of grain boundary precipitate structure on the stress corrosion susceptibility of 18Ni(250) maraging steel was examined. Varying solution treatment procedures were used to achieve either a precipitate-free grain boundary or one containing a high density of Ti(C,N) particles. The introduction of these treatments, although drastically affecting the monotonic fracture toughness, did not significantly alter the stress corrosion threshold in 100 percent relative humidity. These results are shown to be consistent with the previous suggestion that, under open circuit conditions, hydrogen-assisted cracking controls the environmental crack growth behavior of 18Ni maraging steels. (U.S.)

  11. Short Communication on “Self-welding susceptibility of NiCr-B hardfaced coating with and without NiCr-B coating on 316LN stainless steel in flowing sodium at elevated temperature”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Hemant, E-mail: hemant@igcar.gov.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, 721 302 (India); Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Ramakrishnan, V.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Ray, K.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, 721 302 (India)

    2017-02-15

    The self-welding susceptibility between NiCr-B coated 316LN stainless steel and the base metal, and that between NiCr-B hardfaced coatings has been evaluated in flowing sodium at 823 K for 90 and 135 days under contact stress of 8.0 and 11.0 MPa using a fabricated set-up. Neither any self-welding could be observed nor could any damage be detected on the specimen surfaces of the selected materials under the imposed experimental conditions, which indicate their satisfactory potential for applications in Fast Breeder Reactors.

  12. Low-temperature cyclic cracking resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Mn steels welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostash, O.P.; Zhmur-Klimenko, V.T.; Yarema, S.Ya.; Yushchenko, K.A.; Strok, L.P.; Belotserkovets, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    Results of further investigations into regularities of development of low-temperature fatigue fracture of welded oints in 07Kh13G20AN4 steel are presented, they are compared with analogous data traditional cryogenic 0Kh18N10T and 03Kh13AG19 steels. Welded joints have been prepared by means of automatic V-like level arc Welding of plates; 0Kh18N10T and 07Kh13G20AN4 steels have been welded by means of sv-04Kh19N9 wire, 03Kh13AG19 steel-by means of sv-07Kh13AG19 wire. Tests at almost zero (asymmetry coefficient R=0.05) cycle of extension at 15-20 Hz frequency have been conducted on 5 mm thick disk samples at 20 deg C and - 160 deg C according to the given methods. It is shown that by cyclic crack resistance of welded joint zones of 0Kh18N10T steel and chromium-manganese steels at normal temperature the 07Kh13G20AN4 steel exceeds 0Kh18N10T steel, at low temperature it yields to 0Kh18N10T only by fracture toughness of heat affected zones HAZ and weld metal (ne). 07Kh13G20AN4 steel and its welded joints as most hardened and cheap may be a good substituent for 0Kh18N10T steel. Optimization of WM alloying for increase of its cyclic fracture toughness at cryogenic temperatures is necessary

  13. Microstructural aspects of crack formation and propagation in the austenitic steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under low cycle fatigue loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppa, E.; Kohler, C.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA

    2012-07-01

    The understanding of the crack initiation mechanisms and crack growth in apparently monolithic materials like X6CrNiNb18-10 stainless steel under cyclic loading requires the explicit analysis of the phenomena underlying fatigue on both atomistic and microscopic levels. The permanent delivery of mechanical energy through cyclic loading evokes changes in the microstructure that can lead to a martensitic transformation. The transformation of a metastable cubic face centered austenite and formation of a cubic body centered α'-martensite under cyclic loading at room temperature was found, both, in the experiment and in molecular dynamics simulations. The martensite nucleates prevalently at grain boundaries, triple points and at the specimen free surface and forms small (∝ 1 μm) differently oriented grains, also in the same parent austenitic grain. By a combination of interrupted low cycle fatigue tests (LCF) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements the martensitic transformation and subsequent fatigue crack formation were observed at the same area in the microstructure at different stages of the specimen lifetime. The EBSD measurements showed the following crack initiation scenarios: Cracks started (a) at the phase boundary between austenite and α'-martensite, (b) inside fully martensitic areas in the matrix, (c) at broken or debonded coarse NbCs. It is obvious that formation of a hard α'-martensite in a ductile and soft austenite and forming two-phase material causes a heterogeneous stress and strain distribution on the microscopic level. α'-martensite enhances locally the stress amplitude whereas in a soft austenite the plastic strain amplitude increases. Strain concentration in the austenite along the phase boundary is connected with a stress increase along the interface and can initiate fatigue crack there. Also at the crack tip, a permanent martensitic transformation occurs, so that the growth of the fatigue cracks at room

  14. Cr-Ni ALLOY ELECTRODEPOSITION AND COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL PURE Cr COATING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moniruzzaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cr coating is widely used as the outer surface of precision parts due to its attractive appearance and superior corrosion resistance properties. It is obtained by electrodeposition via a conventional bath with hexavalent Cr ions. This manufacturing technique has many drawbacks, such as very low efficiency and high operating temperature and it is hazardous to health. In this work, we studied a Cr-Ni alloy deposition technique and compared the alloy coating properties to those with conventional Cr coating. Sequential two-step alloy electrodeposition was also compared. We took varying concentrations of Cr, Ni and complexing agents for the electrodeposition of Cr-Ni alloy and sequential Cr-Ni alloy coating on mild steel. Operating parameters, i.e. current density and temperature, were varied to examine their effects on the coating properties. The coatings thus obtained were characterized by visual observation, corrosion test, microhardness measurement, morphology and chemical analysis. The Cr-Ni alloy coating was found to be more corrosion resistant in 5% NaCl solution and harder than the pure Cr coating obtained by conventional electrodeposition. Toxic gas was produced in a much lower extent in the alloy coating than the conventional Cr coating technique. Again, the two-step Cr-Ni alloy coating was found better in terms of corrosion resistance as well as hardness compared to the Cr-Ni alloy coating. The process was also found to be much more environmentally friendly.

  15. Dissolution and oxidation behaviour of various austenitic steels and Ni rich alloys in lead-bismuth eutectic at 520 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Marion, E-mail: marion.roy@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d’Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martinelli, Laure, E-mail: laure.martinelli@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d’Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ginestar, Kevin, E-mail: kevin.ginestar@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d’Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Favergeon, Jérôme, E-mail: jerome.favergeon@utc.fr [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France); Moulin, Gérard [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France)

    2016-01-15

    Ten austenitic steels and Ni rich alloys were tested in static lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) at 520 °C in order to obtain a selection of austenitic steels having promising corrosion behaviour in LBE. A test of 1850 h was carried out with a dissolved oxygen concentration between 10{sup −9} and 5 10{sup −4} g kg{sup −1}. The combination of thermodynamic of the studied system and literature results leads to the determination of an expression of the dissolved oxygen content in LBE as a function of temperature: RT(K)ln[O](wt%) = −57584/T(K) −55.876T(K) + 254546 (R is the gas constant in J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}). This relation can be considered as a threshold of oxygen content above which only oxidation is observed on the AISI 316L and AISI 304L austenitic alloys in static LBE between 400 °C and 600 °C. The oxygen content during the test leads to both dissolution and oxidation of the samples during the first 190 h and leads to pure oxidation for the rest of the test. Results of mixed oxidation and dissolution test showed that only four types of corrosion behaviour were observed: usual austenitic steels and Ni rich alloys behaviour including the reference alloy 17Cr-12Ni-2.5Mo (AISI 316LN), the 20Cr-31Ni alloy one, the Si containing alloy one and the Al containing alloy one. According to the proposed criteria of oxidation and dissolution kinetics, silicon rich alloys and aluminum rich alloy presented a promising corrosion behaviour. - Highlights: • 10 austenitic steels and Ni rich alloys were tested in LBE at 520 °C with dissolved oxygen content between 10{sup -9} and 5 10{sup -4} wt%. • It is shown that only thermodynamics cannot explain the Ni rich alloys corrosion behaviour in LBE. • The role of oxygen on corrosion behaviour in LBE was highlighted. • An equilibrium line was defined above which only oxidation has occurred on 316L: RTln[O](wt%) = -57584/T(K)-55.876T(K)+254546. • 18Cr-15Ni-3.7Si, 21Cr-11Ni-1.6Si and 14Cr-25Ni-3.5Al

  16. Tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabruri, Efendi, E-mail: effe004@lipi.go.id; Anwar, Moch Syaiful, E-mail: moch.syaiful.anwar@lipi.go.id; Prifiharni, Siska, E-mail: siska.prifiharni@lipi.go.id; Romijarso, Toni B.; Adjiantoro, Bintang [Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Kawasan Puspiptek Gd. 470 Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    This paper reports the influence of Mo and Ni on the tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels in tempered condition. Four steels with different content of Mo and Ni were prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The experimental results showed that the addition of about 1% and 3% Mo has a beneficial effect to increase both the tensile strength and the elongation of the steels. On the contrary, the addition of about 3% Ni into the martensitic stainless steel results in decreasing of both the tensile strength and the elongation. Among the alloys investigated the 13Cr3Mo type steel exhibited largest tensile strength of 1348 MPa and largest elongation of 12%. The observation on the tensile fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope supported these findings.

  17. Tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabruri, Efendi; Anwar, Moch Syaiful; Prifiharni, Siska; Romijarso, Toni B.; Adjiantoro, Bintang

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of Mo and Ni on the tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels in tempered condition. Four steels with different content of Mo and Ni were prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The experimental results showed that the addition of about 1% and 3% Mo has a beneficial effect to increase both the tensile strength and the elongation of the steels. On the contrary, the addition of about 3% Ni into the martensitic stainless steel results in decreasing of both the tensile strength and the elongation. Among the alloys investigated the 13Cr3Mo type steel exhibited largest tensile strength of 1348 MPa and largest elongation of 12%. The observation on the tensile fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope supported these findings.

  18. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of TIG Remelted NiCrBSi Thick Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-lu Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-fluxing NiCrBSi coatings with 800 μm thickness were prepared on the surface of AISI1045 steel substrate by plasma spraying. And the remelted coating was obtained using by the tungsten inert gas (TIG arc process. The microstructure, surface roughness, hardness, phase composition, and wear resistance of the sprayed coating and remelted coating were systematically investigated. The results demonstrate that TIG remelted treatment can significantly eliminate the microscopic defects in thick coating and improve its density. The surface roughness (Ra of the remelted coating is only 18.9% of the sprayed coating. The hardness of the remelted coating is 26.8% higher than that of the sprayed coating. The main phases in the sprayed coating are changed from γ-Ni, Cr7C3, and Cr2B to γ-Ni, Cr23C6, CrB, Ni3B, and Fe3C. The wear mass loss of the remelted coating is only 17.1% of the sprayed coating. Therefore, a Ni-based thick coating with good wear resistance can be obtained by plasma spraying and remelted technique.

  19. Effect of Cavitation on Surface Damage of 16.7Cr-10Ni-2Mo Stainless Steel in Marine Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Sang-Ok; Han, Min-Su; Kim, Seong-Jong [Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Stainless steel is generally known to have characteristics of excellent corrosion resistance and durability, but in a marine environment it can suffer from localized corrosion due to the breakdown of passivity film due to chloride ion in seawater. Furthermore, the damage behaviors are sped up under a cavitation environment because of complex damage from electrochemical corrosion and cavitation-erosion. In this study the characteristics of electrochemical corrosion and cavitation erosion behavior were evaluated on 16.7Cr-10Ni-2Mo stainless steel under a cavitation environment in natural seawater. The electrochemical experiments have been conducted at both static conditions and dynamic conditions inducing cavitation with different current density parameters. The surface morphology and damage behaviors were compared after the experiment. After the cavitation test with time variables morphological examinations on damaged specimens were analyzed by using a scanning electron microscope and a 3D microscope. the galvanostatic experiment gave a cleaner surface morphology presented with less damage depth at high current density regions. It is due to the effect of water cavitation peening under the cavitation condition. In the cavitation experiment, with amplitude of 30 μm and seawater temperature of 25 ℃, weight loss and cavitation-erosion damage depth were dramatically increased after 5 hours inducing cavitation.

  20. The structure of the alphinizing coat on alloy steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results of the structure of the coat alphinizing in AlSi5 silumin on alloy steels: acid-proof 1H18N9T (X6CrNiTi18-10 and high speed SW18 (HS18-0-1 were presented. The temperature of the alphinizing bath was amounts to750±5°C, and immersion time of the element τ = 180s. It was shown, that there is the different “g” coat thickness on testing steels. On the 1H18N9T steel it amounts to g = 52μm, and on the SW18 steel – g = 203μm. Regardless of a grade of testing alloy steels the coat consist of three layers with diversified phasic structure. There is different chemical composition of coat layers on testing steels. The first layer from the base consist of AlFe phase containing alloy addictions of steels: Cr and Ni (1H18N9T and W, V and Cr (SW18. On this layer crystallize the second layer of intermetallic phases. It is the phase containing the main alloy addiction of steels: AlFeCr (1H18N9T and AlFeW (SW18. The last, outside layer consist of silumin containing AlFeNi intermetallic phases on the 1H18N9T steel and AlFeW on the SW18 steel. Regardless of the grade of testing steels there is Si element in all layers of the coat. There are morphological differences in tested layers. The second layer (AlFeW phase inside the coat on the SW18 steel consist of faced crystals growing into in outside silumin layer. On the 1H18N9T steel a boundary between transient and outside layer is more uniform. Free separations of intermetallic phases inside silumin layer on the 1H18N9T steel have lamellar and on the SW18 steel – faced form.

  1. Effect of titanium on the creep deformation behaviour of 14Cr-15Ni-Ti stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, S.; Mathew, M. D.; Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M.; Mannan, S. L.

    2011-02-01

    14Cr-15Ni-Ti modified stainless steel alloyed with additions of phosphorus and silicon is a potential candidate material for the future cores of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. In order to optimise the titanium content in this steel, creep tests have been conducted on the heats with different titanium contents of 0.18, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.36 wt.% at 973 K at various stress levels. The stress exponents indicated that the rate controlling deformation mechanism was dislocation creep. A peak in the variation of rupture life with titanium content was observed around 0.23 wt.% titanium and the peak was more pronounced at lower stresses. The variation in creep strength with titanium content was correlated with transmission electron microscopic investigations. The peak in creep strength exhibited by the material with 0.23 wt.% titanium is attributed to the higher volume fraction of fine secondary titanium carbide (TiC) precipitates.

  2. Effect of titanium on the creep deformation behaviour of 14Cr-15Ni-Ti stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latha, S. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Mathew, M.D., E-mail: mathew@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Mannan, S.L. [National Engineering College, Kovilpatti, Tamil Nadu 628 503 (India)

    2011-02-28

    14Cr-15Ni-Ti modified stainless steel alloyed with additions of phosphorus and silicon is a potential candidate material for the future cores of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. In order to optimise the titanium content in this steel, creep tests have been conducted on the heats with different titanium contents of 0.18, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.36 wt.% at 973 K at various stress levels. The stress exponents indicated that the rate controlling deformation mechanism was dislocation creep. A peak in the variation of rupture life with titanium content was observed around 0.23 wt.% titanium and the peak was more pronounced at lower stresses. The variation in creep strength with titanium content was correlated with transmission electron microscopic investigations. The peak in creep strength exhibited by the material with 0.23 wt.% titanium is attributed to the higher volume fraction of fine secondary titanium carbide (TiC) precipitates.

  3. Effect of titanium on the creep deformation behaviour of 14Cr-15Ni-Ti stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latha, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M.; Mannan, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    14Cr-15Ni-Ti modified stainless steel alloyed with additions of phosphorus and silicon is a potential candidate material for the future cores of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. In order to optimise the titanium content in this steel, creep tests have been conducted on the heats with different titanium contents of 0.18, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.36 wt.% at 973 K at various stress levels. The stress exponents indicated that the rate controlling deformation mechanism was dislocation creep. A peak in the variation of rupture life with titanium content was observed around 0.23 wt.% titanium and the peak was more pronounced at lower stresses. The variation in creep strength with titanium content was correlated with transmission electron microscopic investigations. The peak in creep strength exhibited by the material with 0.23 wt.% titanium is attributed to the higher volume fraction of fine secondary titanium carbide (TiC) precipitates.

  4. Study of the Weldability of Austenitic PH Steel for Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziewiec A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of Transvarestraint test of a modern precipitation hardened steel X10CrNiCuNb18-9-3 with copper. For comparison, the results of tests of conventional steel without the addition of copper X5CrNi18-10 are presented. The total length of all cracks and the maximum length of cracks were measured. The study of microstructure (LM, SEM showed that the austenitic stainless steel X10CrNiCuNb18-9-3 is very prone to hot cracking. After performing the Transvarestraint tests three types of cracks were observed: solidification cracks occurring during crystallization, liquation cracks due to segregation in the heat affected zone (HAZ and surface cracks. Niobium carbonitrides dispersed in the bands of segregation are the reason of high susceptibility to liquation cracking. Segregation of copper occurring during solidification causes of surface cracking. A combined effect of copper and stresses contributes to formation of hot microcracks. These microcracks propagate to a depth of 20-30 μm.

  5. HIGH TEMPERATURE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF NEW FE-CR-MN DEVELOPED STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mahmoudiniya; Sh. Kheirandish; M. Asadi Asadabad

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, Ni-free austenitic stainless steels are being developed rapidly and high price of nickel is one of the most important motivations for this development. At present research a new FeCrMn steel was designed and produced based on Fe-Cr-Mn-C system. Comparative studies on microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of  new steel and AISI 316 steel were done. The results showed that new FeCrMn developed steel has single austenite phase microstructure, and its tensile st...

  6. Microstructure and wear behaviors of laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-WS2 high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mao-Sheng; Liu, Xiu-Bo; Fan, Ji-Wei; He, Xiang-Ming; Shi, Shi-Hong; Fu, Ge-Yan; Wang, Ming-Di; Chen, Shu-Fa

    2012-02-01

    The high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 coating and wear-resistant NiCr/Cr3C2 coating were fabricated on 0Cr18Ni9 austenitic stainless steel by laser cladding. Phase constitutions and microstructures were investigated, and the tribological properties were evaluated using a ball-on-disc wear tester under dry sliding condition at room-temperature (17 °C), 300 °C and 600 °C, respectively. Results indicated that the laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2 coating consisted of Cr7C3 primary phase and γ-(Fe,Ni)/Cr7C3 eutectic colony, while the coating added with WS2 was mainly composed of Cr7C3 and (Cr,W)C carbides, with the lubricating WS2 and CrS sulfides as the minor phases. The wear tests showed that the friction coefficients of two coatings both decrease with the increasing temperature, while the both wear rates increase. The friction coefficient of laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 is lower than the coating without WS2 whatever at room-temperature, 300 °C, 600 °C, but its wear rate is only lower at 300 °C. It is considered that the laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 composite coating has good combination of anti-wear and friction-reducing capabilities at room-temperature up to 300 °C.

  7. On the corrosion testing of weldments of high alloyed CrNiMo-stainless steels and NiCrMo-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, G.; Voigt, C.; Werner, H.

    1997-01-01

    Weldments of high-alloyed CrNiMo stainless steels and NiCrMo alloys can be more susceptible to localized corrosion than the solution annealed basic material owing to segregations and precipitations in the heat affected zone, the high temperature zone and/or in the weld. To investigate these differences the FeCl 3 -test (10% FeCl 3 . 6aq), the test ''green death'' (11.5% H 2 SO 4 , 1.2% HCl, 1% CuCl 2 , 1% FeCl 3 ) as well as chronopotentiostatic tests in artificial sea water or in 3% NaCl-solution are used. In particular for testing the highest alloyed materials a CaCl 2 -test was developed (4.5 M CaCl 2 , chronopotentiostatic test in duration of 8 to 10 hours at + 200 mV (SCE)), which can be carried out to a temperature of 115 C at atmospheric pressure. The aggressivity increases in the range FeCl 3 -test, ''green death''-test, CaCl 2 -test. Matching and graduated over-alloyed weldments (TIG, heat input of 7 and 15.5 kJ/cm) of materials 1.4529, 1.4562, 2.4856, 2.4819 (german materials No.) are comparingly examined in various tests, of materials 1.4406, 1.4539, 1.4439 and 1.4563 (german materials No.) only matching weldments in the FeCl 3 -test. In strongly oxidizing media only a highly over-alloyed performed weldment (filler material 2.4607, german material No.) produces the best corrosion behaviour, measured as the critical temperatures of localized corrosion. Measurements of critical current densities of passivation can be used for investigations of corrosion behaviour of weldments, too. Critical current densities of passivation are showing a tendency to inverse proportion to the critical temperatures of localized corrosion. Suitable electrolytes are among others 0.2 M H 2 SO 4 + 1 M NaCl + 10 -3 % KSCN, N 2 -bubbled, 25 to 60 C and xM H 2 SO 4 + 4 M NaCl + 10 -3 % KSCN (x = 0.05 to 1), 25 C, in contact with air. An influence of heat input at the welding is indicated in the test of localized corrosion, but it is only small. It is sometimes more clearly shown at

  8. Evaluation of rolling contact fatigue of induction heated 13Cr-2Ni-2Mo Stainless steel bar with Si3N4-ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadoiwa, Ariyasu; Mizobe, Koshiro; Kida, Katsuyuki

    2018-03-01

    13Cr % martensitic stainless steels were used in various industry, because they have excellent corrosion resistance and high hardness among other stainless steels. They are also expected as a bearing material, however, the research on rolling contact fatigue (RCF) is not enough. In this study, 13Cr-2Ni-2Mo stainless steels were quenched by induction heating and their RCF lives were evaluated. A Si3N4-ball was used in order to apply higher stress (Pmax = 5.6 GPa) than our previous tests (Pmax=5.3 GPa), in a single-ball RCF testing machine. It was found that the basic life (L10) was 2.20×106 cycles and Median life (L50) was 6.04×106 cycles. In addition, Weibull modulus became higher than the previous tests.

  9. Hot cracking of welded joints of the 7CrMoVTiB 10-10 (T/P24) steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamiec, J, E-mail: janusz.adamiec@polsl.pl [Department of Materials Science, Silesian University of Technology, Krasinskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    Bainitic steel 7CrMoVTiB10-10 is one the newest steels for waterwalls of modern industrial boilers. In Europe, attempts have been made to make butt welded joints of pipes made of this steel of the diameter up to 51 mm and thickness up to 8 mm. Many cracks have been observed in the welded joint, both during welding and transport and storage. The reasons of cracking and the prevention methods have not been investigated. No comprehensive research is carried out in Europe in order to automate the welding process of the industrial boiler elements made of modern bainitic steel, such as 7CrMoVTiB10-10. There is no information about its overall, operative and local weldability, influence of heat treatment, as well as about resistance of the joints to cracking during welding and use. The paper presents experience of Energoinstal SA from development of technology and production of waterwalls of boilers made of the 7CrMoVTiB 10-10 steel on a multi-head automatic welder for submerged arc welding.

  10. Electrochemical Behavior and Hydrophobic Properties of CrN and CrNiN Coatings in Simulated Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Jie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The CrN and CrNiN coatings were prepared on the surface of 304 stainless steel by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering.X ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the coatings.The electrochemical corrosion properties under the simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell(PEMFC environment, interfacial contact resistance and hydrophobic properties of the two kinds of different coatings were investigated by electrochemical methods,contact resistance test and hydrophobic test,respectively.The results indicate that CrN coating mainly consists of CrN and Cr2N phase,CrN and Cr2N phases in the CrNiN coating are less compared to CrN film, and Ni exist as element in CrNiN coating; dynamic polarization tests show the coating is of better corrosion resistance,whereas the corrosion resistance of CrNiN coating is worse than that of CrN coating,constant potential polarization test shows the corrosion current density of CrN and CrNiN coatings are equivalent; CrN and CrNiN coatings significantly reduce the interfacial contact resistance of the 304 stainless steel,among which CrN coating has the smallest contact resistance; and CrNiN coating which has better hydrophobicity than that of CrN coating is more beneficial for the water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

  11. Creep and time to rupture of a 16/16 Cr Ni Steel; Comportamiento a la fluencia lenta de la aleacion X 8 Cr Ni Mo Nb 1616 con distintos tratamientos termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, R; Garcia, R; Bohm, H; Schirra, M

    1972-07-01

    The influence of different thermal-mechanical treatments on the creep and time to rupture of a 16/16 Cr.Ni steel is studied. The solution treated material after annealing at 700-800 degree centigree did not affect time to rupture. At the contrary a 12% cold-working and annealing at 800 degree centigree improve the time to rupture. This treatment is preserved up to 700 degree centigree 10{sup 4} hours. The ductility is not strongly affected. A metallographic study of the fracture was carried out. (Author) 23 refs.

  12. Precipitation in 20 Cr-25 Ni type stainless steel irradiated at low temperatures in a thermal reactor (AGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on the microstructure of AGR fuel rod cladding have been studied by analytical electron microscopy. Two alloys were investigated, the standard 20 Cr-25 Ni steel stabilised with Nb and a variant containing less Nb but strengthened with a dispersion of TiN precipitates. Irradiation at 360 deg C to 480 deg C produced (Ni, Si)-rich precipitates in both alloys; additionally the standard alloy contained (Ni, Nb, Si)-rich precipitates when irradiated at 440 deg C to 640 deg C. While similar features have been observed in other austenitic stainless steels irradiated in fast reactors, where the lattice-damage rate is greater than in a thermal reactor, their formation is not predicted by isothermal equilibrium diagrams. It is suggested here that the phases are irradiation-induced and that the total displacement damage is the controlling factor. Cladding solution-treated above 1050 deg C then irradiated at 2 -based reactor coolant occurred in cladding with low levels of cold-work at the outer surface, also resulting in Cr-rich carbide formation. (author)

  13. Reformed austenite transformation during fatigue crack propagation of 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, Denis, E-mail: thibault.denis@ireq.ca [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S1 (Canada); Bocher, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.bocher@etsmtl.ca [Ecole de technologie superieure, 1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 1K3 (Canada); Thomas, Marc, E-mail: marc.thomas@etsmtl.ca [Ecole de technologie superieure, 1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 1K3 (Canada); Lanteigne, Jacques, E-mail: lanteigne.jacques@ireq.ca [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S1 (Canada); Hovington, Pierre, E-mail: hovington.pierre@ireq.ca [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S1 (Canada); Robichaud, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.robichaud@riotinto.com [Centre de recherche et de developpement Arvida (CRDA), 1955, boul. Mellon, Jonquiere, Quebec, G7S 4K8 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Reformed austenite in 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steel transforms during fatigue crack growth. {yields} Low cycle fatigue tests showed that this transformation to martensite is gradual. {yields} XRD spectrums obtained on the fracture surface and have been correlated to LCF results. - Abstract: In the as-quenched state, 13%Cr-4%Ni martensitic stainless steels are essentially 100% martensitic. However, a certain amount of austenite is formed during the tempering of this alloy. This reformed austenite is thermally stable at room temperature but can transform to martensite under stress. This transformation is known to happen during impact testing but it has never been established if it occurs during fatigue crack propagation. This study presents the results of X-ray diffraction measurements of reformed austenite before and after crack growth testing. It has been found that reformed austenite does transform to martensite at the crack tip and that this transformation occurs even at a low stress intensity factor. Low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted to verify austenite transformation under cyclic straining. It was found that reformed austenite transforms only partially during the first strain reversal but that essentially all austenite has disappeared after 100 cycles. The relation between austenite transformation under low-cycle fatigue and its transformation during crack growth is also discussed.

  14. Reformed austenite transformation during fatigue crack propagation of 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, Denis; Bocher, Philippe; Thomas, Marc; Lanteigne, Jacques; Hovington, Pierre; Robichaud, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Reformed austenite in 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steel transforms during fatigue crack growth. → Low cycle fatigue tests showed that this transformation to martensite is gradual. → XRD spectrums obtained on the fracture surface and have been correlated to LCF results. - Abstract: In the as-quenched state, 13%Cr-4%Ni martensitic stainless steels are essentially 100% martensitic. However, a certain amount of austenite is formed during the tempering of this alloy. This reformed austenite is thermally stable at room temperature but can transform to martensite under stress. This transformation is known to happen during impact testing but it has never been established if it occurs during fatigue crack propagation. This study presents the results of X-ray diffraction measurements of reformed austenite before and after crack growth testing. It has been found that reformed austenite does transform to martensite at the crack tip and that this transformation occurs even at a low stress intensity factor. Low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted to verify austenite transformation under cyclic straining. It was found that reformed austenite transforms only partially during the first strain reversal but that essentially all austenite has disappeared after 100 cycles. The relation between austenite transformation under low-cycle fatigue and its transformation during crack growth is also discussed.

  15. Tensile strength and creep behaviour of austenitic stainless steel type 18Cr - 12Ni with niobium additions at 700{sup 0}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordi, V L; Bueno, L O, E-mail: sordi@ufscar.b [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Materials Engineering Department, Sao Carlos (SP), 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The effect of niobium additions up to 2.36 wt% on the creep behavior of a series of seven extra low carbon 18Cr-12Ni austenitic stainless steels at 700{sup 0}C has been investigated. Grain size and hardness measurements, hot tensile tests and constant stress creep tests from 90 to 180 MPa were carried out for each alloy, in the solution treated condition at 1050, 1200 and 1300{sup 0}C followed by quench in water. The mechanical behavior at high temperature was related to the amount of NbC precipitation occurring during the tests. Solid solution and intermetallic compound effects were also considered. Creep data analysis was done to determine the parameters of the creep power-law equation {epsilon}-dot = A.{sigma}{sup n} and the Monkman-Grant relation {epsilon}-dot .t{sup m}{sub R} = K. Niobium-carbide precipitation in these steels reduces the secondary stage dependence of strain rate with applied stress, resulting in n-values which indicate the possibility of operation of various creep mechanisms. The creep strength during the secondary stage is primarily controlled by the amount of NbC available for precipitation. However, the rupture times increase progressively with niobium content, as the amount of undissolved carbide particles in grain boundaries and the Laves phase precipitation increase.

  16. Comparative study of creep behaviour in three Cr Ni 15/15 steel stabilized with Ti and with different contents in W, Mn, Mo and Bor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, R.R.; Rivas, M. de las; Schirra, M.; Seith, B.

    1975-01-01

    The main difference between the three steels which are tested at temperature range from 650 0 C to 750 0 C is due to the hardening elements pf the matrix and the Boron content: 1. 12R72HV (X10NiCrMoTiB 1515) 2% Mn 1,5% Mo 80 ppmB 2. Vaccutherm (X12CrNiWTi 1613) 3% W 2,5 ppmB 3. RGT 21 (X12CrNiWTi 1613) 3% W 50 ppm B. The investigations of all casts are carried out in two different heat treatments which are suitable for the conditions required for the operation of the reactor. Cond. I: 1150 0 C 30 min, water quenced; 800 0 32 hour, air; 10% cold work. Cond. II: 1150 0 C 30 min, water quenched; 10% cold work. In connection with creep test the condition I irrespective of 3 steels show no remarkable difference. The observation at 750 0 C test temperature and also at condition II above 650 0 C on Boron-free Vaccutherm cast shows an unfavourable behaviour. There is no significant difference in the stress dependence of secondary creep rate and also absolute creep rate. A definite superiority is to be found for 12R72HV when considering the values for time-yield-limit-ratio and ductility compared to the W-steels. The test results shows different fracture behaviour. Transcrystalline fracture is found on cast 12R72HV, whereas RGT 21 and Vaccutherm show transition from transcrystalline to intercrystalline fracture, depending on the rupture time and test temperature. The long term rupture specimens show intercrystalline fracture. (author)

  17. Observations of copper clustering in a 25Cr-7Ni super duplex stainless steel during low-temperature aging under load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuvander, M.; Zhou, J.; Odqvist, J.; Hertzman, S.; Hedström, P.

    2012-07-01

    Atom-probe tomography was used to investigate phase separation and copper (Cu) clustering in the ferrite phase of a 25Cr-7Ni super duplex stainless steel. The steel was subjected to a tensile load during aging at 325°C for 5800 h. The degree of phase separation into α (Fe-rich) and α‧ (Cr-rich) was small, but still, it was the highest in the steel subjected to the highest load. Cu was found to cluster, and the number density of clusters increased with increasing load. In the material subjected to the highest load, Cu was enriched in regions that were neither Fe-rich nor Cr-rich. These regions also had the highest number density of Cu clusters.

  18. Internal carbonitriding behavior of Ni-V, Ni-Cr, and Ni-3Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.T.; Douglass, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Ni-2V, Ni-5V, Ni-12V, Ni-10Cr, Ni-20Cr, and Ni-3Nb alloys were carbonitrided in C 3 H 6 and NH 3 gas mixtures (bal H 2 ) over the range 700--1,000 C. Carbonitridation of Ni-12V and Ni-20Cr in C 3 H 6 /NH 3 /H 2 (1.5/1.5/97 v/o) and (1.5/10/88.5 v/o) produced duplex subscales consisting of near-surface nitrides with underlying carbides. Growth of each zone obeyed the parabolic rate law under most conditions. The presence of carbon generally did not effect the depth of the nitride zones compared to nitriding the alloys in NH 3 /H 2 (10/90 v/o). However, at 700 C, the nitride zones were deeper in the carbonitrided Ni-V alloys and Ni-20Cr. The presence of nitrogen generally increased the depth of the carbide zones in Ni-12V and Ni-20Cr compared to carburizing these alloys in C 3 H 6 /H 2 (1.5/98.5 v/o). VN, CrN, and NbN formed in Ni-V, Ni-Cr, and Ni-Nb alloys, respectively, whereas the underlying carbide layers contained V 4 C 3 in Ni-12V, Cr 3 C 2 above a zone of Cr 7 C 3 in Ni-20Cr, and NbC in Ni-3Nb. The solubilities and diffusivities of nitrogen and carbon in nickel were determined. Nitrogen and carbon each exhibited retrograde solubility with temperature in pure Ni in both carbonitriding environments. Nitrogen diffusion in nickel was generally lower in each carbonitriding mixture compared to nitrogen diffusion in a nitriding environment, except at 700 C when nitrogen diffusion was higher. Carbon diffusion in nickel was generally higher in the carbonitriding environments compared to carbon diffusion in a carburizing environment

  19. Specific features of precipitation hardening of austenitic steels with various base. 2. Kinetics and mechanism of carbide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kositsyna, I.I.; Sagaradze, V.V.; Khakimova, O.N.

    1997-01-01

    Electron microscopic studies were carried out to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of precipitation hardening in Fe-Mn, Fe-Mn-Cr, Fe-Cr-Mn-N, Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Ni base stainless steels (45G20M2F2, 50Kh16G15N6M2F2, 45Kh18N10G10M2F2, 40Kh18Ni18M2F2, 45N26M2F2). The steels were heat treated under various conditions. It is revealed that in manganese steels the particles of vanadium carbide nucleate according to homogeneous mechanism at all aging temperatures (600-750 deg C). The presence of chromium in the matrix promotes the transition to heterogeneous mechanism of carbide nucleation and growth. With nickel content increasing the plasticity of precipitation hardened steels gets better due to more intense diffusion of atoms and vacancies to grain boundaries and, hence, the widening of near-boundary zones free of carbide particles

  20. Reversed austenite in 0Cr13Ni4Mo martensitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.Y., E-mail: songyuanyuan@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, X.Y.; Rong, L.J.; Li, Y.Y. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China); Nagai, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    The austenite reversion process and the distribution of carbon and other alloying elements during tempering in 0Cr13Ni4Mo martensitic stainless steel have been investigated by in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The microstructure of the reversed austenite was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results revealed that the amount of the reversed austenite formed at high temperature increased with the holding time. Direct experimental evidence supported carbon partitioning to carbides and Ni to the reversed austenite. The reversed austenite almost always nucleated in contact with lath boundary M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides during tempering and the diffusion of Ni promoted its growth. The Ni enrichment and the ultrafine size of the reversed austenite were considered to be the main factors that accounted for the stability of the reversed austenite. - Highlights: • The amount of the reversed austenite formed at high temperature increases with the holding time. • STEM results directly show that carbon is mainly partitioned into the carbides and Ni into the reversed austenite. • The Ni enrichment and the ultrafine size are the main factors leading to the stabilization of the reversed austenite.

  1. Soft-martensitic stainless Cr-Ni-Mo steel for turbine rotors in geothermic power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonfeld, K.; Potthast, E.

    1986-01-01

    Steel Grade X5 Cr-Ni-Mo 12 6 containing 0.05% carbon, 12% chromium, 6% nickel, and 1.50% molybdenum is an advantageous material for turbine rotors in geothermic power stations because of its excellent strength and toughness properties in combination with good erosion and corrosion resistance. In terms of the phase diagram, this soft-martensitic steel has its place at the martensite/austenite/ferrite interface. Therefore, its chemical composition must be chosen so as to have a completely martensitic structure after hardening. The manufacture of and the mechanical properties of a turbine rotor 1200 mm in diameter by 5600 mm in length with a finished weight of approximately 21.5 tons are described in detail

  2. Friction and wear behaviour of Ni-Cr-B hardface coating on 316LN stainless steel in liquid sodium at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hemant; Ramakrishnan, V.; Albert, S. K.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Ray, K. K.

    2017-11-01

    The sliding friction and wear behaviour of Ni-Cr-B hardface coating made on 316LN stainless steel were evaluated in liquid sodium at 823 K by using a fabricated reciprocating-type tribometer. The test parameters have been selected based on operational conditions prevailing in the Indian sodium cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs). Accordingly, the tests were carried out at sliding speeds of 2 and 16 mm/s under contact stresses of 10 and 40 MPa respectively using Ni-Cr-B coated pin and disc specimens. The static and dynamic friction coefficients are found to be in the ranges of 0.03-0.07 and 0.01-0.02 respectively under the imposed test conditions. The estimated wear rates (WR) are found to be in the range of 0.62 × 10-12 - 3.07 × 10-12 m3/m; the magnitude of WR increases with increase in the contact stress. The examination of the worn disc specimens by confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated higher damage in specimens tested at 40 MPa compared to that in specimens tested at 10 MPa; the quantitative estimation of damage was made by the number of scars and their depth. These observations corroborate well with the morphological features of the worn surfaces of the pin specimens examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results unambiguously indicate superior friction coefficients and wear resistance of Ni-Cr-B coatings in liquid sodium compared to that in air under identical test conditions.

  3. Corrosion behavior of steels in liquid lead bismuth with low oxygen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yuji; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Saito, Shigeru

    2008-02-01

    Corrosion tests in pots were conducted to elucidate corrosion behavior of various steels in liquid lead-bismuth for 3000 h under the condition of an oxygen concentration of 5 × 10 -8 wt% at 450 °C and an oxygen concentration of 3 × 10 -9 wt% at 550 °C, respectively. Significant corrosion was not observed at 450 °C for ferritic/martensitic steels, F82H, Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel, 410SS, 430SS except 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Pb-Bi penetration into steels and dissolution of elements into Pb-Bi were severe at 550 °C even for ferritic/martensitic steels. Typical dissolution attack occurred for pure iron both at 550 °C without surface Fe 3O 4 and at 450 °C with a thin Fe 3O 4 film. Ferritization due to dissolution of Ni and Cr, and Pb-Bi penetration were recognized for austenitic stainless steels, 316SS and 14Cr-16Ni-2Mo steel at both temperatures of 450 °C and 550 °C. The phenomena were mitigated for 18Cr-20Ni-5Si steel. In some cases oxide films could not be a corrosion barrier in liquid lead-bismuth.

  4. Impact behavior of 9-Cr and 12-Cr ferritic steels after low-temperature irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Vitek, J.M.; Corwin, W.R.; Alexander, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Miniature Charpy impact specimens of 9Cr-1MoVNb and 12Cr-1MoVW steels and these steels with 1 and 2% Ni were irradiated in the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at 50 0 C to displacement damage levels of up to 9 dpa. Nickel was added to study the effect of transmutation helium. Irradiation caused an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The 9Cr-1MoVNb steels, with and without nickel, showed a larger shift than the 12Cr-1MoVW steels, with and without nickel. The results indicated that helium also increased the DBTT. The same steels were previously irradiated at higher temperatures. From the present and past tests, the effect of irradiation temperature on the DBTT behavior can be evaluated. For the 9Cr-1MoVNb steel, there is a continuous decrease in the magnitude of the DBTT increase up to an irradiation temperature of about 400 0 C, after which the shift drops rapidly to zero at about 450 0 C. The DBTT of the 12Cr-1MoVW steel shows a maximum increase at an irradiation temperature of about 400 0 C and less of an increase at either higher or lower irradiation temperatures

  5. The thermal fatigue behaviour of creep-resistant Ni-Cr cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study gives a summary of the results of industrial and laboratory investigations regarding an assessment of the thermal fatigue behaviour of creep-resistant austenitic cast steel. The first part of the study was devoted to the problem of textural stresses forming in castings during service, indicating them as a cause of crack formation and propagation. Stresses are forming in carbides and in matrix surrounding these carbides due to considerable differences in the values of the coefficients of thermal expansion of these phases. The second part of the study shows the results of investigations carried out to assess the effect of carbon, chromium and nickel on crack resistance of austenitic cast steel. As a criterion of assessment the amount and propagation rate of cracks forming in the specimens as a result of rapid heating followed by cooling in running water was adopted. Tests were carried out on specimens made from 11 alloys. The chemical composition of these alloys was comprised in a range of the following values: (wt-%: 18-40 %Ni, 17-30 %Cr, 1.2-1.6%Si and 0.05-0.6 %C. The specimens were subjected to 75 cycles of heating to a temperature of 900oC followed by cooling in running water. After every 15 cycles the number of the cracks was counted and their length was measured. The results of the measurements were mathematically processed. It has been proved that the main factor responsible for an increase in the number of cracks is carbon content in the alloy. In general assessment of the results of investigations, the predominant role of carbon and of chromium in the next place in shaping the crack behaviour of creep-resistant austenitic cast steel should be stressed. Attention was also drawn to the effect of high-temperature corrosion as a factor definitely deteriorating the cast steel resistance to thermal fatigue.

  6. Reduced-activation austenitic stainless steels: The Fe--Mn--Cr--C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel-free manganese-stabilized steels are being developed for fusion-reactor applications. As the first part of this effort, the austenite-stable region in the Fe--Mn--Cr--C system was determined. Results indicated that the Schaeffler diagram developed for Fe--Ni--Cr--C alloys cannot be used to predict the constituents expected for high-manganese steels. This is true because manganese is not as strong an austenite stabilizer relative to δ-ferrite formation as predicted by the diagram, but it is a stronger austenite stabilizer relative to martensite than predicted. Therefore, the austenite-stable region for Ne--Mn--Cr--C alloys occurs at lower chromium and hugher combinations of manganese and carbon than predicted by the Schaeffler diagram. Development of a manganese-stabilized stainless steel should be possible in the composition range of 20 to 25% Mn, 10 to 15% Cr, and 0.01 to 0.25%C. Tensile behavior of an Fe--20%Mn--12%Cr--0.25%C alloy was determined. The strength and ductility of this possible base composition was comparable to type 316 stainless steel in both the solution-annealed and cold-worked condition

  7. The influence of heat treatment and process parameters optimization on hardness and corrosion properties of laser alloyed X12CrNiMo steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Popoola, API

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Martensitic stainless steels are used in the production of steam turbine blades but their application is limited due to low hardness and poor corrosion resistance. Laser surface alloying and heat treatment of X12CrNiMo Martensitic stainless steel...

  8. Atom-Probe Tomographic Investigation of Austenite Stability and Carbide Precipitation in a TRIP-Assisted 10 Wt Pct Ni Steel and Its Weld Heat-Affected Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Divya; Seidman, David N.; Barrick, Erin J.; DuPont, John N.

    2018-04-01

    Newly developed low-carbon 10 wt pct Ni-Mo-Cr-V martensitic steels rely on the Ni-enriched, thermally stable austenite [formed via multistep intercritical Quench-Lamellarization-Tempering ( QLT)-treatment] for their superior mechanical properties, specifically ballistic resistance. Critical to the thermal stability of austenite is its composition, which can be severely affected in the weld heat-affected zones (HAZs) and thus needs investigations. This article represents the first study of the nanoscale redistributions of C, Ni, and Mn in single-pass HAZ microstructures of QLT-treated 10 wt pct Ni steels. Local compositions of Ni-rich regions (representative of austenite compositions) in the HAZs are determined using site-specific 3-D atom-probe tomography (APT). Martensite-start temperatures are then calculated for these compositions, employing the Ghosh-Olson thermodynamic and kinetics approach. These calculations predict that austenite (present at high temperatures) in the HAZs is susceptible to a martensitic transformation upon cooling to room temperature, unlike the austenite in the QLT-treated base-metal. While C in the QLT-treated base-metal is consumed primarily in MC and M2C-type carbide precipitates (M is Mo, Cr, V), its higher concentration in the Ni-rich regions in the HAZs indicates the dissolution of carbide precipitates, particularly M2C carbide precipitates. The role of M2C carbide precipitates and austenite stability is discussed in relation to the increase in microhardness values observed in the HAZs, relative to the QLT-treated base-metal. Insights gained from this research on austenite stability and carbide precipitation in the single-pass HAZ microstructures will assist in designing multiple weld cycles for these novel 10 wt pct Ni steels.

