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Sample records for steel including y2o3

  1. Mechanical dispersion of Y2O3 nanoparticles in steel EUROFER 97: process and optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Pareja, R.; Amador, D.R.; Torralba, J.M.; Victoria, M.

    2003-01-01

    The procedures followed to produce Y 2 O 3 -dispersed EUROFER 97 powder ready to be compacted and hot isostatic pressing processed are reported. An attrition mill has been used under controlled conditions. The compositional and microstructural characterization of the Y 2 O 3 /EUROFER powder along the different steps of the milling process has allowed optimising the processing conditions to obtain a nanosized Y 2 O 3 dispersion. TEM observations performed on Y 2 O 3 /EUROFER powder milled under these specific conditions reveal the presence of monoclinic Y 2 O 3 dispersoids having sizes around 10 nm in the ferrite/martensite matrix

  2. Fracture Resistances of Y_2O_3 Particle Dispersion Strengthened 9Cr Steel at Room Temperature and High Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Kang, Suk Hoon; Lee, Yongbok; Kim, Sung Soo

    2012-01-01

    The fracture resistance and tensile properties of Y_2O_3 oxide dispersion strengthened steel containing 9 wt% Cr (9Cr-ODS) were measured at various temperatures up to 700°C. The fracture characteristics were compared with those of commercial E911 ferritic/martensitic steel. The strength of 9Cr-ODS was at least 30% higher than that of E911 steel at the test temperatures below 500°C. The strength difference between the two materials was almost diminished at 700°C. 9Cr-ODS showed cleavage fracture behavior at room temperature and unstable crack growth behaviors at 300°C and 500°C. The J-R fracture resistance of 9Cr-ODS was much lower than that of E911 steel at all temperatures. It was deduced that the coarse Cr_2O_3 particles that were formed during the alloying process provided the crack initiation sites of cleavage fracture in 9Cr-ODS.

  3. Small fatigue crack propagation in Y2O3 strengthened steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Kuběna, Ivo; Ševčík, Martin; Šmíd, Miroslav; Kruml, Tomáš; Náhlík, Luboš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 452, 1-3 (2014), s. 370-377 ISSN 0022-3115 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR(CZ) GP13-28685P Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : oxide dispersion strengthened steel * small fatigue crack * J-integral * fatigue life prediction Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.865, year: 2014

  4. Investigation of Y2O3 distribution in the welded joints of the fast reactor fuel claddings made of oxide dispersion strengthened steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakin, E.M.; Kuz'min, S.V.; Ivanovich, Yu.V.; Ukai, Sh.; Kaito, T.; Seki, M.

    2007-01-01

    The study results of Y 2 O 3 distribution in welded joints of claddings from oxide dispersion strengthened steel produced by the technique of powder metallurgy are given in this paper. Change of content and distribution uniformity of yttrium oxide in welds in comparison with metal shell is the result of using flash welding of thin-walled fuel claddings. It is shown that concentration and yttrium oxide distribution uniformity in the cross section of weld, made by pulse laser welding is more high as compared with argon-arc welding [ru

  5. Line profile analysis of ODS steels Fe20Cr5AlTiY milled powders at different Y2O3 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afandi, A.; Nisa, R.; Thosin, K. A. Z.

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical properties of material are largely dictated by constituent microstructure parameters such as dislocation density, lattice microstrain, crystallite size and its distribution. To develop ultra-fine grain alloys such as Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys, mechanical alloying is crucial step to introduce crystal defects, and refining the crystallite size. In this research the ODS sample powders were mechanically alloyed with different Y2O3 concentration respectively of 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 wt%. MA process was conducted with High Energy Milling (HEM) with the ball to powder ratio of 15:1. The vial and the ball were made of alumina, and the milling condition is set 200 r.p.m constant. The ODS powders were investigated by X-Ray Diffractions (XRD), Bragg-Brentano setup of SmartLab Rigaku with 40 KV, and 30 mA, step size using 0.02°, with scanning speed of 4°min-1. Line Profile Analysis (LPA) of classical Williamson-Hall was carried out, with the aim to investigate the different crystallite size, and microstrain due to the selection of the full wide at half maximum (FWHM) and integral breadth.

  6. The structural changes of Y2O3 in ferritic ODS alloys during milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilger, I.; Tegel, M.; Gorley, M.J.; Grant, P.S.; Weißgärber, T.; Kieback, B.

