WorldWideScience

Sample records for steel wire fabrics

  1. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described

  2. Investigation of the fabrication process of hot-worked stainless-steel and Mo sheathed PbMo6 S8 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, H.; Kimura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Stainless-steel and Mo sheathed PbMo 6 S 8 wires have been fabricated by hot working from modified PbS, Mo, and MoS 2 mixed powders which were prepared by reacting Pb, Mo, and S at 530 0 C. Critical current densities were investigated for different preparation conditions, and it is revealed that obtaining continuous current path between PbMo 6 S 8 grains is the most important factor to achieve high critical current density. The J/sub c/ value of 2.8 x 10 4 Acm 2 (8 T), 7.8 x 10 3 Acm 2 (15 T), and 1.3 x 10 3 Acm 2 (23 T) was observed for the PbMo 6 S/sub 7.0/ wire heat treated at 700 0 C.copic

  3. Welding wires for high-tensile steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laz'ko, V.E.; Starova, L.L.; Koval'chuk, V.G.; Maksimovich, T.L.; Labzina, I.E.; Yadrov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Strength of welded joints in arc welding of high-tensile steels of mean and high thickness by welding wires is equal to approximately 1300 MPa in thermohardened state and approximately 600 MPa without heat treatment. Sv-15Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EhK44-VI) -Sv-30Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EkK47-VI) welding wires are suggested for welding of medium-carbon alloyed steels. These wires provide monotonous growth of ultimate strength of weld metal in 1250-1900 MPa range with increase of C content in heat-treated state

  4. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading

  5. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...

  6. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30, 7217.20... galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of the Act (19 U.S...

  7. Corrosion fatigue behaviors of steel wires used in coalmine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Songquan; Zhang, Dekun; Chen, Kai; Xu, Linmin; Ge, Shirong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The CF life of steel wire in acid solution is the shortest. • The fatigue source zone showed dimple morphology when coupled with anode potential. • The area of dimple increases with the increase of the applied anode potential. • The strong cathode potential cannot reduce the CF life of the smooth steel wire. • The hydrogen impacted mainly on the plastic deformation of the wire surface. - Abstract: The corrosion fatigue (CF) behaviors of the mining steel wire in different solutions at different applied polarization potentials were investigated in this paper. The surfaces and fracture morphologies of the steel wire at different applied potentials were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the CF life of steel wire in acid solution is the shortest. Moreover, the strong anodic polarization potential greatly reduced the CF life of steel wire, while the strong cathode potential did not reduce the CF life. For the smooth steel wire, the hydrogen impacted mainly on the plastic deformation of the wire surface. There was obvious dimple in the fatigue source zone of the wire when coupled with anode potential, and the area of the dimple increased with the increase of the applied anode potential. Conversely, the fatigue source zone of the fracture was relatively smooth at cathode polarization potential, which indicated that the crack propagation followed the mechanism of hydrogen induced cracking

  8. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment... Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The Commission instituted these...

  9. Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates for Nano wires Array Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok, K.Y.; Ng, I.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the process developed to fabricate anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) templates suitable for the fabrication of nano wire arrays. Anodization process has been used to fabricate the AAO templates with pore diameters ranging from 15 nm to 30 nm. Electrodeposition of parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were demonstrated using these fabricated AAO templates. The nano wires produced were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the orientations of the electrodeposited nickel nano wires were governed by the deposition current and electrolyte conditions. (author)

  10. 76 FR 19382 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-479 and 731-TA-1183-1184 (Preliminary)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of [[Page 19383

  11. Nanostructure and mechanical properties of heavily cold-drawn steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.S.; Bae, J.G.; Park, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of microstructure on the mechanical properties of the high-carbon steel wires were investigated. The wires were fabricated with carbon content of 0.82 and 1.02 wt.% and drawing strain from 4.12 to 4.32. The bending fatigue resistance and torsion ductility were measured by a Hunter fatigue tester and a torsion tester specially designed for fine wires. As the carbon content and drawing strain increased, the fatigue resistance and the torsional ductility of the steel wires decreased, and the tensile strength increased. To elucidate the causes of these behaviors, the microstructure in terms of lamellar spacing (λ P ), cementite thickness (t C ) and morphology of cementite was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 3-dimensional atom probe (3-DAP).

  12. Development of cutting techniques of steel pipe by wire sawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Yoshinori; Inai, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    A cutting method has a high cutting efficiency and enable cutting in safe. A wire saw cutting method is used for dismantling of massive concrete structures such as nuclear power plants with an effective and safe mean. In the case of dismantling of structures with multiple pipes installed at these facilities, an effective method is also demanded. If a wire saw method to remotely cut target objects in a large block in bulk is applicable, it will be expected an effective dismantling work under severe conditions with radioactivity. Although the wire saw method has adaptability for any shapes of cutting target objects and is widely adopted in dismantling of concrete constructs, it has few actual achievements in dismantling of steel structures such as steel pipe bundle. This study aims to verify its cutting characteristics and adaptability as a cutting method by conducting a cutting basic test to develop a diamond wire saw method to efficiently cut constructs with multiple pipes in a bundle. The test proved that a wire saw cutting method apply to dismantle structures with steel pipe bundle. A wire saw for metal cutting is adaptable in dismantling of bundle of thick carbon steel and stainless steel pipes. And also a wire saw for concrete cutting is adaptable in dismantling of pipe bundle structure with a mortar. (author)

  13. Stainless steel fabrications: past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper deals with stainless steel fabrications of Fairey Engineering Company for the nuclear industry. The manufacture of stainless steel containers for Magnox and Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors, flexible fabrication facility, and welding development, are all briefly described. (U.K.)

  14. Revealing microstructural and mechanical characteristics of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires undergoing simulated galvanization treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Feng, E-mail: fangfeng@seu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Hu Xianjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Jiangsu Sha-Steel Group, Zhangjiagang City, Jiangsu Province 215625 (China); Chen Shaohui [Jiangsu Sha-Steel Group, Zhangjiagang City, Jiangsu Province 215625 (China); Xie Zonghan [School of Engineering, Edith Cowen University, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Jiang Jianqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing time on microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-drawn steel wires were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exothermic peak in cold-drawn wire was resulting from the spheroidization of lamellar cementite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spheroidization of lamellar cementite is the main effect for torsion property of wires after annealing. - Abstract: Spheroidization of lamellar cementite often occurs in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires during galvanizing treatment, leading to the degradation of mechanical properties. Therefore, it is important to understand effects of galvanization process on microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-drawn wires. In this paper, cold-drawn steel wires were fabricated by cold drawing pearlitic steel rods from 13 mm to 6.9 mm in diameter. Thermal annealing at 450 Degree-Sign C was used to simulate galvanizing treatment of steel wires. Tensile strength, elongation and torsion laps of steel rods and wires with, and without, annealing treatment were determined. Microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to probe the spheroidization temperature of cementite. Experimental results showed that tensile strength of wires increased from 1780 MPa to 1940 MPa for annealing <5 min, and then decreased. Tensile strength became constant for annealing >10 min. Elongation of wires decreased for annealing <2.5 min, and then recovered slightly. It approached a constant value for annealing >5 min. Tensile strength and elongation of wires were both influenced by the strain age hardening and static recovery processes. Notably, torsion laps of wires hardly changed when annealing time was less than 2.5 min, and then decreased rapidly. Its value became constant when the hold time is greater than 10 min. Lamellar cementite began to spheroidize at annealing >2.5 min

  15. 75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of prestressed concrete steel... in prestressed concrete (both pre-tensioned and post- tensioned) applications. The product definition..., producers, or exporters in China of prestressed concrete steel wire strand, and that such products are being...

  16. 77 FR 17418 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-976] Galvanized Steel Wire From... exporters of galvanized steel wire (galvanized wire) from the People's Republic of China (the PRC). For... three parties withdrew their requests for a hearing. \\1\\ See Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's...

  17. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.370 RUS specification for seven wire galvanized... Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All seven wire galvanized steel strand purchased after April 1, 1990...

  18. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF PLASTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WIRE OF STEEL 70 AT HIGH-SPEED WIRE DRAWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Bobarikin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The carried out numerical experiments subject to initial and boundary conditions indicate that mathematical model of elastic-plastic characteristics of steel 90 can be used for numerical calculations of wire drawing routes for this grade of steel.

  19. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Niwa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization. (paper)

  20. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Niwa, Masaaki

    2014-12-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization.

  1. Fabrication and physical properties of permalloy nano-size wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Lee, S.F.; Yao, Y.D.; Wong, M.S.; Huang, E.W.; Ma, Y.-R.; Tsai, J.L.; Chang, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Nano-size NiFe wires with patterned shapes in half-ring-in-series, octagon-in-series, and zigzag-in-series configurations were fabricated. Their magnetoresistance was studied below room temperature and their magnetic domain images were investigated at room temperature by a magnetic force microscope. In general, we have experimentally demonstrated that the variation of the magnetoresistance of our patterned nano-size wires can be related to different domain configurations and explained by the domain switching effect. The number of magnetic domain walls in our patterned wires can be controlled by the shape anisotropy and the size of each section of patterns that form the wires

  2. Effect of surface treatment on mechanical properties of glass fiber/stainless steel wire mesh reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N, Karunagaran [S.K.P Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai (India); A, Rajadurai [Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-06-15

    This paper investigates the effect of surface treatment for glass fiber, stainless steel wire mesh on tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact properties of glass fiber/stainless steel wire mesh reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. The glass fiber fabric is surface treated either by 1 N solution of sulfuric acid or 1 N solution of sodium hydroxide. The stainless steel wire mesh is also surface treated by either electro dissolution or sand blasting. The hybrid composites are fabricated using epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber and fine stainless steel wire mesh by hand lay-up technique at room temperature. The hybrid composite consisting of acid treated glass fiber and sand blasted stainless steel wire mesh exhibits a good combination of tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact behavior in comparison with the composites made without any surface treatment. The fine morphological modifications made on the surface of the glass fiber and stainless steel wire mesh enhances the bonding between the resin and reinforcement which inturn improved the tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact properties.

  3. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-990] Prestressed Concrete Steel... (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel that...

  4. Resistance microwelding of 316L stainless steel wire to block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Kasper Storgaard; Khan, M.I.; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The excellent corrosion resistance of low carbon vacuum melted 316 stainless steel coupled with its non-magnetic properties makes it ideal for biomedical applications. The typical joint geometry for microcomponents, such as medical implants, includes joining of fine wire to a larger block. However......, this type of joint has received little attention in the current literature. The present study was conducted to examine the microstructure and mechanical properties of low carbon vacuum melted 316 stainless steel wire welded to a larger block. Results revealed solid state bonding occurring at low currents......, while fusion bonding occurred at higher currents. This was due to the highly asymmetrical heat generation resulting in almost complete melting of the wire before the initiation of interfacial melting. This is a distinctly different bonding mechanism compared to previous studies on crossed wire joints....

  5. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change...... in the structure and crystallography when a randomly oriented cementite structure in a patented wire during wire drawing is transformed into a lamellar structure parallel to the drawing axis. Changes in the interlamellar spacing and in the misorientation angle along and across the ferrite lamellae show significant...... through-diameter variations in wires drawn to large strains P 1.5. The structural evolution is hierarchical as the structural variations have their cause in a different macroscopic orientation of the cementite in the initial (patented) structure with respect to the wire axis. The through...

  6. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change...... in the structure and crystallography when a randomly oriented cementite structure in a patented wire during wire drawing is transformed into a lamellar structure parallel to the drawing axis. Changes in the interlamellar spacing and in the misorientation angle along and across the ferrite lamellae show significant...... through-diameter variations in wires drawn to large strains ⩾ 1.5. The structural evolution is hierarchical as the structural variations have their cause in a different macroscopic orientation of the cementite in the initial (patented) structure with respect to the wire axis. The through...

  7. 75 FR 32747 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION [A-201-831] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand...

  8. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu; Liu Wei; Liu Qing

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110} α or {112} α slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  9. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron...... microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates...... decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110...

  10. Investigation of method for Stainless Steel Welding Wire as a Replacement for Arc Wire Comsumables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiprasert, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc spraying as a coating method is being employed in various industrial applications as a part of maintenance service, and also as a surface engineering technique for many machine parts and components. The major cost in producing the arc spray coating is, however, based on the cost of the arc wire comsumables. This project was carried out to investigate the use of the commercially-available gas metal arc welding wire (GMAW wire as a cheaper alternative to the special-purpose arc wire comsumables. The wire material chosen for this early study is the 316L stainless steel, due to its popularity in many applications as a built-up coating for worn parts. The physical properties of the coatings produced from the two sets of 316L stainless steel wire were determined to be different in the percentage of porosity and the oxide content. The mechanical properties, including the tensile bond strength and the wear rate of the coatings produced from the two types of sprayed wire, were also different. This will, in turn, result in a slight difference in the performance of thecoatings.

  11. 76 FR 55031 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-976] Galvanized Steel Wire From... galvanized steel wire (galvanized wire) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). For information on the..., filed in proper form, concerning imports of galvanized wire from the PRC.\\1\\ The Department initiated a...

  12. 76 FR 73589 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-975] Galvanized Steel Wire From... galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ We are amending our Preliminary... Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination: Galvanized Steel Wire from the People's Republic of...

  13. 76 FR 33242 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-976] Galvanized Steel Wire From... the countervailing duty investigation of galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of China. See Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

  14. Wire electric-discharge machining and other fabrication techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Wire electric discharge machining and extrude honing were used to fabricate a two dimensional wing for cryogenic wind tunnel testing. Electric-discharge cutting is done with a moving wire electrode. The cut track is controlled by means of a punched-tape program and the cutting feed is regulated according to the progress of the work. Electric-discharge machining involves no contact with the work piece, and no mechanical force is exerted. Extrude hone is a process for honing finish-machined surfaces by the extrusion of an abrasive material (silly putty), which is forced through a restrictive fixture. The fabrication steps are described and production times are given.

  15. Role of steel wire ropes in mine safety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peake, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Today there are an estimated 2 300 steel wire ropes installed in roughly 200 underground mines in South Africa. These mines employ more than 280 000 workers underground and hoist several millions of tonnes of rock to the surface every month...

  16. Static friction of stainless steel wire rope–rubber contacts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, A.J.; Krijger, T.; Mugge, W.; Breedveld, P.; Dodou, D.; Dankelman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about static friction of stainless-steel wire ropes ('cables') in contact with soft rubbers, an interface of potential importance for rigidifiable medical instruments. Although friction theories imply that the size and profile of the cables affect static friction, there are no

  17. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigation, the... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan, provided for in subheading 7326.20...

  18. 76 FR 21914 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-479 and 731-TA-1183-1184 (Preliminary)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject antidumping and countervailing duty investigations. DATES: Effective Date...

  19. 75 FR 8113 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-464 and 731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject investigations. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  20. Development of austenitic stainless steel PC wire and strand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubono, Hideyoshi; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Yamaoka, Yukio

    1986-01-01

    The effects of aging and stress-aging (called hot stretching) at the temperatures from 120 deg C to 700 deg C on the mechanical properties, relaxation values, Charpy impact values and SCC behavior of hard drawn SUS 304, SUS 316 stainless steel wires have been studied. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) Yield and tensile strength of the wires increased by aging at 230 deg C and 530 deg C as well as by hot stretching. The strengthening after 230 deg C treatment may be due to the strain aging by C and the increase of strength after 530 deg C treatment results from precipitation of Cr 23 C 6 on dislocations. (2) Stress relaxation values up to 250 deg C are low due to precipitation of Cr 23 C 6 . Almost no difference can be observed between aging and hot stretching. (3) Impact value at -196 deg C of SUS 304 stainless steel wire which was measured with 1 mm V-notched specimen was found to be about the same as that of 9 % Ni steel. (4) It is considered that in comparison with high carbon PC wire SUS 304 stainless steel showing high tensile strength is insensitive to SCC in NH 4 SCN and NH 4 NO 3 solutions. (5) In practice, tension member of the austenitic stainless steel wire and strand which were produced by aging at 500 deg C may be useful in special industrial field, for example, (a) SUS 304, in cryogenic field use (b) SUS 316, in intensive magnetic field use as a nonmagnetic material. (author)

  1. Low temperature annealing of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are nanostructured and the flow stress at room temperature can reach values above 6 GPa. A typical characteristic of the nanostructured metals, is the low ductility and thermal stability. In order to optimize both the processing and application of the wires......, the thermal behaviour is of interest. This has been studied by annealing the wires for 1h at temperatures from ambient temperature to 300 ℃ (573 K). It is expected that a raising temperature may lead to structural changes and a reduction in strength. The change in strength is however not expected to be large....... For this reason we have applied a very precise technique to measure the tensile properties of the wires from a strain of 10-4 to the maximum strain of about 1-2%. The structural changes have also been followed to estimate and relate strength changes to changes in structural parameters and morphology....

  2. Fabrication details for wire wrapped fuel assembly components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosy, B.J.

    1978-09-01

    Extensive hydraulic testing of simulated LMFBR blanket and fuel assemblies is being carried out under this MIT program. The fabrication of these test assemblies has involved development of manufacturing procedures involving the wire wrapped pins and the flow housing. The procedures are described in detail in the report

  3. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array

  4. 76 FR 68422 - Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-201-840] Galvanized Steel Wire From... determines that galvanized steel wire (galvanized wire) from Mexico is being, or is likely to be, sold in the... investigation on galvanized wire from Mexico. See Galvanized Steel Wire from the People's Republic of China and...

  5. Hierarchical Structure and Strengthening Mechanisms in Pearlitic Steel Wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    Microstructure evolution and strengthening mechanisms have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire (the strongest engineering materials in the world) with a nanostructure down to 10 nm and a flow stress up to 5.4 GPa. The interlamellar spacing and the cementite lamellae thickness...... are reduced during drawing in accordance with the change in wire diameter up to a strain of 2.5. At a higher strain enhanced thinning of cementite lamellae points to decomposition and carbon enrichment of the ferrite lamellae. Dislocations are stored as individual dislocations and in low angle boundaries...

  6. Locating the displacement of the steel wire implantation with the stereotactic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jie; Xu Jianmin; Sun Guomin; Sun Guoping; Zang Da; Zhou Dongxian; Mai Peicheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the manifestation, reason, the processing method of the steel wire implantation with the stereotactic mammography to improve the accuracy of the preoperative positioning. Methods: Seventy-nine cases which got the stereotactic steel wire implantation. In 96 lesions, 13 had steel wire displacement. Among them, 5 cases got steel wire displacement during the stereotactic process, 5 cases got steel wire displacement after the stereotactic process, 2 cases got steel wire displacement during the operation, one case did not show the calcification on the postoperative radiography. Results: The steel wire displacement occurred in 5 cases during the stereotactic process came from the patients and doctors respectively and the repositioning was needed. The steel wire displacement after the stereoscopic positioning was attributed to the overdose injection of local anesthesia, which led to the mismatch between the depth of Z axis of the mammary gland and the actual depth the computer given, the incorrect method for needle placement, and, neglecting whether the steel wire have got the lesion anchored when pulling out the needle set of steel wire hood, besides, these three kinds of instances above were all exaggerated by the accordion effect. For the displacement within 2 cm, the lesion can be excised toward the pathological change direction according to the position that steel wire prompted and re-place the second steel wire, putting the J-shaped steel wire into the needle hood and taking it out of the body. After repositioning, 2 cases had the steel wire prolapse during operation, which resulted from the over-lifting of the steel wire. After placing the steel wire, the radiologist should give an accurate description on the depth and direction to the surgeon and the notch should be taken for incision from the steel wire head end which is proximate to skin. The postoperative specimen from one case had no calcification, which might be related to the condition

  7. Nano-crystallization of steel wire and its wear behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.H. [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Xian University of Architecture and Technology, Xian 716000 (China) and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytecnical University, Xian 710072 (China)], E-mail: xuyunhua@vip.163.com; Peng, J.H. [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Xian University of Architecture and Technology, Xian 716000 (China); Fang, L. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710049 (China)

    2008-06-15

    As carbon steel wire is widely used in civil engineering and industry, it is quite important to increase its strength. In the present paper, a severe cold drawing approach is applied to increase strength and is shown to produce nano grains. With increasing true strain, the tensile strength increases continuously and the cementite flake thickness decreases correspondingly. It is observed by transmission electron microscopy that a significant amount of cementite flakes have been fragmented and dissolved at true strains. Finally, the grains are transformed to nano-sized crystals. Additionally, the cold drawn nano-sized steel wire has been knitted and filled with polyurethane to produce a composite material. Three-body abrasive wear tests show that the wear resistance of the test material is even better than that of high-Cr white cast irons.

  8. Nano-crystallization of steel wire and its wear behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.H.; Peng, J.H.; Fang, L.

    2008-01-01

    As carbon steel wire is widely used in civil engineering and industry, it is quite important to increase its strength. In the present paper, a severe cold drawing approach is applied to increase strength and is shown to produce nano grains. With increasing true strain, the tensile strength increases continuously and the cementite flake thickness decreases correspondingly. It is observed by transmission electron microscopy that a significant amount of cementite flakes have been fragmented and dissolved at true strains. Finally, the grains are transformed to nano-sized crystals. Additionally, the cold drawn nano-sized steel wire has been knitted and filled with polyurethane to produce a composite material. Three-body abrasive wear tests show that the wear resistance of the test material is even better than that of high-Cr white cast irons

  9. Wire-Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Protects Steel Against Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.; Poorman, Richard; Sanders, Heather L.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Bonds, James W., Jr.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum coatings wire-arc sprayed onto steel substrates found effective in protecting substrates against corrosion. Coatings also satisfy stringent requirements for adhesion and flexibility, both at room temperature and at temperatures as low as liquid hydrogen. Developed as alternatives to corrosion-inhibiting primers and paints required by law to be phased out because they contain and emit such toxic substances as chromium and volatile organic compounds.

  10. 78 FR 29325 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation... of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from Mexico, the PRC, and Thailand... Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from the PRC, Mexico, and Thailand, filed on April 23, 2013 (the...

  11. 76 FR 68407 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-975] Galvanized Steel Wire From... galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') is being, or is likely to be, sold in the... concerning imports of galvanized steel wire from the PRC, filed in proper form by Davis Wire Corporation...

  12. Hardening and softening mechanisms of pearlitic steel wire under torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical behavior of pearlitic steel wire is studied using torsion. • Work hardening results from refinement lamellar pearlitic structure. • Softening results from recovery, shear bands and lamellar fragmentations. • A microstructure based analytical flow stress model is established. - Abstract: The mechanical behaviors and microstructure evolution of pearlitic steel wires under monotonic shear deformation have been investigated by a torsion test and a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with an aim to reveal the softening and hardening mechanisms of a randomly oriented pearlitic structure during a monotonic stain path. Significantly different from the remarkable strain hardening in cold wire drawing, the strain hardening rate during torsion drops to zero quickly after a short hardening stage. The microstructure observations indicate that the inter-lamellar spacing (ILS) decreases and the dislocations accumulate with strain, which leads to hardening of the material. Meanwhile, when the strain is larger than 0.154, the enhancement of dynamic recovery, shear bands (SBs) and cementite fragmentations results in the softening and balances the strain hardening. A microstructure based analytical flow stress model with considering the influence of ILS on the mean free path of dislocations and the softening caused by SBs and cementite fragmentations, has been established and the predicted flow shear curve meets well with the measured curve in the torsion test

  13. The anchors of steel wire ropes, testing methods and their results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krešák

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic and thermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobile steel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. First measurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methods are shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widely used magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presents a problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enable increased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  14. Technology development of fabrication NbTi and Nb3 Sn superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, D.; Bormio, C.; Baldan, C.A.; Ramos, M.J.; Pinatti, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The technology development of NbTi and Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires are studied, mentioning the use of fluxes capture theory in the sizing of wires fabrication. The fabrication process, the thermal treatment and the experimental datas of critical temperature and current of Nb 3 Sn wires are described. (C.G.C.) [pt

  15. 76 FR 72721 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty and... galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... merchandise as galvanized steel wire which is a cold- drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of solid...

  16. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Arivazhagan, B.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel has become necessary for India as a participant in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFM steel is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFM steel filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for fabrication of components using RAFM steel. The purpose of this study is to develop filler wires that can be directly used for both gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and for narrow-gap gas tungsten arc welding (NG-GTAW) that reduces the deposited weld metal volume and heat affected zone (HAZ) width. Further, the filler wires would also be used for hybrid laser-MIG welding for thick section joints. In view of meeting all the requirements, a detailed specification was prepared for the development of filler wires for welding of RAFM steel. Meanwhile, welding trials have been carried out on 2.5 mm thick plates of the RAFM steel using GTAW process at various heat inputs with a preheat temperature of 250 C followed by various post weld heat treatments (PWHT). The microstructure of the weld metal in most of the cases showed the presence of some amount of delta-ferrite. Filler wires as per specifications have also been developed with minor variations on the chemistry against the specified values. Welding parameters and PWHT parameters were optimized to qualify the filler wires without the presence of delta-ferrite in the weld metal and with optimized mechanical properties. Results showed that the weld metals are free from delta-ferrite. Tensile properties at ambient temperature and at 500 C are well above the specified values, and are much higher than the base metal values. Ductile Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) has been evaluated as -81 C based on the 68 J criteria. The present study highlights the basis and methodology

  17. Torque resistance of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Dario; Dalstra, Michel; Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Movements of teeth splinted by fixed retention wires after orthodontic treatment have been observed. The aetiological factors for these movements are unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the resistance to torque of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed...... retainers in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: Torquing moments acting on a retainer wire were measured in a mechanical force testing system by applying buccal crown torque to an upper lateral incisor in both a 3-teeth and in a 2-teeth setup. Seven stainless steel wires with different shape, type (plain...... or a braided 0.016 × 0.022-inch stainless steel wire. A tooth attached by a retainer wire to only one neighbouring tooth is less resistant to torque than a tooth connected to two neighbouring teeth. Annealing a retainer wire with a flame reduces the stiffness of the wire markedly and can lead to a non...

  18. The fabrication techniques of Z-pinch targets. Techniques of fabricating self-adapted Z-pinch wire-arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Longhui; Wei Yun; Liu Debin; Sun Zuoke; Yuan Yuping

    2002-01-01

    In order to fabricate wire arrays for use in the Z-pinch physical experiments, the fabrication techniques are investigated as follow: Thickness of about 1-1.5 μm of gold is electroplated on the surface of ultra-fine tungsten wires. Fibers of deuterated-polystyrene (DPS) with diameters from 30 to 100 microns are made from molten DPS. And two kinds of planar wire-arrays and four types of annular wire-arrays are designed, which are able to adapt to the variation of the distance between the cathode and anode inside the target chamber. Furthermore, wire-arrays with diameters form 5-24 μm are fabricated with tungsten wires, respectively. The on-site test shows that the wire-arrays can self-adapt to the distance changes perfectly

  19. 77 FR 2958 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-549-820] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY... prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand'') from Thailand. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty...

  20. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of antidumping duty..., by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand...

  1. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in... China, Mexico, and Thailand. Accordingly, effective April 23, 2013, the Commission instituted...

  2. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1...)) (the Act), that there is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in...

  3. 75 FR 36678 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... prestressed concrete steel wire strand (PC strand), provided for in subheading 7312.10.30 of the Harmonized... Publication 4162 (June 2010), entitled Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China: Investigation Nos... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-464 and 731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed...

  4. Fabrication of Nanodiamond Coating on Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Velázquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hardness, heat conductivity and low friction coefficient of microcrystalline diamond make it a suitable candidate for tribological applications. However, its roughness and high deposition temperature pose significant obstacles to these applications. We have successfully grown nanocrystalline diamond on steel at 400 °C by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition by employing a CrN interfacial layer. Nanocrystalline diamond combines hardness and surface smoothness required in tribological applications. Microcrystalline diamond and carbon nanotubes can also be grown by controlling the deposition parameters. The fabricated films were characterized with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  5. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China... prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation...

  6. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martenstic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Arivazhagan, B.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Weld microstructure produced by RAFMS filler wires are free from delta ferrite. → Cooling rates of by weld thermal cycles influences the presence of delta ferrite. → Weld parameters modified with higher pre heat temperature and high heat input. → PWHT optimized based on correlation of hardness between base and weld metals. → Optimised mechanical properties achieved by proper tempering of the martensite. - Abstract: Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (RAFMS) has become mandatory to India to participate in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFMS is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFMS filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for fabrication of components using RAFMS. Purpose of this study is to develop filler wires that can be directly used for both tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) and narrow gap tungsten inert gas welding (NG-TIG), which reduces the deposited weld metal volume and heat affected zone (HAZ) width. Further, the filler wires would also be used for hybrid laser welding for thick section joints. In view of meeting all the requirements, a detailed specification was prepared for the development of filler wires for welding of RAFM steel. Meanwhile, autogenous welding trials have been carried out on 2.5 mm thick plates of the RAFM steel using TIG process at various heat inputs with a preheat temperature of 250 deg. C followed by various post weld heat treatments (PWHT). The microstructure of the weld metal in most of the cases showed the presence of some delta-ferrite. Filler wires as per specifications have also been developed with minor variations on the chemistry against the specified values. Welding parameters and PWHT parameters were optimised to qualify the filler wires without the presence of delta-ferrite in

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of 304L steel fabricated by arc additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For 304L large structural parts used in nuclear power, it is hard and costly to fabricate and machine traditionally. Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM has low cost and high material utilization, which provides an efficient way to fabricate the large structural parts. So in this study, WAAM is used to fabricate the parts of 304L stainless steel. Through the tensile test and metallographic analysis, the mechanical properties and microstructure of the 304L stainless steel fabricated by WAAM were explored. The results indicate that with the layers depositing, the cooling rate becomes slower, the dendrites become thicker and the morphology becomes more stable. Due to the existence of dendrites, the grain boundary strengthening effect is different between the transverse direction and longitudinal direction, and resulting in anisotropy of mechanical properties. However, the mechanical properties of the parts correspond to the forged piece, which lays the foundation for future applications.

  8. Laser fabrication nanocrystalline coatings using simultaneous powders/wire feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianing; Zhai, Tongguang; Zhang, Yuanbin; Shan, Feihu; Liu, Peng; Ren, Guocheng

    2016-07-01

    Laser melting deposition (LMD) fabrication is used to investigate feasibilty of simultaneously feeding TC17 wire and the Stellite 20-Si3N4-TiC-Sb mixed powders in order to increase the utilization ratio of materials and also quality of LMD composite coatings on the TA1 substrate. SEM images indicated that such LMD coating with metallurgical joint to substrate was formed free of the obvious defects. Lots of the ultrafine nanocrystals (UNs) were produced, which distributed uniformly in some coating matrix location, retarding growth of the ceramics in a certain extent; UNs were intertwined with amorphous, leading the yarn-shape materials to be produced. Compared with substrate, an improvement of wear resistance was achieved for such LMD coating.

  9. High-speed micro electrode tool fabrication by a twin-wire EDM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, Dong-Yea

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a new machining process which combines twin-electro-wire together with two electro discharge circuits to rapidly fabricate micro electrode tools. The results show that transistor electro discharge and RC electro discharge circuits coexist to fabricate micro tools with rough and finish machining both on the same machine. Compared to conventional wire electro discharge grinding (WEDG) technology, a twin-wire EDM system that combines rough and finish machining into one process allows the efficient fabrication of micro tools. This high-speed micro tool fabrication process can be applied not only to micro electrode machining but also to micro punching tool and micro probing tips machining

  10. STRENGTHENING OF A REINFORCED CONCRETE BRIDGE WITH PRESTRESSED STEEL WIRE ROPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexin Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes prestressed steel wire ropes as a way to strengthen a 20-year-old RC T-beam bridge. High strength, low relaxation steel wire ropes with minor radius, high tensile strain and good corrosion resistance were used in this reinforcement. The construction process for strengthening with prestressed steel wire ropes—including wire rope measuring, extruding anchor heads making, anchorage installing, tensioning steel wire ropes and pouring mortar was described. Ultimate bearing capacity of the bridge after strengthening was discussed based on the concrete structure theory. The flexural strength of RC T-beam bridges strengthened with prestressed steel wire ropes was governed by the failure of concrete crushing. To investigate effectiveness of the strengthening method, fielding-load tests were carried out before and after strengthening. The results of concrete strain and deflection show that the flexural strength and stiffness of the strengthened beam are improved. The crack width measurement also indicates that this technique could increase the durability of the bridge. Thus, this strengthened way with prestressed steel wire rope is feasible and effective.

  11. An ad-hoc fretting wear tribotester design for thin steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llavori Iñigo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel wire ropes experience fretting wear damage when the rope runs over a sheave promoting an oscillatory motion between the wires. Consequently, wear scars appear between the contacting wires leading to an increase of the stress field and the following rupture of the wires due to fatigue. That is why the understanding and prediction of the fretting wear phenomena of thin wires is fundamental in order to improve the performance of steel wire ropes. The present research deals with the design of an ad-hoc fretting wear test machine for thin wires. The test apparatus is designed for testing thin wires with a maximum diameter of 1.0 mm, at slip amplitudes ranging from 5 to 300 μm, crossing angle between 0-90°, and contacting force ranging from 0,5 to 5 N. The working principle of displacement amplitude and contacting force as well as the crossing angle between the wires are described. Preliminary studies for understanding the fretting wear characteristics are presented, analysing 0.45 mm diameter cold-drawn eutectoid carbon steel (0.8% C wires (tensile strength higher than 3000 MPa.

  12. Corrosion resistance of premodeled wires made of stainless steel used for heart electrotherapy leaders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przondziono, J; Szatka, W; Walke, W; Młynarski, R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of X10CrNi18-8 stainless steel designed for use in cardiology treatment. The influence of strain formed in the premodeling process and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial plasma solution were analysed. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial plasma. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of recorded curves of anodic polarization by means of potentiodynamic method. Potentiodynamic tests carried out enabled to determine how the resistance to pitting corrosion of wire changes, depending on strain formed in the premodeling process as well as on the method of wire surface preparation. For evaluation of phenomena occurring on the surface of tested steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied. Deterioration of corrosive properties of wire along with the increase in the formed strain hardening was observed.

  13. Microstructures and mechanical properties of welded joints of novel 3Cr pipeline steel using an inhouse and two commercial welding wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jinyang; Xu, Lining; Chang, Wei; Hu, Lihua; Lu, Minxu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Weldability of novel 3Cr pipeline steel was investigated using two commercial and an inhouse welding wires. • Mechanical properties were measured and microstructure characteristics were observed. • Fracture positions of tensile test just corresponded to the minimum hardness region of the joints. • The inhouse wire R01 can provide the highest cost-performance ratio. - Abstract: The welded joints of the novel 3Cr pipeline steel were fabricated via the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) technique using an inhouse welding wire labeled as R01 and two kinds of commercial wires (H08Cr3MoMnA and TGS-2CML). Microhardness, impact toughness and tensile properties of the joints were measured, and microstructure characteristics were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that under selected welding procedure, the joints of R01 can achieve quite good mechanical properties without preheating and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). After thermal refining, elongation (15.2%) doubled and met the DNV-OS-F101 standard. For low carbon or super low carbon pipeline steels such as 3Cr steel, the revised formula with the carbon applicable coefficient (A(c)) was quite good for predicting the maximum hardness in heat affected zone (HAZ). Compared with these two selected commercial wires, the inhouse welding wire R01 can provide the highest cost-performance ratio

  14. Evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes by statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boroška Ján

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes using statistical methods from the viewpoint of the quality of single wires as well as the internal construction of the wire ropes. The evaluation is based on the loading capacity calculated from the strength, number of folds and torsions. For the better ilustration, a box plot has been constructed.

  15. 76 FR 13665 - Arcelor Mittal, Formerly Known as Mittal Steel Walker Wire, a Subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Known as Mittal Steel Walker Wire, a Subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal--Montreal, Including On-Site Leased... Steel Walker Wire, a subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal-- Montreal, including on-site leased workers from... Walker Wire, Inc., Ferndale, Michigan, separated from employment on or after July 23, 2006 through August...

  16. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-201-843] Prestressed Concrete Steel...'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from Mexico is being... element levels; suitable for use as prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High...

  17. Development of IN-RAFM steel and fabrication technologies for Indian TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.K., E-mail: shaju@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Laha, K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Rajendrakumar, E. [TBM Division, Institute of Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • India specific RAFM steel IN-RAFM has been produced in commercial scale and physical property data for the same have been generated. • Mechanical properties of the commercial heats are comparable to that of the laboratory heats. • IN-RAFM steel filler wires has been produced indigenously. • Process parameters have been optimized so that toughness of the fusion zone of the EB and laser welds is comparable to that of the base metal even at sub-zero temperatures. • Fabrication of the mock ups of different components of Indian TBM has been initiated. - Abstract: India has indigenously developed its own Indian Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel (IN-RAFM steel) which, it is proposed to use for fabrication of Indian TBM to be installed in ITER. With an objective of qualifying this material for use in ITER, extensive testing of this material to generate the necessary data required to offer this material for Particular Material Appraisal of ITER has been undertaken. Accordingly, data generation on creep, fatigue and physical properties of this steel is in progress. Physical properties like thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for this steel at various temperatures have been measured and thermal conductivity estimated from the measured physical properties. Values obtained for these physical properties are comparable with those reported for other RAFM steels. Results of creep tests that are in progress also indicate that creep is comparable to that of other RAFM steels. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of this steel has been studied in air with total strain control in the strain amplitude range of ±0.25–1% and temperatures range of 300–873 K at a constant strain rate of 3 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}. Results confirm that fatigue life of IN-RAFM steel is at par with that of the European Union grade Eurofer 97 RAFM steel. During production of IN-RAFM steel plates of different thicknesses, it is observed

  18. Fabrication of superconducting wire using organometallic precursors and infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    Organometallic precursors from naphthenic acid and metal nitrates were used for the synthesis of YBCO oxide superconducting compounds. The characteristics of metal naphthenates as organometallic precursors were investigated by IR spectra, viscosity measurements, and infiltration. 123 superconducting compound obtained from 123 naphthenate showed a Tc of 90 degree K and a rather dense and elongated microstructure. Also, the melting behavior of Ba-cuprates which were used for 123 making was studied. A low-temperature melting process was developed to fabricate silver-sheathed superconducting wire with the powder-in-tube method; flowing argon gas is introduced to the system at 930-945 degree C to reduce the melting temperature of the 123 compound without silver sheath melting. It resulted in a 90 degree K Tc superconducting core with dense and locally aligned microstructure. SEM-EDS and XRD analysis, 4-probe resistance and Jc measurements, and carbon-content determinations were carried out to characterize the microstructure, grain alignment, and superconducting properties of the samples

  19. 77 FR 17430 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-975] Galvanized Steel Wire From... Determination of sales at less than fair value (``LTFV'') in the antidumping investigation of galvanized steel... galvanized steel wire from the PRC is being, or is likely to be, sold in the United States at LTFV, as...

  20. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. 1755.702 Section 1755.702 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial...

  1. Effect of cumulative strain on texture characteristics during wire drawing of eutectoid steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F.; Ma, C.; Jiang, J.Q.; Feng, H.P.; Zhai, S.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The texture characteristics associated with plastic deformation of Fe-C steels near-eutectoid composition during a continuous cold drawing process were thoroughly investigated by orientation distribution function analysis based on X-ray diffraction. The effect of cumulative drawing strains on the fiber texture in drawn hypereutectoid and hypoeutectoid steel wires was discussed

  2. A high extinction ratio THz polarizer fabricated by double-bilayer wire grid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Wang, Haitao; Shen, Jun; Yang, Jun; Mao, Hongyan; Xia, Liangping; Zhang, Weiguo; Wang, Guodong; Peng, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Deqiang

    2016-02-01

    We designed a new style of broadband terahertz (THz) polarizer with double-bilayer wire grid structure by fabricating them on both sides of silicon substrate. This THz polarizer shows a high average extinction ratio of 60dB in 0.5 to 2.0 THz frequency range and the maximum of 87 dB at 1.06 THz, which is much higher than that of conventional monolayer wire grid polarizers and single-bilayer wire grid ones.

  3. Torque resistance of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Dario T; Dalstra, Michel; Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-06-01

    Movements of teeth splinted by fixed retention wires after orthodontic treatment have been observed. The aetiological factors for these movements are unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the resistance to torque of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics. Torquing moments acting on a retainer wire were measured in a mechanical force testing system by applying buccal crown torque to an upper lateral incisor in both a 3-teeth and in a 2-teeth setup. Seven stainless steel wires with different shape, type (plain, braided, coaxial, or chain) and dimensions were selected for this study. For a torquing angle of 16.2° in the 3-teeth setup torsion moments can vary between 390 cNmm and 3299 cNmm depending on the retainer wire. For the 2-teeth setup the torsion moments are much smaller. Exposure to the flame of a butane-gas torch for 10 seconds to anneal the wire reduces the stiffness of the retainer wire. Clinicians must select wires for fixed retainers very carefully since the difference in resistance to torque is large. A high level of torque control can be achieved with a plain 0.016 × 0.016-inch or a braided 0.016 × 0.022-inch stainless steel wire. A tooth attached by a retainer wire to only one neighbouring tooth is less resistant to torque than a tooth connected to two neighbouring teeth. Annealing a retainer wire with a flame reduces the stiffness of the wire markedly and can lead to a non-uniform and non-reproducible effect.

  4. Optical characterisation of photonic wire and photonic crystal waveguides fabricated using nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    We have characterised photonic-crystal and photonic-wire waveguides fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The structures, with feature sizes down below 20 nm, are benchmarked against similar structures defined by direct electron beam lithography.......We have characterised photonic-crystal and photonic-wire waveguides fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The structures, with feature sizes down below 20 nm, are benchmarked against similar structures defined by direct electron beam lithography....

  5. Mechanical evaluation of quad-helix appliance made of low-nickel stainless steel wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference between stainless steel and low-nickel stainless steel wires as regards mechanical behavior. Force, resilience, and elastic modulus produced by Quad-helix appliances made of 0.032-inch and 0.036-inch wires were evaluated. Sixty Quad-helix appliances were made, thirty for each type of alloy, being fifteen for each wire thickness, 0.032-in and 0.036-in. All the archwires were submitted to mechanical compression test using an EMIC DL-10000 machine simulating activations of 4, 6, 9, and 12 mm. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were used (p nickel stainless steel alloy had force, resilience, and elastic modulus similar to those made of stainless steel alloy.

  6. Material and biofilm load of K wires in toe surgery: titanium versus stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Martin; Graf, Susanne; Gersbach, Silke; Hintermann, Beat; Ilchmann, Thomas; Knupp, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Recurrence rates for toe deformity correction are high and primarily are attributable to scar contractures. These contractures may result from subclinical infection. We hypothesized that (1) recurrence of toe deformities and residual pain are related to low-grade infections from biofilm formation on percutaneous K wires, (2) biofilm formation is lower on titanium (Ti) K wires compared with stainless steel (SS) K wires, and (3) clinical outcome is superior with the use of Ti K wires compared with SS K wires. In this prospective nonrandomized, comparative study, we investigated 135 lesser toe deformities (61 patients; 49 women; mean ± SD age, 60 ± 15 years) temporarily fixed with K wires between August 2010 and March 2011 (81 SS, 54 Ti). K wires were removed after 6 weeks. The presence of biofilm-related infections was analyzed by sonication. High bacterial loads (> 500 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) were detected on all six toes requiring revision before 6 months. Increased bacterial load was associated with pain and swelling but not recurrence of the deformity. More SS K wires had greater than 100 CFU/mL bacteria than Ti K wires. For K wires with a bacterial count greater than 100 CFU/mL, toes with Ti K wires had a lower recurrence rate, less pain, and less swelling than toes with SS K wires. Ti K wires showed superior clinical outcomes to SS K wires. This appears to be attributable to reduced infection rates. Although additional study is needed, we currently recommend the use of Ti K wires for the transfixation of toe deformities. Level II, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Asari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoimprint lithography (NIL is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL. We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  8. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tsukasa; Shibata, Ryosuke; Awano, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS) in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL). We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc) for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  9. The influence of drawing speed on surface topography of high carbon steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suliga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the influence of the drawing speed on surface topography of high carbon steel wires has been assessed. The drawing process of f 5,5 mm wire rod to the final wire of f 1,7 mm was conducted in 12 passes by means of a modern Koch multi-die drawing machine. The drawing speeds in the last passes were: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 m/s. For final wires f 1,7 mm the three-dimensional analysis of the wire surface topography investigation was determined. It has been proved that the wire topography in the drawing process is characterized by a random anisotropy and the amount of directing the geometrical structure of the surface depends on the drawing speed.

  10. Fabrication of a smart air intake structure using shape memory alloy wire embedded composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Beom-Seok; Kim, Min-Saeng; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Yun-Mi; Lee, Woo-Yong; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been actively studied in many fields utilizing their high energy density. Applying SMA wire-embedded composite to aerospace structures, such as air intake of jet engines and guided missiles, is attracting significant attention because it could generate a comparatively large actuating force. In this research, a scaled structure of SMA wire-embedded composite was fabricated for the air intake of aircraft. The structure was composed of several prestrained Nitinol (Ni-Ti) SMA wires embedded in intersection -shape glass fabric reinforced plastic (GFRP), and it was cured at room temperature for 72 h. The SMA wire-embedded GFRP could be actuated by applying electric current through the embedded SMA wires. The activation angle generated from the composite structure was large enough to make a smart air intake structure.

  11. A Steel Wire Stress Measuring Sensor Based on the Static Magnetization by Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongge Deng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new stress measuring sensor is proposed to evaluate the axial stress in steel wires. Without using excitation and induction coils, the sensor mainly consists of a static magnetization unit made of permanent magnets and a magnetic field measurement unit containing Hall element arrays. Firstly, the principle is illustrated in detail. Under the excitation of the magnetization unit, a spatially varying magnetized region in the steel wire is utilized as the measurement region. Radial and axial magnetic flux densities at different lift-offs in this region are measured by the measurement unit to calculate the differential permeability curve and magnetization curve. Feature parameters extracted from the curves are used to evaluate the axial stress. Secondly, the special stress sensor for Φ5 and Φ7 steel wires is developed accordingly. At last, the performance of the sensor is tested experimentally. Experimental results show that the sensor can measure the magnetization curve accurately with the error in the range of ±6%. Furthermore, the obtained differential permeability at working points 1200 A/m and 10000 A/m change almost linearly with the stress in steel wires, the goodness of linear fits are all higher than 0.987. Thus, the proposed steel wire stress measuring sensor is feasible.

  12. Fabrication of tungsten wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Toth, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fabrication methods for tungsten fiber reinforced nickel-base superalloy composites were investigated. Three matrix alloys in pre-alloyed powder or rolled sheet form were evaluated in terms of fabricability into composite monotape and multi-ply forms. The utility of monotapes for fabricating more complex shapes was demonstrated. Preliminary 1093C (2000F) stress rupture tests indicated that efficient utilization of fiber strength was achieved in composites fabricated by diffusion bonding processes. The fabrication of thermal fatigue specimens is also described.

  13. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, G.; Arivazhagan, B.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-07-01

    Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel has become necessary for India as a participant in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFM steel is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFM steel filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for fabrication of components using RAFM steel. The purpose of this study is to develop filler wires that can be directly used for both gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and for narrow-gap gas tungsten arc welding (NG-GTAW) that reduces the deposited weld metal volume and heat affected zone (HAZ) width. Further, the filler wires would also be used for hybrid laser-MIG welding for thick section joints. In view of meeting all the requirements, a detailed specification was prepared for the development of filler wires for welding of RAFM steel. Meanwhile, welding trials have been carried out on 2.5 mm thick plates of the RAFM steel using GTAW process at various heat inputs with a preheat temperature of 250 C followed by various post weld heat treatments (PWHT). The microstructure of the weld metal in most of the cases showed the presence of some amount of delta-ferrite. Filler wires as per specifications have also been developed with minor variations on the chemistry against the specified values. Welding parameters and PWHT parameters were optimized to qualify the filler wires without the presence of delta-ferrite in the weld metal and with optimized mechanical properties. Results showed that the weld metals are free from delta-ferrite. Tensile properties at ambient temperature and at 500 C are well above the specified values, and are much higher than the base metal values. Ductile Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) has been evaluated as -81 C based on the 68 J criteria. The present study highlights the basis and methodology

  14. Study Of The Wet Multipass Drawing Process Applied On High Strength Thin Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimont, J.; Felder, E.; Bobadilla, C.; Buessler, P.; Persem, N.; Vaubourg, JP.

    2011-05-01

    Many kinds of high strength thin steel wires are involved in so many applications. Most of the time, these wires are made of a pearlitic steel grade. The current developments mainly concern the wire last drawing operation: after a patenting treatment several reduction passes are performed on a slip-type multipass drawing machine. This paper focuses on modeling this multipass drawing process: a constitutive law based on the wire microstructure evolutions is created, a mechanical study is performed, a set of experiments which enables determining the process friction coefficients is suggested and finally the related analytical model is introduced. This model provides several general results about the process and can be used in order to set the drawing machines.

  15. Comparing the cyclic behavior of concrete cylinders confined by shape memory alloy wire or steel jackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joonam; Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Hong-Taek; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete are distinct from conventional jackets of steel or fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) since they provide active confinement which can be easily achieved due to the shape memory effect of SMAs. This study uses NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm diameter to confine concrete cylinders with the dimensions of 300 mm × 150 mm (L × D). The NiTiNb SMAs have a relatively wider temperature hysteresis than NiTi SMAs; thus, they are more suitable for the severe temperature-variation environments to which civil structures are exposed. Steel jackets of passive confinement are also prepared in order to compare the cyclic behavior of actively and passively confined concrete cylinders. For this purpose, monotonic and cyclic compressive loading tests are conducted to obtain axial and circumferential strain. Both strains are used to estimate the volumetric strains of concrete cylinders. Plastic strains from cyclic behavior are also estimated. For the cylinders jacketed by NiTiNb SMA wires, the monotonic axial behavior differs from the envelope of cyclic behavior. The plastic strains of the actively confined concrete show a similar trend to those of passive confinement. This study proposed plastic strain models for concrete confined by SMA wire or steel jackets. For the volumetric strain, the active jackets of NiTiNb SMA wires provide more energy dissipation than the passive jacket of steel

  16. 78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-549-829] Prestressed Concrete Steel...'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire'') from Thailand is not... shape, size or alloy element levels; suitable for use as prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties...

  17. 75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ...-807, A-583-828] Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan... stainless steel wire rod (SSWR) from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Spain, and Taiwan would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping and material injury to an industry in the United...

  18. Galvanic coupling of steel and gold alloy lingual brackets with orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychronis, Georgios; Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Eliades, Theodore; Zinelis, Spiros

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this research was to assess galvanic behavior of lingual orthodontic brackets coupled with representative types of orthodontic wires. Three types of lingual brackets: Incognito (INC), In-Ovation L (IOV), and STb (STB) were combined with a stainless steel (SS) and a nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwire. All materials were initially investigated by scanning electron microscopy / x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) while wires were also tested by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). All bracket-wire combinations were immersed in acidic 0.1M NaCl 0.1M lactic acid and neutral NaF 0.3% (wt) electrolyte, and the potential differences were continuously recorded for 48 hours. The SEM/EDX analysis revealed that INC is a single-unit bracket made of a high gold (Au) alloy while IOV and STB are two-piece appliances in which the base and wing are made of SS alloys. The SS wire demonstrated austenite and martensite iron phase, while NiTi wire illustrated an intense austenite crystallographic structure with limited martensite. All bracket wire combinations showed potential differences below the threshold of galvanic corrosion (200 mV) except for INC and STB coupled with NiTi wire in NaF media. The electrochemical results indicate that all brackets tested demonstrated galvanic compatibility with SS wire, but fluoride treatment should be used cautiously with NiTi wires coupled with Au and SS brackets.