  9. Interfacial microstructure and performance of brazed diamond grits with Ni-Cr-P alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.Y. [Faculty of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)], E-mail: cywang@gdut.edu.cn; Zhou, Y.M.; Zhang, F.L.; Xu, Z.C. [Faculty of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-05-12

    The reaction mechanism of the interface among diamond, commercial Ni-Cr-P alloy and steel substrate has been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The reaction layers formed among diamond, brazing alloy and steel substrate produced good wettability of diamond grits for achieving better quality tools. The reaction layer between diamond and brazing alloy comprised a reaction layer of brazing alloy and a reaction layer of diamond. Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} formed in the reaction layer of brazing alloy was the main reason for improving the bonding strength of Ni-Cr alloy to the diamond grits. A reaction layer of diamond may be a graphitization layer formed on the surface of diamond under high temperature brazing. The reaction layer of brazing alloy and steel substrate was the co-diffusion of Ni, Cr and Fe between the brazing alloy and the steel substrate. The life and sharpness of brazed diamond boring drill bits fabricated in this study were superior to the electroplated one in the market owing to its high protrusion and bonding strength.

  10. Creep behaviour of the alloys NiCr22Co12Mo and 10CrMo9 10 under static and cyclic load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, H.

    1990-01-01

    The creep behaviour of NiCr20Co12Mo is investigated under static strain and at 800deg C, with stresses applied ranging from 105 MPa to 370 MPa. The ferritic steel 10CrMo 9 10 is tested for its creep behaviour under static strain and at the temperatures of 600deg C and 550deg C, with stresses applied between 154 MPa and 326 MPa (at 600deg C), or between 250 MPa and 458 MPa (at 550deg C). The experiments are made to determine the effects of changes in strain on the materials' deformation behaviour, placing emphasis on transient creep and elastic or anelastic response. The mean internal stress is determined from changes in strain. Cyclic creep is analysed as a behaviour directly responding to the pattern of change in strain. Effects of certain strain changes not clarified so far are analysed. The cyclic strain experiments are analysed according to the velocity factor concept. The usual models of creep deformation (theta projection concept) are compared with the model of effective strain, which is based on the fundamental equation of plastic deformation by dislocation motion (Orowan equation). (MM) [de

  11. Representation of the properties 10 CrMoNiNb 9 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dette, M.; Hahn, H.; Nieuwland, H.C.D.; Tichler, J.W.

    The high-temperature ferritic steal 10 CrMoNiNb 9 10 is used as structural material in nuclear steam generators. It is exposed to loads within the creep range. In order to resist safety also loads caused by incidents after long temperature stress, the time-independent stability parameters must not fall below specified minimum values. The material is characterised by the stability degree Nb/C+N and the niobium excess δ Nb. (orig.) [de

  12. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guangyan; Wu, Yongzhao; Liu, Qun; Li, Rongguang; Su, Yong

    2017-03-01

    The 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr coatings is prepared by slurry process and vacuum diffusion, and the hot corrosion behavior of the stainless steel with/without the coatings is studied under the condition of Na2SO4 film at 950 °C in air. Results show that the corrosion kinetics of stainless steel, the stainless steel with Al-Si coating and the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating follow parabolic laws in several segments. After 24 h corrosion, the sequence of the mass gain for the three alloys is the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating coating coating. The corrosion products of the three alloys are layered. Thereinto, the corrosion products of stainless steel without coating are divided into two layers, where the outside layer contains a composite of Fe2O3 and FeO, and the inner layer is Cr2O3. The corrosion products of the stainless steel with Al-Si coating are also divided into two layers, of which the outside layer mainly consists of Cr2O3, and the inner layer is mainly SiO2. The corrosion film of the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating is thin and dense, which combines well with substrate. Thereinto, the outside layer is mainly Cr2O3, and the inside layer is Al2O3. In the matrix of all of the three alloys, there exist small amount of sulfides. Continuous and protective films of Cr2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 form on the surface of the stainless steel with Al-Si and Al-Si-Cr coatings, which prevent further oxidation or sulfide corrosion of matrix metals, and this is the main reason for the much smaller mass gain of the two alloys than that of the stainless steel without any coatings in the 24 h hot corrosion process.

  13. Impact Strength of Austenitic and Ferritic-Austenitic Cr-Ni Stainless Cast Steel in -40 and +20°C Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandyk B.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies described in this paper relate to common grades of cast corrosion resistant Cr-Ni steel with different matrix. The test materials were subjected to heat treatment, which consisted in the solution annealing at 1060°C followed by cooling in water. The conducted investigations, besides the microstructural characteristics of selected cast steel grades, included the evaluation of hardness, toughness (at a temperature of -40 and +20oC and type of fracture obtained after breaking the specimens on a Charpy impact testing machine. Based on the results of the measured volume fraction of ferrite, it has been found that the content of this phase in cast austenitic steel is 1.9%, while in the two-phase ferritic-austenitic grades it ranges from 50 to 58%. It has been demonstrated that within the scope of conducted studies, the cast steel of an austenitic structure is characterised by higher impact strength than the two-phase ferritic-austenitic (F-A grade. The changing appearance of the fractures of the specimens reflected the impact strength values obtained in the tested materials. Fractures of the cast austenitic Cr-Ni steel obtained in these studies were of a ductile character, while fractures of the cast ferritic-austenitic grade were mostly of a mixed character with the predominance of brittle phase and well visible cleavage planes.

  14. Wear of Flame-Sprayed Ni-Cr-B-Si Powder Coating on Journal for Seal Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sheng-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flame-sprayed techniques is used in this paper to coat Ni-Cr-B-Si powder on low-carbon steel or bearing steel materials of the journal surface. The wear tester is used to explore material properties of the binding capability, surface hardness, wear and friction within each layer depth. The normal force is applied in addition to the cladding layer by not only using bearing ball but also oil seal pieces, to explore rubber material of oil seal contact journal. In experiments to explore the material and processing conditions affect the microstructure and hardness of the cladding layer, and at the same hardness, surface roughness to affect the performance of the mill run.The results showed that spraying Ni-Cr-B-Si alloy powder in mild steel sheet to melt and run, cladding layer and the substrate has a uniform distribution of fine abrasive particles and binding effect, causing the substrate surface hardness (HRC about promotion 10 times. While, if sprayed Ni-Cr-B-Si alloy powder to steel panels bearing surface because the surface coated compact structure, can reduce the surface roughness and the coefficient of friction, and more improve the wear resistance of the cladding layer.

  15. Comparison of the segregation behavior between tempered martensite and tempered bainite in Ni-Cr-Mo high strength low alloy RPV steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Hyung Jun; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel has an superior fracture toughness and strength, compared to commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy RPV steel SA508 Gr.3. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels could be obtained by adding Ni and Cr. So several were performed on researches on SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a RPV application. The operation temperature and term of a reactor pressure vessel is more than 300 .deg. C and over 40 years. Therefore, in order to apply the SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a reactor pressure vessel, the resistance of thermal embrittlement in the high temperature range including temper embrittlement is required. S. Raoul reported that the susceptibility to temper embrittlement was increasing a function of the cooling rate in SA533 steel, which suggests the martensitic microstructures resulting from increased cooling rates are more susceptible to temper embrittlement. However, this result has not been proved yet. So the comparison of temper embrittlement behavior was made between martensitic microstructure and bainitic microstructure with a viewpoint of boundary features in SA508 Gr.4N, which have mixture of tempered bainite/martensite. We have compared temper embrittlement behaviors of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with changing volume fraction of martensite. The mechanical properties of these low alloy steels were evaluated after a long-term heat treatment. Then, the the segregated boundaries were observed and segregation behavior was analyzed by AES. In order to compare the misorientation distributions of model alloys, grain boundary structures were measured with EBSD

  16. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using 316L steel, hastelloy, maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel, TiN and NiCr. Simulation in tritiated water. 2 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-03-01

    Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the slow and fast kinetics (voltammetry) of different stainless steel alloys. These corrosion kinetics, the actual or simulated tritiated water redox potentials, and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: 316L, Hastelloy, Maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel and TiN and NiCr deposits. From the results it can be concluded that Hastelloy and Elgiloy have the best corrosion resistance. (author). 49 refs., 695 figs., tabs

  17. Passive behaviour of alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 in simulating concrete pore solutions with different pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai, Zhiyong; Jiang, Jinyang; Sun, Wei; Song, Dan; Ma, Han; Zhang, Jianchun; Wang, Danqian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 is developed for reinforcing rebar of concrete in severe environments. • The effects of pH on the passive behaviour of Cr10Mo1 steel compared with plain carbon steel were studied systematically by electrochemical techniques and surface analysis. • The mechanism for self-reinforcing passivity against carbonation of the corrosion-resistant steel is revealed. - Abstract: The passive behaviour of new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 and plain carbon steel (as a comparison) in simulating concrete pore solutions of different pH (ranging from 13.5 to 9.0) under open circuit potential conditions, was evaluated by various electrochemical techniques: potentiodynamic polarization, capacitance measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The chemical composition and structure of passive films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The electrochemical responses of passive films show that Cr10Mo1 steel has an increasing passivity with pH decreasing while carbon steel dose conversely, revealing carbonation does no negative effect on passivation of the corrosion-resistant steel. SIMS reveals that the passive film on the corrosion-resistant steel presents a bilayer structure: an outer layer mainly consisting of Fe oxides and hydroxides, and an inner layer enriched in Cr species, while only a Fe-concentrated layer for carbon steel. According to the XPS analysis results, as the pH decreases, more stable and protective Cr oxides are enriched in the film on Cr10Mo1 steel while Fe oxides gradually decompose. Higher content of Cr oxides in the film layer provides Cr10Mo1 corrosion-resistant steel more excellent passivity at lower pH.

  18. Passive behaviour of alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 in simulating concrete pore solutions with different pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Zhiyong, E-mail: 230139452@seu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiang, Jinyang, E-mail: jiangjinyang16@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Sun, Wei, E-mail: sunwei@seu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Song, Dan, E-mail: songdancharls@hhu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu (China); Ma, Han, E-mail: mahan-iris@shasteel.cn [Research Institute of Jiangsu Shasteel Iron and Steel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Jianchun, E-mail: Zhangjc-iris@shasteel.cn [Research Institute of Jiangsu Shasteel Iron and Steel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Danqian, E-mail: wonderbaba@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 is developed for reinforcing rebar of concrete in severe environments. • The effects of pH on the passive behaviour of Cr10Mo1 steel compared with plain carbon steel were studied systematically by electrochemical techniques and surface analysis. • The mechanism for self-reinforcing passivity against carbonation of the corrosion-resistant steel is revealed. - Abstract: The passive behaviour of new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 and plain carbon steel (as a comparison) in simulating concrete pore solutions of different pH (ranging from 13.5 to 9.0) under open circuit potential conditions, was evaluated by various electrochemical techniques: potentiodynamic polarization, capacitance measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The chemical composition and structure of passive films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The electrochemical responses of passive films show that Cr10Mo1 steel has an increasing passivity with pH decreasing while carbon steel dose conversely, revealing carbonation does no negative effect on passivation of the corrosion-resistant steel. SIMS reveals that the passive film on the corrosion-resistant steel presents a bilayer structure: an outer layer mainly consisting of Fe oxides and hydroxides, and an inner layer enriched in Cr species, while only a Fe-concentrated layer for carbon steel. According to the XPS analysis results, as the pH decreases, more stable and protective Cr oxides are enriched in the film on Cr10Mo1 steel while Fe oxides gradually decompose. Higher content of Cr oxides in the film layer provides Cr10Mo1 corrosion-resistant steel more excellent passivity at lower pH.

  19. Strength behaviour of 10CrMo9.10 steel in nonsteady-state applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.

    2 testing runs with cyclic temperature increase were conducted on steel 10CrMo9.10 samples, i.e., at 500 degC and cyclic increase by 10, 25 and 50 degC, and at 550 degC and cyclic increase by 50 degC. Long-term strength was studied under a strain of 6.1 to 25.6 kp/mm 2 for 22,000 hours and the effect of periodical unloading was investigated on long-term strength at 550 degC. Sample loading and unloading proceeded within the range of 8.8 to 24.7 kp/mm 2 at an unloading rate of 8 to 100 %/min. Steel lifetime was not affected by the number of cycles. The effect of the changing load and of constant temperature without load on the long-term strength of the steel at 550 degC is shown graphically. The results showed a clear dependence of steel life on dwell time at the given temperature without load. (J.P.)

  20. Effect of rare earth element yttrium addition on microstructures and properties of a 21Cr-11Ni austenitic heat-resistant stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lei; Ma, Xiaocong; Wang, Longmei; Ye, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Applications of Y in 21Cr-11Ni austenitic heat-resistant stainless steel. → Sensible characteristics of microstructure and properties have been observed. → Y has been found be effective in improving hot ductility of 21Cr-11Ni steel. → Inhibitory effect of Y on S segregation to the grain boundary has been observed. -- Abstract: In this comparative study, the microstructure and the mechanical properties of a 21Cr-11Ni austenitic heat-resistant stainless steel with and without addition of rare earth (RE) element yttrium have been investigated. The results show that a number of fine spherical yttrium-rich oxide particles are not uniformly distributed in the matrix of steel with yttrium; instead, they are aligned along the rolling direction. The grains surrounding the alignment are nearly one order of magnitude smaller than those farther away from the alignment. The approximate calculation results indirectly show that the grain refinement may be mainly attributed to the stimulation for nucleation of recrystallization rather than to pinning by particles. Furthermore, the alignment has resulted in significant loss in transverse impact toughness and tensile elongation at room temperature. There is a trough in the hot ductility-temperature curve, which is located between 973 and 1173 K. The ductility trough of steel with yttrium becomes shallow within a certain temperature range, especially around 1073 K, indicating that improvement on hot ductility is achieved by yttrium addition. The results may be attributed to the increase of grain boundary cohesion indicated by the effective improvement on intergranular failure tendency, and the inhibitory effect of yttrium on sulfur segregation to grain boundaries is believed to be an important cause.

  1. Effects of Cr2N Precipitation on the Antibacterial Properties of AISI 430 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Kang Du

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on their mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, some commercial Ni-Cr stainless steels have been widely applied as biomaterials, including the austenitic 304 stainless steel, the austenitic 316 stainless steel, the duplex 2205 stainless steel, and the ferritic 430 stainless steel. In order to reduce the occurrence of infections resulting from biomaterial implants, instruments, and medical devices, Cu2+ and Ag2+ ions have been added onto biomaterials for increasing the antibacterial properties, but they are known to damage biofilm. The occurrence of nanoparticles can also improve the antibacterial properties of biomaterials through various methods. In this study, we used Escherichia coli and analyzed the microstructures of American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 430 stainless steel with a 0.18 mass % N alloy element. During a lower temperature aging, the microstructure of the as-quenched specimen is essentially a ferrite and martensite duplex matrix with some Cr2N precipitates formed. Additionally, the antibacterial properties of the alloy for E. coli ranged from 3% to 60%, consistent with the presence of Cr2N precipitates. When aged at a lower temperature, which resulted in nano-Cr2N precipitation, the specimen possessed the highest antibacterial activity.

  2. Atomistic study of the hardening of ferritic iron by Ni-Cr decorated dislocation loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, G.; Bakaev, A.; Terentyev, D.; Zhurkin, E.; Posselt, M.

    2018-01-01

    The exact nature of the radiation defects causing hardening in reactor structural steels consists of several components that are not yet clearly determined. While generally, the hardening is attributed to dislocation loops, voids and secondary phases (radiation-induced precipitates), recent advanced experimental and computational studies point to the importance of solute-rich clusters (SRCs). Depending on the exact composition of the steel, SRCs may contain Mn, Ni and Cu (e.g. in reactor pressure vessel steels) or Ni, Cr, Si, Mn (e.g. in high-chromium steels for generation IV and fusion applications). One of the hypotheses currently implied to explain their formation is the process of radiation-induced diffusion and segregation of these elements to small dislocation loops (heterogeneous nucleation), so that the distinction between SRCs and loops becomes somewhat blurred. In this work, we perform an atomistic study to investigate the enrichment of loops by Ni and Cr solutes and their interaction with an edge dislocation. The dislocation loops decorated with Ni and Cr solutes are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations, while the effect of solute segregation on the loop's strength and interaction mechanism is then addressed by large scale molecular dynamics simulations. The synergy of the Cr-Ni interaction and their competition to occupy positions in the dislocation loop core are specifically clarified.

  3. Corrosion resistance of Ultra-Low-Carbon 19% Cr-11% Ni stainless steel for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariga, Tamako; Takagi, Yoshio; Inazumi, Toru; Masamura, Katsumi; Sukekawa, M.

    1995-01-01

    An Ultra-Low-Carbon 19% Cr-11% Ni Stainless Steels used in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants where highly corrosion resistance in nitric acid is required has been developed. This steel has optimized the chemistry composition to decrease inclusions and deformation-induced martensitic transformation. The formation of deformation-induced martensite has the potential danger of accelerating corrosion in nitric acid. In this paper, effects of cold reduction and martensitic transformation on corrosion resistance of Ultra-Low-Carbon Stainless Steels in nitric acid are discussed. The developed steel showed excellent corrosion resistance during long-term exposure to nitric acid. (author)

  4. Modelling and characterization of chi-phase grain boundary precipitation during aging of Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; San Martin, D.; Rivera Diaz del Castillo, P.E.J.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2007-01-01

    High molybdenum stainless steels may contain the chi-phase precipitate (χ, Fe 36 Cr 12 Mo 10 ) which may lead to undesirable effects on strength, toughness and corrosion resistance. In the present work, specimens of a 12Cr-9Ni-4Mo wt% steel are heat treated at different temperatures and times, and the average particle size and particle size distribution of chi-phase precipitate are studied quantitatively. A computer model based on the KWN framework has been developed to describe the evolution of chi-phase precipitation. The kinetic model takes advantage of the KWN model to describe the precipitate particle size distribution, and is coupled with the thermodynamic software ThermoCalc for calculating the instantaneous local thermodynamic equilibrium condition at the interface and the driving force for nucleation. A modified version of Zener's theory accounting for capillarity effects at early growth stages is implemented in this model. The prediction of the model for chi-phase precipitation at a grain boundary is compared to experimental results and both the average particle size and the particle size distribution are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations at late precipitation stages

  5. Effect of chemical composition on irradiation embrittlement and annealing in Ni-Cr-Mo-V reactor pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novosad, P [Czech Nuclear Society, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1994-12-31

    Results concerning copper and phosphorus influence on radiation-induced changes in the Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel mechanical properties, are presented. Correlations between different mechanical properties for steels with different chemical composition, are presented. A comparison of transition temperature shifts obtained for static and dynamic fracture toughness tests and Charpy impact tests, is discussed. Recovery of radiation hardening, measured by hardness test after isochronal annealing of steels with different compositions, is also shown. Copper content strongly affects irradiation-induced changes of mechanical properties, but phosphorus content in connection with variable copper content has only a small effect. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. characterization and weldability of plasma nitrided P/M martensitic stainless steel X 20 Cr Ni 172

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Karim, R.A.; El-demellawy, M.A; Waheed, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    stainless steels are widely used in nuclear applications, as a construction material. in these applications stainless steels suffer from corrosion degradation due severe environment and operating conditions. improving the engineering properties of such material prolong the service life time.in the present study, powder metallurgy technique namely plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) was used to produce martensitic steel DIN X 20 Cr Ni 172 with 0.5 % N. this step was followed by hot isostatic pressing process (HIP) . the effect of N on the weldability of this steel has been investigated . this included microstructure characterization, hardness evaluation and ferrite content measurements. the results showed that the presence of high nitrogen content in this steel resulted in a pore free structure with improved the hardness across the welding area. A single phase with few precipitates was detected on the grain boundaries in the heat affected zone. the results were supplemented by x-ray diffraction patterns and EDAX analysis

  7. Welding of heat-resistant 20% Cr-5% Al steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusek, J.; Arbi, D.; Kosmac, A.; Nartnik, U.

    2002-01-01

    The paper treats welding of heat-resistant ferritic stainless steels alloyed with approximately 20% Cr and 5% Al. The major part of the paper is dedicated to welding of 20% Cr-5% Al steel with 3 mm in thickness. Welding was carried out with five different welding processes, i. e., manual metal-arc, MIG, TIG, plasma arc, and laser beam welding processes, using a filler material and using no filler material, respectively. The welded joints obtained were subjected to mechanical tests and the analysis of microstructure in the weld metal and the transition zone. The investigations conducted showed that heat-resistant ferritic stainless 20% Cr-5% Al steel can be welded with fusion welding processes using a Ni-based filler material. (orig.)

  8. Two feasible approaches to enhance the wear behaviors of NiCrBSi coating in atmosphere and aqueous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuwei; Wang, Chunting; Zheng, Wenru; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Yongxin; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-09-01

    NiCrBSi coating was deposited successfully on the surface of 316 stainless steel substrate by means of plasma spraying. The microstructures and mechanical property were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and a Vickers hardness tester. The wear performances of the coatings sliding against the GCr15 ball under ambient air and water conditions were investigated, and two feasible approaches (tungsten carbide (WC)-doping and heat treatment) were used to improve the tribological performance. Results showed that the hardness of the NiCrBSi coating increased by 12.5% and 28.5% and the porosity decreased by 26.1% and 47.8%, respectively, after WC-doping and heat treatment. During dry friction, the friction coefficient and wear rate of the NiCrBSi coating were about 0.47 and 1.4  ×  10-5 mm3 N-1 m-1, respectively. These values were higher than those obtained on other coatings. In water conditions, all coatings showed a lower friction and wear rate than that in ambient air, which was as a result of the lubrication effect of water. Significantly, with WC-doping and heat treatment, the friction coefficients of both coatings were about 18.5% and 36.7%, respectively, lower than that of the NiCrBSi coating. Furthermore, the wear rates of both coatings were about 20% and 70%, respectively, lower than that of the NiCrBSi coating.

  9. The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy under Xe26+ ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaican; Hai, Yang; Liu, Renduo; Jiang, Li; Ye, Xiang-xi; Li, Jianjian; Xue, Wandong; Wang, Wanxia; Tang, Ming; Yan, Long; Yin, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2018-04-01

    The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy was investigated. 7 MeV Xe26+ ion irradiation was performed at room temperature and 650 °C with peak damage dose from 0.05 to 10 dpa. With the increase of damage dose, the hardness of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy increases, and reaches saturation at damage dose ≥1 dpa. Moreover, the damage dose dependence of hardness in both alloys can be described by the Makin and Minter's equation, where the effective critical volume of obstacles can be used to represent irradiation hardening resistance of the alloys. Our results also show that Ni-W-Cr alloy has better irradiation hardening resistance than Ni-Mo-Cr alloy. This is ascribed to the fact that the W, instead of Mo in the alloy, can suppress the formation of defects under ion irradiation.

  10. Feasibility study on decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel with HBF4 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ruilin; Zhang Yuan; Qiu Dangui; Huang Yuying; Ren Xianwen

    2002-01-01

    Decontamination experiments were carried out with HBF 4 solution on the following four kinds of sample: 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with and without welding line, 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with oxide layer formed in boiling concentrated nitric acid solution, natural uranium and 230 Th contaminated stainless steel pipe sample from one decommissioning nuclear facility. The results indicated that the oxide layer, the welding line of the 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel and itself can be dissolved in the HBF 4 decontamination solution. The solubility of the 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel in the HBF 4 solution used in the test is more than 5 g/L, which means that the 0.13 m 2 stainless steel could be dissolved up to a thickness of 5 μm in one liter of decontamination solution. The decontamination efficiency is more than 85% in 30 minutes for the 230 Th contaminated sample, and 87% in 2 hours for the natural uranium contaminated sample. Both samples could be decontaminated to the background level after several runs of the decontamination

  11. HIGH TEMPERATURE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF NEW FE-CR-MN DEVELOPED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahmoudiniya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Ni-free austenitic stainless steels are being developed rapidly and high price of nickel is one of the most important motivations for this development. At present research a new FeCrMn steel was designed and produced based on Fe-Cr-Mn-C system. Comparative studies on microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of  new steel and AISI 316 steel were done. The results showed that new FeCrMn developed steel has single austenite phase microstructure, and its tensile strength and toughness were higher than those of 316 steel at 25, 200,350 and 500°C. In contrast with 316 steel, the new FeCrMn steel did not show strain induced transformation and dynamic strain aging phenomena during tensile tests that represented higher austenite stability of new developed steel. Lower density and higher strength of the new steel caused higher specific strength in comparison with the 316 one that can be considered as an important advantage in structural applications but in less corrosive environment

  12. Erosion-oxidation behavior of thermal sprayed Ni20Cr alloy and WC and Cr3C2 cermet coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Terui Kunioshi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus to conduct high temperature erosion-oxidation studies up to 850 °C and with particle impact velocities up to 15 m.s-1 was designed and constructed in the Corrosion Laboratories of IPEN. The erosion-oxidation behavior of high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF sprayed alloy and cermet coatings of Ni20Cr, WC 20Cr7Ni and Cr3C2 Ni20Cr on a steel substrate has been studied. Details of this apparatus and the erosion-oxidation behavior of these coatings are presented and discussed. The erosion-oxidation behavior of HVOF coated Cr3C2 25(Ni20Cr was better than that of WC 20Cr7Ni, and the erosion-oxidation regimes have been identified for these coatings at particle impact velocity of 3.5 m.s-1, impact angle of 90° and temperatures in the range 500 to 850 °C.

  13. Microstructure and elevated temperature stability of 9-12% Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-02-01

    Medium Cr steels have been used in fossil fired power plants for many years because of their excellent high temperature stability and mechanical properties. As the desire to increase the efficiency of power plants continues, the operating temperature (>650C) continues to go up. Currently available low and medium Cr containing steels will not withstand the new operating temperature and must be reassessed in terms of their solid-solution and precipitation strengthening schemes. Three medium Cr steels were developed to investigate high temperature alloy strengthening strategies: 0.08C-(9-12)Cr-1.2Ni-0.7Mo-3.0Cu-3.0Co-0.5Ti. The microstructure of the alloy will be described in the as-cast and thermo-mechanically worked states. In addition, the effect on microstructure from long-term high temperature exposure will also be discussed. Finally, the overall stability of these steels will be compared against currently available power plant steels.

  14. Creep rupture properties of oxidised 20%Cr austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, R.C.; Ecob, R.C.

    1989-02-01

    Sheet specimens of stabilised 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb and nitrided 20%Cr/25%Ni/Ti stainless steels, both used as fuel cladding materials in CAGRs, have been oxidised in simulated reactor gas (Co 2 /1-2%CO) for up to l.9kh at 850 0 C, including intermediate thermal cycles to room temperature. The oxidised specimens have been creep tested subsequently at 750 0 C, under conditions of constant stress. The creep rupture properties are affected differently for the two materials. For 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb stainless steel, there was no effect of oxidation on the intrinsic microstructure, when compared with thermally aged, non-oxidised material. Any differences in creep ductility were ascribed to geometric effects in specimens of this alloy. Lower ductilities were associated with an increased incidence of pitting attack (higher oxide spallation) and it was concluded that the extent of local, rather than general, loss of section controlled the ductility. For nitrided 20%Cr/25%Ni/Ti stainless steel, the intrinsic microstructure was affected by oxidation, such that increased grain boundary precipitation of M 23 C 6 occurred. The resultant effect was for a greater tendency for intergranular failure at lower ductility than for the thermally aged material. The magnitude of this reduction could not be quantified because the specimen geometry was also changed by oxidation. In this instance, the oxidation mode that produced the most severe loss of section was grain boundary, rather than pitting, attack. This mode of attack was not linked directly to oxide fracture/spallation, but to the period of oxidation. (author)

  15. The change of NiCrBSi alloys’ phase composition after plasma spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dudek

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Material for investigations was NiCrBSi powder for components’ coatings which improve their corrosion resistance as well as resistance to friction wear and erosion. Plasma spraying method was used to produce a coating with thickness of 300 μm on low-alloy steel which was then remelted with the base material. Using X-ray quality analysis, phase composition was determined for: NiCrBSi powder, obtained coating and the alloyed surface layer. Crystallinity degree was also calculated for NiCrBSi layer sprayed on the base material.

  16. Diffusion complex layers of TiC-Ni-Mo type produced on steel during vacuum titanizing process combined with the electrolytic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzycka, E.; Krolikowski, A.

    1999-01-01

    Diffusion carbide layers produced on steel surface by means of vacuum titanizing process have been studied. A new technological process combining a vacuum titanizing with an electrolytic deposition of Ni-Mo alloy has been proposed to increase of corrosion resistance of carbide layers. The effect of preliminary electrolytic deposition of Ni-Mo alloy on the NC10 steel surface on the titanized layer structure and its corrosion resistance has ben investigated. As a result, diffusion complex layers of TiC-Ni-Mo type on NC10 steel surface have been obtained. An X-ray structural analysis of titanized surfaces on NC10 steel precovered with an electrolytic Ni-Mo alloy coating (70%Ni+30%Mo) revealed a presence of titanium carbide TiC, NiTi, MoTi and trace quantity of austenite. The image of the TiC-Ni-Mo complex layer on NC10 steel surface obtained by means of joined SEM+TEM method and diagrams of elements distribution in the layer diffusion zone have been shown. Concentration of depth profiles of Ti, Ni, Mo, Cr and Fe in the layer diffusion zone obtained by means of the joined EDS+TEM method are shown. Concentration depth profiles of Ti, Ni, Mo, Cr and Fe in the layer diffusion zone obtained by means of the X r ay microanalysis and microhardness of the layer are shown. An X-ray structural analysis of titanized surfaces on the NC10 steel, without Ni-Mo alloy layer, revealed only a substantial presence of titanium carbide TiC. For corrosion resistance tests the steel samples with various diffusion layers and without layers were used: (i) the TiC-Ni-Mo titanized complex layers on NC10 steel, (ii) the TiC titanized carbide layers on the NC10 steel, (iii) the NC10 steel without layers. Corrosion measurements of sample under test have been performed in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance tests. It has been found that the corrosion resistance of titanized steel samples with the TiC and TiC-Ni-Mo layers is higher than for the steel

  17. The influence of Cr and Al pack cementation on low carbon steel to improve oxidation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, Didik; Sugiarti, Eni; Destyorini, Fredina; Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Pack chromizing and aluminizing has been widely used for many years to improve hot temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance of metals. The coating process involves packing the steel in a powder mixture which contain aluminum and chromium source, and inert filler (usually alumina), and halide activator NH4Cl. Al and Cr were deposited onto carbon steel by pack cementation process using elemental Al and Cr powder as Al and Cr source, whereas NiCo alloys codeposited by electrodeposition. The position of Al and Cr could be under or over Ni-Co alloys deposited. Pack cementation was heated on dry inert gas at temperature 800 °C about 5 hours and 20 minute for Cr and Al respectively. Al and Cr was successfully deposited. Laying down effect of Al and Cr onto carbon steel whether up and down toward NiCo alloys coating have affected to oxidation resistance. The pack aluminizing as top layer given best resitance to restrain excessive oxide scale, in contrast pack chromizing reveal bad oxidation resistance, moreover occured spallation on layer.

  18. Effect of ETA treatment on corrosion fatigue in rotors and blades and stress corrosion cracking in 3.5 NiCrMoV steel low-pressure turbine discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitomi, Itoh; Takashi, Momoo; Takayuki, Shiomi

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, to increase the reliability and reduce the amount of feed water iron to prevent of fouling of steam generator tubes, ethanolamine (ETA) treatment has been adopted into the secondary system. In this investigation, the authors verified that ethanolamine treatment does not adversely affect the susceptibility of either stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the turbine discs that are the principal units in the secondary system or corrosion fatigue (CF) in rotors and blades. In the first stage, a laboratory investigation was made of (1) SCC initiation and propagation in 3,5 NiCrMoV steel and (2) CF in 3,5 NiCrMoV steel and blade steels, in both cases using deaerated water to which had been added ethanolamine with few organic acids that is 10 times the estimated concentration. It was confirmed that the ethanolamine treatment had almost no effect. In the second stage, test pieces (removed from the disc steel inserted into the turbine extraction chamber before the ethanolamine treatment was started) were used to observe the initiation and propagation of SCC. Even after long-term observation, ethanolamine treatment into the secondary system was found to have almost no effect on the susceptibility of SCC in discs. (author)

  19. Effect of Solution Annealing on Susceptibility to Intercrystalline Corrosion of Stainless Steel with 20% Cr and 8% Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwade, R. V.; Patil, A. P.; Patre, S. J.; Dayal, R. K.

    2013-06-01

    In general, as-received (AR) austenitic stainless steels (ASSs) contain complex carbide precipitates due to manufacturing operations, subsequent annealing treatment, or due to the fabrication processes such as welding. The presence of pre-existing carbides leads to cumulative sensitization and make the steel susceptible to intercrystalline corrosion (ICC)/intergranular corrosion (IGC) which causes premature failure during service. Solution annealing (SA) is one of the ways to deal with such situations. In this present investigation, the AR (hot rolled and mill annealed) chromium-nickel (Cr-Ni) ASS is compared with SA Cr-Ni ASS. The extent of ICC/IGC was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by various electrochemical tests including ASTM standard A-262 Practice A and Practice E, double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The degree of sensitization for hot rolled mill annealed AR condition is found to be substantially higher (51.55%) than that of SA condition (26.9%) for thermally aged samples (at 700 °C). The chemical composition across the grain boundary was measured using electron probe micro-analyzer for both (AR and SA) conditions and confirms that the pre-sensitization effect was completely removed after SA treatment.

  20. The influence of Cr content on the mechanical properties of ODS ferritic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaofu; Zhou, Zhangjian; Jang, Jinsung; Wang, Man; Hu, Helong; Sun, Hongying; Zou, Lei; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Liwei

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation aimed at researching the mechanical properties of the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels with different Cr content, which were fabricated through a consolidation of mechanical alloyed (MA) powders of 0.35 wt.% nano Y2O3 dispersed Fe-12.0Cr-0.5Ti-1.0W (alloy A), Fe-16.0Cr-0.5Ti-1.0W (alloy B), and Fe-18.0Cr-0.5Ti-1.0W (alloy C) alloys (all in wt.%) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) with 100 MPa pressure at 1150 °C for 3 h. The mechanical properties, including the tensile strength, hardness, and impact fracture toughness were tested by universal testers, while Young's modulus was determined by ultrasonic wave non-destructive tester. It was found that the relationship between Cr content and the strength of ODS ferritic steels was not a proportional relationship. However, too high a Cr content will cause the precipitation of Cr-enriched segregation phase, which is detrimental to the ductility of ODS ferritic steels.

  1. Development of small punch tests for ductile-brittle transition temperature measurement of temper embrittled Ni-Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, J.M.; Kameda, J.; Buck, O.

    1983-01-01

    Small punch tests were developed to determine the ductile-brittle transition temperature of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) steels having various degrees of temper embrittlement and various microstructures. It was found that the small punch test clearly shows the ductile-brittle transition behavior of the temper-embrittled steels. The measured values were compared with those obtained from Charpy impact and uniaxial tensile tests. The effects of punch tip shape, a notch, and the strain rate on the ductile-brittle transition behavior were examined. It was found that the combined use of a notch, high strain rates, and a small punch tip strongly affects the ductile-brittle transition behavior. Considerable variations in the data were observed when the small punch tests were performed on coarse-grained steels. Several factors controlling embrittlement measurements of steels are discussed in terms of brittle fracture mechanisms

  2. Low-activation Mn-Cr austenitic stainless steel with further reduced content of long-lived radioactive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M.; Saida, T.; Hirai, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Kusuhashi, M.; Sato, I.; Hatakeyama, T. [The Japan Steel Works Ltd., Chatsu-machi 4, Muroran 051-8505 (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Low-activation austenitic stainless steel based on Mn-Cr non-magnetic steels has been developed. The alloying elements of long-life activation, such as Ni, Mo and Co, were eliminated and substituted with Mn along with an addition of N. A Mn-Cr austenitic stainless steel, 24.5Mn-13.5Cr-0.02C-0.2N, has been developed successfully. Examined material properties, including mechanical, thermal and magnetic properties, as well as weldability and characteristics of corrosion resistance, are presented. It was found that the alloy has excellent material properties virtually equivalent to those of 316SS. In this study, the applicability of the Schaeffler, DeLong and Hull constitution diagrams for the stainless steels with low Ni and high Mn contents was also examined. The boundary conditions distinguishing the single austenite phase from the others have been identified for the Mn-Cr steels. (orig.) 22 refs.

  3. Low-activation Mn Cr austenitic stainless steel with further reduced content of long-lived radioactive elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Saida, Tomikane; Hirai, Shouzou; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Sato, Ikuo; Hatakeyama, Tsuyoshi

    1998-06-01

    Low-activation austenitic stainless steel based on Mn-Cr non-magnetic steels has been developed. The alloying elements of long-life activation, such as Ni, Mo and Co, were eliminated and substituted with Mn along with an addition of N. A Mn-Cr austenitic stainless steel, 24.5Mn-13.5Cr-0.02C-0.2N, has been developed successfully. Examined material properties, including mechanical, thermal and magnetic properties, as well as weldability and characteristics of corrosion resistance, are presented. It was found that the alloy has excellent material properties virtually equivalent to those of 316SS. In this study, the applicability of the Schaeffler, DeLong and Hull constitution diagrams for the stainless steels with low Ni and high Mn contents was also examined. The boundary conditions distinguishing the single austenite phase from the others have been identified for the Mn-Cr steels.

  4. Microstructural, mechanical and tribological investigation of 30CrMnSiNi2A ultra-high strength steel under various tempering temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan Hafeez, Muhammad; Farooq, Ameeq

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the variation in microstructural, mechanical and tribological characteristics of 30CrMnSiNi2A ultra-high strength steel as a function of tempering temperatures. Steel was quenched at 880 °C and tempered at five different tempering temperatures ranging from 250 °C to 650 °C. Optical microscopy and pin on disc tribometer was used to evaluate the microstructural and wear properties. Results show that characteristics of 30CrMnSiNi2A are highly sensitive to tempering temperatures. Lathe and plate shaped martensite obtained by quenching transform first into ε-carbide, second cementite, third coarsened and spheroidized cementite and finally into recovered ferrite and austenite. Hardness, tensile and yield strengths decreased while elongation increased with tempering temperatures. On the other hand, wear rate first markedly decreased and then increased. Optimum amalgamation of characteristics was achieved at 350 °C.

  5. Low-field spin dynamics of Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu -Cr 7Ni molecular rings as detected by μ SR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, S.; Arosio, P.; Bordonali, L.; Adelnia, F.; Mariani, M.; Garlatti, E.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Sabareesh, K. P. V.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E. P.; Blundell, S. J.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-11-01

    Muon spin rotation measurements were used to investigate the spin dynamics of heterometallic Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni molecular clusters. In Cr7Ni the magnetic ions are arranged in a quasiplanar ring and interact via an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant J , while Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni is composed of two Cr7Ni linked by a bridging moiety containing one Cu ion, that induces an inter-ring ferromagnetic interaction J'≪J . The longitudinal muon relaxation rate λ collected at low magnetic fields μ0H BPP)-like heuristic fitting model that takes into account of a distribution of electronic spin characteristic times for T >5 K, while the shoulder presented by Cr7Ni can be reproduced by a BPP function that incorporates a single electronic characteristic time theoretically predicted to dominate for T <5 K. The flattening of λ (T ) in Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni occurring at very low temperature can be tentatively attributed to field-dependent quantum effects and/or to an inelastic term in the spectral density of the electronic spin fluctuations.

  6. Room and elevated temperature Mechanical Behavior of 9-12% Cr Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2005-02-01

    The mechanical properties of medium Cr steels used in fossil fired power plants are very good because of their excellent high temperature microstructural stability. However, as the desire to increase the operating temperature (>650C) of the plant goes up, the need for steels that maintain their strength at these temperatures also increases. The mechanical properties of three medium Cr steels (0.08C-(9-12)Cr-1.2Ni-0.7Mo-3.0Cu-3.0Co-0.5Ti) were investigated through hardness, hot hardness and tensile measurements. The strength of the 9-12%Cr steels at room temperature after long-term isothermal aging (750C; 1000 hours) compares favorably with that of other power plant steels (e.g., P91). In addition, the elevated temperature strength and hot hardness also behave similarly. The mechanical behavior will be discussed in terms of the strength, elongation and tensile fracture characteristics.

  7. Observations of defect structure evolution in proton and Ni ion irradiated Ni-Cr binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Samuel A., E-mail: sabriggs2@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barr, Christopher M. [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Pakarinen, Janne [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); SKC-CEN Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Mamivand, Mahmood [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hattar, Khalid [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Morgan, Dane D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Taheri, Mitra [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Two binary Ni-Cr model alloys with 5 wt% Cr and 18 wt% Cr were irradiated using 2 MeV protons at 400 and 500 °C and 20 MeV Ni{sup 4+} ions at 500 °C to investigate microstructural evolution as a function of composition, irradiation temperature, and irradiating ion species. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to study irradiation-induced void and faulted Frank loops microstructures. Irradiations at 500 °C were shown to generate decreased densities of larger defects, likely due to increased barriers to defect nucleation as compared to 400 °C irradiations. Heavy ion irradiation resulted in a larger density of smaller voids when compared to proton irradiations, indicating in-cascade clustering of point defects. Cluster dynamics simulations were in good agreement with the experimental findings, suggesting that increases in Cr content lead to an increase in interstitial binding energy, leading to higher densities of smaller dislocation loops in the Ni-18Cr alloy as compared to the Ni-5Cr alloy. - Highlights: • Binary Ni-Cr alloys were irradiated with protons or Ni ions at 400 and 500 °C. • Higher irradiation temperatures yield increased size, decreased density of defects. • Hypothesize that varying Cr content affects interstitial binding energy. • Fitting CD models for loop nucleation to data supports this hypothesis.

  8. The effects of minor alloy modifications and heat treatment on the microstructure and creep rupture behavior of 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.A.; Chung, D.W.; Parker, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of alloy additions on the microstructure of simulated cooled and tempered 2.25Cr-1Mo steels have been studied using transmission electron microscopy. Carbide precipitation sequences have been identified in the modification 3Cr-1Mo-1Mn-1Ni and compared to those in 2.25Cr-1Mo steels modified with Mn and Ni and also with Ti, V and B. The influence of minor compositional changes on the creep rupture behavior of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel has been studied at 500 C, 560 C, and 600 C. The most significant effect of alloy modifications on creep properties resulted from additions of Mn and Cr. Preliminary studies show that 1% Mn and 0.5Mn + 1Ni + 0.75Cr additions significantly reduce creep strength at all three temperatures for tests up to 2000 hours duration. The 3Cr-1Mo-1Mn-1Ni steel showed improvements in rupture ductility at all temperatures when compared with the base 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and the manganese-nickel modifications. Plots of the Larson-Miller parameter for both these modifications lay within the scatter band for commercial 2.25Cr-1Mo steels

  9. Long-term Stability of 9- to 12 % Cr Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    In the recent 25 years creep rupture strength of 9- to 12 %Cr steels for steam pipes and turbines has been doubled by development of new alloys. This development has formed a basis for improved efficiency of fossil fired steam power plants by introduction of advanced steam temperatures...... and pressures. Newly developed steam pipe steels are based on modifications of well-established steels like the X 20CrMoV12 1. Balanced addition of V, Nb and N to a 9Cr 1 Mo steel led to the Modified 9 Cr steel P 91. Addition of 1% W to a 9Cr 1 MoVNbN base composition led to steel E 911 and partial replacement...... of Mo with 1.8 % W combined with a slight amount of Boron led to steel P 92. The creep rupture strength of these new alloys are now secured with long-term tests up to 100,000 hours, which demonstrate improvements of 50% (P 91), 75 % (E 911) and 100 % (P 92) in strength compared to X 20CrMoV12 1....

  10. Effect of Molybdenum on the Corrosion Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys CoCrFeNi2 and CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 under Sodium Chloride Aqueous Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro A. Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of high-entropy alloys (HEAs CoCrFeNi2 and CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 was investigated in 3.5 wt. percent sodium chloride (NaCl at 25°C by electrochemical methods. Their corrosion parameters were compared to those of HASTELLOY® C-276 (UNS N10276 and stainless steel 316L (UNS 31600 to assess the suitability of HEAs for potential industrial applications in NaCl simulating seawater type environments. The corrosion rates were calculated using corrosion current determined from electrochemical experiments for each of the alloys. In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements can indicate active, passive, and transpassive behavior of the metal as well as potential susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Cyclic voltammetry (CV can confirm the alloy susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS elucidates the corrosion mechanism under studied conditions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses of the corroded surfaces revealed general corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 and HASTELLOY C-276 and pitting corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi2 and stainless steel 316L.

  11. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 High-Entropy Alloy in Hydrogen Peroxide Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Liu, W. M.; Zhang, T. B.; Li, J. S.; Wang, J.; Kou, H. C.; Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructure and tribological properties of an AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 high-entropy alloy in high-concentration hydrogen peroxide solution were investigated in this work. The results show that the sigma phase precipitates and the content of bcc2 decrease during the annealing process. Meanwhile, the complex construction of the interdendrite region changes into simple isolated-island shape, and much more spherical precipitates are formed. Those changes of microstructure during the annealing process lead to the increase of hardness of this alloy. In the testing conditions, the AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 alloy shows smoother worn surfaces and steadier coefficient of friction curves than does the 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel, and SiC ceramic preserves better wear resistance than ZrO2 ceramic. After annealing, the wear resistance of the AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 alloy increases coupled with SiC counterface but decreases with ZrO2 counterface.