    2014-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are usually fabricated via mechanical alloying and subsequent consolidation via hot extrusion or hot isostatic pressing. During the individual process steps, a complex evolution of the nanoparticle structure is taking place. Powders with different Y 2 O 3 contents were milled and examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atom probe tomography (APT). It has been observed that the Y 2 O 3 is fragmented and becomes partially amorphous upon milling due to the grain refinement of Y 2 O 3 during the milling process. There was no compelling evidence for Y 2 O 3 dissociation and dissolution into the steel matrix

  7. Creation of Y2Ti2O7 nanoprecipitates to strengthen the Fe-14Cr-3Al-2W steels by adding Ti hydride and Y2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Linbo; Bai, Zhonglian; Shen, Hailong; Wang, Chenxi; Liu, Tong

    2017-01-01

    In order to prohibit the formation of large Y-Al-O precipitates, Ti hydride nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and used to replace Ti as raw particles to fabricate the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-14Cr-3Al-2W-0.35Y 2 O 3 steels by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). As the content of Ti hydride increases from 0.1 to 0.5 and 1.0 wt%, the oxide nanoprecipitates in the ODS steels changes from Y 3 Al 5 O 12 phase to Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 phase (semicoherent with the matrix), and the particle size is successfully reduced. The tensile strength of the ODS steel increases remarkably with increasing Ti hydride content. The sample with 1.0 wt% Ti hydride exhibits a high strength of 1049 MPa at 25 °C and 278 MPa at 700 °C. The creation of Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoprecipitates by adding Ti hydride NPs opens a new way to control the structure and size of the oxide precipitates in the ODS steels. - Graphical abstract: The creation of Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoprecipitates by adding Ti hydride nanoparticles remarkably increases the mechanical properties of the Al-containing ODS steels. - Highlights: •TiH 1.971 reacts with Y 2 O 3 to form Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 in the Al-containing ODS steel. •Addition of TiH 1.971 nanoparticles can prevent the formation of Y-Al-O phases. •Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoparticles share semicoherent interface with the ferrite matrix. •The mean size of oxide dispersion is reduced to 11.2 ± 7.1 nm with 1.0 wt% TiH 1.971 . •The tensile strength of the ODS steel enlarges with increasing TiH 1.971 content.

  8. HRTEM Study of Oxide Nanoparticles in 16Cr-4Al-2W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3 ODS Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Wall, M; Kimura, A

    2009-11-18

    Crystal and interfacial structures of oxide nanoparticles in 16Cr-4Al-2W-0.3Ti-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ODS ferritic steel have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Oxide nanoparticles with a complex-oxide core and an amorphous shell were frequently observed. The crystal structure of complex-oxide core is identified to be mainly monoclinic Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) oxide compound. Orientation relationships between the oxide and matrix are found to be dependent on the particle size. Large particles (> 20 nm) tend to be incoherent and have a spherical shape, whereas small particles (< 10 nm) tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have a faceted interface. The observations of partially amorphous nanoparticles lead us to propose three-stage mechanisms to rationalize the formation of oxide nanoparticles containing core/shell structures in as-fabricated ODS steels.

  9. Processing and microstructure characterisation of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe–14Cr–0.4Ti–0.25Y2O3 ferritic steels fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Huang, Yina; Ning, Huanpo; Williams, Ceri A.; London, Andrew J.; Dawson, Karl; Hong, Zuliang; Gorley, Michael J.; Grovenor, Chris R.M.; Tatlock, Gordon J.; Roberts, Steve G.; Reece, Michael J.; Yan, Haixue; Grant, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructured ODS steels were successfully produced by SPS. • Presence of Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoclusters was confirmed by synchrotron XRD and microscopy. • The chemistry of nanoclusters tested by ATP indicated they are Y–Ti–O oxides. - Abstract: Ferritic steels strengthened with Ti–Y–O nanoclusters are leading candidates for fission and fusion reactor components. A Fe–14Cr–0.4Ti + 0.25Y 2 O 3 (14YT) alloy was fabricated by mechanical alloying and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The densification of the 14YT alloys significantly improved with an increase in the sintering temperature. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction revealed that 14YT SPS-sintered at 1150 °C under 50 MPa for 5 min had a high density (99.6%), a random grain orientation and a bimodal grain size distribution (<500 nm and 1–20 μm). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns showed bcc ferrite, Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 , FeO, and chromium carbides, while transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography showed uniformly dispersed Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoclusters of <5 nm diameter and number density of 1.04 × 10 23 m −3 . Due to the very much shorter consolidation times and lower pressures used in SPS compared with the more usual hot isostatic pressing routes, SPS is shown to be a cost-effective technique for oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy manufacturing with microstructural features consistent with the best-performing ODS alloys