  19. Wet-process Fabrication of Low-cost All-solid Wire-shaped Solar Cells on Manganese-plated Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xing; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Nannan; Cheng, Li; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • All-solid wire-shaped flexible solar cells are firstly assembled on low-cost Mn-plated fibers. • Energy efficiency improved by >27% after coating a layer of Mn on various substrates. • The cell is fabricated via wet process under low temperature and mild pH conditions. • Stable flexible solar cells are realized on lightweight and low-cost polymer fiber. - Abstract: All-solid wire-shaped flexible solar cells are assembled for the first time on low-cost Mn-plated wires through wet-process fabrication under low temperature and mild pH conditions. With a price cheap as the steel, metal Mn can be easily plated on almost any substrates, and evidently promote the photovoltaic efficiency of wire-shaped solar cells on various traditional metal wire substrates, such as Fe and Ti, by 27% and 65%, respectively. Flexible solar cell with much lower cost and weight is assembled on Mn-plated polymer substrate, and is still capable of giving better performance than that on Fe or Ti substrate. Both its mechanical and chemical stability are good for future weaving applications. Owing to the wire-type structure, such low-cost metals as Mn, which are traditionally regarded as unsuitable for solar cells, may provide new opportunities for highly efficient solar cells

  20. Fabrication of TiNi/CFRP smart composite using cold drawn TiNi wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Jang, Byung-Koog; Nagai, Hideki; Oishi, Ryutaro; Kishi, Teruo

    2002-07-01

    In recent years, pre-strained TiNi shape memory alloys (SMA) have been used for fabricating smart structure with carbon fibers reinforced plastics (CFRP) in order to suppress microscopic mechanical damages. However, since the cure temperature of CFRP is higher than the reverse transformation temperatures of TiNi SMA, special fixture jigs have to be used for keeping the pre-strain during fabrication, which restricted its practical application. In order to overcome this difficulty, we developed a new method to fabricate SMA/CFRP smart composites without using special fixture jigs by controlling the transformation temperatures of SMA during fabrication. This method consists of using heavily cold-worked wires to increase the reverse transformation temperatures, and of using flash electrical heating of the wires after fabrication in order to decrease the reverse transformation temperatures to a lower temperature range again without damaging the epoxy resin around SMA wires. By choosing proper cold-working rate and composition of TiNi alloys, the reverse transformation temperatures were well controlled, and the TiNi/CFRP hybrid smart composite was fabricated without using special fixture jigs. The damage suppressing effect of cold drawn wires embedded in CFRP was confirmed.

  1. A high extinction ratio THz polarizer fabricated by double-bilayer wire grid structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We designed a new style of broadband terahertz (THz polarizer with double-bilayer wire grid structure by fabricating them on both sides of silicon substrate. This THz polarizer shows a high average extinction ratio of 60dB in 0.5 to 2.0 THz frequency range and the maximum of 87 dB at 1.06 THz, which is much higher than that of conventional monolayer wire grid polarizers and single-bilayer wire grid ones.

  2. Interfacial Microstructure and Its Influence on Resistivity of Thin Layers Copper Cladding Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjuan; Ding, Zhimin; Zhao, Ruirong

    2018-04-01

    The interfacial microstructure and resistivity of cold-drawn and annealed thin layers copper cladding steel (CCS) wires have been systematically investigated by the methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and resistivity testing. The results showed that the Cu and Fe atoms near interface diffused into each other matrixes. The Fe atoms diffused into Cu matrixes and formed a solid solution. The mechanism of solid solution is of substitution type. When the quantity of Fe atoms exceeds the maximum solubility, the supersaturated solid solution would form Fe clusters and decompose into base Cu and α-Fe precipitated phases under certain conditions. A few of α-Fe precipitates was observed in the copper near Cu/Fe interfaces of cold-drawn CCS wires, with 1-5 nm in size. A number of α-Fe precipitates of 1-20 nm in size can be detected in copper near Cu/Fe interfaces of CCS wires annealed at 850°C. When annealing temperature was less than 750°C, the resistivity of CCS wires annealed was lower than that of cold-drawn CCS wires. However, when annealing temperature was above 750°C, the resistivity of CCS wires was greater than that of cold-drawn CCS wires and increased with rising the annealing temperature. The relationship between nanoscale α-Fe precipitation and resistivity of CCS wires has been well discussed.

  3. Bioactivity and osteointegration of hydroxyapatite-coated stainless steel and titanium wires used for intramedullary osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, Arnold V; Gorbach, Elena N; Kononovich, Natalia A; Popkov, Dmitry A; Tverdokhlebov, Sergey I; Shesterikov, Evgeniy V

    2017-08-01

    A lot of research was conducted on the use of various biomaterials in orthopedic surgery. Our study investigated the effects of nanostructured calcium-phosphate coating on metallic implants introduced into the bone marrow canal. Stainless steel or titanium 2-mm wires (groups 1 and 2, respectively), and hydroxyapatite-coated stainless steel or titanium wires of the same diameter (groups 3 and 4, respectively) were introduced into the tibial bone marrow canal of 20 dogs (each group = 5 dogs). Hydroxyapatite coating was deposited on the wires with the method of microarc oxidation. Light microscopy to study histological diaphyseal transverse sections, scanning electron microscopy to study the bone marrow area around the implant and an X-ray electron probe analyzer to study the content of calcium and phosphorus were used to investigate bioactivity and osteointegration after a four weeks period. Osteointegration was also assessed by measuring wires' pull-off strength with a sensor dynamometer. Bone formation was observed round the wires in the bone marrow canal in all the groups. Its intensity depended upon the features of wire surfaces and implant materials. Maximum percentage volume of trabecular bone was present in the bone marrow canals of group 4 dogs that corresponded to a mean of 27.1 ± 0.14%, while it was only 6.7% in group 1. The coating in groups 3 and 4 provided better bioactivity and osteointegration. Hydroxyapatite-coated titanium wires showed the highest degree of bone formation around them and greater pull-off strength. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating of metallic wires induces an expressed bone formation and provides osteointegration. Hydroxyapatite-coated wires could be used along with external fixation for bone repair enhancement in diaphyseal fractures, management of osteogenesis imperfecta and correction of bone deformities in phosphate diabetes.

  4. The control of stainless steel tubes and wires of small diameter by the Eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stossel, A.; Gallet, G.

    1978-01-01

    Stainless steel tubes and wires with an outer diameter greater than 1 mm were studied by Eddy currents. The sensor characteristics and the detection of defects in function of frequency are presented together with the results obtained in the detection of dimensional and metallurgical defects [fr

  5. Strain-tempering of low carbon martensite steel wire by rapid heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisaka, Yasunori; Kihara, Junji

    1978-01-01

    In the production of prestressed concrete steel wires, a series of the cold drawing-patenting process are performed to improve the strength. In order to reduce cyclic process, the low carbon martensite steel wire which can be produced only by the process of hot rolling and direct quench has been investigated as strain-tempering material. When strain-tempering is performed on the low carbon martensite steel wire, stress relaxation (Re%) increases and mechanical properties such as total elongation, reduction of area, ultimate tensile strength and proof stress decrease remarkably by annealing. In order to shorten the heating time, the authors performed on the steel wire the strain-tempering with a heating time of 1.0 s using direct electrical resistance heating and examined the effects of rapid heating on the stress relaxation and the mechanical properties. Stress relaxation decreases without impairment of the mechanical properties up to a strain-tempering temperature of 573 K. Re(%) after 10.8 ks is 0% at the testing temperature 301 K, 0.49% at 363 K and 1.39% at 433 K. (auth.)

  6. Flat ended steel wires, backscattering targets for calibrating over a large dynamic range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, Jaap; Graaff, Reindert

    2006-01-01

    A series of flat ended stainless steel wires was constructed and experimentally evaluated as point targets giving a calibrated backscattering over a large range (up to 72 dB) for ultrasound frequencies in the range 2 to 10 MHz. Over a range of 36 dB, theory was strictly followed (within 1 dB),

  7. Viscoelastic behavior and durability of steel wire - reinforced polyethylene pipes under a high internal pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, S.; Anoshkin, A.N.; Zuyko, V.Yu

    2011-01-01

    The strength tests of steel-wire-reinforced polyethylene pipe specimens showed that, under a constant internal pressure exceeding 80% of their short-term ultimate pressure, the fracture of the specimens occurred in less than 24 hours. At pressures slightly lower than this level, some specimens did

  8. Adhesive Properties of Bonded Orthodontic Retainers to Enamel : Stainless Steel Wire vs Fiber-reinforced Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Krebs, Eliza; Sandham, John; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to compare the bond strength of a stainless steel orthodontic wire vs various fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) used as orthodontic retainers on enamel, analyze the failure types after debonding, and investigate the influence of different application

  9. X-ray residual stress measurements on cold-drawn steel wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, P.F.; Naughton, B.P.; Verbraak, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The interplanar spacing d{hkl} versus sin2 ψ distributions were measured for the 211, 310, 220 and 200 reflections from severely cold-drawn 0.7% C steel wire with a diameter of 0.25 mm. From the shape of the curves it was concluded that, as well as a 110 fibre texture and elastic anisotropy, plastic

  10. 77 FR 806 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from Taiwan and...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

  11. 77 FR 73424 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... materially injuring a U.S. industry, all unliquidated entries of such merchandise from Taiwan, entered or... From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... ``ITC''), the Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan...

  12. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the...)] Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis of the..., and Taiwan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-770-773 and 775 (Second Review). By order of the Commission...

  13. Modeling the wire-EDM process parameters for EN-8 carbon steel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling the wire-EDM process parameters for EN-8 carbon steel using .... The neural networks has been developed with the help of MATLAB 8.1 (R13) package .... Now, Simulation and Prediction will be performed using the trained network.

  14. The influnece of the partial single reduction on mechanical properties wires made from trip steel with 0,43 % C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wiewiórowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large strain inhomogeneity is caused by the shape of deformation zone of die and by the friction between tool and deformed wire for multistage wire drawing processes. The influence on the value of the redundant strain by the use of different partial single reductions during all wire drawing process was observed. This problem is particularly important for TRIP steel wires drawing processes because the strain intensity influences on the speed of retained austenite transformation into martensite.

  15. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martenstic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, G., E-mail: gsrini@igcar.gov.in [Materials Technology Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamilnadu (India); Arivazhagan, B.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Materials Technology Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Weld microstructure produced by RAFMS filler wires are free from delta ferrite. > Cooling rates of by weld thermal cycles influences the presence of delta ferrite. > Weld parameters modified with higher pre heat temperature and high heat input. > PWHT optimized based on correlation of hardness between base and weld metals. > Optimised mechanical properties achieved by proper tempering of the martensite. - Abstract: Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (RAFMS) has become mandatory to India to participate in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFMS is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFMS filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for fabrication of components using RAFMS. Purpose of this study is to develop filler wires that can be directly used for both tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) and narrow gap tungsten inert gas welding (NG-TIG), which reduces the deposited weld metal volume and heat affected zone (HAZ) width. Further, the filler wires would also be used for hybrid laser welding for thick section joints. In view of meeting all the requirements, a detailed specification was prepared for the development of filler wires for welding of RAFM steel. Meanwhile, autogenous welding trials have been carried out on 2.5 mm thick plates of the RAFM steel using TIG process at various heat inputs with a preheat temperature of 250 deg. C followed by various post weld heat treatments (PWHT). The microstructure of the weld metal in most of the cases showed the presence of some delta-ferrite. Filler wires as per specifications have also been developed with minor variations on the chemistry against the specified values. Welding parameters and PWHT parameters were optimised to qualify the filler wires without the presence of delta-ferrite in the weld

  16. Mechanical properties and aesthetics of FRP orthodontic wire fabricated by hot drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T; Watari, F; Yamagata, S; Kobayashi, M; Nagayama, K; Toyoizumi, Y; Nakamura, S

    1998-12-01

    The FRP wires 0.5 mm in diameter with a multiple fiber structure were fabricated by drawing the fiber polymer complex at 250 degrees C for an esthetic, transparent orthodontic wire. Biocompatible CaO-P2O5-SiO2-Al2O3 (CPSA) glass fibers of 8-20 microm in diameter were oriented unidirectionally in the longitudinal direction in PMMA matrix. The mechanical properties were investigated by 3-point flexural test. The FRP wire showed sufficient strength and a very good elastic recovery after deformation. Young's modulus and the flexural load at deflection 1 mm were nearly independent of the fiber diameter and linearly increased with the fiber fraction. The dependence on fiber fraction obeys well the rule of mixture. This FRP wire could cover the range of strength corresponding to the conventional metal orthodontic wires from Ni-Ti used in the initial stage of orthodontic treatments to Co-Cr used in the final stage by changing the volume ratio of glass fibers with the same external diameter. The estheticity in external appearance was excellent. Thus the new FRP wire can satisfy both mechanical properties necessary for an orthodontic wire and enough estheticity, which was not possible for the conventional metal wire.

  17. Study on micro fabricated stainless steel surface to anti-biofouling using electrochemical fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byeong Jun; Lee, Sung Ho

    2017-12-01

    Biofilm formed on the surface of the object by the microorganism resulting in fouling organisms. This has led to many problems in daily life, medicine, health and industrial community. In this study, we tried to prevent biofilm formation on the stainless steel (SS304) sheet surface with micro fabricated structure. After then forming the microscale colloid patterns on the surface of stainless steel by using an electrochemical etching forming a pattern by using a FeCl3 etching was further increase the surface roughness. Culturing the Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the stainless steel fabricated with a micro structure on the surface was observed a relationship between the surface roughness and the biological fouling of the micro structure. As a result, the stainless steel surface with a micro structure was confirmed to be the biological fouling occurs less. We expect to be able to solve the problems caused by biological fouling in various fields such as medicine, engineering, using this research.

  18. 76 FR 47150 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-975, A-201-840] Galvanized Steel... in the Federal Register the initiation of the antidumping duty investigations of galvanized steel... is January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010. See Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic...

  19. Electron beam freeforming of stainless steel using solid wire feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjara, P.; Brochu, M.; Jahazi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of electron beam technology for freeforming build-ups on 321 stainless steel substrates was investigated in this work by using 347 stainless steel as a filler metal. The electron beam freeforming studies indicated that line build-ups could be deposited on the substrate material for optimized processing conditions and a slight linear thickening of the re-build occurred as a function of the deposited layer. The evolution in the formation of the Ti (C, N) (Nb, Ti) carbonitrides and Nb (C, N) precipitates was demonstrated to counteract the formation of detrimental Cr-carbides usually observed during welding stainless steels. The mechanical properties of the re-build were similar to the properties of the base metal, showing that homogeneous properties can be expected in the repaired components

  20. An Experimental Study on Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members using Steel Wire Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Saadi Hamza Salim Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges and contemporary research in the field of structural engineering is strengthening of existing structural elements using readily available materials in the market. Several investigations were conducted on strengthening of various structural components using traditional and advanced materials. Many researchers tried to enhance the reinforced concrete (RC beams strength using steel plate, Glass and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP & CFRP. For the reason that high weight to the strength ratio and compatibility in strength between FRP composites and steel bars, steel plates and GFRP and CFRP composites are not used for strengthening works practically. Hence, in this present work the suitability of using wire mesh for the purpose of strengthening the RC flexural members is studied by conducting experimental works. New technique of strengthening system using wire mesh with a view to improve sectional properties and subsequently flexural strength of RC beams is adopted in this work. The results for experimental and theoretical analysis were compared and found that good correlation exists between them. The experimental results indicate that RC beams strengthened with steel wire mesh are easy technique for strengthening of existing flexural members.

  1. Iridium Oxide pH Sensor Based on Stainless Steel Wire for pH Mapping on Metal Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, S.; Ismail, M. C.; Kakooei, S.; Beheshti, M.; Zabihiazadboni, M.; Zavareh, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    A simple technique to fabricate the iridium oxide pH sensor is useful in several applications such as medical, food processing and engineering material where it is able to detect the changes of pH. Generally, the fabrication technique can be classified into three types: electro-deposition iridium oxide film (EIrOF), activated iridium oxide film (AIROF) and sputtering iridium oxide film (SIROF). This study focuses on fabricating electrode, calibration and test. Electro-deposition iridium oxide film is a simple and effective method of fabricating this kind of sensor via cyclic voltammetry process. The iridium oxide thick film was successfully electrodeposited on the surface of stainless steel wire with 500 cycles of sweep potential. A further analysis under FESEM shows detailed image of iridium oxide film which has cauliflower-liked microstructure. EDX analysis shows the highest element present are iridium and oxygen which concluded that the process is successful. The iridium oxide based pH sensor has shown a good performance in comparison to conventional glass pH sensor when it is being calibrated in buffer solutions with 2, 4, 7 and 9 pH values. The iridium oxide pH sensor is specifically designed to measure the pH on the surface of metal plate.

  2. Structural Parameters and Strengthening Mechanisms in Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andy; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Pearlitic steel wires have a nanoscale structure and a strength which can reach 5 GPa. In order to investigate strengthening mechanisms, structural parameters including interlamellar spacing, dislocation density and cementite decomposition, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy...... and high resolution electron microscopy in wires cold drawn up to a strain of 3.7. Three strengthening mechanisms, namely boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid solution hardening have been analyzed and good agreement has been found between the measured flow stress and the value...

  3. Fabrication and characterization of a Spanish RAFM steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, D.; Serrano, M.; Moran, A.; Artimez, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the main challenges for the realization of the future fusion reactor is the development and qualification of structural materials for first wall and breeding blanket. The fusion reactor application requires materials resistant to radiation damage, with excellent mechanical properties at high temperatures, good corrosion behaviour and reduced activation potential. Reduced Activation (RAFM) 9Cr Ferritic/Martenistic steels are the main candidates for first wall and blanket of fusion reactors, due to their resistance to swelling and excellent structural and thermal properties. These steels are based on the classical Cr-Mo steel grades but with a chemical composition modified in order to fulfil the low activation requirements, substituting the alloying elements with long decay times due to high activation by neutron irradiation. For this purpose the Mo is replaced by W, the Nb by Ta and Ni is removed. A summary of the activities related to the evaluation of the microstructural and mechanical properties of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel fabricated at a semi-industrial scale in Spain will be presented in this paper. The steel chemical composition fulfils or is very close to the compositional specifications and metallurgical properties of the EUROFER steel. This activity corresponds to the ITMA and CIEMAT participation on Task 4 of the CONSOLIDER TECNO F US INGENIO 2010, financed by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. (author)

  4. Self-assembled peptide nanotubes as an etching material for the rapid fabrication of silicon wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Benjamin Barbour Spanget; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2011-01-01

    This study has evaluated self-assembled peptide nanotubes (PNTS) and nanowires (PNWS) as etching mask materials for the rapid and low-cost fabrication of silicon wires using reactive ion etching (RIE). The self-assembled peptide structures were fabricated under mild conditions and positioned on c...... characterization by SEM and I-V measurements. Additionally, the fabricated silicon structures were functionalized with fluorescent molecules via a biotin-streptavidin interaction in order to probe their potential in the development of biosensing devices....

  5. Design and Fabrication of a Miniaturized GMI Magnetic Sensor Based on Amorphous Wire by MEMS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawen Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized Co-based amorphous wire GMI (Giant magneto-impedance magnetic sensor was designed and fabricated in this paper. The Co-based amorphous wire was used as the sense element due to its high sensitivity to the magnetic field. A three-dimensional micro coil surrounding the Co-based amorphous wire was fabricated by MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System technology, which was used to extract the electrical signal. The three-dimensional micro pick-up coil was designed and simulated with HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator software to determine the key parameters. Surface micro machining MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System technology was employed to fabricate the three-dimensional coil. The size of the developed amorphous wire magnetic sensor is 5.6 × 1.5 × 1.1 mm3. Helmholtz coil was used to characterize the performance of the device. The test results of the sensor sample show that the voltage change is 130 mV/Oe and the linearity error is 4.83% in the range of 0~45,000 nT. The results indicate that the developed miniaturized magnetic sensor has high sensitivity. By testing the electrical resistance of the samples, the results also showed high uniformity of each device.

  6. Steel-fabricated butterfly valves for condenser circulating water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Hiroshi; Yasuoka, Masahiro; Nanao, Teruaki.

    1979-01-01

    The steel-fabricated butterfly valves, which are large in general, and gave rubber linings inside to prevent the corrosion due to sea Water, are utilized for the condenser circulating water systems of thermal and nuclear power plants. Cast iron butterfly valves, having been used hitherto, have some technical irrationalities, such as corrosion prevention, the techniques for manufacturing large castings, severe thermal transient operation. On the contrary, the steel plate-fabricated butterfly valves have the following advantages; much superior characteristics in strength, rigidity and shock resistance, the streamline shape of valve plates, the narrow width between two flanges, superior execution of works for rubber lining, the perfect sealed structure, safety to vibration, light weight and easy maintenance. The structural design and the main specifications for the steel plate butterfly valves with the nominal bore from 1350 mm to 3500 mm are presented. Concerning the design criteria, the torque of operating butterfly valves and the strength of valve bodies, valve plates and valve stems are explained. The performance tests utilizing the mock-up valve were carried out for the measurements of stress distribution, the deformation of valve body, the endurance and the operating torque. In the welding standards for steel plate butterfly valves, three kinds of welded parts are classified, and the inspection method for each part is stipulated. The vibration of the valves induced by flow vortexes and cavitation is explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  7. 75 FR 1755 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-945] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES: Effective Date: January 13...

  8. Optimal Modes for the Fabrication of Aluminum Nanopowders by the Electrical Explosion of Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Pustovalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at studying the impact of initial conditions of electrical explosion of wires on energy characteristics of the explosion and some other properties of the obtained aluminum powders. Explosion modes where the energy input into the wire has the maximal level were found. These modes are optimal for fabrication of powders with the best properties. The powders have the highest value of the specific surface of 14.5 m2/g, a narrow histogram of the particle size distribution, and a narrow distribution histogram with a high polydispersity coefficient of 0.7.

  9. Study of corrosion behavior of carbon steel under seawater film using the wire beam electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zaijian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jia; Peng, Xin; Wang, Yanhua; Zhang, Penghui; Wang, Haijie; Gao, Congjie

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of carbon steel under seawater film with various thickness was investigated by the wire beam electrode (WBE) method. It was found that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased significantly under thin seawater film than it was immersed in seawater. The current variation under seawater film indicated that the thickness of diffusion layer of oxygen was about 500 μm, and the maximal current appeared around 40 μm, at which corrosion rate transited from cathodic control to anodic control. The results suggest that WBE method is helpful to study the corrosion process under thin electrolyte film

  10. The importance of carbon nanotube wire density, structural uniformity, and purity for fabricating homogeneous carbon nanotube-copper wire composites by copper electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Rajyashree; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Atsuko

    2018-04-01

    We present the influence of density, structural regularity, and purity of carbon nanotube wires (CNTWs) used as Cu electrodeposition templates on fabricating homogeneous high-electrical performance CNT-Cu wires lighter than Cu. We show that low-density CNTWs (wires) with regular macro- and microstructures and high CNT content (>90 wt %) are essential for making homogeneous CNT-Cu wires. These homogeneous CNT-Cu wires show a continuous Cu matrix with evenly mixed nanotubes of high volume fractions (˜45 vol %) throughout the wire-length. Consequently, the composite wires show densities ˜5.1 g/cm3 (33% lower than Cu) and electrical conductivities ˜6.1 × 104 S/cm (>100 × CNTW conductivity). However, composite wires from templates with higher densities or structural inconsistencies are non-uniform with discontinuous Cu matrices and poor CNT/Cu mixing. These non-uniform CNT-Cu wires show conductivities 2-6 times lower than the homogeneous composite wires.

  11. Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel during wire drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Joong-Ki; Yi, Il-Cheol; Son, Il-Heon; Yoo, Jang-Yong; Kim, Byoungkoo; Zargaran, A.; Kim, Nack J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of wire drawing on the microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of Fe–Mn–Al–C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel has been investigated. The inhomogeneities of the stress state, texture, microstructure, and mechanical properties were clarified over the cross section of drawn wire with the aid of numerical simulation, Schmid factor analysis, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The analysis of texture in drawn wire shows that a mixture of <111> and <100> fiber texture was developed with strain; however, the distribution of <111> and <100> fibers was inhomogeneous along the radial direction of wire due to uneven strain distribution and different stress state along the radial direction. It has also been shown that the morphology, volume fraction, and variant system of twins as well as twinning rate were dependent on the imposed stress state. The surface area was subjected to larger strain and more complex stress state involving compression, shear, and tension than the center area, resulting in a larger twin volume fraction and more twin variants in the former than in the latter at all the strain levels. While the surface area was saturated with twins at an early stage of drawing, the center area was not saturated with twins even at fracture, implying that the fracture of wire were initiated at the surface area because of the exhaustion of ductility due to twinning. Based on these results, it is suggested that imposing a uniform strain distribution along the radial direction of wire by the control of processing conditions such as die angle and amount of reduction per pass is necessary to increase the drawing limit of TWIP steel

  12. Phase transformation of 316L stainless steel from wire to fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyr, Tien-Wei; Shie, Jing-Wen; Huang, Shih-Ju; Yang, Shun-Tung; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2010-01-01

    In this work, quantitative crystalline phase analysis of 316L stainless steel from wire to fiber using a multi-pass cold drawing process was studied using the Rietveld whole XRD profile fitting technique. The different diameters of the fibers: 179, 112, 75, 50, 34, 20, and 8 μm, were produced from an as-received wire with a diameter of 190 μm. The crystalline phases were identified using MDI Jade 5.0 software. The volume fractions of crystalline phases were estimated using a Materials Analysis Using Diffraction software. XRD analysis revealed that the crystal structure of as-received wire is essentially a γ-austenite crystalline phase. The phase transformation occurred during the 316L stainless steel from wire to fiber. Three crystalline phases such as γ-austenite, α'-martensite, and sigma phase of the fine fiber were observed. A cold drawing accelerates the sigma phase precipitates, particularly during the heat treatment of the fiber.

  13. Microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andy; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening mechanisms and strength–structure relationships have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel with a structural scale in the nanometer range and a flow stress of about 3.5GPa. The wires have been drawn up to a strain of 3.7 and the structures analyzed and quantified by transmis......Strengthening mechanisms and strength–structure relationships have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel with a structural scale in the nanometer range and a flow stress of about 3.5GPa. The wires have been drawn up to a strain of 3.7 and the structures analyzed and quantified...... by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy. The mechanical properties have been determined by tensile testing. It is found that the interlamellar spacing and the thickness of the cementite lamellae are reduced in accordance with the changes in wire diameter up to a strain of 2...... at the ferrite/cementite interface. Three strengthening mechanisms have been analyzed: (i) boundary strengthening, (ii) dislocation strengthening and (iii) solid solution hardening. The individual and combined contributions, based on an assumption of linear additivity, of these mechanisms to the wire strength...

  14. The Analysis of Force Parameters in Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires in Conventional and Hydrodynamic Dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliga M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes force parameters in the process of multistage drawing of steel wires in conventional and hydrodynamic dies. The drawing process of the wire rod with a diameter of 5.5 mm for wires with a diameter of 1.70 mm was performed in 12 drafts with the usage of the multistage drawbench Koch KGT with the speed range of 5-25 m/s.

  15. 76 FR 28953 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Wire Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Non-Market Economy Questionnaire (January 21, 2011... Administrative Review of Steel Garment Wire Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Non-Market Economy... Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Non-Market Economy Questionnaire (May 2, 2011); see also...

  16. 76 FR 23548 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations... Imports of Galvanized Steel Wire from the People's Republic of China (the PRC) and Mexico and... Initiation Checklist at 6-10 and Mexico Initiation Checklist at 6- 10. Export Price The PRC For the PRC...

  17. Self-protective powder wire for semiautomatic welding of corrosion resistant chromium-nickel type 18-10 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipodaev, V.N.; Kakhovskij, N.I.; Fadeeva, G.V.

    1977-01-01

    Self-protecting NP-ANV1 powder wire has been developed for welding 18-10 type stainless steels. The use of the wire provides for the same running properties of the welds as the TsL-11 electrodes, the welding being 3-5 times more efficient

  18. Pelepasan ion nikel dan kromium kawat Australia dan stainless steel dalam saliva buatan (The release of nickel and chromium ions from Australian wire and stainless steel in artificial saliva)

    OpenAIRE

    Nolista Indah Rasyid; Pinandi Sri Pudyani; JCP Heryumani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment needs several types of wire to produce biomechanical force to move teeth. The use orthodontic wire within the mouth interacts with saliva, causing the release of nickel and chromium ions. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the effect of immersion time in artificial saliva between special type of Australian wire and stainless steel on the release of nickel and chromium ions. Methods: Thirty special type Australian wires and 30 stainless steel wires ...

  19. Design of dual energy x-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Miao, Changyun; Rong, Feng

    2009-07-01

    A dual energy X-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. Conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is one of primary transfer equipments in modern production. The traditional test methods like electromagnetic induction principle could not display inner image of steel wire ropes directly. So X-ray detection technology has used to detect the conveyor belt. However the image was not so clear by the interference of the rubber belt. Therefore, the dualenergy X-ray detection technology with subtraction method is developed to numerically remove the rubber belt from radiograph, thus improving the definition of the ropes image. The purpose of this research is to design a dual energy Xray detector that could make the operator easier to found the faulty of the belt. This detection system is composed of Xray source, detector controlled by FPGA chip, PC for running image processing system and so on. With the result of the simulating, this design really improved the capability of the staff to test the conveyor belt.

  20. Fabrication of sub-15 nm aluminum wires by controlled etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan-Wall, T.; Hughes, H. J.; Hartman, N.; Marković, N.; McQueen, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method for the fabrication of uniform aluminum nanowires with diameters below 15 nm. Electron beam lithography is used to define narrow wires, which are then etched using a sodium bicarbonate solution, while their resistance is simultaneously measured in-situ. The etching process can be stopped when the desired resistance is reached, and can be restarted at a later time. The resulting nanowires show a superconducting transition as a function of temperature and magnetic field that is consistent with their smaller diameter. The width of the transition is similar to that of the lithographically defined wires, indicating that the etching process is uniform and that the wires are undamaged. This technique allows for precise control over the normal state resistance and can be used to create a variety of aluminum nanodevices

  1. Effects of nanostructured, diamondlike, carbon coating and nitrocarburizing on the frictional properties and biocompatibility of orthodontic stainless steel wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Guo, Shuyu; Wang, Dongyue; Zhou, Tingting; Wang, Lin; Ma, Junqing

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of nanostructured, diamondlike, carbon (DLC) coating and nitrocarburizing on the frictional properties and biocompatibility of orthodontic stainless steel archwires. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology was applied to coat DLC films onto the surface of austenitic stainless steel wires, and salt-bath nitrocarburizing technology was employed to achieve surface hardening of other wires. Surface and cross-sectional characteristics, microhardness, modulus of elasticity, friction resistance, corrosion resistance, and cell toxicity of the modified and control wires were analyzed. The surfaces of the DLC-coated and nitrocarburized wires were both smooth and even. Compared with the control, the DLC-coated wires were increased in surface hardness 1.46 times, decreased in elastic modulus, reduced in kinetic friction coefficient by 40.71%, and decreased in corrosion current density by two orders of magnitude. The nitrocarburized wire was increased in surface hardness 2.39 times, exhibited an unchanged elastic modulus, demonstrated a decrease in maximum static friction force of 22.2%, and rose in corrosion current density two orders of magnitude. Cytotoxicity tests revealed no significant toxicity associated with the modified wires. DLC coating and nitrocarburizing significantly improved the surface hardness of the wires, reduced friction, and exhibited good biocompatibility. The nanostructured DLC coating provided excellent corrosion resistance and good elasticity, and while the nitrocarburizing technique substantially improved frictional properties, it reduced the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel wires to a lesser extent.

  2. Study of the deoxidation of steel with aluminum wire injection in a gas-stirred ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskow, K.; Jonsson, L.; Sichen, Du; Viswanathan, N. N.

    2001-04-01

    In the present work, the deoxidation of liquid steel with aluminum wire injection in a gas-stirred ladle was studied by mathematical modeling using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. This was complemented by an industrial trial study conducted at Uddeholm Tooling AB (Hagfors, Sweden). The results of the industrial trials were found to be in accordance with the results of the model calculation. In order to study the aspect of nucleation of alumina, emphasis was given to the initial period of deoxidation, when aluminum wire was injected into the bath. The concentration distributions of aluminum and oxygen were calculated both by considering and not considering the chemical reaction. Both calculations revealed that the driving force for the nucleation fo Al2O3 was very high in the region near the upper surface of the bath and close to the wire injection. The estimated nucleation rate in the vicinity of the aluminum wire injection point was much higher than the recommended value for spontaneously homogeneous nucleation, 103 nuclei/(cm3/s). The results of the model calculation also showed that the alumina nuclei generated at the vicinity of the wire injection point are transported to other regions by the flow.

  3. Effect of tensile overloads on fatigue crack growth of high strength steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, J.; Reguly, A.; Strohaecker, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A proof load process may be an option to increase the fatigue life of flexible pipelines. • There is possibility to produce plastic deformation at crack tip of tensile armor wires. • Controlled overloads provide effective crack growth retardation. • Crack growth retardation is also evident at higher stress ratios. - Abstract: Fatigue of the tensile armor wires is the main failure mode of flexible risers. Techniques to increase the life of these components are required to improve the processes safety on oil exploration. This work evaluates the crack growth retardation of high strength steel wires used in flexible pipelines. Fracture toughness tests were performed to establish the level of stress intensity factor wherein the wires present significant plastic deformation at the crack tip. The effect of tensile overload on fatigue behavior was assessed by fatigue crack growth testing under constant ΔK control and different overload ratios with two different load ratios. The outcomes show that the application of controlled overloads provides crack retardation and increases the fatigue life of the wires more than 31%. This behavior is also evident at stress ratio of 0.5, in spite of the crack closure effect being minimized by increasing the applied mean stress

  4. Wire rod coating process of gas diffusion layers fabrication for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, A.M.; Sadananda, S.; Parker, D.; Munukutla, L. [Electronic Systems Department, Arizona State University, 7001 E Williams Field Road, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Wertz, J. [Hollingsworth and Vose Co., A.K. Nicholson Research Lab, 219 Townsend Road West Groton, MA 01472 (United States); Thommes, M. [Quantachrome Instruments, 1900 Corporate Drive, Boynton Beach, FL 33426 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) were fabricated using non-woven carbon paper as a macro-porous layer substrate developed by Hollingsworth and Vose Company. A commercially viable coating process was developed using wire rod for coating micro-porous layer by a single pass. The thickness as well as carbon loading in the micro-porous layer was controlled by selecting appropriate wire thickness of the wire rod. Slurry compositions with solid loading as high as 10 wt.% using nano-chain and nano-fiber type carbons were developed using dispersion agents to provide cohesive and homogenous micro-porous layer without any mud-cracking. The surface morphology, wetting characteristics and pore size distribution of the wire rod coated GDLs were examined using FESEM, Goniometer and Hg porosimetry, respectively. The GDLs were evaluated in single cell PEMFC under various operating conditions (temperature and RH) using hydrogen and air as reactants. It was observed that the wire rod coated micro-porous layer with 10 wt.% nano-fibrous carbon based GDLs showed the highest fuel cell performance at 85 C using H{sub 2} and air at 50% RH, compared to all other compositions. (author)

  5. Recent advances in high-temperature superconductor wire fabrication and applications development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, recent advances in fabrication of high-temperature superconductor wires are summarized and detailed discussion is provided on developments in near- and intermediate-term applications. Near-term applications, using presently obtainable current densities, include liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, cryostat current leads, and magnetic bearings. Intermediate-term applications, using current densities expected to be available in the near future, include fault-current limiters and short transmission lines

  6. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gareth; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nack-Joon

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  7. Analysis of Steel Wire Rope Diagnostic Data Applying Multi-Criteria Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Steel ropes are complex flexible structures used in many technical applications, such as elevators, cable cars, and funicular cabs. Due to the specific design and critical safety requirements, diagnostics of ropes remains an important issue. Broken wire number in the steel ropes is limited by safety standards when they are used in the human lifting and carrying installations. There are some practical issues on loose wires—firstly, it shows end of lifetime of the entire rope, independently of wear, lubrication or wrong winding on the drums or through pulleys; and, secondly, it can stick in the tight pulley—support gaps and cause deterioration of rope structure up to birdcage formations. Normal rope operation should not generate broken wires, so increasing of their number shows a need for rope installation maintenance. This paper presents a methodology of steel rope diagnostics and the results of analysis using multi-criteria analysis methods. The experimental part of the research was performed using an original test bench to detect broken wires on the rope surface by its vibrations. Diagnostics was performed in the range of frequencies from 60 to 560 Hz with a pitch of 50 Hz. The obtained amplitudes of the broken rope wire vibrations, different from the entire rope surface vibration parameters, was the significant outcome. Later analysis of the obtained experimental results revealed the most significant values of the diagnostic parameters. The evaluation of the power of the diagnostics was implemented by using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods. Various decision-making methods are necessary due to unknown efficiencies with respect to the physical phenomena of the evaluated processes. The significance of the methods was evaluated using objective methods from the structure of the presented data. Some of these methods were proposed by authors of this paper. Implementation of MCDM in diagnostic data analysis and definition of the

  8. PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES AT THERMO-MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF ROLLED WIRE OF NICKEL-MOLYBDENUM STEEL WITH WELDING FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2012-01-01

    There are results of researches of the mechanical properties and structure of the wire rod made of low-carbon nickel molybdenum steel after reduction to toughness thermomechanical treatment in the stream of high-speed wire mill.

  9. The fabrication and characterisation of quantum dots, wires and wire net works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q.

    1996-07-01

    The work in this thesis includes two aspects as described below: 1. Freshly produced red, yellow and green emitting porous Si have been fabricated and studied by NEXAFS and EXAFS. The emission peaks are at 690, 580 and 520 nm, which almost covers the fall visible range that direct anodization can achieve. The correlation between the co-ordination numbers of the first, second and third Si neighbour shells from Fourier transform fitting of EXAFS and both emission peak energies and optical bandgaps estimated by PLE (photoluminescence excitation dependence) suggests that the nanostructures of the PS are nanowires, rather than nanoclusters. Two types of quantum nanowire with one and one-plus-a-fraction dimensionality are proposed to interpret the correlation. The order factors of the theoretical fits suggest the nanowires of the freshly produced PS have crystalline cores. 2. Strong and stable blue photoluminescence (PL), visible to the naked eye under 0.4 μW of 300 nm and 2.7 μW of 370 nm excitation, has been observed for samples of Si and C clusters embedded in SiO 2 matrices, prepared by rf co-sputtering followed by N 2 annealing at 800 deg C. Firstly for the Si clusters. Si K-edge EXAFS and NEXAFS strongly suggest the existence of Si nanoclusters with crystalline cores in the efficient emitting material. On the other hand for the carbon clusters, silicon, carbon and oxygen K-edge XAFS suggest that 1) the nanoclusters present are C-based materials, 2) the luminescent materials probably involves π bonded carbon. The size distributions of both kinds of the nanoclusters obtained by TEM suggest that a quantum-confined size effect can also apply to the blue PL. The strong blue emission is related with the crystallisation of the nanodots by annealing. The PL excitation dependence is explained by an increase in the conduction band density of states deep in the band, and the formation of a band tail. (author)

  10. Influence of the Manufacturing Process on Defects in the Galvanized Coating of High Carbon Steel Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfi, Marcello; Solazzi, Luigi; Poli, Sandro

    2017-03-06

    This study is a detailed failure analysis of galvanized high carbon steel wires, which developed coating cracks during the torsion test performed as a quality control at the end of the manufacturing process. Careful visual inspections showed that the cracks are already present in the coating before the torsion test. In order to explain the origin of these cracks, systematic metallographic investigations were performed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope on both the wires and the rods that have been cold drawn to produce the wire. The chemical composition of the galvanized coatings was evaluated by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy. Micro bidimensional X-ray diffraction experiments were also performed to measure the residual stresses in the galvanized coating. The results showed that the failure is related to two main factors: the relatively high content of silicon in the steel and the unsuitable cooling rate of the rods at the exit from the galvanizing bath. The mechanism proposed to explain the origin of the defects was supported by Finite Elements Methods simulations and verified with in-plant tests. The proper countermeasures were then applied and the problem successfully solved.

  11. Influence of the Manufacturing Process on Defects in the Galvanized Coating of High Carbon Steel Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gelfi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a detailed failure analysis of galvanized high carbon steel wires, which developed coating cracks during the torsion test performed as a quality control at the end of the manufacturing process. Careful visual inspections showed that the cracks are already present in the coating before the torsion test. In order to explain the origin of these cracks, systematic metallographic investigations were performed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope on both the wires and the rods that have been cold drawn to produce the wire. The chemical composition of the galvanized coatings was evaluated by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy. Micro bidimensional X-ray diffraction experiments were also performed to measure the residual stresses in the galvanized coating. The results showed that the failure is related to two main factors: the relatively high content of silicon in the steel and the unsuitable cooling rate of the rods at the exit from the galvanizing bath. The mechanism proposed to explain the origin of the defects was supported by Finite Elements Methods simulations and verified with in-plant tests. The proper countermeasures were then applied and the problem successfully solved.

  12. Martensitic transformation of austenitic stainless steel orthodontic wires during intraoral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Paula P; de Biasi, Ronaldo S; Elias, Carlos N; Nojima, Lincoln I

    2010-12-01

    Our purpose was to study the mechanical properties and phase transformations of orthodontic wires submitted to in-vivo exposure in the mouth for different periods of time. Stainless steel wires were tied to fixed orthodontic appliances of 30 patients from the orthodontics clinic of Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro School of Dentistry in Brazil. According to the duration of the clinical treatment, the patients were divided into 3 groups. After in-vivo exposure, the samples were studied by mechanical testing (torsion) and ferromagnetic resonance. Statistical analyses were carried out to evaluate the correlation between time of exposure, mechanical properties, and austenite-to-martensite transformation among the groups. The results were compared with as-received control samples. The torque values increased as time in the mouth increased. The increase in torque resistance showed high correlations with time of exposure (P = 0.005) and austenite-martensite phase transformation. The resistance of stainless steel orthodontic wires increases as the time in the mouth increases; this effect is attributed to the austenite-to-martensite transformation. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliga M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estimated.

  14. Investigation of the tensile properties of continuous steel wire-reinforced gray cast iron composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdemir, Ahmet; Kus, Recai; Simsir, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Metal matrix composite (MMC) is an important structural material. → Gray cast irons as a matrix material in MMC have more advantages than other cast irons. → Interface greatly determines the mechanical properties of MMC. → Interface formed by diffusion of carbon atoms. → While decarburizing takes place in gray cast iron, carburiszing takes place in steel near the interface. - Abstract: The aim of the present study was to improve the tensile properties of gray cast iron by reinforcing the material with a steel wire. The composite was produced by sand mold casting, and the specimens were normalized by applying heat treatments at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C, and 900 deg. C. Tension tests were conducted on gray cast iron and composite specimens, and the microstructure of the specimens was examined with an optical microscope. The fracture surface of the tension test specimens was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and graphite-free transition regions with high degrees of hardness were observed due to the diffusion of carbon from the cast iron to the steel wire. The microstructure of the transition region (fine pearlitic phase with partially dissolved graphite flakes) and the bond quality in the transition region increased the tensile properties of cast iron composites. Also, it is concluded that the tensile properties of gray cast iron increased with an increase in the normalization temperature.

  15. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamontagne, A. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Massardier, V., E-mail: veronique.massardier@insa-lyon.fr [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Kléber, X. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Sauvage, X. [University of Rouen, GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, BP 12, Avenue de l’Université, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Mari, D. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 3, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2015-09-17

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing.

  16. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Massardier, V.; Kléber, X.; Sauvage, X.; Mari, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing

  17. Investigation of the tensile properties of continuous steel wire-reinforced gray cast iron composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdemir, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Kus, Recai [Department of Mechanical Education, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Simsir, Mehmet, E-mail: msimsir@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Cumhuriyet University, Kayseri Yolu 7. Km, 58140 Sivas (Turkey)

    2011-04-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Metal matrix composite (MMC) is an important structural material. {yields} Gray cast irons as a matrix material in MMC have more advantages than other cast irons. {yields} Interface greatly determines the mechanical properties of MMC. {yields} Interface formed by diffusion of carbon atoms. {yields} While decarburizing takes place in gray cast iron, carburiszing takes place in steel near the interface. - Abstract: The aim of the present study was to improve the tensile properties of gray cast iron by reinforcing the material with a steel wire. The composite was produced by sand mold casting, and the specimens were normalized by applying heat treatments at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C, and 900 deg. C. Tension tests were conducted on gray cast iron and composite specimens, and the microstructure of the specimens was examined with an optical microscope. The fracture surface of the tension test specimens was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and graphite-free transition regions with high degrees of hardness were observed due to the diffusion of carbon from the cast iron to the steel wire. The microstructure of the transition region (fine pearlitic phase with partially dissolved graphite flakes) and the bond quality in the transition region increased the tensile properties of cast iron composites. Also, it is concluded that the tensile properties of gray cast iron increased with an increase in the normalization temperature.

  18. Investigation about the Chrome Steel Wire Arc Spray Process and the Resulting Coating Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilden, J.; Bergmann, J. P.; Jahn, S.; Knapp, S.; van Rodijnen, F.; Fischer, G.

    2007-12-01

    Nowadays, wire-arc spraying of chromium steel has gained an important market share for corrosion and wear protection applications. However, detailed studies are the basis for further process optimization. In order to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the effects of the spray parameters DoE-based experiments had been carried out with high-speed camera shoots. In this article, the effects of spray current, voltage, and atomizing gas pressure on the particle jet properties, mean particle velocity and mean particle temperature and plume width on X46Cr13 wire are presented using an online process monitoring device. Moreover, the properties of the coatings concerning the morphology, composition and phase formation were subject of the investigations using SEM, EDX, and XRD-analysis. These deep investigations allow a defined verification of the influence of process parameters on spray plume and coating properties and are the basis for further process optimization.

  19. Radiation cross-linking of small electrical wire insulator fabricated from NR/LDPE blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, Chyagrit [Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)], E-mail: chyagrit@chula.ac.th; Punnachaiya, Suvit [Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2007-12-15

    A low voltage, radiation-crosslinked wire insulator has been fabricated from blends of natural rubber block (STR-5L) and LDPE with phthalic anhydride (PA) as a compatibilizer. Physical properties of the NR/LDPE blend ratios of 50/50 and 60/40 with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt% PA were evaluated. The gel content increased as the radiation dose increased. Tensile at break exhibited a maximum value of 12 MPa at 120 kGy for 1.0 and 1.5 wt% PA of both blend ratios. A higher PA content yielded a higher modulus for the same blend ratio. Blends of 60/40 ratio with 1.0 wt% PA and 0.8 wt% antimony oxide flame retardant gave the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of >30% at above 150 kGy. Other electrical properties of the wire insulator were investigated. It was found that an insulator fabricated from a PA content of 1.0 wt% in the NR/LDPE blend ratio of 50/50, after gamma ray cross-linked at a dose of 180 kGy in low vacuum (1 mm Hg), met the Thai Industrial Standard 11-2531 for low voltage wire below 1.0 kV. To comply with the standard for vertical flame test, a more suitable flame retardant was needed for the insulator.

  20. Evaluation of frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brakcets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTiarch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Mirzaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When using sliding mechanics for space closure during orthodontic treatment, friction occurs at the bracket-wire interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brackets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTi wires. Methods: In this experimental study, we used 5 different types of orthodontic wires. Brackets and wires were divided in to 5 groups: 1-(monocrystalline+stainless steel 18 2–(monocrystalline+stainless steel 19×25 3-(monocrystalline+Beta-TMA 4–(monocrystalline+Beta TMA 19×25 5-(monocrystalline+NiTi 18. Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to investigate the static frictional resistance. The angulation between bracket and wire was 0 and the wires were pulled through the slots at a speed of 10 mm/min. Tests were performed 10 times for each group in artificial saliva. The average of 10 forces recorded was considered as static friction. One-way ANOVA and SPSS Version 18 and LSD post hoc test were used to evaluate the results of the study. Results: The mean static frictional force for each group was: group1: 0.82 ± 0.14, group 2: 1.09 ± 0.30, group 3: 0.87 ± 0.53, group 4: 1.9 ± 1.16, group 5: 1.42 ± 0.30. There was a significant difference when comparing the two groups of similar wires in terms of shape (round or rectangular cross-section as when comparing Beta TMA 18 and 19×25 arch wires with each other, the obtained p-value was 0.023, while the obtained p-value for the comparison of stainles steel arch wires was 0.034 . Conclusions: The result of this study shows that Stainless Steel 18 wires generate the least amount of friction and round wires produce less friction than the rectangular wires. Beta TMA wires generate the highest amount of friction.

  1. Evaluation of frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brakcets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTi arch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Mirzaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When using sliding mechanics for space closure during orthodontic treatment, friction occurs at the bracket-wire interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brackets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTi wires. Methods: In this experimental study, we used 5 different types of orthodontic wires. Brackets and wires were divided in to 5 groups: 1-(monocrystalline+stainless steel 18 2–(monocrystalline+stainless steel 19×25 3-(monocrystalline+Beta-TMA 4–(monocrystalline+Beta TMA 19×25 5-(monocrystalline+NiTi 18. Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to investigate the static frictional resistance. The angulation between bracket and wire was 0 and the wires were pulled through the slots at a speed of 10 mm/min. Tests were performed 10 times for each group in artificial saliva. The average of 10 forces recorded was considered as static friction. One-way ANOVA and SPSS Version 18 and LSD post hoc test were used to evaluate the results of the study. Results: The mean static frictional force for each group was: group1: 0.82±0.14, group 2: 1.09±0.30, group 3: 0.87±0.53, group 4: 1.9±1.16, group 5: 1.42±0.30. There was a significant difference when comparing the two groups of similar wires in terms of shape (round or rectangular cross-section as when comparing Beta TMA 18 and 19×25 arch wires with each other, the obtained p-value was 0.023, while the obtained p-value for the comparison of stainles steel arch wires was 0.034. Conclusions: The result of this study shows that Stainless Steel 18 wires generate the least amount of friction and round wires produce less friction than the rectangular wires. Beta TMA wires generate the highest amount of friction.

  2. Facile fabrication of wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors applicable to ultrasensitive flexible sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Gyu; Tak, Young Jun; Kim, Hee Jun; Kim, Won-Gi; Yoo, Hyukjoon; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2018-04-03

    We fabricated wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) using a self-formed cracked template based on a lift-off process. The electrical characteristics of wire-type IGZO TFTs could be controlled by changing the width and density of IGZO wires through varying the coating conditions of template solution or multi-stacking additional layers. The fabricated wire-type devices were applied to sensors after functionalizing the surface. The wire-type pH sensor showed a sensitivity of 45.4 mV/pH, and this value was an improved sensitivity compared with that of the film-type device (27.6 mV/pH). Similarly, when the wire-type device was used as a glucose sensor, it showed more variation in electrical characteristics than the film-type device. The improved sensing properties resulted from the large surface area of the wire-type device compared with that of the film-type device. In addition, we fabricated wire-type IGZO TFTs on flexible substrates and confirmed that such structures were very resistant to mechanical stresses at a bending radius of 10 mm.

  3. Compressive and bending behavior of sandwich panels with Octet truss core fabricated from wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Hyun; Nah, Seong Jun; Kang, Ki Ju; Koo, Man Hoe

    2005-01-01

    Ultra light metal structures have been studied for several years because of their superior specific stiffness, strength and potential of multi functions. Many studies have been focused on how to manufacture ultra light metal structures and optimize them. In this study, we introduced a new idea to make sandwich panels having Octet truss cores. Wires bent in a shape of triangular wave were assembled to construct an Octet truss core and it was bonded with two face sheets to be a sandwich panel. The bending and compressive strength and stiffness were estimated through elementary mechanics for the sandwich specimens with two kinds of face sheets and the results were compared with the ones measured by experiments. Some aspects of assembling and mechanical behavior were discussed compared with Kagome core fabricated from wire, which had been introduced in the authors' previous work

  4. Dissimilar material joining using laser (aluminum to steel using zinc-based filler wire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Alexandre; Shabadi, Rajashekar; Deschamps, Alexis; Suery, Michel; Matteï, Simone; Grevey, Dominique; Cicala, Eugen

    2007-04-01

    Joining steel with aluminum involving the fusion of one or both materials is possible by laser beam welding technique. This paper describes a method, called laser braze welding, which is a suitable process to realize this structure. The main problem with thermal joining of steel/aluminum assembly with processes such as TIG or MIG is the formation of fragile intermetallic phases, which are detrimental to the mechanical performances of such joints. Braze welding permits a localized fusion of the materials resulting in a limitation on the growth of fragile phases. This article presents the results of a statistical approach for an overlap assembly configuration using a filler wire composed of 85% Zn and 15% Al. Tensile tests carried on these assemblies demonstrate a good performance of the joints. The fracture mechanisms of the joints are analyzed by a detailed characterization of the seams.