  12. Effect of temperature and heat fluxes on the corrosion's damage nature for mild and stainless steels in neutral chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzhina, S.A. [Voronezh State University, University Sq.1, 394006 Voronezh (Russian Federation); Malygin, A.V. [JSC Voronezhsynthezkauchuk, Leninsky Av. 2, 394014 Voronezh (Russian Federation); Vigdorovitch, V.V. [Derzhavin State University, International St. 33, 392622 Tambov (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    The detail research of the corrosion-electrochemical behavior of two types steels - mild steel (0.1%C) and stainless steel 12FeCr18Ni10Ti in series chloride solutions under elevated temperature and heat flux on interface has been carried out in the present work using the special plant and the complex electrochemical and microscopic methods. The comparative data has shown that the temperature increase is stimulating as the active alloy's corrosion (mild steel), so the passive alloy's corrosion (12FeCr18Ni10Ti).However at the last case the temperature effect is being higher because the thermal de-passivation of the stainless steel which undergoes pit corrosion under t > 50 deg C. The heat-transfer role in the studied systems is ambiguous. The corrosion rate of heat-transferring electrode from mild steel exceeds the thermo-equilibrium with solution electrode's corrosion rate because of intensification of the oxygen reduction cathodic process. The opposite effect has been established for steel 12FeCr18Ni10Ti where the oxygen flux's strengthening from cold solution to the heated surface transfers the alloy to the most stable passive state and increases its resistance to general and local corrosion. The experimental results demonstrates that the thermal condition's influence on the nature and corrosion intensity of the investigated steels is being commensurable by effect's degree with their composition and showing strictly individually. (authors)

  13. Standard and applied material testing methods of austenitic CrNi stainless steels in different nitric acid media - procedures and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leistikow, S.; Kraft, R.; Schanz, G.

    1989-07-01

    Extended ASTM Standard Huey Testing has been performed in at 120 0 C boiling 14.4 molar (65%) nitric acid during 15 periods (15x48 = 720 h duration) for quality control of numerous commercial nitric acid resistant austenitic CrNi steels. It was shown how sensitively the chosen testing conditions could differentiate between CrNi steels of the same nominal composition as specified for DIN W.Nr. 1.4306 (AISI Type 304 L), but with varying residual element contents. Within an attempt to differentiate within this group of steels by application of electrochemical methods, potentiostatic tests at 1250 mV in nitric acid of equal concentration and temperature were able to detect remarkable differences in corrosion behaviour already after one hour. Another approach, more typical for the electrochemical potentials during materials application in reprocessing plants of nuclear fuel, gave preference to long-term immersion tests, which were performed in nitric acid of lower concentration and temperature. Reference tests in pure 7 molar, 90 0 C nitric acid could only reveal by surface attack small differences in steel quality by exposures of 720 h duration. To shorten the test time by an increase of the redox potential chromium (VI) ions were added to the nitric acid. In a solution of 0,5 g Gr (VI)/l at 90 0 C remarkable differences in corrosion behavior of the steels - similar to the Huey test results - became measurable by means of gravimetry and metallography already during a short-term exposure of 24-71 h. (orig./MM) [de

  14. Strength of 10CR-N martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrami, F.; Hendry, A.

    1993-01-01

    10Cr stainless steel has been employed to examine the effect of nitrogen on microstructure and strength. Applying Solid state gaseous nitrogenising treatments a whole range of nitrogen martensite structures containing up to 0.45 wt% were obtained. It was found that a linear relationship exists between strength and nitrogen content in precipitate free martensitic structures. Yield strength increased from 705 to 1295 MPa for nitrogen free base material and alloys with 0.35 wt%N respectively. Pronounce secondary hardening was observed at a tempering temperature of 500 C. A linear relationship was also observed between the lattice parameter and nitrogen concentration in these alloys. A model for mechanical behaviour is presented. (orig.)

  15. Preliminary Microstructural and Microscratch Results of Ni-Cr-Fe and Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings on Magnesium Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Lupescu, S.; Benchea, M.; Vizureanu, P.

    2017-06-01

    Thermal coatings have a large scale application in aerospace and automotive field, as barriers improving wear mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance. In present research, there have been used two types of coatings, Ni-Cr-Fe, respectively Cr3C2-NiCr which were deposited on magnesium based alloys (pure magnesium and Mg-30Y master alloy). There have been investigated the microstructural aspects through scanning electronic microscopy and XRD analysis and also a series of mechanical characteristics through microscratch and indentation determinations. The results revealed the formation of some adherent layers resistant to the penetration of the metallic indenter, the coatings did not suffer major damages. Microstructural analysis highlighted the formation of Cr3C2, Cr7C3, Cr3Ni2, Cr7Ni3, FeNi3, Cr-Ni phases. Also, the apparent coefficient of friction for Ni-Cr-Fe coatings presents superior values than Cr3C2-NiCr coatings.

  16. Atom-Probe Tomographic Investigations of a Precipitation-Strengthened HSLA-115 Steel and a Ballistic-Resistant 10 wt. % Ni Steel for Naval Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Divya

    due to overaging of Cu precipitates and tempering of the martensitic matrix. This results in an extended yield strength plateau, compared to alloys relying solely on Cu precipitation strengthening (for example, NUCu-140 steels) and is highly beneficial as impact toughness improves significantly in overaged conditions with respect to Cu precipitates. Optimum mechanical properties (yield strength 141 ksi or 972.1 MPa, elongation to failure 24.8 %, and impact toughness 188.0 J at -18 °C) are attained after 3 h aging at 550 °C. Incorporating finely dispersed M2C carbides with Cu precipitates, thus provides a promising pathway for use of Cu-bearing Naval HSLA-115 steels in higher strength applications, while still meting toughness and ductility requirements. Low-carbon 10 wt. % Ni steels are optimally processed via a multi-step intercritical Quench Lamellarizing Tempering (QLT)-treatment to form a fine dispersion of thermally stable Ni-enriched austenite in a tempered martensitic matrix. Deformation-induced martensitic transformation of this austenite is key to its superior overall mechanical properties, specifically ballistic resistance over HSLA-100 steels. This research elucidates the basic physical principles controlling the thermal stability and kinetics of Ni-stabilized austenite, formed during the QLT-treatment. The role of Ni-enriched austenite and fresh martensitic regions, inherited from the first isothermal intercritical step (L) at 650 °C, in forming thermally stable austenite during the second isothermal intercritical step (T) at 590 °C is highlighted using dilatometry, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, 3-D atom-probe tomography (APT), and thermodynamic and kinetic modeling using ThermoCalc and Dictra. Results indicate the growth of nm-thick austenite layers during T-step tempering (predominantly in the Ni-enriched fresh martensitic regions), with austenite retained from L-step acting as a nucleation template. Thermal stability of austenite is estimated by

  17. Influence of Nb content on grain size and mechanical properties of 18 wt% Cr ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Mao, W.M., E-mail: weiminmao@263.net [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen, Y.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Jing, J.; Cheng, M. [Taizhou Xinyu Precision Manufacture Company Limited, Jiangyan 225500, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-11-20

    The influence of Nb contents between 0.20 and 1.20 wt% on the grain size and mechanical properties of 18 wt% Cr ferritic stainless steel produced by investment casting was investigated. The average grain sizes of the three steels decreased apparently with increasing Nb content mainly due to the increasing number of pre-existing oxides formed at higher temperature, which were more likely to be the nuclei of heterogeneous nucleation. The thermodynamic analysis of Nb(C,N) formation was in conformity to the experimental result that the Nb(C,N) precipitates became larger with increasing Nb content. The as-cast specimen with the smallest grain size of steel C had the worse tensile strength and elongation in comparison with the as-cast specimens of steels A and B, mostly owing to the catenarian and dendritic Nb(C,N) particles distributed densely at the grain boundaries. The mechanical properties of specimens were not improved remarkably through high temperature solid-solution, whereas the mechanical properties of normalized specimens in the three steels were improved to different degrees. The coalescence and sparse distribution of smaller precipitates at grain boundaries after normalizing effectively weakened the local stress concentration arising from the reticular distribution of particles. The normalized specimen of steel A with 0.24 wt% Nb still showed good mechanical properties. Normalizing at 850 °C for 2 h is the appropriate heat treatment for the 18 wt% Cr ferritic stainless steel. The comparatively rational Nb content of the ferritic stainless steel is between 0.20 and 0.40 wt% for investment casting production.

  18. Reaction of uranium and plutonium carbides with austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchnino, M.

    1967-01-01

    The reaction of uranium and plutonium carbides with austenitic steels has been studied between 650 and 1050 deg. C using UC, steel and (UPu)C, steel diffusion couples. The steels are of the type CN 18.10 with or without addition of molybdenum. The carbides used are hyper-stoichiometric. Tests were also carried out with UCTi, UCMo, UPuCTi and UPuCMo. Up to 800 deg. C no marked diffusion of carbon into stainless steel is observed. Between 800 and 900 deg. C the carbon produced by the decomposition of the higher carbides diffuses into the steel. Above 900 deg. C, decomposition of the monocarbide occurs according to a reaction which can be written schematically as: (U,PuC) + (Fe,Ni,Cr) → (U,Pu) Fe 2 + Cr 23 C 6 . Above 950 deg. C the behaviour of UPuCMo and that of the titanium (CN 18.12) and nickel (NC 38. 18) steels is observed to be very satisfactory. (author) [fr

  19. Cavitation resistance of surface composition "Steel-Ni-TiNi-TiNiZr-cBNCo", formed by High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednova, Zh. M.; Dmitrenko, D. V.; Balaev, E. U. O.

    2018-01-01

    The object of the study is a multilayered surface composition "Steel - a Multicomponent material with Shape Memory Effect - a wear-resistant layer" under conditions of cavitation effects in sea water. Multicomponent TiNi-based coatings with addition of alloying elements such as Zr in an amount up to 10% mass, allow to create a composite material with a gradient of properties at the interface of layers, which gives new properties to coatings and improves their performance significantly. The use of materials with shape memory effect (SME) as surface layers or in the composition of surface layered compositions allows to provide an effective reaction of materials to the influence of external factors and adaptation to external influences. The surface composite layer cBN-10%Co has high hardness and strength, which ensures its resistance to shock cyclic influences of collapsing caverns. The increased roughness of the surface of a solid surface composite in the form of strong columnar structures ensures the crushing of vacuum voids, redistributing their effect on the entire surface, and not concentrating them in certain zones. In addition, the gradient structure of the multilayer composite coating TiNi-Ti33Ni49Zr18-cBN-10%Co Co makes it possible to create conditions for the relaxation of stresses created by the variable impact load of cavitation caverns and the manifestation of compensating internal forces due to thermo-elastic martensitic transformations of SME materials. The cavitation resistance of the coating TiNi-Ti33Ni49Zr18-cBN-10%Co according to the criterion of mass wear is 15-20 times higher than that of the base material without coating and 10-12 times higher than that of the TiNi-TiNiZr coating. The proposed architecture of the multifunctional gradient composition, "steel-Ni-TiNi- Ti33Ni49Zr18-cBN-10%Co", each layer of which has its functional purpose, allows to increase the service life of parts operating under conditions of cavitation-fatigue loading in

  20. Difference between Cr and Ni K-edge XANES spectra of rust layers formed on Fe-based binary alloys exposed to Cl-rich environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Yamashita, Masato; Uchida, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The rust layer formed on weathering steel possesses a strong protective ability against corrosives in an atmospheres. This ability is related to the structure of the rust layer. The difference in the protective ability of a rust layer. The difference in the protective ability of a rust layer in a Cl-rich environment between conventional weathering steel containing Cr and advanced weathering steel containing Ni is believed to be caused by the differences in local structural and chemical properties between alloying elements. Cr and Ni, in the rust layer. In order to examine the effect of these alloying elements on the structure of the rust layer formed on steel in a Cl-rich environment, we have performed Cr and Ni K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements for the rust layer of Fe-Cr and Fe-Ni binary alloys exposed to a Cl-rich atmosphere using synchrotron radiation. The results of the Cr K-edge XANES measurements for the rust layer of Fe-Cr binary alloys show that the atomic geometry around Cr depends on the concentration of Cr. Therefore, it is expected that the local structure around Cr in the rust layer is unstable. On the other hand, from the results of the Ni K-edge XANES measurements for the rust layer of Fe-Ni binary alloys. Ni is considered to be positioned at a specific site in the crystal structure of a constituent of the rust layer, such as akaganeite or magnetite. As a consequence, Ni negligibly interacts with Cl - ions in the rust layer. (author)

  1. Production and characterization of stainless steel based Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si(-Co) shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otubo, J.

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that the Fe based alloys can exhibit shape memory effect due to the γ to ε martensitic transformation. The effect may not be as striking as observed in the NiTi alloy but it might become attractive from the practical point of view. In this work, two compositions of Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si(-Co) stainless steel based shape memory alloy, prepared by the VIM technique, will be presented. The results are good with shape recovery of 95% for a pre-strain of 4% after some training cycles. In terms of workability the alloys produced are worse than the usual AISI304. However, adjusting the thermo-mechanical processing, it is perfectly possible to produce wire as thin as 1,20mm in dia. or down. (orig.)

  2. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using 316L steel, hastelloy, maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel, TiN and NiCr. Simulation in tritiated water. 2 volumes; Spectrometrie d`impedance electrochimique sur acier 316L, hastelloy, maraging inconel 600, elgiloy, acier au carbone, TiN, NiCr. Simulations en eau tritiee. 2 volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-03-01

    Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the slow and fast kinetics (voltammetry) of different stainless steel alloys. These corrosion kinetics, the actual or simulated tritiated water redox potentials, and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: 316L, Hastelloy, Maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel and TiN and NiCr deposits. From the results it can be concluded that Hastelloy and Elgiloy have the best corrosion resistance. (author). 49 refs., 695 figs., tabs.

  3. Mechanical properties of irradiated 9Cr-2WVTa steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Rieth, M.

    1998-01-01

    An Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) steel has excellent strength and impact toughness before and after irradiation in the Fast Flux Test Facility and the High Flux Reactor (HFR). The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) increased only 32 C after 28 dpa at 365 C in FFTF, compared to a shift of ∼60 C for a 9Cr-2WV steel--the same as the 9Cr-2WVTa steel but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile properties before and after irradiation. The 9Cr-2WVTa steel has a smaller prior-austenite grain size, but otherwise microstructures are similar before irradiation and show similar changes during irradiation. The irradiation behavior of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel differs from the 9Cr-2WV steel and other similar steels in two ways: (1) the shift in DBTT of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF does not saturate with fluence by ∼28 dpa, whereas for the 9Cr-2WV steel and most similar steels, saturation occurs at <10 dpa, and (2) the shift in DBTT for 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF and HFR increased with irradiation temperature, whereas it decreased for the 9Cr-2WV steel, as it does for most similar steels. The improved properties of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel and the differences with other steels were attributed to tantalum in solution

  4. Hydrogen embrittlement of the 22 Cr5 Ni austeno-ferritic stainless steel. Role of the microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacoviello, Francesco

    1997-01-01

    Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels are characterised by very good mechanical properties and by a high corrosion resistance, especially to stress-corrosion and to pitting. However, their duplex structure shows a sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement. Among duplex stainless steels, the 22 Cr 5 Ni grade has gradually became the most used. In this work the tensile properties and the resistance to fatigue crack propagation of 22 Cr5 Ni duplex stainless steel have been analysed, with and without hydrogen charging, after it had been treated at temperatures ranging between 200-1050 deg. C for varying times. The heat treatment times and temperatures were chosen to characterise completely the effects of the different intermetallic and the carbide and nitride phases and to compare these results with those from the tensile tests and those in the literature. A technique for obtaining the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the steel was optimised and was shown to be alternative to the permeation technique. Thermal analysis was used to determine the activation energy of the hydrogen traps in the steel. From the results the following conclusions were established: - Grain boundaries and dislocations have very little influence on the process of hydrogen diffusion. - The quantity of hydrogen absorbed depends in that any type of precipitate decrease the absorption. This decrease was probably due to changes in the diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen caused by the precipitation. - The charging with hydrogen caused a large decrease in ε m pc for the steel for all heat treatments temperature, except 1050 deg. C. At this temperature the effect was much less as the dislocation density was very low and the precipitates were now in solution. - Hydrogen charging of the steel did not affect the YS and the decrease in UTS produced depended on the microstructure. Use of the embrittlement index 'F' showed that spinodal decomposition and precipitation of G phase decrease hydrogen embrittlement

  5. Diffusion of 51Cr along high-diffusivity paths in Ni-Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, J.

    1990-01-01

    Penetration profiles of 51 Cr in polycrystalline alloys Ni-xFe (x = 0, 20, 40, and 60 wt.% Fe) after diffusion anneals at temperatures between 693 and 1473 K are studied. Sectioning of diffusion zones of samples annealed above 858 K is carried out by grinding, at lower temperatures by DC glow discharge sputtering. The concentration of 51 Cr in depth x is assumed to be proportional to relative radioactivity of individual sections. With help of volume and pipe self-diffusion data taken from literature, the temperature dependence of product P = δD g (δ and D g are grain boundary width and grain boundary diffusion coefficient, respectively) is obtained: P = (2.68 - 0.88 +1.3 ) x 10 -11 exp [-(221.3 ± 3.0) kJ/mol/RT]m 3 /s. This result agrees well with the previous measurements of 51 Cr diffusivity in Fe-18 Cr-12 Ni and Fe-21 Cr-31 Ni. It indicates that the mean chemical composition of Fe-Cr-Ni ternary alloys is not a dominant factor affecting the grain boundary diffusivity of Cr in these alloys. (author)

  6. Physical properties of molten core materials: Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr alloys measured by electrostatic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Yuji, E-mail: ohishi@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Kondo, Toshiki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Ishikawa, Takehiko [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); SOKEN-DAI (Graduate University for Advanced Studies) (Japan); Okada, Junpei T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University (Japan); Watanabe, Yuki [Advanced Engineering Services Co. Ltd. (Japan); Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Yamanaka, Shinsuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    It is important to understand the behaviors of molten core materials to investigate the progression of a core meltdown accident. In the early stages of bundle degradation, low-melting-temperature liquid phases are expected to form via the eutectic reaction between Zircaloy and stainless steel. The main component of Zircaloy is Zr and those of stainless steel are Fe, Ni, and Cr. Our group has previously reported physical property data such as viscosity, density, and surface tension for Zr-Fe liquid alloys using an electrostatic levitation technique. In this study, we report the viscosity, density, and surface tension of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys (Zr{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr{sub 0.77}Cr{sub 0.23}) using the electrostatic levitation technique. - Highlights: • The physical properties of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys have been measured Zr{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr{sub 77}Cr{sub 23}. • The measurement was conducted using the electrostatic levitation technique. • The density, viscosity, and surface tension of each liquid alloy were measured.

  7. Physical properties of molten core materials: Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr alloys measured by electrostatic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yuji; Kondo, Toshiki; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei T.; Watanabe, Yuki; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    It is important to understand the behaviors of molten core materials to investigate the progression of a core meltdown accident. In the early stages of bundle degradation, low-melting-temperature liquid phases are expected to form via the eutectic reaction between Zircaloy and stainless steel. The main component of Zircaloy is Zr and those of stainless steel are Fe, Ni, and Cr. Our group has previously reported physical property data such as viscosity, density, and surface tension for Zr-Fe liquid alloys using an electrostatic levitation technique. In this study, we report the viscosity, density, and surface tension of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys (Zr 1-x Ni x (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr 0.77 Cr 0.23 ) using the electrostatic levitation technique. - Highlights: • The physical properties of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys have been measured Zr 1-x Ni x (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr 77 Cr 23 . • The measurement was conducted using the electrostatic levitation technique. • The density, viscosity, and surface tension of each liquid alloy were measured.

  8. Creep-rupture-strength and creep-behaviour of stainless steel X6CrNi 1811 (DIN 1.4948)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, R.R.; Rivas, M. de las; Seith, B.; Schirra, M.

    1977-01-01

    The steel X6CrNi 1811 (DIN 1.4948) that will be used as a structure material for the german fast breder reactor SNR 300, was creep-tested in a temperature range of 550-650 deg C under base material condition as well as welded material condition. Tests are foreseen up to 30.000 hours with a continous measuring of the elongation. The test results up to about 4.000 hours is described. Taking into account the results of other programs carried out with the same material between 550 and 600 deg C at similar rupture time, were defined the stresses for the longterm test. The main point of this program (''Extrapolation Program'') lies in the knowledge of the creep-rupture-strength and creep behaviour of the structure materials up to 3.10 4 h at high temperature in order to extrapolate up to 10 5 h for reactor operating temperatures. (author) [es

  9. Creep-rupture-strength and creep-behaviour of stainless steel X6CrNi 1811(DIN 1.4948)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, R. R.; Schirra, M.; Rivas, M. de la; Seith, B.

    1977-01-01

    The steel X6CrNi 1811 (DIN 1.4948) that will be used as a structure material for the German Fast Breeder Reactor SNR 300 was creep-tested in a temperature range of 550-650 degree centigree under base material condition as well as welded material condition. Tests are foreseen up to 30.000 hours with a continuous measuring of the elongation. The present report describes the test results up to about 4-000 hours. Taking into account the results of other programs carried out with the same material between 550- and 600 degree centigree at similar rupture time, were defined the stresses for the long term tests. The main point of this program (Extrapolation Program) lies in the knowledge of the creep-rupture-strength and creep behaviour of the structure materials up to 3.10 4 h at high temperature in order to extrapolate up to 10 5 h. for reactor operating temperatures. (Author) 14 refs

  10. Creep-rupture-strength and creep-behaviour of stainless steel X6CrNi 1811 (DIN 1.4948)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, R.R.; Rivas, M. de las; Schirra, M.; Seith, B.

    1976-10-01

    The steel X6CrNi 1811 (DIN 1.4948) that will be used as a structure material for the German fast breeder reactor SNR 300 was creep-tested in a temperature range of 550-650 0 C under base material condition as well as welded material condition. Tests are foreseen up to 30.000 hours with a continuous measuring of the elongation. The present report describes the test results up to about 5.000 hours. Taking into account the results of other programs carried out with the same material between 550 and 600 0 C at similar rupture times, were defined the stresses for the long term tests. The main point of this program ('Extrapolation Program') lies in the knowledge of the creep time and creep behaviour of the structure materials up to 3 x 10 4 h at high temperature in order to extrapolate up to 10 5 h for operating temperatures. (orig.) [de

  11. Grain boundary segregation in FeCrNi model alloys; Korngrenzensegregation in FeCrNi-Modellegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, B.; Schneider, F.; Mummert, K. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany); Muraleedharan, P. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Div. of Metallurgy

    1998-12-31

    P and S segregate at the grain boundaries and thus increase susceptibility to intergranular corrosion at those sites. This could be proven by means of nitric acid-chromate tests and potentiostatic etching tests. There is a direct connection between loss in mass, mean depth of intergranular corrosion attacks, dissolution current density, and level of segregation-induced concentration of P and S at the grain boundaries. The segregation effect at these sites was found to be most evident in specimens of the examined Fe-Cr-Ni steel which had been heat-treated for 1000 hours at 550 C. However, segregation occurs also in materials that received a heat treatment of 400 C/5000 hours, while intergranular corrosion is observed only after heat treatment of 500 C/1000 hours. Apart from segregation of P, formation of Cr-rich phosphides is observed, which leads to depletion of Cr at the precipitates. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] P und S segregieren an die KG und erhoehen dort die IK-Anfaelligkeit. Dies konnte mit Hilfe von Salpetersaeure-Chromat- und Potentiostatischem Aetztest nachgewiesen werden. Es besteht ein direkter Zusammenhang zwischen Masseverlust, mittlerer IK-Angriffstiefe, Aufloesungsstromdichte und Hoehe der segregationsbedingten Anreicherungen von P und S an den KG. Der KG-Segregationseffekt am untersuchten Fe-Cr-Ni-Stahl ist im Waermebehandlungszustand 550 C/1000 h am deutlichsten ausgepraegt. Aber auch bereits bei 400 C/5000 h findet Segregation statt. IKSpRK tritt nur im Waermebehandlungszustand 550 C/1000 h auf. Neben der P-Segregation wird die Bildung Cr-reicher Phosphide beobachtet, die zur Abreicherung von Cr an den Ausscheidungen fuehrt. (orig.)

  12. Microstructural evolution in austenitic heat-resistant cast steel 35Cr25Ni12NNbRE during long-term service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiangwen; Jiao Dongling; Luo Chengping

    2010-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of austenitic heat-resistant cast steel 35Cr25Ni12NNbRE during aging and long-term service was investigated using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The microstructure of the as cast steel consists of the dendritic austenite, the block-like eutectic carbide M 7 C 3 spreaded among austenitic dendrite, and a small quantity of M 23 C 6 carbide. The microstructure of the steel aged at 600 deg. C consists of eutectic carbide M 23 C 6 transformed from eutectic carbide M 7 C 3 and dendritic austenite in which fine secondary carbide particles M 23 C 6 precipitated. The precipitated carbide M 23 C 6 kept a cubic-cubic orientation relationship (OR) with austenite matrix. There existed a carbide precipitation free zone (PFZ) around the eutectic carbide. For the long-term serviced samples, the secondary carbide precipitated in the austenite strikingly increased and the PFZ disappeared. Part of the M 23 C 6 transformed into M 6 C, which always kept a twin OR, [114] M 6 C //[110] A //[110] M 23 C 6 , with the austenite and the M 23 C 6 secondary carbide. In addition, a small quantity of σ phase FeCr and ε-Cr 2 N were also identified. The effects of alloy composition and service condition on the microstructural evolution of the steel were discussed.

  13. Tribological properties and surface structures of ion implanted 9Cr18Mo stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fengbin, Liu; Guohao, Fu; Yan, Cui; Qiguo, Sun; Min, Qu; Yi, Sun

    2013-01-01

    The polished quenched-and-tempered 9Cr18Mo steels were implanted with N ions and Ti ions respectively at a fluence of 2 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 . The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated by using nanoindenter and tribometer. The results showed that the ion implantations would improve the nanohardness and tribological property, especially N ion implantation. The surface analysis of the implanted samples was carried out by using XRD, XPS and AES. It indicated that the surface exhibits graded layers after ion implantation. For N ion implantation, the surface about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of supersaturated interstitial N solid solution, oxynitrides, Cr x C y phase and metal nitrides. In the subsurface region, the metal nitrides dominate and the other phases disappear. For Ti ion implantation, the surface of about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of titanium oxides and carbon amorphous phase, the interstitial solid solution of Ti in Fe is abundant in the subsurface region. The surface components and structures have significant contributions to the improved mechanical properties

  14. The kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite of the 38MnCrNi6-4-4 hypoeutectoid steel

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dąbrowski; R. Dziurka; E. Rożniata

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Present work corresponds to the research on the kinetic of phase transformation of undercooled austenite of 38MnCrNi6-4-4 hypoeutctoid steel. The kinetic of phase transformation of under cooled austenite of investigated alloy was presented on CCT diagram (continuous cooling transformation). Also the methodology of a dilatometric samples preparation and the method of the critical points determination were described.Design/methodology/approach: The austenitising temperature was defined...

  15. Creep-rupture-strength and creep-behaviour of stainless steel X6CrNi 1811(DIN 1.4948); Comportamiento a la fluencia lenta del acero X6CrNi 1811 (1.4948)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, R R; Schirra, M; Rivas, M de la; Seith, B

    1977-07-01

    The steel X6CrNi 1811 (DIN 1.4948) that will be used as a structure material for the German Fast Breeder Reactor SNR 300 was creep-tested in a temperature range of 550-650 degree centigree under base material condition as well as welded material condition. Tests are foreseen up to 30.000 hours with a continuous measuring of the elongation. The present report describes the test results up to about 4-000 hours. Taking into account the results of other programs carried out with the same material between 550- and 600 degree centigree at similar rupture time, were defined the stresses for the long term tests. The main point of this program (Extrapolation Program) lies in the knowledge of the creep-rupture-strength and creep behaviour of the structure materials up to 3.10{sup 4}h at high temperature in order to extrapolate up to 10{sup 5} h. for reactor operating temperatures. (Author) 14 refs.

  16. Microstructural characterization of second phases in X10CrMoVNb9-1 and 12CrMoWCuVNb steels after long steam exposure time at 550 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodak, Kinga; Hernas, Adam; Vodarek, Vlastimil

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural changes in high alloy (9-12% Cr) creep resistant martensitic X10CrMoVNb9-1 and 12CrMoW . CuVNb steels after 100 000 h of steam exposure at 550 C have been studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy. Precipitates were identified using electron diffraction patterns and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. After long time exposure, a significant coarsening of M 23 C 6 carbides, and intensive precipitation of the coarse Laves phase were observed. Moreover, in the 12CrMoW . CuVNb steel, a low amount of the modified Z-phase particles was detected. The microstructures of the X10Cr . MoVNb9-1 and 12CrMoWCuVNb steels after 100 000 h of exposure differ in several aspects.

  17. Microstructural characterization of second phases in X10CrMoVNb9-1 and 12CrMoWCuVNb steels after long steam exposure time at 550 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, Kinga; Hernas, Adam [Silesian Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Materials Science, Katowice (Poland); Vodarek, Vlastimil [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-15

    Microstructural changes in high alloy (9-12% Cr) creep resistant martensitic X10CrMoVNb9-1 and 12CrMoW . CuVNb steels after 100 000 h of steam exposure at 550 C have been studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy. Precipitates were identified using electron diffraction patterns and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. After long time exposure, a significant coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, and intensive precipitation of the coarse Laves phase were observed. Moreover, in the 12CrMoW . CuVNb steel, a low amount of the modified Z-phase particles was detected. The microstructures of the X10Cr . MoVNb9-1 and 12CrMoWCuVNb steels after 100 000 h of exposure differ in several aspects.

  18. Development of the dentistry alloy Ni-Cr-Nb; Desenvolvimento de ligas odontologicas Ni-Cr-Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.A.; Ramos, A.S.; Hashimoto, T.M., E-mail: mari_sou@hotmail.co [UNESP/FEG, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2010-07-01

    This work reports on the structural characterization of Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys produced by arc melting. Samples were characterized by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and EDS analysis. Results indicated that the arc melting process was efficient to produce homogeneous structures in Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys. The nickel dissolved large amounts of Cr, Mo and Nb, which was detected by EDS analysis and X-ray diffraction. The alloy containing molybdenum indicated the presence of structure based on Ni{sub SS}, while that the alloys containing niobium presented primary grains of Ni{sub SS} and precipitates formed by the simultaneous transformation of the Ni and Ni{sub 3}Nb phases. (author)

  19. Hardness and Wear Resistance of TiC-Fe-Cr Locally Reinforcement Produced in Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase wear resistance cast steel casting the TiC-Fe-Cr type composite zones were fabricated. These zones were obtained by means of in situ synthesis of substrates of the reaction TiC with a moderator of a chemical composition of white cast iron with nickel of the Ni-Hard type 4. The synthesis was carried out directly in the mould cavity. The moderator was applied to control the reactive infiltration occurring during the TiC synthesis. The microstructure of composite zones was investigated by electron scanning microscopy, using the backscattered electron mode. The structure of composite zones was verified by the X-ray diffraction method. The hardness of composite zones, cast steel base alloy and the reference samples such as white chromium cast iron with 14 % Cr and 20 % Cr, manganese cast steel 18 % Mn was measured by Vickers test. The wear resistance of the composite zone and the reference samples examined by ball-on-disc wear test. Dimensionally stable composite zones were obtained containing submicron sizes TiC particles uniformly distributed in the matrix. The macro and microstructure of the composite zone ensured three times hardness increase in comparison to the cast steel base alloy and one and a half times increase in comparison to the white chromium cast iron 20 % Cr. Finally ball-on-disc wear rate of the composite zone was five times lower than chromium white cast iron containing 20 % Cr.

  20. Optimization of consolidation parameters of 18Cr-ODS ferritic steel through microstructural and microtexture characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Manmath Kumar; Mythili, R.; Dasgupta, Arup; Saroja, S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the optimization of consolidation process based on the evolution of microstructure, microtexture and densification in 18%-Cr Oxide Dispersion Strengthened steel. The steel powder of composition Fe-18Cr-0.01C-2W-0.25Ti-0.35Y2O3 has been consolidated by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) for green compaction after mechanical milling. Sintering (1000-1250 °C) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150 °C has been employed to achieve good densification on compacted CIP specimen. The effect of sintering temperatures on densification behavior was evaluated and sintering at 1150°C was identified to be optimum for achieving good compaction (92% density) and homogeneous polygonal microstructure with a uniform distribution of fine pores. In addition, HIP of CIP product at 1150°C was found to yield a more homogeneous microstructure as compared to sintered product with 97% density. A static/dynamic recrystallization associated with (1 1 1) texture is observed during consolidation process. A statistical comparison has been made based on frequency of grain boundary distribution and associated texture with its theoretical attributes.

  1. Tribological Properties of HVOF-Sprayed TiB2-NiCr Coatings with Agglomerated Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zichun; Li, Hui; Yang, Tianlong; Zhu, Hongbin

    2018-04-01

    Boride materials have drawn great attention in surface engineering field, owing to their high hardness and good wear resistance. In our previous work, a plasma-sprayed TiB2-based cermet coating was deposited, but the coating toughness was significantly influenced by the formation of a brittle ternary phase (Ni20Ti3B6) derived from the reaction between TiB2 and metal binder. In order to suppress such a reaction occurred in the high-temperature spraying process, the high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying technique was applied to prepare the TiB2-NiCr coating. Emphasis was paid on the microstructure, the mechanical properties, and the sliding wearing performance of the coating. The result showed that the HVOF-sprayed coating mainly consisted of hard ceramic particles including TiB2, CrB, and the binder phase. No evidence of Ni20Ti3B6 phase was found in the coating. The mechanical properties of HVOF-sprayed TiB2-NiCr coating were comparable to the conventional Cr3C2-NiCr coating. The frictional coefficient of the TiB2-NiCr coating was lower than the Cr3C2-NiCr coating when sliding against a bearing steel ball.

  2. Tribological Properties of HVOF-Sprayed TiB2-NiCr Coatings with Agglomerated Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zichun; Li, Hui; Yang, Tianlong; Zhu, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Boride materials have drawn great attention in surface engineering field, owing to their high hardness and good wear resistance. In our previous work, a plasma-sprayed TiB2-based cermet coating was deposited, but the coating toughness was significantly influenced by the formation of a brittle ternary phase (Ni20Ti3B6) derived from the reaction between TiB2 and metal binder. In order to suppress such a reaction occurred in the high-temperature spraying process, the high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying technique was applied to prepare the TiB2-NiCr coating. Emphasis was paid on the microstructure, the mechanical properties, and the sliding wearing performance of the coating. The result showed that the HVOF-sprayed coating mainly consisted of hard ceramic particles including TiB2, CrB, and the binder phase. No evidence of Ni20Ti3B6 phase was found in the coating. The mechanical properties of HVOF-sprayed TiB2-NiCr coating were comparable to the conventional Cr3C2-NiCr coating. The frictional coefficient of the TiB2-NiCr coating was lower than the Cr3C2-NiCr coating when sliding against a bearing steel ball.

  3. Residual stress determination by neutron diffraction in a car gear-shaft made of 20NiCrMo2 alloyed case hardening steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rogante, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2012), s. 213-220 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/12/1360 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : 20NiCrMo2 steel * gear-shaft * caser hardening * residual stress * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2012

  4. Long-term strength and allowable stresses of grade 10Kh9MFB and X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91/P91) chromium heat-resistant steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Danyushevskiy, I. A.; Schenkova, I. A.; Prudnikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, grade X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91, P91) and 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) chromium steels are widely applied in equipment manufacturing for thermal power plants in Russia and abroad. Compilation and comparison of tensile, impact, and long-term strength tests results accumulated for many years of investigations of foreign grade X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, P91, and domestic grade 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) steels is carried out. The property identity of metals investigated is established. High strength and plastic properties of steels, from which pipes and other products are made, for operation under creep conditions are confirmed. Design characteristics of long-term strength on the basis of tests with more than one million of hour-samples are determined ( and at temperatures of 500-650°C). The table of recommended allowable stresses for grade 10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-SH, X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, and P91 steels is developed. The long-time properties of pipe welded joints of grade 10Kh9MFB+10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-Sh+10Kh9MFB-Sh, X10CrMoVNb9-1+X10CrMoVNb9-1, P91+P91, T91+T91, 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh)+X10CrMoVNb9-1(T/P91) steels is researched. The welded joint reduction factor is experimentally determined.

  5. Investigations on avoidance of hot cracks during laser welding of austenitic Cr-Ni steels and nickel-based alloys using temperature field tailoring. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Vermeidung von Heissrissen beim Laserstrahlschweissen von austenitischen Cr-Ni-Staehlen und Nickelbasislegierungen mittels Temperaturfeld-Tailoring. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-08

    The aim of the project was to transfer the developed method of laser beam welding of heat treated machining steels of temperature field tailoring on hot crack endangered austenitic Cr-Ni steels and nickel-based alloys. With this method, transient thermal stresses adjacent to the weld are produced by an travelling induction heating so that the hot cracking is prevented during welding. As test materials the austenitic Cr-Ni steel with sulfur additive 1.4305, the Cr-Ni steels 1.4404 and 1.4435 and the nickel-based alloy Udimet 720 were selected. As a result of the research it was shown that a hot crack-free laser welding in the investigated materials using at least three different welding and material-technical approaches is possible. [German] Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens bestand darin, das fuer das Laserstrahlschweissen verguetbarer Automatenstaehle entwickelte Verfahren des Temperaturfeld-Tailorings auf heissrissgefaehrdete austenitische Cr-Ni-Staehle und Nickelbasislegierungen zu uebertragen. Mit diesem Verfahren werden waehrend des Schweissens transiente thermische Spannungen neben der Schweissnaht durch eine mitlaufende induktive Erwaermung so erzeugt, dass die Heissrissbildung verhindert wird. Als Versuchswerkstoffe wurden der austenitische Cr-Ni-Stahl mit Schwefelzusatz 1.4305, die Cr-Ni-Staehle 1.4404 und 1.4435 sowie die Nickelbasislegierung Udimet 720 ausgewaehlt. Im Ergebnis des Forschungsvorhabens konnte gezeigt werden, dass ein heissrissfreies Laserstrahlschweissen bei den untersuchten Werkstoffen unter Nutzung von mindestens drei verschiedenen schweiss- und werkstofftechnischen Ansaetzen moeglich ist: Erstens koennen mit einem Temperaturfeld-Tailoring bei im Stumpfstoss zu verschweissenden Blechen aus austenitischen Staehlen bis mindestens 6 mm Dicke senkrecht zur Naht und parallel zur Blechoberflaeche wirkende transiente Druckspannungen erzeugt werden, die der Bildung von Mittelrippenrissen oder dazu parallel liegenden Heissrissen entgegenwirken

  6. Microchemistry of neutron irradiated 12%CrMoVNb martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, E.A.; Morgan, T.S.; Faulkner, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Non-equilibrium solute segregation has been studied in a 12%CrMoVNb martensitic steel following fast reactor irradiation at 465 C and correlated with the development of M 6 X η-phase. Cr, Ni, Si, Mo, P and Mn are all shown to exhibit positive segregation to lath boundaries and are subsequently incorporated into M 6 X precipitates. The co-segregation of a combination of these elements which include P and Si, and possibly Cr or Mo, appears to promote M 6 X formation

  7. Corrosion Resistance of Steels and Armco-Fe in Lead Melt Saturated by Oxygen at 550 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsisar, V.P.; Fedirko, V.N.; Eliseeva, O.I.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of stainless steels and Armco-Fe in static lead melt saturated by oxygen at 550 degree C for 2000 h was investigated. It was determined that double oxide layer was formed on the surface of investigated materials. Outer part of double oxide growths from the initial interface 'solid metal/liquid lead' towards the melt and consists of Fe 3 O 4 . Inner part of double oxide based on the matrix is composed of Fe 3 O 4 for Armco-Fe, Fe 1+x Cr 2-x O 4 for martensitic 0.2 C-13 Cr and ferritic-martensitic EP823 steels and Fe 1+x Cr 2- xO 4 +Ni for austenitic 18Cr-10Ni-1Ti. Lead did not penetrate into the matrix of tested materials and was detected only in the scale formed on austenitic steel

  8. Creep and Oxidation Behavior of Modified CF8C-Plus with W, Cu, Ni, and Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2016-04-01

    The microstructures of modified CF8C-Plus (Fe-19Cr-12Ni-0.4W-3.8Mn-0.2Mo-0.6Nb-0.5Si-0.9C) with W and Cu (CF8CPWCu) and CF8CPWCu enhanced with 21Cr + 15Ni or 22Cr + 17.5Ni were characterized in the as-cast condition and after creep testing. When imaged at lower magnifications, the as-cast microstructure was similar among all three alloys as they all contained a Nb-rich interdendritic phase and Mn-based inclusions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed the presence of nanoscale Cu-rich nanoprecipitates distributed uniformly throughout the matrix of CF8CPWCu, whereas in CF8CPWCu22/17, Cu precipitates were found primarily at the grain boundaries. The presence of these nanoscale Cu-rich particles, in addition to W-rich Cr23C6, nanoscale Nb carbides, and Z-phase (Nb2Cr2N2), improved the creep strength of the CF8CPWCu steel. Modification of CF8CPWCu with Cr and Ni contents slightly decreased the creep strength but significantly improved the oxidation behavior at 1073 K (800 °C). In particular, the addition of 22Cr and 17.5Ni strongly enhanced the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel resulting in a 100 degrees or greater temperature improvement, and this composition provided the best balance between improving both mechanical properties and oxidation resistance.

  9. Age-hardening susceptibility of high-Cr ODS ferritic steels and SUS430 ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongsheng, E-mail: chen.dongsheng85@gmail.com [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko; Han, Wentuo; Je, Hwanil [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The role of oxide particles in α/α′ phase decomposition behavior; microstructure of phase decomposition observed by TEM. • The characteristics of ductility loss caused by age-hardening. • Correlation of phase decomposition and age-hardening explained by dispersion strengthened models. • Age-hardening susceptibility of ODS steels and SUS430 steel. - Abstract: The effect of aging on high-Cr ferritic steels was investigated with focusing on the role of oxide particles in α/α′ phase decomposition behavior. 12Cr-oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel, 15Cr-ODS steel and commercial SUS430 steel were isothermally aged at 475 °C for up to 10,000 h. Thermal aging caused a larger hardening in SUS430 than 15Cr-ODS, while 12Cr-ODS showed almost no hardening. A characteristic of the ODS steels is that the hardening was not accompanied by the significant loss of ductility that was observed in SUS430 steel. After aging for 2000 h, SUS430 steel shows a larger ductile–brittle transition temperature (DBTT) shift than 15Cr-ODS steel, which suggests that the age-hardening susceptibility is lower in 15Cr-ODS steel than in conventional SUS430 steel. Thermal aging leaded to a large number of Cr-rich α′ precipitates, which were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Correlation of age-hardening and phase decomposition was interpreted by Orowan type strengthening model. Results indicate that oxide particles cannot only suppress ductility loss, but also may influence α/α′ phase decomposition kinetics.

  10. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  11. Boron Steel: An Alternative for Costlier Nickel and Molybdenum Alloyed Steel for Transmission Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Case Carburized (CC low carbon steels containing Ni, Cr and Mo alloying elements are widely used for transmission gears in automobile, as it possesses desired mechanical properties. In order to cut cost and save scarce materials like Ni and Mo for strategic applications, steel alloyed with Boron has been developed, which gives properties comparable to Ni-Cr-Mo alloyed steel. In the process of steel development, care was taken to ensure precipitation of boron which results in precipitation hardening. The characterization of the developed boron steel had exhibited properties comparable to Ni-Cr-Mo alloyed steel and superior to conventional boron steel.

  12. The enhancement in wear resistance of W18Cr4V steel by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ping; Xu Peiguang

    1987-01-01

    Two new methods of ion implantation were adopted in comparison with nitrogen implantation: carbon monoxide was implanted directly into W18Cr4V steel, and nitrogen was implanted into a deposited titanium film about 1000 A thick. It is shown that higher surface hardness and wear resistance have been achieved. The composition and phase structure of the implanted layer was determined in detail. The wear mechanisms were discussed

  13. Low-field spin dynamics of Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu-Cr7Ni molecular rings as detected by μsR

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna, S.; Arosio, P.; Bordonali, L.; Adelnia, F.; Mariani, M.; Garlatti, E.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Sabareesh, K. P.V.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E.P.; Blundell, S. J.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-01-01

    Muon spin rotation measurements were used to investigate the spin dynamics of heterometallic Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu-Cr7Ni molecular clusters. In Cr7Ni the magnetic ions are arranged in a quasiplanar ring and interact via an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant J, while Cr7Ni-Cu-Cr7Ni is composed of two Cr7Ni linked by a bridging moiety containing one Cu ion, that induces an inter-ring ferromagnetic interaction J ≪ J. The longitudinal muon relaxation rate λ collected at low magnetic fields...