  10. Inkjet-Printed Chemical Solution Y2O3 Layers for Planarization of Technical Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vilardell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD methodology with the Drop on Demand (DoD inkjet printing (IJP technology has been successfully employed to develop a Solution Deposition Planarization (SDP method. We have used nanocrystalline yttrium oxide (Y2O3 to decrease the roughness of technical metallic substrates by filling the surface imperfections and thus avoiding costly polishing steps. This alternative process represents an outstanding methodology to reduce the final cost of the second-generation coated conductors manufacturing. Two Y2O3 metalorganic precursor ink formulations were successfully developed and tested to obtain surfaces as smooth as possible with adequate mechanical properties to hold the internal stress developed during the growth of the subsequent layers. By using these inks as precursors for IJP and after a proper tuning of the rheological and wetting parameters, we firstly obtained centimeter length uniform 100 nm-thick SDP-Y2O3 films on unpolished stainless-steel substrate from Bruker HTS. The scalability of the roll to roll (R2R-IJP process to 100 m is then demonstrated on metallic substrates as well. A complete characterization of the prepared SDP-Y2O3 inkjet-printed layers was carried out using optical microscopy, FIB-SEM (Focus Ion Beam coupled to Scanning Electron Microscopy, XRD (X-ray Diffraction, AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy, reflectometry and nanoindentation techniques. Then, the morphology, thickness, crystallinity and mechanical properties were evaluated, together with the surface roughness in order to assess the resulting layer planarity. The impact of planarity was additionally studied via growth of biaxially textured buffer layers as well as further functional layers. 1.1 µm-thick YSZ layers with in-plane textures better than the stainless steel (SS polished reference were successfully deposited on top of 100 nm SDP-Y2O3 films yielding 50% of Ic in contrast to the standard SS reference.

  11. Atomistic simulations of displacement cascades in Y2O3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dholakia, Manan; Chandra, Sharat; Valsakumar, M.C.; Mathi Jaya, S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) The averaged distortion index and the Y–O bond length of the Y 2 O 3 octahedra as a function of the simulation time for 5 keV PKA. (b) Shows the nearest neighbourhood of one of the Y ions as a function of simulation time, showing the destruction and the recovery of the YO 6 octahedron during the cascade corresponding to 5 keV Y PKA. - Highlights: • Qualitative difference in displacement cascades exists for Y and O PKA. • Nearest neighbour correlation between Y and O ions exists even at cascade peak. • Cascade core in Y 2 O 3 does not undergo melting. • Topological connectivity of YO 6 polyhedra plays important role in stability of Y 2 O 3 . - Abstract: We study the characteristics of displacement cascades in single crystal Y 2 O 3 using classical molecular dynamics. There are two possible ways to generate the cascades in yttria, using either the Y or the O atoms as the primary knock-on (PKA) atom. It is shown that there is a qualitative difference in the characteristics of the cascades obtained in these two cases. Even though the crystal is seen to be in a highly disordered state in the cascade volume, as seen from the plots of radial distribution function, the correlation between the Y and O atoms is not completely lost. This facilitates a quick recovery of the system during the annealing phase. Topological connectivity of the YO 6 polyhedral units plays an important role in imparting stability to the Y 2 O 3 crystal. These characteristics of the cascades can help explain the stability of the yttria nanoparticles when they are dispersed in oxide dispersion strengthened steels

  12. Neutron irradiation damage in Al2O3 and Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Bunch, J.M.; Ranken, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    Two ceramics under consideration for use in fusion reactors, Al 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 , were irradiated in the EBR-II fission reactor at 650, 875, and 1025 0 K to fluences between 2 and 6 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E greater than 0.1 MeV). Samples evaluated include sapphire, Lucalox, alumina, Y 2 O 3 , and Y 2 O 3 -10 percent ZrO 2 (Yttralox). All Al 2 O 3 specimens swelled significantly (1 to 3 percent), with most of the growth observed in sapphire along the c-axis at the higher temperatures. Al 2 O 3 samples irradiated at 875 to 1025 0 K contained a high density of small aligned ''pores''. Irradiated Y 2 O 3 -based ceramics exhibited dimensional stability and a defect content consisting primarily of unresolved damage and/or dislocation loops. The behavior of these ceramics under irradiation is discussed, and the relevance of fission neutron damage studies to fusion reactor applications is considered. (auth)

  13. Densification of Y2O3 by HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valin, F.; Maire, P.; Boncoeur, M.

    1986-11-01

    Densification of Y 2 O 3 by HIP was investigated in the range 1250 0 C-1550 0 C at a pressure of 150 MPa. Runs were made in metallic capsules with 200 g of powder. The powder under investigation is 99.9% purity, supplied by RHONE-POULENC. The study reveals the importance of residual gases in the HIP technique of powder densification. The density of the final product is in the range 93% to 100% of theoretical density depending on pretreatment (or outgassing) of the powder. Residual gases have been identified. Final products have been characterized by microscopy (grain size, porosity, microhardness). Porosity and grain size depend on pretreatment conditions. In particular a 1200 0 C pretreatment results in zero porosity and significant decrease of grain size. 4 tables, 11 figs, 16 refs

  14. Enhancement of Color Rendering Index for White Light LED Lamps by Red Y2O3:EU3+ Phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hoang Quang Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an application of the red Y2O3:Eu3+ dopant phosphor compound for reaching the color rendering index as high as 86. The Multi-Chip White LED lamps (MCW-LEDs with high Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs including 7000 K and 8500 K are employed in this study. Besides, the impacts of the Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor on the attenuation of light through phosphor layers of the various packages is also demonstrated based on the Beer-Lambert law. Simulation results provide important conclusion for selecting and developing the phosphor materials in MCW-LEDs manufacturing.