  5. Research of x-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Miao, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Lu, Xiaocui

    2008-03-01

    An X-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. The principle of X-ray nondestructive testing (NDT) is analyzed, the general scheme of the X-ray nondestructive testing system is proposed, and the nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is developed. The hardware of system is designed with Xilinx's VIRTEX-4 FPGA that embeds PowerPC and MAC IP core, and its network communication software based on TCP/IP protocol is programmed by loading LwIP to PowerPC. The nondestructive testing of high-speed conveyor belt with steel wire ropes and network transfer function are implemented. It is a strong real-time system with rapid scanning speed, high reliability and remotely nondestructive testing function. The nondestructive detector can be applied to the detection of product line in industry.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of a dual-joint smart inhaler nozzle actuated by embedded SMA wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furst, Stephen J; Seelecke, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) wires offer a novel solution for many embedded actuator and sensor applications. Small SMA wires in particular can be heated with a relatively low electric current, cool rapidly, and serve as a sensor thanks to a measurable resistance change. However, the challenges of fabrication with SMA actuator wires as well as their hysteretic nature have prevented them from finding mainstream application. This work focuses on the process used to control the fabrication of an SMA-actuated adaptive nozzle for the previously presented Smart Inhaler application. The elements of nozzle design that facilitate fabrication are summarized and an assembly setup and procedure is presented for controlling the stress and strain in the SMA wires while they are attached to the nozzle structure via temperature-resistant adhesives. Finally, the performance of the nozzle is characterized by measuring the changes in nozzle deflection and SMA wire strain and resistance in response to a controlled Joule heating power input. Results show controlling pre-stress in the wires during assembly can lead to reproducible behavior, an input heating power serves to control nozzle deflection, and a measured resistance can provide a useful sensor of SMA wire strain and nozzle joint deflection. (paper)

  7. All-solid, flexible solar textiles based on dye-sensitized solar cells with ZnO nanorod arrays on stainless steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Youngjin [Department of Clothing and Textiles, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Tae; Koh, Jong Kwan [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hak, E-mail: jonghak@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eunae, E-mail: eakim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Clothing and Textiles, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • All-solid, flexible solar textile fabricated with DSSCs is demonstrated. • DSSCs woven into a satin structure and transparent PET film are used. • Solar textile showed a high efficiency of 2.57%. -- Abstract: An all-solid, flexible solar textile fabricated with dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) woven into a satin structure and transparent poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was demonstrated. A ZnO nanorod (NR) vertically grown from fiber-type conductive stainless steel (SS) wire was utilized as a photoelectrode, and a Pt-coated SS wire was used as a counter electrode. A graft copolymer, i.e. poly(vinyl chloride)-graft-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used as a solid electrolyte. The conditions for the growth of ZnO NR and sufficient dye loading were investigated to improve cell performance. The adhesion of PET films to DSSCs resulted in physical stability improvements without cell performance loss. The solar textile with 10 × 10 wires exhibited an energy conversion efficiency of 2.57% with a short circuit current density of 20.2 mA/cm{sup 2} at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination, which is the greatest account of an all-solid, ZnO-based flexible solar textile. DSSC textiles with woven structures are applicable to large-area, roll-to-roll processes.

  8. Cladding nuclear steels - the application of plasma-arc hot wire surfacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trarbach, K.O.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of one and two layer plasma-arc hot wire cladding on the HAZ microstructure of the fine grained structural steel 22 NiMoCr 3 7, which is similar to ASTM A 508, class 2, and steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5, similar to ASTM A 533, grade B, class 1 is determined. Attention is directed particularly to the behaviour of the susceptible region, and the consumables considered are cladding materials X 2 CrNiNb 19 9, similar to ER 347 Elc, and S-NiCr 20 Nb, similar to ER NiCr-3 (Inconel 82). Results of corrosion resistance tests show that this cladding technique can be recommended for manufacture of equipment for the chemical industry to avoid corrosion failure. Plasma-arc hot wire surfacing is also shown to be capable of depositing single or double clad layers to meet the highest safety requirements and could be applied to nuclear power plants for the special manufacture of wear resistant parts and for protection of equipment subject to a variety of corrosive environments. (U.K.)

  9. Strengthening of Masonry Columns with BFRCM or with Steel Wires: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Fossetti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, innovative materials are more frequently adopted for strengthening historical constructions and masonry structures. The target of these techniques is to improve the structural efficiency with retrofitting methods while having a reduced aesthetical impact. In particular, the use of basalt fiber together with a cementitious matrix emerges as a new technique. This kind of fiber is obtained by basalt rock without other components, and consequently it could be considered a natural material, compatible with masonry. Another innovative technique for strengthening masonry columns consists of applying steel wires in the correspondence of mortar joints. Both techniques have been recently proposed and some aspects of their structural performances are still open. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the compressive behavior of clay brick masonry columns reinforced either with Basalt Fiber–Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (BFRCM or with steel wire collaring. Uniaxial compressive tests were performed on eight retrofitted columns and four control specimens until failure. Two masonry grades were considered by varying the mix used for the mortar. Results are presented and discussed in terms of axial stress-strain curves, failure modes and crack patterns of tested specimens. Comparisons with unreinforced columns show the capability of these techniques in increasing ductility with limited strength enhancements.

  10. Radiation Crosslinking of Small Electrical Wire Insulator Fabricated from NR-LDPE Blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyagrit, S.

    2006-01-01

    Blending of block natural rubber (STR-5L) and LDPE with phthalic anhydride (PA) as copatibilizer was put to the test for the purpose of a fabrication into small electrical wire insulator. It was found that PA at concentration of 1.0 - 1.5% in NR/PE of 50/50 so fabricated into the insulator, after gamma ray cross-linked at a dose of 180 kGy in limited air, could meet Thai Industrial Standard (TIS) 11-2531 of small eletrical insulator (<300 V). Effect of radiation dose on tensile, hardness, elongation at break, modulus 100%, limiting oxigen index (LOI) were investigated. It was noted that to comply with TIS 11-2531 for vertical flame retardance test, a suitable flame retardance was needed for the insulator

  11. In-depth study of the mechanical properties for Fe{sub 3}Al based iron aluminide fabricated using the wire-arc additive manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen; Pan, Zengxi, E-mail: zengxi@uow.edu.au; Cuiuri, Dominic; Dong, Bosheng; Li, Huijun

    2016-07-04

    An innovative wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process is used to fabricate iron aluminide alloy in-situ, through separate feeding of pure Fe and Al wires into a molten pool that is generated by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. This paper investigates the morphologies, chemical compositions and mechanical properties of the as-fabricated 30 at% Al iron aluminide wall components, and how these properties vary at different locations within the buildup wall. The tensile properties are also measured in different loading orientations; as epitaxial growth of large columnar grains is observed in the microstructures. Fe{sub 3}Al is the only phase detected in the middle buildup section of the wall structure, which constitutes the majority of the deposited material. The bottom section of the structure contains a dilution affected region where some acicular Fe{sub 3}AlC{sub 0.5} precipitates can be observed, induced by carbon from the steel substrate that was used for fabrication. The microhardness and chemical composition indicate relatively homogeneous material properties throughout the buildup wall. However, the tensile properties are very different in the longitudinal direction and normal directions, due to epitaxial growth of large columnar grains. In general, the results have demonstrated that the WAAM process is capable of producing full density in-situ-alloyed iron aluminide components with tensile properties that are comparable to powder metallurgy methods.

  12. In-depth study of the mechanical properties for Fe_3Al based iron aluminide fabricated using the wire-arc additive manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Chen; Pan, Zengxi; Cuiuri, Dominic; Dong, Bosheng; Li, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    An innovative wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process is used to fabricate iron aluminide alloy in-situ, through separate feeding of pure Fe and Al wires into a molten pool that is generated by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. This paper investigates the morphologies, chemical compositions and mechanical properties of the as-fabricated 30 at% Al iron aluminide wall components, and how these properties vary at different locations within the buildup wall. The tensile properties are also measured in different loading orientations; as epitaxial growth of large columnar grains is observed in the microstructures. Fe_3Al is the only phase detected in the middle buildup section of the wall structure, which constitutes the majority of the deposited material. The bottom section of the structure contains a dilution affected region where some acicular Fe_3AlC_0_._5 precipitates can be observed, induced by carbon from the steel substrate that was used for fabrication. The microhardness and chemical composition indicate relatively homogeneous material properties throughout the buildup wall. However, the tensile properties are very different in the longitudinal direction and normal directions, due to epitaxial growth of large columnar grains. In general, the results have demonstrated that the WAAM process is capable of producing full density in-situ-alloyed iron aluminide components with tensile properties that are comparable to powder metallurgy methods.

  13. ODS steel fabrication: relationships between process, microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couvrat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising candidate materials for generation IV and fusion nuclear energy systems thanks to their excellent thermal stability, high-temperature creep strength and good irradiation resistance. Their superior properties are attributed both to their nano-structured matrix and to a high density of Y-Ti-O nano-scale clusters (NCs). ODS steels are generally prepared by Mechanical Alloying of a pre-alloyed Fe-Cr-W-Ti powder with Y 2 O 3 powder. A fully dense bar or tube is then produced from this nano-structured powder by the mean of hot extrusion. The aim of this work was to determine the main parameters of the process of hot extrusion and to understand the link between the fabrication process, the microstructure and the mechanical properties. The material microstructure was characterized at each step of the process and bars were extruded with varying hot extrusion parameters so as to identify the impact of these parameters. Temperature then appeared to be the main parameter having a great impact on microstructure and mechanical properties of the extruded material. We then proposed a cartography giving the microstructure versus the process parameters. Based on these results, it is possible to control very accurately the obtained material microstructure and mechanical properties setting the extrusion parameters. (author) [fr

  14. Structure of Polymer Fibers Fabricated by Electrospinning Method Utilizing a Metal Wire Electrode in a Capillary Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Shintaro; Hoshino, Rikiya; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Shinbo, Kazunari; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    We fabricated electrospun poly (vinylalcohol) (PVA) fibers using a copper wire electrode in Teflon capillary tube, and the SEM images were observed. The apparatus in this method is reasonable, and needed volume of polymer solution and distance between the electrodes can be largely reduced compared to conventional method. The wire electrode tip position in the capillary tube is also important in this method and should be close to the polymer solution surface.

  15. 77 FR 28354 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... from the People's Republic of China: Non-market Economy Questionnaire (December 28, 2011). \\4\\ See id... China: Non-market Economy Questionnaire (February 6, 2012). On March 8, 2012, we selected Shaoxing... Administrative Review of Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Non-market Economy...

  16. 77 FR 50160 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United...

  17. 77 FR 50713 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final Phase of...) under section 735(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in...

  18. Research on Mechanisms and Controlling Methods of Macro Defects in TC4 Alloy Fabricated by Wire Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lei; Lu, Jiping; Tang, Shuiyuan; Wu, Qianru; Wang, Jiachen; Ma, Shuyuan; Fan, Hongli; Liu, Changmeng

    2018-06-28

    Wire feeding additive manufacturing (WFAM) has broad application prospects because of its advantages of low cost and high efficiency. However, with the mode of lateral wire feeding, including wire and laser additive manufacturing, gas tungsten arc additive manufacturing etc., it is easy to generate macro defects on the surface of the components because of the anisotropy of melted wire, which limits the promotion and application of WFAM. In this work, gas tungsten arc additive manufacturing with lateral wire feeding is proposed to investigate the mechanisms of macro defects. The results illustrate that the defect forms mainly include side spatters, collapse, poor flatness, and unmelted wire. It was found that the heat input, layer thickness, tool path, and wire curvature can have an impact on the macro defects. Side spatters are the most serious defects, mainly because the droplets cannot be transferred to the center of the molten pool in the lateral wire feeding mode. This research indicates that the macro defects can be controlled by optimizing the process parameters. Finally, block parts without macro defects were fabricated, which is meaningful for the further application of WFAM.

  19. Twin-Wire Pulsed Tandem Gas Metal Arc Welding of API X80 Steel Linepipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin-Wire Pulsed Tandem Gas Metal Arc Welding process with high welding production efficiency was used to join the girth weld seam of API X80 steel linepipe of 18.4 mm wall thickness and 1422 mm diameter. The macrostructure, microstructure, hardness, and electrochemical corrosion behavior of welded joints were studied. Effects of temperature and Cl− concentration on the corrosion behavior of base metal and weld metal were investigated. Results show that the welded joint has good morphology, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of both the base metal and the weld metal decreases with increasing temperature or Cl− concentration. In the solution with high Cl− concentration, the base metal and weld metal are more susceptible to pitting. The corrosion resistance of the weld metal is slightly lower than that of the base metal.

  20. Correlations between operating conditions, microstructure and mechanical properties of twin wire arc sprayed steel coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandin, G.; Liao, H.; Feng, Z.Q.; Coddet, C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental design matrix was set up in which carbon steel coatings were deposited with a twin wire arc spray gun (TAFA 9000 TM ), using either compressed air or nitrogen as spraying gas. The coating's mechanical properties were studied. Some correlations were made between these properties, spraying conditions and the microstructure of the deposits. Young's modulus was estimated by the single beam method using finite element modeling. Results show that direct relationships do exist between spray conditions, oxide content in the coating and microhardness. Young's modulus of the coatings depends on the lamella thickness and the oxide content. When increasing the compressed air flow rate, Young's modulus increases at first because smaller particles and finer lamellae were made and it decreases later because of a higher oxide content. The increase of nitrogen flow rate lowers the oxide content and increases Young's modulus

  1. Stress-strain effects in alumina-Cu reinforced Nb3Sn wires fabricated by the tube process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Satoru; Nakayama, Shigeo; Masegi, Tamaki; Koyanagi, Kei; Nomura, Shunji; Shiga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Norio; Watanabe, Kazuo.

    1997-01-01

    In order to fabricate a large-bore, high-field magnet which achieves a low coil weight and volume, a high strength compound superconducting wire is required. For those demands we have developed the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire using alumina dispersion strengthened copper (alumina-Cu) as a reinforcement material and the tube process of the Nb 3 Sn wire fabrication. The ductility study of the composites which consisted of the reinforcement, Nb tube, Cu, and Cu clad Sn brought a 1 km long alumina-Cu reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire successfully. Using fabricated wires measurements and evaluations of critical current density as parameters of magnetic field, tensile stress, tensile strain, and transverse compressive stress, and those of stress-strain curves at 4.2 K were performed. They showed superior performance such as high 0.3% proof stress (240 MPa at 0.3% strain) and high maximum tolerance stress (320 MPa) which were two times as large as those of conventional Cu matrix Nb 3 Sn wire. The strain sensitivity parameters were obtained for the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire and the Cu matrix one using the scaling law. Residual stress of the component materials caused by cooling down to 4.2 K from heat-treatment temperature was calculated using equivalent Young's modulus, equivalent yield strength, thermal expansion coefficient and other mechanical parameters. Calculated stress-strain curves at 4.2 K for the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire and the Cu matrix one based on calculation of residual stress, had good agreement with the experimental values. (author)

  2. Mechanical and microstructural integrity of nickel-titanium and stainless steel laser joined wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannod, J.; Bornert, M.; Bidaux, J.-E.; Bataillard, L.; Karimi, A.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.; Hessler-Wyser, A.

    2011-01-01

    The biomedical industry shows increasing interest in the joining of dissimilar metals, especially with the aim of developing devices that combine different mechanical and corrosive properties. As an example, nickel-titanium shape memory alloys joined to stainless steel are very promising for new invasive surgery devices, such as guidewires. A fracture mechanics study of such joined wires was carried out using in situ tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy imaging combined with chemical analysis, and revealed an unusual fracture behaviour at superelastic stress. Nanoindentation was performed to determine the mechanical properties of the welded area, which were used as an input for mechanical computation in order to understand this unexpected behaviour. Automated image correlation allowed verification of the mechanical modelling and a reduced stress-strain model is proposed to explain the special fracture mechanism. This study reveals the fact that tremendous property changes at the interface between the NiTi base wire and the weld area have more impact on the ultimate tensile strength than the chemical composition variation across the welded area.

  3. Development of a facility for fabricating nuclear waste canisters from radioactively contaminated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, J.A.; Larsen, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes design of a facility and processes capable of using radioactively contaminated waste steel as the principal raw material for fabricating stainless steel canisters to be used for disposal of nuclear high-level waste. By such action, expenditure (i.e., permanent loss to society) of thousands of tons of uncontaminated chromium and nickel to fabricate such canisters can be avoided. Moreover, the cost and risks involved in disposing of large accumulations of radioactively contaminated steel as low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), that would otherwise be necessary, can also be avoided. The canister fabrication processes (involving centrifugal casting) described herein have been tested and proven for this application. The performance characteristics of stainless steel canisters so fabricated have been tested and agreed to by the organizations that have been involved in this development work (Battelle Memorial Institute, DuPont, EGandG and the Savannah River Laboratory) as equivalent to the performance characteristics of canisters fabricated of uncontaminated wrought stainless steel. It is estimated that the production cost for fabricating canisters by the methods described will not differ greatly from the production cost using uncontaminated wrought steel, and the other costs avoided by not having to dispose of the contaminated steel as LLRW could cause this method to produce the lowest ultimate overall costs

  4. Biofilm formation on stainless steel and gold wires for bonded retainers in vitro and in vivo and their susceptibility to oral antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, Marije A; Pelser, Floris D H; van der Mei, Henny C; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Busscher, Henk J; Ren, Yijin

    2013-05-01

    Bonded retainers are used in orthodontics to maintain treatment result. Retention wires are prone to biofilm formation and cause gingival recession, bleeding on probing and increased pocket depths near bonded retainers. In this study, we compare in vitro and in vivo biofilm formation on different wires used for bonded retainers and the susceptibility of in vitro biofilms to oral antimicrobials. Orthodontic wires were exposed to saliva, and in vitro biofilm formation was evaluated using plate counting and live/dead staining, together with effects of exposure to toothpaste slurry alone or followed by antimicrobial mouthrinse application. Wires were also placed intra-orally for 72 h in human volunteers and undisturbed biofilm formation was compared by plate counting and live/dead staining, as well as by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for compositional differences in biofilms. Single-strand wires attracted only slightly less biofilm in vitro than multi-strand wires. Biofilms on stainless steel single-strand wires however, were much more susceptible to antimicrobials from toothpaste slurries and mouthrinses than on single-strand gold wires and biofilms on multi-strand wires. Also, in vivo significantly less biofilm was found on single-strand than on multi-strand wires. Microbial composition of biofilms was more dependent on the volunteer involved than on wire type. Biofilms on single-strand stainless steel wires attract less biofilm in vitro and are more susceptible to antimicrobials than on multi-strand wires. Also in vivo, single-strand wires attract less biofilm than multi-strand ones. Use of single-strand wires is preferred over multi-strand wires, not because they attract less biofilm, but because biofilms on single-strand wires are not protected against antimicrobials as in crevices and niches as on multi-strand wires.

  5. A preliminary study of laser cladding of AISI 316 stainless steel using preplaced NiTi wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, F.T.; Lo, K.H.; Man, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    NiTi wire of diameter 1 mm was preplaced on AISI 316 stainless steel samples by using a binder. Melting of the NiTi wire to form a clad track on the steel substrate was achieved by means of a high-power CW Nd:YAG laser using different processing parameters. The geometry and microstructure of the clad deposit were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The hardness and compositional profiles along the depth of the deposit were acquired by microhardness testing and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The elastic behavior of the deposit was analyzed using nanoindentation, and compared with that of the NiTi wire. The dilution of the NiTi clad by the substrate material beneath was substantial in single clad tracks, but could be successively reduced in multiple clad layers. A strong fusion bonding with tough interface could be obtained as evidenced by the integrity of Vickers indentations in the interfacial region. In comparison with the NiTi cladding on AISI 316 using the tungsten inert gas (TIG) process, the laser process was capable of producing a much less defective cladding with a more homogeneous microstructure, which is an essential cladding quality with respect to cavitation erosion and corrosion resistance. Thus, the present preliminary study shows that laser cladding using preplaced wire is a feasible method to obtain a thick and homogeneous NiTi-based alloy layer on AISI 316 stainless steel substrate

  6. Swelling behaviors in a fuel assembly for the wrapping wire and duct made of modified 316 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Ichiro; Akasaka, Naoaki

    2010-01-01

    Swelling behaviors in the wrapping wire and duct made of modified type 316 austenitic stainless steel were investigated in a fuel assembly irradiated in a fast breeder reactor. The temperature dependence of volumetric swelling was measured in the wrapping wire and the duct, and the peak temperatures of swelling were evaluated. The void distribution in the material was measured by microstructure observation with electron microscopy, and it was found that the voids prefentially grew near the surface. This phenomenon seemed to be caused by a surface effect on the neutron-irradiated materials. (author)

  7. Dislocation-based plasticity and strengthening mechanisms in sub-20 nm lamellar structures in pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The tensile properties and the deformation microstructure of pearlitic steel (0.8 wt % C) have been quantified in wires drawn to strains in the range from 3.7 to 5.4, having a flow stress in the range from 3.5 to 4.5 GPa. With increasing strain the interlamellar spacing (ILS) decreases from about...... mechanism in the wire and three strengthening mechanisms are applied: boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid solution hardening with their relative contributions to the total flow stress which change as the strain is increased. Based on linear additivity good correspondence between...

  8. Fabrication and properties of multifilamentary MgB 2 wires by in-situ powder-in-tube process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. Y.; Jiao, G. F.; Liu, G. Q.; Xiong, X. M.; Yan, S. C.; Zhang, P. X.; Sulpice, A.; Mossang, E.; Feng, Y.; Yan, G.

    2010-11-01

    We have fabricated the long TiC-doped MgB2 wires with 6 filaments by in-situ powder-in-tube method using Nb as the barrier and copper as the stabilizer. To improve the strength of wires, the Nb-core was used as the central filament. The transport engineering critical current density (Jce) of the samples sintered at different temperature were measured, which reaches 2.5 × 104 A/cm2 at 4.2 K, 5 T. 100 m MgB2 wires with different diameter were wound into coils and the transport critical current (Ic) of the coil were measured at 30 K in self-field. The Jce value 100 m coil achieves 1.1 × 104 A/cm2 in 1.2 mm wire. The reasons leading to the enhancement of high field Jce were discussed. The results show a good potential to fabricate high performance MgB2 wires and tapes at ambient pressure on an industrial scale.

  9. Plastohydrodynamic drawing and coating of stainless steel wire using a tapered bore die of no metal to metal contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S.; Basmage, O.; Stokes, J. T.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2018-05-01

    A review of wire coating studies using plasto-hydrodynamic pressure shows that most of the works were carried out by conducting experiments simultaneously with simulation analysis based upon Bernoulli's principle and Euler and Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. These characteristics relate to the domain of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) which is an interdisciplinary topic (Fluid Mechanics, Numerical Analysis of Fluid flow and Computer Science). This research investigates two aspects: (i) simulation work and (ii) experimentation. A mathematical model was developed to investigate the flow pattern of the molten polymer and pressure distribution within the wire-drawing dies, assessment of polymer coating thickness on the coated wires and speed of coating on the wires at the outlet of the drawing dies, without deploying any pressurizing pump. In addition to a physical model which was developed within ANSYS™ environment through the simulation design of ANSYS™ Workbench. The design was customized to simulate the process of wire-coating on the fine stainless-steel wires using drawing dies having different bore geometries such as: stepped parallel bore, tapered bore and combined parallel and tapered bore. The convergence of the designed CFD model and numerical and physical solution parameters for simulation were dynamically monitored for the viscous flow of the polypropylene (PP) polymer. Simulation results were validated against experimental results and used to predict the ideal bore shape to produce a thin coating on stainless wires with different diameter. Simulation studies confirmed that a specific speed should be attained by the stainless-steel wires while passing through the drawing dies. It has been observed that all the speed values within specific speed range did not produce a coating thickness having the desired coating characteristic features. Therefore, some optimization of the experimental set up through design of experiments (Stat-Ease) was applied to

  10. Decompression Device Using a Stainless Steel Tube and Wire for Treatment of Odontogenic Cystic Lesions: A Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun-Joo; Baek, Jin-A; Leem, Dae-Ho

    2014-11-01

    Decompression is considered an effective treatment for odontogenic cystic lesions in the jaw. A variety of decompression devices are successfully used for the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts, and ameloblastoma. The purpose of these devices is to keep an opening between the cystic lesion and the oral environment during treatment. The aim of this report is to describe an effective decompression tube using a stainless steel tube and wire for treatment of jaw cystic lesions.

  11. INFLUENCE OF MICRO-SEGREGATION IN PB-S-ALLOYED FREE MACHINING STEELS ON THE SURFACE QUALITY OF THE ROLLED WIRE-ROD

    OpenAIRE

    Leuschke, U.; Rajesh Puvvada, N.; Puvvada, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Free machining steel billets were manufactured at the continuous casting machine. The manufactured billets did not exhibit any kind of surface defects but surface cracks and slivers appeared when the billets were rolled into wires and rods at the wire-rod mill. The defects on rolled wire-rod have been detected by a hot eddy current system. Further investigations in these defects with the help of microprobe analysis system and scanning electron microscope equipped with image analysis system re...

  12. PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES AT THERMO-MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF ROLLED WIRE OF NICKEL-MOLYBDENUM STEEL WITH WELDING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are results of researches of the mechanical properties and structure of the wire rod made of low-carbon nickel molybdenum steel after reduction to toughness thermomechanical treatment in the stream of high-speed wire mill.

  13. Fabrication of Copper-Rich Cu-Al Alloy Using the Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bosheng; Pan, Zengxi; Shen, Chen; Ma, Yan; Li, Huijun

    2017-12-01

    An innovative wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process is used to fabricate Cu-9 at. pct Al on pure copper plates in situ, through separate feeding of pure Cu and Al wires into a molten pool, which is generated by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. After overcoming several processing problems, such as opening the deposition molten pool on the extremely high-thermal conductive copper plate and conducting the Al wire into the molten pool with low feed speed, the copper-rich Cu-Al alloy was successfully produced with constant predesigned Al content above the dilution-affected area. Also, in order to homogenize the as-fabricated material and improve the mechanical properties, two further homogenization heat treatments at 1073 K (800 °C) and 1173 K (900 °C) were applied. The material and mechanical properties of as-fabricated and heat-treated samples were compared and analyzed in detail. With increased annealing temperatures, the content of precipitate phases decreased and the samples showed gradual improvements in both strength and ductility with little variation in microstructures. The present research opened a gate for in-situ fabrication of Cu-Al alloy with target chemical composition and full density using the additive manufacturing process.

  14. Modeling of electric and heat processes in spot resistance welding of cross-wire steel bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatcheva, Ilona; Darzhanova, Denitsa; Manilova, Marina

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is the modeling of coupled electric and heat processes in a system for spot resistance welding of cross-wire reinforced steel bars. The real system geometry, dependences of material properties on the temperature, and changes of contact resistance and released power during the welding process have been taken into account in the study. The 3D analysis of the coupled AC electric and transient thermal field distributions is carried out using the finite element method. The novel feature is that the processes are modeled for several successive time stages, corresponding to the change of contact area, related contact resistance, and reduction of the released power, occurring simultaneously with the creation of contact between the workpieces. The values of contact resistance and power changes have been determined on the basis of preliminary experimental and theoretical investigations. The obtained results present the electric and temperature field distributions in the system. Special attention has been paid to the temperature evolution at specified observation points and lines in the contact area. The obtained information could be useful for clarification of the complicated nature of interrelated electric, thermal, mechanical, and physicochemical welding processes. Adequate modeling is also an opportunity for proper control and improvement of the system.

  15. Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of Dissimilar Titanium Alloy and Stainless Steel Using Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Chen, Cong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zemin; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Laser-arc hybrid welding with Cu3Si filler wire was employed to join dissimilar Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and AISI316 stainless steel (316SS). The effects of welding parameters on bead shape, microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior were investigated in detail. The results show that cross-weld tensile strength of the joints is up to 212 MPa. In the joint, obvious nonuniformity of the microstructure is found in the fusion zone (FZ) and at the interfaces from the top to the bottom, which could be improved by increasing heat input. For the homogeneous joint, the FZ is characterized by Fe67- x Si x Ti33 dendrites spreading on α-Cu matrix, and the two interfaces of 316SS/FZ and FZ/Ti6Al4V are characterized by a bamboo-like 316SS layer and a CuTi2 layer, respectively. All the tensile samples fractured in the hardest CuTi2 layer at Ti6Al4V side of the joints. The fracture surface is characterized by river pattern revealing brittle cleavage fracture. The bead formation mechanisms were discussed according to the melt flow and the thermodynamic calculation.

  16. Electrochemical properties of Sn/C nanoparticles fabricated by redox treatment and pulsed wire evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Seok; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Cho, Kwon-Koo

    2017-09-01

    Tin (Sn) based anode materials are the most promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacity corresponding to the formation of Li4.4Sn composition (Li4.4Sn, 994 mAh/g). However, the applications of tin based anodes to lithium-ion battery system are generally limited by a large volume change (>260%) during lithiation and delithiation cycle, which causes pulverize and poor cycling stability. In order to overcome this shortcoming, we fabricate a Sn/C nanoparticle with a yolk-shell structure (Sn/void/C) by using pulsed wire evaporation process and oxidation/reduction heat treatment. Sn nanoparticles are encapsulated by a conductive carbon layer with structural buffer that leaves enough room for expansion and contraction during lithium insertion/desertion. We expect that the yolk-shell structure has the ability to accommodate the volume changes of tin and leading to an improved cycle performance. The Sn/Void/C anode with yolk-shell structure shows a high specific capacity of 760 mAh/g after 50 cycles.

  17. Critical current density and wire fabrication of high-TC superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlabach, T.D.; Jin, S.; Sherwood, R.C.; Tiefel, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, some of the recent investigations of wire fabrication techniques and critical current behavior in high T c superconductors will be reviewed. In spite of the tremendous interest and research effort, the progress toward major applications of the bulk high-temperature superconductors has been impeded by, among other thins, the low critical currents and their severe deterioration in weak magnetic fields. Significant advances, however, have been made in understanding the causes of the problem as well as in improving the current-carrying capacity through proper microstructural control such as the melt-textured-growth in Y-Ba-Cu-O. The low density of effective flux-pinning sites in bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O limits J c at 77K in high magnetic fields to about 10 4 A/cm 2 even in the absence of weak links. Magnetization measurements on Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O at 77K by various researchers indicate even weaker flux pinning capabilities in these materials than in Y-Ba-Cu-O. The challenge in the future is to obtain suitable flux-pinning defects by choosing the right processing and chemistry changes

  18. Effect of Different Types of Toothpaste on the Frictional Resistance Between Orthodontic Stainless Steel Brackets and Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, Tahereh; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Farhadifard, Homa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of toothpaste on the frictional resistance between stainless steel brackets and archwires. Ninety stainless steel orthodontic brackets with stainless steel wires were bonded to bovine teeth and were divided into 6 groups for application of the following toothpastes: Colgate® Total® Advanced Whitening, Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health, Colgate® Anticavity, Ortho.Kin®, and Sunstar GUM® Ortho toothpastes. No toothpaste was applied in the control group. Each group was brushed by a brushing machine with the use of the designated solution for 4.5 minutes. The frictional force was measured in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 10 mm/minute over a 5-mm archwire. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the 0.05 significance level. The frictional resistance values of Ortho.Kin® and GUM® Ortho toothpastes and the control group were not significantly different (P>0.05). However, there were significant differences between the frictional resistance values of Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health and Colgate® Anticavity toothpastes with that of the control group (Porthodontic toothpastes did not increase the frictional resistance between the orthodontic stainless steel brackets and wires.

  19. Fabrication of Chemically Doped, High Upper Critical Field Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzik, James, V.

    2005-10-13

    Controlled chemical doping of magnesium diboride (MgB2) has been shown to substantially improve its superconducting properties to the levels required for high field magnets, but the doping is difficult to accomplish through the usual route of solid state reaction and diffusion. Further, superconducting cables of MgB2 are difficult to fabricate because of the friable nature of the material. In this Phase I STTR project, doped and undoped boron fibers were made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several >100m long batches of doped and undoped fiber were made by CVD codeposition of boron plus dopants. Bundles of these fibers infiltrated with liquid magnesium and subsequently converted to MgB2 to form Mg-MgB2 metal matrix composites. In a parallel path, doped boron nano-sized powder was produced by a plasma synthesis technique, reacted with magnesium to produce doped MgB2 superconducting ceramic bodies. The doped powder was also fabricated into superconducting wires several meters long. The doped boron fibers and powders made in this program were fabricated into fiber-metal composites and powder-metal composites by a liquid metal infiltration technique. The kinetics of the reaction between boron fiber and magnesium metal was investigated in fiber-metal composites. It was found that the presence of dopants had significantly slowed the reaction between magnesium and boron. The superconducting properties were measured for MgB2 fibers and MgB2 powders made by liquid metal infiltration. Properties of MgB2 products (Jc, Hc2) from Phase I are among the highest reported to date for MgB2 bulk superconductors. Chemically doped MgB2 superconducting magnets can perform at least as well as NbTi and NbSn3 in high magnetic fields and still offer an improvement over the latter two in terms of operating temperature. These characteristics make doped MgB2 an effective material for high magnetic field applications, such as magnetic confined fusion, and medical MRI devices. Developing

  20. Fabrication of Chemically Doped, High Upper Critical Field Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzik, James V.

    2005-01-01

    Controlled chemical doping of magnesium diboride (MgB2) has been shown to substantially improve its superconducting properties to the levels required for high field magnets, but the doping is difficult to accomplish through the usual route of solid state reaction and diffusion. Further, superconducting cables of MgB2 are difficult to fabricate because of the friable nature of the material. In this Phase I STTR project, doped and undoped boron fibers were made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several >100m long batches of doped and undoped fiber were made by CVD codeposition of boron plus dopants. Bundles of these fibers infiltrated with liquid magnesium and subsequently converted to MgB2 to form Mg-MgB2 metal matrix composites. In a parallel path, doped boron nano-sized powder was produced by a plasma synthesis technique, reacted with magnesium to produce doped MgB2 superconducting ceramic bodies. The doped powder was also fabricated into superconducting wires several meters long. The doped boron fibers and powders made in this program were fabricated into fiber-metal composites and powder-metal composites by a liquid metal infiltration technique. The kinetics of the reaction between boron fiber and magnesium metal was investigated in fiber-metal composites. It was found that the presence of dopants had significantly slowed the reaction between magnesium and boron. The superconducting properties were measured for MgB2 fibers and MgB2 powders made by liquid metal infiltration. Properties of MgB2 products (Jc, Hc2) from Phase I are among the highest reported to date for MgB2 bulk superconductors. Chemically doped MgB2 superconducting magnets can perform at least as well as NbTi and NbSn3 in high magnetic fields and still offer an improvement over the latter two in terms of operating temperature. These characteristics make doped MgB2 an effective material for high magnetic field applications, such as magnetic confined fusion, and medical MRI devices. Developing

  1. A new wire fabrication processing using high Ga content Cu-Ga compound in V3Ga compound superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishinuma, Yoshimitsu; Nishimura, Arata; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Iijima, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Takao

    2007-01-01

    A superconducting magnet system is also one of the important components in an advanced magnetic confinement fusion reactor. Then it is required to have a higher magnetic field property to confine and maintain steady-sate burning deuterium (D)-tritium (T) fusion plasma in the large interspace during the long term operation. Burning plasma is sure to generate 14 MeV fusion neutrons during deuterium-tritium reaction, and fusion neutrons will be streamed and penetrated to superconducting magnet through large ports with damping neutron energy. Therefore, it is necessary to consider carefully not only superconducting property but also neutron irradiation property in superconducting materials for use in a future fusion reactor, and a 'low activation and high field superconducting magnet' will be required to realize the fusion power plant beyond International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). V-based superconducting material has a much shorter decay time of induced radioactivity compared with the Nb-based materials. We thought that the V 3 Ga compound was one of the most promising materials for the 'low activation and higher field superconductors' for an advanced fusion reactor. However, the present critical current density (J c ) property of V 3 Ga compound wire is insufficient for apply to fusion magnet applications. We investigated a new route PIT process using a high Ga content Cu-Ga compound in order to improve the superconducting property of the V 3 Ga compound wire. (author)

  2. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Metallic Surface by Wire Electrical Discharge Machining for Seamless Roll-to-Roll Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young So

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal of a direct one-step method to fabricate a multi-scale superhydrophobic metallic seamless roll mold. The mold was fabricated using the wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM technique for a roll-to-roll imprinting application to produce a large superhydrophobic surface. Taking advantage of the exfoliating characteristic of the metallic surface, nano-sized surface roughness was spontaneously formed while manufacturing the micro-sized structure: that is, a dual-scale hierarchical structure was easily produced in a simple one-step fabrication with a large area on the aluminum metal surface. This hierarchical structure showed superhydrophobicity without chemical coating. A roll-type seamless mold for the roll-to-roll process was fabricated through engraving the patterns on the cylindrical substrate, thereby enabling to make a continuous film with superhydrophobicity.

  3. Fabrication of high edge-definition steel-tape gratings for optical encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guoyong; Liu, Hongzhong; Yan, Jiawei; Ban, Yaowen; Fan, Shanjin; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei

    2017-10-01

    High edge definition of a scale grating is the basic prerequisite for high measurement accuracy of optical encoders. This paper presents a novel fabrication method of steel tape gratings using graphene oxide nanoparticles as anti-reflective grating strips. Roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography is adopted to manufacture the steel tape with hydrophobic and hydrophilic pattern arrays. Self-assembly technology is employed to obtain anti-reflective grating strips by depositing the graphene oxide nanoparticles on hydrophobic regions. A thin SiO2 coating is deposited on the grating to protect the grating strips. Experimental results confirm that the proposed fabrication process enables a higher edge definition in making steel-tape gratings, and the new steel tape gratings offer better performance than conventional gratings.

  4. Pelepasan ion nikel dan kromium kawat Australia dan stainless steel dalam saliva buatan (The release of nickel and chromium ions from Australian wire and stainless steel in artificial saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolista Indah Rasyid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment needs several types of wire to produce biomechanical force to move teeth. The use orthodontic wire within the mouth interacts with saliva, causing the release of nickel and chromium ions. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the effect of immersion time in artificial saliva between special type of Australian wire and stainless steel on the release of nickel and chromium ions. Methods: Thirty special type Australian wires and 30 stainless steel wires were used in this study, each of which weighed 0.12 grams. The wires were immersed for 1, 7, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days in artificial saliva with a normal pH. The release of ions in saliva was examined using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry. Results: The result indicated that the release of nickel ions on special type of Australian wire was larger than that on stainless steel wire (p<0.005, there were differences in the release of the amount of nickel ions on special type of Australia in different immersion time, and there was a correlation between the types of wire and immersion time. Nickel ions released from the special type of Australian wire detected on the 7th day of immersion and reached its peak on the 35th day, while from stainless steel wire were detected on the 49th day of immersion. The released of chromium ions from the special type of Australian wire and stainless steel wire were not detected until the 49th day of immersion. Conclusion: The release of nickel ions were highest on the 35th day of immersion in special type of Australian wire and they were detected on the 49th day in stainless steel wire. The release of chromium ions were not detected until 49th day of immersion in special type of Australian and stainless steel wire.Latar belakang: Perawatan ortodonti cekat memerlukan beberapa macam kawat untuk menghasilkan kekuatan biomekanika yang sesuai dalam menggerakkan gigi. Pemakaian kawat ortodonti di dalam mulut dapat bereaksi dengan

  5. Analysis of mechanical damage by drawing on spheroid ABNT 1080 steel wire; Analise do dano mecanico na trefilacao de arame de aco ABNT 1080 esferoidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Ferreira, Sergio A. de; Cetlin, Paulo R.; Coutinho, Carlos A.B. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenheria Metalurgica

    1990-12-31

    Patented Brazilian 1080 carbon steel wires were isothermal annealed at 720 deg C for different times to produce spheroid carbides of varying average diameters. The heat treated wires were then drawn to rupture. Longitudinal sections of the drawn wires were prepared after each drawing pass for analysis of the mechanical damage caused by the process. It was found that the damage observed in the drawn wires showed a similar development to the damage caused by uniaxial tensile stresses in the same material. 8 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs.

  6. Design and fabrication of Sn-Nb-Cu-Ta-C composites for multifilamentary superconducting Nb/sub 3/Sn wires by using the modified tube technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, B A; Kosek, Z M

    1987-10-01

    The factors determining the design and fabrication of Nb/sub 3/Sn multifilamentary wires by the tube technique are discussed. New improved methods of obtaining multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn wires on the basis of both external diffusion and internal diffusion processes, by using the tube technique in a simpler and less expensive way, are presented.

  7. Advanced Process Possibilities in Friction Crush Welding of Aluminum, Steel, and Copper by Using an Additional Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besler, Florian A.; Grant, Richard J.; Schindele, Paul; Stegmüller, Michael J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Joining sheet metal can be problematic using traditional friction welding techniques. Friction crush welding (FCW) offers a high speed process which requires a simple edge preparation and can be applied to out-of-plane geometries. In this work, an implementation of FCW was employed using an additional wire to weld sheets of EN AW5754 H22, DC01, and Cu-DHP. The joint is formed by bringing together two sheet metal parts, introducing a wire into the weld zone and employing a rotating disk which is subject to an external force. The requirements of the welding preparation and the fundamental process variables are shown. Thermal measurements were taken which give evidence about the maximum temperature in the welding center and the temperature in the periphery of the sheet metals being joined. The high welding speed along with a relatively low heat input results in a minimal distortion of the sheet metal and marginal metallurgical changes in the parent material. In the steel specimens, this FCW implementation produces a fine grain microstructure, enhancing mechanical properties in the region of the weld. Aluminum and copper produced mean bond strengths of 77 and 69 pct to that of the parent material, respectively, whilst the steel demonstrated a strength of 98 pct. Using a wire offers the opportunity to use a higher-alloyed additional material and to precisely adjust the additional material volume appropriate for a given material alignment and thickness.

  8. Design and fabrication of a 30 T superconducting solenoid using overpressure processed Bi2212 round wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Gene [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-02-18

    High field superconducting magnets are used in particle colliders, fusion energy devices, and spectrometers for medical imaging and advanced materials research. Magnets capable of generating fields of 20-30 T are needed by future accelerator facilities. A 20-30 T magnet will require the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and therefore the challenges of high field HTS magnet development need to be addressed. Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) conductors fabricated by the oxide-powder-in-tube (OPIT) technique have demonstrated the capability to carry large critical current density of 105 A/cm2 at 4.2 K and in magnetic fields up to 45 T. Available in round wire multi-filamentary form, Bi2212 may allow fabrication of 20-50 T superconducting magnets. Until recently the performance of Bi2212 has been limited by challenges in realizing high current densities (Jc ) in long lengths. This problem now is solved by the National High Magnetic Field Lab using an overpressure (OP) processing technique, which uses external pressure to process the conductor. OP processing also helps remove the ceramic leakage that results when Bi-2212 liquid leaks out from the sheath material and reacts with insulation, coil forms, and flanges. Significant advances have also been achieved in developing novel insulation materials (TiO2 coating) and Ag-Al sheath materials that have higher mechanical strengths than Ag-0.2wt.% Mg, developing heat treatment approaches to broadening the maximum process temperature window, and developing high-strength, mechanical reinforced Bi-2212 cables. In the Phase I work, we leveraged these new opportunities to prototype overpressure processed solenoids and test them in background fields of up to 14 T. Additionally a design of a fully superconducting 30 T solenoid was produced. This work in conjunction with the future path outlined in the Phase II proposal would

  9. Fabrication of wire and flat strips with elevated recrystallization temperature of Mo monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, S.M.; Nesgovorov, V.V.; Kabakova, L.G.; Korzukhin, V.E.; Savitskij, E.M.; Burkhanov, G.S.; Ottenberg, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    A technique is developed for manufacturing wire and flat strip of elevated recrystallization point from single crystals fo molybdenum with micro-additions of zirconium and titanium by rotary hot forging with subsequent drawing under hydrodynamic friction conditions. Flat strip is manufactured next from a wire annealed at 1300-1400 deg C in hydrogen. Resultant wire and flat strip feature a high recrystallization point and a good shape stability. Tests on their ultimate strength on the range of temperatures between 20 and 1700 deg C have shown that the maximum temperature of the recrystallization onset is that of a wire from Mo single crystals of orientation [110], containing micro-additions of Zr and Ti, whereas loss of strength is at its highest in a wire from non-alloyed single-crystal molybdenum

  10. Comparative short-term in vitro analysis of mutans streptococci adhesion on esthetic, nickel-titanium, and stainless-steel arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hye; Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Young Kyung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2014-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in mutans streptococci (MS) adhesion between esthetic and metallic orthodontic arch wires based on their surface characteristics. Surface roughness (Ra) and apparent surface free energy (SFE) were measured for six wires-four esthetic, one nickel-titanium (NiTi), and one stainless-steel (SS)-using profilometry and dynamic contact angle analysis, respectively. The amount of MS (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) adhering to the wires was quantified using the colony-counting method. The surfaces, coating layers, and MS adhesion were also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical significance was set at P wires were significantly different from one another depending on the coating method (P wire showed the highest SFE, followed by the SS wire and then the four esthetic wires. The NiTi wires produced a significantly higher MS adhesion than did the SS wires (P wires showed significantly lower MS adhesions than did the NiTi wire (P < .05). Pearson correlation analyses found moderate significant positive correlations between the SFE and the S mutans and S sobrinus adhesions (r  =  .636/.427, P < .001/P  =  .001, respectively). The hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that some esthetic coatings on NiTi alloy might reduce MS adhesion in vitro in the short term.

  11. Fusion welded fabrication of unshielded steel glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This Specification deals with the manufacture, testing, inspection and delivery of fabricated glove boxes, including such internal and/or external fittings as are shown on the relevant drawings. (author)

  12. Technical issues of fabrication technologies of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Hirose, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The key technical issues of RAFM steel fabrication are the control of Ta, and deoxidation of the steel with a limited amount of Al addition. • Addition of Ta with poor deoxidation might results in the agglomeration of inclusions at 1/2t position. • ESR was proved to be effective removing Ta oxide inclusions and avoiding agglomeration of inclusions at 1/2t position, and achieving low oxygen concentration. -- Abstract: The key issue for DEMO application is that Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels fabrication technologies has to be highly assured, especially with respect to high availability, reliability and reduced activation capability on the DEMO level fabrication, which requires not a few tons but thousand tons RAFM fabrication. One of the key technical issues of RAFM fabrication is the control of Ta, and deoxidation of the steel with a limited amount of Al addition. The series of F82H (Fe–8Cr–2W–V, Ta) melting revealed that Ta have tendency to form oxide on melting process, and this will have large impact on reliability of the steels. Al is also the key elements, as it is commonly used for deoxidation of steels, and achieving lower oxygen level is essential to obtain good mechanical properties, but the maximum concentration of Al is limited in view of reduced activation capability. These tendency and limitation resulted in the Ta oxide agglomeration in the middle of plate, but the remelting process, ESR (electro slag remelting), was found to be successful on removing those Ta oxides

  13. Simple and fast fabrication of superhydrophobic metal wire mesh for efficiently gravity-driven oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Botao

    2016-12-15

    Superhydrophobic metal wire mesh (SMWM) has frequently been applied for the selective and efficient separation of oil/water mixture due to its porous structure and special wettability. However, current methods for the modification of metal wire mesh to be superhydrophobic suffered from problems with respect to complex experimental procedures or time-consuming process. In this study, a very simple, time-saving and single-step electrospray method was proposed to fabricate SMWM and the whole procedure required about only 2min. The morphology, surface composition and wettability of the SMWM were all evaluated, and the oil/water separation ability was further investigated. In addition, a commercial available sponge covered with SMWM was fabricated as an oil adsorbent for the purpose of oil recovery. This study demonstrated a convenient and fast method to modify the metal wire mesh to be superhydrophobic and such simple method might find practical applications in the large-scale removal of oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergistic effect of wire bending and salivary pH on surface properties and mechanical properties of orthodontic stainless steel archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbelink, Marieke G; He, Yan; Xu, Jia; Xie, Huixu; Stoll, Richard; Ye, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosive behaviour of stainless steel archwires in a more clinically relevant way by bending and exposing to various pH. One hundred and twenty pieces of rectangular stainless steel wires (0.43 × 0.64 mm) were randomly assigned into four groups. In each group, there were 15 pieces of bent wires and 15 straight ones. Prior to measurements of the wires, as individual experimental groups (group 1, 2, and 3), the wires were exposed to artificial saliva for 4 weeks at pH 5.6, 6.6, and 7.6, respectively. A control group of wires (group 4) remained in air for the same period of time before sent for measurements. Surface roughness (Ra-value) was measured by a profilometer. Young's modulus and maximum force were determined by a four-point flexural test apparatus. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface morphology of straight wire. Differences between groups were examined using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean surface roughness values, flexural Young's moduli, and maximum force values of bent wires are significantly different from those of the straight wires, which was the main effect of wire bending, ignoring the influence of pH. A significant effect was found between Ra-values regarding the main effect of pH, ignoring the influence of shape. There was a significant interaction effect of bending and pH on flexural Young's moduli of stainless steel archwires, while pH did not show much impact on the maximum force values of those stainless steel wires. Bigger surface irregularities were seen on SEM images of straight wires immersed in artificial saliva at pH 5.6 compared to artificial saliva at other pH values. Surface depth (Rz) was more sensitive than Ra in revealing surface roughness, both measured from 3D reconstructed SEM images. Ra showed a comparable result of surface roughness to Ra-value measured by the profilometer. Bending has a significant influence on surface roughness and mechanical

  15. A comparison of torque expression between stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy, and copper nickel titanium wires in metallic self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Amy; Major, Thomas W; Carey, Jason P; Heo, Giseon; Badawi, Hisham; Major, Paul W

    2010-09-01

    The force moment providing rotation of the tooth around the x-axis (buccal-lingual) is referred to as torque expression in orthodontic literature. Many factors affect torque expression, including the wire material characteristics. This investigation aims to provide an experimental study into and comparison of the torque expression between wire types. With a worm-gear-driven torquing apparatus, wire was torqued while a bracket mounted on a six-axis load cell was engaged. Three 0.019 x 0.0195 inch wire (stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy [TMA], copper nickel titanium [CuNiTi]), and three 0.022 inch slot bracket combinations (Damon 3MX, In-Ovation-R, SPEED) were compared. At low twist angles (wires were not statistically significant. At twist angles over 24 degrees, stainless steel wire yielded 1.5 to 2 times the torque expression of TMA and 2.5 to 3 times that of nickel titanium (NiTi). At high angles of torsion (over 40 degrees) with a stiff wire material, loss of linear torque expression sometimes occurred. Stainless steel has the largest torque expression, followed by TMA and then NiTi.

  16. Improvements of fabrication processes and enhancement of critical current densities in (Ba,K)Fe2As2 HIP wires and tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyon, Sunseng; Suwa, Takahiro; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Takano, Katsutoshi; Kajitani, Hideki; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Awaji, Satoshi; Zhou, Nan; Shi, Zhixiang

    2018-05-01

    We fabricated (Ba,K)Fe2As2 superconducting wires and tapes using the powder-in-tube method and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). HIP wires and tapes showed a high value of transport critical current density (J c) exceeding 100 kAcm‑2 at T = 4.2 K and the self-field. Transport J c in the HIP wire reached 38 kAcm‑2 in a high magnetic field of 100 kOe. This value is almost twice larger than the previous highest value of J c among round wires using iron-based superconductors. Enhancement of J c in the wires and tapes was caused by improvement of the drawing process, which caused degradation of the core, formation of microcracks, weak links between grains, and random orientation of grains. Details of the effect of the improved fabrication processes on the J c are discussed.