  14. Contamination assessment of heavy metals in the soils around Khouzestan Steel Company (KSC (Ni, Mn, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh hormozi Nejad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil plays a vital role in human life as the very survival of mankind is tied to the preservation of soil productivity (Kabata- Pendies and Mukherjee, 2007. The purpose of this study is the assessment of heavy metal contamination (Zn, Mn, Pb, Fe, Ni, Cr of the soil around the Khuzestan Steel Complex. Materials and methods For this purpose, 13 surface soil samples (0-10 cm were taken. Also a control sample was taken from an area away from the steel complex. The coordinates of each point were recorded by Global Positioning System (GPS. The samples were transferred to the laboratory and then were air dried at room temperature for 72 hours. Then they were sieved through a 2mm sieve for determining physical and chemical parameters (soil texture, pH, OC, and a 63-micron sieve for measurement of heavy metal concentration. pH was measured using a calibrated pH meter at a 2: 1 mixture (soil: water, and soil texture was determined using a hydrometer. The amount of organic matter was measured using the Valkey black method (Chopin and Alloway, 2007. After preparation of the samples in the laboratory, the samples were analyzed using the ICP-OES method to assess concentration of heavy metals. Measurement of heavy metals concentration was carried out at the Zar azma laboratory in Tehran. To ensure the accuracy of the analysis of soil samples, replicate samples were also sent to the laboratory. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution in the soil samples, different indices including contamination factor (CF, contamination degree (Cd, anthropogenic enrichment percent (An%, and saturation degree of metals (SDM were calculated. Discussion In addition, the mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples were compared to the concentration of these metals in Control Sample and unpolluted soil standard. Measurement of soil pH showed that the soil has a tendency to alkalinity. Also, soil texture is sandy loam (Moyes, 2011. The results showed that

  15. Quantitative evaluation of safety use limit for crevice corrosion in Ni-Cr-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, Yuichi; Akashi, Masatsune; Sasaki, Hidetsugu; Tsujikawa, Shigeo

    2007-01-01

    The most important problem with corrosion-resistant alloys such as stainless steels is localized corrosion. Crevice corrosion, which is a typical localized corrosion, occurs under the mildest environmental conditions. Consequently, whether crevice corrosion occurs or not is an important issue in structural material selection. This study investigated highly corrosion-resistant Ni-Cr-Mo alloys whose resistance for crevice corrosion is difficult to evaluate with the JIS G 0592 standard for common strainless steels. The optimized procedures for determining the critical potential and temperature for crevice corrosion of the alloys were developed based on the JIS method. The limits of safety usage of various Ni-Cr-Mo alloys were evaluated quantitatively in chloride solution environments. (author)

  16. Investigation of corrosion resistance of 18Cr-14NNi-1.5Si austenitic steel in molten PbBi eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivai, A.K.; Heinzel, H.; Effendi, N.

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The development of high corrosion resistant materials for the fuel cladding and structural materials in liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) eutectic environment especially at high temperature is a critical issue for the deployment of LFR (Lead alloy-cooled fast reactor) and ADS (Accelerator driven Transmutation System). Pb-Bi eutectic is a coolant for LFR which is one of the future nuclear reactors in the world (Generation IV reactors), and also a spallation target material and a coolant for ADS. In this study, corrosion test of an austenitic steel was done in COSTA Pb-Bi eutectic corrosion test facility at Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany. The sample was an 18Cr-14Ni-1.5Si austenitic steel which has been developed in Center For Technology of Nuclear Industry Materials, Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency. The test was done in stagnant molten Pb-Bi eutectic at 550 degree Celsius of temperature for about 300 hours with an oxygen concentration of 1 x 10 -6 wt %. The characterization was carried out using OM (Optical Microscope), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscope) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscope). The corrosion test result showed the formation of a duplex oxide layer for example an outer iron oxide layer with about 3-3.4 μm in thickness. Furthermore, there was no penetration of Pb-Bi into the bulk of the specimen because of the protection from the protective oxide layer. (author)

  17. Study of the microstructure and of microhardness variation of a Ni-Fe-Cr austenitic alloy by niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho e Camargo, M.U. de; Lucki, G.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanisms of hardening and corrosion resistance increase in Ni-Fe-Cr austenitic stainless steels by Nb additions are of interest to nuclear technology Niobium additions to a 321 type stainless steel were made in order to study the microhardness, electrical resistivity and metallography. Experimental measurements results are shown. The effect of Nb additions as a micro-alloying element and the thermal and mechanical processes (cold working in particular) in the microstructure and microhardness properties of the 11% Ni - 70%Fe - 17% Cr austenitic alloys were studied. (Author) [pt

  18. Dry sliding wear behavior and corrosion resistance of NiCrBSi coating deposited by activated combustion-high velocity air fuel spray process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shenglin; Zheng, Xueping; Geng, Gangqiang

    2010-01-01

    NiCrBSi is a Ni-based superalloy widely used to obtain high wear and corrosion resistant coatings. This Ni-based alloy coating has been deposited onto 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel using the AC-HVAF technique. The structure and morphologies of the Ni-based coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The wear resistance and corrosion resistance were studied. The tribological behaviors were evaluated using a HT-600 wear test rig. The wear resistance of the Ni-based coating was shown to be higher than that of the 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel because Fe 3 B, with high hardness, was distributed in the coating so the dispersion strengthening in the Ni-based coating was obvious and this increased the wear resistance of the Ni-based coating in a dry sliding wear test. Under the same conditions, the worn volume of 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel was 4.1 times greater than that of the Ni-based coating. The wear mechanism is mainly fatigue wear. A series of the electrochemical tests was carried out in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution in order to examine the corrosion behavior. The mechanisms for corrosion resistance are discussed.

  19. Electron-beam welding of 21-6-9 (Cr--Ni--Mn) stainless steel: effect of machine parameters on weldability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, H.

    1975-04-01

    The high-manganese, nitrogen-strengthened 21-6-9 (Cr--Ni--Mn) austenitic stainless steel has a weldability rating similar to that of more common austenitic stainless steels in terms of cracking, porosity, etc. However, weld pool disruption problems may occur with this alloy that can be related to instability within the molten weld pool. Selection of machine parameters is critical to achieving weld pool quiescence as this report confirms from recent tests. Test samples came from heats of air-melted, vacuum-arc remelted, and electroslag remelted material. Low- and high-voltage machine parameters are discussed, and effects of parameter variation on weld pool behavior are given. Data relate weld pool behavior to weld fusion-zone geometry. Various weld parameters are recommended for the 21-6-9 alloy, regardless of its source or chemistry. (auth)

  20. Modeling of Ni Diffusion Induced Austenite Formation in Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Molin, Sebastian; Zhang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steel interconnect plates are widely used in planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or electrolysis cell (SOEC) stacks. During stack production and operation, nickel from the Ni/YSZ fuel electrode or from the Ni contact component diffuses into the IC plate, causing transformation...... of the ferritic phase into an austenitic phase in the interface region. This is accompanied with changes in volume and in mechanical and corrosion properties of the IC plates. In this work, kinetic modeling of the inter-diffusion between Ni and FeCr based ferritic stainless steel was conducted, using the CALPHAD...

  1. Alloying and heat treatment optimization of Fe/Cr/C steels for improved mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarikaya, M.

    1979-06-01

    The effects of alloying elements and heat treatments on the microstructural changes and strength-toughness properties were investigated in optimization of vacuum melted Fe/Cr/C base steels. The structure of the steels in the as-quenched conditions consisted of highly dislocated autotempered lath martensite (strong phase) and thin continuous interlath films of retained austenite (tough phase). It has been emphasized again that the mechanical properties of the steels are sensitive to the amount and the stability of retained austenite. To increase the stability of retained austenite in the as-quenched condition 2 w/o Mn or 2 w/o Ni was added to the base steel, viz., Fe/3Cr/0.3C. Partial replacement of Cr by about 0.5 w/o Mo did not alter the beneficial microstructure

  2. Corrosion behavior of high purity Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in trans-passive condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayuzumi, Masami; Ohta, Jyoji; Kako, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of high-purity (99.99%) Fe-Cr-Ni alloys was investigated in 13 N nitric acid with/without Ce 4+ ions to clarify the effect of impurities on the trans-passive corrosion of stainless steel. The following results were obtained. (1) Almost no intergranular corrosion was observed in the high-purity alloys, although the corrosion rate of the matrix region was nearly the same as that of a commercial stainless steel with the same Cr and Ni content. (2) Due to the improved intergranular corrosion resistance, the effect of the purification became significant in the corrosion condition with the grain-separation being predominant. (3) The high-purity alloys showed higher susceptivility to intergranular corrosion with aging treatment between 873 K and 1073 K. Although the sulfuric acid/copper sulfate test suggested the formation of Cr-depleted zones, a grain boundary micro-analysis using a FETEM with an EDX did not reveal any change in Cr content or impurity segregain along the grain boundaries. The mechanism of corrosion enhancement resulting from the aging treatment remains nuclear. (author)

  3. Cyclic oxidation behavior of plasma sprayed NiCrAlY/WC-Co/cenosphere coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathapati, Mahantayya; Ramesh M., R.; Doddamani, Mrityunjay

    2018-04-01

    Components working at elevated temperature like boiler tubes of coal and gas fired power generation plants, blades of gas and steam turbines etc. experience degradation owing to oxidation. Oxidation resistance of such components can be increased by developing protective coatings. In the present investigation NiCrAlY-WC-Co/Cenosphere coating is deposited on MDN 321 steel substrate using plasma spray coating. Thermo cyclic oxidation behavior of coating and substrate is studied in static air at 600 °C for 20 cycles. The thermo gravimetric technique is used to approximate the kinetics of oxidation. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray mapping techniques are used to characterize the oxidized samples. NiCrAlY-WC-Co/Cenosphere coating exhibited lower oxidation rate in comparison to MDN 321 steel substrate. The lower oxidation rate of coating is attributed to formation of Al2O3, Cr2O3, NiO and CoWO4 oxides on the outermost surface.

  4. Development of high yield strength non-magnetic steels for the equipments of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Hidenori; Mukai, Tetsuya; Ohtani, Hiroo; Tsuruki, Takanori; Okada, Yasutaka

    1979-01-01

    Recently, activity of nuclear fusion research and so forth increase the demand of non-magnetic materials for various equipments and structures. For these usage, very low magnetic permeability as well as high strength are required under high magnetic field. Based on fundamental research, middle C-17% Cr-7% Ni-N non-magnetic steel has been developed. The developed steel shows more stable austenite phase and possesses higher yield strength and endurance limit of more than 10 kg/mm 2 , compared with 18% Cr-8% Ni austenitic steel. Also the developed steel has good ductility and toughness in spite of the high yield strength and shows better machinability than usual high Mn non- magnetic steels. The large forgings of this newly developed steel are manufactured in the works for the equipments of nuclear fusion research and confirmed good mechanical properties, high fatigue strength and low permeability. (author)

  5. Aging precipitation behavior and its influence on mechanical properties of Mn18Cr18N austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fengming; Li, Yajie; He, Wenwu; Zhao, Xiaodong; Chen, Huiqin

    2017-11-01

    The aging precipitation behavior in Mn18Cr18N austenitic stainless steel was investigated at temperatures from 600 °C to 900 °C. During isothermal aging treatment, the primary precipitate was Cr2N with a = 0.478 nm and c = 0.444 nm, and it preferentially nucleates along initial grain boundaries and gradually grows towards the interior of grains in discontinuous cellular way. Meanwhile, a small amount of granular face-centred cubic M23C6 with a = 1.066 nm also were observed, which mainly form along grain boundaries. The effect of these precipitates on mechanical properties of the alloy was studied. It was found that precipitates result in degeneration of the matrix hardness. Meanwhile, the SEM morphologies of aged tensile sample show that the brittle fracture predominates during deformation, i.e. the fracture mode transforms from intergranular fracture to transgranular fracture with the increasing of aging time. Compared with the solution-treated sample, the strength of the aged tensile samples slightly decreases and plasticity remarkably deteriorates.

  6. Structural transformations in austenitic stainless steel induced by deuterium implantation: irradiation at 100 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Oleksandr; Zhurba, Volodymyr; Neklyudov, Ivan; Mats, Oleksandr; Rud, Aleksandr; Chernyak, Nikolay; Progolaieva, Viktoria

    2015-01-01

    Deuterium thermal desorption spectra were investigated on the samples of austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi preimplanted at 100 K with deuterium ions in the dose range from 3 × 10(15) to 5 × 10(18) D/cm(2). The kinetics of structural transformation development in the implantation steel layer was traced from deuterium thermodesorption spectra as a function of implanted deuterium concentration. At saturation of austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi with deuterium by means of ion implantation, structural-phase changes take place, depending on the dose of implanted deuterium. The maximum attainable concentration of deuterium in steel is C = 1 (at.D/at.met. = 1/1). The increase in the implanted dose of deuterium is accompanied by the increase in the retained deuterium content, and as soon as the deuterium concentration attains C ≈ 0.5 the process of shear martensitic structural transformation in steel takes place. It includes the formation of bands, body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure, and the ferromagnetic phase. Upon reaching the deuterium concentration C > 0.5, the presence of these molecules causes shear martensitic structural transformations in the steel, which include the formation of characteristic bands, bcc crystal structure, and the ferromagnetic phase. At C ≥ 0.5, two hydride phases are formed in the steel, the decay temperatures of which are 240 and 275 K. The hydride phases are formed in the bcc structure resulting from the martensitic structural transformation in steel.

  7. Irradiation hardening of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Woo-Seog; Kim, Sung-Ho; Choo, Kee-Nam; Kim, Do-Sik

    2009-01-01

    An irradiation test of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel was carried out in the OR5 test hole of HANARO of a 30 MW thermal power at 390±10degC up to a fast neutron fluence of 4.4x10 19 (n/cm 2 ) (E > 1.0 MeV). The dpa of the irradiated specimens was evaluated to be 0.034 - 0.07. Tensile and impact tests of the irradiated Mod.9Cr-1Mo were done in the hot cell of the IMEF. The change of the tensile strength by irradiation was similar to the change of the yield strength. The increase of the yield and tensile strengths was up to 18% and 10% respectively. The elongation reduction of the weldment was up to 65%. (author)

  8. Microstructure evolution and shear strength of vacuum brazed joint for super-Ni/NiCr laminated composite with Ni–Cr–Si–B amorphous interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Na; Li, Yajiang; Ma, Qunshuang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Divorced eutectic of γ-Ni and Ni 3 B formed in the brazed region. • The detailed isothermal solidification mechanism was proposed. • Borides formed at the interfaces at different temperatures were identified. • Effect of brazing temperatures on microstructure and shear strength was investigated. • Excellent joint with shear strength of 191 MPa was obtained at 1100 °C for 20 min. - Abstract: Vacuum brazing of super-Ni/NiCr laminated composite and Cr18Ni8 steel was carried out with Ni–Cr–Si–B amorphous interlayer at different temperatures (1060–1150 °C). The effects of brazing temperature on the microstructure evolution and shear strength of the joints were investigated. Microstructure, chemical composition and microhardness of the joints were studied using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and microsclerometer. Shear strength of the joints were measured by the electromechanical universal testing machine. Diffusion of B was the controlling factor for microstructure evolution. The detailed isothermal solidification mechanism was proposed in this study. The fracture morphology of the joint made at 1100 °C exhibited plastic feature and the shear strength reached 191 MPa. Bulky Ni 3 B formed in super-Ni cover layer near the brazed region when performed at 1060–1100 °C while Ni–B eutectic formed instead at 1150 °C

  9. Slurry Erosion Behavior of AlxCoCrFeNiTi0.5 High-Entropy Alloy Coatings Fabricated by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-entropy alloys (HEAs have gained extensive attention due to their excellent properties and the related scientific value in the last decade. In this work, AlxCoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coatings (x: molar ratio, x = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 were fabricated on Q345 steel substrate by laser-cladding process to develop a practical protection technology for fluid machines. The effect of Al content on their phase evolution, microstructure, and slurry erosion performance of the HEA coatings was studied. The AlxCoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coatings are composed of simple face-centered cubic (FCC, body-centered cubic (BCC and their mixture phase. Slurry erosion tests were conducted on the HEA coatings with a constant velocity of 10.08 m/s and 16–40 meshs and particles at impingement angles of 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 degrees. The effect of three parameters, namely impingement angle, sand concentration and erosion time, on the slurry erosion behavior of AlxCoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coatings was investigated. Experimental results show AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coating follows a ductile erosion mode and a mixed mode (neither ductile nor brittle for Al1.5CoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coating, while Al2.0CoCrFeNiTi0.5 and Al2.5CoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coatings mainly exhibit brittle erosion mode. AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coating has good erosion resistance at all investigated impingement angles due to its high hardness, good plasticity, and low stacking fault energy (SFE.

  10. Ab initio and Atomic kinetic Monte Carlo modelling of segregation in concentrated FeCrNi alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piochaud, J. B.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.

    2014-06-01

    Internal structure of pressurised water reactors are made of austenitic materials. Under irradiation, the microstructure of these concentrated alloys evolves and solute segregation on grain boundaries or irradiation defects such as dislocation loops are observed to take place. In order to model and predict the microstructure evolution, a multiscale modelling approach needs to be developed, which starts at the atomic scale. Atomic Kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) modelling is the method we chose to provide an insight on defect mediated diffusion under irradiation. In that approach, we model the concentrated commercial steel as a FeCrNi alloy (γ-Fe70Cr20Ni10). As no reliable empirical potential exists at the moment to reproduce faithfully the phase diagram and the interactions of the elements and point defects, we have adjusted a pair interaction model on large amount of DFT calculations. The point defect properties in the Fe70Cr20Ni10, and more precisely, how their formation energy depends on the local environment will be presented and some AKMC results on thermal non equilibrium segregation and radiation induce segregation will be presented. The effect of Si on the segregation will also be discussed.

  11. Microstructural stability of fast reactor irradiated 10 to 12% Cr ferritic-martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, E.A.; Stoter, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    The strength and microstructural stability of three 10 to 12% Cr ferritic-martensitic stainless steels have been characterized following fast reactor irradiation to damage levels of 30 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures in the range 380 to 615 0 C. Irradiation results in either increases or decreases in room temperature hardness depending on the irradiation temperature. These strength changes can be qualitatively rationalized in terms of the combined effects of irradiation-induced interstitial dislocation loop formation and recovery of the dislocation networks comprising the initial tempered martensite structures. Precipitate evolution in the irradiated steels is associated with the nonequilibrium segregation of the elements nickel, silicon, molybdenum, chromium and phosphorus, brought about by solute-point defect interactions. The principal irradiation-induced precipitates identified are M 6 X, intermetallic chi and sigma phases and also α' (Cr-rich ferrite). The implications of the observed microstructural changes on the selection of martensitic stainless steels for fast reactor wrapper applications are briefly considered

  12. Effect of heat treatment on pitting corrosion of austenitic Cr-Ni-Mo steels in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefec, R.; Franz, F.; Holecek, A.

    1979-01-01

    The pitting corrosion resistance of Cr17Ni12Mo2,5 type steel under potentiostatic polarization in a sodium chloride solution is adversely affected by previous annealing. The data obtained were systematically dependent on annealing temperature, time and surface roughness. The corrosion current, the number of pits or the mean area of pit opening and the corrosion rate within the pits were increased by previous annealing at 550 to 750 0 C for 1-100 hrs. The highest corrosion rate estimated corresponded to heat treatments provoking severe sensitization to intergranular corrosion. The paercentage area of corrosion pit openings and the estimated pit penetration rates were several times higher for as-machined than for polished surfaces. It can be assumed that pitting corrosion is little affected by the carbon content and that molybdenum depletion of grain-boundary zones is responsible for the reduced pitting resistance of annealed steels. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Effect of various heat treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of 34CrNiMo6 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Azim, M.E.; Ghoneim, M.M.; Nasreldin, A.M.; Soliman, S.

    1997-01-01

    Three different austenitization treatments were applied to high strength 34CrNiMo6 steel: conventional austenitization (CAT), high temperature austenitization (HTA) and duplex treatment (DT). It was found that DT structure has finer prior austenite grain size (30 μm) than those of HTA (200 μm) and CAT (70 μm) structures. DT and HTA structures have coarser lath size for martensite than CAT structure. DT results in higher room temperature impact toughness than HTA and CAT structures and shifts the ductile-brittle transition to lower temperatures by 14 K and 32 K in comparison with HTA and CAT structures, respectively. However, DT structure has intermediate values of room temperature yield stress and ultimate tensile strength between those of CAT and HTA structures. When this steel was tempered at 300 and 400 C it underwent tempered martensite embrittlement associated with intergranular fracture. (orig.)

  14. Precipitation hardening in a 12%Cr-9%Ni-4%Mo-2%Cu stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haettestrand, Mats; Nilsson, Jan-Olof; Stiller, Krystyna; Liu Ping; Andersson, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    A combination of complementary techniques including one-dimensional and three-dimensional atom probe, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and conventional transmission electron microscopy has been used to assess the precipitation reactions at 475 deg. C in a 12%Cr-9%Ni-4%Mo-2%Cu precipitation hardening stainless steel. The continuous hardening up to at least 1000 h of ageing was attributed to a sequence of precipitation reactions involving nickel-rich precipitates nucleating at copper clusters followed by molybdenum-rich quasicrystalline precipitates and nickel-rich precipitates of type L1 0 . An estimate of the relative contributions to the strength increment during tempering based on measurements of particle densities was performed. Nickel-rich precipitates were found to play the most important role up to about 40 h of ageing after which the effect of quasicrystalline particles became increasingly important

  15. Helium accumulation and bubble formation in FeCoNiCr alloy under high fluence He+ implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Tong, Y.; Li, H.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Y. L.; Hu, Alice; Kai, J. J.

    2018-04-01

    Face-centered cubic (FCC) high-entropy alloys (HEA), as emerging alloys with equal-molar or near equal-molar constituents, show a promising radiation damage resistance under heavy ion bombardment, making them potential for structural material application in next-generation nuclear reactors, but the accumulation of light helium ions, a product of nuclear fission reaction, has not been studied. The present work experimentally studied the helium accumulation and bubble formation at implantation temperatures of 523 K, 573 K and 673 K in a homogenized FCC FeCoNiCr HEA, a HEA showing excellent radiation damage resistance under heavy ion irradiation. The size and population density of helium bubbles in FeCoNiCr samples were quantitatively analyzed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the helium content existing in bubbles were estimated from a high-pressure Equation of State (EOS). We found that the helium diffusion in such condition was dominated by the self-interstitial/He replacement mechanism, and the corresponding activation energy in FeCoNiCr is comparable with the vacancy migration energy in Ni and austenitic stainless steel but only 14.3%, 31.4% and 51.4% of the accumulated helium precipitated into helium bubbles at 523 K, 573 K and 673 K, respectively, smaller than the pure Ni case. Importantly, the small bubble size suggested that FeCoNiCr HEA has a high resistance of helium bubble formation compared with Ni and steels.

  16. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry of thin NiCr layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anklam, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities and problems of characterizing thin films of NiCr by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) are demonstrated. Thin resistor films of NiCr (10 to 30 nm thick) are deposited on SiO 2 by sputtering in air or oxygen. The electrical properties depend both on integral chemical composition of films and on local distribution of elements. The determination of composition (Ni-Cr ratio, oxygen content) and of depth profiles of elements by the aid of RBS is described. For solving special analytical problems different substrates as amorphous SiO 2 , Si monocrystals, and glassy carbon are used

  17. Ferritic stainless steels: corrosion resistance + economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remus, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steels provide corrosion resistance at lower cost. They include Type 409, Type 439, 18SR, 20-Mo (1.6 Mo), 18-2 (2 Mo), 26-1S, E-Brite 26-1, 29 Cr-4 Mo, and 29 Cr-4 Mo-2 Ni. Their corrosion and mechanical properties are examined. Resistance to stress-corrosion cracking is an advantage compared to austenitic types

  18. Ostwald ripening of decomposed phases in Cu-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Santiago, Felipe; Lopez-Hirata, Victor; Dorantes-Rosales, Hector J.; Saucedo-Munoz, Maribel L.; Gonzalez-Velazquez, Jorge L.; Paniagua-Mercado, Ana Ma.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the coarsening process of the decomposed phases was carried out in the Cu-34 wt.% Ni-4 wt.% Cr and Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloys using transmission electron microscopy. As aging progressed, the morphology of the coherent decomposed Ni-rich phase changed from cuboids to platelets aligned in the Cu-rich matrix directions. Prolonged aging caused the loss of coherency between the decomposed phases and the morphology of the Ni-rich phase changed to ellipsoidal. The variation of mean radius of the coherent decomposed phases with aging time followed the modified LSW theory for thermally activated growth in ternary alloy systems. The linear variation of the density number of precipitates and matrix supersaturation with aging time, also confirmed that the coarsening process followed the modified LSW theory in both alloys. The coarsening rate was faster in the symmetrical Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloy due to its higher volume fraction of precipitates. The activation energy for thermally activated growth was determined to be about 182 and 102 kJ mol -1 in the Cu-34 wt.% Ni-4 wt.% Cr and Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloys, respectively. The lower energy for the former alloy seems to be related to an increase in the atomic diffusion process as the chromium content increases. The size distributions of precipitates in the Cu-Ni-Cr alloys were broader and more symmetric than that predicted by the modified LSW theory for ternary alloys

  19. Role of oxides and porosity on high temperature oxidation of liquid fuelled HVOF thermal sprayed Ni50Cr coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Song, B.; Bai, M.; Voisey, K.T.; Hussain, Tanvir

    2017-01-01

    High chromium content in Ni50Cr thermally sprayed coatings can generate a dense and protective scale at the surface of coating. Thus, the Ni50Cr coating is widely used in high temperature oxidation and corrosion applications. A commercially available gas atomized Ni50Cr powder was sprayed onto a power plant steel (ASME P92) using a liquid fuelled high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray with three processing parameters in this study. Microstructure of as-sprayed coatings was examined using...

  20. Effects of Cr2N Precipitation on the Antibacterial Properties of AISI 430 Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Je-Kang Du; Chih-Yeh Chao; Yu-Ting Jhong; Chung-Hao Wu; Ju-Hui Wu

    2016-01-01

    Based on their mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, some commercial Ni-Cr stainless steels have been widely applied as biomaterials, including the austenitic 304 stainless steel, the austenitic 316 stainless steel, the duplex 2205 stainless steel, and the ferritic 430 stainless steel. In order to reduce the occurrence of infections resulting from biomaterial implants, instruments, and medical devices, Cu2+ and Ag2+ ions have been added onto biomaterials for increasing the anti...

  1. Comparison of SA508 Gr.3 and SA508 Gr.4N Low Alloy Steels for Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Chul; Lee, B. S

    2009-12-15

    The microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel and SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel were investigated. The differences in the stable phases between these two low alloy steels were evaluated by means of a thermodynamic calculation using ThermoCalc. They were then compared to microstructural features and correlated with mechanical properties. Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel shows the upper bainite structure which has the coarse cementite in the lath boundaries. However, Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel shows the mixture of lower bainite and tempered martensite structure that homogeneously precipitates the small carbides such as M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} due to an increase of hardenability and Cr addition. In the mechanical properties, Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel has higher strength and toughness than Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. Ni and Cr additions increase the strength by solid solution hardening. Besides, microstructural changes from upper bainite to tempered martensite improve the strength of the low alloy steel by grain refining effect. And the changes in the precipitation behavior by Cr addition improve the ductile-brittle transition behavior along with a toughening effect of Ni addition.

  2. Parametrical limits of SCC-susceptibility of austenitic and austenitic-ferritic Cr-Ni steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starosvetskij, D.I.; Baru, R.L.; Bondarenko, A.I.; Bogoyavlenskij, V.L.; Timonin, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Comparative investigations into corrosion cracking (CC) of austenitic (12Kh18N10T) and austenitic-ferritic (08Kh22N6T) chromium-nickel steels are performed for various chloride media in a wide range of chloride concentrations and temperatures. It is shown that the ratio between steels in terms of their CC-susceptibility is not definite and can undergo a reversal depending on parameters of medium, level and conditions of loading. Differences in mechanisms of corrosion cracking of austenitic and austenitic-ferritic steels are established

  3. Hydrogen embrittlement of thermomechanically treated 18Ni Maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munford, J.W.; Rack, H.J.; Kass, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of thermomechanical treatments on susceptibility to cracking in 100 percent relative humidity air and low pressure (93.3 KPa) gaseous hydrogen has been investigated for 18Ni (350 ksi) Maraging steel. Two thermomechanical treatments were studied, ausforming and marforming and compared with the standard solution treated and aged material. Although little difference exists for the strength and toughness values between these treatments, a two to five-fold increase in the stress intensity threshold for cracking was found for both the ausformed and marformed material. A dramatic difference in cracking kinetics was also apparent as shown by the failure times at comparable stress intensities. Fractographic analysis showed that the primary fracture mode was 100 percent intergranular for the solution treated and aged samples while the ausform and marform failures were predominately quasi-cleavage or intergranular depending on orientation. Finally, permeation and diffusion measurements were conducted on the above materials and these results are correlated with the environmental cracking behavior

  4. Hydrogen embrittlement of thermomechanically treated 18Ni Maraging steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munford, J.W.; Rack, H.J.; Kass, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of thermomechanical treatments on susceptibility to cracking in 100 percent relative humidity air and low pressure (93.3 KPa) gaseous hydrogen has been investigated for 18Ni (350 ksi) Maraging steel. Two thermomechanical treatments were studied, ausforming and marforming and compared with the standard solution treated and aged material. Although little difference exists for the strength and toughness values between these treatments, a two to five-fold increase in the stress intensity threshold for cracking was found for both the ausformed and marformed material. A dramatic difference in cracking kinetics was also apparent as shown by the failure times at comparable stress intensities. Fractographic analysis showed that the primary fracture mode was 100 percent intergranular for the solution treated and aged samples while the ausform and marform failures were predominately quasi-cleavage or intergranular depending on orientation. Finally, permeation and diffusion measurements were conducted on the above materials and these results are correlated with the environmental cracking behavior.

  5. The influence of cold work on the oxidation behaviour of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevoort, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis the study of the interaction of oxygen gas with stainless steel surfaces is described. Thermogravimetry, microscopy and ellipsometry have been used to follow the oxidation in situ, while EDX, AES and XPS have been used to determine the oxide compositions. The aim of this thesis is to reveal the influence on the oxidation behaviour of stainless steel of i) cold work (rolling, drawing, milling, polishing and Ar ion bombardment) ii) the initially formed oxide and iii) the experimental conditions. Two types of stainless steels have been used (AISI 304 (a 18/8 Cr/Ni steel) and Incoloy 800 H (a 20/30 Cr/Ni steel)). (Auth.)

  6. Establishment of Wear Resistant HVOF Coatings for 50CrMo4 Chromium Molybdenum Alloy Steel as an Alternative for Hard Chrome Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppasamy, S.; Sivan, V.; Natarajan, S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.; Duraiselvam, M.; Dhanuskodi, R.

    2018-05-01

    High cost imported components of seamless steel tube manufacturing plants wear frequently and need replacement to ensure the quality of the product. Hard chrome plating, which is time consuming and hazardous, is conventionally used to restore the original dimension of the worn-out surface of the machine components. High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with NiCrBSi super alloy powder and Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 alloy powder applied on a 50CrMo4 (DIN-1.7228) chromium molybdenum alloy steel, the material of the wear prone machine component, were evaluated for use as an alternative for hard chrome plating in this present work. The coating characteristics are evaluated using abrasive wear test, sliding wear test and microscopic analysis, hardness test, etc. The study results revealed that the HVOF based NiCrBSi and Cr3C2NiCr75/25 coatings have hardness in the range of 800-900 HV0.3, sliding wear rate in the range of 50-60 µm and surface finish around 5 microns. Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 coating is observed to be a better option out of the two coatings evaluated for the selected application.

  7. Study on elevated-temperature flow behavior of Ni-Cr-Mo-B ultra-heavy-plate steel via experiment and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-yu; Kang, Yu; Li, Yan-shuai; Meng, Chao; Pan, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Elevated-temperature flow behavior of a novel Ni-Cr-Mo-B ultra-heavy-plate steel was investigated by conducting hot compressive deformation tests on a Gleeble-3800 thermo-mechanical simulator at a temperature range of 1123 K–1423 K with a strain rate range from 0.01 s‑1 to10 s‑1 and a height reduction of 70%. Based on the experimental results, classic strain-compensated Arrhenius-type, a new revised strain-compensated Arrhenius-type and classic modified Johnson-Cook constitutive models were developed for predicting the high-temperature deformation behavior of the steel. The predictability of these models were comparatively evaluated in terms of statistical parameters including correlation coefficient (R), average absolute relative error (AARE), average root mean square error (RMSE), normalized mean bias error (NMBE) and relative error. The statistical results indicate that the new revised strain-compensated Arrhenius-type model could give prediction of elevated-temperature flow stress for the steel accurately under the entire process conditions. However, the predicted values by the classic modified Johnson-Cook model could not agree well with the experimental values, and the classic strain-compensated Arrhenius-type model could track the deformation behavior more accurately compared with the modified Johnson-Cook model, but less accurately with the new revised strain-compensated Arrhenius-type model. In addition, reasons of differences in predictability of these models were discussed in detail.

  8. Effect of N+Cr alloying on the microstructures and tensile properties of Hadfield steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Zhang, F.C.; Wang, F.; Liu, H.; Yu, B.D.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructures and tensile behaviors of traditional Hadfield steel, named Mn12 steel, and Hadfield steel alloyed with N+Cr, named Mn12CrN steel were studied through optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, among others. Three different tensile strain rates of 5×10 −4 , 5×10 −3 , and 5×10 −2 s −1 were selected in the tensile test. The deformation microstructures and fracture morphologies of the two steels after fracture in the tensile test were observed to analyze the tensile deformation response to different tensile strain rates. Results showed that the grain size of Mn12CrN steel was evidently refined after alloying with N+Cr. The grain would not become abnormally coarse even with increasing austenitizing temperature. During tensile deformation, the strength and plasticity of Mn12CrN steel were superior to those of Mn12 steel at the same strain rate. With increasing the strain rate, the changes in strength and plasticity of Mn12CrN steel were less sensitive to tensile strain rate compared with Mn12 steel. The effects of grain refinement and N+Cr alloying on dynamic strain aging and deformation twining behaviors were responsible for this lack of sensitivity to strain rate.

  9. Microstructure and corrosion properties of CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Qingfeng [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Li, Ruifeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212003 (China); Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Equimolar CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy coating are prepared by laser cladding. • The cladding layer forms a simple FCC phase solid solution with identical dendritic structure. • The cladding layer exhibits a noble corrosion resistance in both 3.5 wt.% NaCl and 0.5 M sulfuric acid. • Element segregation makes Cr-depleted interdendrites the starting point of corrosion reaction. - Abstract: Equimolar CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy (HEA) is one of the most notable single phase multi-component alloys up-to-date with promising mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. However, the study on the corrosion behavior of CrMnFeCoNi HEA coating has still been lacking. In this paper, HEA coating with a nominal composition of CrMnFeCoNi is fabricated by laser surface alloying and studied in detail. Microstructure and chemical composition are determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to investigate the corrosion behavior. The coating forms a simple FCC phase with an identical dendritic structure composed of Fe/Co/Ni-rich dendrites and Mn/Ni-rich interdendrites. Both in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution and 0.5 M sulfuric acid the coating exhibits nobler corrosion resistance than A36 steel substrate and even lower i{sub corr} than 304 stainless steel (304SS). EIS plots coupled with fitted parameters reveal that a spontaneous protective film is formed and developed during immersion in 0.5 M sulfuric acid. The fitted R{sub t} value reaches its maximum at 24 h during a 48 h’ immersion test, indicating the passive film starts to break down after that. EDS analysis conducted on a corroded surface immersed in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} reveals that corrosion starts from Cr-depleted interdendrites.

  10. Corrosion of austenitic steels and their components in vanadium-containing chloride melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A. V.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.; Lisienko, D. G.

    2014-08-01

    The corrosion of austenitic 12Kh18N10T, 10Kh17N13M2T, and 03Kh17N14M3 steels and their components (Cr, Fe, Ni, Mo) in NaCl-KCl-VCl2 melts with 5 wt % V at 750°C is studied. The rates and mechanisms of corrosion of the materials under these conditions are determined. The processes that occur during contact of the metals and steels with vanadium-containing chloride electrolytes are investigated.

  11. Enhancement of tribological properties of 9Cr18 stainless steel by dual Mo and S Co implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Song Jiaohua; Li Guoqing; Chu, Paul K.; Brown, Ian G.

    2001-01-01

    Mo and S ions were simultaneously implanted into 9Cr18 stainless steel samples. The frictional properties of the implanted samples were assessed using a pin-on-disk tester and the elemental depth profiles were measured by Auger electron spectroscopy. The hardness of the samples was also measured. We find that this dual-element implantation process reduces the coefficient of friction by a factor of 2 and increases the low-friction lifetime by a factor of 4 compared to the 9Cr18 surface with Mo or S implantation alone. This enhancement is related to the synergistic coexistence of the implanted elements at the same place. We have also investigated the process using computer simulation. The simulation results help disclose the characteristics of the modified layer and explain the effects of dual-element ion implantation

  12. Ostwald Ripening Process of Coherent β′ Precipitates during Aging in Fe0.75Ni0.10Al0.15 and Fe0.74Ni0.10Al0.15Cr0.01 Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cayetano-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ostwald ripening process was studied in Fe0.75Ni0.10Al0.15 and Fe0.74Ni0.10Al0.15Cr0.01 alloys after aging at 750, 850, and 950°C for different times. The microstructural evolution shows a rounded cube morphology (Fe, NiAl β′ precipitates aligned in the ferrite matrix, which changes to elongated plates after prolonged aging. The variation of the equivalent radii of precipitates with time follows the modified Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory for diffusion-controlled coarsening. Thermo-Calc analysis shows that the chromium content is richer in the matrix than in the precipitates which causes higher hardness and coarsening resistance in the aged Fe0.74Ni0.10Al0.15Cr0.01 alloy.

  13. Microstructure investigation of NiAl-Cr(Mo) interface in a directionally solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo) eutectic alloyed with refractory metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.X.; Cui, C.Y.; Guo, J.T.; Li, D.X.

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure of a directionally solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo) eutectic alloyed with refractory metal in as-processed and heat-treated states has been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The microstructure of the NiAl-Cr(Mo) eutectic was characterized by lamellar Cr(Mo) phases embedded within NiAl matrix with common growth direction of . The interface between NiAl and lamellar Cr(Mo) did not have any transition layers. Misfit dislocations were observed at the NiAl-Cr(Mo) interface. In addition to lamellar Cr(Mo) phases, coherent Cr(Mo, Ni, Al) precipitates and NiAl precipitates were also observed in the NiAl matrix and lamellar Cr(Mo) phases, respectively. After hot isostatic pressing and heat treatment, the NiAl-Cr(Mo) interfaces became smooth and straight. Square array of misfit dislocations was directly observed at the (0 0 1) interface between NiAl and Cr(Mo, Ni, Al) precipitate. The configuration of misfit dislocation network showed a generally good agreement with prediction based on the geometric O-lattice model

  14. Hot Deformation Behavior of 1Cr12Ni3Mo2VN Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaomao; Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Leyu; Chen, Chao; Deng, Xiaochun

    2017-08-01

    1Cr12Ni3Mo2VN is a new type of martensitic stainless steel for the last-stage blades of large-capacity nuclear and thermal power turbines. The deformation behavior of this steel was studied by thermal compression experiments that performed on a Gleeble-3500 thermal simulator at a temperature range of 850°C to 1200°C and a strain rate of 0.01s-1 to 20s-1. When the deformation was performed at high temperature and low strain rate, a necklace type of microstructures was observed, the plastic deformation mechanism is grain boundary slip and migration, when at low temperature and lower strain rate, the slip bands were observed, the mechanism is intracrystalline slips, and when at strain rate of 20s-1, twins were observed, the mechanism are slips and twins. The Arrhenius equation was applied to describe the constitutive equation of the flow stress. The accuracy of the equation was verified by using the experimental data and the correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9786, and the equation can provide reasonable data for the design and numerical simulation of the forging process.

  15. Effect of Ti content on structure and properties of Al2CrFeNiCoCuTix high-entropy alloy coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, X.W.; Zhang, Y.P.; Liu, C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x high-entropy alloy coatings were prepared by laser cladding. • Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x coatings show excellent corrosion resistance and wear resistance. • Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x coatings play a good protective effect on Q235 steel. • Ti element promotes the formation of a BCC structure in a certain extent. -- Abstract: The Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x high-entropy alloy coatings were prepared by laser cladding. The structure, hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and magnetic property were studied by metallurgical microscope, scanning electron microscopy with spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction, micro/Vickers hardness tester, electrochemical workstation tribometer and multi-physical tester. The result shows that, Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x high-entropy alloy samples consist of the cladding zone, bounding zone, heat affected zone and substrate zone. The bonding between the cladding layer and the substrate of a good combination; the cladding zone is composed mainly of equiaxed grains and columnar crystal; the phase structure of Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x high-entropy alloy coatings simple for FCC, BCC and Laves phase due to high-entropy affect. Ti element promotes the formation of a BCC structure in a certain extent. Compared with Q235 steel, the free-corrosion current density of Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x high-entropy alloy coatings is reduced by 1–2 orders of magnitude, the free-corrosion potential is more “positive”. With the increasing of Ti content, the corrosion resistance of Al 2 CrFeCoCuNiTi x high-entropy alloy coatings enhanced in 0.5 mol/L HNO 3 solution. Compared with Q235 steel, the relative wear resistance of Al 2 CrFeCoCuNiTi x high-entropy alloy coatings has improved greatly; both the hardness and plasticity are affecting wear resistance. Magnetization loop shows that, Ti 0.0 high-entropy alloy is a kind of soft magnetic materials

  16. Corrosion testing of NiCrAl(Y) coating alloys in high-temperature and supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljan, S.; Huang, X.; Qian, Y.; Guzonas, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear power reactors, materials capable of operating in high-temperature and supercritical water environment are essential. This study focuses on the corrosion behavior of five alloys with compositions of Ni20Cr, Ni5Al, Ni50Cr, Ni20Cr5Al and Ni20Cr10AlY above and below the critical point of water. Corrosion tests were conducted at three different pressures, while the temperature was maintained at 460 o C, in order to examine the effects of water density on the corrosion. From the preliminary test results, it was found that the binary alloys Ni20Cr and Ni50Cr showed weight loss above the critical point (23.7 MPa and 460 o C). The higher Cr content alloy Ni50Cr suffered more weight loss than Ni-20Cr under the same conditions. Accelerated weight gain was observed above the critical point for the binary alloy Ni5Al. The combination of Cr, Al and Y in Ni20Cr10AlY provides stable scale formation under all testing conditions employed in this study. (author)

  17. Ab initio and atomic kinetic Monte Carlo modelling of segregation in concentrated FeCrNi alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piochaud, J.B.; Becquart, C.S.; Domain, C.

    2013-01-01

    Internal structure of pressurised water reactors are made of austenitic materials. Under irradiation, the microstructure of these concentrated alloys evolves and solute segregation on grain boundaries or irradiation defects such as dislocation loops are observed to take place. In order to model and predict the microstructure evolution, a multi-scale modelling approach needs to be developed, which starts at the atomic scale. Atomic Kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) modelling is the method we chose to provide an insight on defect mediated diffusion under irradiation. In that approach, we model the concentrated commercial steel as a FeCrNi alloy (γ-Fe 70 Cr 20 Ni 10 ). As no reliable empirical potential exists at the moment to reproduce faithfully the phase diagram and the interactions of the elements and point defects, we have adjusted a pair interaction model on large amount of DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations. The point defect properties in the Fe 70 Cr 20 Ni 10 , and more precisely, how their formation energy depends on the local environment will be presented and some AKMC results on thermal non equilibrium segregation (TNES) and radiation induce segregation will be presented. The effect of Si on the segregation will also be discussed. Preliminary results show that it is the solute- grain boundaries interactions which drive TNES

  18. Microstructural change during creep deformation in a 10%Cr martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Song, B. J.; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between creep deformation and microstructural changes in martensitic 10Cr-MoW steel has been studied. Transmission electron microscopy and image analyser were used to determine the variation of precipitates and martensite lath width size during creep deformation and aging. As precipitates are coarsened during creep deformation, dislocations become easy to move and the recovery proceeds rapidly. This leads to the growth of lath width. The average size of precipitates was linearly increased with creep time. On the other hand the growth rate of lath width is constant until tertiary creep, but the growth of lath width is accelerated during tertiary creep. It has been concluded that the growth behavior of lath width are consistent with creep deformation. Because the growth of lath width is controlled by the coarsening of precipitates it is important to form more stable precipitates in creep condition for improvement of creep properties of martensitic steel. Microstructure of martensitic steel is thermally very stable, so the size of precipitates and martensite lath width are hardly changed during aging

  19. Ab initio investigation of the surface properties of austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in aqueous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rák, Zs., E-mail: zrak@ncsu.edu; Brenner, D.W.

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The trend in the surface energies of austenitic stainless steels is: (111) < (100) < (110). • On the (111) orientation Ni segregates to the surface and Cr segregates into the bulk. • The surface stability of the alloys in contact with water decrease with temperature and pH. - Abstract: The surface energetics of two austenitic stainless steel alloys (Type 304 and 316) and three Ni-based alloys (Alloy 600, 690, and 800) are investigated using theoretical methods within the density functional theory. The relative stability of the low index surfaces display the same trend for all alloys; the most closely packed orientation and the most stable is the (111), followed by the (100) and the (110) surfaces. Calculations on the (111) surfaces using various surface chemical and magnetic configurations reveal that Ni has the tendency to segregate toward the surface and Cr has the tendency to segregate toward the bulk. The magnetic frustration present on the (111) surfaces plays an important role in the observed segregation tendencies of Ni and Cr. The stability of the (111) surfaces in contact with aqueous solution are evaluated as a function of temperature, pH, and concentration of aqueous species. The results indicate that the surface stability of the alloys decrease with temperature and pH, and increase slightly with concentration. Under conditions characteristic to an operating pressurized water reactor, the Ni-based alloy series appears to be of better quality than the stainless steel series with respect to corrosion resistance and release of aqueous species when in contact with aqueous solutions.