  15. Diode pumped cascade Er:Y2O3 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanamyan, T

    2015-01-01

    A cascade, diode-pumped, continuous wave (CW), dual-wavelength operation in a 0.5% Er 3+ :Y 2 O 3 cryogenic ceramic laser is demonstrated for the first time. The laser operates on cascaded Er ( 4 I 11/2   →   4 I 13/2   →   4 I 15/2 ) transitions and can deliver 24 and 13 W at 1.6 and 2.7 μm, respectively. The overall efficiency with respect to the absorbed ∼980 nm power was 62%. This is, to our best knowledge, the first demonstration of an efficient, high power, cascade, erbium laser achieved in bulk solid-state lasers. The analysis of the output power, the laser’s wavelengths and slope efficiency for each individual laser transition are presented for pure CW operation mode. Also presented are the temporal behaviors of each laser line as a function of pump pulse duration in the quasi-CW regime. (letter)

  16. Microstructure and tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe–14Cr–0.3Y2O3 and Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M.A.; Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Monge, M.A.; Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    2013-01-01

    Two ODS ferritic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%): Fe–14Cr–0.3Y 2 O 3 and Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 have been produced by mechanical alloying and consolidation by hot isostatic pressing. The microstructure and tensile properties of these materials after being forged and heat-treated at 1123 K have been investigated to clarify the interrelation between composition, microstructure and mechanical properties. The second-phase precipitates in these alloys have been analyzed by high-angle annular dark-field imaging in scanning TEM mode and electron diffraction. Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 exhibits a duplex microstructure consisting of large recrystallized grains, as large as 1.5 μm, and unrecovered regions containing submicron equiaxed grains. In addition, three types of secondary phase particles have been found: large M 23 C 6 particles containing W and Cr, (Cr + Ti) rich spherical particles with diameters between 50 and 500 nm, and fine (Y + Ti) oxide particles with sizes below 30 nm. In contrast, Fe14CrY shows a uniform structure of equiaxed grains, with sizes in the range 0.5–3 μm, containing a fine dispersion of Y oxide particles ( 2 O 3 at temperatures up to 773 K, but the opposite appears to occur beyond this temperature

  17. Photocatalytic Removal of Dye and Reaction Mechanism Analysis over Y2O3 Composite Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Y2O3 supported photocatalysts MOx (M = Fe, Ti and Bi/Y2O3 were synthesized by hydrothermal and deposition-precipitation method and used in photocatalytic degradation of xylenol orange and rhodamine B under UV light irradiation. The crystalline structure and optical properties were well characterized by XRD and UV-vis DRS. The results of XRD revealed that the MOx/Y2O3 were composed of Fe2O3, TiO2, Bi0.8Y1.2O3 and Y2O3. The UV-vis DRS showed that MOx/Y2O3 photocatalysts exhibited stronger absorption in ultraviolet, and the absorption edge shifted to visible light region significantly. The photocatalytic experiments indicated that MOx/Y2O3 photocatalysts showed better activity for photodegradation of xylenol orange than rhodamine B. Moreover, the role of Y2O3 and the mechanism of photocatalysis is proposed.

  18. Y2O3-W Continuous Graded Materials by Co-sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Shi-yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The raw Y2O3 powder was classified and graded based on modified co-sedimentation mathematical model,using the size distribution of W particles as the known condition. Y2O3-W continuous graded materials with the composition distribution index P values of 1.0, 0.7, 0.3 and 0.1 were prepared by co-sedimentation and hot-pressing. The results show that the Y2O3 powder consistent with the design requirements can be obtained by graduation method. The gradient continuity of materials can be verified by microstructure observation and hardness testing.