  17. The influence of drawing speed on structure changes in high carbon steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suliga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of the drawing speed on structure changes has been assessed. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigation confirmed that for wires drawn with high total draft, exceeding 80 %, makes it impossible to clearly assess the impact of drawing technology on structural changes in the drawn wires. Thus, to assess the structural changes necessary to apply quantitative methods. On the basis of examination of the wire structure by measuring of electrical resistance, the structure changes in drawn wires has been determined. It has been shown that the increase of drawing speed, especially above 15 m/s, causes an increase in structure defect, with a decline in platelet orientation of cementite in drawn wires.

  18. Delamination of Pearlitic Steel Wires: The Defining Role of Prior-Drawing Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgaprasad, A.; Giri, S.; Lenka, S.; Sarkar, Sudip Kumar; Biswas, Aniruddha; Kundu, S.; Mishra, S.; Chandra, S.; Doherty, R. D.; Samajdar, I.

    2018-03-01

    This article reports the occasional (alignment of the pearlite: 22 ± 5 pct vs 34 ± 4 pct in the nondelaminated wires. Although all wires had similar through-thickness texture and stress gradients, delaminated wires had stronger gradients in composition and higher hardness across the ferrite-cementite interface. Carbide dissolution and formation of supersaturated ferrite were clearly correlated with delamination, which could be effectively mitigated by controlled laboratory annealing at 673 K. Direct observations on samples subjected to simple shear revealed significant differences in shear localizations. These were controlled by pearlite morphology and interlamellar spacing. Prior-drawing microstructure of coarse misaligned pearlite thus emerged as a critical factor in the wire drawing-induced delamination of the pearlitic wires.

  19. Um novo fio de aço inoxidável para aplicações ortodônticas A new stainless steel wire for orthodontic purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Itman Filho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: desenvolver uma metodologia para fabricação de fios ortodônticos de aço inoxidável austeno-ferrítico SEW 410 Nr. 14517 por meio dos processos convencionais de laminação e trefilação. MÉTODOS: o aço austeno-ferrítico foi elaborado em um forno elétrico de indução. A qualidade dos fios foi avaliada por ensaios de tração e medidas de microdureza. A ductilidade e a manuseabilidade foram analisadas por meio da confecção de componentes ortodônticos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os valores encontrados mostraram que os fios de aço inoxidável austeno-ferrítico atenderam às normas BS 3507:1976 e ISO 5832-1, e apresentaram ótima ductilidade para confecção de componentes ortodônticos com dobras complexas.OBJECTIVE: To develop a method to manufacture austenitic-ferritic stainless steel orthodontic wires (SEW 410 Nr. 14517 using conventional rolling and wiredrawing processes. METHODS: Austenitic-ferritic steel was produced in an induction furnace. Traction trials and microhardness measurements were used to evaluate wire quality. Orthodontic parts were fabricated to assess ductility and malleability. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Austenitic-ferritic stainless steel wires meet the BS 3507:1976 and ISO 5832-1 norms and have excellent ductility for the fabrication of orthodontic parts with complex folds.

  20. Laser fabrication of Ti6Al4V/TiC composites using simultaneous powder and wire feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Mei, J.; Jiang, H.; Wu, X.

    2007-01-01

    Composites of Ti-6Al-4V containing different volume fractions of TiC were manufactured using direct laser fabrication. Ti-6Al-4V wire and TiC powder were fed into the laser with the rate of powder feed being changed so that samples containing different volume fractions of TiC could be manufactured. Optical microscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterise the microstructure of these samples. The room temperature tensile properties were measured also on some selected compositions together with their Young's moduli. In addition the change in wear resistance was studied as a function of TiC volume fraction using a standard wear test. These observations are discussed in terms of the advantages and difficulties of using simultaneous wire and powder feed systems and in terms of the value of this approach in obtaining data over a wide range of compositions for such a composite

  1. Maxillary molar derotation and distalization by using a nickel-titanium wire fabricated on a setup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Moon; Wi, Young Joo; Koo, Hyun Mo; Kim, Min Ji; Chun, Youn Sic

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a simple appliance that uses a setup model and a nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire for correcting the mesial rotation and drift of the permanent maxillary first molar. The technique involves bonding a Ni-Ti wire to the proper position of the target tooth on a setup model, followed by the fabrication of the transfer cap for indirect bonding and its transfer to the patient's teeth. This appliance causes less discomfort and provides better oral hygiene for the patients than do conventional appliances such as the bracket, pendulum, and distal jet. The treatment time is also shorter with the new appliance than with full-fixed appliances. Moreover, the applicability of the new appliance can be expanded to many cases by using screws or splinting with adjacent teeth to improve anchorage.

  2. Developments of steel fabrication processes for castings and ingots for forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, S.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter deals with a series of technological developments in the manufacture of steels which have occurred during the last years, in particular reporting the results obtained in Reinosa with some of these methods in the fabrication of castings as well as forgings and rolled products. (author)

  3. Design and fabrication of a three-finger prosthetic hand using SMA muscle wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Filomena; York, Alexander; Seelecke, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Bio-inspired hand-like gripper systems based on shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuation have the potential to enable a number of useful applications in, e.g., the biomedical field or industrial assembly systems. The inherent high energy density makes SMA solutions a natural choice for systems with lightweight, low noise and high force requirements, such as hand prostheses or robotic systems in a human/machine environment. The focus of this research is the development, design and realization of a SMA-actuated prosthetic hand prototype with three fingers. The use of thin wires (100 μm diameter) allows for high cooling rates and therefore fast movement of each finger. Grouping several small wires mechanically in parallel allows for high force actuation. To save space and to allow for a direct transmission of the motion to each finger, the SMA wires are attached directly within each finger, across each phalanx. In this way, the contraction of the wires will allow the movement of the fingers without the use of any additional gears. Within each finger, two different bundles of wires are mounted: protagonist ones that create bending movement and the antagonist ones that enable stretching of each phalanx. The resistance change in the SMA wires is measured during actuation, which allows for monitoring of the wire stroke and potentially the gripping force without the use of additional sensors. The hand is built with modern 3D-printing technologies and its performance while grasping objects of different size and shape is experimentally investigated illustrating the usefulness of the actuator concept.

  4. Application of new technology to the fabrication and installation of stainless steel pipework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, P.; Carrick, L.

    1989-01-01

    BNFL has been constructing new reprocessing plant on a continuous basis since the late seventies. Initially the productivity achieved when fabricating and welding stainless steel to nuclear standards was poor. In order to complete projects to programme and cost BNFL developed a Total Fabrication System that is now applied to all of their construction projects and has resulted in overall productivity increases by a factor of 2.4 with major quality and cost benefits. The development of the Total Fabrication System is described

  5. Improvement of the bending fatigue resistance of the hyper-eutectoid steel wires used for tire cords by a post-processing annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.S.; Bae, J.G.; Park, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of annealing at a low temperature on the bending fatigue resistance have been investigated in the hyper-eutectoid steel wires drawn to an extreme strain of 4.12. The annealing temperature was varied from 100 to 500 deg. C. The bending fatigue resistance of the steel wires was measured by a Hunter rotating beam tester specially designed for thin-sized steel wires. The results showed that fatigue resistance as well as tensile strength improved as the annealing temperature increased up to 200 deg. C (Region I) and gradually decreased after annealing above 200 deg. C (Region II). In order to elucidate this behavior, residual stress was measured by dual beam FIB, surface defects observed by an optical 3D profiler and the microstructure in terms of lamellar spacing (λ p ) and cementite thickness (t c ) was observed by TEM

  6. Measurement of residual stress by using focused ion beam and digital image correlation method in thin-sized wires used for steel cords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y S; Park, C G; Bae, J G

    2008-01-01

    Residual stress in the axial direction of the steel wires has been measured by using a method based on the combination of the focused ion beam (FIB) milling and digital image correlation software. That is, the residual stress was calculated from the measured displacement field before and after the introduction of a slot along the steel wires. The displacement was obtained by the digital correlation analysis of high-resolution scanning electron micrographs, while the slot was introduced by FIB milling with low energy beam. The fitting of the experimental results to an analytical model with the independent Young's modulus determined allows us to find the residual stress. The complete experimental procedures are described and its feasibilities are also evaluated for the thin-sized steel wires

  7. Exploration of new superconductors and functional materials, and fabrication of superconducting tapes and wires of iron pnictides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Hideo; Tanabe, Keiichi; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Shoji; Kumakura, Hiroaki; Nohara, Minoru; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Fujitsu, Satoru

    2015-06-01

    This review shows the highlights of a 4-year-long research project supported by the Japanese Government to explore new superconducting materials and relevant functional materials. The project found several tens of new superconductors by examining ∼1000 materials, each of which was chosen by Japanese experts with a background in solid state chemistry. This review summarizes the major achievements of the project in newly found superconducting materials, and the fabrication wires and tapes of iron-based superconductors; it incorporates a list of ∼700 unsuccessful materials examined for superconductivity in the project. In addition, described are new functional materials and functionalities discovered during the project.

  8. Wearable Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Fabrics Produced by Knitting Flexible Wire Electrodes for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Heesoo Jung; Jin Ah Seo; Seungki Choi

    2017-01-01

    One of the key reasons for the limited use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is its inability to treat non-flat, three-dimensional (3D) surface structures, such as electronic devices and the human body, because of the rigid electrode structure required. In this study, a new APP system design?wearable APP (WAPP)?that utilizes a knitting technique to assemble flexible co-axial wire electrodes into a large-area plasma fabric is presented. The WAPP device operates in ambient air with a fully e...

  9. Effect of reduction of area on microstructure and mechanical properties of twinning-induced plasticity steel during wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joong-Ki; Son, Il-Heon; Yoo, Jang-Yong; Zargaran, A.; Kim, Nack J.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of reduction of area (RA), 10%, 20%, and 30%, during wire drawing on the inhomogeneities in microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction of Fe-Mn-Al-C twinning-induced plasticity steel has been investigated. After wire drawing, the deformation texture developed into the major and minor duplex fiber texture. However, the texture became more pronounced in both center and surface areas as the RA per pass increased. It also shows that a larger RA per pass resulted in a higher yield strength and smaller elongation than a smaller RA per pass at all strain levels. Although inhomogeneities in microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction decreased with increasing RA per pass, there existed an optimum RA per pass for maximum drawing limit. Insufficient penetration of strain from surface to center at small RA per pass (e.g., 10%) and high friction and unsound metal flow at large RA per pass (e.g., 30%) all resulted in heterogeneous microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction of drawn wire. On the other hand, 20% RA per pass improved the drawing limit by about 30% as compared to the 10% and 30% RAs per pass.

  10. Separation of Electrolytic Reduction Product from Stainless Steel Wire Mesh Cathode Basket via Salt Draining and Reuse of the Cathode Basket

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun-Young; Lee, Jeong; Heo, Dong Hyun; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated that the metallic product obtained after electrolytic reduction (also called oxide reduction (OR)) can be simply separated from a stainless steel wire mesh cathode basket only by using a salt drain. First, the OR run of a simulated oxide fuel (0.6 kg/batch) was conducted in a molten Li2O–LiCl salt electrolyte at 650°C. The simulated oxide fuel of the porous cylindrical pellets was used as a cathode by loading a stainless steel wire mesh cathode basket. Platinum was employed as...

  11. Wearable Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Fabrics Produced by Knitting Flexible Wire Electrodes for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heesoo; Seo, Jin Ah; Choi, Seungki

    2017-01-01

    One of the key reasons for the limited use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is its inability to treat non-flat, three-dimensional (3D) surface structures, such as electronic devices and the human body, because of the rigid electrode structure required. In this study, a new APP system design—wearable APP (WAPP)—that utilizes a knitting technique to assemble flexible co-axial wire electrodes into a large-area plasma fabric is presented. The WAPP device operates in ambient air with a fully enclosed power electrode and grounded outer electrode. The plasma fabric is flexible and lightweight, and it can be scaled up for larger areas, making it attractive for wearable APP applications. Here, we report the various plasma properties of the WAPP device and successful test results showing the decontamination of toxic chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard (HD), soman (GD), and nerve (VX) agents.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of gold nano-wires templated on virus-like arrays of tobacco mosaic virus coat proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wnęk, M; Stockley, P G; Górzny, M Ł; Evans, S D; Ward, M B; Brydson, R; Wälti, C; Davies, A G

    2013-01-01

    The rod-shaped plant virus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a nano-fabrication template, and chimeric peptide expression on its major coat protein has extended its potential applications. Here we describe a simple bacterial expression system for production and rapid purification of recombinant chimeric TMV coat protein carrying C-terminal peptide tags. These proteins do not bind TMV RNA or form disks at pH 7. However, they retain the ability to self-assemble into virus-like arrays at acidic pH. C-terminal peptide tags in such arrays are exposed on the protein surface, allowing interaction with target species. We have utilized a C-terminal His-tag to create virus coat protein-templated nano-rods able to bind gold nanoparticles uniformly. These can be transformed into gold nano-wires by deposition of additional gold atoms from solution, followed by thermal annealing. The resistivity of a typical annealed wire created by this approach is significantly less than values reported for other nano-wires made using different bio-templates. This expression construct is therefore a useful additional tool for the creation of chimeric TMV-like nano-rods for bio-templating. (paper)

  13. Fabrication and characterization of gold nano-wires templated on virus-like arrays of tobacco mosaic virus coat proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnęk, M.; Górzny, M. Ł.; Ward, M. B.; Wälti, C.; Davies, A. G.; Brydson, R.; Evans, S. D.; Stockley, P. G.

    2013-01-01

    The rod-shaped plant virus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a nano-fabrication template, and chimeric peptide expression on its major coat protein has extended its potential applications. Here we describe a simple bacterial expression system for production and rapid purification of recombinant chimeric TMV coat protein carrying C-terminal peptide tags. These proteins do not bind TMV RNA or form disks at pH 7. However, they retain the ability to self-assemble into virus-like arrays at acidic pH. C-terminal peptide tags in such arrays are exposed on the protein surface, allowing interaction with target species. We have utilized a C-terminal His-tag to create virus coat protein-templated nano-rods able to bind gold nanoparticles uniformly. These can be transformed into gold nano-wires by deposition of additional gold atoms from solution, followed by thermal annealing. The resistivity of a typical annealed wire created by this approach is significantly less than values reported for other nano-wires made using different bio-templates. This expression construct is therefore a useful additional tool for the creation of chimeric TMV-like nano-rods for bio-templating.

  14. Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H; Shirazi, H [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nili-Ahmadabadi, M, E-mail: sut.caster.81710018@gmail.co, E-mail: nili@ut.ac.i [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a large strain deformation in this alloy. The total strain was {epsilon} {approx}7. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10Ni-7Mn were studied after aging at 753 K. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility after cold rolling, wire drawing and aging increased up to 2540 MPa and 7.1 %, respectively, while the conventional steels show a premature fracture stress of 830 MPa with about zero ductility after aging.

  15. Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Shirazi, H.

    2010-07-01

    Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a large strain deformation in this alloy. The total strain was epsilon ~7. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10Ni-7Mn were studied after aging at 753 K. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility after cold rolling, wire drawing and aging increased up to 2540 MPa and 7.1 %, respectively, while the conventional steels show a premature fracture stress of 830 MPa with about zero ductility after aging.

  16. Study of the Contact Resistance of Interlaced Stainless Steel Yarns Embedded in Hybrid Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Simona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contact resistance of two interlacing electro-conductive yarns embedded in a hybrid woven fabric will constitute a problem for electro-conductive textiles under certain circumstances. A high contact resistance can induce hotspots, while a variable contact resistance may cause malfunctioning of the components that are interconnected by the electro-conductive yarns. Moreover, the contact robustness should be preserved over time and various treatments such as washing or abrading should not alter the functioning of the electro-conductive textiles. The electrical resistance developed in the contact point of two interlacing electro-conductive yarns is the result of various factors. The influence of diameter of the electro-conductive stainless steel yarns, the weave pattern, the weft density, and the abrasion on the contact resistance was investigated. Hybrid polyester fabrics were produced according to the design of experiments (DoE and statistical models were found that describe the variation of the contact resistance with the selected input parameters. It was concluded that the diameter of the stainless steel warp and weft yarns has a statistically significant influence on the contact resistance regardless of the weave. Weft density had a significant influence on the contact resistance but only in case of the twill fabrics. Abrasion led to an increase in contact resistance regardless of the weave pattern and the type of stainless steel yarn that was used. Finally, a combination of parameters that leads to plain and twill fabrics with low contact resistance and robust contacts is recommended.

  17. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces from austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) by chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Mirzaei, Ali; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Sang Sub

    2018-05-01

    Stainless steels are among the most common engineering materials and are used extensively in humid areas. Therefore, it is important that these materials must be robust to humidity and corrosion. This paper reports the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces from austenitic stainless steel (type AISI 304) using a facile two-step chemical etching method. In the first step, the stainless steel plates were etched in a HF solution, followed by a fluorination process, where they showed a water contact angle (WCA) of 166° and a sliding angle of 5° under the optimal conditions. To further enhance the superhydrophobicity, in the second step, they were dipped in a 0.1 wt.% NaCl solution at 100 °C, where the WCA was increased to 168° and the sliding angle was decreased to ∼2°. The long-term durability of the fabricated superhydrophobic samples for 1 month storage in air and water was investigated. The potential applicability of the fabricated samples was demonstrated by the excellent superhydrophobicity after 1 month. In addition, the self-cleaning properties of the fabricated superhydrophobic surface were also demonstrated. This paper outlines a facile, low-cost and scalable chemical etching method that can be adopted easily for large-scale purposes.

  18. Ferrite control--Measurement problems and solutions during stainless steel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    Ferrite is one of the magnetic phases found in many grades of otherwise nonmagnetic austenitic stainless steel weldments. Control of ferrite during the fabrication of cryogenic component parts is necessary to produce a reliable product, free of cracking and microfissuring. This is accomplished by balancing compositions in order to produce a small amount of ferrite which is generally accompanied with reduced toughness. Control of ferrite is essential during the fabrication of component parts. The means to accomplish this will vary with the type of material being welded, thickness, welding process, method of measurement and fabrication procedures. An application used during the fabrication of component parts for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) required specially formulated shielded manual arc welding (SMAW) electrodes and consumable inserts. Control of ferrite measurements and shop welding procedures were essential. The special materials and techniques were used to weld Type 316 stainless steel pipe joints, 28 in. (0.71 m) in diameter. By using three lots of electrodes, each with a different ferrite level, a compatible range of ferrite was achieved throughout the layers of weld metal. By extensive use of the Schaeffler and DeLong modified constitution diagrams for stainless steel weld metal, E-16-8-2 SMAW electrodes were developed with ''0'' ferrite level. The electrodes were used during fabrication of the Liquid Metal Fast Breader Reactor (LMFBR) component parts of Type 316 stainless steel. Metallographic evaluation of laboratory specimens, control of shop welding techniques and individual laboratory training of shop welders combined to produce a quality product

  19. 75 FR 28560 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-945] Prestressed Concrete Steel... antidumping investigation of prestressed concrete steel strand (``PC strand'') from the People's Republic of... are shown in the ``Final Determination Margins'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Prestressed Concrete...

  20. Compositionally graded Ti6Al4V + TiC made by direct laser fabrication using powder and wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Mei, J.; Wu Xinhua

    2007-01-01

    Ti6Al4V reinforced with TiC has been fabricated as compositionally graded material by direct laser fabrication using TiC powder and Ti6Al4V wire which were fed simultaneously into the laser focal point. The microstructure along the length of the sample has been characterised using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the composition along the length changes as expected from the imposed changes in feed rate when allowance is made for the different capture efficiency for the powder and the wire. Some unmelted TiC has been observed in regions where the TiC fraction was high, but along most of the length of the samples TiC was completely melted and formed primary TiC, eutectic TiC and secondary TiC. Some preliminary tribological properties of the compositionally graded material were obtained using a sliding wear test which showed that the tribological properties of Ti6Al4V are improved by the reinforced TiC particles with the optimum frictional behaviour being found with approximately 24 vol% of TiC

  1. Hirarchical structures and strength in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Godfrey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    and the cementite decomposition, have been analyzed and quantified by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy for wires cold drawn up to a strain of 3.68. Three strengthening mechanisms, boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid...... solution hardening, have been analyzed based on the microstructural analysis. The individual and combined contributions, of these mechanisms to the wire strength have been estimated and good agreement has been found between the measured flow stress and values estimated based on an assumption of linear...... additivity of the three strengthening mechanisms. Mechanisms behind the higher strength of about 6.4 GPa in the wires drawn to higher strains and to a finer microstructural scale is also discussed....

  2. Signal Acquisition and Processing in the Magnetic Defectoscopy of Steel Wire Ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Jovičić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The system that resolves the problem of wire rope defects using a magnetic method of inspection is presented in this paper. Implementation of the system should provide for full monitoring of wire rope condition, according to the prescribed international standards. The purpose of this system, in addition to identifying defects in the rope, is to determine to what extent damage has been done. The measurement procedure provides for a better understanding of the defects that occur, as well as the rejection criteria of used ropes, that way increasing their security. Hardware and software design of appliance for recording defects and test results are presented in this paper.

  3. Characterization of Gas Metal Arc Welding welds obtained with new high Cr–Mo ferritic stainless steel filler wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaret, V.; Deschaux-Beaume, F.; Bordreuil, C.; Fras, G.; Chovet, C.; Petit, B.; Faivre, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New metal cored filler wires for welding 444 grade stainless steel are manufactured. • The effect of Nb and Ti minor elements on the fusion zone properties is investigated. • The relation between composition of fusion zone and grain structure is investigated. • Oxidation rates of fusion zones and base metal are compared. • High temperature behavior of the welded samples are studied. - Abstract: Several compositions of metal cored filler wire were manufactured to define the best welding conditions for homogeneous welding, by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process, of a modified AISI 444 ferritic stainless steel dedicated to automotive exhaust manifold applications. The patented grade is know under APERAM trade name K44X and has been developed to present improved high temperature fatigue properties. All filler wires investigated contained 19% Cr and 1.8% Mo, equivalent to the base metal K44X chemistry, but various titanium and niobium contents. Chemical analyses and microstructural observations of fusion zones revealed the need of a minimum Ti content of 0.15% to obtain a completely equiaxed grain structure. This structure conferred on the fusion zone a good ductility even in the as-welded state at room temperature. Unfortunately, titanium additions decreased the oxidation resistance at 950 °C if no significant Nb complementary alloying was made. The combined high Ti and Nb additions made it possible to obtain for the welded structure, after optimized heat treatment, high temperature tensile strengths and ductility for the fusion zones and assemblies, rather close to those of the base metal. 950 °C aging heat treatment was necessary to restore significantly the ductility of the as welded structure. Both fusion zone and base metal presented rather homogenized properties. Finally, with the optimized composition of the cored filler wire – 0.3 Ti minimum (i.e. 0.15% in the fusion zone) and high Nb complementary additions, the properties

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Vertical Wire Feeding with Axisymmetric Multi-Laser Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertical wire feeding with an axisymmetric multi-laser source (feeding the wire vertically into the molten pool has exhibited great advantages over LAM (laser additive manufacturing with paraxial wire feeding, which has an anisotropic forming problem in different scanning directions. This paper investigates the forming ability of vertical wire feeding with an axisymmetric multi-laser source, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the fabricated components. It has been found that vertical wire feeding with an axisymmetric multi-laser source has a strong forming ability with no anisotropic forming problem when fabricating the complex parts in a three-axis machine tool. Most of the grains in the samples are equiaxed grains, and a small amount of short columnar grains exist which are parallel to each other. The microstructure of the fabricated samples exhibits a fine basket-weave structure and martensite due to the fast cooling rate which was caused by the small size of the molten pool and the additional heat dissipation from the feeding wire. The static tensile test shows that the average ultimate tensile strength is 1140 MPa in the scanning direction and 1115 MPa in the building direction, and the average elongation is about 6% in both directions.

  5. Femtosecond laser fabrication of highly hydrophobic stainless steel surface with hierarchical structures fabricated by combining ordered microstructures and LIPSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Calderon, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Dias-Ponte, A.; Morant-Miñana, M.C.; Gómez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Femtosecond laser treatment to achieve highly hydrophobic behavior on stainless steel. • Combination of micro-machined patterns with LIPSS into hierarchical structures. • Contact angles as high as 156° with only the femtosecond laser irradiation. - Abstract: In this work we have developed hierarchical structures that consist of micro-patterned surfaces covered by nanostructures with a femtosecond laser. The first part of this work is a study to determine the microscale modifications produced on a stainless steel alloy (AISI304) surface at high pulse energy, different velocities, and number of overscans in order to obtain microstructures with a selected depth of around 10 μm and line widths of 20 μm. The second part of the work is focused on finding the optimal irradiation parameters to obtain the nanostructure pattern. Nanostructures have been defined by means of Laser Induced Periodical Surface Structures (LIPSS) around 250 nm high and a period of 580 nm, which constitute the nanostructure pattern. Finally, dual scale gratings of 50 mm"2 were fabricated with different geometries and their effect on the measured contact angle. Combining the micro-pattern with the LIPSS nano-pattern, highly hydrophobic surfaces have been developed with measured static contact angles higher than 150° on a stainless steel alloy.

  6. Femtosecond laser fabrication of highly hydrophobic stainless steel surface with hierarchical structures fabricated by combining ordered microstructures and LIPSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Calderon, M., E-mail: mmcalderon@ceit.es [CEIT-IK4 & Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Rodríguez, A.; Dias-Ponte, A.; Morant-Miñana, M.C.; Gómez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S.M. [CEIT-IK4 & Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Femtosecond laser treatment to achieve highly hydrophobic behavior on stainless steel. • Combination of micro-machined patterns with LIPSS into hierarchical structures. • Contact angles as high as 156° with only the femtosecond laser irradiation. - Abstract: In this work we have developed hierarchical structures that consist of micro-patterned surfaces covered by nanostructures with a femtosecond laser. The first part of this work is a study to determine the microscale modifications produced on a stainless steel alloy (AISI304) surface at high pulse energy, different velocities, and number of overscans in order to obtain microstructures with a selected depth of around 10 μm and line widths of 20 μm. The second part of the work is focused on finding the optimal irradiation parameters to obtain the nanostructure pattern. Nanostructures have been defined by means of Laser Induced Periodical Surface Structures (LIPSS) around 250 nm high and a period of 580 nm, which constitute the nanostructure pattern. Finally, dual scale gratings of 50 mm{sup 2} were fabricated with different geometries and their effect on the measured contact angle. Combining the micro-pattern with the LIPSS nano-pattern, highly hydrophobic surfaces have been developed with measured static contact angles higher than 150° on a stainless steel alloy.

  7. Design, fabrication, and test of a steel spar wind turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T. L.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Viterna, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design and fabrication of wind turbine blades based on 60 foot steel spars are discussed. Performance and blade load information is given and compared to analytical prediction. In addition, performance is compared to that of the original MOD-O aluminum blades. Costs for building the two blades are given, and a projection is made for the cost in mass production. Design improvements to reduce weight and improve fatigue life are suggested.

  8. Fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Yetkiner, Enver; Ozcan, Mutlu

    Objective: To analyze the fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro. Methods: Roots of human mandibular central incisors were covered with silicone, mimicking the

  9. Investigation into the effects of steel wire rope specimen length on breaking force

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Brien, TM

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available (2000). The methodology employed was to test different length of triangular strand and non-spin rope to destruction, and to evaluate these results against SABS 0293:1996. For each rope construction, specimens were prepared both with and without cut wires...

  10. Investigations on the wire saw process on steels of selected geometries in the encircling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This thesis illustrates a new and innovative model for the usual looping method to describe cutting time and wear. Several test series have been carried out to determine and analyze the various influencing factors. This new model now allows for exact predictions for cutting times and the resulting wear. A special test stand was planned and built. With the help of this test stand various influencing parameters were determined in preliminary tests. Due to the high correlation between these parameters, a matrix was created to rate them. From these results and the findings of the preliminary tests, the boundary conditions such as work piece size were defined and an experimental design was created. Eleven test series were conducted and each one consists of up to ten work pieces. In each test series, only one parameter was changed, the other influencing parameters remained unchanged. The parameter of the following characteristics were varied: the speed of the diamond wire, the feed pressure, the cutting angle, the geometry with respective cutting area, the work piece material, as well as the twisting of the diamond wire. By varying these parameters, the influence could be shown on the performance of the cutting process and also on the wear behavior of the diamond wire. A model was created from the obtained data which enables a cutting time prediction for rectangular work pieces. In addition to the model, a new criterion has been developed, with which it is possible to quantify the progress of wear and to be able to determine a necessary wire replacement. The classification of particle sizes of the accumulated chips has shown that a lower average cutting performance results in a decrease of the average particle size. From this circumstance a termination criterion of <150 μm has been established. When the particle size drops below this value, the cutting process becomes ineffective and should not be continued, or the diamond wire should be replaced, respectively

  11. The Corrosion Resistance of Composite Arch Wire Laser-Welded By NiTi Shape Memory Alloy and Stainless Steel Wires with Cu Interlayer in Artificial Saliva with Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect. PMID:23801895

  12. Fabrication and superconducting properties of a simple-structured jelly-roll Nb{sub 3}Al wire with low-temperature heat-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.J. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (NELSM), Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Yan, G., E-mail: gyan@c-wst.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (NELSM), Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Pan, X.F. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (NELSM), Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Zhang, P.X. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (NELSM), Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research (NIN), Xi’an 710016 (China); Qi, M. [Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research (NIN), Xi’an 710016 (China); Liu, X.H.; Feng, Y. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (NELSM), Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Chen, Y.L.; Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University (SWJTU), Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires with Cu-matrix and different filament numbers were prepared by the jelly-roll method. • The length of 18-cores Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wire reaches 100 m without any breakage and intermediate anneal. • This wire has the uniform filament-shapes and fine long-wire homogeneity. • This Nb{sub 3}Al long wire has the T{sub c} of 13.4 K and J{sub c} of 4.7 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2 K and 12 T. - Abstract: With extremely high critical current density (J{sub c}) and excellent strain tolerance, Nb{sub 3}Al superconductor is considered as an alternative to Nb{sub 3}Sn for application of high-field magnets. However, owing to their complex structure, Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires can hardly meet the requirement of engineering application at present. In this work, a novel simple-structured Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires with Cu-matrix and different filament numbers were prepared by the conventional jelly-roll method, as well as a heat-treatment of 800–850 °C for 20–50 h. The results show that a 18-filament superconducting wire with length longer than 100 m can be successfully prepared by this method, and also this Nb{sub 3}Al long wire has the T{sub c} of 13.4 K and J{sub c} of 4.7 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2 K and 12 T. These suggest that with further optimization, the simple-structured Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires are very promising to fabricate the km-grade long wires to meet the requirement of engineering application.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot wire laser clad layers for repairing precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Peng; Cai, Zhipeng; Feng, Zhenhua; Wang, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (PH-MSS) is widely used as load-bearing parts because of its excellent overall properties. It is economical and flexible to repair the failure parts instead of changing new ones. However, it is difficult to keep properties of repaired part as good as those of the substrate. With preheating wire by resistance heat, hot wire laser cladding owns both merits of low heat input and high deposition efficiency, thus is regarded as an advantaged repairing technology for damaged parts of high value. Multi-pass layers were cladded on the surface of FV520B by hot wire laser cladding. The microstructure and mechanical properties were compared and analyzed for the substrate and the clad layer. For the as-cladded layer, microstructure was found non-uniform and divided into quenched and tempered regions. Tensile strength was almost equivalent to that of the substrate, while ductility and impact toughness deteriorated much. With using laser scanning layer by layer during laser cladding, microstructure of the clad layers was tempered to fine martensite uniformly. The ductility and toughness of the clad layer were improved to be equivalent to those of the substrate, while the tensile strength was a little lower than that of the substrate. By adding TiC nanoparticles as well as laser scanning, the precipitation strengthening effect was improved and the structure was refined in the clad layer. The strength, ductility and toughness were all improved further. Finally, high quality clad layers were obtained with equivalent or even superior mechanical properties to the substrate, offering a valuable technique to repair PH-MSS.

  14. Cluster analysis of stress corrosion mechanisms for steel wires used in bridge cables through acoustic emission particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Wenyao

    2017-05-01

    Stress corrosion is the major failure type of bridge cable damage. The acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied to monitor the stress corrosion process of steel wires used in bridge cable structures. The damage evolution of stress corrosion in bridge cables was obtained according to the AE characteristic parameter figure. A particle swarm optimization cluster method was developed to determine the relationship between the AE signal and stress corrosion mechanisms. Results indicate that the main AE sources of stress corrosion in bridge cables included four types: passive film breakdown and detachment of the corrosion product, crack initiation, crack extension, and cable fracture. By analyzing different types of clustering data, the mean value of each damage pattern's AE characteristic parameters was determined. Different corrosion damage source AE waveforms and the peak frequency were extracted. AE particle swarm optimization cluster analysis based on principal component analysis was also proposed. This method can completely distinguish the four types of damage sources and simplifies the determination of the evolution process of corrosion damage and broken wire signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Tensile property improvement of TWIP-cored three-layer steel sheets fabricated by hot-roll-bonding with low-carbon steel or interstitial-free steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeyeong; Kim, Jung-Su; Kang, Minju; Sohn, Seok Su; Cho, Won Tae; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak

    2017-01-01

    TWIP-cored three-layer steel sheets were newly fabricated by hot rolling of TWIP steel sheet surrounded by low-carbon (LC) or interstitial-free (IF) steel sheets. TWIP/LC or TWIP/IF interfaces were well bonded without pores or voids, while a few pearlites were thinly formed along the interfaces. The strengths and elongation of the TWIP-cored sheets increased as the volume fraction of TWIP-cored region increased, and were also well matched with the ones calculated by a rule of mixtures based on volume fraction or force fraction. According to digital image correlation and electron back-scatter diffraction analyses, very high strain hardening effect in the initial deformation stage and active twin formation in the interfacial region beneficially affected the overall homogeneous deformation in the TWIP-cored sheets without any yield point phenomenon occurring in the LC sheet and serrations occurring in the TWIP sheet, respectively. These TWIP-cored sheets can cover a wide range of yield strength, tensile strength, and ductility levels, e.g., 320~498 MPa, 545~878 MPa, and 48~54%, respectively, by controlling the volume fraction of TWIP-cored region, and thus present new applications to multi-functional automotive steel sheets requiring excellent properties.

  16. Energy and materials flows in the fabrication of iron and steel semifinished products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J.B. Jr.; Arons, R.M.

    1979-08-01

    The flow of energy and materials in the fabrication of iron and steel semifinished products from molten metal is discussed. The focus is on techniques to reduce the amount of energy required to produce the typical products of integrated steel plants and iron and steel foundries. In integrated steel plants, if only 50% of the steel being cast were continuously cast, industry-wide energy consumption would be reduced by 6 to 15%. Further major energy savings could be achieved by increased use of by-product gases and regenerators in the various reheat operations. Finally, systems optimization studies to maintain the even flow of materials at full capacity should yield further improvements in energy efficiency. In foundry operations, alternate heating methods in forging operations and the use of no-bake molding and core materials should result in substantial energy savings. Studies of specific operations will suggest housekeeping changes to minimize wasted energy. These changes might include fixing heat leaks, reducing floor space requirements, improving temperature regulation, lowering working temperatures in some steel-forming operations, redesigning products, and minimizing scrap generation. There is also a need for new, energy conserving technologies. A good example would be the development of nondestructive testing to determine the existence, location, and size of defects in ingots at elevated temperatures. A second example is the need to reduce, through system studies, the large amount of scrap typical of foundry operations. Finally, computer control of steel mill operations (materials flow, furnace residence times, excessive heating or overheating, and full capacity utilization of all facilities at all times) deserves further study.

  17. Hot drawn Fe–6.5 wt.%Si wires with good ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Li, H.; Yang, K.; Liang, Y.F.; Yang, J.; Ye, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe–6.5wt%Si steel wire with diameter of 1.6 mm can be successfully obtained by hot drawing process. • The ductility of Fe–6.5wt%Si alloy can be improved significantly when it is fabricated in the form of wire. • The Dc magnetic property of Fe–6.5wt%Si steel wire 1.6 mm in diameter is excellent, which is close to that of 0.3 mm thick cold-rolling sheet. - Abstract: Fe–6.5 wt.%Si high silicon steel wires with a diameter of 1.6 mm are fabricated successfully by hot drawing. The high silicon steel wires show much better ductility than sheets. The tensile strength and elongation of the wires at the room temperature can reach 1.31 GPa and 1.4%, respectively. The tensile strength and elongation of the rolling sheet at the room temperature are 0.8 GPa and 0, respectively. The microstructure analyses show that the elongated grains after drawing and reduced ordering phases by deformation in the wires might contribute to its good ductility. Bs value of 1.437 T and Hc value of 16.96 A/m are obtained for the wire after proper heat treatment for the wires

  18. Influence of heat input on weld bead geometry using duplex stainless steel wire electrode on low alloy steel specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Mondal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas metal arc welding cladding becomes a popular surfacing technique in many modern industries as it enhances effectively corrosion resistance property and wear resistance property of structural members. Quality of weld cladding may be enhanced by controlling process parameters. If bead formation is found acceptable, cladding is also expected to be good. Weld bead characteristics are often assessed by bead geometry, and it is mainly influenced by heat input. In this paper, duplex stainless steel E2209 T01 is deposited on E250 low alloy steel specimens with 100% CO2 gas as shielding medium with different heats. Weld bead width, height of reinforcement and depth of penetration are measured. Regression analysis is done on the basis of experimental data. Results reveal that within the range of bead-on-plate welding experiments done, parameters of welding geometry are on the whole linearly related with heat input. A condition corresponding to 0.744 kJ/mm heat input is recommended to be used for weld cladding in practice.

  19. Engineering study for a melting, casting, rolling and fabrication facility for recycled contaminated stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Preliminary Report is prepared to study the facilities required for recycling contaminated stainless steel scrap into plate which will be fabricated into boxes suitable for the storage of contaminated wastes and rubble. The study is based upon the underlying premise that the most cost effective way to produce stainless steel is to use the same processes employed by companies now in production of high quality stainless steel. Therefore, the method selected for this study for the production of stainless steel plate from scrap is conventional process using an Electric Arc Furnace for meltdown to hot metal, a Continuous Caster for production of cast slabs, and a Reversing Hot Mill for rolling the slabs into plate. The fabrication of boxes from the plate utilizes standard Shears, Punch Presses and welding equipment with Robotic Manipulators. This Study presumes that all process fumes, building dusts and vapors will be cycled through a baghouse and a nuclear grade HEPA filter facility prior to discharge. Also, all process waste water will be evaporated into the hot flue gas stream from the furnace utilizing a quench tank; so there will be no liquid discharges from the facility and all vapors will be processed through a HEPA filter. Even though HEPA filters are used today in controlling radioactive contamination from nuclear facilities there is a sparsity of data concerning radioactivity levels and composition of waste that may be collected from contaminated scrap steel processing. This report suggests some solutions to these problems but it is recommended that additional study must be given to these environmental problems

  20. Fabricating Superior NiAl Bronze Components through Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghong Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast nickel aluminum bronze (NAB alloy is widely used for large engineering components in marine applications due to its excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Casting porosity, as well as coarse microstructure, however, are accompanied by a decrease in mechanical properties of cast NAB components. Although heat treatment, friction stir processing, and fusion welding were implemented to eliminate porosity, improve mechanical properties, and refine the microstructure of as-cast metal, their applications are limited to either surface modification or component repair. Instead of traditional casting techniques, this study focuses on developing NAB components using recently expanded wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM. Consumable welding wire is melted and deposited layer-by-layer on substrates producing near-net shaped NAB components. Additively-manufactured NAB components without post-processing are fully dense, and exhibit fine microstructure, as well as comparable mechanical properties, to as-cast NAB alloy. The effects of heat input from the welding process and post-weld-heat-treatment (PWHT are shown to give uniform NAB alloys with superior mechanical properties revealing potential marine applications of the WAAM technique in NAB production.

  1. Superconducting properties of (Nb,Ta)3Sn wires fabricated by the bronze process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.; Aihara, K.; Kaiho, K.; Luhman, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the superconducting critical temperature T/sub c/, critical current density, J/sub c/ (8 3 Sn monofilamentary wires. Ta content in the Nb 3 Sn compound was varied by alloying the Nb core prior to a reaction heat treatment. Core compositions were 0, 3, 7, 10, and 20 wt% Ta and heat treatments for the reaction were 16, 64, and 120 h at 725 0 C. For the 120 h heat treatment T/sub c/ decreased monotonically with Ta content from 17.5 to 15.7K while H/sub c2/ increased from 19.8 to 24.6 T. With increasing Ta content J/sub c/ (16 T) increased from 0.7 x 10 5 A/cm 2 to a maximum value of 1.3 x 10 5 at 7 wt% Ta. Further increases in the Ta content produced a decrease in J/sub c/(16 T). At 10 T J/sub c/ decreased with increasing Ta content. An important aspect of this work is the observation that alloying with Ta did not hinder wire ductility during drawing. It appears therefore that the improvements in J/sub c/(16 T) can be incorporated into commercially manufactured conductors

  2. 77 FR 51514 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... The Department generally bases its decision with respect to knowledge on the margins calculated in the... importers' knowledge that material injury is likely by reason of such imports.\\8\\ Finally, as part of their... Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 31970, 31972-73 (June 5, 2008...

  3. Fabrication and properties of strip casting 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zu, Guoqing, E-mail: gz854@uowmail.edu.au [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Zhang, Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhao, Jingwei [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang, Yuqian [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yan, Yi [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Li, Chengang; Cao, Guangming [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiang, Zhengyi [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2017-02-15

    Three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with different thicknesses were efficiently fabricated by twin-roll strip casting, warm rolling and cold rolling followed by final annealing. A comprehensive investigation from the workability of the as-cast strip to the magnetic property of the produces was performed to illustrate the superiority of the new materials. The results show that the as-cast strip, which has a much lower Vickers hardness than that of the 6.5 wt% Si steel, is suitable for rolling processing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm that no ordering phase exists in the as-cast strip. The cold-rolled thin sheets exhibit good surface quality without edge cracks. Furthermore, all the three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets possess relative strong <100>//ND texture and present high magnetic inductions and low iron losses after finial annealing. - Highlights: • 4.5 wt% Si as-cast sheet with excellent workability was produced by strip casting. • Three 4.5 wt% Si thin sheets were effectively fabricated by warm and cold rolling. • The microstructure and macro-texture of the thin sheets were elucidated. • High magnetic inductions and low iron losses were achieved simultaneously.

  4. Wafer-scale high-throughput ordered arrays of Si and coaxial Si/Si(1-x)Ge(x) wires: fabrication, characterization, and photovoltaic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Caofeng; Luo, Zhixiang; Xu, Chen; Luo, Jun; Liang, Renrong; Zhu, Guang; Wu, Wenzhuo; Guo, Wenxi; Yan, Xingxu; Xu, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Jing

    2011-08-23

    We have developed a method combining lithography and catalytic etching to fabricate large-area (uniform coverage over an entire 5-in. wafer) arrays of vertically aligned single-crystal Si nanowires with high throughput. Coaxial n-Si/p-SiGe wire arrays are also fabricated by further coating single-crystal epitaxial SiGe layers on the Si wires using ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD). This method allows precise control over the diameter, length, density, spacing, orientation, shape, pattern and location of the Si and Si/SiGe nanowire arrays, making it possible to fabricate an array of devices based on rationally designed nanowire arrays. A proposed fabrication mechanism of the etching process is presented. Inspired by the excellent antireflection properties of the Si/SiGe wire arrays, we built solar cells based on the arrays of these wires containing radial junctions, an example of which exhibits an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 650 mV, a short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 8.38 mA/cm(2), a fill factor of 0.60, and an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 3.26%. Such a p-n radial structure will have a great potential application for cost-efficient photovoltaic (PV) solar energy conversion. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Pressure vessels fabricated with high-strength wire and electroformed nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B.

    1966-01-01

    Metal pressure vessels of various shapes having high strength-to-weight ratios are fabricated by using known techniques of filament winding and electroforming. This eliminates nonuniform wall thickness and unequal wall strength which resulted from welding formed vessel segments together.

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of Ni-CNT Composites by Electrical Explosion of Wire in Different Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuyet-Nguyen M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ni-CNT powders and colloids were synthesized via the Electrical explosion of wire (EEW in different liquid conditions. The influence of ambient solvents (D.I. Water, ethanol, methanol, acetone and ethylene-glycol on characteristics of the as-synthesized Ni-CNT was investigated. The morphology and size were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. The Ni particles were spherical or near spherical shape. The phase of the composite powders analyzed via X-ray diffraction demonstrate the presence of CNTs in composite powders is not affect the structure of Ni. However, the phase of the composites was changed based on the changing of liquid conditions. Stability of colloids was investigated by Turbiscan technique. Magnetic properties were also investigated by Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM at room temperature. The as-synthesized composite powders revealed a ferromagnetic characteristic material.

  7. LOSS FACTOR AND DYNAMIC YOUNG MODULUS DETERMINATION FOR COMPOSITE SANDWICH BARS REINFORCED WITH STEEL FABRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin-Mihai MIRIŢOIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have build some composite sandwich bars. For these bars I have determined the dynamic response by recording their free vibrations. These bars have the core made of polypropylene honeycomb with upper and lower layers reinforced with steel wire mesh. For these bars I have determined the the eigenfrequency of the first eigenmode in this way: the bar was embedded at one end and free at the other where there was placed an accelerometer at 10 mm distance from the edge and I applied an initial force at the free end. I have determined the eigenfrequency because I will use its values for the loss factor and dynamic Young modulus determination.

  8. Structural Component Fabrication and Characterization of Advanced Radiation Resistant ODS Steel for Next Generation Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sang Hoon; Kim, Young Chun; Jin, Hyun Ju; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2016-01-01

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), the coolant outlet temperature and peak temperature of the fuel cladding tube will be about 545 .deg. C and 700 .deg. C with 250 dpa of a very high neutron dose rate. To realize this system, it is necessary to develop an advanced structural material having high creep and irradiation resistance at high temperatures. Austenitic stainless steel may be one of the candidates because of good strength and corrosion resistance at the high temperatures, however irradiation swelling severely occurred to 120dpa at high temperatures and this eventually leads to a decrease of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Advanced radiation resistant ODS steel (ARROS) has been newly developed for the in-core structural components in SFR, which has very attractive microstructures to achieve both superior creep and radiation resistances at high temperatures [4]. Nevertheless, the use of ARROS as a structural material essentially requires the fabrication technology development for component parts such as sheet, plate and tube. In this study, plates and tubes were tentatively fabricated with a newly developed alloy, ARROS. Microstructures as well as mechanical properties were also investigated to determine the optimized condition of the fabrication processes.

  9. Overview on the welding technologies of CLAM steel and the DFLL TBM fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual Functional Lithium Lead (DFLL blanket was proposed for its advantages of high energy exchange efficiency and on-line tritium extraction, and it was selected as the candidate test blanket module (TBM for China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR and the blanket for Fusion Design Study (FDS series fusion reactors. Considering the influence of high energy fusion neutron irradiation and high heat flux thermal load on the blanket, China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM steel was selected as the structural material for DFLL blanket. The structure of the blanket and the cooling internal components were pretty complicated. Meanwhile, high precision and reliability were required in the blanket fabrication. Therefore, several welding techniques, such as hot isostatic pressing diffusion bonding, tungsten inner gas welding, electron beam welding and laser beam welding were developed for the fabrication of cooling internals and the assembly of the blanket. In this work, the weldability on CLAM steel by different welding methods and the properties of as-welded and post-weld heat-treated joints were investigated. Meanwhile, the welding schemes and the assembly strategy for TBM fabrication were raised. Many tests and research efforts on scheme feasibility, process standardization, component qualification and blanket assembly were reviewed.

  10. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF THE SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS FOR PES/STAINLESS STEEL FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU Ion Razvan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Textile screens for electromagnetic radiation represent a modern solution, due to their flexibility, lightweight and good mechanical resistance. Electromagnetic shielding is a must in various applications, while strict regulations are set for electromagnetic compatibility. Conductive fabrics are widely used for electronic equipment covers, RF suits or EMI protection tents. This paper aims to investigate the shielding effectiveness of conductive woven fabrics with stainless steel yarns at different weft distances [2,3,4,5 mm]. These conductive fabrics were investigated for their physical-mechanical properties (mass per surface unit, density on warp and weft direction and thickness, within the INCDTP accredited laboratories. The conductive fabrics as well as combinations thereof where tested for their shielding effectiveness accordingly to the standard ASTM ES 07, within the EMC laboratories of ICPE-CA. A signal generator, an amplifier, a TEM Cell and a spectrum analyser were used were used for this purpose. Graphs in logarithmic scale were issued for the shielding effectiveness analysis. Moreover, an experimental factorial plan was conceived for obtaining a mathematical model for the studied fabrics in relation to the weft distance between the conductive yarns. The coefficients of the mathematical model were obtained through the least squares regression method in Excel, while the response curve was designed in Matlab. The response curve enables the computation of intermediate values of the shielding effectiveness in relation to the distance between conductive yarns.

  11. Enhanced Strain Measurement Range of an FBG Sensor Embedded in Seven-Wire Steel Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Chul-Min; Choi, Song-Yi; Lee, Bang Yeon

    2017-07-18

    FBG sensors offer many advantages, such as a lack of sensitivity to electromagnetic waves, small size, high durability, and high sensitivity. However, their maximum strain measurement range is lower than the yield strain range (about 1.0%) of steel strands when embedded in steel strands. This study proposes a new FBG sensing technique in which an FBG sensor is recoated with polyimide and protected by a polyimide tube in an effort to enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands. The validation test results showed that the proposed FBG sensing technique has a maximum strain measurement range of 1.73% on average, which is 1.73 times higher than the yield strain of the strands. It was confirmed that recoating the FBG sensor with polyimide and protecting the FBG sensor using a polyimide tube could effectively enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands.

  12. Control of Hydrogen Embrittlement in High Strength Steel Using Special Designed Welding Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    microstructure 4. A low near ambient temperature is reached. • All four factor must be simultaneously present 3 Mitigating HIC and Improving Weld Fatigue...Performance Through Weld Residual Stress Control UNCLASIFIED:DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Click to edit Master...title style 4 • Welding of Armor Steels favors all these conditions for HIC • Hydrogen Present in Sufficient Degree – Derived from moisture in the

  13. Allergic reaction to stainless steel sternotomy wires requiring removal: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, J; Sachithanandan, A; Leow, M

    2016-06-01

    Hypersensitivity to stainless steel sternal sutures are an uncommon occurrence. We present a case of such a patient who developed chronic tissue overgranulation over a sternotomy wound eight weeks post-operatively. Primary suspicion was infection, a more common complication however radiological and laboratory investigation showed otherwise. Conservative management provided limited ephemeral success. After ensuring adequate sternal bone healing, the sutures and granulation tissue were eventually surgically removed without complication and the reoperated wound healed well.