  20. Effect of N+Cr alloying on the microstructures and tensile properties of Hadfield steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, F.C., E-mail: zfc@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, F. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, H.; Yu, B.D. [China Railway Shanhaiguan Bridge Group Co. LTD, Qinhuangdao 066205 (China)

    2017-01-02

    The microstructures and tensile behaviors of traditional Hadfield steel, named Mn12 steel, and Hadfield steel alloyed with N+Cr, named Mn12CrN steel were studied through optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, among others. Three different tensile strain rates of 5×10{sup −4}, 5×10{sup −3}, and 5×10{sup −2} s{sup −1} were selected in the tensile test. The deformation microstructures and fracture morphologies of the two steels after fracture in the tensile test were observed to analyze the tensile deformation response to different tensile strain rates. Results showed that the grain size of Mn12CrN steel was evidently refined after alloying with N+Cr. The grain would not become abnormally coarse even with increasing austenitizing temperature. During tensile deformation, the strength and plasticity of Mn12CrN steel were superior to those of Mn12 steel at the same strain rate. With increasing the strain rate, the changes in strength and plasticity of Mn12CrN steel were less sensitive to tensile strain rate compared with Mn12 steel. The effects of grain refinement and N+Cr alloying on dynamic strain aging and deformation twining behaviors were responsible for this lack of sensitivity to strain rate.

  1. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of X12CrMoWVNbN10-1-1 steel during quenching and tempering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingang Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatments was investigated on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of X12CrMoWVNbN10-1-1 steel. The as-received steel was austenitized at 1080 °C for 16 h and cooled in furnace, following tempered in two steps, i.e. at 570 °C for 18 h and then at 690 °C for 24 h. The austenitized sample had a typical lath martensite structure with some retained austenite and no delta ferrite was observed after austenitization. After the first tempering at 570 °C, there was no retained austenite remained but it resulted in the forming of precipitates, such as Cr-rich M7C3, Cr-rich M23C6, Cr-rich M2N, Nb-rich MN, and the subgrain, as well as the reduction in dislocation density. However, microstructure observation after secondary tempering proved the further arrangement of dislocation, subgrain growth and the coarsening of precipitates. Hardness and impact tests were carried out for establishing a correlation between microstructure and mechanical properties. Finally, a careful fractographic analysis of impact samples had been done using SEM and EDS.

  2. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fe-18Mn-18Cr-0.5N Austenitic Nonmagnetic Stainless Steel in Asymmetric Hot Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. L.; Li, C. S.; Ma, B.; Han, Y. H.

    2017-05-01

    Asymmetric hot rolling (ASHR) with a mismatch speed ratio of 1.15 in a single pass was applied to Fe-18Mn-18Cr-0.5N steel and was compared with symmetric hot rolling (SHR). The results indicated that a through-thickness microstructure gradient was formed in the plate due to the shear strain (0.36) introduced by ASHR. A fine-grained layer with the average size of 3 μm was achieved at the top surface of ASHR plate, while numerous elongated grains with a few recrystallized grains were presented at the center layer. The texture was distributed randomly at the top surface of ASHR plate, and a weaker intensity of typical hot-rolled texture in austenitic steel was obtained at the center layer of ASHR plate compared to SHR plate. An excellent combination of microhardness, strength and ductility was obtained in the ASHR plate, which was attributed to gradient microstructure induced by ASHR.

  3. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, R

    2011-01-01

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi 2 composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al 8 Cr 5 and CrNi 2 chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  4. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, R

    2011-06-15

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi(2) composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al(8)Cr(5) and CrNi(2) chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  5. Ion backscattering, channeling and nuclear reaction analysis study of passive films formed on FeCrNi and FeCrNiMo (100) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, C; Schmaus, D [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Groupe de Physique des Solides de l' ENS; Elbiache, A; Marcus, P [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1990-01-01

    The compositions of passive films formed on Fe-17Fr-13Ni (at. %) and Fe-18.5Cr-14Ni-1.5Mo (100) single crystals have been determined and the structure of the alloy under the film has been investigated. The alloys were passivated in 0.05M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 250 mV/SHE for 30 min. The oxygen content was measured by nuclear microanalysis using the {sup 16}O(d,p) {sup 17}O* reaction. The oxygen content in the passive film is similar for the two alloys and equal to (12{plus minus}2) 10{sup 15} O/cm{sup 2}. The cationic compositions of the passive films have been determined by {sup 4}He channeling at two incident beam energies: 0.8 and 2.0 MeV. For the two alloys studied, a total cation content of (5{plus minus}2)10{sup 15} at/cm{sup 2} is found in the passive films. The corresponding thickness is about 12 A. There is an excess of oxygen, which can be attributed to the presence of hydroxyls and sulfate. A strong chromium enrichment is found in the passive film formed on both alloys: chromium represents about 50% of the cations. There is no evidence of molybdenum enrichment in the passive film formed on the Mo-alloyed stainless steel. The comparison of the results obtained at the two different incident beam energies (0.8MeV and 2MeV) reveals the existence of defects at the alloy/passive film interface. (author).

  6. Effect of Cr, Ni, and Mo additions on the susceptibility of the 0Kh6n7m7c steel to hot cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstykh, L.G.; Pryakhin, A.V.; Popov, A.N.; Usynin, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel on the tendency of surfacing materials to form hot cracks (Vsub(kp) was studied using the mathematical statistics method. The St3 steel and 38KhN3MFA steel were used in the study. A device facilitating the hot cracking tendency test procedure was developed. It was found that, in the concentration range involved, Ni and Mo produce no effect on Vsub(kp), and Cr enhances it. A new powder wire, PP-OKh7N8M6S, capable of increasing surface material resistance by 1.5-2 times, has been developed

  7. Instrumental photoactivation analysis of some elements in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatanu, V.; Timus, D.; Catana, D.

    1985-01-01

    Photoactivation determination of Cr, Ni and Mo had been performed in large representative samples of steel. The disc samples (40 mm diameter and 3,5 mm thickness) were irradiated in the bremstrahlung beam of a 25 MeV betatron, at 0.5 m from the Pt target in order to insure a fairly uniform irradiation. The gamma-rays were detected with a 40 cm Ge(Li) detector coupled to an IR 90 programmable analyser. The concentration determined were between 0,1% and 9% for Ni, 0,4% and 18% for Cr and 0,05% and 1,50% for Mo. The accuracy of the determinations was 10% for lower consentrations and 3% for higher concentrations

  8. Monotonic and Cyclic Behavior of DIN 34CrNiMo6 Tempered Alloy Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Branco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at studying the monotonic and cyclic plastic deformation behavior of DIN 34CrNiMo6 high strength steel. Monotonic and low-cycle fatigue tests are conducted in ambient air, at room temperature, using standard 8-mm diameter specimens. The former tests are carried out under position control with constant displacement rate. The latter are performed under fully-reversed strain-controlled conditions, using the single-step test method, with strain amplitudes lying between ±0.4% and ±2.0%. After the tests, the fracture surfaces are examined by scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize the surface morphologies and identify the main failure mechanisms. Regardless of the strain amplitude, a softening behavior was observed throughout the entire life. Total strain energy density, defined as the sum of both tensile elastic and plastic strain energies, was revealed to be an adequate fatigue damage parameter for short and long lives.

  9. Effect of combined addition of N and Nb on the high temperature behavior of a 25Cr-20Ni stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Duck; Nam, Ki Woo

    2002-01-01

    In order to clarify the effect of precipitates on creep strength at high temperature in 25Cr-20Ni stainless steels, threshold stress and void-hardening stress have been measured and compared each others. The value of threshold stress for high temperature, measured by stress abruptly loading test, is about 130 MPa. Threshold stress must be measured by the function of stress loading time in the combination hardening steel of solution hardening and precipitate hardening. Average diameter and inter-partial distance of precipitates from TEM microstructure can determine void-hardening stress. The value of void-hardening stress, evaluated by using Scattergood and Bacon's equation, was from 101 to 130 MPa. The ratio of average void hardening to threshold stress is 1.13 and both values are not equal. The result from analyzing the electron diffraction pattern shows that the dispersed precipitates in SUS310J1TB is NbCrN nitrides. Mechanism of the interaction between dislocations and precipitate particles in SUS310J1TB is Srolovitz mechanism, which is a gravitation-type interaction

  10. Effect of the thermal ageing on the tensile and impact properties of a 18%Cr ODS ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouffié, A.L., E-mail: anne-laure.rouffie@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DANS, DMN, SRMA, Bât 453, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mines ParisTech, Centre des Matériaux P.M. Fourt, UMR CNRS 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry (France); Crépin, J.; Sennour, M. [Mines ParisTech, Centre des Matériaux P.M. Fourt, UMR CNRS 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry (France); Tanguy, B. [CEA, DEN, DANS, DMN, SEMI, Bât 625, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pineau, A. [Mines ParisTech, Centre des Matériaux P.M. Fourt, UMR CNRS 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry (France); Hamon, D.; Wident, P.; Vincent, S. [CEA, DEN, DANS, DMN, SRMA, Bât 453, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Garat, V. [AREVA NP, 10 rue J. Récamier, 69006 Lyon (France); Fournier, B. [Manoir Industries – Petrochem and Nuclear, Metallurgy Dpt., 12 rue des Ardennes, BP 8401 Pitres, 27108 Val de Reuil Cedex (France)

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the thermal ageing at 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C during 5000 h on the mechanical properties of a 18%Cr ODS ferritic steel are investigated. A hardening effect is observed after ageing at 400 °C and 500 °C, probably due to the presence of chromium rich α′ particles as suggested by the literature. The impact resistance and the ductility of the material are strongly lowered by the ageing at 600 °C. This embrittlement is characterized on the fracture surfaces by the presence of cleavage facets on the whole range of testing temperatures. The intermetallic σ phase is found to be responsible for the occurrence of cleavage fracture on the material aged at 600 °C, and thus for the significant embrittlement of this material. M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides are also observed before and after thermal ageing. The lattice parameters of the σ phase and the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides observed in this 18%Cr ODS steel aged at 600 °C during 5000 h are measured.

  11. Tantalum-containing Z-phase in 12%Cr martensitic steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Hald, John

    2009-01-01

    Z-phases in tantalum-containing 12%Cr steels have been investigated. In 12%Cr steel without any Nb or V, the formation of CrTaN Z-phases was observed. In 12%Cr steel which also contained V, the Ta entered Z-phase as a minor element, Cr(V,Ta)N. The crystal structure of Cr(V,Ta)N seems to be identi......Z-phases in tantalum-containing 12%Cr steels have been investigated. In 12%Cr steel without any Nb or V, the formation of CrTaN Z-phases was observed. In 12%Cr steel which also contained V, the Ta entered Z-phase as a minor element, Cr(V,Ta)N. The crystal structure of Cr(V,Ta)N seems...

  12. The role of Ti, Zr and Ce in shaping of the Cr-Ni-Nb cast steel resistance to carburising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tęcza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available From the centrifugally cast Cr-Ni-Nb steel pipes, specimens were cut out and subjected to carburising for 100 hours in a mixture of charcoal (90% and Na2CO3 (10% at the temperatures of 950 and 1150°C. The specimens were cut in direction normal to the pipe axis and were examined by optical and scanning microscopy. As a parameter describing the resistance of the examined alloy to the carburising effect, the thickness of a carburised layer was accepted. It has been observed that additions of Ti and Zr, and of Ti+Zr+Ce introduced jointly, increase the thickness of the carburised layer, while the addition of Ce improves the alloy resistance to carburising. On the alloy surface, a layer composed of oxides, mainly of chromium, silicon and iron, has been formed. Changes in the chemical composition of the surface layer were examined by scanning microscopy.

  13. Comparison of the corrosion resistance of DIN W. Nr. 1.4970 (15%Cr-15%Ni-1.2%Mo-Ti and ASTM F-138 (17%Cr-13%Ni-2.5%Mo austenitic stainless steels for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Terada

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The resistance to localised corrosion of the full austenitic 15%Cr-15%Ni-1.2%Mo titanium stabilized stainless steel (DIN W. Nr. 1.4970 was investigated by electrochemical methods including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic polarization measurements in a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS. The low carbon and non-stabilized austenitic stainless steel, AISI 316L (ASTM F-138, widely used for surgical implants, was also tested for comparison. The tests were conducted at room temperature after a stable potential had been reached. After the electrochemical measurements, the surfaces of the specimens were observed using SEM to evaluate the presence of pits. Potentiodynamic polarization results showed that both steels are prone to localized corrosion. Larger pits were found on the surface of AISI 316L specimens after the electrochemical tests. EIS response has indicated the duplex structure of the passive oxides. The results showed that the electrochemical behaviour of the DIN W. Nr. 1.4970 is better than of AISI 316L steel. Therefore, their application as an implant material may be considered.

  14. Stainless steels with low contents in residual elements for nitric acid environments. Influence of melting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desestret, A.; Gay, G.; Soulignac, P.

    1983-01-01

    Nitric acid solutions, as they are for instance employed in the chemical treatment of nuclear fuels, do not apparently pose any more corrosion problems and the safe use of the several steels is well documented. The most difficult corrosion problems are next those related to ''tunnel'' penetrations, in the hot-rolling direction (longitudinal). This phenomenon can be quite important such as to imperial complex structures. Up to the last few years, the only manner to eliminate such ''tunnel'' corrosions was to carry out special operations of remelting and refining under careful selected slag (Electro Slag Remelting or ESR). It turns out indeed that non metallic inclusions are the prime factors in this type of corrosion. Well adapted ladle refining processes made possible to obtain equivalent results at lower costs, while purity and cleanliness are improved to such a degree that a steel of type Cr 18 - Ni 10 thus produced exhibit a nearly absolute resistance to intergranular corrosion in the 14 N (65%) boiling nitric acid (the Huey test) whatever the ''sensitization'' treatment, between 1000 0 C and 600 0 C. In view of its very high tolerance to varied thermal cycles and of the near complete disappearance of any ''tunnel'' corrosion, such a steel is of great interest when complex parts are produced, by machining forged or rolled metal, which is then assembled by welding techniques or procedures which would be forbidden in the case of usual Cr 18 -Ni 10 steels. Similar improvements are also obtained on the two other special steels used in nitric environments: Cr 25 - Ni 20 - C [fr

  15. Structure of Ni-rich Ni--Cr--B--Si coating alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, O.; Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.

    1975-01-01

    The structures of quaternary, nickel-rich Ni--Cr--B--Si alloys were analyzed at a constant boron content of 10 at. percent and a temperature of 850 0 C. The composition range for silicide formation was determined. In these quaternary alloys, known binary nickel silicides, nickel and chromium borides, and the ternary silico-boride Ni 6 Si 2 B were confirmed. A new composition for the W 5 Si 3 -type phase in the Ni--B--Si system was proposed. (U.S.)

  16. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  17. The influence of cerium and yttrium ion implantation upon the oxidation behaviour of a 20% Cr/25% Ni/Nb stabilised stainless steel, in carbon dioxide, at 8250C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.J.; Dearnaley, G.; Houlton, M.R.; Hawes, R.W.M.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of cerium and yttrium ion implantation upon the oxidation behaviour of a 20% Cr/25% Ni niobium stabilised stainless steel during up to 7 157h exposure to carbon dioxide, at 825 0 C has been examined. The doses ranged between 5 x 10 14 and 10 17 ions cm -2 . Above thresholds of between 5 x 10 14 and 5 x 10 15 yttrium and between 5 x 10 15 and 10 16 cerium ions cm -2 the implantation of both elements improved the oxidation resistance of the 20/25/Nb steel. Yttrium exerted the greater influence, reducing by a factor of two the attack after 7 157h. Up to 80% of the oxide formed on the 20/25/Nb steel spalled, particularly on thermal cycling. Cerium and yttrium implantation improved oxide adhesion by similar extents, which increased with ion dose such that with the highest doses, no spallation was measurable. The effect of the implanted elements derived from their incorporation within the oxide film. It was initiated by their promotion of the formation of an initial chromium-rich oxide layer, which had a finer grain size than that formed on the 20/25/Nb steel. Reduction in continuing attack was associated in part, with improved oxide adhesion, as this decreased the significant contribution to the attack of the 20/25/Nb steel from the reoxidation of spalled areas. (author)

  18. Densities of molten Ni-(Cr, Co, W) superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; YANG Ren-hui; FANG Liang; LIU Lan-xiao; ZHAO Hong-kai

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain more accurate density for molten Ni-(Cr, Co, W) binary alloy, the densities of molten pure Ni and Ni-Cr, Ni-Co, Ni-W alloys were measured with a sessile drop method. It is found that the measured densities of molten pure Ni and Ni-Cr, Ni-Co, Ni-W alloys decrease with increasing temperature in the experimental temperature range. The density of alloys increases with increasing W and Co concentrations while it decreases with increasing Cr concentration in the alloy at 1 773-1 873 K. The molar volume of Ni-based alloys increases with increasing W concentration while it decreases with increasing Co concentration. The effect of Cr concentration on the molar volume of the alloy is little in the studied concentration range. The accommodation among atomic species was analyzed. The deviation of molar volume from ideal mixing shows an ideal mixing of Ni-(Cr, Co, W) binary alloys.

  19. Reaction of uranium and plutonium carbides with austenitic steels; Reaction des carbures d'uranium et de plutonium avec des aciers austenitiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchnino, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The reaction of uranium and plutonium carbides with austenitic steels has been studied between 650 and 1050 deg. C using UC, steel and (UPu)C, steel diffusion couples. The steels are of the type CN 18.10 with or without addition of molybdenum. The carbides used are hyper-stoichiometric. Tests were also carried out with UCTi, UCMo, UPuCTi and UPuCMo. Up to 800 deg. C no marked diffusion of carbon into stainless steel is observed. Between 800 and 900 deg. C the carbon produced by the decomposition of the higher carbides diffuses into the steel. Above 900 deg. C, decomposition of the monocarbide occurs according to a reaction which can be written schematically as: (U,PuC) + (Fe,Ni,Cr) {yields} (U,Pu) Fe{sub 2} + Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}. Above 950 deg. C the behaviour of UPuCMo and that of the titanium (CN 18.12) and nickel (NC 38. 18) steels is observed to be very satisfactory. (author) [French] La reaction des carbures d'uranium et de plutonium avec des aciers austenitiques a ete etudiee entre 650 deg. C et 1050 deg. C a partir de couples de diffusion UC, acier et (UPu)C, acier. Les aciers sont du type CN 18.10 avec ou sans addition de molybdene. Les carbures utilises sont hyper-stoechiometriques. En outre on a fait des essais avec UCTi, UCMo, UPuCTi, UPuCMo. Jusqu'a 800 deg. C on ne detecte pas de diffusion sensible du carbone dans l'acier inoxydable. Entre 800 et 900 deg. C il y a diffusion dans l'acier du carbone provenant de la decomposition des carbures superieurs. A partir de 900 deg. C il y a decomposition du monocarbure selon une reaction que l'on ecrit schematiquement: (U,PuC) + (Fe, Ni, Cr) {yields} (U,Pu)Fe{sub 2} + Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}. Nous notons a 950 deg. C le bon comportement de UPuCMo ainsi que celui des aciers au titane (CN 18. 12) et au nickel (NC 38.18). (auteur)

  20. The effect of nitrogen on martensite formation in a Cr-Mn-Ni stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, T.; Knutsen, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen (0 to 0.27 wt%) on martensite formation in an experimental low-nickel stainless-steel alloy (Fe-17Cr-7Mn-4Ni) has been investigated. The alloys containing 0.1 wt% or more nitrogen are fully austenitic at room temperature; those containing less nitrogen consist of a mixture of austenite, martensite and δ-ferrite. The alloys containing less than 0.2 wt% nitrogen are metastable and undergo a transformation from austenite to martensite on deformation. Transmission electron microscopy investigations suggest that, within the nitrogen range considered in this investigation, the addition of nitrogen causes an increase in stacking fault energy which in turn inhibits the nucleation of martensite. As the low-nitrogen alloys (less than 0.2 wt% nitrogen) undergo deformation, ε-martensite (with the [ anti 110] γ and [ anti 12 anti 10] ε zone axes parallel) is observed at the intersection of stacking faults. With increasing strain, the presence of α'-martensite is observed in conjunction with the ε-martensite, and only α'-martensite is observed at very high strains. Both the Nishiyama-Wasserman and Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationships are observed between austenite and α'-martensite. The transformation to martensite during deformation causes a significant variation in room-temperature mechanical properties, despite the overall narrow range in composition considered. (orig.)

  1. Metallographical investigations on cavitation erosion of the steel X 2 CrNiMoN 22 5 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, M.; Goecke, A.

    1989-01-01

    The development of erosion-resistant material, however, presupposes a precise knowledge of the mechanism and progress of the destruction. For this reason, cavitation erosion was studied in this investigation using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultra-microhardness tests (UMHT) - as well as gravimetry. A Cr-Ni-Mo steel with a ferritic-austenitic structure was investigated. This material was selected to provide information about the possible interaction between the phases within such a structure and about the damage mechanism of the individual phases. The experimental material was modified by a heat treatment to precipitate the σ-phase so that a three-phase model material could be obtained as well as the two-phase alloy. (orig./MM) [de

  2. Corrosion behavior of austenitic steels and their components in niobium-containing chloride melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A. V.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.; Volkovich, V. A.; Lisienko, D. G.

    2014-02-01

    The mechanism of corrosion of austenitic steels 12Kh18N10T, 10Kh17N13M2T, and 03Kh17N14M3 and metals Cr, Fe, Ni, and Mo in a NaCl-KCl-NbCl n ( n = 3.5, Nb content is 5 ± 0.1 wt %) melt at 750°C is studied. The metal and steel corrosion rates under these conditions are determined. The character of material fracture and the mechanisms of material corrosion are found.

  3. Applicability of the θ projection method to creep curves of Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Utsumi, Hirokazu

    1998-01-01

    Applicability of the θ projection method has been examined for constant-load creep test results at 800 and 1000degC on Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo alloy in the solution-treated and aged conditions. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Normal type creep curves obtained at 1000degC for aged Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo alloy are fitted using the θ projection method with four θ parameters. Stress dependence of θ parameters can be expressed in terms of simple equations. (2) The θ projection method with four θ parameters cannot be applied to the remaining creep curves where most of the life is occupied by a tertiary creep stage. Therefore, the θ projection method consisting of only the tertiary creep component with two θ parameters was applied. The creep curves can be fitted using this method. (3) If the θ projection method with four θ or two θ parameters is applied to creep curves in accordance with creep curve shapes, creep rupture time can be predicted in terms of formulation of stress and/or temperature dependence of θ parameters. (author)

  4. Heavy steel casting components for power plants 'mega-components' made of high Cr-steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanus, Reinhold [voestalpine Giesserei Linz GmbH, Linz (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    Steel castings of creep resistant steels play a key role in fossil fuel fired power plants for highly loaded components in the high and intermediate pressure section of the turbines. Inner and outer casings, valve casings, inlet connections and elbows are examples of such critical components. The most important characteristic in a power plant is the efficiency, which mainly drives the CO2-emission. As a consequence of steadily improving power plant efficiencies and ever stricter emission standards, steam parameters become more critical and the creep resistance of the cast materials must also be constantly improved. The foundries voestalpine Giesserei Linz and voestalpine Giesserei Traisen participated in the development of the new 9-10% Cr-steels for application up to 625 C/650 C and in the THERMIE project where Ni-base alloys for 700 C-power plants were developed. Beside the material development in the European research projects the commercial production had to be established for industrial processes and the newly developed materials have to be transferred from research into the commercial production of heavy cast components. After selecting the most promising alloy from the laboratory melts, welding tests were performed - mostly with matching electrodes also produced within COST/THERMIE. Base material and welds were investigated in respect of microstructure, creep resistance, mechanical properties and weldability. Heat treatment investigations were also necessary for optimization of the mechanical properties. Based on the results of these studies, pilot components and plates for testing welding processes were cast in order to verify the castability and weldability of larger parts and to make any necessary adjustments to chemical composition, heat treatment or welding parameters. Parallel to the ongoing creep tests within COST/THERMIE-program, the newly developed steel grades were introduced into the commercial production of large components. This involved finding

  5. Microstructure-strength relations in a hardenable stainless steel with 16 pct Cr, 1.5 pct Mo, and 5 pct Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobner, P. J.; Blšs, V.

    1984-07-01

    Metallographic studies have been conducted on a 0.024 pct C-16 pct Cr-1.5 pct Mo-5 pct Ni stainless steel to study the phase reactions associated with heat treatments and investigate the strengthening mechanisms of the steel. In the normalized condition, air cooled from 1010 °C, the microstructure consists of 20 pct ferrite and 80 pct martensite. Tempering in a temperature range between 500 and 600 °C results in a gradual transformation of martensite to a fine mixture of ferrite and austenite. At higher tempering temperatures, between 600 and 800 °C, progressively larger quantities of austenite form and are converted during cooling to proportionally increasing amounts of fresh martensite. The amount of retained austenite in the microstructure is reduced to zero at 800 °C, and the microstructure contains 65 pct re-formed martensite and 35 pct total ferrite. Chromium rich M23C6 carbides precipitate in the single tempered microstructures. The principal strengthening is produced by the presence of martensite in the microstructure. Additional strengthening is provided by a second tempering treatment at 400 °C due to the precipitation of ultrafine (Cr, Mo) (C,N) particles in the ferrite.

  6. High temperature coatings from post processing Fe-based chips and Ni-based alloys as a solution for critical raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, T.; Olbrycht, A.; Polkowska, A.; Boron, L.; Skierski, P.; Wypych, A.; Ambroziak, A.; Krezel, A.

    2018-03-01

    Due to shortage of natural resources worldwide, it is a need to develop innovative technologies, to save natural resources and secure Critical Raw Materials (CRM). On the other hand, these new technologies should move forward materials engineering in order to develop better materials for extreme conditions. One way to develop new materials is to use post processing chips of austenitic steels (i.e. 304L stainless steel: 18/10 Cr/Ni) and other materials such as Ni-based alloy with high Cr content. In this work, the results of the preliminary study on the High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF) coatings developed from 304L stainless steel chips and Haynes® 282® Ni- based alloys are shown. The study obeys development of the powder for HVOF technology. The produced coatings were exposed at high temperature at 500 and 700 °C for 100 and 300 hours respectively to assess corrosion behaviour.

  7. Secondary recrystallisation in 20 w/o Cr-25 w/o Ni-Nb stabilised stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healey, T.; Brown, A.F.; Speight, M.V.

    1976-11-01

    The fuel cladding material for the Commercial Advanced Gas Reactor is a fine grain 20 w/o Cr-25 w/o Ni niobium stabilised stainless steel. The grain structure stability of this alloy has been investigated as a function of carbon content over the temperature range 930 - 990 0 C. It is demonstrated that the primary grain structure is susceptible to abnormal growth due to secondary recrystallisation of the initial fine grain structure after a composition and temperature dependent incubation period. The magnitude of the incubation period is analysed on the basis that secondary recrystallisation commences when randomly dispersed niobium carbide particles have coarsened to a critical size. The validity of the analysis is tested by comparing the predictions with experimental observation. The model is subsequently used to evaluate the incubation period for conditions of temperature, composition and microstructure which differ from those defined in the experimental studies. (author)

  8. Microstructural stability of 11Cr ODS steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashiro, Tetsuya, E-mail: fgsjkr@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ukai, Shigeharu; Oono, Naoko [Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji [Advanced Nuclear System R& D Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 4002, Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki-pref. 311-1393 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Aiming at further improvement of high-temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance, 11CrODS steel with martensitic base structure has been previously developed, as a candidate fuel cladding material for 4th generation advanced nuclear reactors. In this study, the microstructure of 11CrODS steel was characterized by means of EBSD and nanoindentation hardness measurement. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram was constructed. Upper critical cooling rate, which is minimum cooling rate necessary to form martensitic structure, was derived to be 60 °C/min (3600 °C/h). In contrast, lower critical cooling rate preventing from martensite formation, was derived to be 10 °C/min (600 °C/h). An area fraction of so called residual ferrite was estimated by image processing of EBSD-IQ map to be 21% of the total area. This fraction of the residual ferrite in 11CrODS steel was evaluated by considering the driving force for α to γ reverse transformation.

  9. Stress corrosion cracking in repair-welded 3.5 NiCrMoV steel in an actual turbine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitomi, Itoh; Takashi, Shige; Takashi, Momoo

    2001-01-01

    Temporary welding repairs are sometimes needed when damage occurs at the teeth of blade grooves in a low-pressure turbine rotor operated at the dry/wet boundary region. When repair welding has been performed for the 3,5 NiCrMoV steel used in low-pressure turbines, the soundness of the weld must be confirmed. For this reason, a laboratory investigation of susceptibility for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was conducted for test specimens taken from simulated welds, and then an exposure test was conducted in an actual turbine environment for approximately 7,000 hours. As no SCC initiation was detected and also the propagation was extremely small, repair welding is deemed to be applicable. (author)

  10. Void formation and helium effects in 9Cr-1MoVNb and 12Cr-1MoVW steels irradiated in HFIR and FFTF at 400/degree/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Martensitic/ferritic 9Cr-1MoVNb and 12Cr-1MoVW steels doped with up to 2 wt% Ni have up to 450 appm He after HFIR irradiation to /approximately/38 dpa, but only 5 appm He after 47 dpa in FFTF. No fine He bubbles and few or no larger voids were observable in any of these steels after FFTF irradiation at 407/degree/C. By contrast, many voids were found in the undoped steels (30-90 appm He) irradiated in HFIR at 400/degree/C, while voids plus many more fine He bubbles were found in the Ni-doped steels (400-450 appm He). Irradiation in both reactors at /approximately/400/degree/C produced significant changes in the as-tempered lath/subgrain boundary, dislocation, and precipitation structures that were sensitive to alloy composition, including doping with Ni. However, for each specific alloy the irradiation-produced changes were exactly the same comparing samples irradiated in FFTF and HFIR, particularly the Ni-doped steels. Therefore, the increased void formation appears solely due to the increased helium generation found in HFIR. While the levels of void swelling are relatively low after 37-39 dpa in HFIR (0.1-0.4%), details of the microstructural evolution suggest that void nucleation is still progressing, and swelling could increase with dose. The effect of helium on void swelling remains a valid concern for fusion application that requires higher dose experiments. 15 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Passivation Characteristics of Alloy Corrosion-Resistant Steel Cr10Mo1 in Simulating Concrete Pore Solutions: Combination Effects of pH and Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhiyong; Sun, Wei; Jiang, Jinyang; Song, Dan; Ma, Han; Zhang, Jianchun; Wang, Danqian

    2016-09-01

    The electrochemical behaviour for passivation of new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 immersed in alkaline solutions with different pH values (13.3, 12.0, 10.5, and 9.0) and chloride contents (0.2 M and 1.0 M), was investigated by various electrochemical techniques: linear polarization resistance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and capacitance measurements. The chemical composition and structure of passive films were determined by XPS. The morphological features and surface composition of the immersed steel were evaluated by SEM together with EDS chemical analysis. The results evidence that pH plays an important role in the passivation of the corrosion-resistant steel and the effect is highly dependent upon the chloride contents. In solutions with low chloride (0.2 M), the corrosion-resistant steel has notably enhanced passivity with pH falling from 13.3 to 9.0, but does conversely when in presence of high chloride (1.0 M). The passive film on the corrosion-resistant steel presents a bilayer structure: an outer layer enriched in Fe oxides and hydroxides, and an inner layer, rich in Cr species. The film composition varies with pH values and chloride contents. As the pH drops, more Cr oxides are enriched in the film while Fe oxides gradually decompose. Increasing chloride promotes Cr oxides and Fe oxides to transform into their hydroxides with little protection, and this is more significant at lower pH (10.5 and 9.0). These changes annotate passivation characteristics of the corrosion-resistant steel in the solutions of different electrolyte.

  12. Comparison of mechanical behavior of TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC, TiN/TiNC films on 9Cr18 steel by PVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingguo; Zhang, Yanshuai; Hu, Hanjun; Zheng, Yugang; Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhou, Hui

    2017-11-01

    TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC and TiN/TiNC films were deposited on 9Cr18 steel using magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology, composition, chemical state and crystalline structure of the films were observed and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hardness and adhesion force were tested by nanoindentation and scratch tester, respectively. The friction and wear behavior of TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC and TiN/TiNC films sliding against GCr15 balls were investigated and compared synthetically using ball-on-disk tribometer. It was found that Tisbnd N, Tisbnd C, Tisbnd Nsbnd C and Csbnd C bonds were formed. The TiN/TiNC film was composed of TiN, TiC and TiNC phases. Hardness and adhesion force results indicated that although the TiN film possessed the highest hardness, its adhesion force was lowest among all the films. Tribological test results showed that the friction coefficient of TiN/TiNC was much lower than that of TiN and the wear rate decreases remarkably from 2.3 × 10-15 m3/Nm to 7.1 × 10-16 m3/Nm, which indicated the TiN/TiNC film has better wear resistance.

  13. Effects of Mn addition on microstructures and mechanical properties of 10Cr ODS ferritic/martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyun Ju; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic (FM) steels are very attractive for the structural materials of fast fission reactors such as a sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) owing to their excellent irradiation resistance to a void swelling, but are known to reveal an abrupt loss of their creep and tensile strengths at temperatures above 600 .deg. C. Accordingly, high temperature strength should be considerably improved for an application of the FM steel to the structural materials of SFR. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FM steels are considered to be promising candidate materials for high- temperature components operating in severe environments such as nuclear fusion and fission systems due to their excellent high temperature strength and radiation resistance stemming from the addition of extremely thermally stable oxide particles dispersed in the ferritic/martensitic matrix.. To develop an advanced ODS steel for core structural materials for next generation nuclear reactor system applications, it is important to optimize its compositions to improve the high temperature strength and radiation resistance. This study investigates effects of Mn addition on microstructures and mechanical properties of 10Cr ODS FM steel. For this, two 10 Cr ODS FM steels were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and hot rolling process. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature and 700 .deg. C to evaluate the influences of the Mn element on the mechanical properties. The microstructures were observed using SEM, electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In the present study, the effects of Mn addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS FM steels were investigated. The ODS FM steels were manufactured by the MA, HIP and hot-rolling processes

  14. Thermodynamic Modelling of Fe-Cr-Ni-Spinel Formation at the Light-Water Reactor Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurepin, V. A.; Kulik, D. A.; Hitpold, A.; Nicolet, M.

    2002-03-01

    In the light water reactors (LWR), the neutron activation and transport of corrosion products is of concern in the context of minimizing the radiation doses received by the personnel during maintenance works. A practically useful model for transport and deposition of the stainless steel corrosion products in LWR can only be based on an improved understanding of chemical processes, in particular, on the attainment of equilibrium in this hydrothermal system, which can be described by means of a thermodynamic solid-solution -aqueous-solution (SSAS) model. In this contribution, a new thermodynamic model for a Fe-Cr-Ni multi-component spinel solid solutions was developed that considers thermodynamic consequences of cation interactions in both spinel sub-Iattices. The obtained standard thermodynamic properties of two ferrite and two chromite end-members and their mixing parameters at 90 bar pressure and 290 *c temperature predict a large miscibility gap between (Fe,Ni) chromite and (Fe,Ni) ferrite phases. Together with the SUPCRT92-98 thermo- dynamic database for aqueous species, the 'spinel' thermodynamic dataset was applied to modeling oxidation of austenitic stainless steel in hydrothermal water at 290*C and 90 bar using the Gibbs energy minimization (GEM) algorithm, implemented in the GEMS-PSI code. Firstly, the equilibrium compositions of steel oxidation products were modelIed as function of oxygen fugacity .fO 2 by incremental additions of O 2 in H 2 O-free system Cr-Fe- Ni-O. Secondly, oxidation of corrosion products in the Fe-Cr-Ni-O-H aquatic system was modelIed at different initial solid/water ratios. It is demonstrated that in the transition region from hydrogen regime to oxygen regime, the most significant changes in composition of two spinel-oxide phases (chromite and ferrite) and hematite must take place. Under more reduced conditions, the Fe-rich ferrite (magnetite) and Ni-poor chromite phases co-exist at equilibrium with a metal Ni phase, maintaining

  15. Thermodynamic Modelling of Fe-Cr-Ni-Spinel Formation at the Light-Water Reactor Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurepin, V.A.; Kulik, D.A.; Hitpold, A.; Nicolet, M

    2002-03-01

    In the light water reactors (LWR), the neutron activation and transport of corrosion products is of concern in the context of minimizing the radiation doses received by the personnel during maintenance works. A practically useful model for transport and deposition of the stainless steel corrosion products in LWR can only be based on an improved understanding of chemical processes, in particular, on the attainment of equilibrium in this hydrothermal system, which can be described by means of a thermodynamic solid-solution -aqueous-solution (SSAS) model. In this contribution, a new thermodynamic model for a Fe-Cr-Ni multi-component spinel solid solutions was developed that considers thermodynamic consequences of cation interactions in both spinel sub-Iattices. The obtained standard thermodynamic properties of two ferrite and two chromite end-members and their mixing parameters at 90 bar pressure and 290 *c temperature predict a large miscibility gap between (Fe,Ni) chromite and (Fe,Ni) ferrite phases. Together with the SUPCRT92-98 thermo- dynamic database for aqueous species, the 'spinel' thermodynamic dataset was applied to modeling oxidation of austenitic stainless steel in hydrothermal water at 290*C and 90 bar using the Gibbs energy minimization (GEM) algorithm, implemented in the GEMS-PSI code. Firstly, the equilibrium compositions of steel oxidation products were modelIed as function of oxygen fugacity .fO{sub 2} by incremental additions of O{sub 2} in H{sub 2}O-free system Cr-Fe- Ni-O. Secondly, oxidation of corrosion products in the Fe-Cr-Ni-O-H aquatic system was modelIed at different initial solid/water ratios. It is demonstrated that in the transition region from hydrogen regime to oxygen regime, the most significant changes in composition of two spinel-oxide phases (chromite and ferrite) and hematite must take place. Under more reduced conditions, the Fe-rich ferrite (magnetite) and Ni-poor chromite phases co-exist at equilibrium with a metal Ni

  16. Thermally Stable Ni-rich Austenite Formed Utilizing Multistep Intercritical Heat Treatment in a Low-Carbon 10 Wt Pct Ni Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Divya; Isheim, Dieter; Zhang, Xian J.; Ghosh, Gautam; Seidman, David N.

    2017-08-01

    Austenite reversion and its thermal stability attained during the transformation is key to enhanced toughness and blast resistance in transformation-induced-plasticity martensitic steels. We demonstrate that the thermal stability of Ni-stabilized austenite and kinetics of the transformation can be controlled by forming Ni-rich regions in proximity of pre-existing (retained) austenite. Atom probe tomography (APT) in conjunction with thermodynamic and kinetic modeling elucidates the role of Ni-rich regions in enhancing growth kinetics of thermally stable austenite, formed utilizing a multistep intercritical ( Quench- Lamellarization- Tempering (QLT)-type) heat treatment for a low-carbon 10 wt pct Ni steel. Direct evidence of austenite formation is provided by dilatometry, and the volume fraction is quantified by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results indicate the growth of nm-thick austenite layers during the second intercritical tempering treatment (T-step) at 863 K (590 °C), with austenite retained from first intercritical treatment (L-step) at 923 K (650 °C) acting as a nucleation template. For the first time, the thermal stability of austenite is quantified with respect to its compositional evolution during the multistep intercritical treatment of these steels. Austenite compositions measured by APT are used in combination with the thermodynamic and kinetic approach formulated by Ghosh and Olson to assess thermal stability and predict the martensite-start temperature. This approach is particularly useful as empirical relations cannot be extrapolated for the highly Ni-enriched austenite investigated in the present study.

  17. Stress corrosion inhibitors for type 18-10 stainless steels with low carbon content in hot and concentrated solutions of MgCl2. Study of some inorganic iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard, J.-L.

    1974-01-01

    Stress corrosion inhibitors for type Z2CN18-10 austenitic stainless steels with low carbon content in a solution of Cl 2 Mg at 105 deg C were investigated. It was established that iodides are the most adequate corrosion inhibitors because they react simultaneously upon the three main components of the alloy (Fe, Ni, Cr). A difference of behavior between I 2 Mg and the other iodides was observed (in electrochemistry and in simple stress corrosion experiments) and the influence of the metallic cation associated to I - was studied. The formation of the superficial film and the phenomena liable to occur at the interface film-corrosive solution were examined: film growth in MgCl 2 ; influence of certain substances added to the solution. A mechanism of inhibition by I - is suggested. It is similar to the mechanism proposed by BERGEN for the stress corrosion cracking by Cl - [fr

  18. Permeability and giant magnetoimpedance in Co69Fe4.5X1.5Si10B15 (X=Cr, Mn, Ni) amorphous ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byon, Kwang Seok; Yu, Seong-Cho; Kim, Cheol Gi

    2001-01-01

    The magnetoimpedance (MI) has been measured in the amorphous ribbons of the soft ferromagnetic alloy Co 69 Fe 4.5 X 1.5 Si 10 B 15 (X=Cr, Mn, Ni) as functions of frequency (f). For all of the three samples, at low frequency, f≤5MHz, the MI ratio increases with increasing frequency, but the MI ratio decreases at high frequency, f≥5MHz. The MI profiles are not changed at low frequency regions of f≤1MHz in the amorphous ribbons. The MI ratio at high frequency of f=5MHz becomes 57% in Co 69 Fe 4.5 Cr 1.5 Si 10 B 15 , but the MI ratio becomes 30% in Co 69 Fe 4.5 Mn 1.5 Si 10 B 15 and Co 69 Fe 4.5 Ni 1.5 Si 10 B 15 . The MI ratio at f=10MHz becomes 45% in Co 69 Fe 4.5 Cr 1.5 Si 10 B 15 and the MI ratio becomes 23% in Co 69 Fe 4.5 Mn 1.5 Si 10 B 15 and Co 69 Fe 4.5 Ni 1.5 Si 10 B 15 , respectively. The maximum values of field sensitivity are 2.7(X=Cr), 2.5(X=Mn), 2.2(X=Ni)%/Oe for f=5MHz. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. Studies on Corrosion of Annealed and Aged 18 Ni 250 Grade Maraging Steel in Sulphuric Acid Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Poornima, T.; Jagannatha, Nayak; Shetty, A. Nityananda

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of aged and annealed sample of 18 Ni 250 grade maraging steel was investigated in varied conditions of concentration and temperature of sulphuric acid medium, using electrochemical techniques like Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement. These results have shown increase in corrosion rate of aged specimen with increase in concentration and temperature of sulphuric acid. With...

  20. Fe-Cr-V ternary alloy-based ferritic steels for high- and low-temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieth, M.; Materna-Morris, E.; Dudarev, S.L.; Boutard, J.-L.; Keppler, H.; Mayor, J.

    2009-01-01

    The phase stability of alloys and steels developed for application in nuclear fission and fusion technology is one of the decisive factors determining the potential range of operating temperatures and radiation conditions that the core elements of a power plant can tolerate. In the case of ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels, the choice of the chemical composition is dictated by the phase diagram for binary FeCr alloys where in the 0-9% range of Cr composition the alloy remains in the solid solution phase at and below the room temperature. For Cr concentrations exceeding 9% the steels operating at relatively low temperatures are therefore expected to exhibit the formation of α' Cr-rich precipitates. These precipitates form obstacles for the propagation of dislocations, impeding plastic deformation and embrittling the material. This sets the low temperature limit for the use of of high (14% to 20%) Cr steels, which for the 20% Cr steels is at approximately 600 deg. C. On the other hand, steels containing 12% or less Cr cannot be used at temperatures exceeding ∼600 deg. C due to the occurrence of the α-γ transition (912 deg. C in pure iron and 830 deg. C in 7% Cr alloy), which weakens the steel in the high temperature limit. In this study, we investigate the physical properties of a concentrated ternary alloy system that attracted relatively little attention so far. The phase diagram of ternary Fe-Cr-V alloy shows no phase boundaries within a certain broad range of Cr and V concentrations. This makes the alloy sufficiently resistant to corrosion and suggests that steels and dispersion strengthened materials based on this alloy composition may have better strength and stability at high temperatures. Experimental heats were produced on a laboratory scale by arc melting the material components to pellets, then by melting the pellets in an induction furnace and casting the melt into copper moulds. The compositions in weight percent (iron base) are 10Cr5V, 10Cr

  1. Effects of air melting on Fe/0.3/3Cr/0.5Mo/2Mn and Fe/0.3C/3Cr/0.5Mo/2Ni structural alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, B.

    1979-06-01

    Changing production methods of a steel from vacuum melting to air melting can cause an increase in secondary particles, such as oxides and nitrides, which may have detrimental effects on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the alloy. In the present study a base alloy of Fe/0.3C/3Cr/0.5Mo with either 2Mn or 2Ni added was produced by air melting and its mechanical properties and microstructure were compared to an identical vacuum melted steel. Significant differences in mechanical behavior, morphology, and volume fraction of undissolved inclusions have been observed as a function of composition following air melting. For the alloy containing manganese, all properties remained very close to vacuum melted values but the 2Ni alloy displayed a marked loss in Charpy impact toughness and plane strain fracture toughness. This loss is attributed to an increase in volume fraction of secondary particles in the nickel alloy, as opposed to both the Mn alloy and vacuum melted alloys, as well as to substaintially increased incidence of linear coalescence of voids. Microstructural features are discussed

  2. Effect of Si and Mn additions on ferrite and austenite phase fractions in 25Cr-7Ni-1.5Mo-3W base super duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, S.W.; Lee, Z.-H.; Lee, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment and Si and Mn additions on the ferrite and austenite phase fractions of the super duplex stainless steel (SDSS), Fe-25Cr-7Ni-1.5Mo-3W-Si-Mn-0.25N (numbers are all in wt.% unless specified otherwise), was investigated. The thermodynamic calculations of phase equilibria and phase fractions were performed using the Thermo-Calc program. Based on the calculated results, specific compositions of Si and Mn were selected and alloys with these compositions were analysed by Feritscope, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The calculated phase fractions and experimentally analysed ones were compared and there was a good agreement between calculations and measurements. The optimum heat treatment condition for Fe-25Cr-7Ni-1.5Mo-3W-0.5Si-0.5Mn-0.25N is to hold at 1050 to 1100 C for 2 h in considering the ferrite to austenite ratio of 50:50 and to avoid second phase precipitation such as the σ phase. It was suggested that an excessive addition of more than 0.8Si and 1.0Mn may induce the σ phase precipitation. (orig.)