  19. Towards Isotropic Vortex Pinning in YBCO Films with Double-doping BHO-Y2O3 and BZO-Y2O3 Artificial Pining Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Bibek; Sebastian, Mary Ann; Chen, Shihong; Haugan, Timothy; Chen, Yanbin; Xing, Zhongwen; Prestigiacomo, Joseph; Osofsky, Mike; Wu, Judy

    2017-12-01

    Strong and isotropic vortex pinning landscape is demanded for high field applications of YaBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) epitaxial thin films. Double-doping (DD) of artificial pinning centers (APCs) of mixed morphologies has been identified as a viable approach for this purpose. This work presents a comparative study on the transport critical current density J c (H, θ) of 3.0 vol.%Y2O3+2.0 (or 6.0) vol.% BaZrO3 (BZO DD) and 3.0 vol.%Y2O3+ 2.0 (or 6.0) vol.% BaHfO3 (BHO DD) films. Based on the elastic strain model, BaHfO3 (BHO) nanorods have lower rigidity than their BaZrO3 (BZO) counterparts, which means their c-axis alignment is more susceptible to the local strain generated by the secondary dopant of Y2O3. Considering the increasing strain field with higher BZO (or BHO doping), the higher susceptibility may result in a large portion of the BHO APCs moving away from perfect c-axis alignment and enhancing isotropic pinning with respect to the H orientation. This is confirmed since the BHO DD films illustrate a less pronounced J c peak at H//c-axis and hence more isotropic J c(θ) than their BZO DD counterparts. At 9.0 T, the variation of the J c across the entire θ range (0-90 degree) is less than 18% for the BHO DD film, in contrast to about 100% for the 2.0 vol.% BZO DD counterpart. At the higher BHO concentration of 6.0 vol.%, this higher tunability of the Y2O3 leads to increased ab-plane aligned BHO APCs and hence enhanced J c at H//ab-plane.

  20. Rapid rate sintering of nanocrystalline ZrO2-3 mol% Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.J.; Mayo, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional ramp-and-hold sintering with a wide range of heating rates was conducted on submicrometer and nanocrystalline ZrO 2 -3 mol% Y 2 O 3 powder compacts. Although rapid heating rates have been reported to produce high density/fine grain size products for many submicrometer and smaller starting powders, the application of this technique to ZrO 2 -3 mol% Y 2 O 3 produced mixed results. In the case of submicrometer ZrO 2 -3 mol% Y 2 O 3 , neither densification nor grain growth was affected by the heating rate used. In the case of nanocrystalline ZrO 2 -3 mol% Y 2 O 3 , fast heating rates severely retarded densification and had a minimal effect on grain growth. The large adverse effect of fast heating rates on the densification of the nanocrystalline powder was traced to a thermal gradient/differential densification effect. Microstructural evidence suggests that the rate of densification greatly exceeded the rate of heat transfer in this material; consequently, the sample interior was not able to densify before being geometrically constrained by a fully dense shell which formed at the sample exterior. This finding implies that rapid rate sintering will meet severe practical constraints in the manufacture of bulk nanocrystalline ZrO 2 -3 mol% Y 2 O 3 specimens

  1. Luminescence properties of Nd3+-doped Y2O3 nanoparticles in organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaoxia; Hou, Chaoqi; Lu, Jiabao; Gao, Chao; Wei, Wei; Peng, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Nd 3+ -doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles (Y 2 O 3 :Nd) with cubic phase were obtained successfully by a glycine-nitrate solution combustion method. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that the -OH groups residing on the nanoparticles surfaces were reduced effectively by modifying with capping agent. The modified Y 2 O 3 :Nd nanoparticles displayed good monodispersity and excellent luminescence in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent. Some optical parameters were calculated by Judd-Ofelt analysis based on absorption and fluorescence spectra. A relative large stimulated emission cross section, 1.7 x 10 -20 cm 2 , of the 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 11/2 transition was calculated. Theses results show that the modified Y 2 O 3 :Nd nanoparticles display good luminescence behavior in organic media. (orig.)

  2. Yb:Y2O3 transparent ceramics processed with hot isostatic pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Peng; Luo, Dewei; Yin, Danlei; Tang, Dingyuan; Kong, Ling Bing

    2017-09-01

    Highly transparent 5 at.% Yb:Y2O3 ceramics were fabricated by using a combination method of vacuum sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Co-precipitated Yb:Y2O3 powders, with 1 at.% ZrO2 as the sintering aid, were used as the starting material. The Yb:Y2O3 ceramics, vacuum sintered at 1700 °C for 2 h and HIPed at 1775 °C for 4 h, exhibited small grain size of 1.9 μm and highly dense microstructure. In-line optical transmittance of the ceramics reached 83.4% and 78.9% at 2000 and 600 nm, respectively. As the ceramic slab was pumped by a fiber-coupled laser diode at about 940 nm, a maximum output power of 0.77 W at 1076 nm was achieved, with a corresponding slope efficiency of 10.6%.

  3. Structural and photoluminescence studies of pure and Eu3+ doped Y2O3 oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packiyaraj, P.; Thangadurai, P.