  14. Steel, specially for the fabrication of welded structure working under pressure in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolbenko, E.T.; Astafiev, A.A.; Kark, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of metallurgy. Steels have found an increasing number of applications in mechanical constructions, and notably in the construction of materials for the production of energy and for the fabrication of welded structures operating under pressure at temperatures as high as 450 0 C. A possible application is the pressurized vessels of nuclear facilities. The steels of interest contain carbon, silicon, manganese, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, aluminium, nitrogen, phosphorus and iron, but are characterized by the fact that they also contain arsenic, tin and calcium. The sum of the weighted percentages of nickel and manganese and the weighted percentage of phosphorous are related as follows: (Ni + Mn) . P [fr

  15. Anti-biofouling superhydrophobic surface fabricated by picosecond laser texturing of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke; Yang, Huan; Xue, Wei; He, An; Zhu, Dehua; Liu, Wenwen; Adeyemi, Kenneth; Cao, Yu

    2018-04-01

    Anti-biofouling technology is based on specifically designed materials and coatings. This is an enduring goal in the maritime industries, such as shipping, offshore oil exploration, and aquaculture. Recently, research of the relationship between wettability and antifouling effectiveness has attracted considerable attention, due to the anti-biofouling properties of the lotus leaf and shark skin. In this study, super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) with controllable periodic structures were fabricated on AISI304 stainless steel by a picosecond laser, and their anti-biofouling performance were investigated by seawater immersion for five weeks in summertime. The results showed that the specimens with SHS demonstrate significant anti-biofouling effect as compared with the bare stainless steel plate. We observed that nearly 50% decrease of the average microbe attachment area ratio (Avg. MAAR) could be obtained. The micro-groove SHS with more abundant hierarchical micro-nano structures showed better anti-biofouling performance than the micro-pit SHS.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Friction Resistance of Titanium, Stainless Steel, Ceramic and Ceramic with Metal Insert Brackets with Varying Dimensions of Stainless Steel Wire: An In vitro Multi-center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Sunil; Miryala, Suresh; Kumar, K Kiran; Shameem, K; Regalla, Ravindra Reddy

    2014-09-01

    The orthodontist seeks an archwire-bracket combination that has both good biocompatibility and low friction. Hence, the aim of this multicenter in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance generated between titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SS), ceramic and ceramic with metal insert (CMI) brackets with SS wires of varying dimensions in a specially designed apparatus. The material used in this study were Ti, SS, Ceramic and CMI with 0.018″ slot manufactured with zero degree tip and -7° torque premolar brackets (3M, Unitek) and SS wires of varying dimensions (0.016″ round, 0.016 × 0.016″ square, 0.016 × 0.022″ rectangular and 0.017 × 0.025″ rectangular) used. The frictional resistance was measured using Instron Universal testing machine (Model no. 4301). The specimen population in each center composed each of 160 brackets and wires. Differences among the all bracket/wire combinations were tested using (one-way) ANOVA, followed by the student Newman Keuls multiple comparisons of means ranking (at P bracket in combination with 0.017 × 0.025″ SS rectangular wire produced significant force levels for an optimum orthodontic movement with least frictional resistance. Ti brackets have least resistance and rectangular wires produced significant force. These can be used to avoid hazards of Nickel. SS brackets revealed higher static frictional force values as the wire dimension increased and showed lower static friction than Ti brackets for all wires except the thicker wire. Our study recommends the preclusion of brackets with rough surface texture (Ti brackets) with SS ligature wire for ligating bracket and archwire are better to reduce friction.

  17. Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Evaluation of Thermoelectric Generators with Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposited Polysilicon as Thermoelement Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Maria Theresa; Tarazona, Antulio; Chong, Harold; Kraft, Michael

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling, fabrication, and evaluation of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) with p-type polysilicon deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) as thermoelement material. A thermal model is developed based on energy balance and heat transfer equations using lumped thermal conductances. Several test structures were fabricated to allow characterization of the boron-doped polysilicon material deposited by HWCVD. The film was found to be electrically active without any post-deposition annealing. Based on the tests performed on the test structures, it is determined that the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity of the HWCVD polysilicon are 113 μV/K, 126 W/mK, and 3.58 × 10-5 Ω m, respectively. Results from laser tests performed on the fabricated TEG are in good agreement with the thermal model. The temperature values derived from the thermal model are within 2.8% of the measured temperature values. For a 1-W laser input, an open-circuit voltage and output power of 247 mV and 347 nW, respectively, were generated. This translates to a temperature difference of 63°C across the thermoelements. This paper demonstrates that HWCVD, which is a cost-effective way of producing solar cells, can also be applied in the production of TEGs. By establishing that HWCVD polysilicon can be an effective thermoelectric material, further work on developing photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid microsystems that are cost-effective and better performing can be explored.

  18. Fabrication of Nb3Al superconducting wires by utilizing the mechanically alloyed Nb(Al)ss supersaturated solid-solution with low-temperature annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, X.F.; Yan, G.; Qi, M.; Cui, L.J.; Chen, Y.L.; Zhao, Y.; Li, C.S.; Liu, X.H.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, P.X.; Liu, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reported superconducting properties of the powder-in-tube Nb 3 Al wires. • The Nb 3 Al wires were made by using Nb(Al) ss supersaturated solid solution powders. • The Cu-matrix Nb 3 Al superconducting wires have been successfully fabricated. • The transport J c of Nb 3 Al wires at 4.2 K, 10 T is up to 12,700 A/cm 2 . - Abstract: High-performance Nb 3 Al superconducting wire is a promising candidate to the application of high-field magnets. However, due to the production problem of km-grade wires that are free from low magnetic field instability, the Nb 3 Al wires made by rapid heating, quenching and transformation (RHQT) are still not available to the large-scale engineering application. In this paper, we reported the properties of the in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb 3 Al superconducting wires, which were made by using the mechanically alloyed Nb(Al) ss supersaturated solid solution, as well as the low temperature heat-treatment at 800 °C for 10 h. The results show that Nb 3 Al superconductors in this method possess very fine grains and well superconducting properties, though a little of Nb 2 Al and Nb impurities still keep being existence at present work. At the Nb 3 Al with a nominal 26 at.% Al content, the onset T c reaches 15.8 K. Furthermore, a series of Nb 3 Al wires and tapes with various sizes have been fabricated; for the 1.0 mm-diameter wire, the J c at 4.2 K, 10 T and 14 T have achieved 12,700 and 6900 A/cm 2 , respectively. This work suggests it is possible to develop high-performance Cu-matrix Nb 3 Al superconducting wires by directly using the Nb(Al) ss supersaturated solid-solution without the complex RHQT heat-treatment process

  19. Fabrication of Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires by utilizing the mechanically alloyed Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid-solution with low-temperature annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, X.F. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Yan, G., E-mail: gyan@c-nin.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Qi, M. [Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Cui, L.J. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Chen, Y.L.; Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R and D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Li, C.S. [Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Liu, X.H. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Feng, Y.; Zhang, P.X. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R and D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Liu, H.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Hefei 230031 (China); and others

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • This paper reported superconducting properties of the powder-in-tube Nb{sub 3}Al wires. • The Nb{sub 3}Al wires were made by using Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid solution powders. • The Cu-matrix Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires have been successfully fabricated. • The transport J{sub c} of Nb{sub 3}Al wires at 4.2 K, 10 T is up to 12,700 A/cm{sup 2}. - Abstract: High-performance Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wire is a promising candidate to the application of high-field magnets. However, due to the production problem of km-grade wires that are free from low magnetic field instability, the Nb{sub 3}Al wires made by rapid heating, quenching and transformation (RHQT) are still not available to the large-scale engineering application. In this paper, we reported the properties of the in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires, which were made by using the mechanically alloyed Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid solution, as well as the low temperature heat-treatment at 800 °C for 10 h. The results show that Nb{sub 3}Al superconductors in this method possess very fine grains and well superconducting properties, though a little of Nb{sub 2}Al and Nb impurities still keep being existence at present work. At the Nb{sub 3}Al with a nominal 26 at.% Al content, the onset T{sub c} reaches 15.8 K. Furthermore, a series of Nb{sub 3}Al wires and tapes with various sizes have been fabricated; for the 1.0 mm-diameter wire, the J{sub c} at 4.2 K, 10 T and 14 T have achieved 12,700 and 6900 A/cm{sup 2}, respectively. This work suggests it is possible to develop high-performance Cu-matrix Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires by directly using the Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid-solution without the complex RHQT heat-treatment process.

  20. Design, fabrication and erection of steel structures important to safety of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    Civil engineering structures in nuclear installations form an important feature having implications to safety performance of these installations. The objective and minimum requirements for the design of civil engineering buildings/structures to be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety of nuclear installations in India (such as pressurised heavy water reactor and related systems) are specified in the Safety Standard for Civil Engineering Structures Important to Safety of Nuclear Facilities. This standard is written by AERB to specify guidelines for implementation of the above civil engineering safety standard in the design, fabrication and erection of steel structures important to safety

  1. Comparison of nickel and chromium ions released from stainless steel and NiTi wires after immersion in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Moghaddas, Omid; Toopchi, Shabnam; Perillo, Letizia

    2014-07-01

    Oral environment of the mouth is a suitable place for biodegradation of alloys used in orthodontic wires. The toxicity of these alloys namely nickel and chromium has concerned the researchers about the release of these ions from orthodontic wires and brackets. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel and chromium ions released from 0.018" stainless steel (SS) and NiTi wires after immersion in three solutions. One hundred and forty-four round NiTi and 144 round SS archwires with the diameters of 0.018" were immersed in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva. The amounts of nickel and chromium ions released were measured after 1, 6, 24 hours and 7 days. Two way repeated ANOVA showed that the amount of chromium and nickel significantly increased in all solutions during all time intervals (p nickel ions were released more in NiTi wire in all solutions compared with SS wire. The lowest increase rate was also seen in artificial saliva. There is general consensus in literature that even very little amounts of nickel and chromium are dangerous for human body specially when absorbed orally; therefore, knowing the precise amount of these ions released from different wires when immersed in different mouthwashes is of high priority.

  2. Nitrogen implantation into steel wire coated with zinc used as reinforcement in power transmission conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Maldonado, J. J.; Dulcé-Moreno, H. J.; V-Niño, E. D.

    2013-11-01

    In tropical environments, diversity of climatic factors such as temperature, relative humidity, deposition of environmental contaminants (such as sulfates and chlorides) affect a large proportion of materials exposed to the weather, and electrochemical corrosion is one of the phenomena that occur in the case of metals and alloys [1, 2]. It is therefore particularly important to study this behavior in the Zinc-coated steel, since this material is used for its economy in the industry specifically in the area of transport of electricity.

  3. The heterogeneous electrochemical characteristics of mild steel in the presence of local glucose oxidase-A study by the wire beam electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Lu Yonghong; Zou Yan; Zhang Xia; Wang Jia

    2010-01-01

    The influence of glucose oxidase (GOD) activity on the heterogeneous electrochemistry at artificial biofilm/mild steel interface was first characterized by the wire beam electrode (WBE) method. Potential/current distribution maps show that a cathodic zone can be formed at the GOD capsule site. The cathodic zone is gradually weakened due to the gluconic acid production in seawater. When GOD capsule is confined on rusted WBE surfaces, the formerly formed anodic zone is gradually changed into cathodic zone, in the presence of glucose. The novel device developed in our laboratory demonstrates powerful applications in heterogeneous electrochemistry measurements at the biofilm/mild steel interfaces.

  4. Nickel cobaltite nanograss grown around porous carbon nanotube-wrapped stainless steel wire mesh as a flexible electrode for high-performance supercapacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Zheng, Zhi-Bin; Lai, Yu-Sheng; Jow, Jiin-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nickel cobaltite nanograss with bimodal pore size distribution is grown around the carbon nanotube-wrapped stainless steel wire mesh as a high capacitance and stable electrode for high-performance and flexible supercapacitors. - Highlights: • NiCo 2 O 4 nanograss with bimodal pore size distribution is hydrothermally prepared. • Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) wrap around stainless steel (SS) wire mesh as a scaffold. • NiCo 2 O 4 grown on CNT-wrapped SS mesh shows excellent capacitive performance. • Porous CNT layer allows for rapid transport of electron and electrolyte. - Abstract: Nickel cobaltite nanograss with bimodal pore size distribution (small and large mesopores) is grown on various electrode substrates by one-pot hydrothermal synthesis. The small pores (<5 nm) in the nanograss of individual nanorods contribute to large surface area, while the large pore channels (>20 nm) between nanorods offer fast transport paths for electrolyte. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high electrical conductivity wrap around stainless steel (SS) wire mesh by electrophoresis as an electrode scaffold for supporting the nickel cobaltite nanograss. This unique electrode configuration turns out to have great benefits for the development of supercapacitors. The specific capacitance of nickel cobaltite grown around CNT-wrapped SS wire mesh reaches 1223 and 1070 F g −1 at current densities of 1 and 50 A g −1 , respectively. CNT-wrapped SS wire mesh affords porous and conductive networks underneath the nanograss for rapid transport of electron and electrolyte. Flexible CNTs connect the nanorods to mitigate the contact resistance and the volume expansion during cycling test. Thus, this tailored electrode can significantly reduce the ohmic resistance, charge-transfer resistance, and diffusive impedance, leading to high specific capacitance, prominent rate performance, and good cycle-life stability.

  5. Crack repair welding by CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire for long-term used steam turbine cases of Cr-Mo-V cast steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoi, Kota, E-mail: kadoi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Murakami, Aoi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Matsumura, Hideo [Chugoku Electric Power Co., 3-9-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    Surface melting by gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding and overlaying by cold metal transfer (CMT) brazing using low melting point filler wire were investigated to develop a repair process for cracks in worn cast steel of steam turbine cases. Cr-Mo-V cast steel, operated for 188,500 h at 566 °C, was used as the base material. Silver and gold brazing filler wires were used as overlaying materials to decrease the heat input into the base metal and the peak temperature during the welding thermal cycle. Microstructural analysis revealed that the worn cast steel test samples contained ferrite phases with intragranular precipitates of Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}, Mo{sub 2}C, and CrSi{sub 2} and grain boundary precipitates of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Mo{sub 2}C. CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire was found to decrease the heat input and peak temperature during the thermal cycle of the process compared with those during GTA surface melting. Thus, the process helped to inhibit the formation of hardened phases such as intermetallics and martensite in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Additionally, in the case of CMT brazing using BAg-8, the change in the hardness of the HAZ was negligible even though other processes such as GTA surface melting cause significant changes. The creep-fatigue properties of weldments produced by CMT brazing with BAg-8 were the highest, and nearly the same as those of the base metal owing to the prevention of hardened phase formation. The number of fracture cycles using GTA surface melting and CMT brazing with BAu-4 was also quite small. Therefore, CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire such as BAg-8 is a promising candidate method for repairing steam turbine cases. However, it is necessary to take alloy segregation during turbine operation into account to design a suitable filler wire for practical use.

  6. Design and fabrication of stainless steel components for long life of spent fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, R.; Ramkumar, P.; Sundararaman, V.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Baldev Raj; Shanmugam, K.

    2010-01-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels based on the PUREX process is the proven process with many commercial plants operating satisfactorily worldwide. The process medium being nitric acid, austenitic stainless steel is the material of construction as it is the best commercially available material for meeting the conditions in the reprocessing plants. Because of the high radiation fields, contact maintenance of equipment and systems of these plants are very time consuming and costly unlike other chemical process plants. Though the plants constructed in the early years required extensive shut downs for replacement of equipment and systems within the first fifteen years of operation itself, development in the field of stainless steel metallurgy and fabrication techniques have made it possible to design the present day plants for an operating life period of forty years. A review of the operational experience of the PUREX process based aqueous reprocessing plants has been made in this paper and reveals that life limiting failures of equipment and systems are mainly due to corrosion while a few are due to stresses. Presently there are no standards for design specification of materials and fabrication of reprocessing plants like the nuclear power plants, where well laid down ASTM and ASME codes and standards are available which are based on the large scale operational feedbacks on pressure vessels for conventional and nuclear industries. (author)

  7. Physical properties and microstructure study of stainless steel 316L alloy fabricated by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nurul Kamariah Md Saiful; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan; Ghani, Saiful Anwar Che; Omar, Mohd Asnawi; Ramli, Mohd Hazlen; Ismail, Muhammad Hussain

    2017-12-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) demonstrates the 21st century's manufacturing infrastructure in which powdered raw material is melted by a high energy focused laser, and built up layer-by-layer until it forms three-dimensional metal parts. SLM process involves a variation of process parameters which affects the final material properties. 316L stainless steel compacts through the manipulation of building orientation and powder layer thickness parameters were manufactured by SLM. The effect of the manipulated parameters on the relative density and dimensional accuracy of the 316L stainless steel compacts, which were in the as-build condition, were experimented and analysed. The relationship between the microstructures and the physical properties of fabricated 316L stainless steel compacts was investigated in this study. The results revealed that 90° building orientation has higher relative density and dimensional accuracy than 0° building orientation. Building orientation was found to give more significant effect in terms of dimensional accuracy, and relative density of SLM compacts compare to build layer thickness. Nevertheless, the existence of large number and sizes of pores greatly influences the low performances of the density.

  8. Solid-phase microextraction of Methylene Blue using carboxy graphene-modified steel wires, and its detection by electrochemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sui; Lv, Shasha; Guo, Zhiyong; Jiang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We report on a new solid phase for microextraction (SPME) of Methylene Blue (MB). It was obtained by immobilizing carboxy graphene (G-COOH) on a stainless steel wire. Scanning electron micrography showed the surface to be homogeneous, porous and wrinkled. The effects of sample solution pH, extraction time, stirring rate, desorption time and of desorption solvent on the efficiency of extraction of MB were optimized. The new SPME was coupled to electrochemiluminescence detection of MB and gave a linear analytical range from 2.7 nM to 1.3 μM, and the detection limit is 0.89 nM which is better than other methods. When considering the enrichment factor of ∼20, the resulting detection limit is estimated to be 45 pM. The new SPME fiber was successfully applied to the analysis of MB in spiked real water samples. Recoveries range from 95.7 % to 113.0 %, and relative standard deviations are <5.0 %, which showed the good reproducibility of the method. (author)

  9. Evolution of carbon distribution and mechanical properties during the static strain ageing of heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Massardier, V.; Sauvage, X.; Kléber, X.; Mari, D.

    2016-01-01

    The static strain ageing of heavily cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires was investigated using both global techniques and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography (APT)), in order to highlight how the cold-drawn destabilized microstructure returns to a more stable state during post-drawing treatments between 20 °C and 150 °C. The global techniques (thermoelectric power, differential scanning calorimetry) clearly showed that ageing occurs in three successive ageing stages and is due to a redistribution of the carbon atoms coming from the strain-induced cementite dissolution. The first ageing stage was unambiguously attributed to the carbon segregation to the defects, while the second and third stages were interpreted as being due to the precipitation of intermediate carbides (2nd stage) and cementite (3rd stage). The true strain was not found to significantly affect the ageing kinetics and mechanisms but appeared to play a role in the amount of carbon atoms involved in the different ageing stages. APT analyses confirmed that ageing is governed by the carbon depletion of strain-induced supersaturated ferrite. The strengthening mechanisms associated with the different ageing stages were also discussed.

  10. Effects of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    Thermal aging of three-wire series-arc stainless steel weld overlay cladding at 288 degrees C for 1605 h resulted in an appreciable decrease (16%) in the Charpy V-notch (CVN) upper-shelf energy (USE), but the effect on the 41-J transition temperature shift was very small (3 degrees C). The combined effect of aging and neutron irradiation at 288 degrees C to a fluence of 5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (> 1 MeV) was a 22% reduction in the USE and a 29 degrees C shift in the 41-J transition temperature. The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties was very small. However, the combined effect of irradiation and aging was an increase in the yield strength (6 to 34% at test temperatures from 288 to -125 degrees C) but no apparent change in ultimate tensile strength or total elongation. Neutron irradiation reduced the initiation fracture toughness (J Ic ) much more than did thermal aging alone. Irradiation slightly decreased the tearing modulus, but no reduction was caused by thermal aging alone. Other results from tensile, CVN, and fracture toughness specimens showed that the effects of thermal aging at 288 or 343 degrees C for 20,000 h each were very small and similar to those at 288 degrees C for 1605 h. The effects of long-term thermal exposure time (50,000 h and greater) at 288 degrees C will be investigated as the specimens become available in 1996 and beyond

  11. Slot deformation of various stainless steel bracket due to the torque force of the beta-titanium wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, M. M.; Siregar, E.; Ismah, N.

    2017-08-01

    Stainless steel bracket slot deformation ffects the force applied to teeth and it can impede tooth movement and prolong orthodontic treatment time. The aim of this study is to determine the slot deformation due to torque of a 0.021 × 0.025 inch Beta Titanium wire with a torsional angle of 30° and 45° for five different bracket brands: y, 3M, Biom, Versadent, Ormco, and Shinye. The research also aims to compare the deformation and amount of torque among all five bracket brands at torsional angles of 30° and 45°. Fifty stainless steel edgewise brackets from the five bracket group brands (n=10) were attached to acrylic plates. The bracket slot measurements were carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the, deformation was measured by calculating the average bracket slot height using a stereoscopy microscope before and after application of torque. In the second stage, the torque was measured using a torque measurement apparatus. The statistical analysis shows that slot deformations were found on all five bracket brands with a clinical permanent deformation on the Biom (2.79 μm) and Shinye (2.29 μm) brackets. The most torque was observed on the 3M bracket, followed by the Ormco, Versadent, Shinye, and Biom brackets. When the brands were compared, a correlation between bracket slot deformation and the amount of torque was found, but the correlation was not statistically significant for the 3M and Ormco brackets and the Biom and Shinye brackets. There is a difference in the amount of torque between the five brands with a torsional angle of 30° (except the 3M and Ormco brackets) and those with a torsional angle of 45°. The composition of the metal and the manufacturing process are the factors that influence the occurrence of bracket slot deformation and the amount of torque. A manufacturing process using metal injection molding (MIM) and metal compositions of AISI 303 and 17-4 PH stainless steel reduce the risk of deformation.

  12. Influence of the fabrication process parameters on microstructures and mechanical properties of 10Cr-1Mo ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyun Ju; Kim, Ki Baik; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Noh, Sang Hoon; Kim, Ga Eon; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FM steels have been developed as the most promising core structural material for high- temperature components operating in severe environments such as nuclear fusion and fission systems owing to its excellent elevated temperature strength and radiation resistance stemming from the addition of extremely thermally stable oxide particles dispersed in a ferritic/martensitic matrix. To realize the structural components such as plates, sheets and tubes in SFR, the development of manufacturing processes is an essential issue for the ODS FM steel. While the ODS steel has superior radiation resistance and high temperature strength, in comparison with the existing commercial steels, it is difficult for the ODS steel to obtain sufficient workability for the fabrication due to high hardness and low ductility at room temperature, meaning that the manufacturing of the ODS plate including cladding tube can be complicated by the low cold workability. In order to prevent the ODS steel from any damage during the manufacturing process, thus, the introduction of intermediate heat treatments between cold rolling processes is necessary. This study investigates effects of the fabrication process parameters such as the cold working ratio, the intermediate and final heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 10Cr-1Mo ODS steel. In an effort to optimize the manufacturing route of the ODS FM steel, the microstructural and mechanical evolutions for the ODS plate manufactured by a control of the fabrication process parameters were evaluated in the present study. In the present study, the effect of a cold rolling and intermediate heat treatments on microstructures and mechanical properties of 10Cr-1Mo FM ODS steel were investigated. During the manufacturing route the hardness measurements remained below the critical value of 400 Hv. Intermediate heat treatment with slow cooling led to a softened ferritic structures which can be further

  13. Effect of Ni content on stainless steel fabricated by laser melting deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Zhang, C. H.; Wang, Q.; Wu, C. L.; Zhang, S.; Chen, J.; Abdullah, Adil O.

    2018-05-01

    The novel stainless steel + x wt.% Ni (x = 0, 3.05, 6.10, 9.15) specimens were successfully fabricated by laser melting deposition, aiming at investigating the influence of Ni content on stainless steel structure and property. The effects of Ni content on phase compositions, microstructure, microhardness, wear and electrochemical corrosion resistance of as-deposited stainless steel were studied systematically using XRD, OM, SEM, microhardness tester, friction-wear tester and potentiodynamic polarization measurement, respectively. Experimental results showed that with the increase of Ni content, the constituent phase of the as-deposited specimen changed from ferrite phase (specimen for x = 0) to austenite phase (specimen for x = 9.15). The microstructure growth followed the principle of dendrite growth. However, the dominant microstructure varied from equiaxed dendrite to columnar dendrite with increasing Ni content. Phase transition from ferrite phase to austenite phase with the addition of Ni content resulted in the decrease of microhardness value from 643HV to 289HV. Meanwhile, the wear resistance of as-deposited specimens decreased gradually with the increasing of Ni content, which might be attributed to the fact that the wear resistance is proportional to microhardness according to Archard's law. It was noted that corrosion resistance of as-deposited stainless steel was extremely improved with the increase of Ni content. The higher Ni content specimen (specimen for x = 9.15) exhibited the best corrosion resistance among the tested specimens based on corrosion rate, which was one order of magnitude lower than that of the lower Ni content specimens (specimens for x = 0, 3.05).

  14. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires.

  15. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Kararia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1-3 M 0.016" NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016" NiTi, group 3-3 M 0.019" FNx010.025" SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at Χ2000, Χ4000 and Χ6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0. Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics.

  16. Double Fillet Welding of Carbon Steel T-Joint by Double Channel Shielding Gas Metal Arc Welding Method Using Metal Cored Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon steel material and T-joints are frequently used in ship building and steel constructions. Advantages such as high deposition rates, high quality and smooth weld metals and easy automation make cored wires preferable in these industries. In this study, low carbon steel materials with web and flange thicknesses of 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were welded with conventional GMAW and double channel shielding gas metal arc welding (DMAG method to form double fillet T-joints using metal cored wire. The difference between these two methods were characterized by measurements of mean welding parameters, Vickers hardness profiles, weld bead and HAZ geometry of the joints and thermal camera temperature measurements. When weld bead and HAZ geometries are focused, it was seen filler metal molten area increased and base metal molten area decreased in DMAG of low carbon steel. When compared with traditional GMAW, finer and acicular structures in weld metal and more homogenous and smaller grains in HAZ are obtained with double channel shielding gas metal arc welding.

  17. Defects detection on the welded reinforcing steel with self-shielded wires by vibration tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crâştiu Ion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the development and validation of a vibroacustic technique to welding defects detection, especially for welded reinforcing structures. In welded structures subjected to dynamic cyclic loads may appear and propagate fatigue cracks due to local structural damage. These cracks may initiate due to the technological parameters used in welding process, or due to environmental operating conditions. By the means of Finite Element Method (FEM, the natural frequencies and shape modes of more welded steel specimens are determined. The analysis is carried out in undamaged condition as well as damaged one, after artificially induced damages. The experimental measurement of the vibroacustic response is carried out by using a condenser microphone, which is suitable for high-fidelity acoustic measurements in the frequency range of 20 – 20.000 Hz. The vibration responses of the welded specimens, in free-free conditions, are carried out using algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, and Prony's series. The results are compared to modal parameters estimated using FE Analysis.

  18. Fabrication and application of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film coated on Al wire by sol-gel method with EISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Linkang; Lu, Jianjun, E-mail: lujianjunktz@tyut.edu.cn

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Successfully fabricated mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin film on Al wire by sol-gel method with EISA. • Ni supported on this film and exhibits good methanation performance. • Investigate the decomposition temperature of template agent F127 in TiO{sub 2} precursor system. - Abstract: Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film on Al wire was fabricated by sol-gel method with evaporation induced self assembly (EISA) process using F127 as templating agent in the mixed solution of ethanol and Tetra-n-butyl Titanate. The Ni/TiO{sub 2} film catalyst supported on Al wire was prepared by impregnation and the catalytic performance on methanation was carried out in a titanium alloy micro-reactor tube. It was shown that anatase mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film was prepared in this conditions (1 g F127,calcined at 400 °C and aged for 24 h), which has specific surface area of 127 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and narrow pore size distribution of 5.3 nm. Low calcined temperature (300 °C) cannot transfer film to anatase and decompose F127 completely. Ni/TiO{sub 2} film on Al wire catalyst was proved to be active in CO methanation reaction. And the CO conversion reaches 99% and CH{sub 4} selectivity close is to 80% when the reaction temperature is higher 360 °C.

  19. Fabrication of seven-core multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with high critical current density by an internal Mg diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togano, K; Hur, J M; Matsumoto, A; Kumakura, H

    2009-01-01

    We found that the reaction between a Mg core and a B powder layer in an internal Mg diffusion (IMD)-processed multi-filamentary wire can proceed rapidly even at a furnace temperature lower than the melting point of Mg (650 deg. C), resulting in the formation of a reacted layer with a fine composite structure and, hence, excellent in-field critical current properties. The multi-filamentary wire is composed of an outermost Cu-Ni sheath and seven filaments with a Ta sheath, a Mg core, and B+SiC powder filled in the space between the Ta sheath and the Mg core. Heat treatment at 645 deg. C for 1 h produced a reacted layer with dense composite structure along the inner wall of the Ta sheath and a hole at the center of each core. This reaction probably initiated from the heat generation at the B/Mg interface, resulting in a temperature rise of the Mg core and the occurrence of liquid Mg infiltration. The J c value at 4.2 K for the reacted layer exceeds 10 5 cm -2 at 9 T, which is the highest reported so far for MgB 2 wire, including powder-in-tube (PIT)-processed wires. These results indicate that the IMD process can compete in terms of practical wire fabrication with the conventional PIT process.

  20. Fabrication of a segmented composite stainless steel-alumina discharge tube for a theta-pinch coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, J.M.; Stoddard, S.D.; Muller, J.F.

    1975-11-01

    An 80-mm-diam segmented discharge tube that simulated in a simplified way the blanket and first wall of the Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor (RTPR) has been constructed. The segments were fabricated by plasma-arc spraying an alumina coating on tubular stainless steel trapezoids. These were laid up to form a cylinder that was contained in a fully dense alumina vacuum tube. The fabrication processes are discussed in detail

  1. Experimental Evaluation of a New Single Wire Stainless Steel Fishscale Coronary Stent (Freedomª).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang; Verbeken; Mukherjee; Zhou; De Scheerder IK

    1996-10-01

    Recent randomized clinical trials revealed a significant reduction in angiographic restenosis rates when adjunctive stenting was performed after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty. Current approved coronary stents are however hampered by their rigidity, limiting their trackability in tortuous vessels and furthermore, needing high pressure deployment for optimal vessel apposition. New coronary stents are currently under development, using more biocompatible metal alloys and/or designs which better align to the vessel wall at moderate deployment pressures. We evaluated the safety, efficacy, angiographic and histological effect of a new stainless steel fishscale designed stent (Freedomª, Global Therapeutics, Co., USA) in a porcine coronary and peripheral artery model. Implantation in the right coronary artery was successful in all 20 pigs. Control angiograms at 6 weeks follow-up demonstrated patent vessels and morphologic evaluation showed only a mild fibromuscular neointimal response resulting in an area stenosis of 28.7 +/- 0.18% and a mean neointimal hyperplasia of 0.18 +/- 0.25 mm. Comparison with the Palmaz-Schatzª coronary stent in a porcine peripheral artery model demonstrated similar quantitative angiographic and morphologic vessel analysis results. Also the morphometric data were comparable. Area stenosis: Palmaz-Schatz: 37 +/- 0.24%, Freedom: 21 +/- 0.14%, p = 0.07. Mean neointimal hyperplasia: Palmaz-Schatz: 0.33 +/- 0.24 mm, Freedom: 0.18 +/- 0.08 mm, p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: Freedom coronary stent implantation in a porcine model resulted in a high procedural success without subacute thrombotic occlusions, despite no further anticoagulation nor antiplatelet therapy. Six weeks histopathological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated only a mild fibromuscular neointimal hyperplasia.

  2. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  3. Technical issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fabrication of ITER test blanket modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, H.; Hirose, T.; Shiba, K.; Kasada, R.; Wakai, E.; Serizawa, H.; Kawahito, Y.; Jitsukawa, S.; Kimura, A.; Kohno, Y.; Kohyama, A.; Katayama, S.; Mori, H.; Nishimoto, K.; Klueh, R.L.; Sokolov, M.A.; Stoller, R.E.; Zinkle, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) are recognized as the primary candidate structural materials for fusion blanket systems. The RAFM F82H was developed in Japan with emphasis on high-temperature properties and weldability. Extensive irradiation studies have conducted on F82H, and it has the most extensive available database of irradiated and unirradiated properties of all RAFMs. The objective of this paper is to review the R and D status of F82H and to identify the key technical issues for the fabrication of an ITER test blanket module (TBM) suggested from the recent research achievements in Japan. This work clarified that the primary issues with F82H involve welding techniques and the mechanical properties of weld joints. This is the result of the distinctive nature of the joint caused by the phase transformation that occurs in the weld joint during cooling, and its impact on the design of a TBM will be discussed

  4. Investigation on Porosity and Microhardness of 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahir Mohd Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the porosity and microhardness of 316L stainless steel samples fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM. The porosity content was measured using the Archimedes method and the advanced X-ray computed tomography (XCT scan. High densification level (≥99% with a low average porosity content (~0.82% were obtained from the Archimedes method. The highest porosity content in the XCT-scanned sample was ~0.61. However, the pores in the SLM samples for both cases (optical microscopy and XCT were not uniformly distributed. The higher average microhardness values in the SLM samples compared to the wrought manufactured counterpart are attributed to the fine microstructures from the localised melting and rapid solidification rate of the SLM process.

  5. Effects of irradiation on the fracture properties of stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, F.M.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Stainless steel weld overlay cladding was fabricated using the submerged arc, single-wire, oscillating-electrode, and the three-wire, series-arc methods. Three layers of cladding were applied to a pressure vessel plate to provide adequate thickness for fabrication of test specimens, and irradiations were conducted at temperatures and to fluences relevant to power reactor operation. For the first single-wire method, the first layer was type 309, and the upper two layers were type 308 stainless steel. The type 309 was diluted considerably by excessive melting of the base plate. The three-wire method used various combinations of types 308, 309, and 304 stainless steel weld wires, and produced a highly controlled weld chemistry, microstructure, and fracture properties in all three layers of the weld. 14 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Effects of filler wire on residual stress in electron beam welded QCr0.8 copper alloy to 304 stainless steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bing-Gang; Zhao, Jian; Li, Xiao-Peng; Chen, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The electron beam welding (EBW) of 304 stainless steel to QCr0.8 copper alloy with or without copper filler wire was studied in detail. The temperature fields and magnitude and distribution of stress fields in the joints during the welding process were numerically simulated using finite element method. The temperature cycles and residual stresses were also experimentally measured by thermometric and hole-drilling methods, respectively. The accuracy of the modeling procedure was verified by the good agreement between the calculated results and experimental data. The temperature distribution in the joint was found to be asymmetric along the center of weld. In particular, the temperature in the copper alloy plate is much higher than that in the 304 SS plate owing to the great difference in thermal conductivity between the two materials. The peak three-dimensional residual stresses all appeared at the interface between the copper and steel in the two different joints. Furthermore, the weld was subjected to tensile stress. The longitudinal residual stress, generally the most harmful to the integrity of the structure among the stress components in EBW with filler wire (EBFW), was 53 MPa lower than that of autogenous EBW (AEBW), and the through-thickness residual stress was 12 MPa lower. The transverse residual stress of EBFW was 44 MPa higher than that of AEBW. However, analysis of the von Mises stress showed that the EBFW process effectively reduced the extent of the high residual stress region in the weld location and the magnitude of the residual stresses in the copper side compared with those of the AEBW joint. - Highlights: • Copper and steel was welded by electron beam welding with copper filler wire. • The copper wire fed into gap can reduce the peak value of residual stress. • The peak value of longitudinal stress can be reduced 53 MPa by the filler wire. • The range of nov Mises stress in the weld could be reduced by the wire

  7. Comparing the Knotless Tension Band and the Traditional Stainless Steel Wire Tension Band Fixation for Medial Malleolus Fractures: A Retrospective Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Downey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional stainless steel wire tension band (WTB has been popularized for small avulsion fractures at the medial malleolus. Despite the tension band principle creating a stable construct, complications continue to arise utilizing the traditional stainless steel WTB with patients experiencing hardware irritation at the tension band site and subsequent hardware removal. Coupled with hardware irritation is fatigue failure with the wire. The goal of this investigation was to retrospectively compare this traditional wire technique to an innovative knotless tension band (KTB technique in order to decrease costly complications. A total of 107 patients were reviewed with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Outcome measures include descriptive data, fracture classification, results through economic costs, and fixation results (including hardware status, healing status, pain status, and time to healing. The KTB group had a 13% lower true cost as compared to the WTB group while the fixation results were equivocal for the measured outcomes. Our results demonstrate that the innovative KTB is comparable to the traditional WTB while offering a lower true cost, an irritation free reduction all without the frustration of returning to the operating room for additional hardware removal, which averages approximately to $8,288.

  8. Electrical Crystallization Mechanism and Interface Characteristics of Nano wire Zn O/Al Structures Fabricated by the Solution Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Y.W.; Hung, F.Y.; Lui, T.Sh.; Chen, Y.T.; Xiao, R.S.; Chen, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Both solution nano wire Zn O and sputtered Al thin film on SiO 2 as the wire-film structure and the Al film were a conductive channel for electrical-induced crystallization (EIC). Direct current (DC) raised the temperature of the Al film and improved the crystallization of the nano structure. The effects of EIC not only induced Al atomic interface diffusion, but also doped Al on the roots of Zn O wires to form aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO)/Zn O wires. The Al doping concentration and the distance of the Zn O wire increased with increasing the electrical duration. Also, the electrical current-induced temperature was ∼211 degree C (solid-state doped process) and so could be applied to low-temperature optoelectronic devices.

  9. Right wire in orthodontics: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Quality of orthodontic wire such as stiffness, hardness, resiliency, elasticity and working range are important determinants of the effectivenes of tooth movement. Commonly used types of orthodontic arch wire:1) stainless steel(ss) wire, 2) conventional nickel- titanium (NiTi)alloy wire,3) improved super elastic NiTi- alloy wire( also called low hysteresis(LH)wire), and titanium molybdenum alloy(TMA) wire.

  10. Evaluation of a new method for chemical coating of aluminum wire with molecularly imprinted polymer layer. Application for the fabrication of triazines selective solid-phase microextraction fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djozan, Djavanshir, E-mail: djozan@tabrizu.ac.ir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Bahram [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahkam, Mehrdad [Chemistry Department, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farajzadeh, Mir Ali [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-26

    A new solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber is fabricated through ultra violet irradiation polymerization of ametryn-molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of anodized-silylated aluminum wire. The prepared fiber is durable with very good chemical and thermal stability which can be coupled to GC and GC/MS. The effective parameters on the fabrication and application procedures such as spraying mode, ultra violet irradiation (polymerization) time, number of sprayings and polymerizations, pH and ionic strength of sample and extraction time were optimized. This fiber shows high selectivity with great extraction capacity toward triazines. SPME and GC analysis of ametryn, prometryn, terbutryn, atrazine, simazine, propazine and cyanazine using the fabricated fiber result in the detection limits of 9, 32, 27, 43, 51, 74 and 85 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively. The reliability of the prepared fiber in real samples has been investigated and proved by using spiked tap water, rice, maize and onion samples.

  11. Evaluation of a new method for chemical coating of aluminum wire with molecularly imprinted polymer layer. Application for the fabrication of triazines selective solid-phase microextraction fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djozan, Djavanshir; Ebrahimi, Bahram; Mahkam, Mehrdad; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali

    2010-01-01

    A new solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber is fabricated through ultra violet irradiation polymerization of ametryn-molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of anodized-silylated aluminum wire. The prepared fiber is durable with very good chemical and thermal stability which can be coupled to GC and GC/MS. The effective parameters on the fabrication and application procedures such as spraying mode, ultra violet irradiation (polymerization) time, number of sprayings and polymerizations, pH and ionic strength of sample and extraction time were optimized. This fiber shows high selectivity with great extraction capacity toward triazines. SPME and GC analysis of ametryn, prometryn, terbutryn, atrazine, simazine, propazine and cyanazine using the fabricated fiber result in the detection limits of 9, 32, 27, 43, 51, 74 and 85 ng mL -1 , respectively. The reliability of the prepared fiber in real samples has been investigated and proved by using spiked tap water, rice, maize and onion samples.

  12. In situ fabrication of nanostructured titania coating on the surface of titanium wire: A new approach for preparation of solid-phase microextraction fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dandan; Lue Jianxia; Liu Jingfu; Jiang Guibin

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured titania-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were fabricated through the in situ oxidation of titanium wires with H 2 O 2 (30%, w/w) at 80 deg. C for 24 h. The obtained SPME fibers possess a ∼1.2 μm thick nanostructured coating consisting of ∼100 nm titania walls and 100-200 nm pores. The use of these fibers for headspace SPME coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) resulted in improved analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products. The presented method to detect DDT and its degradation products has high sensitivity (0.20-0.98 ng L -1 ), high precision (relative standard deviation R.S.D. = 9.4-16%, n = 5), a wide linear range (5-5000 ng L -1 ), and good linearity (coefficient of estimation R 2 = 0.991-0.998). As the nanostructured titania was in situ formed on the surface of a titanium wire, the coating was uniformly and strongly adhered on the titanium wire. Because of the inherent chemical stability of the titania coating and the mechanical durability of the titanium wire substrate, this new SPME fiber exhibited long life span (over 150 times)

  13. In situ fabrication of nanostructured titania coating on the surface of titanium wire: A new approach for preparation of solid-phase microextraction fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Dandan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Environmental Science Division, School of Earth and Space Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Province 230026 (China); Lue Jianxia [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Liu Jingfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: jfliu@rcees.ac.cn; Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2008-03-17

    Nanostructured titania-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were fabricated through the in situ oxidation of titanium wires with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30%, w/w) at 80 deg. C for 24 h. The obtained SPME fibers possess a {approx}1.2 {mu}m thick nanostructured coating consisting of {approx}100 nm titania walls and 100-200 nm pores. The use of these fibers for headspace SPME coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) resulted in improved analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products. The presented method to detect DDT and its degradation products has high sensitivity (0.20-0.98 ng L{sup -1}), high precision (relative standard deviation R.S.D. = 9.4-16%, n = 5), a wide linear range (5-5000 ng L{sup -1}), and good linearity (coefficient of estimation R{sup 2} = 0.991-0.998). As the nanostructured titania was in situ formed on the surface of a titanium wire, the coating was uniformly and strongly adhered on the titanium wire. Because of the inherent chemical stability of the titania coating and the mechanical durability of the titanium wire substrate, this new SPME fiber exhibited long life span (over 150 times)

  14. Fabrication and installment of hard-wired I and C works for the neutral beam injection system of the KSTAR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ki Sok; Oh, Byung Hun; In, Sang Ryul; Yoon, Jae Sung

    2004-01-01

    Instrumentation and Control(I and C) of the neutral beam injection(NBI) system for the K-STAR national fusion research project has been working from the start of the project to answer diverse requests arising from various facets of the development and construction phases of the project. In a parallel effort with the software oriented I and C development, there has been existing an enormous amount of hard-wiring I and C works for the NBI facility to be developed and fabricated in schedule. Circuits and hardwired functions have been designed, tested, fabricated, and finally installed to the relevant parts of the system. Some examples of those hard-wired I and C works are related to the vacuum system, gas feeding system, arc detector circuit, ion source monitoring, bending magnet and calorimeter. They are one of those integral parts for the proper operation of the NBI system. Examples of those hard-wired I and C works are introduced in this presentation

  15. Fabrication and installment of the hard-wired I and C works for the neutral beam injection test stand of the K-STAR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ki Sok; Oh, Byung Hun

    2004-12-01

    Instrumentation and Control(I and C) of the neutral beam injection test stand (NBI-TS) for the K-STAR national fusion research project has been underway since the start of the project to answer the diverse requests arising from the various facets of the development and construction phases of the project. In a parallel effort with the software oriented I and C development, there has been existing an enormous amount of hard-wiring I and C works for the NBI facility to be developed and fabricated in schedule. Circuits and hardwired functions have been designed, tested, fabricated, and finally installed to the relevant parts of the system. Examples of those hard-wired I and C works are related to the vacuum system, gas feeding system, arc detector circuit, ion source monitoring, bending magnet and calorimeter. Another one to be mentioned is the interlock circuitry. One of the interlock circuits are related to the coolant flow failure. The other is the interlock circuit related to the vacuum failure. All of the above mentioned circuitry now constitutes integral parts for the proper operation of the NBI system; details of those hard-wired I and C work are described in this report

  16. INFLUENCE OF DRAWING SPEED ON THE TEMPERATURE AND DEFLECTED MODE IN WIRE OF HIGH-CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Vereshchagin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of deflected mode and temperature fields with the help of the method of finite elements for zones of wire deformation in dies for current and new technology of drawing of wire with diameter 0,41 mm is carried out.

  17. Microstructure, Hardness, and Corrosion Behavior of TiC-Duplex Stainless Steel Composites Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Shicheng; Chen, Hua; Ran, Xu

    2017-08-01

    Duplex stainless steel composites with various weight fractions of TiC particles are prepared by spark plasma sintering. Ferritic 434L and austenitic 316L stainless steel powders are premixed in a 50:50 weight ratio and added with 3-9 wt.% TiC. The compacts are sintered in the solid state under vacuum conditions at 1223 K for 5 min. The effects of TiC content on the microstructure, hardness, and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel composites fabricated by powder metallurgy are evaluated. The results indicate that the TiC particulates as reinforcements can be distributed homogeneously in the steel matrix. Densification of sintered composites decreases with increasing TiC content. M23C6 carbide precipitates along grain boundary, and its neighboring Cr-Mo-depleted region is formed in the sintered microstructure, which can be eliminated subsequently with appropriate heat treatment. With the addition of TiC, the hardness of duplex stainless steel fabricated by powder metallurgy can be markedly enhanced despite increased porosity in the composites. However, TiC particles increase the corrosion rate and degrade the passivation capability, particularly for the composite with TiC content higher than 6 wt.%. Weakened metallurgical bonding in the composite with high TiC content provides the preferred sites for pitting nucleation and/or dissolution.

  18. Cellular Structure Fabricated on Ni Wire by a Simple and Cost-Effective Direct-Flame Approach and Its Application in Fiber-Shaped Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihong; Cao, Fenhui; Chen, Kongfa; Yan, Yingming; Chen, Yifu; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhu, Xingbao; Wei, Bo; Xiong, Yueping; Lv, Zhe

    2018-03-09

    Cellular metals with the large surface/volume ratios and excellent electrical conductivity are widely applicable and have thus been studied extensively. It is highly desirable to develop a facile and cost-effective process for fabrication of porous metallic structures, and yet more so for micro/nanoporous structures. A direct-flame strategy is developed for in situ fabrication of micron-scale cellular architecture on a Ni metal precursor. The flame provides the required heat and also serves as a fuel reformer, which provides a gas mixture of H 2 , CO, and O 2 for redox treatment of metallic Ni. The redox processes at elevated temperatures allow fast reconstruction of the metal, leading to a cellular structure on Ni wire. This process is simple and clean and avoids the use of sacrificial materials or templates. Furthermore, nanocrystalline MnO 2 is coated on the microporous Ni wire (MPNW) to form a supercapacitor electrode. The MnO 2 /MPNW electrode and the corresponding fiber-shaped supercapacitor exhibit high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability. Moreover, this work provides a novel strategy for the fabrication of cellular metals and alloys for a variety of applications, including catalysis, energy storage and conversion, and chemical sensing. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Poly(ionic liquids)-coated stainless-steel wires packed into a polyether ether ketone tube for in-tube solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Xiuqin; Tian, Yu; Luo, Chuannan; Sun, Min

    2017-12-01

    An in-tube solid-phase microextraction device was developed by packing poly(ionic liquids)-coated stainless-steel wires into a polyether ether ketone tube. An anion-exchange process was performed to enhance the extraction performance. Surface properties of poly(ionic liquids)-coated stainless-steel wires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The extraction device was connected to high-performance liquid chromatography equipment to build an online enrichment and analysis system. Ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were used as model analytes, and important conditions including extraction time and desorption time were optimized. The enrichment factors from 268 to 2497, linear range of 0.03-20 μg/L, detection limits of 0.010-0.020 μg/L, extraction and preparation repeatability with relative standard deviation less than 1.8 and 19%, respectively were given by the established online analysis method. It has been used to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples, with the relative recovery (5, 10 μg/L) in the range of 85.1-118.9%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Separation of Electrolytic Reduction Product from Stainless Steel Wire Mesh Cathode Basket via Salt Draining and Reuse of the Cathode Basket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that the metallic product obtained after electrolytic reduction (also called oxide reduction (OR can be simply separated from a stainless steel wire mesh cathode basket only by using a salt drain. First, the OR run of a simulated oxide fuel (0.6 kg/batch was conducted in a molten Li2O–LiCl salt electrolyte at 650°C. The simulated oxide fuel of the porous cylindrical pellets was used as a cathode by loading a stainless steel wire mesh cathode basket. Platinum was employed as an anode. After the electrolysis, the residual salt of the cathode basket containing the reduction product was drained by placing it at gas phase above the molten salt using a holder. Then, at a room temperature, the complete separation of the reduction product from the cathode basket was achieved by inverting it without damaging or deforming the basket. Finally, the emptied cathode basket obtained after the separation was reused for the second OR run by loading a fresh simulated oxide fuel. We also succeeded in the separation of the metallic product from the reused cathode basket for the second OR run.

  1. Fabrication, Structural Characterization and Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Novel Sintered Multi-Layer Wire Mesh Porous Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in developing porous metals or metallic foams for functional and structural applications. The study of the physical and mechanical properties of porous metals is very important and helpful for their application. In this paper, a novel sintered multilayer wire mesh porous plate material (WMPPs with a thickness of 0.5 mm–3 mm and a porosity of 10–35% was prepared by winding, pressing, rolling, and subsequently vacuum sintering them. The pore size and total size distribution in the as-prepared samples were investigated using the bubble point method. The uniaxial tensile behavior of the WMPPs was investigated in terms of the sintering temperature, porosity, wire diameter, and manufacturing technology. The deformation process and the failure mechanism under the tensile press was also discussed based on the appearance of the fractures (SEM figures. The results indicated that the pore size and total size distribution were closely related to the raw material used and the sintering temperature. For the WMPPs prepared by the wire mesh, the pore structures were inerratic and the vast majority of pore size was less than 10 μm. On the other hand, for the WMPPs that were prepared by wire mesh and powder, the pore structures were irregular and the pore size ranged from 0 μm–50 μm. The experimental data showed that the tensile strength of WMPPs is much higher than any other porous metals or metallic foams. Higher sintering temperatures led to coarser joints between wires and resulted in higher tensile strength. The sintering temperature decreased from 1330 °C to 1130 °C and the tensile strength decreased from 296 MPa to 164 MPa. Lower porosity means that there are more metallurgical joints and metallic frameworks resisting deformation per unit volume. Therefore, lower porosities exhibit higher tensile strength. An increase of porosity from 17.14% to 32.5% led to the decrease of the tensile strength by 90 MPa. The

  2. Determinación del límite de rotura de un cable por Método de los Elementos Finitos. // Determination of resistance load on steel wire rope by Finite Elements Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aguilar Parés

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En ocasiones, se desconocen las características originales de un cable de acero. En estos casos, generalmente se estima ellímite de rotura de un cable a partir del límite de rotura de un alambre del cable. En el presente trabajo, se propone emplearun método para estimar el límite de rotura del cable en base al modelado del cordón mediante elementos finitos. En elcontenido se explica detalladamente el procedimiento y es ejemplificado. El procedimiento es iniciado con el dibujo delcable en un programa de diseño gráfico parámetrico y posteriormente se describen las características generales delmodelado con un programa especializado en el Método de Elementos Finitos. En el análisis se incluye la influencia delcontacto entre los alambres que forman el cordón. Por último, se comparan los resultados obtenidos para el límite de roturadel cable con los datos declarados por el fabricante. Con este procedimiento fueron obtenidos valores mediante modeladodel cable con diferencias entre el 11% al 2,5% en relación al límite de rotura declarado por los fabricantes. Las diferenciasfueron evidenciadas en dependencia de la calidad del mallado empleado.Palabras claves: Cables de acero, elementos finitos, carga límite de rotura._________________________________________________________________________Abstract:In occasions, the original characteristics of steel wire rope are unknown. In these cases, could be estimated the resistanceof the wire rope knowing the wire resistance. In this proposal method for estimating the resistance load of steel wire thecord of the wire rope is modelling using finite elements. Procedure is explained and a sample with a selected wire rope ispresented. It is started with the drawing of the wire rope by professional software. General characteristics of themodelling are described with FEM software. In the analysis, the contact influence in the wires of the cord is included.Lastly, the obtained results of the resistance

  3. Effect of Tool-Path on Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V components are widely used in aerospace industry. However, it’s not economic to manufacture them in traditional subtractive methods. Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM is a promising alternative technology for fabricating it efficiently and economically. Tool-path planning strategy is a very important step in WAAM process. This paper investigated the influence of the lap way between layers and layers in tool-path on the Ti-6Al-4V samples fabricated by WAAM. It has been found that the lap way between layers and layers in tool-path do influence the forming quality and especially mechanical properties of the fabricated samples. Samples have different surface quality (smooth or undulating and defects inside or on the surface of the components. The highest and smallest ultra tensile strength of the fabricated samples are respectively 907.86 MPa, 684.82 MPa. But it has few effect on the grains of the fabricated samples, and they all have cross-sectional columnar grains.