  3. Role of Oxides and Porosity on High-Temperature Oxidation of Liquid-Fueled HVOF Thermal-Sprayed Ni50Cr Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B.; Bai, M.; Voisey, K. T.; Hussain, T.

    2017-02-01

    High chromium content in Ni50Cr thermally sprayed coatings can generate a dense and protective scale at the surface of coating. Thus, the Ni50Cr coating is widely used in high-temperature oxidation and corrosion applications. A commercially available gas atomized Ni50Cr powder was sprayed onto a power plant steel (ASME P92) using a liquid-fueled high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray with three processing parameters in this study. Microstructure of as-sprayed coatings was examined using oxygen content analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Short-term air oxidation tests (4 h) of freestanding coatings (without boiler steel substrate) in a thermogravimetric analyzer at 700 °C were performed to obtain the kinetics of oxidation of the as-sprayed coating. Long-term air oxidation tests (100 h) of the coated substrates were performed at same temperature to obtain the oxidation products for further characterization in detail using SEM/EDX and XRD. In all samples, oxides of various morphologies developed on top of the Ni50Cr coatings. Cr2O3 was the main oxidation product on the surface of all three coatings. The coating with medium porosity and medium oxygen content has the best high-temperature oxidation performance in this study.

  4. Composition and corrosion properties of high-temperature oxide films on steel type 18-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulenko, B.F.; Morozov, O.N.; Chernysheva, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    The composition and propeties of oxide films, formed in the process of tube production of steel type 18-10, as well as the behaviour of the steels coated with oxide films under operating conditions of NPP heat-exchange equipment at the 20-300 deg C temperatures are determined. It is found, that the films have a good adhesion to the steel surface and repeat the metal structure without interfering with, the surface defect determination. Introduction of the NaNO 2 corrosion inhibitor decreases the film destruction rate to the level of the base metal corrosion. It is found acceptable to use tubes of steel 18-10 coated with dense oxide films in the heat-exchange and water supply systems of NPP

  5. The integrity of 9Cr-1Mo to stainless steel transition joints in AGR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, D.W.; Neumann, P.; Soo, J.

    1982-01-01

    The metallurgical aspects of the transition joint between 9Cr-1Mo and 316 stainless steel boiler tube sections are reviewed. A large minimum superheat margin (106 0 C) between the dryout zone and the 9Cr-1Mo to stainless steel transition joint was specified in the original design to eliminate the risk of wetting the stainless steel which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. However, small defects were discovered in the welds between the 9Cr-1Mo and Sanicro (72%Ni-16%Cr-10%Fe) transition piece, resulting from dilution of the weld pool by nickel from the transition piece. This led to the possibility of weld failure as a result of creep crack growth in service, and any significant reduction in operating temperature would mean that the large superheat margin could not be sustained. The creep properties of the joints, together with the transition joint temperature distribution, enabled tube failure rates to be determined as a function of operating temperature. A probabilistic model was developed so that the transition joint could be operated within a temperature 'window', the lower temperature limit being determined by stress corrosion considerations and the upper limit being set by creep rate limitations. This allows full load performance from the boilers throughout the anticipated life of the plant. (author)

  6. High Ni austenite stainless steel resistant to neutron irradiation degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Toshio; Iwamura, Toshihiko; Kanasaki, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Koji; Nakata, Shizuo; Ajiki, Kazuhide; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro.

    1997-01-01

    The composition of the stainless steel of the present invention comprises from 0.005 to 0.08% of C, up to 3% of Mn, up to 0.2% of Si+P+S, from 25 to 40% of Ni, from 25 to 40% of Cr, up to 3% of Mo, up to 0.3% of Nb+Ta, up to 0.3% of Ti, up to 0.001% of B and the balance of Fe. A solid solubilization treatment at a temperature of from 1,000 to 1,150degC is applied to the stainless steel having the composition. The stainless steel is excellent in stress corrosion cracking-resistance at a working circumstance of a LWR type reactor (high temperature and high pressure water at from 270 to 350degC/from 70 to 160 atm even after undergoing neutron irradiation of about 1 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E>1 MeV) which is a maximum neutron irradiation amount undergone till the final stage of the working life of the LWR-type reactor. In addition, the average thermal expansion coefficient at from room temperature to 400degC ranges from 15x10 -6 - 19x10 -6 /K. (I.N.)

  7. Modeling of Ni Diffusion Induced Austenite Formation in Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Alimadadi, Hossein; Molin, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steel interconnect plates are widely used in planar solid oxide fuel cell and electrolysis cell stacks. During stack production and operation, nickel from the Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia fuel electrode or from the Ni contact component layer diffuses into the interconnect plate......, causing transformation of the ferritic phase into an austenitic phase in the interface region. This is accompanied with changes in volume, and in mechanical and corrosion properties of the interconnect plates. In this work, kinetic modeling of the inter-diffusion between Ni and FeCr based ferritic...

  8. Stainless steel leaches nickel and chromium into foods during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L; Hobbie, Kevin A; Anderson, Kim A

    2013-10-02

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan, cooking times of 2-20 h, 10 consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After 6 h of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold, respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34-fold and Cr increased approximately 35-fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, although significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage.

  9. Comparative studies on ultrasonic, friction, laser and resistance pressure welding of NiTi shape memory alloys with high-alloy steels. Final report; Vergleichende Untersuchungen zum Ultraschall-, Reib-, Laserstrahl- und Widerstandspressschweissen von NiTi-Shape-Memory-Metall mit hochlegierten Staehlen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuckschwerdt, K.

    2000-04-01

    The suitability of different welding techniques for welding of NiTi shape memory alloys with high-alloy steel (C12CrNi17-7, X5CrNiNb19-9, X20Cr13) was investigated. The quality of the welds was analyzed using mechanical-technological, fractographic, metallographic and electron microscopy analysis. [German] Ziel dieses Forschungsvorhabens ist es, die Eignung der einzelnen Schweissverfahren fuer das Fuegen von NiTi-Formgedaechtnislegierungen mit hochlegiertem Stahl (X12CrNi17-7, X5CrNiNb19-9, X20Cr13) darzustellen und zu beurteilen. Die Qualitaet der Fuegeverbindungen wird mit Hilfe mechanisch-technologischer, fraktographischer, metallographischer und elektronenmikroskopischer Untersuchungen bewertet.

  10. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened 9Cr ferritic-martensitic steel clad tube for fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laha, K.; Saroja, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T.; Vijay, R.; Venugopal Reddy, A.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Kapoor, Komal; Jha, S.K.; Tonpe, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key issues in the economical operation of FBR is to achieve high burn-up of fuel (200-250 GWd/t) which considerably reduces the fuel cycle cost. This imposes stringent requirements of void swelling resistance upto 200 dpa for the core structural materials. Presently used alloy 09 (a modified austenitic stainless steel, 15Cr-15Ni-Ti) for PFBR has void swelling limit less than 150 dpa. Because of the inherent void swelling resistance, 9-12Cr steels ferritic/martensitic steels are qualified for irradiation upto 200 dpa but their low creep strength at temperatures above 600 deg C restricts their application as a clad material. Oxide dispersion strengthening is found to be promising means of extending the creep resistance of ferritic/martensitic steels beyond 650 deg C without sacrificing the inherent advantages of high thermal conductivity and low swelling of ferritic steels

  11. Characterization on the Microstructure Evolution and Toughness of TIG Weld Metal of 25Cr2Ni2MoV Steel after Post Weld Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and toughness of tungsten inert gas (TIG backing weld parts in low-pressure steam turbine welded rotors contribute significantly to the total toughness of the weld metal. In this study, the microstructure evolution and toughness of TIG weld metal of 25Cr2Ni2MoV steel low-pressure steam turbine welded rotor under different post-weld heat treatment (PWHT conditions are investigated. The fractography and microstructure of weld metal after PWHT are characterized by optical microscope, SEM, and TEM, respectively. The Charpy impact test is carried out to evaluate the toughness of the weld. The optical microscope and SEM results indicate that the as-welded sample is composed of granular bainite, acicular ferrite and blocky martensite/austenite (M-A constituent. After PWHT at 580 °C, the blocky M-A decomposes into ferrite and carbides. Both the number and size of precipitated carbides increase with holding time. The impact test results show that the toughness decreases dramatically after PWHT and further decreases with holding time at 580 °C. The precipitated carbides are identified as M23C6 carbides by TEM, which leads to the dramatic decrease in the toughness of TIG weld metal of 25Cr2Ni2MoV steel.

  12. Corrosion of high purity Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in 13 N boiling nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Joji; Mayuzumi, Masami; Kusanagi, Hideo; Takaku, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion in boiling nitric acid was investigated for high purity Fe-18%Cr-12%Ni alloys and type 304L stainless steels (SS). Owing to very low impurity concentration, the solution treated high purity alloys show almost no intergranular corrosion while the type 304L SS show severe intergranular corrosion. Both in the high purity alloys and type 304L SS, aging treatments ranging from 873 K to 1073 K for 1 h enhance intergranular corrosion. During the aging treatments, impurities should be segregated to the grain boundaries. The corrosion behaviors were discussed from a standpoint of impurity segregation to grain boundaries. This study is of importance for purex reprocessing of spent fuels

  13. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  14. Formation of austenite in high Cr ferritic/martensitic steels by high fluence neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Faulkner, R. G.; Morgan, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    High Cr ferritic/martensitic steels are leading candidates for structural components of future fusion reactors and new generation fission reactors due to their excellent swelling resistance and thermal properties. A commercial grade 12%CrMoVNb ferritic/martensitic stainless steel in the form of parent plate and off-normal weld materials was fast neutron irradiated up to 33 dpa (1.1 × 10 -6 dpa/s) at 400 °C and 28 dpa (1.7 × 10 -6 dpa/s) at 465 °C, respectively. TEM investigation shows that the fully martensitic weld metal transformed to a duplex austenite/ferrite structure due to high fluence neutron irradiation, the austenite was heavily voided (˜15 vol.%) and the ferrite was relatively void-free; whilst no austenite phases were detected in plate steel. Thermodynamic and phase equilibria software MTDATA has been employed for the first time to investigate neutron irradiation-induced phase transformations. The neutron irradiation effect is introduced by adding additional Gibbs free energy into the system. This additional energy is produced by high energy neutron irradiation and can be estimated from the increased dislocation loop density caused by irradiation. Modelling results show that neutron irradiation reduces the ferrite/austenite transformation temperature, especially for high Ni weld metal. The calculated results exhibit good agreement with experimental observation.

  15. Behaviour of Z phase in 9–12%Cr steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Hald, John

    2006-01-01

    The literature on the behaviour of modified Z phase Cr(V,Nb)N in creep resistant martensitic 9–12%Cr steels is briefly reviewed. Ten different 9–12%Cr steels were investigated after prolonged exposure at 600–660uC; the modified Z phase was found in all of them. In steels with high Cr content (11......–12%), Z phase precipitates much faster than in 9%Cr steels. Precipitation of Z phase is associated with dissolution of MX carbonitrides, and causes a breakdown in long term creep strength in 9–12%Cr steels. High Cr steels show creep instabilities accompanied with Z phase precipitation, whereas low Cr...... steels show good long term creep stability. A niobium free CrVN variant of the modified Z phase was observed for the first time during the course of this work. The solution temperature of the Cr(V,Nb)N and CrVN modified Z phases was found to be close to 800uC for 11–12%Cr steels, much lower than the 1200...

  16. Creep-rupture-tests on thestainless steel X6 CrNi1811 (DIN 1.4948) in the frame of the ''Extrapolation-Program'' Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, R.R.; Barroso, S.; Rivas, M. de las; Schirra, M.; Seith, B.

    1979-01-01

    The austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNi 1811 (DIN 1.4948) that is used as a structure material for the German Fast Breeder Reactor SNR 300 was creep tested in a temperature range of 550-650 deg under base material condition as well as welded material condition. The main point of this program (''Extrapolation-Program'') lies in the knowledge of the cree-rupture-strength and creep-behaviour up to 3X10 - 4 hours at higher temperatures in order to extrapolate up to (>=)10 5 hours for operating temperatures. In order to study the stress dependency of the minimum creep rate additional tests were carried out over temperature range 550 deg - 750 deg C. The present report describes the state in the running program with test-time up to 35.000 hours. Besides the cree-rupture behaviour it is possible to make a distinct quantitative statement for the creep-behaviour and ductility. Extensive metallographic examinations show the fracture behaviour and changes in structure. (author)

  17. Effect of free Cr content on corrosion behavior of 3Cr steels in a CO2 environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Xu, Lining; Qiao, Lijie; Li, Jinxu

    2017-12-01

    The corrosion behavior of 3Cr steels with three microstructures (martensite, bainite, combined ferrite and pearlite) in simulated oil field formation water with a CO2 partial pressure of 0.8 MPa was investigated. The relationships between Cr concentrations in corrosion scales and corrosion rates were studied. The precipitated phases that contained Cr were observed in steels of different microstructures, and free Cr content levels were compared. The results showed that steel with the martensite microstructure had the highest free Cr content, and thus had the highest corrosion resistance. The free Cr content of bainite steel was lower than that of martensite steel, and the corrosion rate of bainite steel was higher than that of martensite steel. Because large masses of Cr were combined in ferrite and pearlite steel, the corrosion rates of ferrite and pearlite steel were the highest. Free Cr content in steel affects its corrosion behavior greatly.

  18. Microstructure of laser cladded martensitic stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available and martensite with 10% ferrite for Material B. Table 7 - Proposed martensitic stainless steel alloys for laser cladding Material C* Cr Ni Mn Si Mo Co Ms (ºC)* Cr eq Ni eq Material A 0.4 13 - 1 0.5 2.5 5.5 120 16.5 12.5 Material B 0.2 15 2 1 0.7 2.5 5.5 117... dilution, low heat input, less distortion, increased mechanical and corrosion properties excellent repeatability and control of process parameters. Solidification of laser cladded martensitic stainless steel is primarily austenitic. Microstructures...

  19. Fe-Cr-Ni system alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Phase diagram of Fe-Cr-Ni system, which is the basic one for production of corrosion resistant alloys, is considered. Data on corrosion resistance of such alloys are correlated depending on a number of factors: quality and composition of modifying elements, corrosion medium, temperature, alloy structure, mechanical and thermal treatment. Grades of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys are presented, and fields of their application are pointed out

  20. Influence of Plasma Transferred Arc Process Parameters on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Wear Resistive NiCrBSi-WC/Co Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitvydas GRUZDYS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-fluxing NiCrBSi and related coatings received considerable interest due to their good wear as well as corrosion resistance at moderate and elevated temperatures. Hard tungsten carbide (WC particles can be included in NiCrBSi for further increase of the coating hardness and abrasive wear resistance. Flame spray technique is widely used for fabrication of NiCrBSi films. However, in such a case, subsequent remelting of the deposited coatings by flame, arc discharge or high power laser beam is necessary. In present study NiCrBSi-WC/Co coatings were formed using plasma transferred arc process. By adjusting plasma parameters, such as current, plasma gas flow, shielding gas flow, a number of coatings were formed on steel substrates. Structure of the coatings was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure of cross-sectioned coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Hardness of the coating was evaluated by means of the Vickers hardness tests. Wear tests were also performed on specimens to determine resistance to abrasive wear. Acquired results allowed estimating the influence of the deposition process parameters on structure and mechanical properties of the coatings.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.482

  1. TiC reinforced cast Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Schrems, K.K.

    2006-06-01

    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5–4.5Ti, and 1–1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  2. TiC-reinforced cast Cr steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Schrems, K. K.

    2006-06-01

    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5-4.5Ti, and 1-1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  3. Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H; Shirazi, H [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nili-Ahmadabadi, M, E-mail: sut.caster.81710018@gmail.co, E-mail: nili@ut.ac.i [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a large strain deformation in this alloy. The total strain was {epsilon} {approx}7. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10Ni-7Mn were studied after aging at 753 K. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility after cold rolling, wire drawing and aging increased up to 2540 MPa and 7.1 %, respectively, while the conventional steels show a premature fracture stress of 830 MPa with about zero ductility after aging.

  4. Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Shirazi, H.

    2010-07-01

    Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a large strain deformation in this alloy. The total strain was epsilon ~7. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10Ni-7Mn were studied after aging at 753 K. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility after cold rolling, wire drawing and aging increased up to 2540 MPa and 7.1 %, respectively, while the conventional steels show a premature fracture stress of 830 MPa with about zero ductility after aging.

  5. Effect of quenching temperature on martensite multi-level microstructures and properties of strength and toughness in 20CrNi2Mo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Shao-lei [College of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Guizhou University (China); Guizhou Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Materials (China); National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for High-performance Metal Structure Material and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (China); Liang, Yi-long, E-mail: liangyilong@126.com [College of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Guizhou University (China); Guizhou Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Materials (China); National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for High-performance Metal Structure Material and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (China); Jiang, Yun [Guizhou Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Materials (China); National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for High-performance Metal Structure Material and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (China); Liang, Yu; Yang, Ming; Yi, Yan-liang [College of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Guizhou University (China); Guizhou Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Materials (China); National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for High-performance Metal Structure Material and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (China)

    2016-10-31

    The martensite multi-level microstructures of 20CrNi2Mo steel, which were quenched at the different temperatures of 900–1200 °C and tempered at 200 °C, were investigated by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the relationship between the microstructures and properties of strength and toughness was discussed by the classic formula of Hall–Petch. The results show that the size of prior austenite grain (d{sub r}), martensite packet (d{sub p}) and block (d{sub b}) increase with increasing of the quenching temperature, while the martensite lath (d{sub l}) size is opposite. On another hand, the confusion degree of the martensite packets changes from disorder to order. The boundaries of prior austenite grain, packet, block and the martensite lath are high angle boundaries (HBs) and low angle boundaries (LBs), respectively, and the ratio of the low angle boundaries increase with the quenching temperature by calculating to the multi-level microstructure size with the mathematical model established by myself. In addition, the relationship between the packet/block and strength follows the classical formula of Hall–Petch, and the size of d{sub b} is far lower than the size of d{sub p}, d{sub b} is the effective control unit of the strength. Meanwhile, d{sub l} is the effective control unit of toughness because it strongly impacts the crack initiation and propagation and follows also the Hall-Petch with toughness in 20CrNi2Mo steel.

  6. Technology development and production of elongated shell for reactor vessel active zone of WWER-TOI project from steel 15Cr2NiMoVN class 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklyaev, S.Eh.; Titova, T.I.; Ratushev, D.V.; Shul'gan, N.A.; Eroshkin, S.B.; Durynin, V.A.; Efimov, S.V.; Dub, V.S.; Kulikov, A.P.; Romashkin, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Production process for the elongated shell blank of the active zone of the reactor pressure vessel made from steel 15Cr2NiMoVN Class 1 with finished sizes Dext=4.655 mm, Dint=4.240 mm, H=4.910 mm (height for heat treatment – 5.750 mm) is presented. For the first time in Russia in production site of OMZ-Special steel LLC a unique elongated shell blank of the reactor vessel active zone was made from ingot 420.0 t for WWER-TOI project fully meeting the specified requirements in terms of metallurgical quality and set of service properties [ru

  7. Kinetics of steel corrosion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettegren', V.I.; Bashkarev, A.Ya.; Danchukov, K.G.; Morozov, G.I.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetics of corrosion damage accumulation in steels of different composition (Cr-Ni-Mo-Ti, Cr-Ni-Mn-N-V, Cr-Ni-N-Mn-Mo, Cr-Ni-Nb, Cr-Ni-Ti, Cr-Mn-Ni, Mn-Al-Nb-Si, Mn-Cr-Al-Si and Mn-Al-Si) in NaCl solution and in sea water was studied. It is shown that degree of corrosion damage relates to time according to the first order reaction expression. The values of corrosion activation energy and of parameter characterizing protection properties of corrosion film are determined [ru

  8. Influence of the fabrication process parameters on microstructures and mechanical properties of 10Cr-1Mo ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyun Ju; Kim, Ki Baik; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Noh, Sang Hoon; Kim, Ga Eon; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FM steels have been developed as the most promising core structural material for high- temperature components operating in severe environments such as nuclear fusion and fission systems owing to its excellent elevated temperature strength and radiation resistance stemming from the addition of extremely thermally stable oxide particles dispersed in a ferritic/martensitic matrix. To realize the structural components such as plates, sheets and tubes in SFR, the development of manufacturing processes is an essential issue for the ODS FM steel. While the ODS steel has superior radiation resistance and high temperature strength, in comparison with the existing commercial steels, it is difficult for the ODS steel to obtain sufficient workability for the fabrication due to high hardness and low ductility at room temperature, meaning that the manufacturing of the ODS plate including cladding tube can be complicated by the low cold workability. In order to prevent the ODS steel from any damage during the manufacturing process, thus, the introduction of intermediate heat treatments between cold rolling processes is necessary. This study investigates effects of the fabrication process parameters such as the cold working ratio, the intermediate and final heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 10Cr-1Mo ODS steel. In an effort to optimize the manufacturing route of the ODS FM steel, the microstructural and mechanical evolutions for the ODS plate manufactured by a control of the fabrication process parameters were evaluated in the present study. In the present study, the effect of a cold rolling and intermediate heat treatments on microstructures and mechanical properties of 10Cr-1Mo FM ODS steel were investigated. During the manufacturing route the hardness measurements remained below the critical value of 400 Hv. Intermediate heat treatment with slow cooling led to a softened ferritic structures which can be further

  9. Z-phase in 9-12% Cr Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    The complex nitride Z-phase, Cr(V,Nb)N, has recently been identified as a major cause for premature breakdown in creep strength of a number of new 9-12%Cr martensitic steels. A thermodynamic model of the Z-phase has been created based on the Thermo-Calc software. The model predicts the Z-phase to......The complex nitride Z-phase, Cr(V,Nb)N, has recently been identified as a major cause for premature breakdown in creep strength of a number of new 9-12%Cr martensitic steels. A thermodynamic model of the Z-phase has been created based on the Thermo-Calc software. The model predicts the Z......-phase to be stable in all of the new 9-12%Cr martensitic steels. This has generally been confirmed by the performed experiments. Z-phase precipitation seems to be a kinetic problem, and drivning force calculations using Thermo-Calc with the developed model have been used to predict steel compositions, which...

  10. Sigma phases in an 11%Cr ferritic/martensitic steel with the normalized and tempered condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yinzhong, E-mail: shenyz@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhou, Xiaoling; Shi, Tiantian; Huang, Xi [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shang, Zhongxia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Wenwen; Ji, Bo; Xu, Zhiqiang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-12-15

    At the present time 9–12% Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels with target operating temperatures up to 650 °C and higher are being developed in order to further increase thermal efficiency so as to reduce coal consumption and air pollution. An 11% Cr F/M steel was prepared by reference to the nominal chemical composition of SAVE12 steel with an expected maximum use temperature of 650 °C. The precipitate phases of the 11% Cr F/M steel normalized at 1050 °C for 0.5 h and tempered at 780 °C for 1.5 h were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Except for Cr-/Cr-Fe-Co-rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, Nb-/V-/Ta-Nb-/Nd-rich MX, Fe-rich M{sub 5}C{sub 2}, Co-rich M{sub 3}C and Fe-Co-rich M{sub 6}C phases previously identified in the steel, two types of sigma phases consisting of σ-FeCr and σ-FeCrW were found to be also present in the normalized and tempered steel. Identified σ-FeCr and σ-FeCrW phases have a simple tetragonal crystal structure with estimated lattice parameters a/c = 0.8713/0.4986 and 0.9119/0.5053 nm, respectively. The compositions in atomic pct of the observed sigma phases were determined to be approximately 50Fe-50Cr for the σ-FeCr, and 30Fe-55Cr-10W in addition to a small amount of Ta, Co and Mn for the σ-FeCrW. The sigma phases in the steel exhibit various blocky morphologies, and appear to have a smaller amount compared with the dominant phases Cr-rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Nb-/V-/Ta-Nb-rich MX of the steel. The σ-FeCr phase in the steel was found to precipitate at δ-ferrite/martensite boundaries, suggesting that δ-ferrite may rapidly induce the formation of sigma phase at δ-ferrite/martensite boundaries in high Cr F/M steels containing δ-ferrite. The formation mechanism of sigma phases in the steel is also discussed in terms of the presence of δ-ferrite, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitation, precipitation/dissolution of M{sub 2}X, and steel composition. - Highlights: •Precipitate phases in normalized and tempered 11%Cr F/M steel are

  11. Microstructural investigations of fatigued 12% Cr-steel 1.4914 (X 18 Cr Mo V Nb 12 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersinska, R.

    1992-10-01

    The low cycle fatigue properties of a tempered steel X18 Cr Mo V Nb 12 1 (DIN 1.4914) have been investigated at different temperatures, strain amplitudes, mean strains and strain rates. The role of martensite lath structure and of precipitates and dislocations on the strengthening mechanisms and fatigue damage have been analysed. Plastic deformation results in a slip band formation on the surface and in a cellular dislocation structure in the interior of the specimens. A reduced strain rate is causing lower stress amplitudes and greater cells at higher temperatures. At lower temperatures the influence of strain rate is small. Fatigue mechanisms are soon dominant at lower strain rates. REM-investigations of the specimen surfaces are revealing the development of cracks at slip bands. The cracks start always at the surfaces of the specimen, and they are transcristalline in nature. The influence of the ageing temperature has been investigated. A reduced ageing temperature of 600degC results in a higher dislocation density and a lower martensite lath distance in the undeformed material. Strain ageing was initially observed in tensile experiments. The influence of dynamic strain ageing on the mechanical properties and the microstructure of tempered steel 1.4914 is investigated. A correlation of mechanical and microstructural data has been performed. (orig./MM) [de

  12. Corrosion behavior in high heat input welded heat-affected zone of Ni-free high-nitrogen Fe–18Cr–10Mn–N austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Joonoh; Ha, Heon-Young; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The pitting corrosion and interphase corrosion behaviors in high heat input welded heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a metastable high-nitrogen Fe–18Cr–10Mn–N austenitic stainless steel were explored through electrochemical tests. The HAZs were simulated using Gleeble simulator with high heat input welding condition of 300 kJ/cm and the peak temperature of the HAZs was changed from 1200 °C to 1350 °C, aiming to examine the effect of δ-ferrite formation on corrosion behavior. The electrochemical test results show that both pitting corrosion resistance and interphase corrosion resistance were seriously deteriorated by δ-ferrite formation in the HAZ and their aspects were different with increasing δ-ferrite fraction. The pitting corrosion resistance was decreased by the formation of Cr-depleted zone along δ-ferrite/austenite (γ) interphase resulting from δ-ferrite formation; however it didn't depend on δ-ferrite fraction. The interphase corrosion resistance depends on the total amount of Cr-depleted zone as well as ferrite area and thus continuously decreased with increasing δ-ferrite fraction. The different effects of δ-ferrite fraction on pitting corrosion and interphase corrosion were carefully discussed in terms of alloying elements partitioning in the HAZ based on thermodynamic consideration. - Highlights: • Corrosion behavior in the weld HAZ of high-nitrogen austenitic alloy was studied. • Cr 2 N particle was not precipitated in high heat input welded HAZ of tested alloy. • Pitting corrosion and interphase corrosion show a different behavior. • Pitting corrosion resistance was affected by whether or not δ-ferrite forms. • Interphase corrosion resistance was affected by the total amount of δ-ferrite

  13. Wear Micro-Mechanisms of Composite WC-Co/Cr - NiCrFeBSiC Coatings. Part II: Cavitation Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kekes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite coatings with five different proportions of WC-Co/Cr and NiCrFeBSiC components were deposited on stainless steel by HVOF spraying. Cavitation erosion tests were performed and the material removal micro-mechanisms were identified by SEM of both the eroded areas and the specimens’ cross-sections. Waves’ propagation and deflection at the weak interfaces within the coatings resulted in local tensile stresses perpendicular to the interface direction that eventually led to material removal. Such weak interfaces are the boundaries of the carbide particles with the metal binder within the same splat, those between splats along the same layer and those between successively deposited layers.

  14. Developing of complex for hot plastic deformation modeling of steel type 20-30CrNiMoV for heavy forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dub Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of heavy forging of bars weighing more then 235 tons for such products as rotors made of steel type 20-30CrNiMoV is a critical independent work, failure to perform which entails high costs related to repeated production (in case of defective product and untimely launch of production plants. One of the frequent causes of a defective product is the impossibility of ultrasonic testing in the barrel-gate zones on the rotor workpiece, which is due to the microstructure of the metal, namely the grain size. Determing the stages of deformation process wich causes such defects in structure is the main goal of this work.

  15. High Temperature Performance Evaluation of As-serviced 25Cr35Ni Type Heat-resistant Steel Based on Stress Relaxation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Jun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an as-serviced 25Cr35Ni type steel, the high temperature property evaluation using stress relaxation test(SRT method and residual life prediction were studied. The results show that creep rupture property decreases because of the formation of network carbides along grain boundaries and coarsening of secondary carbides in the austenitic matrix. Based on the relationship of stress relaxation strain rate curves obtained at different temperatures, and the extrapolation equation of stress relaxation rate-rupture time, it is capable to perform residual life evaluation by combining SRT data and a small amount of creep rupture test(CRT. Good agreement is observed for predicting results performed by current method and traditional method.

  16. Aging Behaviour and Mechanical Performance of 18-Ni 300 Steel Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Casati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An 18-Ni 300 grade maraging steel was processed by selective laser melting and an investigation was carried out on microstructural and mechanical behaviour as a function of aging condition. Owing to the rapid cooling rate, the as-built alloy featured a full potential for precipitate strengthening, without the need of a solution treatment prior to aging. The amount of reversed austenite found in the microstructure increased after aging and revealed to depend on aging temperature and time. Similarly to the corresponding wrought counterpart, also in the selective laser-melted 18-Ni 300 alloy, aging promoted a dramatic increase in strength with respect to the as-built condition and a drop in tensile ductility. No systematic changes were found in tensile properties as a function of measured amount of austenite. It is proposed that the submicrometric structure and the phase distribution inherited by the rapid solidification condition brought by selective laser melting are such that changes in tensile strength and ductility are mainly governed by the effects brought by the strengthening precipitates, whereas the concurrent reversion of the γ-Fe phase in different amounts seems to play a minor role.

  17. Influence of cerium, zirconium and boron on the oxidation resistance of heat-resistant steels in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gala, A.; Schendler, W.

    1981-01-01

    Isothermal and cyclic oxidation experiments were carried out in air to investigate the influence of the minor elements such as Cerium, Zirkonium and Boron on the oxidation resistance of heat resistant ferritic and austenitic steels like X10Cr18, X10CrAl18 and X15CrNiSi2012. In the case of cyclicexperiments samples were exposed at constant temperatures for 100 h and then cooled to R.T. This cycle was repeated 10 times. The corrosion was determined as weight change and was continuously measured by a thermo-balance. The distribution of the alloying elements on the phase boundary scale/steel was examined by Scanning-Electron-Microscope. Addition of small amounts of Ce (0.3 wt-% max.) could reduce the oxidation rate in the case of isothermal and cyclic conditions. Zirkonium concentrations below 0.1 wt-% could have a beneficial effect, but at higher concentrations the oxidation rate increases with increasing amounts of Zr. Small Boron concentrations of 0.02 wt-% lead to catastrophic oxidation at temperatures above 1000 0 C. (orig.) [de

  18. High-strength maraging steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, S.V.; Shejn, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of data on technological and operation properties of maraging steels on Fe-Cr-Ni, Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr-Co-Mo bases is given. Their advantages and drawbacks are pointed out. The scheme of strengthening heat treatment is considered. The fields of the most effective application of maraging steels for instance, for products operating under conditions of low-cycle and shock cyclic loading are mentioned

  19. Corrosion resistance of amorphous NiCrZr and NiCrMoZr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, M.; Miyake, M.; Okamoto, I.

    1987-01-01

    One of the authors has reported that the corrosion resistance of chromium containing amorphous alloys is extremely improved by alloying phosphorus among metalloids. Two factors operate for the improvement of corrosion resistance of the amorphous alloys. First, phosphorus serves for the rapid formation of protective passive film. Second, the compositional and structural homogeneity in amorphous state also account for the formation of protective film. The latter factor has been clearly seen in the high corrosion resistance of CoCrMoZr and CoCrWZr alloys without metalloids. In order to clarify the separately two factors in the corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys, the corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys without metalloids has to be further investigated. This paper also deals with the corrosion resistance and electrochemical behavior of NiCrZr and NiCrMoZr alloys in 1N HCl, and compare them with the corrosion behavior of the crystalline alloys containing the same composition as that of the amorphous alloys

  20. 3D Modelling of Flash Formation in Linear Friction Welded 30CrNiMo8 Steel Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Effertz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Linear friction welding (LFW is a solid-state welding process that has been thoroughly investigated for chain welding in recent years in order to replace the currently in use Flash Butt Welding (FBW process. Modelling has proven to be an indispensable tool in LFW, thus providing necessary insight to the process, regardless of its final application. This article describes a 3D model developed in the commercial software DEFORM to study the LFW process of 30CrNiMo8 high strength steel in the Hero chain. Hence, a weakly coupled thermal and mechanical model were used, by means of the process experimental input such as displacement histories. The flash morphology and intervening mechanisms were analyzed. A thermal evaluation of different regions in the studied geometry was considered, and a correlation of the modeled and experimental width of the extrusion zone was established.

  1. Effect of long-term aging on microstructural stabilization and mechanical properties of 20Cr32Ni1Nb steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Jia, Xiankai [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211816 (China); Gong, Jianming, E-mail: gongjm@njtech.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211816 (China); Key Lab of Design and Manufacture of Extreme Pressure Equipment, Jiangsu Province (China); Geng, Luyang; Tang, Jianqun; Jiang, Yong [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211816 (China); Key Lab of Design and Manufacture of Extreme Pressure Equipment, Jiangsu Province (China); Ni, Yingying; Yang, Xinyu [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211816 (China)

    2017-04-06

    The centrifugally cast 20Cr32Ni1Nb stainless steel aged at 950 ℃ from 200 h up to 5000 h was investigated on the mechanical properties and microstructural evolution using post-aged tensile tests, post-aged Charpy impact tests, Optical microscopy (OM) observations, and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) examinations. Experimental results indicate that the as-cast microstructure of the steel typically consists of a supersaturated solid solution of austenite matrix with a network of interdendritic primary carbides (NbC and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}). During aging process, the growth and coarsening of NbC carbides and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides as well as the transformation of NbC carbide into G phase take place. Meanwhile, the transformation of NbC into G phase releases C into the matrix during aging exposure. This released C tends to combine with Cr, and forms M{sub 23}C{sub 6} at the dendrite boundaries. Compared with a continuous reduction of the elongation in the whole aging period, the strength parameters (σ{sub ult} and σ{sub ys}) exhibit an initial increase followed by a continuous decrease with the aging time prolonged from 1000 h to 5000 h. Additionally, the variation of Charpy impact absorbed energy is relatively complex during aging process. The microstructural evolution during long-term aging process is consistent with the variation of mechanical properties.

  2. Results obtained so far with the production of turbine and valve casings made of the new 9% Cr cast steel types G-X 12 CrMoWVNbN 10 11 and G-X 12 CrMoVNbN 91; Erfahrungsbericht ueber die Herstellung von Turbinen- und Ventilgehaeusen aus den neuen 9% Cr-Stahlgusssorten G-X 12 CrMoWVNbN 10 1 1 und G-X 12 CrMoVNbN 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, F.; Buberl, A.; Hanus, R. [VOEST-ALPINE STAHL LINZ GmbH, Linz (Austria); Cerjak, H. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    In the course of production start-up of new 9-10% Cr cast steel types, and application of R and D results to practice, the following examinations and modifications have been performed: 1. Reduction of average chromium content from 10.5 to 9.5% in order to suppress delta ferrite segregation, and adjustment of austenite and ferrite stabilizing alloying constituents. 2. Analysis of typical defects in castings, and modification of casting and feeding techniques in compliance with the saturation behaviour of the new 9-10% Cr steels. These measures achieved a reduction of feeding-based flaws (shrinkage) in the last few cast pieces. 3. The good weldability was proven of the new 9-10% Cr steels by means of welding tests and crack-free production and construction welds made in cast pieces. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Im Zuge der Produktionsaufnahme neuer 9-10% Cr-Stahlgusssorten und der Ueberleitung der F and E Ergebnisse in die betriebliche Praxis wurden folgende Untersuchungen und Anpassungen vorgenommen: 1. Um die Deltaferritausscheidung zu unterdruecken, wurde der mittlere Chromgehalt von 10,5 auf 9,5% abgesenkt und die austenit- und ferritstabilisierenden Legierungselemente besser angepasst. 2. Die Analyse typischer Fehlererscheinungen an Gussstuecken machten eine Anpassung der Giess- und Speisungstechnik an das Saettigungsverhalten der neuen 9-10% Cr-Staehle erforderlich. Diese Massnahmen fuehrten zu einer Verringerung der Speisungsfehler (Lunker) bei den zuletzt abgegossenen Gussstuecken. 3. Bei Schweissversuchen und an Gussstuecken rissfrei ausgefuehrten Fertigungs- und Konstruktionsschweissungen konnte die gute Schweisseignung der neuen 9-10% Cr-Staehle nachgewiesen werden. (orig./MM)

  3. Hydrogen absorption kinetics and structural properties of Mg85Ni10Ca5 and Mg90Ni10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masakazu; Saito, Katsushi; Towata, Shin-ichi

    2005-01-01

    Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 and Mg 90 Ni 10 were prepared by melting mixtures of the elements in mild steel crucibles and pouring them into copper molds. Hydrogen absorption kinetics and structural properties of the alloys were characterized by the volumetric method using a Sievert's apparatus, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallite size of Mg in Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 , which is evaluated by XRD peak broadening, is about 50% smaller than that in Mg 90 Ni 10 . In addition, the nanometer-scale structure composed of Mg, Mg 2 Ni, Mg 2 Ca was observed in Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 . Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 shows better hydrogen absorption kinetics than Mg 90 Ni 10 in the temperature range of room temperature to 573 K. The better absorption kinetics of Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 is mainly attributed to the nanometer-scale structure

  4. Threshold oxygen levels in Na(I) for the formation of NaCrO 2(s) on 18-8 stainless steels from accurate thermodynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, O. M.; Madan, B. S.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.

    1983-12-01

    The compound NaCrO 2(s) is an important corrosion product in sodium-cooled LMFBRs. The standard Gibbs energy of formation of NaCrO 2(s) is required for the computation of threshold oxygen levels in Na(1) for the formation of NaCrO 2(s) on 18-8 stainless steels. For this purpose the emf of the galvanic cell: Pt, NaCrO 2, Cr 2O 3, Na 2CrO 4/15 YSZ/O 2 ( P O 2 = 0.21 atm, air), Pt was measured over 784-1012 K to be: (E±4.4)(mV) = 483.67-0.34155 T(K). From this, the standard Gibbs energy of formation of NaCrO 2(s) from the elements ( ΔG f,T0) and from the oxides ( ΔG f,OX,T0) was calculated to be: [ΔG f,T0(NaCrO 2, s)±1.86] (kJ/mol) =-869.98 + 0.18575 T(K) , [ΔG f,OX,T0(NaCr0 2, s)±4.8] (kJ/mol) = -104.25-0.00856 T(K) . The molar heat capacity, C P0, of NaCrO 2(s) was measured by DSC to be (350-600 K): C P0(NaCrO 2, s) (J/K mol) = 27.15 + 0.1247 T (K) , From these data, values of -99.3 kJ/mol and 91.6 J/K mol were computed for ΔH f,2980 and S 2980 of NaCrO 2(s). The internal consistency was checked with the use of enthalpy data on Na 2CrO 4(s). From the standard Gibbs energy of formation of NaCrO 2(s) the equation logC 0(wppm) = 3.9905-3147.6 T(K) was derived, where C 0 is the threshold oxygen level for the formation of NaCrO 2(s) on 18-8 stainless steels.

  5. Martensitic transformation induced by irradiation and deformation in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, O.P.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the peculiarities of martensite γ → α , (γ → ε → α , ) transformation in the steels with a low stacking fault energy (12Cr18Ni10T, Cr15AG14) irradiated by neutrons, α-particles and electrons (pulse and stationary) and then deformed with the various strain rates in the temperature range - 20 - 1000 C are considered. It is established by the electron-microscope research that the phase γ → α ' transition in irradiated and deformed steels is observed on the definite stage of evolution of the dislocation structure (after the cell formation) and the martensite formation preferentially occurs on a stacking fault aggregation. The regularities of the irradiation by high energy particles effect on the formation parameters and martensite α , -phase accumulation kinetics ones and also their role in forming of the strength and ductile properties in steels are analysed. (A.A.D.)

  6. Conversion of MX Nitrides to Modified Z-Phase in 9-12%Cr Ferritic Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cipolla, Leonardo

    for Z-phase formation was highlighted during the studies. Several 9-12%Cr commercial steels with prolonged high-temperature exposures have been investigated, too. The same mechanism of Z-phase formation observed in 12%Cr model alloys was identified in industrial 9-12%Cr steels after thousands of hours......The 9-12%Cr ferritic steels are extensively used in modern steam power plants at service temperature up to 620°C. Currently the best perform ing ferritic creep resistance steel is the ASTM Grade 92, whose high temperature strength has recently been assessed by European Creep Collaborative Committee...... in 2005 as 600°C/113MPa/10 5h. All previous attempts made in the last twenty years to develop ferritic steels for 650°C applications have failed due to the incapacity to combine the superior oxidation resistance, given by 12%Cr content, with excellent creep resistance of high-alloyed ferritic steels...

  7. Microstructural investigations of fast reactor irradiated austenitic and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueev, V.S.; Medvedeva, E.A.; Mitrofanova, N.M.; Romanueev, V.V.; Tselishev, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Electron microscopy has been used to characterize the microstructural changes induced in advanced fast reactor fuel claddings fabricated from Cr16Ni15Mo3NbB and Cr16Ni15Mo2Mn2TiVB austenitic stainless steels in the cold worked condition and Cr13Mo2NbVB ferritic -martensitic steel following irradiation in the BOR-60, BN-350 and BN-600 fast reactors. The data are compared with the results obtained from a typical austenitic commercial cladding material, Cr16Ni15Mo3Nb, in the cold worked condition. The results reveal a beneficial effect of boron and other alloying elements in reducing void swelling in 16Cr-15Ni type austenitic steels. The high resistance of ferritic-martensitic steels to void swelling has been confirmed in the Cr13Mo2NbVB steel. (author)

  8. The study of tribological and corrosion behavior of plasma nitrided 34CrNiMo6 steel under hot and cold wall conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniee, A.; Mahboubi, F.; Soleimani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 34CrNiMo6 steel was plasma nitrided under hot and cold wall conditions. • The amount of ε phase in hot wall condition was more than that of cold wall condition. • Wear resistance of hot wall nitrided samples was more than cold wall treated ones. • Hot wall nitriding provides better corrosion behavior than cold wall nitriding. - Abstract: This paper reports on a comparative study of tribological and corrosion behavior of plasma nitrided 34CrNiMo6 low alloy steel under modern hot wall condition and conventional cold wall condition. Plasma nitriding was carried out at 500 °C and 550 °C with a 25% N 2 + 75% H 2 gas mixture for 8 h. The wall temperature of the chamber in hot wall condition was set to 400 °C. The treated specimens were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness and surface roughness techniques. The wear test was performed by pin-on-disc method. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were also used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the samples. The results demonstrated that in both nitriding conditions, wear and corrosion resistance of the treated samples decrease with increasing temperature from 500 °C to 550 °C. Moreover, nitriding under hot wall condition at the same temperature provided slightly better tribological and corrosion behavior in comparison with cold wall condition. In consequence, the lowest friction coefficient, and highest wear and corrosion resistance were found on the sample treated under hot wall condition at 500 °C, which had the maximum surface hardness and ε-Fe 2–3 N phase

  9. Substitution of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel for austentic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1982-04-01

    This report describes the current program to develop a high-strength ferritic-martensitic steel. The alloy is essentially Fe-9% Cr-1% Mo with small additions of V and Nb and is known as modifed 9 Cr-1 Mo steel. Its elevated-temperature properties and design allowable stresses match those of type 304 stainless steel for temperatures up to 600 0 C and exceed those of other ferritic steels by factors of 2 to 3. The improved strength of this alloy permits its use in place of stainless steels for many applications

  10. Tribología de recubrimientos Cermet/NiCrBSi depositados mediante HVOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilemany, J. M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This work consists on a deep tribological study of the WX system composed by a mechanical blend in different compositions of NiCrBSi and WC-12Co powders: 20% NiCrBSi (W2, 40% NiCrBSi (W4 y 60% NiCrBSi (W6. The coatings have been obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF. The measurements made by Ball-On-Disk test are: the friction coefficient is lower than 0.5 and the exchanged energy between the counterparts is under 10 KJ. To quantify the friction wear rate, the volume loss and the track depth, Scanning White Light Interferometry and SEM have been used. The track depth is proportional to the amount of NiCrBSi. A higher percentage of WC-12Co increases the friction wear resistance and decreases the abrasion wear rate (Rubber Wheel test. In all the coatings studied, no diffusion processes are found between the mixed phases, the adhesion between the coatings and the substrate is excellent, the porosity level is below 2% and an increase of microhardness of the coating due to a strengthening of the matrix produced by impacts of solid particles, takes place.