    2013-01-01

    Pure and Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrolysis assisted co-precipitation method. Structural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction. The as-prepared Eu:Y 2 O 3 was amorphous yttrium hydroxides in nature and become crystalline Y 2 O 3 once annealed at 600℃ and 900℃. The particle size (13-23 nm) was dependent on annealing temperatures and Eu 3+ ion concentration. Photoluminescence studies showed weak emission bands at 581, 587, 593, and 599 nm, corresponding to the 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 transitions, and sharp peaks with a maximum intensity occurring at 611 nm, due to the 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transitions of Eu 3+ . (author)

  4. Interface phenomena in the Y2O3/(Al-Cu) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzilai, S.; Aizenshtein, M.; Froumin, N.; Frage, N.

    2006-01-01

    Wetting behavior and the interface reaction in the Y 2 O 3 /(Cu-Al) system were investigated at 1423 K. A contact angle of about 130 o was measured in the Y 2 O 3 /Cu system. Aluminum addition to copper improves wetting and the transition from non-wetting to wetting (θ ≤ 90 o ) was observed for the alloy with 50 at.% Al. The microstructure examination of the interface indicates that Al reacts with yttria, yttrium dissolves in the melt and a crater of AlYO 3 is formed at the substrate. The interface interaction in the Y 2 O 3 /(Cu-Al) system is in a good agreement with the results of a thermodynamic analysis in the Y-Al-Cu-O system. The crater depth and the macroscopic final contact angles are correlated with the Y and Al activities in the melt

  5. Preparation, characterization and luminescence of nanocrystalline Y2O3:Ho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljan, Tomislav; Gajovic, Andreja; Meic, Zlatko; Mestrovic, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Y 2 O 3 :Ho was synthesized by solution combustion method with ethylene glycol as fuel. Material was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction and TEM showed that the material is nanostructured. Luminescence properties were studied using Raman spectrometers with excitation in near infrared (NIR) and visible regions. The visible and NIR luminescence spectra of nanocrystalline Y 2 O 3 :Ho show some important differences from those of bulk material. The convenience of using Raman instruments for studying luminescence of lanthanide ions is demonstrated

  6. Phase transformation, morphology evolution and luminescence property variation in Y2O3: Eu hollow microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qin; Guo, Jing; Jia, Wenjing; Liu, Baocang; Zhang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report a general and facile method for the synthesis of Y 2 O 3 : Eu hollow microspheres. ► This method may be of great significance in the synthesis of many other hollow spherical materials. ► Phase, morphology and luminescence property were found to be strongly dependent on temperature and pH. ► The evolution process under various temperatures and pH values were discussed. ► The sample shows a strong red emission under short UV irradiation, and the lifetime is determined to be 7.0 ms. - Abstract: Y 2 O 3 : Eu hollow microspheres with average size of 500–600 nm have been successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method in the presence of sodium citrate as surfactant followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. High polymer F127(EO 106 PO 70 EO 106 ) served as a soft template in the formation of as prepared hollow microspheres. It is found that the pH values and the reaction temperature are two crucial factors in determining the phase, morphology and luminescence properties of the Y 2 O 3 : Eu hollow microspheres. Morphology evolution can be achieved by changing the pH and the reaction temperature. The properties of the Eu 3+ -doped Y 2 O 3 : Eu nanocrystals were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and UV–vis spectroscopy.

  7. Mechanical properties of tungsten alloys with Y2O3 and titanium additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, M.V.; Martin, A.; Pastor, J.Y.; LLorca, J.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this research the mechanical behaviour of pure tungsten (W) and its alloys (2 wt.% Ti-0.47 wt.% Y 2 O 3 and 4 wt.% Ti-0.5 wt.% Y 2 O 3 ) is compared. These tungsten alloys, have been obtained by powder metallurgy. The yield strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus have been studied in the temperature interval of 25 deg. C to 1000 deg. C. The results have shown that the addition of Ti substantially improves the bending strength and toughness of W, but it also dramatically increases the DBTT. On the other hand, the addition of 0.5% Y 2 O 3 , is enough to improve noticeably the oxidation behaviour at the higher temperatures. The grain size, fractography and microstructure are studied in these materials. Titanium is a good grain growth inhibitor and effective precursor of liquid phase in HIP. The simultaneous presence of Y 2 O 3 and Ti permits to obtain materials with low pores presence.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of Y2O3 dispersion strengthened copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, G.; Muñoz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Savoini, B.; Pareja, R.; Ballesteros, C.; Adeva, P.