  4. Fabrication of Fe-Cr-Mo powder metallurgy steel via a mechanical-alloying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jooyoung; Jeong, Gowoon; Kang, Singon; Lee, Seok-Jae; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we employed a mechanical-alloying process to manufacture low-alloy CrL and CrM steel powders that have similar specifications to their water-atomized counterparts. X-ray diffraction showed that Mo and Cr are alloyed in Fe after four cycles of planetary milling for 1 h at 150 RPM with 15-min pauses between the cycles (designated as P2C4 process). Furthermore, the measured powder size was found to be similar to that of the water-atomized counterparts according to both scanning electron microscope images and laser particle size analysis. The samples were sintered at 1120 °C, after which the P2C4-milled CrL showed similar hardness to that of water-atomized CrL, whereas the P2C4-milled CrM showed about 45% lower hardness than that of its water-atomized counterpart. Water-atomized CrM consists of a well-developed lathtype microstructure (bainite or martensite), while a higher fraction of polygonal ferrite is observed in P2C4-milled CrM. This phase difference causes the reduction of hardness in the P2C4-milled CrM, implying that the phase transformation behavior of specimens produced via powder metallurgy is influenced by the powder fabrication method.

  5. Characteristics and fabrication of cermet spent nuclear fuel casks: ceramic particles embedded in steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Swaney, P.M.; Tiegs, T.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Cermets are being investigated as an advanced material of construction for casks that can be used for storage, transport, or disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Cermets, which consist of ceramic particles embedded in steel, are a method to incorporate brittle ceramics with highly desirable properties into a strong ductile metal matrix with a high thermal conductivity, thus combining the best properties of both materials. Traditional applications of cermets include tank armor, vault armor, drill bits, and nuclear test-reactor fuel. Cermets with different ceramics (DUO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc.) are being investigated for the manufacture of SNF casks. Cermet casks offer four potential benefits: greater capacity (more SNF assemblies) for the same gross weight cask, greater capacity (more SNF assemblies) for the same external dimensions, improved resistance to assault, and superior repository performance. These benefits are achieved by varying the composition, volume fraction, and particulate size of the ceramic particles in the cermet with position in the cask body. Addition of depleted uranium dioxide (DUO{sub 2}) to the cermet increases shielding density, improves shielding effectiveness, and increases cask capacity for a given cask weight or size. Addition of low-density aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to the outer top and bottom sections of the cermet cask, where the radiation levels are lower, can lower cask weight without compromising shielding. The use of Al2O3 and other oxides, in appropriate locations, can increase resistance to assault. Repository performance may be improved by compositional control of the cask body to (1) create a local geochemical environment that slows the long-term degradation of the SNF and (2) enables the use of DUO{sub 2} for longterm criticality control. While the benefits of using cermets follow directly from their known properties, the primary challenge is to develop low-cost methods to fabricate

  6. Characteristics and fabrication of cermet spent nuclear fuel casks: ceramic particles embedded in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Swaney, P.M.; Tiegs, T.N.

    2004-01-01

    Cermets are being investigated as an advanced material of construction for casks that can be used for storage, transport, or disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Cermets, which consist of ceramic particles embedded in steel, are a method to incorporate brittle ceramics with highly desirable properties into a strong ductile metal matrix with a high thermal conductivity, thus combining the best properties of both materials. Traditional applications of cermets include tank armor, vault armor, drill bits, and nuclear test-reactor fuel. Cermets with different ceramics (DUO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Gd 2 O 3 , etc.) are being investigated for the manufacture of SNF casks. Cermet casks offer four potential benefits: greater capacity (more SNF assemblies) for the same gross weight cask, greater capacity (more SNF assemblies) for the same external dimensions, improved resistance to assault, and superior repository performance. These benefits are achieved by varying the composition, volume fraction, and particulate size of the ceramic particles in the cermet with position in the cask body. Addition of depleted uranium dioxide (DUO 2 ) to the cermet increases shielding density, improves shielding effectiveness, and increases cask capacity for a given cask weight or size. Addition of low-density aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) to the outer top and bottom sections of the cermet cask, where the radiation levels are lower, can lower cask weight without compromising shielding. The use of Al2O3 and other oxides, in appropriate locations, can increase resistance to assault. Repository performance may be improved by compositional control of the cask body to (1) create a local geochemical environment that slows the long-term degradation of the SNF and (2) enables the use of DUO 2 for longterm criticality control. While the benefits of using cermets follow directly from their known properties, the primary challenge is to develop low-cost methods to fabricate casks with variable cermet compositions

  7. Development of magnesium diboride (MgB 2) wires and magnets using in situ strand fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Michael; Rindfleisch, Matthew; Yue, Jinji; McFadden, Kevin; Doll, David; Phillips, John; Sumption, Mike D.; Bhatia, Mohit; Bohnenstiehl, Scot; Collings, E. W.

    2007-06-01

    Since 2001 when magnesium diboride (MgB 2) was first reported to have a transition temperature of 39 K, conductor development has progressed to where MgB 2 superconductor wire in kilometer-long piece-lengths has been demonstrated in magnets and coils. Work has started on demonstrating MgB 2 wire in superconducting devices now that the wire is available commercially. MgB 2 superconductors and coils have the potential to be integrated in a variety of commercial applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fault current limiters, transformers, motors, generators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, magnetic separation, magnetic levitation, energy storage, and high energy physics applications. This paper discusses the progress on MgB 2 conductor and coil development in the last several years at Hyper Tech Research, Inc.

  8. Development of magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) wires and magnets using in situ strand fabrication method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsic, Michael [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Rindfleisch, Matthew [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States)]. E-mail: mrindfleisch@hypertechresearch.com; Yue, Jinji [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); McFadden, Kevin [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Doll, David [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Phillips, John [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Sumption, Mike D. [LASM, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Bhatia, Mohit [LASM, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Bohnenstiehl, Scot [LASM, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Collings, E.W. [LASM, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Since 2001 when magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) was first reported to have a transition temperature of 39 K, conductor development has progressed to where MgB{sub 2} superconductor wire in kilometer-long piece-lengths has been demonstrated in magnets and coils. Work has started on demonstrating MgB{sub 2} wire in superconducting devices now that the wire is available commercially. MgB{sub 2} superconductors and coils have the potential to be integrated in a variety of commercial applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fault current limiters, transformers, motors, generators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, magnetic separation, magnetic levitation, energy storage, and high energy physics applications. This paper discusses the progress on MgB{sub 2} conductor and coil development in the last several years at Hyper Tech Research, Inc.

  9. Development of magnesium diboride (MgB2) wires and magnets using in situ strand fabrication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Michael; Rindfleisch, Matthew; Yue, Jinji; McFadden, Kevin; Doll, David; Phillips, John; Sumption, Mike D.; Bhatia, Mohit; Bohnenstiehl, Scot; Collings, E.W.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001 when magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) was first reported to have a transition temperature of 39 K, conductor development has progressed to where MgB 2 superconductor wire in kilometer-long piece-lengths has been demonstrated in magnets and coils. Work has started on demonstrating MgB 2 wire in superconducting devices now that the wire is available commercially. MgB 2 superconductors and coils have the potential to be integrated in a variety of commercial applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fault current limiters, transformers, motors, generators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, magnetic separation, magnetic levitation, energy storage, and high energy physics applications. This paper discusses the progress on MgB 2 conductor and coil development in the last several years at Hyper Tech Research, Inc

  10. Fabrication of Hadfield-Cored Multi-layer Steel Sheet by Roll-Bonding with 1.8-GPa-Strength-Grade Hot-Press-Forming Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kwang-Geun; Kang, Chung-Yun; Park, Jaeyeong; Lee, Sunghak

    2018-05-01

    An austenitic Hadfield steel was roll-bonded with a 1.8-GPa-strength-grade martensitic hot-press-forming (HPF) steel to fabricate a multi-layer steel (MLS) sheet. Near the Hadfield/HPF interface, the carburized and decarburized layers were formed by the carbon diffusion from the Hadfield (1.2%C) to HPF (0.35%C) layers, and could be regarded as kinds of very thin multi-layers of 35 μm in thickness. The tensile test and fractographic data indicated that the MLS sheet was fractured abruptly within the elastic range by the intergranular fracture occurred in the carburized layer. This was because C was mainly segregated at prior austenite grain boundaries in the carburized layer, which weakened grain boundaries to induce the intergranular fracture. In order to solve the intergranular facture problem, the MLS sheet was tempered at 200 °C. The stress-strain curve of the tempered MLS sheet lay between those of the HPF and Hadfield sheets, and a rule of mixtures was roughly satisfied. Tensile properties of the MLS sheet were dramatically improved after the tempering, and the intergranular fracture was erased completely. In particular, the yield strength up to 1073 MPa along with the high strain hardening and excellent ductility of 32.4% were outstanding because the yield strength over 1 GPa was hardly achieved in conventional austenitic steels.

  11. Design of Tunnel Magnetoresistive-Based Circular MFL Sensor Array for the Detection of Flaws in Steel Wire Rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiucheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel magnetoresistive (TMR devices have superior performances in weak magnetic field detection. In this study, TMR devices were first employed to form a circular magnetic flux leakage (MFL sensor for slight wire rope flaw detection. Two versions of this tailor-made circular TMR-based sensor array were presented for the inspection of wire ropes with the diameters of 14 mm and 40 mm, respectively. Helmholtz-like coils or a ferrite magnet-based magnetizer was selected to provide the proper magnetic field, in order to meet the technical requirements of the TMR devices. The coefficient of variance in the flaw detection performance of the sensor array elements was experimentally estimated at 4.05%. Both versions of the MFL sensor array were able to detect multiple single-broken wire flaws in the wire ropes. The accurate axial and circumferential positions of these broken wire flaws were estimated from the MFL scanning image results. In addition, the proposed TMR-based sensor array was applied to detect the MFL signal induced by slight surface wear defects. A mutual correlation analysis method was used to distinguish the signals caused by the lift-off fluctuation from the MFL scanning image results. The MFL sensor arrays presented in this study provide inspiration for the designing of tailor-made TMR-based circular sensor arrays for cylindrical ferromagnetic structural inspections.

  12. Evaluation and Optimization of a Hybrid Manufacturing Process Combining Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing with Milling for the Fabrication of Stiffened Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid WAAM (wire arc additive manufacturing and milling process (HWMP, and highlights its application in the fabrication of stiffened panels that have wide applications in aviation, aerospace, and automotive industries, etc. due to their light weight and strong load-bearing capability. In contrast to existing joining or machining methods, HWMP only deposits stiffeners layer-by-layer onto an existing thin plate, followed by minor milling of the irregular surfaces, which provides the possibility to significantly improve material utilization and efficiency without any loss of surface quality. In this paper, the key performances of HWMP in terms of surface quality, material utilization and efficiency are evaluated systematically, which are the results of the comprehensive effects of the deposition parameters (e.g., travel speed, wire-feed rate and the milling parameters (e.g., spindle speed, tool-feed rate. In order to maximize its performances, the optimization is also performed to find the best combination of the deposition and the milling parameters. The case study shows that HWMP with the optimal process parameters improves the material utilization by 57% and the efficiency by 32% compared against the traditional machining method. Thus, HWMP is believed to be a more environmental friendly and sustainable method for the fabrication of stiffened panels or other similar structures.

  13. The influence of local glucose oxidase activity on the potential/current distribution on stainless steel: A study by the wire beam electrode method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao, 266100 (China)], E-mail: wwei@ouc.edu.cn; Zhang Xia [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao, 266100 (China); Wang Jia [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao, 266100 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Shenyang, 110016 (China)

    2009-09-30

    The wire beam electrode (WBE) method was first used to study the activity of local glucose oxidase (GOD) on stainless steel surface in seawater. Glucose oxidase was immobilized in calcium alginate gel capsules, which were embedded in a layer of artificial biofilm (calcium alginate gel) on the WBE surface. The potential/current distributions on the WBE surface were mapped using a newly developed device for the WBE method in our lab. The results demonstrated that the catalysis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation by GOD can produce local noble potential peaks and cathodic current zones on the stainless steel surface. An interesting fluctuant current distribution around cathodic zones was observed the first time. The potential and current maps showed that the enzyme heterogeneity of the artificial biofilm caused a corresponding electrochemical heterogeneity at the biofilm/metal interface. The application of the WBE method to ennoblement study enables us to observe the heterogeneous electrochemistry at biofilm/stainless steel interface directly, providing us with a powerful tool to investigate other biofilm-related processes such as microbially influenced corrosion (MIC)

  14. The influence of local glucose oxidase activity on the potential/current distribution on stainless steel: A study by the wire beam electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Zhang Xia; Wang Jia

    2009-01-01

    The wire beam electrode (WBE) method was first used to study the activity of local glucose oxidase (GOD) on stainless steel surface in seawater. Glucose oxidase was immobilized in calcium alginate gel capsules, which were embedded in a layer of artificial biofilm (calcium alginate gel) on the WBE surface. The potential/current distributions on the WBE surface were mapped using a newly developed device for the WBE method in our lab. The results demonstrated that the catalysis of H 2 O 2 formation by GOD can produce local noble potential peaks and cathodic current zones on the stainless steel surface. An interesting fluctuant current distribution around cathodic zones was observed the first time. The potential and current maps showed that the enzyme heterogeneity of the artificial biofilm caused a corresponding electrochemical heterogeneity at the biofilm/metal interface. The application of the WBE method to ennoblement study enables us to observe the heterogeneous electrochemistry at biofilm/stainless steel interface directly, providing us with a powerful tool to investigate other biofilm-related processes such as microbially influenced corrosion (MIC).

  15. Microstructural Evolution of AerMet100 Steel Coating on 300M Steel Fabricated by Laser Cladding Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Jia; Cheng, Xu; Wang, Huaming

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the process of coating AerMet100 steel on forged 300M steel with laser cladding was investigated, with a thorough analysis of the chemical composition, microstructure, and hardness of the substrate and the cladding layer as well as the transition zone. Results show that the composition and microhardness of the cladding layer are macroscopically homogenous with the uniformly distributed bainite and a small amount of retained austenite in martensite matrix. The transition zone, which spans approximately 100 μm, yields a gradual change of composition from the cladding layer to 300M steel matrix. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) can be divided into three zones: the sufficiently quenched zone (SQZ), the insufficiently quenched zone (IQZ), and the high tempered zone (HTZ). The SQZ consists of martensitic matrix and bainite, as for the IQZ and the HTZ the microstructures are martensite + tempered martensite and tempered martensite + ferrite, respectively. These complicated microstructures in the HAZ are caused by different peak heating temperatures and heterogeneous microstructures of the as-received 300M steel.

  16. 76 FR 16607 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b), the Department received a timely request from Nucor Corporation (Nucor... the review pursuant to 19 CFR 351.213(d)(1). On February 24, 2011, Nucor and Cascade Steel withdrew...

  17. 76 FR 33218 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... ArcelorMittal USA, et al.) and Nucor Corporation and Cascade Steel Rolling Mills, Inc. (collectively, Nucor/Cascade) requested that the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiate a scope inquiry...

  18. New developments in the fabrication of fine-grained structural steels; practical applications in welding engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwer, D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper briefly demonstrates the development of weldable construction steels in the FRG exemplified by the development of steel grade St 37 to StE 960. Improvements of steel quality, especially weldability, is expected from the ladle metallurgy process, thermomechanical rolling, intensive cooling after rolling and direct annealing by using rolling heat. Positive effects were achieved above all in lamellar tearing strength, cold cracking behaviour and in the heat-affected zone. (DG) [de

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing compared to green sand casting and CNC milling in stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, A.C.M.; Verlinden, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is a metal 3D printing technique based on robotic welding. This technique yields potential in decreasing material consumption due to its high material efficiency and freedom of shape. Empirical measurements of WAAM, using a deposition rate of 1 kg/h, were

  20. Three-dimensional chemical analysis of laser-welded NiTi–stainless steel wires using a dual-beam FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdet, P.; Vannod, J.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Rappaz, M.; Cantoni, M.

    2013-01-01

    The biomedical industry has an increasing demand for processes to join dissimilar metals, such as laser welding of NiTi and stainless steel wires. A region of the weld close to the NiTi interface, which previously was shown to be prone to cracking, was further analyzed by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) extended in the third dimension using a focused ion beam. As the spatial resolution of EDS analysis is not precise enough to resolve the finest parts of the microstructure, a new segmentation method that uses in addition secondary-electron images of higher spatial resolution was developed. Applying these tools, it is shown that this region of the weld close to the NiTi interface does not comprise a homogeneous intermetallic layer, but is rather constituted by a succession of different intermetallics, the composition of which can be directly correlated with the solidification path in the ternary Fe–Ni–Ti Gibbs simplex

  1. Investigation on Shielding and Mechanical Behavior of Carbon/Stainless Steel Hybrid Yarn Woven Fabrics and Their Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagatheesan, Krishnasamy; Ramasamy, Alagirusamy; Das, Apurba; Basu, Ananjan

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the shielding characteristics of carbon/stainless steel/polypropylene (C/SS/PP) hybrid woven fabrics and their composites in low frequency (50 MHz-1.5 GHz) and C band (4-6 GHz) regions. The hybrid yarns prepared from carbon and SS filaments using a direct twisting machine have been made into woven fabric samples using a sample loom. The composite has been made by sandwiching a hybrid yarn fabric between the polypropylene films in a compression molding machine at 180°C for 5 min. The shielding behavior of the fabric and the composites has been tested using a coaxial transmission holder for the low frequency range and a wave guide method for the C band frequency range. It has been observed that a 1 end float composite showed a higher SE of 81.4 dB than the 4 end float (76.2 dB) and the 8 end float composites (64 dB) at the low frequency region. However, at the C band frequency, the effect of fabric structures on shielding effectiveness (SE) of fabric composite depends on thread density. For example, at low thread density, (i.e.) 3.93 ppcm, the 8 end float fabric composite showed the highest SE of 22.7 dB than did the 4 end (20.4 dB) and the 1 end float (16.5 dB) fabric composite. However, at high thread density (6.3 ppcm), the case was the reverse. The 1 end float fabric composite showed the highest SE of 29.7 dB rather than 4 end and 8 end float fabric composites (25.9 dB). In addition, all the composites showed less SE than their fabric forms. The increase in thread density also increased the shielding behavior of composites in both frequency ranges. A nonlinear regression model was developed using the Box-Behnken design for predicting the shielding behavior of fabric composites in C band region. In addition to shielding behavior, mechanical strength of C/SS/PP hybrid yarn, the fabric and composite has been tested using a Zwick Roell tensile tester. It has been observed that the work of rupture of C/SS/PP hybrid yarn is higher (6830.3 g

  2. Comparative tribological studies of duplex surface treated AISI 1045 steels fabricated by combinations of plasma nitriding and aluminizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftlang, Farahnaz; Habibolahzadeh, Ali; Sohi, Mahmoud Heydarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • AlN coating was applied on AISI 1045 steel via plasma nitriding and aluminizing. • Aluminizing of pre-nitrided specimen provides the highest surface hardness. • The lowest wear rate was obtained via aluminizing of pre-nitrided specimen. • Wear mechanism of the modified layer consists of oxidative and spallung wear. - Abstract: Duplex surface treatments via aluminizing and plasma nitriding were carried out on AISI 1045 steel. A number of work pieces were aluminized and subsequently plasma nitrided (Al–PN) and other work pieces were plasma nitrided and then aluminized (PN–Al). Aluminizing was carried out via pack process at 1123 K for 5 h and plasma nitriding was performed at 823 K for 5 h. The fabricated steels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness testing. Tribological behaviors of the duplex treated AISI 1045 steels were examined against tungsten carbide pin using a pin-on-disc apparatus at room temperature. The PN–Al specimen showed higher surface hardness, lower wear rate and coefficient of friction than the Al–PN one. It was noticed from the worn surfaces that tribo-oxidation plays an important role in wear behavior of both specimens

  3. Microstructural characterization of weld joints of 9Cr reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel fabricated by different joining methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Saroja, S.; Albert, S.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E., E-mail: vtp@igcar.gov.in

    2014-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed electron microscopy study on the microstructure of various regions of weldment fabricated by three welding methods namely tungsten inert gas welding, electron beam welding and laser beam welding in an indigenously developed 9Cr reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel. Electron back scatter diffraction studies showed a random micro-texture in all the three welds. Microstructural changes during thermal exposures were studied and corroborated with hardness and optimized conditions for the post weld heat treatment have been identified for this steel. Hollomon–Jaffe parameter has been used to estimate the extent of tempering. The activation energy for the tempering process has been evaluated and found to be corresponding to interstitial diffusion of carbon in ferrite matrix. The type and microchemistry of secondary phases in different regions of the weldment have been identified by analytical transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Comparison of microstructural parameters in TIG, electron beam and laser welds of RAFM steel • EBSD studies to illustrate the absence of preferred orientation and identification of prior austenite grain size using phase identification map • Optimization of PWHT conditions for indigenous RAFM steel • Study of kinetics of tempering and estimation of apparent activation energy of the process.

  4. Effect of Nb addition on microstructure and corrosion resistance of novel stainless steels fabricated by direct laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. Q.; Zhang, C. H.; Zhang, S.; Wang, Q.; Liu, Y.; Abdullah, Adil O.

    2018-03-01

    The study demonstrated the successful fabrication of novel stainless steels by direct laser metal deposition with the aim of investigating the impact of niobium content (Nb = 0, 0.25, 0.75, 1.25 wt%) on their microstructure and electrochemical properties. The microstructure and phase evolution of the as-built stainless steels were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD). Corrosion behavior of the samples was evaluated using electrochemical workstation in 3.5 wt% NaCl. Experimental results have shown that the crystal structure of as-built stainless steels was BCC with a small trace of dispersive carbides and FCC phase. Grain refinement was observed with increasing niobium content. Large-angle boundaries were obtained in different Nb-containing samples with distribution from 50° to 60°. An increase in niobium content extremely improved the corrosion resistance of as-built stainless steels and the as-built samples with 1.25 wt% exhibited the best corrosion resistance among the tested samples as indicated by its lowest corrosion rate, which was an order of magnitude lower than that of Nb-free samples.

  5. Fabrication, testing and analysis of steel/composite DLS adhesive joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nashim, S.; Nisar, J.; Tsouvalis, N.

    2009-01-01

    0/90 WR GFRP and 0/90 UD CFRP laminates and steel. The focus here is on CFRP/steel joint due to availability of test data. The thickness of the outer adherend varies from 3 mm to 6 mm. Shear overlaps of 25-200mm were considered. The overall objectives are (i) to assess the quality of the standard...

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of China low activation martensitic steel joint by TIG multi-pass welding with a new filler wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Zhang, Junyu; Wu, Qingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Tungsten Inner Gas (TIG) welding is employed for joining of China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel. A new filler wire was proposed, and the investigation on welding with various heat input and welding passes were conducted to lower the tendency towards the residual of δ ferrite in the joint. With the optimized welding parameters, a butt joint by multi-pass welding with the new filler wire was prepared to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties. The microstructure of the joint was observed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hardness, Charpy impact and tensile tests of the joint were implemented at room temperature (25 °C). The results revealed that almost full martensite free from ferrite in the joints were obtained by multipass welding with the heat input of 2.26 kJ/mm. A certain degree of softening occurred at the heat affected zone of the joint according to the results of tensile and hardness tests. The as welded joints showed brittle fracture in the impact tests. However, the joints showed toughness fracture after tempering and relatively better comprehensive performance were achieved when the joints were tempered at 740 °C for 2 h.

  7. In situ measurement of corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in 553 K pure water via the electrical resistance of a thin wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Kazushige; Lister, Derek

    2012-01-01

    A system for the in situ monitoring of corrosion depth via electrical resistance measurements was applied to study the corrosion rate of type 316L stainless steel at 553 K in pure water. Corrosion depth was measured using a 50 μm diameter wire probe mounted axially in the tube. Measurements were in good agreement with literature data for both the hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) condition and the normal water chemistry (NWC) condition. Oxide film analyses by scanning electron microscopy and laser Raman spectroscopy on the wire probe and the tube showed no effects from shape of the test specimens or the application of electric current. Corrosion kinetics was evaluated by fitting equations to the measurements. Data for the HWC condition could be fitted by a two-step logarithmic-parabolic law. A single-step logarithmic law fitted data for the NWC condition. Changes in corrosion rate by the water chemistry changes were readily detected with the technique. Corrosion depth change could be observed for the water chemistry change from the NWC condition to the HWC condition with electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) of -0.56 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode, which is lower than the ECP that the phase of iron oxide changes from α-Fe 2 O 3 to Fe 3 O 4 . (author)

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of China low activation martensitic steel joint by TIG multi-pass welding with a new filler wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bo [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Zhang, Junyu [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Wu, Qingsheng, E-mail: qingsheng.wu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Tungsten Inner Gas (TIG) welding is employed for joining of China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel. A new filler wire was proposed, and the investigation on welding with various heat input and welding passes were conducted to lower the tendency towards the residual of δ ferrite in the joint. With the optimized welding parameters, a butt joint by multi-pass welding with the new filler wire was prepared to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties. The microstructure of the joint was observed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hardness, Charpy impact and tensile tests of the joint were implemented at room temperature (25 °C). The results revealed that almost full martensite free from ferrite in the joints were obtained by multipass welding with the heat input of 2.26 kJ/mm. A certain degree of softening occurred at the heat affected zone of the joint according to the results of tensile and hardness tests. The as welded joints showed brittle fracture in the impact tests. However, the joints showed toughness fracture after tempering and relatively better comprehensive performance were achieved when the joints were tempered at 740 °C for 2 h. - Highlights: •A new filler material was proposed to control ferrite content in CLAM weld metal. •Heat input affected ferrite content through influencing cooling rate during welding. •Multipass welding was a promising way to eliminate the ferrite in the weld.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of microstructure of stainless steel matrix composites containing up to 25 vol% NbC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Wen Hao, E-mail: wkan6795@uni.sydney.edu.au [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ye, Zi Jie; Zhu, Yue [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bhatia, Vijay Kumar [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Dolman, Kevin; Lucey, Timothy; Tang, Xinhu [Weir Minerals Australia, Artarmon, NSW 2064 (Australia); Proust, Gwénaëlle [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Cairney, Julie [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    AISI 440 stainless steels reinforced with various volume fractions of niobium carbide (NbC) particles of up to 25 vol% were fabricated in-situ using an argon arc furnace and then heat-treated to produce a martensitic matrix. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were used to analyze the microstructure, phases and composition of these composites. Interestingly, it was found that Chinese-script NbC could nucleate on existing primary NbC particles creating NbC clusters with complex microstructures. Additionally, hardness tests were used to evaluate viability in mining and mineral processing applications. The increase in NbC content resulted in an overall increase in the hardness of the composites while causing a marginal decrease in the amount of Cr in solid solution with the matrix, which could be a concern for corrosion resistance. The latter was due to the fact that the NbC lattice could dissolve a minor amount of Cr. Thermodynamic simulations also attributed this to a slight increase in M{sub 7}C{sub 3} precipitation. Nonetheless, these novel composites show great promise for applications in wear and corrosive environments. - Highlights: •Stainless steels reinforced with NbC particles of up to 25 vol% were fabricated. •NbC was formed in-situ in the steels using an arc melter. •Martensitic transformation of the matrix of each sample was achieved. •NbC reinforcements increased the bulk hardness values of the steels. •Dissolved Cr in the matrix of each sample was sufficient for passivity in theory.

  10. Statistical Analysis of Compressive and Flexural Test Results on the Sustainable Adobe Reinforced with Steel Wire Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, Gul A.; Syed Mohsin, Sharifah M.; Gul, Yasmeen

    2018-04-01

    It has been established that Adobe provides, in addition to being sustainable and economic, a better indoor air quality without spending extensive amounts of energy as opposed to the modern synthetic materials. The material, however, suffers from weak structural behaviour when subjected to adverse loading conditions. A wide range of mechanical properties has been reported in literature owing to lack of research and standardization. The present paper presents the statistical analysis of the results that were obtained through compressive and flexural tests on Adobe samples. Adobe specimens with and without wire mesh reinforcement were tested and the results were reported. The statistical analysis of these results presents an interesting read. It has been found that the compressive strength of adobe increases by about 43% after adding a single layer of wire mesh reinforcement. This increase is statistically significant. The flexural response of Adobe has also shown improvement with the addition of wire mesh reinforcement, however, the statistical significance of the same cannot be established.

  11. Utilizing Waste Thermocol Sheets and Rusted Iron Wires to Fabricate Carbon-Fe3O4 Nanocomposite Based Supercapacitors: Turning Wastes into Value-Added Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiyar, Madagonda M; Liu, Xudong; Ye, Zhibin

    2018-05-14

    In the present work, we demonstrate the synthesis of porous activated carbon (specific surface area, 1,883 m2 g-1), Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and carbon-Fe3O4 nanocomposites using local waste thermocol sheets and rusted iron wires. The resulting carbon, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and carbon-Fe3O4 composites are used as electrode materials for supercapacitor application. In particular, C-Fe3O4 composite electrodes exhibit a high specific capacitance of 1,375 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and longer cyclic stability with 98 % of capacitance retention over 10,000 cycles. Subsequently, asymmetric supercapacitor, i. e., C-Fe3O4//Ni(OH)2/CNT device exhibits a high energy density of 91.1 Wh kg-1 and a remarkable cyclic stability, showing 98% of capacitance retention over 10,000 cycles. Thus, this work has important implications not only for the fabrication of low-cost electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors but also for the recycling of waste thermocol sheets and rust iron wires for value-added reuse. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Multi-Response Optimization and Regression Analysis of Process Parameters for Wire-EDMed HCHCr Steel Using Taguchi’s Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srujay Varma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of machining process parameters viz. pulse-on time, pulse-off time, current and servo-voltage for machining High Carbon High Chromium Steel (HCHCr using copper electrode in wire EDM was investigated. High Carbon High Chromium Steel is a difficult to machine alloy, which has many applications in low temperature manufacturing, and copper is chosen as electrode as it has good electrical conductivity and most frequently used electrode all over the world. Tool making culture of copper has made many shops in Europe and Japan to used copper electrode. Experiments were conducted according to Taguchi’s technique by varying the machining process parameters at three levels. Taguchi’s method based on L9 orthogonal array was followed and number of experiments was limited to 9. Experimental cost and time consumption was reduced by following this statistical technique. Targeted output parameters are Material Removal Rate (MRR, Vickers Hardness (HV and Surface Roughness (SR. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Regression Analysis was performed using Minitab 17 software to optimize the parameters and draw relationship between input and output process parameters. Regression models were developed relating input and output parameters. It was observed that most influential factor for MRR, Hardness and SR are Ton, Toff and SV.

  13. Gas shielded metal arc welding with fusible electrode wire. First returns on experience and opportunities in nuclear maintenance and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, Fr.; Joly, P.; Leconte, F.; Baritaux, S.; Prin, C.

    2013-06-01

    In a brief text and a Power Point Presentation, the authors report a return on experience for the implementation of two applications using gas shielded metal arc welding process (GMAW): the on-site welding of the final joint of steam generators, and the coating of a tubing flare. In the first case, the authors analyze not only the compliance with specified technical requirements, but also outline the need to support the process with new verification methods in real time, associated development and validation efforts, and organisational and decisional measures to guarantee a good implementation of the process on site. In the second case, they analyze the process ability to meet technical specifications requiring dilution control, a perfect reproducibility, as well a good control of the welding bath. The authors outline that these two applications which are both using the same term (gas shielded metal arc welding with fusible electrode wire), implement two different transfer regimes and processes. They also discuss operational constraints, and technical opportunities and constraints of fusible electrode wire

  14. Integration of Heat Treatment with Shot Peening of 17-4 Stainless Steel Fabricated by Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMangour, Bandar; Yang, Jenn-Ming

    2017-11-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a promising powder-based additive manufacturing process for fabrication of near-net-shape parts. However, the typically poor fatigue performance of DMLS parts must be addressed for use in demanding industrial applications. Post-treatment can be applied to enhance the performance of such components. Earlier attempts at inducing grain refinement through severe plastic deformation of part surfaces using shot peening improved the physical and mechanical properties of metals without chemical alteration. However, heat treatment can modify the surface-hardening effects attained by shot peening. Hence, we examined the feasibility of applying shot peening combined with heat treatment to improve the performance of DMLS-fabricated 17-4 stainless steel parts through microstructural evolution studies and hardness measurements. Compared to a specimen treated only by shot peening, the sample exposed to additional heat treatment showed increased hardness due to aging of the dominant phase.

  15. Fabrication of functionally graded materials between P21 tool steel and Cu by using laser aided layered manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Seol; Shin, Ki Hoon [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    With the development of layered manufacturing, thermally conductive molds or molds embedding conformal cooling channels can be directly fabricated. Although P21 tool steel is widely used as a mold material because of its dimensional stability, it is not efficient for cooling molds owing to its low thermal conductivity. Hence, the use of functionally graded materials (FGMs) between P21 and Cu may circumvent a tradeoff between the strength and the heat transfer rate. As a preliminary study for the layered manufacturing of thermally conductive molds having FGM structures, one dimensional P21 Cu FGMs were fabricated by using laser aided direct metal tooling (DMT), and then, material properties such as the thermal conductivity and specific heat that are related to the heat transfer were measured and analyzed.

  16. 77 FR 13545 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Results. On December 1, 2011, the Department received case briefs from AMLT and petitioners, Nucor Corporation (Nucor) and Cascade Steel Rolling Mills, Inc. (Cascade Mills). On December 6, 2011, the Department received rebuttal briefs from Nucor and Cascade Mills, and ArcelorMittal USA Inc., (ArcelorMittal USA...

  17. INVESTIGATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF STEEL WIRE FOR METAL CORD AND RVD AFTER PATENTING IN CONDITIONS OF RUP «BMZ»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Kurenkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of microstructure, quantity, character of bainite allocation at lowering of the lead melt temperature is revealed as a result of investigations of microstructure of the samples of steel 80K after isothermal breakdown of austenite in temperature range 610–400 °C.

  18. 77 FR 19191 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... made a ministerial error in the calculation of the surrogate financial ratios of Nasco Steel Pvt., Ltd... calculation of Sterling Tools Limited's (``Sterling'') surrogate financial ratio calculations. Specifically... goods inventories in Sterling's SG&A and profit ratios. Additionally, when reviewing the financial ratio...

  19. Wire core reactor for NTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution

  20. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.; Savukov, V.P.; Runov, A.E.; Belov, V.A.; Sobolev, J.V.; Sobolev, V.V.; Pavlov, N.M.; Paton, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Steels also containing Al, N and arsenic, are suitable for the construction of large components for high-power nuclear reactors due to their good mechanical properties such as good through-hardening, sufficiently low brittleness conversion temperature and slight displacement of the latter with neutron irradiation. Defined steels and their properties are described. (IHOE) [de

  1. The fabrication of a vanadium-stainless steel test section for MHD testing of insulator coatings in flowing lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, C.B.; Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.; Chung, H.; Tsai, H.-C.; Morgan, G.D.; Wille, G.W.; Young, C.

    1996-01-01

    To test the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop reduction performance of candidate insulator coatings for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium Breeding Blanket, a test section comprised of a V- 4Cr-4Ti liner inside a stainless steel pipe was designed and fabricated. Theoretically, the MHD pressure drop reduction benefit resulting, from an electrically insulating coating on a vanadium- lined pipe is identical to the benefit derived from an insulated pipe fabricated of vanadium alone. A duplex test section design consisting of a V alloy liner encased in a SS pressure boundary provided protection for vanadium from atmospheric contamination during operation at high temperature and obviated any potential problems with vanadium welding while also minimizing the amount of V alloy material required. From the MHD and insulator coating- point of view, the test section outer SS wall and inner V alloy liner can be modeled simply as a wall having a sandwich construction. Two 52.3 mm OD x 2.9 m long V-alloy tubes were fabricated by Century Tubes from 64 mm x 200 mm x 1245 mm extrusions produced by Teledyne Wah Chang. The test section's duplex structure was subsequently fabricated at Century Tubes by drawing down a SS pipe (2 inch schedule 10) over one of the 53.2 mm diameter V tubes

  2. Fabrication and characterization of reference 9Cr and 12Cr-ODS low activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muroga, T., E-mail: muroga@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nagasaka, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Li, Y.; Abe, H. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ukai, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Okuda, T. [Kobelco Research Institute, 1-5-5 Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    For the purpose of arranging reference alloys available for various characterization efforts by Japanese fusion research groups, fabrication of reference 9Cr and 12Cr-ODS steels have been carried out with similar manufacturing processes followed by various characterizations. The fabrication proceeded with powder mixing, MA, encapsulation into mild steel cases, hot extrusion and hot forging, followed by final heat treatments. Each alloy was extruded into three bars. The characterization included chemical composition analysis, SEM and TEM microstructural observations, hardness tests, tensile tests at RT and 973 K, and relatively short-term thermal creep tests at 973 K. Room temperature hardness for 9Cr-ODS was larger than 12Cr-ODS, the former showing large increase when annealing temperature exceeded 1200 K and the latter showing no significant change with annealing temperature. Tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS was significantly larger than that of 12Cr-ODS at RT but comparable at 973 K. 9Cr-ODS showed longer and shorter creep rupture time than 12Cr-ODS at high and low stress levels, respectively. The mechanism of the difference in creep properties of the two alloys was discussed.

  3. Polydimethylsiloxane-Based Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Steel Substrate: Fabrication, Reversibly Extreme Wettability and Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Liang, Tao; Feng, Yuchun; Zeng, Xingrong

    2017-01-25

    Functional surfaces for reversibly switchable wettability and oil-water separation have attracted much interest with pushing forward an immense influence on fundamental research and industrial application in recent years. This article proposed a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces on steel substrates via electroless replacement deposition of copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) and UV curing of vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). PDMS-based superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited water contact angle (WCA) close to 160° and water sliding angle (WSA) lower than 5°, preserving outstanding chemical stability that maintained superhydrophobicity immersing in different aqueous solutions with pH values from 1 to 13 for 12 h. Interestingly, the superhydrophobic surface could dramatically switch to the superhydrophilic state under UV irradiation and then gradually recover to the highly hydrophobic state with WCA at 140° after dark storage. The underlying mechanism was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additionally, the PDMS-based steel mesh possessed high separation efficiency and excellent reusability in oil-water separation. Our studies provide a simple, fast, and economical fabrication method for wettability-transformable superhydrophobic surfaces and have the potential applications in microfluidics, the biomedical field, and oil spill cleanup.

  4. A comparative study of the mechanical properties and the behavior of carbon and boron in stainless steel cladding tubes fabricated by PM HIP and traditional technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    The ring tensile test method was optimized and successfully used to obtain precise data for specimens of the cladding tubes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steels and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. The positive modifications in the tensile properties of the stainless steel cladding tubes fabricated by powder metallurgy and hot isostatic pressing of melt atomized powders (PM HIP) when compared with the cladding tubes produced by traditional technology were found. Presently, PM HIP is also used in the fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels. The high degree of homogeneity of the distribution of carbon and boron as well the high dispersivity of the phase-structure elements in the specimens manufactured via PM HIP were determined by direct autoradiography methods. These results correlate well with the increase of the tensile properties of the specimens produced by PM HIP technology.

  5. Microstructure anisotropy and its effect on mechanical properties of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel fabricated by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Zhai, Yutao; Liu, Shaojun; Mao, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a promising way for the fabrication of complex reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel components. The microstructure of the SLM built China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel plates was observed and analyzed. The hardness, Charpy impact and tensile testing of the specimens in different orientations were performed at room temperature. The results showed that the difference in the mechanical properties was related to the anisotropy in microstructure. The planer unmelted porosity in the interface of the adjacent layers induced opening/tensile mode when the tensile samples parallel to the build direction were tested whereas the samples vertical to the build direction fractured in the shear mode with the grains being sheared in a slant angle. Moreover, the impact absorbed energy (IAE) of all impact specimens was significantly lower than that of the wrought CLAM steel, and the IAE of the samples vertical to the build direction was higher than that of the samples parallel to the build direction. The impact fracture surfaces revealed that the load parallel to the build layers caused laminated tearing among the layers, and the load vertical to the layers induced intergranular fracture across the layers.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel by a new fabrication route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lina; Jia Chengchang; Hu Benfu; Li Huiying

    2010-01-01

    A reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with nominal composition of Fe-12Cr-2.5W-0.25Ti-0.2V-0.4Y 2 O 3 (designated 12Cr-ODS) was produced by using EDTA-citrate complex method to synthesize and add Y 2 O 3 particles to an argon atomized steel powder, followed by hot isostatic pressing at 1160 deg. C for 3 h under the pressure of 130 MPa, forging at 1150 deg. C, and heat treatment at 1050 deg. C for 2 h. The microstructure, tensile, and Charpy impact properties of the 12Cr-ODS steel were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that the 12Cr-ODS steel exhibits the characteristic ferritic structure containing few dislocations. Tensile characterization has shown that the 12Cr-ODS steel has superior tensile strength accompanied by good elongation at room temperature and 550 deg. C. The material exhibits very attractive Charpy impact properties with upper shelf energy of 22 J and a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of about -15 deg. C. The formation of small, equiaxed grains and fine dispersion of oxide particles are the main reasons for the good compromise between tensile strength and impact properties.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel by a new fabrication route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Lina, E-mail: guoln702@yahoo.com.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Jia Chengchang; Hu Benfu; Li Huiying [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-07-25

    A reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with nominal composition of Fe-12Cr-2.5W-0.25Ti-0.2V-0.4Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (designated 12Cr-ODS) was produced by using EDTA-citrate complex method to synthesize and add Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles to an argon atomized steel powder, followed by hot isostatic pressing at 1160 deg. C for 3 h under the pressure of 130 MPa, forging at 1150 deg. C, and heat treatment at 1050 deg. C for 2 h. The microstructure, tensile, and Charpy impact properties of the 12Cr-ODS steel were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that the 12Cr-ODS steel exhibits the characteristic ferritic structure containing few dislocations. Tensile characterization has shown that the 12Cr-ODS steel has superior tensile strength accompanied by good elongation at room temperature and 550 deg. C. The material exhibits very attractive Charpy impact properties with upper shelf energy of 22 J and a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of about -15 deg. C. The formation of small, equiaxed grains and fine dispersion of oxide particles are the main reasons for the good compromise between tensile strength and impact properties.

  8. Development of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steels and fabrication technologies for Indian test blanket module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Baldev [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Jayakumar, T., E-mail: tjk@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2011-10-01

    For the development of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel (RAFMS), for the Indian Test Blanket Module for ITER, a 3-phase programme has been adopted. The first phase consists of melting and detailed characterization of a laboratory scale heat conforming to Eurofer 97 composition, to demonstrate the capability of the Indian industry for producing fusion grade steel. In the second phase which is currently in progress, the chemical composition will be optimized with respect to tungsten and tantalum for better combination of mechanical properties. Characterization of the optimized commercial scale India-specific RAFM steel will be carried out in the third phase. The first phase of the programme has been successfully completed and the tensile, impact and creep properties are comparable with Eurofer 97. Laser and electron beam welding parameters have been optimized and welding consumables were developed for Narrow Gap - Gas Tungsten Arc welding and for laser-hybrid welding.

  9. Boron effect on fabrication properties and service behaviour of complex corrosion-resistant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dshtejn, Ya.E.; Piskunova, A.I.; Shmatko, M.N.

    1978-01-01

    In order to determine the optimum boron admixtures for the improvement of the technological plasticity without the considerable reduction in the corrosion resistance of the complex alloy Cr-Ni-Mo steels, industrial heats of the 03KH16N15M3, 03KH17N14M3 and other steels, containing 0.0005-0.003% boron, have been researched. The plasticity, corrosion resistance and microstructure of certain steels have been determined. It is shown that small additions of boron enhance the technological plasticity during the ingot rolling. In order to prevent a sharp reduction in the corrosion resistance, the boron content should be confined to 0.0015% and the quenching temperature raised to 1,120-1,150 deg C. The positive effect of the quenching temperature increase is accounted for by the solution of the excess phases and by the reduction of the dislocation density in the near-the-boundary zones

  10. 77 FR 75980 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... following companies: Acton Co., Ltd.; Angang Clothes Rack Manufacture Co.; Asmara Home Vietnam; B2B Co., Ltd...\\ M&B Metal Products Company, Inc.; Innovative Fabrication LLC/Indy Hanger; and US Hanger Company, LLC... South East Asia Hamico Export Joint Stock Company (``Hamico'') and the TJ Group as mandatory respondents...

  11. Conformal coating of amorphous silicon and germanium by high pressure chemical vapor deposition for photovoltaic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Hiu Yan; Grede, Alex J.; Molina, Alex; Talreja, Disha; Mohney, Suzanne E.; Giebink, Noel C.; Badding, John V.; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2018-04-01

    Conformally coating textured, high surface area substrates with high quality semiconductors is challenging. Here, we show that a high pressure chemical vapor deposition process can be employed to conformally coat the individual fibers of several types of flexible fabrics (cotton, carbon, steel) with electronically or optoelectronically active materials. The high pressure (˜30 MPa) significantly increases the deposition rate at low temperatures. As a result, it becomes possible to deposit technologically important hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) from silane by a simple and very practical pyrolysis process without the use of plasma, photochemical, hot-wire, or other forms of activation. By confining gas phase reactions in microscale reactors, we show that the formation of undesired particles is inhibited within the microscale spaces between the individual wires in the fabric structures. Such a conformal coating approach enables the direct fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based Schottky junction devices on a stainless steel fabric functioning as a solar fabric.

  12. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part I. Experimental design and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model which incorporates heat flow, phase transformation kinetics, and property-structure-composition relationships to predict the mechanical properties of steel rod being control cooled under industrial conditions. Thus, the principles of microstructural engineering have been brought to bear on this interdisciplinary problem by combining computer modeling with laboratory measurements of heat flow, austenite decomposition kinetics, microstructure and mechanical properties, and industrial trials to determine heat transfer and obtain rod samples under known conditions. Owing to the length and diversity of the study, it is reported in three parts,[8191]the first of which is concerned with the heat flow measurements. A relatively simple and reliable technique, involving a preheated steel rod instrumented with a thermocouple secured at its centerline, has been devised to determine the cooling rate in different regions of the moving bed of rod loops on an operating Stelmor line. The measured thermal response of the rod has been analyzed by two transient conduction models (lumped and distributed parameter, respectively) to yield overall heat-transfer coefficients for radiation and convection. The adequacy of the technique has been checked by cooling instrumented rods under well-defined, air crossflow conditions in the laboratory and comparing measured heat-transfer coefficients to values predicted from well-established equations. The industrial thermal measurements have permitted the characterization of a coefficient to account for radiative interaction among adjacent rod loops near the edge and at the center of the bed.

  13. Vertically p-n-junctioned GaN nano-wire array diode fabricated on Si(111) using MOCVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Hee; Kissinger, Suthan; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-04-07

    We demonstrate the fabrication of n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays on (111) silicon substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method .The nanowires were grown by a newly developed two-step growth process. The diameter of as-grown nanowires ranges from 300-400 nm with a density of 6-7 × 10(7) cm(-2). The p- and n-type doping of the nanowires is achieved with Mg and Si dopant species. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates that the nanowires are relatively defect-free. The room-temperature photoluminescence emission with a strong peak at 370 nm indicates that the n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays have potential application in light-emitting nanodevices. The cathodoluminscence (CL) spectrum clearly shows a distinct optical transition of GaN nanodiodes. The nano-n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg diodes were further completed using a sputter coating approach to deposit Au/Ni metal contacts. The polysilazane filler has been etched by a wet chemical etching process. The n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire diode was fabricated for different Mg source flow rates. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements reveal excellent rectifying properties with an obvious turn-on voltage at 1.6 V for a Mg flow rate of 5 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute).

  14. BioWires: Conductive DNA Nanowires in a Computationally-Optimized, Synthetic Biological Platform for Nanoelectronic Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchioni, Simon; Toomey, Emily; Capece, Mark C.; Rothschild, Lynn; Wind, Shalom

    2017-01-01

    DNA is an ideal template for a biological nanowire-it has a linear structure several atoms thick; it possesses addressable nucleobase geometry that can be precisely defined; and it is massively scalable into branched networks. Until now, the drawback of DNA as a conducting nanowire been, simply put, its low conductance. To address this deficiency, we extensively characterize a chemical variant of canonical DNA that exploits the affinity of natural cytosine bases for silver ions. We successfully construct chains of single silver ions inside double-stranded DNA, confirm the basic dC-Ag+-dC bond geometry and kinetics, and show length-tunability dependent on mismatch distribution, ion availability and enzyme activity. An analysis of the absorbance spectra of natural DNA and silver-binding, poly-cytosine DNA demonstrates the heightened thermostability of the ion chain and its resistance to aqueous stresses such as precipitation, dialysis and forced reduction. These chemically critical traits lend themselves to an increase in electrical conductivity of over an order of magnitude for 11-base silver-paired duplexes over natural strands when assayed by STM break junction. We further construct and implement a genetic pathway in the E. coli bacterium for the biosynthesis of highly ionizable DNA sequences. Toward future circuits, we construct a model of transcription network architectures to determine the most efficient and robust connectivity for cell-based fabrication, and we perform sequence optimization with a genetic algorithm to identify oligonucleotides robust to changes in the base-pairing energy landscape. We propose that this system will serve as a synthetic biological fabrication platform for more complex DNA nanotechnology and nanoelectronics with applications to deep space and low resource environments.

  15. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  16. Steel bonded dense silicon nitride compositions and method for their fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.; Shell, Thomas E.

    1987-01-01

    A two-stage bonding technique for bonding high density silicon nitride and other ceramic materials to stainless steel and other hard metals, and multilayered ceramic-metal composites prepared by the technique are disclosed. The technique involves initially slurry coating a surface of the ceramic material at about 1500.degree. C. in a vacuum with a refractory material and the stainless steel is then pressure bonded to the metallic coated surface by brazing it with nickel-copper-silver or nickel-copper-manganese alloys at a temperature in the range of about 850.degree. to 950.degree. C. in a vacuum. The two-stage bonding technique minimizes the temperature-expansion mismatch between the dissimilar materials.

  17. Atmospheric-pressure-plasma-enhanced fabrication of nonfouling nanocoatings for 316 stainless steel biomaterial interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Lin, Jin-He; Li, Chi-Heng; Yu, I.-Chun; Chen, Ting-Lun

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma, which was generated with electrical RF power, was fed to a tetramethyldisiloxane/argon gas mixture to prepare bioinert organosilicon coatings for 316 stainless steel. The surface characteristics of atmospheric-pressure-plasma-deposited nanocoatings were evaluated as a function of RF plasma power, precursor gas flow, and plasma working distance. After surface deposition, the chemical features, elemental compositions, and surface morphologies of the organosilicon nanocoatings were examined. It was found that RF plasma power and plasma working distance are the essential factors that affect the formation of plasma-deposited nanocoatings. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra indicate that the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-deposited nanocoatings formed showed inorganic features. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed the surface roughness variation of the plasma-deposited nanocoating at different RF plasma powers and plasma working distances during surface treatment. From these surface analyses, it was found that the plasma-deposited organosilicon nanocoatings under specific operational conditions have relatively hydrophobic and inorganic characteristics, which are essential for producing an anti-biofouling interface on 316 stainless steel. The experimental results also show that atmospheric-pressure-plasma-deposited nanocoatings have potential use as a cell-resistant layer on 316 stainless steel.