    El trabajo consta de un completo estudio tribológico del sistema WX que consiste en la mezcla mecánica de WC-12Co y NiCrBSi en diferentes proporciones: 20% NiCrBSi (W2, 40% NiCrBSi (W4 y 60% NiCrBSi (W6. Los recubrimientos se han obtenido por proyección térmica de alta velocidad (HVOF. Para todos los sistemas, el coeficiente de fricción es menor que 0.5 y la energía intercambiada entre el par friccionante y el recubrimiento es inferior a 10 KJ. Para cuantificar el desgaste por fricción se han utilizado la profundidad de la huella y el volumen perdido durante el ensayo, obtenidos mediante Interferometría de Barrido de Luz Blanca (SLWI y SEM. La profundidad de la huella sigue una evolución directamente proporcional al contenido en NiCrBSi. Un mayor contenido en WC-12Co aumenta la resistencia al desgaste por fricción y disminuye la velocidad de desgaste por abrasión (ensayo

  11. Characterization of rust layer formed on Fe, Fe-Ni and Fe-Cr alloys exposed to Cl-rich environment by Cl and Fe K-edge XANES measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Yamashita, Masato; Uchida, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    Chloride in atmosphere considerably reduces the corrosion resistance of conventional weathering steel containing a small amount of Cr. Ni is an effective anticorrosive element for improving the corrosion resistance of steel in a Cl-rich environment. In order to clarify the structure of the protective rust layer of weathering steel, Cl and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of atmospheric corrosion products (rust) formed on Fe, Fe-Ni and Fe-Cr alloys exposed to Cl-rich atmosphere were measured. The Fe K-XANES measurements enable the characterization of mixture of iron oxides such as rust. The chemical composition of the rust was determined by performing pattern fitting of the measured spectra. All the rust is composed mainly of goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite and magnetite. Among these iron oxides, akaganeite in particular is the major component in the rust. Additionally, the amount of akaganeite in the rust of Fe-Ni alloy is much greater than that in rust of Fe-Cr alloy. Akaganeite is generally considered to facilitate the corrosion of steel, but our results indicate that akaganeite in the rust of Fe-Ni alloy is quantitatively different from that in rust of Fe-Cr alloy and does not facilitate the corrosion of steel. The shoulder peak observed in Cl K-XANES spectra reveals that the rust contains a chloride other than akaganeite. The energy of the shoulder peak does not correspond to that of any well-known chlorides. In the measured spectra, there is no proof that Cl, by combining with the alloying element, inhibits the alloying element from acting in corrosion resistance. The shoulder peak appears only when the content of the alloying element is lower than a certain value. This suggests that the generation of the unidentified chloride is related to the corrosion rate of steel. (author)

  12. Influence of High Pressure and High Temperature Hydrogen on Fracture Toughness of Ni-Containing Steels and Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balitskii Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available W ramach przeprowadzonych badan okreslono wpływ wodoru na krótkotrwała wytrzymałosc i płasko-naprezeniowa ciagliwosc stali 10Cr15Ni27 oraz stopów niklu 04Cr16Ni56, 05Cr19Ni55 przy wielkosciach cisnienia do 35 MPa i zakresie temperatury od 293 do 773 K. Wpływ wodoru wysokiego cisnienia powoduje, ze wydłuzenie, plastycznosc, wytrzymałosc nisko cyklowa N i parametr odpornosci na pekanie Kc przyjmuja minimalne wartosci dla próbek stopu 04Cr16Ni56 przy cisnieniu wynoszacym 10 MPa, natomiast dla nasyconych wodorem próbek stali 10Cr15Ni27 i stopu 05Cr19Ni55 minimum wartosci tych parametrów wystepuje przy cisnieniu 15 MPa, dla koncentracji wodoru wynoszacej odpowiednio 15 i 19 wppm.

  13. Corrosion Performance of Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys in Artificial Saliva and Mouthwash Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Casales-Diaz, M.; Salinas-Bravo, V. M.; Martinez-Gomez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Several austenitic stainless steels suitable for high temperature applications because of their high corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties were investigated as biomaterials for dental use. The steels were evaluated by electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization curves, cyclic polarization curves, measurements of open circuit potential, and linear polarization resistance. The performance of steels was evaluated in two types of environments: artificial saliva and mouthwash solution at 37°C for 48 hours. In order to compare the behavior of steels, titanium a material commonly used in dental applications was also tested in the same conditions. Results show that tested steels have characteristics that may make them attractive as biomaterials for dental applications. Contents of Cr, Ni, and other minor alloying elements (Mo, Ti, and Nb) determine the performance of stainless steels. In artificial saliva steels show a corrosion rate of the same order of magnitude as titanium and in mouthwash have greater corrosion resistance than titanium. PMID:26064083

  14. Influence of Z-phase on long-term creep stability of martensitic 9-12% Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsen, Hilmar K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hald, John [DONG Energy A/S (Denmark); Vattenfall (Denmark)

    2010-07-01

    The long-term creep strength of the new generation of martensitic creep resistant 9-12%Cr steels since the well-known steel Grade 91 relies strongly on particle strengthening by fine Mn nitrides based on V and Nb. During long-term high-temperature exposures the Mn nitrides may be replaced by the thermodynamically more stable Z-phases (Cr(V,Nb)N) causing a breakdown in creep strength. Cr contents above 10.5% strongly accelerate Z-phase precipitation, which explains the lack of success for all attempts to develop martensitic creep resistant steels with high Cr content for oxidation protection. However 9%Cr steels do not seem to be affected by the Z-phase. Careful control of the Z-phase precipitation process has led to the design of experimental 12%Cr martensitic steels strengthened by fine Z-phase nitrides based on Nb or Ta. Such steels may again enable the combination of high strength and oxidation resistance in the same alloy. This opens a new pathway for further alloy development of the heat resistant martensitic steels. (orig.)

  15. Development of Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr) nanostructured coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Cecilio Alvares da

    2012-01-01

    This study is divided in two parts. The first part is about the preparation of nanostructured Cr 3 C 2 -25(Ni20Cr) powders by high energy milling followed by characterization of the milled and the as received powder. Analyses of some of the data obtained were done using a theoretical approach. The second part of this study is about the preparation and characterization of coatings prepared with the nanostructured as well as the as received Cr 3 C 2 -25(Ni20Cr) powders. The high temperature erosion-oxidation (E-O) behavior of the coatings prepared with the two types of powders has been compared based on a technological approach. The average crystallite size of the Cr 3 C 2 -25(Ni20Cr) powder decreased rapidly from 145 nm to 50 nm in the initial stages of milling and thereafter decreased slowly to a steady state value of around 10 nm with further increase in milling time. This steady state corresponds to the beginning of a dynamic recovery process. The maximum lattice strain (ε = 1,17%) was observed in powders milled for 16 hours, and this powders critical crystallite size was 28 nm. In contrast, the lattice parameter attained a minimum for powders milled for 16 hours. Upon reaching the critical crystallite size, the dislocation density attained a steady state regime and all plastic deformation introduced in the material there after was in the form of events occurring at the grain boundaries, due mainly to grain boundary sliding. The deformation energy stored in the crystal lattice of the Cr 3 C 2 -25(Ni20Cr) powders milled for different times was determined from enthalpy variation measurements. These results indicated that the maximum enthalpy variation (δH = 722 mcal) also occurred for powders milled for 16 hours. In a similar manner, the maximum specific heat variation (δC p = 0,278 cal/gK) occurred for powders milled for 16 hours. The following mechanical properties of Cr 3 C 2 -25(Ni20Cr) coatings prepared using the HVOF thermal spray process were determined

  16. Microstructure and phase evolution in laser clad chromium carbide-NiCrMoNb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, L.; Samajdar, I.; Tak, Manish; Doherty, Roger D.; Gundakaram, Ravi C.; Prasad, K. Satya; Joshi, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Microstructural development during laser cladding has been studied. • In this multi component system Cr 7 C 3 is found to be the stable carbide phase. • Phases were identified by EBSD since XRD results were not conclusive. • Increase in laser power and/or scanning speed reduced the carbide content. • Hardness seems to depend on phase content as well as microstructure. - Abstract: Microstructural development in laser clad layers of Chromium carbide (Cr x C y )-NiCrMoNb on SA 516 steel has been investigated. Although the starting powder contained both Cr 3 C 2 and Cr 7 C 3 , the clad layers showed only the presence of Cr 7 C 3 . Microtexture measurements by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) revealed primary dendritic Cr 7 C 3 with Ni rich FCC metallic phase being present in the interdendritic spaces. Further annealing of the laser clad layers and furnace melting of the starting powder confirmed that Cr 7 C 3 is the primary as well as stable carbide phase in this multi component system. Increase in laser power and scanning speed progressively reduced carbide content in the laser clad layers. Increased scanning speed, which enhances the cooling rate, also led to reduction in the secondary arm spacing (λ 2 ) of the Cr 7 C 3 dendrites. The clad layer hardness increased with carbide content and with decreased dendrite arm spacing.

  17. Contribution of deformation mechanisms to strength and ductility in two Cr-Mn grade austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, A.S., E-mail: atef_saleh@s-petrol.suez.edu.eg [Materials Engineering Laboratory, Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Karjalainen, L.P. [Materials Engineering Laboratory, Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Misra, R.D.K. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials and Chemical Engineering Department, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130, USA. (United States); Talonen, J. [Outokumpu Oyj, Box 140, FI-02201 Espoo (Finland)

    2013-01-01

    The role of different deformation mechanisms in controlling mechanical properties were studied in two low-Ni, Cr-Mn austenitic stainless steel grades (Types 201 and 201L) by tensile testing and microstructure examinations. Tensile tests were carried out at two different strain rates, 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, in the temperature range from -80 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C. It was observed that the flow properties and work hardening rate are affected significantly by temperature and strain rate for the concerned steels through variation of deformation mechanism. Deformation-induced austenite-to-martensite transformation (TRIP effect) is the dominant mechanism at temperatures below room temperature. From 50 Degree-Sign C up to 200 Degree-Sign C, plastic deformation is controlled by mechanical twinning (TWIP effect) and dislocation glide. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to study the plastic deformation accommodation and identify the primary deformation mechanisms operating in the deformed steels.

  18. APT characterization of high nickel RPV steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The microstructures of several high nickel content pressure vessel steels have been characterized by atom probe tomography. The purposes of this study were to investigate the influence of high nickel levels on the response to neutron irradiation of high and low copper pressure vessel steels and to establish whether any additional phases were present after neutron irradiation. The nickel levels in these steels were at least twice that typically found in Western pressure vessel steels. Two different types of pressure vessel steels with low and high copper contents were selected for this study. The first set of alloys was low copper (∼0.05% Cu) base (15Ch2NMFAA) and weld (12Ch2N2MAA) materials used in a VVER-1000 reactor. The composition of the lower nickel VVER-1000 base material was Fe- 0.17 wt% C, 0.30% Si, 0.46% Mn, 2.2% Cr, 1.26% Ni, 0.05% Cu, 0.01% S, 0.008% P, 0.10% V and 0.50% Mo. The composition of the higher nickel VVER-1000 weld material was Fe- 0.06 wt % C, 0.33% Si, 0.80% Mn, 1.8% Cr, 1.78% Ni, 0.07% Cu, 0.009% S, 0.005% P, and 0.63% Mo. The VVER-1000 steels were irradiated in the HSSI Program's irradiation facilities at the University of Michigan, Ford Nuclear Reactor at a temperature of 288 o C for 2,137 h at an average flux of 7.08 x 10 11 cm 2 s -1 for a fluence of 5.45 x 10 18 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV) and for 5,340 h at an average flux of 4.33 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 for a fluence of 8.32 x 10 1 28 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). Therefore, the total fluence was 1.38 x 10 19 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). The second type of pressure vessel steel was a high copper (0.20% Cu) weld from the Palisades reactor. The average composition of the Palisades weld was Fe- 0.11 wt% C, 0.18% Si, 1.27% Mn, 0.04% Cr, 1.20% Ni, 0.20% Cu, 0.017% S, 0.014% P, 0.003% V and 0.55% Mn. The Palisades weld, designated weldment 'B' from weld heat 34B009, was irradiated at a temperature of 288 o C and a flux of ∼7 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 to a fast fluence of 1.4 x 10 19 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). These three

  19. Low-cost, high-strength Fe--Ni--Cr alloys for high temperature exhaust valve application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan

    2017-09-05

    An Fe--Ni--Cr alloy is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. %: 2.4 to 3.7 Al, up to 1.05 Co, 14.8 to 15.9 Cr, 25 to 36 Fe, up to 1.2 Hf, up to 4 Mn, up to 0.6 Mo, up to 2.2 Nb, up to 1.05 Ta, 1.9 to 3.6 Ti, up to 0.08 W, up to 0.03 Zr, 0.18 to 0.27 C, up to 0.0015 N, balance Ni, wherein, in terms of atomic percent: 8.5.ltoreq.Al+Ti+Zr+Hf+Ta.ltoreq.11.5, 0.53.ltoreq.Al/(Al+Ti+Zr+Hf+Ta).ltoreq.0.65, and 0.16.ltoreq.Cr/(Fe+Ni+Cr+Mn).ltoreq.0.21, the alloy being essentially free of Cu, Si, and V.

  20. On the rational alloying of structural chromium-nickel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astaf'ev, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made on the influence of chromium nickel, phosphorus on the critical brittleness temperature of Cr-Ni-Mo-V structural steels. It is shown that the critical brittleness temperature of these steels increases at chromium content more over than 2% and nickel content more than 2% in the result of carbide transformations during tempering. Increase of nickel content in Cr-Ni-Mo-V-steels strengthens the tendency to embrittlement during slow cooling, from tempering temperature owing to development of process of phosphorus grain-boundary segregation. Two mentioned mechanisms of embrittlement determine principles of rational steel alloying. The extreme dependence of the critical brittleness temperature on chromium and nickel content, which enables to choose the optimum composition of Cr-Ni-Mo-V-steels, was established

  1. Thermodynamic investigation on the formation of inclusions containing MgAl2O4 spinel during 16Cr-14Ni austenitic stainless steel manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The formation mechanism of the inclusions containing the spinel crystals has been developed based on the experimental results for the equilibrium between the Fe-16%Cr-14%Ni stainless steel melts and the inclusions as well as the compositions of the inclusions in the plant samples. In the laboratory experiments, the molar content of alumina in the inclusions linearly increases with increasing content of aluminum according to the theoretical expectation and the composition of the inclusions could be described as a function of the activity of aluminum and silicon. From the analysis of the plant samples, the content of MgO and Al 2 O 3 in the calcium silicate type inclusions continuously increases as the steel melts transfer from AOD converter to LT processes and thus, the spinel phase could be crystallized and grown in the calcium silicate matrix during cooling through tundish to cast slabs. On the other hand, the manganese silicate type inclusions were observed after tapping molten steel to the ladle, and then the MnO and Cr 2 O 3 (and SiO 2 ) in the inclusions were reduced by silicon and aluminum through LT to CC mold. The fraction of the inclusions containing spinel crystals at cast slabs was null at (Al 2 O 3 ) 2 O 3 ) > 20 mass%

  2. Microstructure and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction-Stir-Welded CuCrZr/CuNiCrSi Butt Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youqing Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilar CuNiCrSi and CuCrZr butt joints were successfully frictionstirwelded at constant welding speed of 150 mm/min and rotational speed of 1400 rpm with the CuCrZr alloy or the CuNiCrSi alloy located on the advancing side (AS. The microstructure and mechanical properties of joints were investigated. When the CuCrZr alloy was located on the AS, the area of retreating material in the nugget zone was a little bigger. The Cr solute-rich particles were found in the nugget zone on CuCrZr side (CuCrZr-NZ while a larger density of solute-rich particles identified as the concentration of Cr and Si element was found in the nugget zone on CuNiCrSi side (CuNiCrSi-NZ. The Cr precipitates and δ-Ni2Si precipitates were found in the base metal on CuNiCrSi side (CuNiCrSi-BM but only Cr precipitates can be observed in the base metal on CuCrZr side (CuCrZr-BM. Precipitates were totally dissolved into Cu matrix in both CuCrZr-NZ and CuNiCrSi-NZ, which led to a sharp decrease in both micro-hardness and tensile strength from BM to NZ. When the CuNiCrSi was located on the AS, the tensile testing results showed the fracture occurred at the CuCrZr-NZ, while the fracture was found at the mixed zone of CuNiCrSi-NZ and CuCrZr-NZ for the other case.

  3. Effect of 0.2 and 0.5% Ti on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 13Cr supermartensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yong; Huang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Wen; Zhao, Chao

    2015-11-01

    The effect that a 0, 0.2, and 0.5 wt.% titanium content has on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 13Cr supermartensitic stainless steel was investigated using an optical microscope, transmission electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction. The resultant microstructures of the three steels were tempered martensite with a reversed austenite dispersed throughout the matrix. Additionally, the formation of Cr-rich carbides was suppressed by stable Ti(C, N), which improved the strength without severely decreasing in the Ti-microalloyed steel toughness. Nano-precipitation of Ni3Ti was found for the 0.5 wt.% Ti steel during tempering, which significantly increased the strength, but decreased the toughness. The reversed austenite volume fraction also significantly influenced the mechanical properties.

  4. Heat treatment for improvement in lower temperature mechanical properties of 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Yoshiyuki; Okabayashi, Kunio

    1983-11-01

    In the previous paper, it was reported that isothermal heat treatment of a commercial Japanese 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel (AISI 4340 type) at 593 K for a short time followed by water quenching, in which a mixed structure of 25 vol pct lower bainite and 75 vol pct martensite is produced, results in the improvement of low temperature mechanical properties (287 to 123 K). The purpose of this paper is to study whether above new heat treatment will still be effective in commercial practice for improving low temperature mechanical properties of the ultrahigh strength steel when applied to a commercial Japanese 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel which is economical because it lacks the expensive nickel component (AISI 4140 type). At and above 203 K this new heat treatment, as compared with the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment, significantly improved the strength, tensile ductility, and notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel. At and above 203 K the new heat treatment also produced superior fracture ductility and notch toughness results at similar strength levels as compared to those obtained by using γ α' repetitive heat treatment for the same steel. However, the new heat treatment remarkably decreased fracture ductility and notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel below 203 K, and thus no significant improvement in the mechanical properties was noticeable as compared with the properties produced by the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment and the γ α' repetitive heat treatment. This contrasts with the fact that the new heat treatment, as compared with the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment and the γ α' repetitive heat treatment, dramatically improved the notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel, providing a better combination of strength and ductility throughout the 287 to 123 K temperature range. The difference

  5. Effect of d electrons on defect properties in equiatomic NiCoCr and NiCoFeCr concentrated solid solution alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijun; Egami, Takeshi; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Zhang, Yanwen

    2018-01-01

    The role of d electrons in determining distributions of formation and migration energies for point defects in equiatomic NiCoCr and NiCoFeCr concentrated solid solution alloys (CSAs) are studied regarding electron density deformation flexibility based on first-principles calculations. The disordered state is taken into account by constructing special quasirandom structures. The migration barriers are determined by directly optimizing the saddle point. It is found that the formation energies of interstitials in CSAs are lower than those in pure Ni, whereas the formation energies of vacancies are higher. In both NiCoCr and NiCoFeCr, Co-related dumbbell interstitials exhibit lower formation energies. Notably, the distributions of migration energies for Cr interstitials and vacancies exhibit a remarkable overlap region. A detailed analysis of electronic properties reveals that the electronic charge deformation flexibility regarding eg to t2g transition has a dominant effect on defect energetics for different elements in CSAs. Thus the electron deformation ability is suggested as a key factor in understanding the peculiar defect behavior in CSAs.

  6. Investigations on the Behavior of HVOF and Cold Sprayed Ni-20Cr Coating on T22 Boiler Steel in Actual Boiler Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Niraj; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya; Karthikeyan, J.

    2012-01-01

    High temperature corrosion accompanied by erosion is a severe problem, which may result in premature failure of the boiler tubes. One countermeasure to overcome this problem is the use of thermal spray protective coatings. In the current investigation high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and cold spray processes have been used to deposit commercial Ni-20Cr powder on T22 boiler steel. To evaluate the performance of the coatings in actual conditions the bare as well as the coated steels were subjected to cyclic exposures, in the superheater zone of a coal fired boiler for 15 cycles. The weight change and thickness loss data were used to establish kinetics of the erosion-corrosion. X-ray diffraction, surface and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyse the as-sprayed and corroded specimens. The HVOF sprayed coating performed better than its cold sprayed counterpart in actual boiler environment.

  7. High Temperature Tensile Properties of Unirradiated and Neutron Irradiated 20 Cr-35 Ni Austenitic Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R B; Solly, B

    1966-12-15

    The tensile properties of an unirradiated and neutron irradiated (at 40 deg C) 20 % Cr, 35 % Ni austenitic steel have been studied at 650 deg C, 750 deg C and 820 deg C. The tensile elongation and mode of fracture (transgranular) of unirradiated specimens tested at room temperature and 650 deg C are almost identical. At 750 deg C and 820 deg C the elongation decreases considerably and a large part of the total elongation is non-uniform. Furthermore, the mode of fracture at these temperatures is intergranular and microscopic evidence suggests that fracture is caused by formation and linkup of grain boundary cavities. YS and UTS decrease monotonically with temperature. Irradiated specimens show a further decrease in ductility and an increase in the tendency to grain boundary cracking. Irradiation has no significant effect on the YS, but the UTS are reduced. The embrittlement of the irradiated specimens is attributed to the presence of He and Li atoms produced during irradiation and the possible mechanisms are discussed. Prolonged annealing of irradiated and unirradiated specimens at 650 deg C appears to have no significant effect on tensile properties.

  8. A Study of Thin Film Resistors Prepared Using Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta High Entropy Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Cheng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta resistive thin films were prepared on glass and Al2O3 substrates by DC magnetron cosputtering from targets of Ni0.35-Cr0.25-Si0.2-Al0.2 casting alloy and Ta metal. Electrical properties and microstructures of Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta films under different sputtering powers and annealing temperatures were investigated. The phase evolution, microstructure, and composition of Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES. When the annealing temperature was set to 300°C, the Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta films with an amorphous structure were observed. When the annealing temperature was at 500°C, the Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta films crystallized into Al0.9Ni4.22, Cr2Ta, and Ta5Si3 phases. The Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta films deposited at 100 W and annealed at 300°C which exhibited the higher resistivity 2215 μΩ-cm with −10 ppm/°C of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR.

  9. Aging behaviour of 25Cr-17Mn high nitrogen duplex stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, I. F.; Padilha, A. F.

    2000-01-01

    The precipitation behaviour of a nickel free stainless steel containing 25% chromium, 17% manganese and 0.54% nitrogen, with duplex ferritic-austenitic microstructure, was studied using several complementary techniques of microstructural analysis after aging heat treatments between 600 and 1 000 degrees C for periods of lime between 15 and 6 000 min. During aging heat treatments, ferrite was decomposed into sigma phase and austenite by a eutectoid reaction, like in the Fe-Cr-Ni duplex stainle...

  10. Conversion electron Moessbauer and XPS study on the effect of polishing of a stainless steel sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, Cs.; Kuzmann, E.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Vertes, A.; Vass, G.; Romhanyi, K.

    1994-01-01

    Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and XPS has been used for the surface analysis of an 'X10CrNiTi 18/9 (DIN 1.7440)'-type stainless steel in order to determine the supposed structural and/or chemical changes in the surface layer caused by polishing. Both, CEMS and XPS results can be associated with the appearance of Fe nitride in the outer layer of steel samples after polishing, while no sing of nitrogen was detected in the bulk material. (author) 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Ni-Flash-Coated Galvannealed Steel Sheet with Improved Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, D.; Dutta, M.; Venugopalan, T.

    2016-11-01

    In the last several years, automobile industries have increasingly focused on galvannealed (GA) steel sheet due to their superior properties such as weldability, paintability and corrosion protection. To improve the properties further, different coatings on GA have been reported. In this context, an electroplating process (flash coating) of bright and adherent Ni plating was developed on GA steel sheet for covering the GA defects and enhancing the performances such as weldability, frictional behavior, corrosion resistance and phosphatability. For better illustration, a comparative study with bare GA steel sheet has also been carried out. The maximum electroplating current density of 700 A/m2 yielded higher cathode current efficiency of 95-98%. The performances showed that Ni-coated (coating time 5-7 s) GA steel sheet has better spot weldability, lower dynamic coefficient of friction (0.07 in lubrication) and three times more corrosion resistance compared to bare GA steel sheet. Plate-like crystal of phosphate coating with size of 10-25 µm was obtained on the Ni-coated GA. The main phase in the phosphate compound was identified as hopeite (63.4 wt.%) along with other phases such as spencerite (28.3 wt.%) and phosphophyllite (8.3 wt.%).

  12. Effect of Cooling Rate on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties in SA508 Gr4N High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minchul; Park, Sanggyu; Choi, Kwonjae; Lee, Bongsang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The microstructure of Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel is a mixture of tempered martensite and tempered lower bainite and that of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel is predominantly tempered upper bainite. Higher strength and toughness steels are very attractive as an eligible RPV steel, so several researchers have studied to use the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel for the NPP application. Because of the thickness of reactor vessel, there are large differences in austenitizing cooling rates between the surface and the center locations of thickness in RPV. Because the cooling rates after austenitization determine the microstructure, it would affect the mechanical properties in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, and it may lead to inhomogeneous characteristics when the commercial scale of RPV is fabricated. In order to apply the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel to RPV, it is necessary to evaluate the changes of microstructure and mechanical properties with varying phase fractions in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel. In this study, the effects of martensite and bainite fractions on mechanical properties in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were examined by controlling the cooling rate after austenitization. First of all, continuous cooling transformation(CCT) diagram was established from the dilatometric analyses. Then, the phase fractions at each cooling rate were quantitatively evaluated. Finally, the mechanical properties were correlated with the phase fraction, especially fraction of martensite in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel.

  13. Analysis of the austenitic stainless steel's r-value behavior at elevated temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Arsić; Milan Djordjević; Srbislav Aleksandrović; Vukić Lazić; Ruzica R. Nikolic; Branislav Hadzima

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the anisotropy properties of austenitic steel AISI 304 (X5CrNi18-10) at elevated temperatures is presented in this paper. Considerations of the anisotropy problems are presented in the theoretical part of the paper, as well as the procedure for determination of the normal anisotropy coefficient. The experimental part of the paper describes the plan, methodology and equipment for testing of material's normal anisotropy and mechanical characteristics. The objective of conducting ...

  14. Evaluation of frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brakcets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTiarch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Mirzaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When using sliding mechanics for space closure during orthodontic treatment, friction occurs at the bracket-wire interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brackets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTi wires. Methods: In this experimental study, we used 5 different types of orthodontic wires. Brackets and wires were divided in to 5 groups: 1-(monocrystalline+stainless steel 18 2–(monocrystalline+stainless steel 19×25 3-(monocrystalline+Beta-TMA 4–(monocrystalline+Beta TMA 19×25 5-(monocrystalline+NiTi 18. Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to investigate the static frictional resistance. The angulation between bracket and wire was 0 and the wires were pulled through the slots at a speed of 10 mm/min. Tests were performed 10 times for each group in artificial saliva. The average of 10 forces recorded was considered as static friction. One-way ANOVA and SPSS Version 18 and LSD post hoc test were used to evaluate the results of the study. Results: The mean static frictional force for each group was: group1: 0.82 ± 0.14, group 2: 1.09 ± 0.30, group 3: 0.87 ± 0.53, group 4: 1.9 ± 1.16, group 5: 1.42 ± 0.30. There was a significant difference when comparing the two groups of similar wires in terms of shape (round or rectangular cross-section as when comparing Beta TMA 18 and 19×25 arch wires with each other, the obtained p-value was 0.023, while the obtained p-value for the comparison of stainles steel arch wires was 0.034 . Conclusions: The result of this study shows that Stainless Steel 18 wires generate the least amount of friction and round wires produce less friction than the rectangular wires. Beta TMA wires generate the highest amount of friction.

  15. Density of liquid NiCrAlMo quarternary alloys measured by a modified sessile drop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, L.; Wang, Y.F.; Xiao, F.; Tao, Z.N.; MuKai, K.

    2006-01-01

    The densities of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys with a fixed molar ratio of Ni:Cr:Al (approximately as 73:14:13) and molybdenum concentration from 0 to 10 mass% were measured by a modified sessile drop method (MSDM). It was found that the density of the liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys decreases with increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of molybdenum concentration. The molar volume of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and molybdenum concentration. The density of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys calculated from the partial molar volumes of nickel, chromium, aluminum and molybdenum in the corresponding Ni-based binary alloys are in good agreement with the experimental results, means, within the error tolerance range the density of liquid Ni-based multi-component alloys can be predicted from the partial volumes of elements in Ni-based binary alloys in liquid state

  16. Development of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) nanostructured coatings; Desenvolvimento de revestimentos nanostruturados de Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Cecilio Alvares da

    2012-07-01

    This study is divided in two parts. The first part is about the preparation of nanostructured Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) powders by high energy milling followed by characterization of the milled and the as received powder. Analyses of some of the data obtained were done using a theoretical approach. The second part of this study is about the preparation and characterization of coatings prepared with the nanostructured as well as the as received Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) powders. The high temperature erosion-oxidation (E-O) behavior of the coatings prepared with the two types of powders has been compared based on a technological approach. The average crystallite size of the Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) powder decreased rapidly from 145 nm to 50 nm in the initial stages of milling and thereafter decreased slowly to a steady state value of around 10 nm with further increase in milling time. This steady state corresponds to the beginning of a dynamic recovery process. The maximum lattice strain ({epsilon} = 1,17%) was observed in powders milled for 16 hours, and this powders critical crystallite size was 28 nm. In contrast, the lattice parameter attained a minimum for powders milled for 16 hours. Upon reaching the critical crystallite size, the dislocation density attained a steady state regime and all plastic deformation introduced in the material there after was in the form of events occurring at the grain boundaries, due mainly to grain boundary sliding. The deformation energy stored in the crystal lattice of the Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) powders milled for different times was determined from enthalpy variation measurements. These results indicated that the maximum enthalpy variation ({delta}H = 722 mcal) also occurred for powders milled for 16 hours. In a similar manner, the maximum specific heat variation ({delta}C{sub p} = 0,278 cal/gK) occurred for powders milled for 16 hours. The following mechanical properties of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) coatings

  17. SAE 1045 steel/WC-Co/Ni-Cu-Ni/SAE 1045 steel joints prepared by dynamic diffusion bonding: Microelectrochemical studies in 0.6 M NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreatta, Francesco; Matesanz, Laura; Akita, Adriano H.; Paussa, Luca; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Fugivara, Cecilio S.; Gomez de Salazar, Jose M.; Benedetti, Assis V.

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion of SAE 1045 steel/WC-Co/Ni-Cu-Ni/SAE 1045 steel interfaces was investigated in 0.6 M NaCl solution using an electrochemical microcell, which enables local electrochemical characterization at the micrometer scale. Two pieces of steel, one with a WC-Co coating covered with Ni (12 μm) and Cu (5 μm) layers, and the other with a Ni (15 μm) layer, were welded by dynamic diffusion bonding. A WC-Co coating was applied to the steel by the high velocity oxygen-fuel process, and Ni-Cu and Ni layers by electroplating. Polarization curves were recorded using an electrochemical microcell. Different regions of welded samples were investigated, including steel, cermet coating, and steel/cermet and steel/Ni-Cu-Ni/cermet interfaces. Optical and electronic microscopes were employed to study the corroded regions. Potentiodynamic polarization curves obtained using the microcell revealed that the base metal was more susceptible to corrosion than the cermet. In addition, cermet steel/cermet and steel/Ni-Cu-Ni/cermet joints exhibited different breakdown potentials. Steel was strongly corroded in the regions adjacent to the interfaces, while the cermet was less corroded. Iron oxides/hydroxides and chloride salts were the main corrosion products of steel. After removal of the superficial layer of corrosion products, iron oxides were mainly observed. Chloride ions were detected mainly on a copper-enriched layer placed between two Ni-enriched layers.

  18. Hot corrosion of Co-Cr, Co-Cr-Al, and Ni-Cr alloys in the temperature range of 700-750 deg C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, K. T.; Meier, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of SO3 pressure in the gas phase on the Na2SO4 induced hot corrosion of Co-Cr, Ni-Cr, and Co-Cr-Al alloys was studied in the temperature range 700 to 750 C. The degradation of the Co-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys was found to be associated with the formation of liquid mixed sulfates (CoSO4-Na2SO4 or NiSO4-Na2SO4) which provided a selective dissolution of the Co or Ni and a subsequent sulfidation oxidation mode of attack which prevented the maintenance of a protective Cr2O3 film. A clear mechanism was not developed for the degradation of Co-Cr-Al alloys. A pitting corrosion morphology was induced by a number of different mechanisms.

  19. Nano-structureal and nano-chemical analysis of Ni-based alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The dissimilar metal joints welded between Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B with Alloy 152 filler metal were characterized by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, secondary ion mass spectrometry and 3-dimensional atom probe tomography. It was found that in the weld root region, the weld was divided into several regions including unmixed zone in Ni-base alloy, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. The result of nanostructural and nanochemical analyses in this study showed the non-homogeneous distribution of elements with higher Fe but lower Mn, Ni and Cr in A533 Gr. B compared with Alloy 152, and the precipitation of carbides near the fusion boundary.

  20. Nano-structureal and nano-chemical analysis of Ni-based alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The dissimilar metal joints welded between Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B with Alloy 152 filler metal were characterized by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, secondary ion mass spectrometry and 3-dimensional atom probe tomography. It was found that in the weld root region, the weld was divided into several regions including unmixed zone in Ni-base alloy, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. The result of nanostructural and nanochemical analyses in this study showed the non-homogeneous distribution of elements with higher Fe but lower Mn, Ni and Cr in A533 Gr. B compared with Alloy 152, and the precipitation of carbides near the fusion boundary.

  1. Microstructure and phase evolution in laser clad chromium carbide-NiCrMoNb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh, L., E-mail: venkatesh@arci.res.in [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur, Hyderabad 500005 (India); Department of Metallurgical Engineering & Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Samajdar, I. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering & Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Tak, Manish [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur, Hyderabad 500005 (India); Doherty, Roger D. [Department of Materials Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundakaram, Ravi C.; Prasad, K. Satya; Joshi, S.V. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur, Hyderabad 500005 (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Microstructural development during laser cladding has been studied. • In this multi component system Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} is found to be the stable carbide phase. • Phases were identified by EBSD since XRD results were not conclusive. • Increase in laser power and/or scanning speed reduced the carbide content. • Hardness seems to depend on phase content as well as microstructure. - Abstract: Microstructural development in laser clad layers of Chromium carbide (Cr{sub x}C{sub y})-NiCrMoNb on SA 516 steel has been investigated. Although the starting powder contained both Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} and Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}, the clad layers showed only the presence of Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}. Microtexture measurements by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) revealed primary dendritic Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} with Ni rich FCC metallic phase being present in the interdendritic spaces. Further annealing of the laser clad layers and furnace melting of the starting powder confirmed that Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} is the primary as well as stable carbide phase in this multi component system. Increase in laser power and scanning speed progressively reduced carbide content in the laser clad layers. Increased scanning speed, which enhances the cooling rate, also led to reduction in the secondary arm spacing (λ{sub 2}) of the Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} dendrites. The clad layer hardness increased with carbide content and with decreased dendrite arm spacing.

  2. Effects of heat treatment condition on the mechanical properties and weldability of 10Cr-1Mo-VNbN cast steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, Dae Young; Bang, Kook Soo; Lee, Kyong Woon; Chi, Byung Ha

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical properties and weldability such as HAZ hardness, cold cracking susceptibility and hot ductility of two differently heat treated 10Cr-1Mo-VNbN cast steels were measured and compared. Because of high hardenability of the cast steel, as-annealed cast steel showed martensitic microstructure and thus had higher hardness than annealed-normalized-tempered cast steel which had tempered martensite. Because the welding electrode used resulted in a high hardness weld metal, both cast steels showed same weld metal cold cracking susceptibility even though the as-annealed cast steel had higher HAZ hardness than the annealed-normalized-tempered cast steel. Both cast steels had excellent hot ductility in high temperature range, indicating no risk of grain boundary liquation cracking in the HAZ. However, the as-annealed cast steel showed an inferior ductility in the intermediate temperature range of 1000∼1150 .deg. C because of larger unrecrystallized grain size

  3. Density of Ni-Cr Alloy in the Mushy State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of Ni-Cr alloy in the mushy state has been measured using the modified sessile drop method. The density of Ni-Cr alloy in the mushy state was found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in alloy.The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy in the mushy state therefore increases with increasing the Cr concentration in alloy.The ratio of the difference of density divided by the temperature difference between liquidus and solidus temperatures decreases with increasing Cr concentration. The density of the alloy increased with the precipitation of a solid phase in alloy during the solidification process. The temperature dependence of the density of alloy in the mushy state was not linear but biquadratic.

  4. Ultrasound surface treatment of Kh18N10T steel with different structural state. Ul'trazvukovaya poverkhnostnaya obrabotka stali Kh18N10T s razlichnym strukturnym sostoyaniem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksenov, V K; Danilov, P A; Mats, A V; Netesov, V M; Yaes, A A [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov (Ukrainian SSR). Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.

    1989-09-01

    Ultrasound surface treatment (USST) is studied for its effect on the structure and mechanical-and-physical properties of Kh18N10T steel with different prehistory. It is shown that surface treatment may both increase and decrease steel microhardness.

  5. High temperature annealing effects on chromel (Ni90Cr10) thin films and interdiffusion study for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Arindom; Cheng Xudong; Miller, Michael A.; Li Xiaochun

    2008-01-01

    Metal embedded thin film thermocouples are very attractive for various applications in harsh environments. One promising technique to embed thin films micro sensors is diffusion bonding, which requires high temperatures and pressures typically in a vacuum. In this study, high temperature annealing effects on chromel (Ni90Cr10) thin film, an important sensor material as one of the components in type K thermocouple, were investigated in a diffusion bonding environment. Annealing was carried out at 800 deg. C for one hour in a diffusion bonder under vacuum without applying pressure. Under such conditions; surface, interface and interdiffusion phenomena were investigated using different characterization techniques including X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Results indicate that the present combination of dielectrics is quite reliable and Ni90Cr10 films of 500 nm thickness can be used for applications at least up to 800 deg. C due to a protective thin chromium oxide layer formation on top of the sensor film during annealing

  6. Interaction of steel, titanium and zirconium with melted chlorides containing copper and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeryanaya, I.N.; Manukhina, T.I.; Shibanov, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Cu and Zn coatings were obtained by contact displacement of their molten chlorides. Cu was deposited on Kh18N10T stainless steel, and Zn was deposited on Ti or Zr at 400-550 0 . Cu was displaced from the electrolyte by all components in the steel. A smooth coating exhibited high adhesion. According to metallography there was a transition layer of a Ni-Cr solid solution between the surface Cu layer and steel. With electronegetiol Ti and Zr, contact deposition of Zn or Cu from chloride melts was possible. The coatings were multilayer and exhibited adequate adhesion. The coating consisted of an intermetallic compound of Ti or Zr with Zn

  7. Study on optimum length of raw material in stainless steel high-lock nuts forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meiwen; Liu, Fenglei; Zhao, Qingyun; Wang, Lidong

    2018-04-01

    Taking 302 stainless steel (1Cr18Ni9) high-lock nuts for research objects, adjusting the length of raw material, then using DEFORM software to simulate the isothermal forging process of each station and conducting the corresponding field tests to study the effects of raw material size on the stainless steel high-lock nuts forming performance. The tests show that the samples of each raw material length is basically the same as the results of the DEFORM software. When the length of the raw material is 10mm, the appearance size of the parts can meet the design requirements.

  8. Role of Nb in low interstitial 13Cr super martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.P.; Wang, L.J. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, C.M., E-mail: cmliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Subramanian, S.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S-4L7 (Canada)

    2011-08-25

    Highlights: {yields} Nb retards the kinetics of reversed austenite formation. {yields} Nb suppresses the occurrence of Cr rich precipitates. {yields} Nano-scale precipitates contribute to the significant increase in strength. - Abstract: The effect of adding 0.1 wt% Nb to low interstitial (N 0.01 wt%, C 0.01 wt%) 13Cr super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) on solid phase transformation and microstructures achieved by normalizing and tempering was investigated using dilatometer, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and its consequence on mechanical properties was examined to clarify the role of Nb in low interstitial martensitic stainless steel. Nb was found to retard kinetics of reversed austenite formation during tempering and to suppress the occurrence of Cr rich precipitates. The measurement of mechanical properties shows that while the strength properties were significantly increased by nano-scale precipitates enriched in Nb in the steel with 0.10 wt% Nb, the ductility and toughness properties were restored by optimum volume fraction of retained austenite. Excellent strength and adequate toughness properties were obtained by tempering the steel with 0.10 wt% Nb and low interstitial (N 0.01 wt%, C 0.01 wt%) steel at 600 deg. C.

  9. Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of 50Cr5NiMoV steel for forged backup roll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, X.Y.; Zhang, X.J.; Fu, L.C.; Yang, H.B.; Yang, K.; Zhu, L., E-mail: zl508@126.com

    2016-11-20

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of forged 50Cr5NiMoV steel backup roll were evaluated in this study. The microstructure characteristics from surface to center along radial direction of the backup roll were carefully observed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the chemical composition, hardness, tensile property, impact and fracture toughness in different position of the backup roll were also examined. The results indicate that the finely precipitated carbides at different matrix during heat treatment process strongly influence mechanical properties of the backup roll. Especially, the spheroidized pearlite at the inner regions which consists of large globular or rod-like M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and a little of small globular M{sub 23}C{sub 6} possesses much better toughness and fracture resistance properties than those of the lamellar pearlite with lamellar M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and a little of globular M{sub 7}C{sub 3}.

  10. Fretting fatigue behaviour of Ni-free high-nitrogen stainless steel in a simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Maruyama, Sachiko Hiromoto, Eiji Akiyama and Morihiko Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fretting fatigue behaviour of Ni-free high-nitrogen steel (HNS with a yield strength of about 800 MPa, which was prepared by nitrogen gas pressurized electroslag remelting, was studied in air and in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS(-. For comparison, fretting fatigue behaviour of cold-rolled SUS316L steel (SUS316L(CR with similar yield strength was examined. The plain fatigue limit of HNS was slightly lower than that of SUS316L(CR although the former had a higher tensile strength than the latter. The fretting fatigue limit of HNS was higher than that of SUS316L(CR both in air and in PBS(-. A decrease in fatigue limit of HNS by fretting was significantly smaller than that of SUS316L(CR in both environments, indicating that HNS has better fretting fatigue resistance than SUS316L(CR. The decrease in fatigue limit by fretting is discussed taking into account the effect of friction stress due to fretting and the additional influences of wear, tribocorrosion and plastic deformation in the fretted area.

  11. Influence of Z-phase on long-term creep stability of martensitic 9-12%Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, J. [DONG Energy (Denmark)]|[Vattenfall Europe AG, Berlin (Germany)]|[DTU Mechanical Engineering (Denmark); Danielsen, H.K. [DTU Mechanical Engineering (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    The long-term creep strength of the new generation of martensitic creep resistant 9- 12% Cr steels since the well-known steel Grade 91 relies strongly on particle strengthening by fine MN nitrides based on V and Nb. During long-term hightemperature exposures the MN nitrides may be replaced by the thermodynamically more stable Z-phases (Cr(V,Nb)N) causing a breakdown in creep strength. Cr contents above 10.5% strongly accelerate Z-phase precipitation, which explains the lack of success for all attempts to develop martensitic creep resistant steels with high Cr content for oxidation protection. The Z-phase nucleation process by Cr-diffusion into pre-existing MN nitrides is rate controlling for the Z-phase transformation. More work is needed before effects of chemical composition on the nucleation process can be reliably modeled. Careful control of the Z-phase precipitation process has led to the design of experimental 12%Cr martensitic steels strengthened by Z-phase. Such steels may again enable the combination of high strength and oxidation resistance in the same alloy. This opens a new pathway for further alloy development of the heat resistant martensitic steels. (orig.)

  12. Microstructure and phase transformations in laser clad CrxSy/Ni coating on H13 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yiwen; Sun, Ronglu; Tang, Ying; Niu, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Laser cladding was carried out onto H13 steel with preplaced NiCrBSi+Ni/MoS2 powders using CO2 laser under the optimized experimental parameters of laser power 2 kW, scanning velocity 6 mm/s and laser beam diameter 3 mm. An X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy were applied to analyze the microstructure and phase compositions of the coating. Thermodynamic calculation was performed with Thermo-Calc software on the basis of a commercially available Ni-based Alloys' database. The experimental results show that MoS2 decomposed and S reacted with Cr to form nonstoichiometric CrxSy during the laser cladding process. The coating consists of spherical CrxSy particles, primary γ-Ni dendrite, interdendritic eutectic (γ-Ni+NiMo) and precipitated NiMo. The precipitated NiMo was fine and uniformly distributed in primary γ-Ni dendrite. The calculated results and experimental data indicate that the solidification process in the coating during laser cladding process was liquid→liquid+CrxSy→ liquid+CrxSy+γ-Ni→liquid+CrxSy+γ-Ni+ eutectic (γ-Ni+NiMo). A solid state phase transformation (fine and uniformly distributed NiMo precipitated from γ-Ni) occurred after the solidification process. The calculations agree well with the experimental data and it is helpful to understand the phase transformation and microstructure evolution in the coating.