    2014-01-01

    Three copper base materials were fabricated following different routes: cast Cu–1 wt.%Y (C-Cu1Y) produced by vacuum induction melting, and Cu–1 wt.%Y (PM-Cu1Y) and Cu–1 wt.%Y 2 O 3 (PM-Cu1Y 2 O 3 ) both processed by a powder metallurgy route and sintering by hot isostatic pressing. PM-Cu1Y alloy was prepared by cryomilling and PM-Cu1Y 2 O 3 by conventional milling at room temperature. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. C-Cu1Y presents a characteristic eutectic microstructure while PM-Cu1Y 2 O 3 exhibits a composite like microstructure. Electron microscopy analyses of as-HIP PM-Cu1Y revealed irregular decoration of yttrium-rich oxides at the grain boundaries and an inhomogeneous dispersion of polygonal shaped yttrium-rich oxides dispersed in the Cu matrix. Tensile tests performed on PM-Cu–1Y on the temperature range of 293–773 K have showed a decrease of the yield strength at temperatures higher than 473 K, and monotonically decrease of the ultimate tensile strength and maximum plastic strain on increasing temperature

  9. Laser sintering of ceramics of Y2O3 pure e doped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, T.C. de; Goncalves, R.S.; Silva, R.S. da

    2012-01-01

    The Yttria (Y 2 O 3 ) is one of the most promising materials for refractory and optical applications due mainly to its high corrosion resistance, wide range of optical transmission and high melting point. However, due to its high melting point, ceramic bodies to obtain high density Y 2 O 3 high temperatures and require special sintering. Recently it has been proposed in the literature a new method of sintering in which a CO 2 laser, in continuous mode, is employed as the primary source of heat during sintering. Irradiation with laser light produces heating surface at elevated temperatures in a time interval of a few seconds, allowing to obtain dense ceramic bodies at elevated temperatures and with different properties from those sintered by conventional methods. In this paper, Y 2 O 3 powders of pure and doped with Mn, Ca and Zn were synthesized by the polymeric precursors and after calcination at 600 ° C/4h showed single phase. For the production and characterization of the samples used techniques DTA / TG, XRD Dilatometry, SEM and Radioluminescence. The sintered ceramics had a high relative density and strong dependence on the dopant used, which accelerate the densification process. Measures Radioluminescence showed characteristic peaks of Y 2 O 3 and dependence on the dopant used. (author)

  10. Ultrasound assisted sonochemical synthesis of samarium doped Y2O3 nanostructures for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalaiah, K. N.; Nagabhushana, H.; Basavaraj, R. B.; Venkataravanappa, M.; Suresh, C.

    2018-04-01

    Sm3+ doped (1-11 mol %) cubic Y2O3 nanoflowers were fabricated by simple low temperature Sonochemical method using Aloe Vera gel as fuel. The product was characterized by PXRD, SEM, TEM, DRS, PL etc. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) profiles of nanophosphors showed cubic phase structure. The particle size was further confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and it was found to be in the range of 17-25 nm. The PL emission results reveal that the phosphor nanoparticles (NPs) emit an intensive yellowish light under 367 nm excitation. The excitation spectrum of Y2O3: Sm3+ (5 mol %) obtained by monitoring the emission of the 4f - 4f (4G5/2→6H7/2) transition of Sm3+ at 612 nm As can be seen that the excitation spectrum consists of strong band at 332 nm and a broad band centered at 367 nm which corresponds to host absorption, confirming the effective energy transfer from Y2O3 host to Sm3+ ions. In the present study, CIE and CCT were estimated and found to be (0.45688, 0.51727) and the CCT of Y2O3: Sm3+ at 367 nm excitation was found to be 3357 K which was within the range of vertical daylight. Thus it can be useful for artificial production of illumination devices.

  11. The effect of ZrO2 grinding media on the attrition milling of FeAl with Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedevanishvili, S.; Deevi, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Attrition milling of water and gas atomized FeAl was carried out with Y 2 O 3 , where ZrO 2 was used as a grinding media in place of stainless steel balls to avoid contamination with Cr and C. Consolidation of the milled powders produced complex FeAl phases containing Zr which doubled the hardness and significantly improved the creep resistance as compared to that of unmilled and consolidated FeAl

  12. Eu/Tb ions co-doped white light luminescence Y2O3 phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Dong; Liang Yujun; Liu Rong; Li Daoyi

    2011-01-01

    Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ phosphors with white emission are prepared with different doping concentration of Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ions and synthesizing temperatures from 750 to 950 deg. C by the co-precipitation method. The resulted phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results of XRD indicate that the crystallinity of the synthesized samples increases with enhancing the firing temperature. The photoluminescence spectra indicate the Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ co-doped Y 2 O 3 phosphors show five main emission peaks: three at 590, 611 and 629 nm originate from Eu 3+ and two at 481 and 541 nm originate from Tb 3+ , under excitation of 250-320 nm irradition. The white light luminescence color could be changed by varying the excitation wavelength. Different concentrations of Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ions were induced into the Y 2 O 3 lattice and the energy transfer from Tb 3+ →Eu 3+ ions in these phosphors was found. The Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity shows that the Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ phosphors can obtain an intense white emission. - Highlights: → Novel phosphors Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. → Samples emit white light with excellent color coordinates under UV excitation. → Luminescence color could be changed by varying the excitation wavelength. → Energy transfer from Tb 3+ →Eu 3+ ions in these phosphors was found.