  18. A comparative study of the mechanical properties and the behavior of carbon and boron in stainless steel cladding tubes fabricated by PM HIP and traditional technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulga, A.V., E-mail: avshulga@mephi.ru [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, 31 Kashirskoe Sh., Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► The ring tensile test method was optimized and successfully used. ► The cladding tubes fabricated by PM HIP and traditional technologies were tested. ► Improvement of the cladding tubes properties fabricated by PM HIP was found. ► Correlation of the homogeneity of carbon, boron with the properties was revealed. -- Abstract: The ring tensile test method was optimized and successfully used to obtain precise data for specimens of the cladding tubes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steels and ferritic–martensitic stainless steel. The positive modifications in the tensile properties of the stainless steel cladding tubes fabricated by powder metallurgy and hot isostatic pressing of melt atomized powders (PM HIP) when compared with the cladding tubes produced by traditional technology were found. Presently, PM HIP is also used in the fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic–martensitic steels. The high degree of homogeneity of the distribution of carbon and boron as well the high dispersivity of the phase-structure elements in the specimens manufactured via PM HIP were determined by direct autoradiography methods. These results correlate well with the increase of the tensile properties of the specimens produced by PM HIP technology.

  19. Selection of micro-fabrication techniques on stainless steel sheet for skin friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Matthews, David Thomas Allan; Igartua, A.; Rodriguez Vidal, E.; Contreras Fortes, J.; Saenz de Viteri, V.; Pagano, F.; Wadman, B.; Wiklund, E.D.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This review gives a concise introduction to the state-of-art techniques used for surface texturing, e.g., wet etching, plasma etching, laser surface texturing (LST), 3D printing, etc. In order to fabricate deterministic textures with the desired geometric structures and scales, the innovative

  20. Morphologies, microstructures, and mechanical properties of samples produced using laser metal deposition with 316 L stainless steel wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Mi, Gaoyang; Luo, Yuanqing; Jiang, Ping; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming

    2017-07-01

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) with a filler has been demonstrated to be an effective method for additive manufacturing because of its high material deposition efficiency, improved surface quality, reduced material wastage, and cleaner process environment without metal dust pollution. In this study, single beads and samples with ten layers were successfully deposited on a 316 L stainless steel surface under optimized conditions using a 4000 W continuous wave fibre laser and an arc welding machine. The results showed that satisfactory layered samples with a large deposition height and smooth side surface could be achieved under appropriate parameters. The uniform structures had fine cellular and network austenite grains with good metallurgical bonding between layers, showing an austenite solidification mode. Precipitated ferrite at the grain boundaries showed a subgrain structure with fine uniform grain size. A higher microhardness (205-226 HV) was detected in the middle of the deposition area, while the tensile strength of the 50 layer sample reached 669 MPa. In addition, ductile fracturing was proven by the emergence of obvious dimples at the fracture surface.

  1. Development of Focused Ion Beam technique for high speed steel 3D-SEM artefact fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; MacDonald, A. Nicole; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    The work describes preliminary manufacture by grinding, followed by machining on a Focused Ion Beam (FIB), of a high speed steel step artefact for 3D-SEM calibration. The FIB is coupled with a SEM in the so called dual beam instrument. The milling capabilities of FIB were checked from a qualitative...... point of view, using the dual beam SEM imaging, and quantitatively using a reference stylus instrument, to establish traceability. A triangular section having a depth of about 10 μm was machined, where the 50 μm curvature radius due to grinding was reduced to about 2 μm by FIB milling...

  2. Fabrication and integrity test preparation of HIP-joined W and ferritic-martensitic steel mockups for fusion reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Kyu In; Kim, Suk Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Choi, Bo Guen; Moon, Se Youn; Hong, Bong Guen

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten (W) and ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) as armor and structural materials, respectively, are the major candidates for plasma-facing components (PFCs) such as the blanket first wall (BFW) and the divertor, in a fusion reactor. In the present study, three W/FMS mockups were successfully fabricated using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP, 900 .deg. C, 100 MPa, 1.5 hrs) with a following post-HIP heat treatment (PHHT, tempering, 750 .deg. C, 70 MPa, 2 hrs), and the W/FMS joining method was developed based on the ITER BFW and the test blanket module (TBM) development project from 2004 to the present. Using a 10-MHz-frequency flat-type probe to ultrasonically test of the joint, we found no defects in the fabricated mockups. For confirmation of the joint integrity, a high heat flux test will be performed up to the thermal lifetime of the mockup under the proper test conditions. These conditions were determined through a preliminary analysis with conventional codes such as ANSYS-CFX for thermal-hydraulic conditions considering the test facility, the Korea heat load test facility with an electron beam (KoHLT-EB), and its water coolant system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)

  3. Fabrication and integrity test preparation of HIP-joined W and ferritic-martensitic steel mockups for fusion reactor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Kyu In; Kim, Suk Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Choi, Bo Guen; Moon, Se Youn; Hong, Bong Guen

    2014-10-01

    Tungsten (W) and ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) as armor and structural materials, respectively, are the major candidates for plasma-facing components (PFCs) such as the blanket first wall (BFW) and the divertor, in a fusion reactor. In the present study, three W/FMS mockups were successfully fabricated using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP, 900 °C, 100 MPa, 1.5 hrs) with a following post-HIP heat treatment (PHHT, tempering, 750 °C, 70 MPa, 2 hrs), and the W/FMS joining method was developed based on the ITER BFW and the test blanket module (TBM) development project from 2004 to the present. Using a 10-MHz-frequency flat-type probe to ultrasonically test of the joint, we found no defects in the fabricated mockups. For confirmation of the joint integrity, a high heat flux test will be performed up to the thermal lifetime of the mockup under the proper test conditions. These conditions were determined through a preliminary analysis with conventional codes such as ANSYS-CFX for thermal-hydraulic conditions considering the test facility, the Korea heat load test facility with an electron beam (KoHLT-EB), and its water coolant system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI).

  4. Fabrication and integrity test preparation of HIP-joined W and ferritic-martensitic steel mockups for fusion reactor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Kyu In; Kim, Suk Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Choi, Bo Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Se Youn; Hong, Bong Guen [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Tungsten (W) and ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) as armor and structural materials, respectively, are the major candidates for plasma-facing components (PFCs) such as the blanket first wall (BFW) and the divertor, in a fusion reactor. In the present study, three W/FMS mockups were successfully fabricated using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP, 900 .deg. C, 100 MPa, 1.5 hrs) with a following post-HIP heat treatment (PHHT, tempering, 750 .deg. C, 70 MPa, 2 hrs), and the W/FMS joining method was developed based on the ITER BFW and the test blanket module (TBM) development project from 2004 to the present. Using a 10-MHz-frequency flat-type probe to ultrasonically test of the joint, we found no defects in the fabricated mockups. For confirmation of the joint integrity, a high heat flux test will be performed up to the thermal lifetime of the mockup under the proper test conditions. These conditions were determined through a preliminary analysis with conventional codes such as ANSYS-CFX for thermal-hydraulic conditions considering the test facility, the Korea heat load test facility with an electron beam (KoHLT-EB), and its water coolant system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)

  5. Functionally graded material of 304L stainless steel and inconel 625 fabricated by directed energy deposition: Characterization and thermodynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, Beth E.; Otis, Richard A.; Borgonia, John Paul; Suh, Jong-ook; Dillon, R. Peter; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Hofmann, Douglas C.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Beese, Allison M.

    2016-01-01

    Many engineering applications, particularly in extreme environments, require components with properties that vary with location in the part. Functionally graded materials (FGMs), which possess gradients in properties such as hardness or density, are a potential solution to address these requirements. The laser-based additive manufacturing process of directed energy deposition (DED) can be used to fabricate metallic parts with a gradient in composition by adjusting the volume fraction of metallic powders delivered to the melt pool as a function of position. As this is a fusion process, secondary phases may develop in the gradient zone during solidification that can result in undesirable properties in the part. This work describes experimental and thermodynamic studies of a component built from 304L stainless steel incrementally graded to Inconel 625. The microstructure, chemistry, phase composition, and microhardness as a function of position were characterized by microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and microindentation. Particles of secondary phases were found in small amounts within cracks in the gradient zone. These were ascertained to consist of transition metal carbides by experimental results and thermodynamic calculations. The study provides a combined experimental and thermodynamic computational modeling approach toward the fabrication and evaluation of a functionally graded material made by DED additive manufacturing.

  6. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. Iron sulfide scales formation on surfaces covered by fabrication produced films. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, A.L.

    1986-04-01

    This work describes the assays aimed to passivate the steel carbon of the process pipings. This steel is marked by the ASTM A 333 G6 and is chemically similar to those of isotopic exchange towers which corrode in contact with in-water hydrogen sulfide solutions forming iron sulfide protective layers. The differences between both materials lie in the surface characteristics to be passivated. The steel of towers has an internal side covered by paint which shall be removed prior to passivation. The steel's internal side shall be covered by a film formed during the fabrication process and constituted by calcinated wastes and iron oxides (magnetite, hematite and wustite). This film interferes in the formation process of passivating layers of pyrrhotite and pyrite. The possibility to passivate the pipes in their actual state was evaluated since it would result highly laborious and expensive to eliminate the film. (Author) [es

  7. Selection of replacement material for the failed surface level gauge wire in Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Pitman, S.G.; Lund, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Surface level gauges fabricated from AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) wire failed after only a few weeks of operation in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The wire failure was determined to be due to chloride ion assisted corrosion of the 316 wire. Radiation-induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the primary source of the chloride ions. An extensive literature search followed by expert concurrence was undertaken to select a replacement material for the wire. Platinum (Pt)-20 % Iridium (Ir) alloy was selected as the replacement material from tile candidate materials, P-20% Ir, Pt-1O% Rhodium (Rh), Pt-20%Rh and Hastelloy C-22. The selection was made on the basis of the alloy's immunity towards acidic and basic environments as well as its adequate tensile properties in the fully annealed state

  8. Fabrication and characterization of glass–ceramics materials developed from steel slag waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Feng; Fang, Yu; Xie, Junlin; Xie, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Steelmaking slag (SS) is one of the most common industrial wastes. ► Glass–ceramics produced from SS is observed to have good properties. ► A large volume of raw SS can be recycled. ► The utilization of SS could reduce solid waste pollution. -- Abstract: In this study, glass–ceramic materials were produced from SS (steel slag) obtained from Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation in China. The amount of SS used in glass batch was about 31–41 wt.% of the total batch mixture. On basis of differential thermal analysis (DTA) results, the nucleation and crystallization temperature of the parent glass samples were identified, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that multiple crystalline phases coexisted in the glass–ceramics, and the main crystalline phase was wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ). SEM observation indicated that there was an increase in the amount of crystalline phase in the glass–ceramics when the CaO content and crystallization time increased. It was also found that the glass–ceramics with fine microstructure enhance mechanical properties and erosion wear resistance. The obtained glass–ceramics showed a maximum bending strength of 145.6 MPa and very nice wear resistance. Therefore, it is feasible to produce nucleated glass–ceramics materials for building and decorative materials from SS.

  9. Superhydrophobic coatings fabricated with polytetrafluoroethylene and SiO2 nanoparticles by spraying process on carbon steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haibin; Chen, Eryu; Jia, Xianbu; Liang, Lijun; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The SiO 2 and PTFE NP-filled coatings exhibit excellent superhydrophobicity. • PTFE-filled coatings show denser structures and better liquid resistance than SiO 2 . • Air pocket of Wentzel model explains the difference in the superhydrophobicity. - Abstract: Superhydrophobicity is extensively investigated because of the numerous methods developed for water-repellant interface fabrication. Many suitable functional materials for the production of superhydrophobic surfaces on various substrates are still being explored. In this study, inorganic SiO 2 and organic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanoparticles (NPs) are used for a comparative study on the performance of superhydrophobic coating on carbon steel surfaces. The NPs are added to PTFE coating emulsions by physical blending to form coating mixtures. Raw SiO 2 NPs are then hydrophobized using KH-570 and validated by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Dynamic Laser Scattering (DLS) grain size analyses. The microstructures of the surfaces are characterized by contact angle (CA) measurements and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images. The prepared surfaces are subjected to adhesion, hardness, water resistance, and acid/alkali erosion tests. Hydrophobized SiO 2 -filled coating surfaces are found to have better uniformity than raw SiO 2 regardless of their similar maximum static contact angles (SCAs) about 150°. A SCA of 163.1° is obtained on the PTFE NP-filled coating surfaces that have a considerably denser structure than SiO 2 . Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses reveal that all fabricated surfaces have good thermal stability and tolerate temperatures up to 550 °C. The PTFE NP-filled coating surfaces also exhibit excellent water and acid resistance. A possible mechanism concerning the amount of trapped air is proposed in relation to practical superhydrophobic surface fabrication

  10. Fabrication and inspection of stainless-steel-clad tubes for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spriet, M.

    1975-01-01

    The production of cladding tubes requires a selection of the raw material, particular core taken during the cold and hot processes, special surface preparations, heat treatments, and intermediate control during the principal steps of fabrication. The inspection is made in two stages: acceptance tests at Vallourec (Eddy current and ultrasonic tests, metrology of internal and external diameter and thickness, metallography, analyses, tensile tests) and ultrasonic tests, metrology of external diameter and thickness, metallography, analyses, mechanical tests at high temperature) [fr

  11. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  12. Superfluid He testing of titanium-stainless steel transitions fabricated by explosive welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Sabirov, B.; Shirkov, G.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental setup was constructed to test in liquid He bimetallic (titanium-stainless steel) tube joints which were manufactured by an explosive welding method. The leak levels of the samples tested at room temperature 7.5·10 -10 and 7.5·10 -9 Torr·1/s at 77 K, correspondingly, measured at FNAL (Batavia, USA) after the thermocycling have coincided with the earlier results obtained at JINR (Dubna, Russia) and INFN (Pisa, Italy) data for the same samples. For the liquid helium test the tubes were welded in pairs by their titanium ends. At the room temperature the leak level of the three tested samples was 4.9·10 -10 Torr·l/s. At the first cryogenic tests (4-6 K) one of the samples manifested a leak. The investigation will be continued since the explosive welding seems to be a very perspective new generation technology

  13. Monitoring of chromium and nickel in biological fluids of stainless steel welders using the flux-cored-wire (FCW) welding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stridsklev, Inger Cecilie; Schaller, Karl-Heinz; Langård, Sverre

    2004-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in flux-cored wire (FCW) welders welding on stainless steel (SS). Seven FCW welders were monitored for 3 days to 1 workweek, measuring Cr and Ni in air, blood, and urine. The welders were questioned about exposure to Cr and Ni during their whole working careers, with emphasis on the week of monitoring, about the use of personal protective equipment and their smoking habits. The air concentrations were mean 200 microg/m(3) (range 2.4-2,744) for total Cr, 11.3 microg/m(3) (416.7) for Ni during the workdays for the five welders who were monitored with air measurements. The levels of Cr and Ni in biological fluids varied between different workplaces. For Cr in whole blood, plasma, and erythrocytes, the mean levels after work were 1.25 (<0.4-8.3) and 1.68 (<0.2-8.0) and 0.9 (<0.4-7.2) microg/l, respectively. For Ni most of the measurements in whole blood and plasma were below the detection limits, the mean levels after work being 0.84 (<0.8-3.3) and 0.57 microg/l (<0.4-1.7), respectively. Mean levels for Cr and Ni in the urine after work were 3.96 (0.34-40.7) and 2.50 (0.56-5.0) microg/g creatinine, respectively. Correlations between the Cr(VI) levels measured in air and the levels of total Cr in the measured biological fluids were found. The results seem to support the view that monitoring of Cr in the urine may be versatile for indirect monitoring of the Cr(VI) air level in FCW welders. The results seem to suggest that external and internal exposure to Cr and Ni in FCW welders welding SS is low in general.

  14. ANALISA KEKUATAN KONSTRUKSI SIDE RAMP DOOR SISTEM STEEL WIRE ROPE PADA KM. DHARMA KENCANA II AKIBAT BEBAN STATIS DENGAN METODE ELEMEN HINGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Pujo Mulyatno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available KM. DHARMA KENCANA II adalah kapal tipe Ro - Ro (Passanger Ship yang memiliki rute pelayaran Surabaya - Kumai - Semarang yang mampu mengangkut penumpang dan kendaraan dalam jumlah yang relatif banyak. Untuk memudahkan akses keluar masuk kendaraan yang akan diangkut, maka kapal ini dilengkapi dengan empat buah ramp door sistem steel wire rope, salah satunya adalah ramp door yang terletak dibagian kiri lambung kapal (side ramp door. Side ramp door akan menerima beban statis secara berulang - ulang sehingga dapat mengakibatkan deformasi, keretakan, kerusakan, dll. Penelitian tentang kekuatan konstruksi side ramp door perlu diperhatikan dan dilakukan dimana tegangan yang diakibatkan oleh beban yang mengenainya tidak boleh melebihi batas maksimum σyield bahan dan σijin berdasarkan rules dari klas, adapun acuan rules yang dipakai dalam penelitian ini adalah berdasarkan rules Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia. Analisa kekuatan konstruksi side ramp door dilakukan dengan menggunakan program berbasis FEM sedangkan untuk pemodelan dilakukan dengan menggunakan program berbasis CAD. Analisa yang digunakan adalah analisa beban statis untuk mengetahui karakteristik dan letak tegangan terbesar pada konstruksi side ramp door berdasarkan empat variasi pembebanan. Hasil analisa menggunakan program berbasis FEM didapatkan hasil maximum stress terbesar terjadi pada kondisi side ramp door dengan beban kendaraan truck yaitu sebesar 93,91 N/mm2 dimana daerah paling kritis terjadi pada node 22097 yang terletak pada gading nomor 8 bagian memanjang dan gading nomor 1 bagian melintang. Tegangan ini masih dalam kondisi aman karena setelah dibandingan dengan σyield bahan sebesar 400 N/mm2 dan σijin berdasarkan rules BKI sebesar 225,24 N/mm2 menghasilkan nilai safety factor sebesar 3,87 dan 2,18.

  15. Peculiar features of metallurgical processes at plasma-arc spraying of coatings, made of steel wire with powder fillers B4C and B4C+ZrO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Георгій Михайлович Григоренко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of metallurgical processes occurring in plasma-arc spraying between the steel shell and the carbide fillers of B4C and B4C cored wires with the addition of nanocrystalline ZrO2 powder has been analyzed. Iron-boron compounds alloyed with carbon are formed in ingots as a result of ferritiс coating of wire interacrion with fillers while the ferritic matrix contains boride and carboboride eutectics. Average microhardness of the carboboride compounds and the matrix is high – 17,78; 16,40 and 8,69; 9,95 GPa for the ingots with с B4C and B4C+ZrO2 respectively. The best quality coatings with low porosity (~1%, lamellar structure consisting of ferrite matrix reinforced with dispersed Fe borides, were obtained at a higher heat input (plasmatron current 240-250 A. The average amount of oxides in the coatings makes 15%. 0,5% addition of nanopowder ZrO2 accelerates dispersed iron-boron compounds forming, promotes their uniform distribution in the structure and improves coating microhardness up to 7,0 GPa. Application of the differential thermal analysis method to simulate the interaction processes between the steel shell and the filler during the heating of wire in the shielding gas makes it possible to promote formation of new phases (borides and carboborides of iron and to predict the phase composition of the coatings

  16. Radiative and convective properties of 316L Stainless Steel fabricated using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Jonathan

    Temperature evolution of metallic materials during the additive manufacturing process has direct influence in determining the materials microstructure and resultant characteristics. Through the power of Infrared (IR) thermography it is now possible to monitor thermal trends in a build structure, giving the power to adjust building parameters in real time. The IR camera views radiation in the IR wavelengths and determines temperature of an object by the amount of radiation emitted from the object in those wavelengths. Determining the amount of radiation emitted from the material, known as a materials emissivity, can be difficult in that emissivity is affected by both temperature and surface finish. It has been shown that the use of a micro-blackbody cavity can be used as an accurate reference temperature when the sample is held at thermal equilibrium. A micro-blackbody cavity was created in a sample of 316L Stainless Steel after being fabricated during using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) process. Holding the sample at thermal equilibrium and using the micro-blackbody cavity as a reference and thermocouple as a second reference emissivity values were able to be obtained. IR thermography was also used to observe the manufacturing of these samples. When observing the IR thermography, patterns in the thermal history of the build were shown to be present as well as distinct cooling rates of the material. This information can be used to find true temperatures of 316L Stainless Steel during the LENS process for better control of desired material properties as well as future work in determining complete energy balance.

  17. An experience with in-service fabrication and inspection of austenitic stainless steel piping in high temperature sodium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, S., E-mail: sravi@igcar.gov.in; Laha, K.; Sakthy, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Procedure for changing 304L SS pipe to 316L SS in sodium loop has been established. • Hot leg made of 304L SS was isolated from existing cold leg made of 316LN SS. • Innovative welding was used in joining the new 316L SS pipe with existing 316LN SS. • The old components of 304L SS piping have been integrated with the new piping. - Abstract: A creep testing facility along with dynamic sodium loop was installed at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, India to assess the creep behavior of fast reactor structural materials in flowing sodium. Type 304L austenitic stainless steel was used in the low cross section piping of hot-leg whereas 316LN austenitic stainless steel in the high cross section cold-leg of the sodium loop. The intended service life of the sodium loop was 10 years. The loop has performed successfully in the stipulated time period. To enhance its life time, it has been decided to replace the 304L piping with 316L piping in the hot-leg. There were more than 300 welding joints involved in the integration of cold-leg with the new 316L hot-leg. Continuous argon gas flow was maintained in the loop during welding to avoid contamination of sodium residue with air. Several innovative welding procedures have been adopted for joining the new hot-leg with the existing cold-leg in the presence of sodium residue adopting TIG welding technique. The joints were inspected for 100% X-ray radiography and qualified by performing tensile tests. The components used in the discarded hot-leg were retrieved, cleaned and integrated in the renovated loop. A method of cleaning component of sodium residue has been established. This paper highlights the in-service fabrication and inspection of the renovation.

  18. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  19. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  20. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  1. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  2. Microstructure characteristics of high borated stainless steel fabricated by hot-pressing sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Mingjia, E-mail: mingjiawangysu@126.com; Zhao, Hongchang

    2016-04-25

    The present study investigated the microstructure of powder metallurgy (P/M) high borated stainless steel through hot-pressing sintering in a temperature range of 1000–1150 °C within 30 min under 30 MPa. Microstructure and phase examinations were carried out by applying scanning electron microscope, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results of as-atomized powders demonstrated that many powders kept egg-type structure with an austenite outer layer and the eutectic borides were much finer than those in traditional cast products. Microstructure studies revealed that borides suffered Ostwald ripening and were significantly influenced by the sintering temperature. Orientation maps indicated that the inter-particle contact areas consisted of equiaxed grains and the regions consisting of large elongated grains partly inherited the microstructure characteristics of as-atomized powder particles. Furthermore, the mechanisms governing the morphological changes in microstructure were discussed. - Highlights: • Near-complete densification could be obtained through hot-pressing sintering. • There was no phase transformation and present phases were M{sub 2}B and austenite. • Borides suffered Ostwald ripening and were significantly influenced by temperature. • Inter-particle contact areas consisted of equiaxed grains for recrystallization. • Deformation-free zones exhibited elongated grains for dendritic arms coarsening.

  3. Survey of welding processes for field fabrication of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel pressure vessels. [128 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotke, G.E.

    1980-04-01

    Any evaluation of fabrication methods for massive pressure vessels must consider several welding processes with potential for heavy-section applications. These include submerged-arc and shielded metal-arc, narrow-joint modifications of inert-gas metal-arc and inert-gas tungsten-arc processes, electroslag, and electron beam. The advantage and disadvantages of each are discussed. Electroslag welding can be dropped from consideration for joining of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel because welds made with this method do not provide the required mechanical properties in the welded and stress relieved condition. The extension of electron-beam welding to sections as thick as 4 or 8 inches (100 or 200 mm) is too recent a development to permit full evaluation. The manual shielded metal-arc and submerged-arc welding processes have both been employed, often together, for field fabrication of large vessels. They have the historical advantage of successful application but present other disadvantages that make them otherwise less attractive. The manual shielded metal-arc process can be used for all-position welding. It is however, a slow and expensive technique for joining heavy sections, requires large amounts of skilled labor that is in critically short supply, and introduces a high incidence of weld repairs. Automatic submerged-arc welding has been employed in many critical applications and for welding in the flat position is free of most of the criticism that can be leveled at the shielded metal-arc process. Specialized techniques have been developed for horizontal and vertical position welding but, used in this manner, the applications are limited and the cost advantage of the process is lost.

  4. Fabrication of highly conductive carbon nanotube fibers for electrical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Fengmei; Li, Can; Wei, Jinquan; Xu, Ruiqiao; Zhang, Zelin; Cui, Xian; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have great potential for use as electrical wires because of their outstanding electrical and mechanical properties. Here, we fabricate lightweight CNT fibers with electrical conductivity as high as that of stainless steel from macroscopic CNT films by drawing them through diamond wire-drawing dies. The entangled CNT bundles are straightened by suffering tension, which improves the alignment of the fibers. The loose fibers are squeezed by the diamond wire-drawing dies, which reduces the intertube space and contact resistance. The CNT fibers prepared by drawing have an electrical conductivity as high as 1.6 × 10 6 s m −1 . The fibers are very stable when kept in the air and under cyclic tensile test. A prototype of CNT motor is demonstrated by replacing the copper wires with the CNT fibers. (paper)

  5. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  6. The effect of intermediate stop and ball size in fabrication of recycled steel powder using ball milling from machining steel chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitri, M.W.M.; Shun, C.H.; Rizam, S.S.; Shamsul, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    A feasibility study for producing recycled steel powder from steel scrap by ball milling was carried out. Steel scrap from machining was used as a raw material and was milled using planetary ball milling. Three samples were prepared in order to study the effect of intermediate stop and ball size. Sample with intermediate stop during milling process showed finer particle size compared to the sample with continuous milling. Decrease in the temperature of the vial during the intermediate stop milling gives less ductile behaviour to the steel powder, which is then easily work-hardened and fragmented to fine powder. Mixed small and big size ball give the best production of recycled steel powder where it gives higher impact force to the scrap and accelerate the fragmentation of the steel scrap into powder. (author)

  7. Drop Weight Impact Behavior of Al-Si-Cu Alloy Foam-Filled Thin-Walled Steel Pipe Fabricated by Friction Stir Back Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangai, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Yukiko; Utsunomiya, Takao; Kuwazuru, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Al-Si-Cu alloy ADC12 foam-filled thin-walled stainless steel pipes, which exhibit metal bonding between the ADC12 foam and steel pipe, were fabricated by friction stir back extrusion. Drop weight impact tests were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and mechanical properties of the foam-filled pipes during dynamic compression tests, which were compared with the results of static compression tests. From x-ray computed tomography observation, it was confirmed that the fabricated foam-filled pipes had almost uniform porosity and pore size distributions. It was found that no scattering of the fragments of collapsed ADC12 foam occurred for the foam-filled pipes owing to the existence of the pipe surrounding the ADC12 foam. Preventing the scattering of the ADC12 foam decreases the drop in stress during dynamic compression tests and therefore improves the energy absorption properties of the foam.

  8. Fast fabrication of long TiO2 nanotube array with high photoelectrochemical property on flexible stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jie; Wu, Tao; Gao, Peng

    2012-03-01

    Oriented highly ordered long TiO2 nanotube array films with nanopore structure and high photoelectrochemical property were fabricated on flexible stainless steel substrate (50 microm) by anodization treatment of titanium thin films in a short time. The samples were characterized by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoelectrochemical methods, respectively. The results showed that Ti films deposited at the condition of 0.7 Pa Ar pressure and 96 W sputtering power at room temperature was uniform and dense with good homogeneity and high crystallinity. The voltage and the anodization time both played significant roles in the formation of TiO2 nanopore-nanotube array film. The optimal voltage was 60 V and the anodization time is less than 30 min by anodizing Ti films in ethylene glycerol containing 0.5% (w) NH4F and 3% (w) H2O. The growth rate of TiO2 nanotube array was as high as 340 nm/min. Moreover, the photocurrent-potential curves, photocurrent response curves and electrochemical impedance spectra results indicated that the TiO2 nanotube array film with the nanoporous structure exhibited a better photo-response ability and photoelectrochemical performance than the ordinary TiO2 nanotube array film. The reason is that the nanoporous structure on the surface of the nanotube array can separate the photo electron-hole pairs more efficiently and completely than the tubular structure.

  9. Cellular Energy Absorbing TRIP-Steel/Mg-PSZ Composite: Honeycomb Structures Fabricated by a New Extrusion Powder Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Martin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight linear cellular composite materials on basis of austenite stainless TRIP- (TRansformation Induced Plasticity- steel as matrix with reinforcements of MgO partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ are described. Two-dimensional cellular materials for structural applications are conventionally produced by sheet expansion or corrugation processes. The presented composites are fabricated by a modified ceramic extrusion powder technology. Characterization of the microstructure in as-received and deformed conditions was carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Magnetic balance measurements and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD were used to identify the deformation-induced martensite evolution in the cell wall material. The honeycomb composite samples exhibit an increased strain hardening up to a certain engineering compressive strain and an extraordinary high specific energy absorption per unit mass and unit volume, respectively. Based on improved property-to-weight ratio such linear cellular structures will be of interest as crash absorbers or stiffened core materials for aerospace, railway, or automotive applications.

  10. Nondestructive testing for microstructural characterization in 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel towards assessment of fabrication quality and in-service degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, T.; Rao, K.B.S.; Raj, Baldev [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1999-07-01

    The paper discusses the usefulness of non destructive testing for microstructural characterization in 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel. Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements and spectral analysis have been used in a complementary way for characterizing Ac{sub 1} and Ac{sub 3} temperatures, amount of martensite and ferrite, dissolution of V{sub 4}C{sub 3} and NbC and formation of {delta}-ferrite. The microstructural degradation occurring due to thermal ageing and creep has also been studied by ultrasonic velocity measurements. Magnetic Barkhausen noise technique has been used for estimating the extent of various regions in heat affected zone (HAZ) of 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel weldment. The same technique has been used for the assessment of low cycle fatigue damage in 9Cr-1Mo steel. The study establishes that non destructive methods can be used for the assessment of fabrication quality and in service degradation of the components. (author)

  11. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  12. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  13. Fricção em braquetes gerada por fios de aço inoxidável, superelásticos com IonGuard e sem IonGuard Friction force on brackets generated by stainless steel wire and superelastic wires with and without IonGuard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Campos Braga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a fricção no braquete (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3,2mm, largura 0,022" x 0,030", Torque -2° e angulação +13°, Morelli®, Brasil, utilizando fios ortodônticos retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" de aço inoxidável (Morelli®, Brasil e de níquel-titânio superelásticos Bioforce com IonGuard e sem IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, EUA. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 24 conjuntos braquetes/segmento de fio, divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o fio. Cada conjunto braquete/segmento de fio foi testado 3 vezes e obtida uma média. Os ensaios foram realizados em máquina universal de ensaios EMIC DL2000®. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância com significância de 95%. RESULTADOS: o fio retangular Bioforce com IonGuard apresentou fricção significativamente menor que o Bioforce sem IonGuard, porém sem diferença do fio de aço inoxidável. Entretanto, o coeficiente de variação dos fios Bioforce com e sem IonGuard foi menor que o do fio de aço inoxidável. CONCLUSÃO: os fios retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" Bioforce com IonGuard apresentam menor fricção que o fio Bioforce sem IonGuard, sem diferença para o fio de aço inoxidável.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the friction forces on brackets (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3.2 mm, width 0.022" x 0.030 ", Torque -2° and angulation +13°, Morelli®, Brazil, with stainless steel orthodontic rectangular wire (Morelli®, Brazil and nickel titanium superelastic Bioforce wires with and without IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, USA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four brackets/wire segment combinations were used, distributed into three groups according to the orthodontic wire. Each bracket/wire segment combination was tested three times. The tests were performed in a universal testing machine Emic DL2000®. The data was submitted to ANOVA one way followed by Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05. RESULTS: The rectangular orthodontic Bioforce wire

  14. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  15. Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 μm is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases.

  16. Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, V.; Wessel, F.J.; Van Drie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (λ=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ∼1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 μm. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90 degree with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 μm. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 μm) and steel wire d=25 μm were exploded in vacuum (10 -5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  17. Fabrication of sub-micron surface structures on copper, stainless steel and titanium using picosecond laser interference patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.bieda@iws.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik (IWS), Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Siebold, Mathias, E-mail: m.siebold@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Lasagni, Andrés Fabián, E-mail: andres_fabian.lasagni@tu-dresden.de [Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik (IWS), Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Fertigungstechnik, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Laser interference patterning is introduced to generate sub-micrometer surface pattern. • The two-temperature model is applied to ps-laser interference patterning of metals. • Line-like structures with a pitch of 0.7 μm were fabricated on SAE 304, Ti and Cu. • The process is governed by a photo-thermal mechanism for a pulse duration of 35 ps. • A “cold”-ablation process for metals requires a pulse duration shorter than 10 ps. - Abstract: Picosecond direct laser interference patterning (ps-DLIP) is investigated theoretically and experimentally for the bulk metals copper, stainless steel and titanium. While surface texturing with nanosecond pulses is limited to feature sizes in the micrometer range, utilizing picosecond pulses can lead to sub-micrometer structures. The modelling and simulation of ps-DLIP are based on the two-temperature model and were carried out for a pulse duration of 35 ps at 515 nm wavelength and a laser fluence of 0.1 J/cm{sup 2}. The subsurface temperature distribution of both electrons and phonons was computed for periodic line-like structures with a pitch of 0.8 μm. The increase in temperature rises for a lower absorption coefficient and a higher thermal conductivity. The distance, at which the maximum subsurface temperature occurs, increases for a small absorption coefficient. High absorption and low thermal conductivity minimize internal heating and give rise to a pronounced surface micro topography with pitches smaller than 1 μm. In order to confirm the computed results, periodic line-like surface structures were produced using two interfering beams of a Yb:YAG-Laser with 515 nm wavelength and a pulse duration of 35 ps. It was possible to obtain a pitch of 0.7 μm on the metallic surfaces.

  18. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro evaluation of triboelectric nanogenerator based on 317 L stainless steel and polylactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Xu, Xiaoxue; Li, Wenjiang; Zhao, Yun; Chen, Minfang

    2018-05-01

    A novel, cost-effective biomedical triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been fabricated based on biocompatible medical 317 L stainless steel (317 L SS) and polylactic acid (PLLA) films as the friction layers, whose surface roughness was designed by simple and low-cost laser etching and hot-embossing template methods, respectively. With the increase of the TENG’s tribo-interface roughness and the molecular weight of the PLLA, the power output of TENG was greatly increased owing to more charges being produced and the excellent mechanical properties PLLA possessed. When the 317 L SS plate surface roughness was 66.54% measured by the image J software and the PLLA film with a larger molecular weight at 500 000 was patterned with the 1000 mesh screen template, the maximal short current, open voltage and transferred charge of TENG reached up to 60 μA, 150 V and ∼125 nC, respectively. At the optimum condition, the maximum instantaneous power of the TENG was 5.5 mW at a load resistance of ∼2.5 MΩ and the saturation voltage was 20 V when the load capacitance was 0.1 μF. The evaluation of the TENG’s biocompatibility in vitro was performed by using the simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and ultrasonic wave to mimic the body environment with various vibrations, respectively. After 6 h ultrasonic bath for the directly immersed TENG, the pH of the SBF solution just changed slightly from 7.4 to 7.61 with an acceptable degradation of the output power of TENG. The cellular toxicity test also demonstrates that the mouse L929 cells grow excellently with normal morphology even after 5 d. These results indicate that the TENG has a good stability in the body environment and the output performance can still drive many micro-medical devices.

  19. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  1. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. 3D printing conditions determination for feedstock used in fused filament fabrication (FFF of 17-4PH stainless steel parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gonzalez-Gutierez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fused filament fabrication combined with debinding and sintering could be an economical process for 3D printing of metal parts. In this study, compounding, filament making and FFF processing of a feedstock material containing 55 vol. % of 17-4PH stainless steel powder and a multicomponent binder system are presented. For the FFF process, processing windows of the most significant parameters, such as range of extrusion temperatures (210 to 260 °C, flow rate multipliers (150 to 200 %, and 3D printing speed multipliers (60 to 100 % were determined for a constant printing bed temperature of 60 °C.

  4. Kirschner Wires : insertion techniques and bone related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, B.B.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kirschner (K-) wire was first introduced in 1909 by Martin Kirschner. This is a thin unthreaded wire of surgical steel with a diameter of up to three millimeters and a selection of different tips. The use of K-wires is often promoted as a simple technique because of its easy placement,

  5. The Effect Of Carbon Concentration On The Retained Austenite Content And The Mechanical Properties Of TRIP Steel Wire Rod Obtained From The Stelmor Controlled Cooling Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskalski Z.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The austenite content of the multiphase TRIP-structure steels depends, inter alia, on the carbon concentration and the properly selected parameters of the two-stage heat treatment.

  6. Biofilm formation on stainless steel and gold wires for bonded retainers in vitro and in vivo and their susceptibility to oral antimicrobials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Marije A.; Pelser, Floris D. H.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Busscher, Henk J.; Ren, Yijin

    OBJECTIVE: Bonded retainers are used in orthodontics to maintain treatment result. Retention wires are prone to biofilm formation and cause gingival recession, bleeding on probing and increased pocket depths near bonded retainers. In this study, we compare in vitro and in vivo biofilm formation on

  7. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGY OF MANUFACTURING A ZINC-COATED TUB WIRE FOR MUZZLE (BOTTLE’ HOOD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Zuev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main technical specifications of galvanized low carbon wire for muzzles (bottle’hood wire, consistent with the exploitation requirements to the wire in the manufacture and use of muzzles. The main criteria when selecting the steel grade and upon selection of the technological processes are given. 

  8. Investigations on the wire saw process on steels of selected geometries in the encircling process; Untersuchungen zum Seilsaegeprozess an Staehlen ausgewaehlter Geometrien im umschlingenden Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, Daniel

    2015-01-26

    This thesis illustrates a new and innovative model for the usual looping method to describe cutting time and wear. Several test series have been carried out to determine and analyze the various influencing factors. This new model now allows for exact predictions for cutting times and the resulting wear. A special test stand was planned and built. With the help of this test stand various influencing parameters were determined in preliminary tests. Due to the high correlation between these parameters, a matrix was created to rate them. From these results and the findings of the preliminary tests, the boundary conditions such as work piece size were defined and an experimental design was created. Eleven test series were conducted and each one consists of up to ten work pieces. In each test series, only one parameter was changed, the other influencing parameters remained unchanged. The parameter of the following characteristics were varied: the speed of the diamond wire, the feed pressure, the cutting angle, the geometry with respective cutting area, the work piece material, as well as the twisting of the diamond wire. By varying these parameters, the influence could be shown on the performance of the cutting process and also on the wear behavior of the diamond wire. A model was created from the obtained data which enables a cutting time prediction for rectangular work pieces. In addition to the model, a new criterion has been developed, with which it is possible to quantify the progress of wear and to be able to determine a necessary wire replacement. The classification of particle sizes of the accumulated chips has shown that a lower average cutting performance results in a decrease of the average particle size. From this circumstance a termination criterion of <150 μm has been established. When the particle size drops below this value, the cutting process becomes ineffective and should not be continued, or the diamond wire should be replaced, respectively

  9. Ferromagnetic resonance of Ni wires fabricated on ferroelectric LiNbO3 substrate for studying magnetic anisotropy induced by the heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akinobu; Nakao, Akiko; Ohkochi, Takuo; Yasui, Akira; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Utsumi, Yuichi; Saiki, Tsunemasa; Yamada, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    The electrical ferromagnetic resonance of micro-scale Ni wires with magnetic anisotropy induced by the heterojunction between the Ni layer and ferroelectric single crystalline LiNbO3 substrate was demonstrated by using rectifying effect. The two resonance modes were observed in the Ni wire aligned parallel to the applied magnetic field in plane. The lower resonance frequency mode is considered to correspond to the normal resonance mode with domain resonance, while the higher resonance mode is attributed to the mode which is contributed by the heterojunction between the Ni layer and LiNbO3 substrate. Our results manifest that the rectifying electrical detections are very useful for understating and evaluating the magnetic properties induced by the heterojunction.

  10. Processing, Structural Characterization and Comparative Studies on Uniaxial Tensile Properties of a New Type of Porous Twisted Wire Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A self-developed rotary multi-cutter device cuts stainless steel wire ropes into segments to fabricate twisted wires. Stainless steel porous twisted wire materials (PTWMs with a spatial composite intertexture structure are produced by the compaction and subsequent vacuum solid-phase sintering of twisted wires. The stainless steel PTWMs show two types of typical uniaxial tensile failure modes, i.e., a 45° angle fracture mode and an auxetic failure mode (the PTWMs expand along the direction perpendicular to the tension. The effects of the sintering parameters, porosities, wire diameters, and sampling direction on the tensile properties of the PTWMs are carefully investigated. By increasing the sintering temperature from 1130 °C to 1330 °C, the tensile strength of the PTWMs with 70% target porosity increased from 7.7 MPa to 28.6 MPa and the total failure goes down to 50%. When increasing the sintering time from 90 min to 150 min, the tensile strength increases from 12.4 MPa to 19.1 MPa and the total failure elongation drops to 78.6%. The tensile strength of the PTWMs increases from 28.9 MPa to 112.7 MPa with decreasing porosity from 69.5% to 46.0%, and the total failure elongation also increases from 14.8% to 40.7%. The tensile strength and the failure strain of the PTWMs with fine wires are higher than those of the PTWMs with coarse wires under the same porosity. Sampling direction has a small influence on the tensile properties of the PTWMs.

  11. Fabrication and mechanical test data for the four 6-inch-thick intermediate test vessels made from steel plate for the Heavy Section Steel Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    The HSST Program has among its goals the objective of demonstrating the capability to predict safe behavior of thick-walled pressure vessels containing flaws of known dimensions under frangible, transitional, and tough loading regimes. To accomplish these objectives the program is conducting a series of tests involving 6-in.-thick pressure vessels which will serve as test specimens for assisting in the characterization of failure under these loading conditions. Among the vessels a number of parameters, such as weld type, weld location, flaw size and shape, and test temperature and pressure, will be selectively varied to show that a rationale exists for dealing with the varied stress and metallurgical states which normally exist in commercial nuclear reactor vessels. Each vessel will serve as a go, no-go determination of critical flaw size for a specific set of test parameters. Item 4 of the previous issues in this series covers the fabrication details of the first six 6-in.-thick test vessels, which were fabricated from ASTM A-508 Cl 2 forging materials. This report covers the fabrication details of four additional 6-in.-thick intermediate test vessels having shell courses fabricated from ASTM A-533 Gr B Cl 1 plate. The remaining components were made from forgings. Essentially this report is a continuation of ORNL-TM-4351; it describes the manufacturing details of the individual parts and their ultimate assembly into finished vessels. Details concerning chemical composition and mechanical and nondestructive test data are presented

  12. Wire-in-tube structure fabricated by single capillary electrospinning via nanoscale Kirkendall effect: the case of nickel-zinc ferrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiecai; Zhang, Junli; Peng, Yong; Zhao, Changhui; He, Yongmin; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Mellors, Nigel J; Xie, Erqing

    2013-12-21

    Wire-in-tube structures have previously been prepared using an electrospinning method by means of tuning hydrolysis/alcoholysis of a precursor solution. Nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanowire-in-nanotubes have been prepared as a demonstration. The detailed nanoscale characterization, formation process and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes has been studied comprehensively. The average diameters of the outer tubes and inner wires of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes are around 120 nm and 42 nm, respectively. Each fully calcined individual nanowire-in-nanotube, either the outer-tube or the inner-wire, is composed of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 monocrystallites stacked along the longitudinal direction with random orientation. The process of calcining electrospun polymer composite nanofibres can be viewed as a morphologically template nucleation and precursor diffusion process. This allows the nitrates precursor to diffuse toward the surface of the nanofibres while the oxides (decomposed from hydroxides and nitrates) products diffuse to the core region of the nanofibres; the amorphous nanofibres transforming thereby into crystalline nanowire-in-nanotubes. In addition, the magnetic properties of the Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes were also examined. It is believed that this nanowire-in-nanotube (sometimes called core-shell) structure, with its uniform size and well-controlled orientation of the long nanowire-in-nanotubes, is particularly attractive for use in the field of nano-fluidic devices and nano-energy harvesting devices.

  13. A progressively reduced pretension method to fabricate Bradbury-Nielsen gates with uniform tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Kai; Guo, Jingran; Yu, Zhou; Cao, Like; Yu, Quan; Qian, Xiang; Wang, Xiaohao

    2015-01-01

    A Bradbury-Nielsen gate (BNG) is often used to modulate ion beams. It consists of two interleaved and electrically isolated sets of wires with uniform tension, which ideally keep parallel, equidistant, and coplanar over a wide temperature range, making the BNG reliable and robust. We have previously analyzed the non-uniformity problem of wire tensions with sequentially winding method and developed a template-based transfer method to solve this problem. In this paper, we introduced a progressively reduced pretension method, which allows directly and sequentially fixing wires onto the substrate without using a template. Theoretical analysis shows that by applying proper pretension to each wire when fixing it, the final wire tensions of all wires can be uniform. The algorithm and flowchart to calculate the pretension sequence are given, and the fabrication process is introduced in detail. Pretensions are generated by weight combination with a weaving device. A BNG with stainless steel wire and a printed circuit board substrate is constructed with this method. The non-uniformity of the final wire tensions is less than 2.5% in theory. The BNG is successfully employed in our ion mobility spectrometer, and the measured resolution is 33.5 at a gate opening time of 350 μs. Compared to the template-based method, this method is simpler, faster, and more flexible with comparable production quality when manufacturing BNGs with different configurations

  14. Structural evolution, thermomechanical recrystallization and electrochemical corrosion properties of Ni-Cu-Mg amorphous coating on mild steel fabricated by dual-anode electrolytic processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulwahab, M., E-mail: mabdulwahab@abu.edu.ng [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Fayomi, O.S.I., E-mail: ojosundayfayomi3@gmail.com [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria); Popoola, A.P.I., E-mail: popoolaapi@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • The surface of the coat containing Ni-Cu-Mg alloy on mild steel have sufficiently enhanced the properties. • Isothermally treated composites demonstrated 45% increase in the micro-hardness and 79.6% corrosion resistance. • The thermal stability of the developed Ni-Cu-Mg thin films on mild steel was excellent. - Abstract: The electrolytic Ni-Cu based alloy coating with admixed interfacial blend of Mg have been successfully prepared on mild steel substrate by dual anode electroplating processes over a range of applied current density and dwell time. The electrocodeposition of Ni-Cu-Mg coating was investigated in the presence of other bath additives. The influence of deposition current on surface morphology, adhesion behavior, preferred crystal orientation, surface topography and electrochemical activity of Ni-Cu-Mg alloy coating on mild steel were systematically examined. The thermal stability of the developed composite materials was examined via isothermal treatment. Scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS, X-ray diffraction, Atomic force microscope, micro-hardness tester and 3 μmetrohm Potentiostat/galvanostat were used to compare untreated and isothermally treated electrocodeposited composite. The induced activity of the Ni-Cu-Mg alloy changed the surface modification and results to crystal precipitation within the structural interface by the formation of Cu{sub ,} Ni{sub 2}Mg{sub 3} phase. The obtained results showed that the introduction of Mg particles in the plating bath generally modified the surface and brings an increase in the hardness and corrosion resistance of Ni-Cu-Mg layers fabricated. Equally, isothermally treated composites demonstrated an improved properties indicating 45% increase in the micro-hardness and 79.6% corrosion resistance which further showed that the developed composite is thermally stable.

  15. Fabrication of high permeability non-oriented electrical steels by increasing 〈0 0 1〉 recrystallization texture using compacted strip casting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, PO Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Institute of Research of Iron and Steel, Shasteel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Schneider, J. [Institut für Metallformung, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Li, Hua-Long [Institute of Research of Iron and Steel, Shasteel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Sun, Yu; Gao, Fei; Lu, Hui-Hu; Song, Hong-Yu [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, PO Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Lei; Geng, Dian-Qiao [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, PO Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-01-15

    In this paper we will report on the application of the twin-roll casting technique to get a 2 mm thick material of Fe-3.2%Si alloy, which was finally hot rolled, cold rolled and annealed. After a mild hot rolling to a thickness of 1 mm and a mild cold rolling to a thickness of 0.35 mm, we obtained a high intensity of λ-fiber (〈0 0 1〉|| ND) and η-fiber (〈0 0 1〉|| RD) texture concentrated on cube ({0 0 1}〈0 1 0〉) component and a diminishing intensity of the γ-fiber (〈1 1 1〉|| ND) texture, and a large average grain size in the final processed material. The experimental results for the evolution of the microstructure and texture along the used processing routes were described within the paper in detail. The formation mechanism for the desired recrystallization textures were explained in terms of oriented nucleation, micro-growth selection, accumulated deformation stored energy, geometric softening and orientation pinning. It will be demonstrated that this new processing route using the compact strip casting offers the possibility to fabricate high permeability non-oriented electrical steels without additional fabrication steps like hot band annealing or two step cold rolling with intermediate annealing as in the case of conventional processing route. - Highlights: • High permeability non-oriented electrical steel was fabricated by strip casting processes. • Hot band annealing or two step cold rolling with intermediate annealing was eliminated. • Prevailing of 〈0 0 1〉|| ND and 〈0 0 1〉|| RD textures over diminishing 〈1 1 1〉|| ND texture was realized. • Evolution of microstructure and texture along the used processing routes were described.

  16. Fabrication of spherical high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys by mechanical alloying and thermal plasma spheroidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, Nikolay G.; Wang, Qing Sheng; Popovich, Anatoly A.; Shamshurin, Aleksey I.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes the results of experimental studies on the treatment of Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys, synthesized by the mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental powders in the flow of a radio frequency thermal plasma. The as-milled powder with irregular particles were successfully converted into spherical high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloy. Measurement of the residual nitrogen content in the obtained powder, shown that during the plasma spheroidization process, part of the nitrogen escapes from the alloy.

  17. Production of diamond wire by Cu15 v-% Nb 'in situ' process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueira, M.; Pinatti, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond wires are cutting tools used in the slabbing of dimension stones, such as marbles and granites, as well as in cutting of concrete structures. This tool consists of a steel cable on which diamond annular segments (pearls) are mounted with spacing between them. This work has developed a new technological route to obtain the diamond wires, whose fabrication involves metal forming processes such as rotary forging and wire drawing, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments of sintering and recrystallization. It was idealized the use of Cu 15v% Nb composite wires as the high tensile strength cable, covered with an external cutting rope made of bronze 4wt% diamond composite, along the overall wire surface. Investigations were carried out on the mechanical behavior and on the microstructural evolution of the Cu 15 vol % Nb wires, which showed ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 960 MPa and deformation of approximately 3,0 %. The cutting external rope of 1.84 mm in diameter showed UTS = 230 MPa. On the microstructural side aspect it was observed that the diamond crystals were uniformly distributed throughout the tool bulk in the several processing steps. Cutting tests were carried out starting with an external diamond rope of 1.93 mm in diameter, which cut a marble sectional area of 1188 cm 2 , and the tool degraded to a final diameter of 1.23 mm. For marble the 'in situ' wire showed a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond saws, however their probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix and the low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond. (author)

  18. Study of porogen removal by atomic hydrogen generated by hot wire chemical vapor deposition for the fabrication of advanced low-k thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godavarthi, S., E-mail: srinivas@cinvestav.mx [Program of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Cinvestav-IPN (Mexico); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Av. Universidad, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Wang, C.; Verdonck, P. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Matsumoto, Y.; Koudriavtsev, I. [Program of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Cinvestav-IPN (Mexico); SEES, Electrical Engineering Department, Cinvestav-IPN (Mexico); Dutt, A. [SEES, Electrical Engineering Department, Cinvestav-IPN (Mexico); Tielens, H.; Baklanov, M.R. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-01-30

    In order to obtain low-k dielectric films, a subtractive technique, which removes sacrificial porogens from a hydrogenated silicon oxycarbide (SiOC:H) film, has been used successfully by different groups in the past. In this paper, we report on the porogen removal from porogenated SiOC:H films, using a hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) equipment. Molecular hydrogen is dissociated into atomic hydrogen by the hot wires and these atoms may successfully remove the hydrocarbon groups from the porogenated SiOC:H films. The temperature of the HWCVD filaments proved to be a determining factor. By Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity (XRR), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), ellipsometric porosimetry and capacitance-voltage analyses, it was possible to determine that for temperatures higher than 1700 °C, efficient porogen removal occurred. For temperatures higher than 1800 °C, the presence of OH groups was detected. The dielectric constant was the lowest, 2.28, for the samples processed at a filament temperature of 1800 °C, although porosity measurements showed higher porosity for the films deposited at the higher temperatures. XRR and SIMS analyses indicated densification and Tungsten (W) incorporation at the top few nanometers of the films.