  13. Laser cladding of austenitic stainless steel using NiTi strips for resisting cavitation erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.Y.; Cheng, F.T.; Man, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Being part of a larger project on using different forms of nickel titanium (NiTi) in the surface modification of stainless steel for enhancing cavitation erosion resistance, the present study employs NiTi strips as the cladding material. Our previous study shows that laser surfacing using NiTi powder can significantly increase the cavitation erosion resistance of AISI 316 L stainless steel [K.Y. Chiu, F.T. Cheng, H.C. Man, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 392 (2005) 348-358]. However, from an engineering point of view, NiTi strips are more attractive than powder because NiTi powder is very expensive due to high production cost. In the present study, NiTi strips were preplaced on AISI 316 L samples and remelted using a high-power CW Nd:YAG laser to form a clad layer. To lower the dilution due to the substrate material, samples doubly clad with NiTi were prepared. The volume dilution ratio in the singly clad sample was high, being in the range of 13-30% depending on the processing parameters, while that of the doubly clad sample was reduced to below 10%. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) reveals that the clad layer is composed of a NiTi B2 based matrix together with fine precipitates of a tetragonal structure. Vickers indentation shows a tough cladding/substrate interface. The microhardness of the clad layer is increased from 200 HV of the substrate to about 750 HV due to the dissolution of elements like Fe, Cr and N in the matrix. Nanoindentation tests record a recovery ratio near to that of bulk NiTi, a result attributable to a relatively low dilution. The cavitation erosion resistance of the doubly clad samples is higher than that of 316-NiTi-powder (samples laser-surfaced with NiTi powder) and approaches that of NiTi plate. The high erosion resistance is attributed to a high hardness, high indentation recovery ratio and the absence of cracks or pores

  14. Trace element control in binary Ni-25Cr and ternary Ni-30Co-30Cr master alloy castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrois, Martin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jablonski, Paul D. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States);

    2017-10-23

    Electro-slag remelting (ESR) is used for control of unwanted elements in commercial alloys. This study focuses on master alloys of Ni-25Cr and Ni-30Co-30Cr, processed through a combination of vacuum induction melting (VIM) and electro-slag remelting (ESR). Minor additions were made to control tramp element levels and modify the melting characteristics. Nitrogen and sulfur levels below 10 ppm and oxygen levels below 100 ppm were obtained in the final products. The role of the alloy additions in lowering the tramp element content, the resulting residual inclusions and the melting characteristics were determined computationally and confirmed experimentally. Additions of titanium were beneficial to the control of oxygen levels during VIM and nitrogen levels during ESR. Aluminum additions helped to control oxygen levels during remelting, however, aluminum pickup occurred when excess titanium was present during ESR. The usefulness of these master alloys for use as experimental remelt stock will also be discussed.

  15. The use of different techniques for determination of pitting corrosion potential of austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskelinen, P.; Forsen, O.; Onnela, J.; Ylaesaari, S.; Haenninen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Three different techniques for pitting corrosion potential measurement on austenitic stainless steel (Fe18Cr10Ni) were compared: conventional polarization method, a new Avesta electrochemical corrosion measurement cell and a scratch technique. Special attention was paid to the effects of crevice corrosion during pitting corrosion potential measurement and to their elimination. Development of a rapid test technique for reliable pitting corrosion potential determination was aimed at and resulted from comparison of the different techniques

  16. Precipitation sensitivity to alloy composition in Fe-Cr-Mn austenitic steels developed for reduced activation for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Special austenitic steels are being designed in which alloying elements like Mo, Nb, and Ni are replaced with Mn, W, V, Ti, and/or Ta to reduce the long-term radioactivity induced by fusion reactor irradiation. However, the new steels still need to have properties otherwise similar to commercial steels like type 316. Precipitation strongly affects strength and radiation-resistance in austenitic steels during irradiation at 400--600/degree/C, and precipitation is also usually quite sensitive to alloy composition. The initial stage of development was to define a base Fe-Cr-Mn-C composition that formed stable austenite after annealing and cold-working, and resisted recovery or excessive formation of coarse carbide and intermetallic phases during elevated temperature annealing. These studies produced a Fe-12Cr-20Mn-0.25C base alloy. The next stage was to add the minor alloying elements W, Ti, V, P, and B for more strength and radiation-resistance. One of the goals was to produce fine MC precipitation behavior similar to the Ti-modified Fe-Cr-Ni prime candidate alloy (PCA). Additions of Ti+V+P+B produced fine MC precipitation along network dislocations and recovery/recrystallization resistance in 20% cold worked material aged at 800/degree/C for 166h, whereas W, Ti, W+Ti, or Ti+P+B additions did not. Addition of W+Ti+V+P+B also produced fine MC, but caused some σ phase formation and more recrystallization as well. 29 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Effect of rolling temperature on 12Kh18N10T steel tube hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkevich, P.M.; Stepanovich, V.E.; Manankova, L.V.; Usenko, V.N.; Semenov, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical properties and substructure of tubes at the constant reduction degree k(the ratio of deformation over wall thickness to deformation over diameter), depending on strain degree during cold and hot tube rolling, have been studied. The investigations are carried out using hot-rolled tubes with the dimensions 88x8 mm of 12Kh1hN10T steel. With the decrease of strain over the wall of the tube, produced of 12Kh18N10T steel as to strain over diameter the values of yield strength and ultimate strength increase with simultaneous decrease in ductility during warm rolling and yield strength and ultimate strength decrease with the increase in ductility-during cold rolling. During warm rolling of the tubes at 250 deg C the hardening of 12Kh18N10T steel is higher, than at the rolling temperature 150 deg C. The optimum temperature range of warm rolling is 120-150 deg C. Grain orientation in the metal of the tubes and degree of texture perfection increase with the temperature increase of the tube warm drolling as compared with col rolli

  18. Study of 13Cr-4Ni-(Mo (F6NM Steel Grade Heat Treatment for Maximum Hardness Control in Industrial Heats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Sanctis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The standard NACE MR0175 (ISO 15156 requires a maximum hardness value of 23 HRC for 13Cr-4Ni-(Mo steel grade for sour service, requiring a double tempering heat treatment at temperature in the range 648–691 °C for the first tempering and 593–621 °C for the second tempering. Difficulties in limiting alloy hardness after the tempering of forged mechanical components (F6NM are often faced. Variables affecting the thermal behavior of 13Cr-4Ni-(Mo during single and double tempering treatments have been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM observations, X-ray diffraction measurements, dilatometry, and thermo-mechanical simulations. It has been found that relatively low Ac1 temperatures in this alloy induce the formation of austenite phase above 600 °C during tempering, and that the formed, reverted austenite tends to be unstable upon cooling, thus contributing to the increase of final hardness via transformation to virgin martensite. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the Ac1 temperature as much as possible to allow the tempering of martensite at the temperature range required by NACE without the detrimental formation of virgin martensite upon final cooling. Attempts to do so have been carried out by reducing both carbon (<0.02% C and nitrogen (<100 ppm levels. Results obtained herein show final hardness below NACE limits without an unacceptable loss of mechanical strength.

  19. Effects of environment on the release of Ni, Cr, Fe, and Co from new and recast Ni-Cr alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyar, Perihan; Can, Gülşen; Atakol, Orhan

    2014-07-01

    The addition of previously cast alloy to new alloy for economic reasons may increase the release of elements. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the immersion period, immersion media, and addition of previously cast alloy to new alloy on the release of elements. Disk-shaped specimens were prepared from a Ni-Cr alloy (Ni: 61 wt%, Cr: 26 wt%, Mo: 11 wt%, Si: 1.5 wt%, Fe, Ce, Al, and Co alloy (group N) and 50% new/50% recast alloy (group R). After the immersion of the specimens in both NaCl (pH 4) and artificial saliva (pH 6.7) for 3, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days, the release of ions was determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Data were analyzed with a 3-way ANOVA (α=.001). The release of Ni was significantly affected by the immersion period, of Ni and Cr by the alloy and media (Palloy (Palloy in artificial saliva was 109.71 for Ni, 6.49 for Cr, 223.22 for Fe, and 29.90 μg/L for Co. The release of Co in NaCl was below the detection limit in both groups. The release of Ni in NaCl and artificial saliva increased with the length of the immersion period in both groups. The release of Cr and Fe was higher in artificial saliva than in NaCl in group R, regardless of the immersion period. The release of Co in NaCl was below the detection limit in both groups. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of microstructure on the localized corrosion of Fe-Cr-Mn-N stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Young; Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Sik

    1998-01-01

    This paper dealt with the effect of microstructure on the localized corrosion of Fe-Cr-Mn-N stainless steels. The experimental alloys were made by vacuum induction melting and then hot rolled. The alloys were designed by controlling Cr eq /Ni eq ratio. Two alloys had austenitic phase and one alloy showed (austenite+ferrite) du-plex phase. High nitrogen addition in austenitic alloys stabilized the austenitic structure and then suppressed the formations of ferrite and α martensite, but martensite was formed in the case of large Cr eq /Ni eq ratio and low nitrogen addition. Pitting initiation site was grain boundary in austenitic alloys and was ferrite/austenite phase boundary in duplex alloy in the HCl solution. In sulfuric acids, austenitic alloys showed uniform corrosion, but ferrite phase was preferentially corroded in duplex alloy. The preferential dissolution seems to be related with the distribution of alloying elements between ferrite and austenite. Intergranular corrosion test showed that corrosion rate by immersion Huey test had a linear relation with degree of sensitization by EPR test

  1. Influence of the Cr and Ni concentration in CoCr and CoNi alloys on the structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, E. [Nipson Technology, 12 Avenue des Trois chênes, Techn’Hom 3, Belfort 90000 (France); Liu, T. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy 54506 (France); Billard, A. [IRTES-LERMPS EA 7274, UTBM, Site de Montbéliard, Belfort Cedex 90010 (France); Dekens, A. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy 54506 (France); Perry, F. [PVDco, 30 rue de Badménil, Baccarat 54120 (France); Mangin, S.; Hauet, T. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy 54506 (France)

    2017-01-15

    The crystalline and magnetic properties of micron thick magnetron sputtered Co{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x} and Co{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x} alloy films are analyzed in the view of their implementation as semi-hard magnets. All of the tested films crystallize in an hcp lattice, at least up to 35 at% of alloying elements (Cr or Ni). The structural study shows that the ratio of hcp phase with [0001] axis orientated perpendicular to the film as compared with in-plane orientation increases (resp. decreases), when Ni (resp. Cr) concentration increases independently of the post-annealing temperature. The orientation of the magnetization results from the competition between the demagnetization field which tends to align the magnetization in plane and the crystalline anisotropy which tends to maintain the magnetization along the [0001] axis. Interestingly, we find that, although Co and Ni are very similar atoms, Co{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x} alloys crystalline anisotropy can be strongly increased and reach up to twice the anisotropy of the best Co{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x} alloy, while maintaining a magnetization at saturation above 1200 kA/m. The thermal stability of the structural and magnetic properties of both alloys is demonstrated for an annealing temperature up to 300 °C. - Highlights: • Sputtered CoCr and CoNi films are analyzed for their semi-hard magnetic properties. • CoNi alloys exhibits higher saturation magnetization and crystalline anisotropy. • These evolutions can be directly correlated to the quality of hcp crystal orientation. • Thermal stability of structural and magnetic properties is demonstrated up to 300 °C.

  2. Isothermal and thermal-mechanical fatigue of VVER-440 reactor pressure vessel steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Balazs; Trampus, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The fatigue life of the structural materials 15Ch2MFA (CrMoV-alloyed ferritic steel) and 08Ch18N10T (CrNi-alloyed austenitic steel) of VVER-440 reactor pressure vessel under completely reserved total strain controlled low cycle fatigue tests were investigated. An advanced test facility was developed for GLEEBLE-3800 physical simulator which was able to perform thermomechanical fatigue experiments under in-service conditions of VVER nuclear reactors. The low cycle fatigue results were evaluated with the plastic strain based Coffin-Manson law, and plastic strain energy based model as well. It was shown that both methods are able to predict the fatigue life of reactor pressure vessel steels accurately. Interrupted fatigue tests were also carried out to investigate the kinetic of the fatigue evolution of the materials. On these samples microstructural evaluation by TEM was performed. The investigated low cycle fatigue behavior can provide reference for remaining life assessment and lifetime extension analysis.

  3. Improvement of antiscuff properties and thermal stability of alloys of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Si system used for building-up of fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzhanskij, I.B.; Runov, A.E.; Gel'man, A.S.; Stepin, V.S.

    1978-01-01

    Studied was the influence of the system and the degree of alloying of alloys of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Si system on their operational characteristics in the operation mode of the energy armature of superhigh parameters. The TsN18 alloy has been developed (containing 0.1 to 0.2% C; 3.5 to 6.0% Si; 0.5 to 3.0% Mn; 16 to 17% Cr; 10.5 to 12% Ni; 1.5 to 3% Mo; the balance being Fe), bombining a high resistance to scuffing with a fairly high heat resistance; the alloy lending itself to building up and to machining. The dependence of the wear resistance of the alloys of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Si system on two factors has been established; namely, - the antifriction characteristics of the film of secondary structures, and physico-mechanical properties of the alloy

  4. Evaluation of frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brakcets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTi arch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Mirzaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When using sliding mechanics for space closure during orthodontic treatment, friction occurs at the bracket-wire interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brackets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTi wires. Methods: In this experimental study, we used 5 different types of orthodontic wires. Brackets and wires were divided in to 5 groups: 1-(monocrystalline+stainless steel 18 2–(monocrystalline+stainless steel 19×25 3-(monocrystalline+Beta-TMA 4–(monocrystalline+Beta TMA 19×25 5-(monocrystalline+NiTi 18. Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to investigate the static frictional resistance. The angulation between bracket and wire was 0 and the wires were pulled through the slots at a speed of 10 mm/min. Tests were performed 10 times for each group in artificial saliva. The average of 10 forces recorded was considered as static friction. One-way ANOVA and SPSS Version 18 and LSD post hoc test were used to evaluate the results of the study. Results: The mean static frictional force for each group was: group1: 0.82±0.14, group 2: 1.09±0.30, group 3: 0.87±0.53, group 4: 1.9±1.16, group 5: 1.42±0.30. There was a significant difference when comparing the two groups of similar wires in terms of shape (round or rectangular cross-section as when comparing Beta TMA 18 and 19×25 arch wires with each other, the obtained p-value was 0.023, while the obtained p-value for the comparison of stainles steel arch wires was 0.034. Conclusions: The result of this study shows that Stainless Steel 18 wires generate the least amount of friction and round wires produce less friction than the rectangular wires. Beta TMA wires generate the highest amount of friction.

  5. Promising Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy for first wall ITER applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Abramov, V.; Rodin, M.

    1996-01-01

    Precipitation-hardened Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy, a promising material for ITER applications, is considered. Available commercial products, chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties are presented. Embrittlement of Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy at 250-300 C is observed. Mechanical properties of Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy neutron irradiated to a dose of ∝0.2 dpa at 293 C are investigated. Embrittlement of Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy can be avoided by annealing. (orig.)

  6. Radiation-induced sensitisation of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, D.I.R.

    1987-01-01

    The book contains the proceedings of a symposium on radiation-induced sensitization of stainless steels, which took place at Berkeley, United Kingdom, 1986. The purpose of the symposium was to examine the mechanism leading to inter-granular corrosion of 20%Cr/25% Ni/Nb stainless steel cladding of AGR fuel following irradiation. Nine papers are presented, of which three are theoretical, two papers are based upon corrosion studies of 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb steel, and the remaining are concerned with compositional redistribution and its measurement. (U.K.)

  7. The reactive element effect of yttrium and yttrium silicon on high temperature oxidation of NiCrAl coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramandhany, S.; Sugiarti, E.; Desiati, R. D.; Martides, E.; Junianto, E.; Prawara, B.; Sukarto, A.; Tjahjono, A.

    2018-03-01

    The microstructure formed on the bond coat affects the oxidation resistance, particularly the formation of a protective oxide layer. The adhesion of bond coat and TGO increased significantly by addition of reactive element. In the present work, the effect of yttrium and yttrium silicon as reactive element (RE) on NiCrAl coating was investigated. The NiCrAl (without RE) and NiCrAlX (X:Y or YSi) bond coating were deposited on Hastelloy C-276 substrate by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) method. Isothermal oxidation was carried out at 1000 °C for 100 hours. The results showed that the addition of RE could prevent the breakaway oxidation. Therefore, the coating with reactive element were more protective against high temperature oxidation. Furthermore, the oxidation rate of NiCrAlY coating was lower than NiCrAlYSi coating with the total mass change was ±2.394 mg/cm2 after 100 hours of oxidation. The thickness of oxide scale was approximately 1.18 μm consisting of duplex oxide scale of spinel NiCr2O4 in outer scale and protective α-Al2O3 in inner scale.

  8. Improved corrosion resistance of cast carbon steel in sulphur oxides by Alonizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzer, M.; Dzioba, Z.

    1992-01-01

    The results of studies on the Alonizing of cast steel and of testing the corrosion resistance of this cast steel in an atmosphere containing 5 to 6% SO 2 + 50% SO 3 at 853 K are described and compared with the results obtained with unalonized cast carbon steel and high-alloy 23Cr-8Ni-2Mo cast steel. The duration of the corrosion tests was 336 hours. The aluminium diffusion layer on cast carbon steel was obtained by holding the specimens in a mixture containing 99% of powered Fe-Al and 1% of NH 4 Cl at 1323 ± 20 K. The holding time was 10 and 20 hours, respectively. The aluminium layer formed on the cast carbon steel was examined by optical microscopy and an X-ray microanalysis. After Alonizing for 10 h the layer had reached a thickness of 950 μm, and contained up to 35% Al. In a mixture of sulphur oxides corrosion rate of the alonized cast carbon steel was by about 600 times lower than of the unalonized cast carbon steel, and by about 50 times lower than that of the 23Cr-8Ni-2Mo cast steel. (orig.) [de

  9. Retention and features of deuterium detrapping from radiation-induced damages in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstolutskaya, G.D.; Ruzhytskiy, V.V.; Karpov, S.A.; Kopanets, I.E.

    2009-01-01

    The accelerators and ion-beam analysis techniques are used for simulation of displacement damage and detailed investigation of distribution profiles of damage and impurity gas atoms (especially helium and hydrogen) in the irradiation of targets for a wide ranges of doses and particle energies. The influence of preimplanted helium and heavy ion-induced damage on deuterium trapping in austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels was studied. The results obtained for 18Cr10NiTi stainless steel show that ion-implanted deuterium is weakly trapped by defects produced in 5 keV D + displacement cascades. The effective trapping temperature interval is between 300 and 600 K. The characteristics of trapping and the temperature range of hydrogen isotopes retention in traps formed by prior implantation of helium depend on the concentration of implanted helium and on the type of defects developed. The formation of helium bubbles in 18Cr10NiTi steel causes an order of magnitude increase in the content of retained deuterium atoms in the range of temperature 300-600 K and extends the interval of effective trapping temperatures to 1000 K. Energetic heavy-ion irradiation (1.4 MeV Ar + ) has been used for modeling defect cluster formation under displacement cascade conditions to simulate fusion reactor environments. It was found that retention of hydrogen and deuterium strongly increased in this case. It is shown that the presence of a surface-passive film considerably shifts the gas release interval to higher temperatures and reduces the deuterium surface recombination coefficient by several orders of magnitude.

  10. Tribocorrosion behaviour of 08CH18N10T steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubecka, P.; Tvrdy, M.; Wenger, F.; Ponthiaux, P.

    2000-01-01

    Tribocorrosion of the 08CH18N10T austenitic stainless steel in a potassium sulphate solution was investigated with the help of pin-on-disk tribometer and polarisation curves method. The results indicate the occurrence of synergetic interactions between electrochemical and mechanical conditions: the damaging of the passive film by friction was pointed out, leading to an increase in the dissolution rate of the metal and simultaneously, the occurrence of electrochemical reactions (gas evolution, dissolution, passivation) was found to modify the tribological conditions (friction coefficient). (author)

  11. Structure and delayed failure behaviour of 0.25C-Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.H.; Maeng, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    Delayed failure behaviour of the different transformation structures of 0.25C-2.5Ni-2.5Cr-0.5Mo-0.1V low alloy steel has been studied. The studied microstructures are martensite, lower bainite, and mixed structure of 50% martensite and 50% lower bainite. All these structures have been tempered at 450 deg C for 40 min to have the same tensile strength level of 143 kg/mm 2 . Delayed failure testing has been carried out with cantilever bend tester, in distilled water at 25 deg C. By comparing K 1 sub(scc) values, lower bainitic structure has shown the highest value, although it is only slightly higher than that of the martensitic structure. Mixed structure has the lowest resistance to delayed failure. The fracture modes of both martensitic and mixed structures have been observed as intergranular. In the martensitic structure, however, it is noticeable that there is a larger amount of ductile tearing between intergranular facets. The fracture mode of lower bainitic structure is the mixed topography of microplastic tearing and microvoid coalescence. The above experimental results are discussed in terms of Oriani's decohesion theory of hydrogen embrittlement. The lowest resistance of the mixed structure to delayed failure may be due to the enhanced decohesion by hydrogen at the phase boundaries of martensite and lower bainite. (author)

  12. Effect of Alloy 625 Buffer Layer on Hardfacing of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Using Nickel Base Hardfacing Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Gopa; Das, C. R.; Albert, S. K.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Murugesan, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-04-01

    Dashpot piston, made up of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, is a part of diverse safety rod used for safe shutdown of a nuclear reactor. This component was hardfaced using nickel base AWS ER NiCr-B alloy and extensive cracking was experienced during direct deposition of this alloy on dashpot piston. Cracking reduced considerably and the component was successfully hardfaced by application of Inconel 625 as buffer layer prior to hardface deposition. Hence, a separate study was undertaken to investigate the role of buffer layer in reducing the cracking and on the microstructure of the hardfaced deposit. Results indicate that in the direct deposition of hardfacing alloy on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, both heat-affected zone (HAZ) formed and the deposit layer are hard making the thickness of the hard layer formed equal to combined thickness of both HAZ and deposit. This hard layer is unable to absorb thermal stresses resulting in the cracking of the deposit. By providing a buffer layer of Alloy 625 followed by a post-weld heat treatment, HAZ formed in the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is effectively tempered, and HAZ formed during the subsequent deposition of the hardfacing alloy over the Alloy 625 buffer layer is almost completely confined to Alloy 625, which does not harden. This reduces the cracking susceptibility of the deposit. Further, unlike in the case of direct deposition on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, dilution of the deposit by Ni-base buffer layer does not alter the hardness of the deposit and desired hardness on the deposit surface could be achieved even with lower thickness of the deposit. This gives an option for reducing the recommended thickness of the deposit, which can also reduce the risk of cracking.

  13. Effects of Ni and Mo on the microstructure and some other properties of Co-Cr dental alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matkovic, Tanja; Matkovic, Prosper; Malina, Jadranka

    2004-01-01

    Influences of adding Ni and Mo on the microstructure and properties of as-cast Co-Cr base alloys have been investigated in order to determine the region of their optimal characteristics for biomedical application. The alloys were produced by arc-melting technique under argon atmosphere. Using optical metallography and scanning electron micro analyser it has been established that among 10 samples of Co-Cr-Ni alloys only samples 5 and 9 with the composition Co 55 Cr 40 Ni 5 and Co 60 Cr 30 Ni 10 have appropriate dendritic solidification microstructure. This microstructure, typical for commercial dental alloys, appears and beside greater number of as-cast Co-Cr-Mo alloys. The results of hardness and corrosion resistance measurements revealed the strong influence of different alloy chemistry and of as-cast microstructure. Hardness of alloys decreases with nickel content, but increases with chromium content. Therefore all Co-Cr-Ni alloys have significantly lower hardness than Co-Cr-Mo alloys. Corrosion resistance of alloys in artificial saliva was evaluated on the base of pitting potential. Superior corrosion characteristics have the samples with typical dendritic microstructure and higher chromium content, until nickel content have not significant effect. According to this, in ternary Co-Cr-Ni phase diagram was located the small concentration region (about samples 5 and 9) in them alloy properties can satisfied the high requirements for biomedical applications. This region is considerably larger in Co-Cr-Mo phase diagram

  14. Crystallography of sigma phase precipitation in superaustenitic Fe-22Cr-21Ni-6Mo-0.3N stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Ho; Jung, Yun Chul; Kim, Sung Joon

    1999-01-01

    The crystallographic features of sigma phase precipitation in super austenitic Fe-22Cr-21Ni-6Mo-(0.3N) stainless steels during isothermal aging were investigated utilizing transmission electron microscopy. The sigma phase precipitated along the austenite grain boundaries even after solution treatment due to higher Mo contents and remained stable throughout aging at 900 .deg. C up to 168 hours. The sigma phase observed in this study was found to be ternary Fe-Cr-Mo sigma phase and had tetragonal structure with lattice parameters of a=9.17A and c=4.74A. The orientation relationships between the sigma phase and austenite were determined from the analyses of selected area diffraction patterns taken by various zone axes and stereo graphic analyses. The orientation relationships between sigma and austenite phases obtained in this study were as follows; 1) (110) γ ll (110) σ , [111] γ ll [001] σ and (112) γ ll (110) σ , [111] γ ll [001] σ and 2) (110) γ ll (110) σ , [112] γ ll [113] σ and (111) γ ll (332) σ , [112] γ ll [113] σ . However, the former orientation relationship was predominant throughout aging and the latter orientation relationship was scarcely observed in very limited aging condition

  15. Combating Wear of ASTM A36 Steel by Surface Modification Using Thermally Sprayed Cermet Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Shibe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal spray coatings can be applied economically on machine parts to enhance their requisite surface properties like wear, corrosion, erosion resistance, and so forth. Detonation gun (D-Gun thermal spray coatings can be applied on the surface of carbon steels to improve their wear resistance. In the present study, alloy powder cermet coatings WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr have been deposited on ASTM A36 steel with D-Gun thermal spray technique. Sliding wear behavior of uncoated ASTM A36 steel and D-Gun sprayed WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr coatings on base material is observed on a Pin-On-Disc Wear Tester. Sliding wear performance of WC-12% Co coating is found to be better than the Cr3C2-25% NiCr coating. Wear performance of both these cermet coatings is found to be better than uncoated ASTM A36 steel. Thermally sprayed WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr cermet coatings using D-Gun thermal spray technique is found to be very useful in improving the sliding wear resistance of ASTM A36 steel.

  16. Microstructures Evolution and Micromechanics Features of Ni-Cr-Si Coatings Deposited on Copper by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilei Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Three Ni-Cr-Si coatings were synthesized on the surface of copper by laser cladding. The microstructures of the coatings were characterized by optical microscopy (OM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. According to the analysis results of phase compositions, Gibbs free energy change and microstructures, the phases of three coatings appeared were Cr3Si+γ-Ni+Cuss (Coating 1, Ni-26Cr-29Si, Cr6Ni16Si7+Ni2Si+Cuss (Coating 2, Ni-10Cr-30Si and Cr3Ni5Si2+Cr2Ni3+Cuss (Coating 3, Ni-29Cr-16Si. The crystal growth in the solidification process was analyzed with a modified model, which is a combination of Kurz-Giovanola-Trivedi (KGT and Lipton-Kurz-Trivedi (LKT models. The dendrite tip undercooling in Coating 2 was higher than those of Coating 1 and Coating 3. Well-developed dendrites were found in Coating 2. A modification of Hunt’s model was adopted to describe the morphological differences in the three coatings. The results show that Coating 1 was in the equiaxed dendrite region, while Coatings 2 and 3 were in the columnar dendrite region. The average friction coefficients of the three coatings were 0.45, 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. Obvious plastic deformation could be found in the subsurface zone of Coatings 2 and 3.

  17. Optimum alloy compositions in reduced-activation martensitic 9Cr steels for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Noda, T.; Okada, M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain potential reduced-activation ferritic steels suitable for fusion reactor structures, the effect of alloying elements W and V on the microstructural evolution, toughness, high-temperature creep and irradiation hardening behavior was investigated for simple 9Cr-W and 9Cr-V steels. The creep strength of the 9Cr-W steels increased but their toughness decreased with increasing W concentration. The 9Cr-V steels exhibited poor creep rupture strength, far below that of a conventional 9Cr-1MoVNb steel and poor toughness after aging at 873 K. It was also found that the Δ-ferrite should be avoided, because it degraded both the roughness and high-temperature creep strength. Based on the results on the simple steels, optimized martensitic 9Cr steels were alloy-designed from a standpoint of enough thoughness and high-temperature creep strength. Two kinds of optimized 9Cr steels with low and high levels of W were obtained; 9Cr-1WVTa and 9Cr-3WVTa. These steels indeed exhibited excellent toughness and creep strength, respectively. The 9Cr-1WVTa steel exhibiting an excellent roughness was shown to be the most promising for relatively low-temperature application below 500deg C, where irradiation embrittlement is significant. The 9Cr-3WVTa steel was the most promising for high temperature application above 500deg C from the standpoint of enough high-temperature strength. (orig.)

  18. Microstructural evolution at the overlap zones of 12Cr martensitic stainless steel laser alloyed with TiC

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebiyi, DI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available are not obtainable in the single tracks. X12CrNiMo steel has been laser alloyed with TiC using a 4.4 kW continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser. The process parameters were first optimised after which they were kept constant for overlap ratios of 50% and 75%. The depths...

  19. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Bare, Cr3C2-(NiCr) and Cr3C2-(NiCr) + 0.2wt.%Zr Coated SuperNi 718 at 900 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, Deepa; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion in incinerators, power plants, and chemical industries are frequently encountered due to the presence of salts containing sodium, sulphur, and chlorine. To obviate this problem, bare and coated alloys were tested under environments simulating the conditions present inside incinerators and power plants. 0.2 wt.% zirconium powder was incorporated in the Cr3C2-(NiCr) coating powder. The original powder and Zr containing powder was sprayed on Superni 718 alloy by D-gun technique. The bare and coated alloys were tested under Na2SO4 + K2SO4 + NaCl + KCl and Na2SO4 + NaCl environment. The corrosion rate of specimens was monitored using weight change measurements. Characterization of the corrosion products has been done using FE-SEM/EDS and XRD techniques. Bare and coated alloys showed very good corrosion resistance under given molten salt environments. Addition of 0.2wt.%Zr in Cr3C2-25%(NiCr) coating further greatly reduced the oxidation rate as well as improved the adherence of oxide scale to the coating surface during the time of corrosion.

  20. Erosion behaviour of hydro turbine steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    creases grain size hardening (Ikegami and Nemoto 1996). Nitrogen solubility ... 116. Table 1. Chemical composition of 13/4 martensitic and 21–4–N nitronic steel (wt %). Steel. C. Si Mn. Cr. Ni. N. S ..... In Fe–Cr–Ni alloys, Schramm and Reed ...

  1. Experiences with new and improved oil quenched CrMoV rotor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewald, J.; Keienburg, K.H.; Wiemann, W.; Sauer, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The improvement gained with 1% CrMoNiV rotors of modern manufacturing processes are described. It was possible to raise the creep strength as well as the toughness level. The aim of this paper is to present representative data from older 1% CrMoNiV rotors and to compare them with test results from rotors of modern steel making technology and with improved chemical composition. The results prove, that the todays oil quenched version of the 1% CrMoNiV rotor material represents a good compromise with respect to creep rupture and (fracture) toughness behaviour. In addition the 1% CrMoNiV-steels have a stable microstructure which implements minor changes of properties during long term service

  2. Mechanical characteristics of heterogeneous structures obtained by high-temperature brazing of corrosion-resistant steels with rapidly quenched non-boron nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, B.; Penyaz, M.; Ivannikov, A.; Sevryukov, O.; Bachurina, D.; Fedotov, I.; Voennov, A.; Abramov, E.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing nickel filler metals for high temperature brazing corrosion resistance steels different classes is perspective. The use of these alloys leads to the formation of a complex heterogeneous structure in the diffusion zone that contains separations of intermediate phases such as silicides and borides. This structure negatively affects the strength characteristics of the joint, especially under dynamic loads and in corrosive environment. The use of non-boron filler metals based on the Ni-Si-Be system is proposed to eliminate this structure in the brazed seam. Widely used austenitic 12Cr18Ni10Ti and ferrite-martensitic 16Cr12MoSiWNiVNb reactor steels were selected for research and brazing was carried out. The mechanical characteristics of brazed joints were determined using uniaxial tensile and impact toughness tests, and fractography was investigated by electron microscopy.

  3. Corrosion aspects of Ni-Cr-Fe based and Ni-Cu based steam generator tube materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews corrosion related issues of Ni-Cr-Fe based (in a general sense) and Ni-Cu based steam generator tube materials for nuclear power plants those have been dealt with for last more than four decades along with some updated information on corrosion research. The materials include austenitic stainless steels (SSs), Alloy 600, Monel 400, Alloy 800 and Alloy 690. Compatibility related issues of these alloys are briefly discussed along with the alloy chemistry and microstructure. For austenitic SSs, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour in high temperature aqueous environments is discussed. For Alloy 600, intergranular cracking in high temperature water including hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking is highlighted along with the interactions of material in various environments. In case of Monel 400, intergranular corrosion and pitting corrosion at ambient temperature and SCC behaviour at elevated temperature are briefly described. For Alloy 800, the discussion covers SCC behaviour, surface characterization and microstructural aspects of pitting, whereas hydrogen-related issues are also highlighted for Alloy 690.

  4. The effect of alloying and treatment on martensite transformation during deformation in Fe-Cr-Mn steels with unstable austenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinov, L.S.; Konop, V.I.; Sokolov, K.N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect is studied of alloying with chromium (6-10%), silicon (1-2%), molybdenum (1-3%), and copper (2%), the heat treatment conditions, and the deformation conditions, or the martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of Fe-Cr-Mn steels of the transitional class based on 0G8AM2S. It is shown that appropriate alloying and treatment, taking into account the degree of stability of the austenite, can ensure a complex of high mechanical properties of the steels investigated. For instance, the treatment of steel 0Kh10AG8MD2S by the technique: hardening+ 40% deformation at 400 deg C + 10% deformation at room temperature has yielded the following mechanical properties: sigmasub(B)=150 kgf/mm 2 , sigmasub(T)=110 kgf/mm 2 , sigma=18%, psi=32%

  5. Microstructure refinement and strengthening mechanisms of a 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel by zirconium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hai Jian; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Dong Mei; Liu, Chunming

    2017-01-01

    To study the effects of zirconium (Zr) addition on the microstructure, hardness and the tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels, two kinds of 9Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%) of Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Y_2O-3 and Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Zr-0.3Y_2O_3 were fabricated by the mechanical alloying (MA) of premixed powders and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. The experimental results showed that the average grain size decreases with Zr addition. The trigonal δ-phase Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 oxides and body-centered cubic Y_2O_3 oxides are formed in the 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel and 9Cr non-Zr ODS steel, respectively, and the average size of Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 particles is much smaller than that of Y_2O_3. The dispersion morphology of the oxide particles in 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel is significantly improved and the number density is 1.1 x 10"2"3/m"3 with Zr addition. The 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel shows much higher tensile ductility, ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time

  6. Heat Treatment of Cr- and Cr-V ledeburitic tool steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jurči

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cr- and Cr-V ledeburitic cold work tool steels belong to the most important tool materials for large series manufacturing. To enable high production stability, the tools must be heat treated before use. This overview paper brings a comprehensive study on the heat treatment of these materials, starting from the soft annealing and finishing with the tempering. Also, it describes the impact of any step of the heat treatment on the most important structural and mechanical characteristics, like the hardness, the toughness and the wear resistance. The widely used AIS D2- steel (conventionally manufactured and Vanadis 6 (PM are used as examples in most cases.

  7. Effects of lipopolysaccharides on the corrosion behavior of Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiqiang; Qian, Chao; Weng, Weimin; Zhang, Songmei

    2016-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are constituents of gingival crevicular fluid and may affect the base metal alloys used in metal ceramic crowns. The role of LPS in base metal alloys is currently unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of gram-negative bacterial LPS on the electrochemical behavior of Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys. Alloy specimens were divided into 4 groups according to Escherichia coli LPS concentration (0, 0.15, 15, and 150 μg/mL) in acidic saliva (pH 5). Open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization behavior were examined using a computer-controlled potentiostat. Metal ions released from the 2 alloys were measured by immersion in LPS-free solution and 150 μg/mL LPS solution and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Data were evaluated using 1-way ANOVA (α=.05). Compared with control groups, medium LPS concentration (15 μg/mL) accelerated Ni-Cr alloy corrosion (Palloy corrosion (Pcorrosion current density, and polarization resistance parameters. After immersion in high LPS concentrations (150 μg/mL), a slight increase in Ni ion release (P >.05) was observed for the Ni-Cr alloy, while a more significant Co ion release (Palloy. LPS negatively affected the electrochemical behavior of both the Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of local microplastic strains on stress corrosion of 08Kh18N10T steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Efimov, A.A.; Sherman, Ya.I.; Fedorova, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    Study on specific features of microhomogeneous strain in the process of plastic strain development and their role in stress corrosion of 08Kh18N10T steel sheet specimens subject to preliminary strain by 1, 3, 6, 16 and 23% and subsequent tests of stress corrosion in magnesium chloride solution at 150 deg C 140 MPa has been carried out. Analysis of test results has shown that microplastic strain is distributed over a specimen nonuniformly and is accompanied with the slip bands formation which are sources of corrosion crack origination and development. 08Kh18N10T steel manifests the highest trend to stress corrosion under 1% microplastic strain

  9. Effect of electric-spark alloying and subsequent annealing on the thermal stability of metallic structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, S.F.; Reshetnikov, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of annealing on resistive properties of electric-spark coatings on the carbon steels is studied. The steels 10 and 20 samples with electric spark coatings of various compositions and control ones without annealing and coating are chosen for the study. The steels cr27 and 12cr18ni10ti, the nichrome (cr20ni80) alloy, aluminium as well as compositions of these materials: aluminium + cr27 and aluminium + nichrome were used as coating materials. It is shown that aluminium coatings increase the steel 10 heat resistance more them by 4 times, the aluminium + nichrome coatings - more than by 6 times and aluminium + cr27 coatings - more than by 6 times. In contrast to the electric-spark coating of the carbon steel surface by chromium-nickel alloys, the composition aluminium-containing coatings with annealing in vacuum provide for reliability of long-term protection of these steels from air oxidation with the temperature above the aluminium melting [ru

  10. Recrystallization and modification of the stainless-steel surface relief under photonic heat load in powerful plasma discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaev, V. P., E-mail: budaev@mail.ru; Martynenko, Yu. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Khimchenko, L. N. [Project Center ITER (Russian Federation); Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Klimov, N. S. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Pitts, R. A. [ITER Organization (France); Linke, J. [EURATOM Association, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Bazylev, B. [IHM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Belova, N. E.; Karpov, A. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, D. V.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Yaroshevskaya, A. D. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    Targets made of ITER-grade 316L(N)-IG stainless steel and Russian-grade 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel with a close composition were exposed at the QSPA-T plasma gun to plasma photonic radiation pulses simulating conditions of disruption mitigation in ITER. After a large number of pulses, modification of the stainless-steel surface was observed, such as the formation of a wavy structure, irregular roughness, and cracks on the target surface. X-ray and optic microscopic analyses of targets revealed changes in the orientation and dimensions of crystallites (grains) over a depth of up to 20 μm for 316L(N)-IG stainless steel after 200 pulses and up to 40 μm for 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel after 50 pulses, which is significantly larger than the depth of the layer melted in one pulse (∼10 μm). In a series of 200 tests of ITER-grade 316L(N)-IG ITER stainless steel, a linear increase in the height of irregularity (roughness) with increasing number of pulses at a rate of up to ∼1 μm per pulse was observed. No alteration in the chemical composition of the stainless-steel surface in the series of tests was revealed. A model is developed that describes the formation of wavy irregularities on the melted metal surface with allowance for the nonlinear stage of instability of the melted layer with a vapor/plasma flow above it. A decisive factor in this case is the viscous flow of the melted metal from the troughs to tops of the wavy structure. The model predicts saturation of the growth of the wavy structure when its amplitude becomes comparable with its wavelength. Approaches to describing the observed stochastic relief and roughness of the stainless-steel surface formed in the series of tests are considered. The recurrence of the melting-solidification process in which mechanisms of the hill growth compete with the spreading of the material from the hills can result in the formation of a stochastic relief.

  11. Activation behaviour of ZrCrNi mechanically milled with nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, C. B.; Ho Kim, J.; Sub Lee, K.

    1998-01-01

    AB 2 type Laves phase alloys have some promising properties as a negative electrode in rechargeable Ni/MH batteries because of high electrochemical capacity and good cyclic life. However, they have the disadvantage of requiring many charge-discharge cycles for activation. In this study, the mechanical milling with nickel has been introduced to modify the electrochemical behaviour of the ZrCrNi alloy. A composite-like structure (ZrCrNi+nickel) and nanocrystalline ZrCrNi were obtained through the mechanical milling and the hydrogenation behaviour of the electrode was greatly improved. (orig.)

  12. Surface modification of AISI H13 tool steel by laser cladding with NiTi powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhafzan, B.; Aqida, S. N.; Chikarakara, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents laser cladding of NiTi powder on AISI H13 tool steel surface for surface properties enhancement. The cladding process was conducted using Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 laser system with wavelength of 10.6 µm. NiTi powder was pre-placed on H13 tool steel surface. The laser beam was focused with a spot size of 90 µm on the sample surface. Laser parameters were set to 1515 and 1138 W peak power, 18 and 24 % duty cycle and 2300-3500 Hz laser pulse repetition frequency. Hardness properties of the modified layer were characterized by Wilson Hardness tester. Metallographic study and chemical composition were conducted using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDXS) analysis. Results showed that hardness of NiTi clad layer increased three times that of the substrate material. The EDXS analysis detected NiTi phase presence in the modified layer up to 9.8 wt%. The metallographic study shows high metallurgical bonding between substrate and modified layer. These findings are significant to both increased hardness and erosion resistance of high-wear-resistant components and elongating their lifetime.

  13. Mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B bulk glassy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Ahn; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Jung Han; Lee, Chong Soo; Namkung, Jung; Kim, Moon Chul

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of new Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based bulk glassy alloys were investigated. The suitability of the continuous roll casting method for the production of bulk metallic glass (BMG) sheets in such alloy systems was also examined. BMG samples (Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-W-Si-B) in amorphous strip, cylindrical, and sheet forms were prepared through melt spinning, copper mold casting, and twin roll strip casting, respectively. Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B alloy exhibited compressive strength of up to 2.93 GPa and plastic strain of about 1.51%. On the other hand, the Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, composite-type bulk sample with diameter of 2.0 mm showed remarkable compressive plastic strain of about 4.03%. The addition of zirconium was found to enhance the homogeneous precipitation of nanocrystalline less than 7 nm and to develop a hybrid-composite microstructure with increasing sample thickness. Twin roll strip casting was successfully applied to the fabrication of sheets in Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based BMGs. The combined characteristics of high mechanical properties and ease of microstructure control proved to be promising in terms of the future progress of structural bulk amorphous alloys

  14. Mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B bulk glassy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Ahn [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: keeahn@andong.ac.kr; Kim, Yong Chan [New Metals Research Team, RIST, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Han [Center for Advanced Aerospace materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chong Soo [Center for Advanced Aerospace materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, Jung [New Metals Research Team, RIST, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon Chul [New Metals Research Team, RIST, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-25

    The mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of new Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based bulk glassy alloys were investigated. The suitability of the continuous roll casting method for the production of bulk metallic glass (BMG) sheets in such alloy systems was also examined. BMG samples (Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-W-Si-B) in amorphous strip, cylindrical, and sheet forms were prepared through melt spinning, copper mold casting, and twin roll strip casting, respectively. Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B alloy exhibited compressive strength of up to 2.93 GPa and plastic strain of about 1.51%. On the other hand, the Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, composite-type bulk sample with diameter of 2.0 mm showed remarkable compressive plastic strain of about 4.03%. The addition of zirconium was found to enhance the homogeneous precipitation of nanocrystalline less than 7 nm and to develop a hybrid-composite microstructure with increasing sample thickness. Twin roll strip casting was successfully applied to the fabrication of sheets in Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based BMGs. The combined characteristics of high mechanical properties and ease of microstructure control proved to be promising in terms of the future progress of structural bulk amorphous alloys.

  15. Modelling Cr depletion under a growing Cr2O3 layer on austenitic stainless steel: the influence of grain boundary diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Anette Nørgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2009-01-01

    according to a parabolic rate law as a consequence of rate limiting diffusion of Cr cations through the oxide layer; the retraction of the oxide/alloy interface associated with the removal of Cr atoms from the substrate is included in the calculations. Numerically, the movement of the oxide/alloy interface......The oxidation behaviour of austenitic stainless steels in the temperature range 723–1173K is strongly influenced by the grain size of the oxidizing alloy. In this work the evolution of the concentration profiles of Cr, Ni and Fe in the substrate below a growing Cr2O3 layer is simulated...... with a Fisher-type numerical model, which takes both volume and grain boundary diffusion into consideration. The model is based on a two-dimensional control volume-based solution of Fick’s 2nd law for multicomponent diffusion and includes crossterm diffusion coefficients. The oxide layer is assumed to grow...

  16. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan; cooking times of 2 to 20 hours, ten consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After six hours of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34 fold and Cr increased approximately 35 fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, though significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle, resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage. PMID:23984718

  17. Use of acoustic emission technique to study the spalling behaviour of oxide scales on Ni-10Cr-8Al containing sulphur and/or yttrium impurity