  19. The fabrication of well-interconnected polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds, enhancing the exposure of hydroxyapatite using the wire-network molding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Sang; Hong, Myoung Wha; Jeong, Hoon-Jin; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young Yul; Cho, Young-Sam

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the fabrication method was proposed for the well-interconnected polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold with exposed hydroxyapatite using modified WNM technique. To characterize well-interconnected scaffolds in terms of hydroxyapatite exposure, several assessments were performed as follows: morphology, mechanical property, wettability, calcium ion release, and cell response assessments. The results of these assessments were compared with those of control scaffolds which were fabricated by precision extruding deposition (PED) apparatus. The control PED scaffolds have interconnected pores with nonexposed hydroxyapatite. Consequently, cell attachment of proposed WNM scaffold was improved by increased hydrophilicity and surface roughness of scaffold surface resulting from the exposure of hydroxyapatite particles and fabrication process using powders. Moreover, cell proliferation and differentiation of WNM scaffold were increased, because the exposure of hydroxyapatite particles may enhance cell adhesion and calcium ion release. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2315-2325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Pacemaker wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransson, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of pacemaker wires were performed by comparing Advanced Multiple Beam Equalization Radiography (AMBER) with conventional chest radiography. The scanning equalization technique of the AMBER unit makes it superior to conventional technique in the depiction of different structures in the mediastinum or in the pleural sinuses. So far motion artifacts have not been considered clinically important. The longer exposure time, however, may impair the assessment of pacemaker wires. The motion artifact described may not only make adequate evaluation impossible but may even give a false impression of a lead fracture. The difference between the two systems was significant. (orig.)

  1. Deformable wire array: fiber drawn tunable metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Simon; Stefani, Alessio; Tang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    By fiber drawing we fabricate a wire array metamaterial, the structure of which can be actively modified. The plasma frequency can be tuned by 50% by compressing the metamaterial; recovers when released and the process can be repeated.......By fiber drawing we fabricate a wire array metamaterial, the structure of which can be actively modified. The plasma frequency can be tuned by 50% by compressing the metamaterial; recovers when released and the process can be repeated....

  2. Evaluation of the fit of preformed nickel titanium arch wires on normal occlusion dental arches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhn G. Al-Barakati

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using an archwire form with the best fit to the dental arch should produce minimal changes in the dental arch form when NiTi wires are used and require less customization when stainless-steel wires are used.

  3. Three-dimensional dynamic fabrication of engineered cartilage based on chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel scaffold in a spinner flask with a special designed steel frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kedong; Li, Liying; Li, Wenfang; Zhu, Yanxia; Jiao, Zeren; Lim, Mayasari; Fang, Meiyun; Shi, Fangxin; Wang, Ling; Liu, Tianqing

    2015-01-01

    Cartilage transplantation using in vitro tissue engineered cartilage is considered a promising treatment for articular cartilage defects. In this study, we assessed the advantages of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) combined with chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel scaffolds, which acted as a cartilage biomimetic scaffold, to fabricate a tissue engineered cartilage dynamically in vitro and compared this with traditional static culture. Physical properties of the hydrogel scaffolds were evaluated and ADSCs were inoculated into the hydrogel at a density of 1 × 10 7 cells/mL and cultured in a spinner flask with a special designed steel framework and feed with chondrogenic inductive media for two weeks. The results showed that the average pore size, porosity, swelling rate and elasticity modulus of hybrid scaffolds with good biocompatibility were 118.25 ± 19.51 μm, 82.60 ± 2.34%, 361.28 ± 0.47% and 61.2 ± 0.16 kPa, respectively. ADSCs grew well in chitosan/gelatin hybrid scaffold and successfully differentiated into chondrocytes, showing that the scaffolds were suitable for tissue engineering applications in cartilage regeneration. Induced cells cultivated in a dynamic spinner flask with a special designed steel frame expressed more proteoglycans and the cell distribution was much more uniform with the scaffold being filled mostly with extracellular matrix produced by cells. A spinner flask with framework promoted proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs within chitosan/gelatin hybrid scaffolds and accelerated dynamic fabrication of cell–hydrogel constructs, which could be a selective and good method to construct tissue engineered cartilage in vitro. - Highlights: • ADSCs/hybrid scaffold constructs are dynamically fabricated in a spinner flask with a special framework. • Inside convection in spinner flask made enough supplement of oxygen and nutrients far beyond the depth of passive diffusion. • 3D culture environment accelerated mass

  4. Three-dimensional dynamic fabrication of engineered cartilage based on chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel scaffold in a spinner flask with a special designed steel frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kedong, E-mail: kedongsong@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian R& D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Liying; Li, Wenfang [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian R& D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhu, Yanxia [Anti-Ageing and Regenerative Medicine Centre, Shenzhen University, 3688 Nanhai Avenue, Shenzhen 518060 Guangdong (China); Jiao, Zeren [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian R& D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Lim, Mayasari [Division of Bioengineering, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Fang, Meiyun [Department of Hematology, First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Shi, Fangxin [Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Wang, Ling, E-mail: whwl@hotmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Liu, Tianqing, E-mail: liutq@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian R& D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Cartilage transplantation using in vitro tissue engineered cartilage is considered a promising treatment for articular cartilage defects. In this study, we assessed the advantages of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) combined with chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel scaffolds, which acted as a cartilage biomimetic scaffold, to fabricate a tissue engineered cartilage dynamically in vitro and compared this with traditional static culture. Physical properties of the hydrogel scaffolds were evaluated and ADSCs were inoculated into the hydrogel at a density of 1 × 10{sup 7} cells/mL and cultured in a spinner flask with a special designed steel framework and feed with chondrogenic inductive media for two weeks. The results showed that the average pore size, porosity, swelling rate and elasticity modulus of hybrid scaffolds with good biocompatibility were 118.25 ± 19.51 μm, 82.60 ± 2.34%, 361.28 ± 0.47% and 61.2 ± 0.16 kPa, respectively. ADSCs grew well in chitosan/gelatin hybrid scaffold and successfully differentiated into chondrocytes, showing that the scaffolds were suitable for tissue engineering applications in cartilage regeneration. Induced cells cultivated in a dynamic spinner flask with a special designed steel frame expressed more proteoglycans and the cell distribution was much more uniform with the scaffold being filled mostly with extracellular matrix produced by cells. A spinner flask with framework promoted proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs within chitosan/gelatin hybrid scaffolds and accelerated dynamic fabrication of cell–hydrogel constructs, which could be a selective and good method to construct tissue engineered cartilage in vitro. - Highlights: • ADSCs/hybrid scaffold constructs are dynamically fabricated in a spinner flask with a special framework. • Inside convection in spinner flask made enough supplement of oxygen and nutrients far beyond the depth of passive diffusion. • 3D culture environment accelerated mass

  5. Additive manufacturing for steels: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadi-Maad, A.; Rohib, R.; Irawan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of steels involves the layer by layer consolidation of powder or wire feedstock using a heating beam to form near net shape products. For the past decades, the AM technique reaches the maturation of both research grade and commercial production due to significant research work from academic, government and industrial research organization worldwide. AM process has been implemented to replace the conventional process of steel fabrication due to its potentially lower cost and flexibility manufacturing. This paper provides a review of previous research related to the AM methods followed by current challenges issues. The relationship between microstructure, mechanical properties, and process parameters will be discussed. Future trends and recommendation for further works are also provided.

  6. Photocatalytic activity of ferric oxide/titanium dioxide nanocomposite films on stainless steel fabricated by anodization and ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wei-ting; Ni, Hong-wei; Chen, Rong-sheng; Yue, Gao; Tai, Jun-kai; Wang, Zi-yang

    2013-08-01

    A simple surface treatment was used to develop photocatalytic activity for stainless steel. AISI 304 stainless steel specimens after anodization were implanted by Ti ions at an extracting voltage of 50 kV with an implantation dose of 3 × 1015 atoms·cm-2 and then annealed in air at 450°C for 2 h. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solution was carried out under ultraviolet light. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel was evaluated in NaCl solution (3.5 wt%) by electrochemical polarization curves. It is found that the Ti ions depth profile resembles a Gaussian distribution in the implanted layer. The nanostructured Fe2O3/TiO2 composite film exhibits a remarkable enhancement in photocatalytic activity referenced to the mechanically polished specimen and anodized specimen. Meanwhile, the annealed Ti-implanted specimen remains good corrosion resistance.

  7. Fabrication and Characteristics of Sintered Cutting Stainless Steel Fiber Felt with Internal Channels and an Al2O3 Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel sintered cutting stainless steel fiber felt with internal channels (SCSSFFC composed of a stainless-steel fiber skeleton, three-dimensional interconnected porous structure and multiple circular microchannels is developed. SCSSFFC has a jagged and rough surface morphology and possesses a high specific surface area, which is approximately 2.4 times larger than that of the sintered bundle-drawing stainless steel fiber felt with internal channels (SBDSSFFC and is expected to enhance adhesive strength. The sol-gel and wet impregnation methods are adopted to prepare SCSSFFC with an Al2O3 coating (SCSSFFC/Al2O3. The adhesive strength of SCSSFFC/Al2O3 is investigated using ultrasonic vibration and thermal shock tests. The experimental results indicate that the weight loss rate of the Al2O3 coating has a 4.2% and 8.42% reduction compared with those of SBDSSFFCs based on ultrasonic vibration and thermal shock tests. In addition, the permeability of SCSSFFC/Al2O3 is investigated based on forced liquid flow tests. The experimental results show that the permeability and inertial coefficients of SCSSFFC/Al2O3 are mainly affected by the coating rate, porosity and open ratio; however, the internal microchannel diameter has little influence. It is also found that SCSSFFC/Al2O3 yields superior permeability, as well as inertial coefficients compared with those of other porous materials reported in the literature.

  8. Three-dimensional dynamic fabrication of engineered cartilage based on chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel scaffold in a spinner flask with a special designed steel frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kedong; Li, Liying; Li, Wenfang; Zhu, Yanxia; Jiao, Zeren; Lim, Mayasari; Fang, Meiyun; Shi, Fangxin; Wang, Ling; Liu, Tianqing

    2015-10-01

    Cartilage transplantation using in vitro tissue engineered cartilage is considered a promising treatment for articular cartilage defects. In this study, we assessed the advantages of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) combined with chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel scaffolds, which acted as a cartilage biomimetic scaffold, to fabricate a tissue engineered cartilage dynamically in vitro and compared this with traditional static culture. Physical properties of the hydrogel scaffolds were evaluated and ADSCs were inoculated into the hydrogel at a density of 1×10(7) cells/mL and cultured in a spinner flask with a special designed steel framework and feed with chondrogenic inductive media for two weeks. The results showed that the average pore size, porosity, swelling rate and elasticity modulus of hybrid scaffolds with good biocompatibility were 118.25±19.51 μm, 82.60±2.34%, 361.28±0.47% and 61.2±0.16 kPa, respectively. ADSCs grew well in chitosan/gelatin hybrid scaffold and successfully differentiated into chondrocytes, showing that the scaffolds were suitable for tissue engineering applications in cartilage regeneration. Induced cells cultivated in a dynamic spinner flask with a special designed steel frame expressed more proteoglycans and the cell distribution was much more uniform with the scaffold being filled mostly with extracellular matrix produced by cells. A spinner flask with framework promoted proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs within chitosan/gelatin hybrid scaffolds and accelerated dynamic fabrication of cell-hydrogel constructs, which could be a selective and good method to construct tissue engineered cartilage in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. NiTi SMA Wires Coupled with Kevlar Fabric: a Real Application of an Innovative Aircraft LE Slat System in SMAHC Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, M.; Marulo, F.; Russo, S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates experimentally and numerically the response of a smart hybrid thermoplastic aircraft slat system subjected to a short-duration and high-frequency event like a birdstrike. The focus of the paper is to exploit the ability that superelastic shape memory alloys have to absorb and dissipate energy compared to conventional composite structures. The final objective of the work is to develop an innovative thermoplastic wing leading edge slat able to resist to an impact of 4-lb (1.8 kg) bird at speed of 350 kts (132 m/s), as requested by the aeronautical requirements. Aircraft leading edges must be certified for a proven level of bird impact resistance. In particular, the main structural requirement is to protect the torsion box and control devices from any significant damage caused by birdstrike in order to allow the aircraft to land safely. A clear increase of the composites toughness and higher absorbed energy levels before failure were also observed. This is due to the fact that SMA wires can absorb kinetic energy during the impact due to their remarkably large failure and recoverable strain and to their superelastic and hysteretic behaviour. The activities have been performed within the European Project COALESCE "Cost Efficient Advanced Leading Edge Structure", funded by the Seventh Framework Program Theme 7 Transport (incl. Aeronautics).

  10. Low-cost zinc-plated photoanode for fabric-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingfeng; Bao, Yunna; Guo, Wanwan; Cheng, Li; Du, Jun; Liu, Renlong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Wang, Yundong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, State Key Lab of Chemical Engineering, Beijing 100084 (China); Fan, Xing, E-mail: foxcqdx@cqu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Tao, Changyuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabric-type flexible solar cells have been assembled on Zn-plated wires and meshes. • Metal Zn can improve the carriers transfer over the metal/ZnO nanoarrays interface. • A current increase by ∼6 mA/cm{sup 2} was realized by plating Zn on various metal substrates. • All-solid fabric-type DSSC was also assembled on Zn-plated metal wires. - Abstract: Fabric-type flexible solar cells have been recently proposed as a very promising power source for wearable electronics. To increase the photocurrent of fabric-type flexible solar cells, low-cost zinc-plated wire and mesh photoanodes are assembled for the first time through a mild wet process. Given the protection of the compact protection layer, the DSSC device could benefit from the low work function of Zn and self-repairing behavior on the Zn/ZnO interface. An evident current increase by ∼6 mA/cm{sup 2} could be observed after coating a layer of metal Zn on various metal substrates, such as traditional stainless steel wire. Given the self-repairing behavior on Zn/ZnO interface, the Zn layer can help to improve the interfacial carrier transfer, leading to better photovoltaic performance, for both liquid-type and solid-type cells.

  11. Low-cost zinc-plated photoanode for fabric-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Lingfeng; Bao, Yunna; Guo, Wanwan; Cheng, Li; Du, Jun; Liu, Renlong; Wang, Yundong; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabric-type flexible solar cells have been assembled on Zn-plated wires and meshes. • Metal Zn can improve the carriers transfer over the metal/ZnO nanoarrays interface. • A current increase by ∼6 mA/cm"2 was realized by plating Zn on various metal substrates. • All-solid fabric-type DSSC was also assembled on Zn-plated metal wires. - Abstract: Fabric-type flexible solar cells have been recently proposed as a very promising power source for wearable electronics. To increase the photocurrent of fabric-type flexible solar cells, low-cost zinc-plated wire and mesh photoanodes are assembled for the first time through a mild wet process. Given the protection of the compact protection layer, the DSSC device could benefit from the low work function of Zn and self-repairing behavior on the Zn/ZnO interface. An evident current increase by ∼6 mA/cm"2 could be observed after coating a layer of metal Zn on various metal substrates, such as traditional stainless steel wire. Given the self-repairing behavior on Zn/ZnO interface, the Zn layer can help to improve the interfacial carrier transfer, leading to better photovoltaic performance, for both liquid-type and solid-type cells.

  12. Self-Catalyzed CdTe Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Baines

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available CdTe wires have been fabricated via a catalyst free method using the industrially scalable physical vapor deposition technique close space sublimation. Wire growth was shown to be highly dependent on surface roughness and deposition pressure, with only low roughness surfaces being capable of producing wires. Growth of wires is highly (111 oriented and is inferred to occur via a vapor-solid-solid growth mechanism, wherein a CdTe seed particle acts to template the growth. Such seed particles are visible as wire caps and have been characterized via energy dispersive X-ray analysis to establish they are single phase CdTe, hence validating the self-catalysation route. Cathodoluminescence analysis demonstrates that CdTe wires exhibited a much lower level of recombination when compared to a planar CdTe film, which is highly beneficial for semiconductor applications.

  13. Effect of laser beam conditioning on fabrication of clean micro-channel on stainless steel 316L using second harmonic of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanasam Sunderlal; Baruah, Prahlad Kr; Khare, Alika; Joshi, Shrikrishna N.

    2018-02-01

    Laser micromachining of metals for fabrication of micro-channels generate ridge formation along the edges accompanied by ripples along the channel bed. The ridge formation is due to the formation of interference pattern formed by back reflections from the beam splitter and other optical components involved before focusing on the work piece. This problem can be curtailed by using a suitable aperture or Iris diaphragm so as to cut the unwanted portion of the laser beam before illuminating the sample. This paper reports an experimental investigation on minimizing this problem by conditioning the laser beam using an Iris diaphragm and using optimum process parameters. In this work, systematic experiments have been carried out using the second harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to fabricate micro-channels. Initial experiments revealed that formation of ridges along the sides of micro-channel can easily be minimized with the help of Iris diaphragm. Further it is noted that a clean micro-channel of depth 43.39 μm, width up to 64.49 μm and of good surface quality with average surface roughness (Ra) value of 370 nm can be machined on stainless steel (SS) 316L by employing optimum process condition: laser beam energy of 30 mJ/pulse, 11 number of laser scans and scan speed of 169.54 μm/s with an opening of 4 mm diameter of Iris diaphragm in the path of the laser beam.

  14. Deposition Time and Thermal Cycles of Fabricating Thin-wall Steel Parts by Double Electrode GMAW Based Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition time for fabricating the thin-wall part as well as the peak temperature of the substrate during the process was analyzed in the double electrode gas metal arc welding (DE-GMAW based additive manufacturing (AM. The total deposition time and the interlayer idle time of the manufacturing process decreased with the increasing of the bypass current under the same interlayer temperature and the same deposition rate. The thermal cycling curves illustrated that the peak temperature of the substrate was lower in the DE-GMAW base AM under the same conditions. When depositing the thin-wall parts, the DE-GMAW based AM can reduce the heat input to the substrate and improve the fabrication efficiency, compared with the GMAW based AM.

  15. Evaluation of Effects of Sterilization on Mechanical Properties of Orthodontic Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Results: Dry heat sterilization, autoclave, 2% glutaraldehyde solution had no effect on ultimate tensile strength, 0.1% yield strength, modulus of elasticity and percentage elongation of stainless steel and elgiloy wires. Tensile strength and yield strength of Nitinol and b-titanium wires together with percentage elongation of b-titanium wires significantly increased following dry heat sterilization and autoclave. No detrimental effects on properties of wires were observed. These sterilization procedures could be safely recommended for sterilization of orthodontic wires.

  16. Laparoscopic extraction of fractured Kirschner wire from the pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaykumar N Thati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire is a sharp stainless steel guide wire commonly used in fixation of fractured bone segments. There are case reports of migrated K wire from the upper limb into the spine and chest, and from the lower limb in to the abdomen and pelvis. Here, we present a case report of accidental intra-operative fracture of K wire during percutaneous femoral nailing for sub-trochanteric fracture of right femur, which migrated in to the pelvis when the orthopaedician tried to retrieve the broken segment of the K wire. This case highlights the use of laparoscopy as minimally invasive surgical option.

  17. Low-loss, compact, and fabrication-tolerant Si-wire 90° waveguide bend using clothoid and normal curves for large scale photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Takeshi; Makino, Shuntaro; Sato, Takanori; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2017-04-17

    Ultimately low-loss 90° waveguide bend composed of clothoid and normal curves is proposed for dense optical interconnect photonic integrated circuits. By using clothoid curves at the input and output of 90° waveguide bend, straight and bent waveguides are smoothly connected without increasing the footprint. We found that there is an optimum ratio of clothoid curves in the bend and the bending loss can be significantly reduced compared with normal bend. 90% reduction of the bending loss for the bending radius of 4 μm is experimentally demonstrated with excellent agreement between theory and experiment. The performance is compared with the waveguide bend with offset, and the proposed bend is superior to the waveguide bend with offset in terms of fabrication tolerance.

  18. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Na Oh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Results: Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578, major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99, minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279, or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00. Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068. Conclusion: The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  19. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You Na; Ha, Keong Jun; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-08-01

    Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA) was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578), major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99), minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279), or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00). Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068). The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  20. A study on the development of high-Tc superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Chang, In Soon; Lee, Jong Min; Um, Tae Yoon; Hong, Kyae Won; Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, Hee Kwun; Kim, Chan Joong; Park, Soon Dong; Kim, Woo Gon; Kim, Ki Baek; Kwon, Sun Chil

    1992-10-01

    On this study Y-Ba-Cu-O was prepared by partial melt process and superconducting wire was fabricated by powder-in-tube method. First, mechancial properties, electrical properties, microstructure and oxygen diffusion behavior were observed. Second, through fabricated superconducting wire, conceptual design, composition and plasticity of filament superconducting wire were investigated. (Author)

  1. Researching on Control Device of Prestressing Wire Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianhui; Guo, Yangbo; Liu, Maoshe

    2017-06-01

    This paper mainly introduces a device for controlling prestress and its related research methods, the advantage of this method is that the reinforcement process is easy to operate and control the prestress of wire rope accurately. The relationship between the stress and strain of the steel wire rope is monitored during the experiment, and the one - to - one relationship between the controllable position and the pretightening force of the steel wire rope is confirmed by the 5mm steel wire rope, and the results are analyzed theoretically by the measured elastic modulus. The results show that the method can effectively control the prestressing force, and the result provides a reference method for strengthening the concrete column with prestressed steel strand.

  2. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Highly Alloyed FeCrMoVC Steel Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Jun, Joong-Hwan; Lee, Min-Ha; Shon, In-Jin; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we successfully fabricated highly alloyed FeCrMoVC specimens within 2 min by using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The densities of the sintered specimens were almost identical to their theoretical values. Fine (Mo, V)-rich carbides with lamellar structure were precipitated along the grain boundaries of the as-sintered specimen, whereas relatively large carbides were formed additionally in the transgranular region during the tempering treatment. Compared with the specimen produced by a conventional casting method, the FeCrMoVC specimens from SPS showed smaller grain size with finer carbides and higher hardness values.

  3. Towards the practical PLD-IBAD coated conductor fabrication - Long wire, high production rate and J c enhancement in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yutaka; Ibi, Akira; Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Kuriki, Reiji; Miyata, Seiki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Ishida, Satoru; Konishi, Masaya; Kato, Takeharu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-01-01

    SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center (NCCC) have succeeded in fabricating stably long coated conductor using ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) methods. Reel-to-reel PLD equipment with a multi-plume and multi-turn deposition system (MPMT PLD) resulted in a long coated conductor with a high critical current, I c , of 245 A and length of 212.6 m. I c x L (length) reached the record of 52,087 A m. At the same time, the effort to enhance I c and J c in a magnetic filed are also carried out using artificial pinning center and RE element: YSZ mixed Y123 target brought about a high J c especially in the magnetic field parallel to the c-axis. This was attributed to a columnar structure of the 'bamboo structure' (BaZrO 3 /Y123 layer-stacked structure) in Y123 + YSZ sample. Gd123 was also found to be effective for enhancing pinning properties, which was considered to be due to the native stacking faults in the 123 structure. The combination of Gd element and YSZ introduction were also studied and clearly demonstrated the improvement of the anisotropy of J c for a magnetic field angle

  4. Liquid Metal Machine Triggered Violin-Like Wire Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaohu; Ding, Yujie; Tan, Sicong; Yi, Liting; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2016-10-01

    The first ever oscillation phenomenon of a copper wire embraced inside a self-powered liquid metal machine is discovered. When contacting a copper wire to liquid metal machine, it would be swallowed inside and then reciprocally moves back and forth, just like a violin bow. Such oscillation could be easily regulated by touching a steel needle on the liquid metal surface.

  5. Surface quality and microstructure of low-vacuum sintered orthodontic bracket 17-4 PH stainless steel fabricated by MIM process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharno, Bambang; Suharno, Lingga Pradinda; Saputro, Hantoro Restucondro; Irawan, Bambang; Prasetyadi, Tjokro; Ferdian, Deni; Supriyadi, Sugeng

    2018-02-01

    Surface roughness and microstructure play important role on orthodontic bracket quality. Therefore, orthodontic brackets need to have smooth surface roughness to reduce the friction and bacterial adhesion. Microstructure of orthodontic brackets also determine the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. There are two methods to produce orthodontic bracket, investment casting and metal injection molding. The purpose of this study is to observe the surface roughness and microstructure of orthodontic bracket which were made from two different fabrication methods. To produce orthodontic bracket with metal injection molding method, 17-4 PH stainless steel feedstock was injected to the orthodontic bracket mold using injection molding machine. After injection, the binder was eliminated with solvent and thermal debinding. Solvent debinding process was conducted with hexane at 50 °C on magnetic stirrer for 1.5 hours. Thermal debinding process was conducted at 510 °C with 0.5 °C/min heat rate and 120 min holding time. Hereafter, sintering process were performed with vacuum tube furnace at 1360 °C with heat rate 5 °C/min and 90 min holding time in low vacuum atmosphere. To produce orthodontic bracket with investment casting method, the wax was injected into the mold then the wax pattern was arranged into the tree form. The tree form was then dipped into ceramic slurry and allowed to harden, the ceramic slurry has a thickness in the region of 10 mm. The ceramic mold was then heated at a temperature of over than 1100°C to strengthen the ceramic mold and to remove the remaining wax. After that, the molten 17-4 PH stainless steel was poured into the ceramic mold at a temperature of over 1600°C. The natural cooling process was carried out at temperature of 25°C, after which the ceramic mold was broken away. Then, the orthodontic bracket was cut from the tree form. The results show that the orthodontic bracket which were made with investment casting fabrication

  6. Application of irradiated wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, I.; Kozima, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tada, S.; Torisu, S.; Veno, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rubber insulated wires are still useful for internal wiring in motor vehicles and electrical equipment because of flexibility and toughness. Irradiated cross-linked rubber materials have been successfully introduced for use with fusible link wire and helically coiled cord

  7. PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES AT THERMO-MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF ROLLED WIRE OF NICKEL

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2012-01-01

    There are results of researches of the mechanical properties and structure of the wire rod made of low-carbon nickel molybdenum steel after reduction to toughness thermomechanical treatment in the stream of high-speed wire mill.

  8. Process-Structure-Property Relationships for 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing and Its Implication for Component Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, J.; Zheng, B.; Gaiser, K.; Reynolds, T.; Clemon, L.; Lu, W. Y.; Schoenung, J. M.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the process-structure-property relationships for 316L stainless steel prototyping utilizing 3-D laser engineered net shaping (LENS), a commercial direct energy deposition additive manufacturing process. The study concluded that the resultant physical metallurgy of 3-D LENS 316L prototypes is dictated by the interactive metallurgical reactions, during instantaneous powder feeding/melting, molten metal flow and liquid metal solidification. The study also showed 3-D LENS manufacturing is capable of building high strength and ductile 316L prototypes due to its fine cellular spacing from fast solidification cooling, and the well-fused epitaxial interfaces at metal flow trails and interpass boundaries. However, without further LENS process control and optimization, the deposits are vulnerable to localized hardness variation attributed to heterogeneous microstructure, i.e., the interpass heat-affected zone (HAZ) from repetitive thermal heating during successive layer depositions. Most significantly, the current deposits exhibit anisotropic tensile behavior, i.e., lower strain and/or premature interpass delamination parallel to build direction (axial). This anisotropic behavior is attributed to the presence of interpass HAZ, which coexists with flying feedstock inclusions and porosity from incomplete molten metal fusion. The current observations and findings contribute to the scientific basis for future process control and optimization necessary for material property control and defect mitigation.

  9. Fabrication of electroslag welded Magnox fuel transport flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuliani, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    The high weld metal deposition rate of the electroslag welding process offers an attractive method of fabricating nuclear fuel transport flasks from 370 mm (14.5in) thick steel plates. The paper describes pre-production trials carried out on full scale corner-section joints to establish that the weld metal meets the exacting mechanical property requirements for the Nuclear Industry. The paper presents results obtained on welds produced using two base metal compositions and two wires, one recommended for submerged-arc and the other for electroslag welding processes. Details of mechanical tests and metallographic examinations are given which led to the selection of the latter type of wire. It was found that while the weld metal deposited by this process may be sensitive to cracking, this can be avoided by careful selection of welding consumables and sound joints can be obtained under production conditions. (author)

  10. Oxide fuel fabrication technology development of the FaCT project (5). Current status on 9Cr-ODS steel cladding development for high burn-up fast reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Yano, Yasuhide; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Koyama, Shinichi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes evaluation results of in-reactor integrity of 9Cr and 12Cr-ODS steel cladding tubes and the plan for reliability improvement in homogeneous tube production, both of which are key points for the commercialized use of ODS steels as long-life fuel cladding tubes. A fuel assembly in the BOR-60 irradiation test including 9Cr and 12Cr-ODS fuel pins has achieved the highest burn-up, i.e. peak burn-up of 11.9at% and peak neutron dose of 51dpa, without any fuel pin rupture and microstructure instability. In another fuel assembly containing 9Cr and 12Cr-ODS steel fuel pins whose peak burn-up was 10.5at%, one 9Cr-ODS steel fuel pin failed near the upper end of the fuel column. A peculiar microstructure change occurred in the vicinity of the ruptured area. The primary cause of this fuel pin rupture and microstructure change was shown to be the presence of metallic Cr inclusions in the 9Cr-ODS steel tube, which had passed an ultrasonic inspection test for defects. In the next stage from 2011 to 2013, the fabrication technology of full pre-alloy 9Cr-ODS steel cladding tube will be developed, where the handling of elemental powder is prohibited in the process. (author)

  11. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  12. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  13. Characterisation of a complex thin walled structure fabricated by selective laser melting using a ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegelein, Thomas, E-mail: t.boegelein@liv.ac.uk; Louvis, Eleftherios; Dawson, Karl; Tatlock, Gordon J.; Jones, Andy R.

    2016-02-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys exhibit superior mechanical and physical properties due to the presence of nanoscopic Y(Al, Ti) oxide precipitates, but their manufacturing process is complex. The present study is aimed at further investigation of the application of an alternative, Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique, Selective Laser Melting (SLM), to the production of consolidated ODS alloy components. Mechanically alloyed PM2000 (ODS-FeCrAl) powders have been consolidated and a fine dispersion of Y-containing precipitates were observed in an as built thin-walled component, but these particles were typically poly-crystalline and contained a variety of elements including O, Al, Ti, Cr and Fe. Application of post-build heat treatments resulted in the modification of particle structures and compositions; in the annealed condition most precipitates were transformed to single crystal yttrium aluminium oxides. During the annealing treatment, precipitate distributions homogenised and localised variations in number density were diminished. The resulting volume fractions of those precipitates were 25–40% lower than have been reported in conventionally processed PM2000, which was attributed to Y-rich slag-like surface features and inclusions formed during SLM. - Highlights: • A wall structure was grown from ODS steel powder using selective laser melting. • A fine dispersion of nano-precipitates was apparent in as-build material. • Precipitates were multi-phased containing several elements, e.g. O, Ti, Al, Fe, Cr, Y. • Post-build annealing changed those into typically single-crystalline Y–Al–O. • The anneal also reduced and stabilised the volume fraction of precipitates to ~ 0.006.

  14. Fast and low-cost method to fabricate large-area superhydrophobic surface on steel substrate with anticorrosion and anti-icing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com; Sun, Qinghe; Zhu, Wei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-07-15

    A facile and quick fabrication method was proposed to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces on iron substrate by chemical immersion and subsequent stearic acid modification. The association between wettability and surface morphology was studied through altering the copper ion concentration and immersion time. Surface tension instrument, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical workstation were used to characterize the wettability, physical morphology, chemical composition, and corrosion resistance ability of the prepared film. Results showed that both the rough micro/nanostructures and low surface energy material play critical roles in surface wettability. The superhydrophobic film achieved a better anticorrosion property compared to barrier iron by analysis of open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and Nyquist plots. In addition, the superhydrophobic surface showed excellent performance of acid and alkali resistance, anti-icing, and self-cleaning through a series of environmental tests. This study provides a valid method for quick-preparation of the stable superhydrophobic surfaces, which has a promising application in steel buildings and facilities.

  15. Corrosion protective performance of amino trimethylene phosphonic acid-metal complex layers fabricated on the cold-rolled steel substrate via one-step assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ru; He, Wei; Zhai, Tianhua; Ma, Houyi

    2018-06-01

    Seeing that amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) possesses very strong complexation ability to metal ions and the phosphonic acid group has good affinity for the oxidized iron surface, herein a simple and rapid film-forming method (one-step assembly method) was developed to construct the ATMP-Zn complex conversion layers (ATMP-Zn layers for short) on the cold-rolled steel (CRS) substrate. Zinc ions were found to participate in the formation process of ATMP-based composite film, which made the Zn-containing ATMP film significantly different in appearance, thickness, microstructure and film-forming mechanisms from the Zn-free ATMP film. There was mainly iron (ш) phosphonate in the Zn-free ATMP film, whereas there were Zn2+-ATMP complex and a certain amount of ZnO in the ATMP-Zn composite film. In addition, electrochemical test results clearly indicate that corrosion resistance of ATMP-Zn composite film was greatly enhanced due to the presence of Zn component. Moreover, the corrosion resistance performance could be controlled by adjusting film-forming time, pH and ATMP concentration in the film-forming solutions. The present study provides a new method for the design and fabrication of high-quality environmentally-friendly conversion layers.

  16. Vertically building Zn2SnO4 nanowire arrays on stainless steel mesh toward fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengdao; Zhou, Yong; Bao, Chunxiong; Xue, Guogang; Zhang, Jiyuan; Liu, Jianguo; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2012-06-07

    Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire arrays were for the first time grown onto a stainless steel mesh (SSM) in a binary ethylenediamine (En)/water solvent system using a solvothermal route. The morphology evolution following this reaction was carefully followed to understand the formation mechanism. The SSM-supported Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire was utilized as a photoanode for fabrication of large-area (10 cm × 5 cm size as a typical sample), flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The synthesized Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowires exhibit great bendability and flexibility, proving potential advantage over other metal oxide nanowires such as TiO(2), ZnO, and SnO(2) for application in flexible solar cells. Relative to the analogous Zn(2)SnO(4) nanoparticle-based flexible DSSCs, the nanowire geometry proves to enhance solar energy conversion efficiency through enhancement of electron transport. The bendable nature of the DSSCs without obvious degradation of efficiency and facile scale up gives the as-made flexible solar cell device potential for practical application.

  17. Fabrication of metal-organic framework MIL-88B films on stainless steel fibers for solid-phase microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye-Yu; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2014-03-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received considerable attention as novel sorbents for sample preparation due to their fascinating structures and functionalities such as large surface area, good thermal stability, and uniform structured nanoscale cavities. Here, we report the application of a thermal and solvent stable MOF MIL-88B with nanosized bipyramidal cages and large surface area for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Novel MIL-88B coated fiber was fabricated via an in situ hydrothermal growth of MIL-88B film on etched stainless steel fiber. The MIL-88B coated fiber gave large enhancement factors (757-2243), low detection limits (0.45-1.32ngL(-1)), and good linearity (5-200ngL(-1)) for PCBs. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate extractions of PCBs at 100ngL(-1) on MIL-88B coated fiber ranged from 4.2% to 8.7%. The recoveries for spiked PCBs (10ngL(-1)) in water and soil samples were in the range of 79.7-103.2%. Besides, the MIL-88B coated fiber was stable enough for 150 extraction cycles without significant loss of extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of PCBs in water samples and soil samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-cost zinc-plated photoanode for fabric-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingfeng; Bao, Yunna; Guo, Wanwan; Cheng, Li; Du, Jun; Liu, Renlong; Wang, Yundong; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-02-01

    Fabric-type flexible solar cells have been recently proposed as a very promising power source for wearable electronics. To increase the photocurrent of fabric-type flexible solar cells, low-cost zinc-plated wire and mesh photoanodes are assembled for the first time through a mild wet process. Given the protection of the compact protection layer, the DSSC device could benefit from the low work function of Zn and self-repairing behavior on the Zn/ZnO interface. An evident current increase by ∼6 mA/cm2 could be observed after coating a layer of metal Zn on various metal substrates, such as traditional stainless steel wire. Given the self-repairing behavior on Zn/ZnO interface, the Zn layer can help to improve the interfacial carrier transfer, leading to better photovoltaic performance, for both liquid-type and solid-type cells.

  19. SIMULACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL Y NUMÉRICA DE UN PROCESO DE TREFILADO HÚMEDO DE UN ALAMBRE DE ACERO AL CARBONO EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE DAMP WIRE DRAWING PROCESS OF A CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio L Rojas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un análisis experimental y numérico para la descripción del comportamiento mecánico de un alambre de acero al carbono durante un proceso industrial de trefilado húmedo. En primer lugar, se hizo una campaña experimental de mediciones de fuerza de trefilado de las doce reducciones presentes en el proceso. En segundo lugar, se llevaron a cabo ensayos de tracción con objeto de caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico del material en cada etapa de reducción. En estos ensayos se obtuvieron curvas de tensión-deformación que, en conjunto a las respuestas calculadas a partir de la simulación de los ensayos, permitieron derivar la evolución de los parámetros elásticos y plásticos característicos del material a medida que se reduce su diámetro. De dicha evolución se constató el gran endurecimiento que experimenta el material durante el proceso el que, a su vez, condiciona fuertemente su trefilabilidad. Las simulaciones se realizaron por medio de un modelo elastoplástico de grandes deformaciones implementado en un programa de cálculo preexistente, basado en el método de elementos finitos, denominado VULCAN. Luego, los parámetros del material obtenidos en los ensayos de tracción fueron considerados en la simulación del proceso de deformación que ocurre durante el paso del alambre a través de los dados. Los resultados de la simulación se consideran aceptables y representativos del comportamiento del alambre en el proceso.This paper presents an experimental and numerical analysis for the description of the mechanical behaviour of a carbon steel wire during an industrial process of damp drawing. Firstly, an experimental procedure aimed at measuring wire drawing forces in the twelve reductions present in the process was performed. Secondly, tensile tests were carried out in order to characterize the mechanical behavior of the material for each reduction step. The resulting stress-strain curves together with

  20. Electrodeposition of self-assembled poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) @gold nanoparticles on stainless steel wires for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic determination of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2016-11-04

    In this work, a novel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)@Au nanoparticles (PEDOT@AuNPs) hybrid coating was prepared and characterized. Firstly, the monomer 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene was self-assembled on AuNPs, and then electropolymerization was performed on a stainless steel wire by cyclic voltammetry. The obtained PEDOT@AuNPs coating was rough and showed cauliflower-like micro-structure with thickness of ∼40μm. It displayed high thermal stability (up to 330°C) and mechanical stability and could be used for at least 160 times of solid phase microextraction (SPME) without decrease of extraction performance. The coating exhibited high extraction capacity for some environmental pollutants (e.g. naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene and phenathrene) due to the hydrophobic interaction between the analytes and PEDOT and the additional physicochemical affinity between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and AuNPs. Through coupling with GC detection, good linearity (correlation coefficients higher than 0.9894), wide linear range (0.01-100μgL -1 ), low limits of detection (2.5-25ngL -1 ) were achieved for these analytes. The reproducibility (defined as RSD) was 1.1-4.0% and 5.8-9.9% for single fiber (n=5) and fiber-to-fiber (n=5), respectively. The SPME-GC method was successfully applied for the determination of three real samples, and the recoveries for standards added were 89.9-106% for lake water, 95.7-112% for rain water and 93.2-109% for soil saturated water, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Power supply in a wire mill; Energiefuehrungen sind schwer auf Draht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth-Stahl, Ingelore [Kabelschlepp GmbH, Wenden-Gerlingen (Germany). International Fairs and Public Relation

    2009-09-15

    Near Rotterdam, steel producer Ovako operates a wire mill including a coating and pickling unit. The pickling unit has a capacity of 450,000 tpa of wire and is one of the biggest of its kind. The cranes and lifting gear for transporting wire coils and operating the dipping tanks have plastic power tracks for uninterrupted operation. (orig.)

  2. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  3. Structural and phase studies of stainless wire after electroplastic drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Baldokhin, Yu.V.; Kir'yanchev, N.E.; Ryzhkov, V.G.; Kalugin, V.D.; Sokolov, N.V.; Klekovkin, A.A.; Klevtsur, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and phase properties of the 12Kh18N10T steel wire are studied after usual and electroplastic drawing from 0.40 up to 0.11 mm with 18-22% reduction per pass with passing 250 A/mm 2 electric current. The earlier made observation on a sharp decrease in content of deformation-induced martensite of α-phase takes place in the wire from stainless metastable austenitic steel as a result of electroplastic drawing. Distribution of the remained α-phase by the wire cross section is established

  4. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  5. Development of scientific and technological basis for the fabrication of thin film solar cells on the basis of a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H using the 'hot-wire' deposition technique. Final report; Entwicklung wissenschaftlicher und technischer Grundlagen fuer die Herstellung von Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis des a-Si:H und {mu}c-Si:H mit der 'Hot-Wire'-Depositionstechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, B.

    2002-01-22

    Two new deposition systems were realized enabling the entire and respectively, large area deposition of a-Si:H based solar cells using the so called 'hot-wire' (HW) CVD. The deposition conditions for appropriate n- and p-doped a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H layers have been developed. For the first time in the world a-Si:H based pin solar cells were entirely deposited by the HWCVD method. A maximum initial conversion efficiency of {eta}{sub initial}=8.9% was obtained. After the development of a suitable p/n-tunnel/recombination junction pin-pin tandem structures with a-Si:H absorbers could be entirely fabricated by the HWCVD for the first time in the world, too. A conversion efficiency of {eta}=7% was measured for the tandem cell, after some structural degradation took place. In general, the stability of the HWCVD solar cells is not satisfactory, what could be attributed to a structural instability of the HWCVD-p-layers. For the first time we have deposited nip solar cells on stainless steel substrates entirely by HWCVD ({eta}{sub initial}>6%). The incorporation of {mu}c-Si:H absorber layers by HWCVD or ECWR-PECVD into pin solar cells was not successfull until now. Large area deposition of a-Si:H films has been performed in a simple vacuum vessel. Under consideration of appropriate filament and gas supply geometry as well as simulation calculations a good electronic quality and a film thickness uniformity of {delta}d={+-}2.5% of the material was obtained. i-layers for small area solar cells on an area of 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} have been deposited which could be completed to solar cells with very uniform conversion efficiencies of {eta}{sub initial} = 6,1{+-}0.2%. This result represents a proof of concept for the large area deposition of a-Si:H based solar cells using the HWCVD. Also for the first time the HWCVD was used for the deposition of emitter layers on c-Si-wafers to realize hetero solar cells. Hetero solar cells with amorphous, microcrystalline and epitaxial n

  6. Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge wire testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on tank 241-S-106 during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge's stainless steel measuring wire broke. After examination and laboratory analysis, it was determined that the wire broke due to severe chloride ion corrosion. It is suspected that the chloride ion contamination came from the radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liner. It is well documented that the breakdown of PVC due to radiation produces chloride containing compounds. This document provides a qualification test plan to remove and have analyzed the wire in all of the Enraf Series 854 that have been installed to date. These tests will confirm the presence or absence of chloride ions in the PVC liners and/or on the Enraf measuring wires installed in the tanks. This test will involve removing the 316 stainless steel wire drums from all of the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauges that have been installed. New 316 stainless steel wire drums shall be installed into the gauges and the gauges will be placed back into service. The wire that is removed from the gauges shall be sent to the 222-S Lab or the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. Additional wire replacements will occur at intervals as determined necessary by the results of the laboratory analyses

  7. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Maestas, Alfred J.; Pillai, Chandra; Raybun, Joseph L.; Sattler, F.D.; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations and Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  8. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maestas, Alfred J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raybun, Joseph L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sattler, F. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  9. Automatic welding and cladding in heavy fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamer, A. de

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of the automatic welding processes used by an Italian fabricator of pressure vessels for petrochemical and nuclear plant. The automatic submerged arc welding, submerged arc strip cladding, pulsed TIG, hot wire TIG and MIG welding processes have proved satisfactory in terms of process reliability, metal deposition rate, and cost effectiveness for low alloy and carbon steels. An example shows sequences required during automatic butt welding, including heat treatments. Factors which govern satisfactory automatic welding include automatic anti-drift rotator device, electrode guidance and bead programming system, the capability of single and dual head operation, flux recovery and slag removal systems, operator environment and controls, maintaining continuity of welding and automatic reverse side grinding. Automatic welding is used for: joining vessel sections; joining tubes to tubeplate; cladding of vessel rings and tubes, dished ends and extruded nozzles; nozzle to shell and butt welds, including narrow gap welding. (author)

  10. Efficiency enhancement of CIGS compound solar cell fabricated using homomorphic thin Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier formed on stainless steel substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Ahn, Haeng-Keun; Lee, Cheul-Ro, E-mail: crlee7@jbnu.ac.kr

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A chromium oxide layer is formed as diffusion barrier by thermal oxidation process on STS substrate. • A Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer effectively reduces impurities diffusion into the CIGS absorber layer. • The Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer plays an important role in increasing the efficiency by reduction of impurity diffusion. - Abstract: It is known that the efficiency of flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells fabricated on stainless-steel (STS) substrates deteriorates due to iron (Fe) and Cr impurities diffusing into the CIGS absorber layer. To overcome this problem, a nanoscale homomorphic chromium oxide layer was formed as a diffusion barrier by thermal oxidation on the surface of STS substrates for 1 min at 600 °C in oxygen atmosphere. By TEM and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), it was confirmed that the formed oxide layer on surface of STS substrates was a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. It was found that the formed homomorphic Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin layer of about 15 nm thickness was an effective diffusion barrier to reduce impurity diffusion into the CIGS layer by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In contrast to the efficiency of CIGS solar cell without homomorphic Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion layer is 8.6%, whereas with diffusion barrier it increases to 10.6% because of impurities such as Fe and Cr from the STS substrate into the CIGS layer. It reveals that the layer formed on the surface of STS substrate by thermal oxidation process plays an important role in increasing the performance of CIGS solar cells.

  11. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-05-01

    Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 microm tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2 x 10 7 particles/microm 2 (3C/m 2 ). The authors believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC, have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, the authors present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures

  12. DT fusion neutron irradiation of BPNL niobium nickel and 316 stainless steel at 1750C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, S.C.

    1977-01-01

    The DT fusion neutron irradiation at 175 0 C of 17 niobium wires, one niobium foil, 14 316 stainless steel wires, one 316 stainless steel foil, nine nickel wires, and two nickel foils from BPNL is described. The sample position, beam-on time, neutron dose record, and neutron fluence are given

  13. Monitoring and evaluation of wire mesh forming life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemuoh, Emmanuel U.; Zhao, Ping; Kadlec, Alec

    2018-03-01

    Forming tables are used with stainless steel wire mesh conveyor belts to produce variety of products. The forming tables will typically run continuously for several days, with some hours of scheduled downtime for maintenance, cleaning and part replacement after several weeks of operation. The wire mesh conveyor belts show large variation in their remaining life due to associated variations in their nominal thicknesses. Currently the industry is dependent on seasoned operators to determine the replacement time for the wire mesh formers. The drawback of this approach is inconsistency in judgements made by different operators and lack of data knowledge that can be used to develop decision making system that will be more consistent with wire mesh life prediction and replacement time. In this study, diagnostic measurements about the health of wire mesh former is investigated and developed. The wire mesh quality characteristics considered are thermal measurement, tension property, gage thickness, and wire mesh wear. The results show that real time thermal sensor and wear measurements would provide suitable data for the estimation of wire mesh failure, therefore, can be used as a diagnostic parameter for developing structural health monitoring (SHM) system for stainless steel wire mesh formers.

  14. Micro Wire-Drawing: Experiments And Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berti, G. A.; Monti, M.; Bietresato, M.; D'Angelo, L.

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, the authors propose to adopt the micro wire-drawing as a key for investigating models of micro forming processes. The reasons of this choice arose in the fact that this process can be considered a quasi-stationary process where tribological conditions at the interface between the material and the die can be assumed to be constant during the whole deformation. Two different materials have been investigated: i) a low-carbon steel and, ii) a nonferrous metal (copper). The micro hardness and tensile tests performed on each drawn wire show a thin hardened layer (more evident then in macro wires) on the external surface of the wire and hardening decreases rapidly from the surface layer to the center. For the copper wire this effect is reduced and traditional material constitutive model seems to be adequate to predict experimentation. For the low-carbon steel a modified constitutive material model has been proposed and implemented in a FE code giving a better agreement with the experiments

  15. Cold formability of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, G.; Leclerq, G.; Moliexe, F.; Namdar, R.; Roesch, L.; Sanz, G.

    1977-01-01

    This work was essentially aimed to the study of the following three questions. Is it possible to assess the cold formability of steels using simple material properties as criteria. What values of mechanical properties can one expect to reach in cold formed parts. Are there simple ways of characterizing the speroidization treatments carried out on steels before cold forming operations. The present report describes the results obtained during this investigation. It is logically divided into three separate parts. Experimental study of cold formability in wire drawing. Influence of metallurgical variables on mechanical properties of high carbon cold drawn wires. Contribution to the study of characterization methods of cold forming steels subjected to a spheroidization heat treatment

  16. Development of wire wrapping technology for FBR fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Tetsuya; Seki, Nobuo; Sawayama, Takeo; Ishibashi, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    For the FBR fuel assembly, the spacer wire is adopted to maintain the space between fuel pins. The developments have been carried out to achieve automatically wire wrapping with high precision. Based on the fundamental technology developed through the mock-up test operation, Joyo 'MK-I', fuel pin fabrication was started using partially mechanized wire wrapping machine in 1973. In 1978, an automated wire wrapping machine for Joyo 'MK-II' was developed by the adoption of some improvements for the wire inserting system to end plug hole and the precision of wire pitch. On the bases of these experiences, fully automated wire wrapping machine for 'Monju' fuel pin was installed at Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) in 1987. (author)

  17. Testing methods of steel wi re ropes at the anchor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kropuch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic andthermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobilesteel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. Firstmeasurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methodsare shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widelyused magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presentsa problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enableincreased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  18. Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)

  19. Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired) Defense Acquisition Management...Combat Information Transport System program was restructured into two pre-Major Automated Information System (pre-MAIS) components: Information...Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel

  20. Possibility of material cost reduction toward development of low-cost second-generation superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Ataru; Horii, Shigeru; Doi, Toshiya

    2017-10-01

    Two approaches to reducing the material cost of second-generation superconducting wires are proposed in this paper: (1) instead of the electrical stabilizing layers of silver and copper presently used on the superconducting layer, a Nb-doped SrTiO3 conductive buffer layer and cube-textured Cu are proposed as an advanced architecture, and (2) the use of an electromagnetic (EM) steel tape as a metal substrate of coated conductors in a conventional architecture. In structures fabricated without using electrical stabilizing layers on the superconducting layer, the critical current density achieved at 77 K in a self-field was approximately 2.6 MA/cm2. On the other hand, in the case of using EM steel tapes, although the critical current density was far from practical at the current stage, the biaxial alignment of YBa2Cu3O y (YBCO) and buffer layers was realized without oxidation on the metal surface. In this study, the possibility of material cost reduction has been strongly indicated toward the development of low-cost second-generation superconducting wires in the near future.