  13. Dependence of photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity on Eu3+ and ZnO concentrations in Y2O3:Eu3+ and ZnO·Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Y2O3:Eu3+ and ZnO·Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphor powders with different concentrations of Eu3+ ions were synthesized by a sol–gel method and their luminescence properties were investigated. The red photoluminescence (PL) from Eu3+ ions with the main...

  14. Aerosol synthesis and characterization of nanostructured particles of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ and Y2O3:Eu3+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Katarina R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured YAG:Ce3+ and Y2O3:Eu3+ were synthesized by low temperature (320°C aerosol synthesis-LTAS and high temperature (900°C aerosol synthesis-HTAS, respectively. The synthesis included aerosol generation from a nitrate precursor solution by an ultrasonic atomizer (1.3 MHz. The obtained aerosol was introduced into a tubular flow reactor, using air as the carrier gas, where successively, on a droplet level, evaporation/drying, precipitation and thermolysis occurred. The obtained powders were collected and thermally treated at different temperatures (900-1200°C. The phase development and the morphology were investigated by the X-ray powder diffraction method (XRPD and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS. Structural refinement was performed using the Rietveld method with the Fullprof and Koalariet programs. The average crystallite size for the Y2O3:Eu system was calculated using the Profit program. It was shown that 89 wt.% of Y3Ai5Oi2:Ce was obtained by annealing (1000°C/6 h the as prepared, amorphous powder, synthesized by the low temperature aerosol method (LTAS. High temperature spray pyrolysis (HTAS at 900°C led to the formation of the targeted cubic phase of Y2O3:Eu3+. The microstructural parameters of the asprepared samples of the Y2O3:Eu3+ system indicate the formation of nanostructures with crystallite size smallest than 20 nm. The substitution of luminescent centers (Ce3+, Eu3+ into a host lattice (YAG, Y2O3, respectively was confirmed by changes in the crystal lattice parameters. Also, it was shown in both systems that good morphological characteristics (non-a­gglomerated, spherical, submicron particles were obtained enabling improved luminescent characteristics.

  15. Structural, optical and photo thermal properties of Er3+:Y2O3 doped PMMA nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanli, Sevcan; Eryurek, Gonul

    2018-02-01

    Thermal decomposition technique was employed to synthesize of phosphors of yttria (Y2O3) doped with erbium (Er3+) ions. After the synthesized procedure, the nano-sized crystalline powders were annealed at 800oC for 24 h. Annealed powders were embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by free radical polymerization to fabricate nanocomposite polymer materials. The crystalline structure of the powder and doped PMMA nanocomposite samples were determined using X-ray diffraction technique. Scherrer's equation and the FW1/5/4/5M method were used to determine average crystalline size and grain size distributions, respectively. The spectroscopic properties of the powders and doped PMMA nanocomposites were studied by measuring the upconversion emission spectra under near-infrared laser excitation at room temperature. The laser-induced photo thermal behaviors of Er3+:Y2O3 nano-powders and doped PMMA nanocomposite were investigated using the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technique.

  16. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of Y2O3:Eu nanophosphors prepared by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, Nguyen; Kim Anh, Tran; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Strek, W.

    2007-01-01

    Eu-doped Y 2 O 3 nanophosphors were prepared using combustion synthesis. In this method, urea was employed as a fuel. The particle size was estimated to be in the range of 10-20 nm as determined by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The photoluminescent and cathodoluminescent spectra are described by the well-known 5 D 0 →7 F J transition (J=0, 1, 2, etc.) of Eu 3+ ions with the strongest emission for J=2. The optical properties of nanophosphors were compared with commercial with an order of micrometer size. The effects of urea-to-metal nitrate molar ratio and the other synthesis conditions on the particle size and luminescent properties will be discussed in detail. The red emission of Eu-doped Y 2 O 3 nanophosphors is promising materials not only in high-resolution screen but also in telecomunication as well as in biosensor

  17. Luminescent Polymer Electrolyte Composites Using Silica Coated-Y2O3:Eu as Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikrajuddin Abdullah

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent polymer electrolyte composites composed of silica coated Y2O3:Eu in polyethylene glycol (PEG matrix has been produced by initially synthesizing silica coated Y2O3:Eu and mixing with polyethylene glycol in a lithium salt solution. High luminescence intensity at round 600 nm contributed by electron transitions in Eu3+ (5D0 -> 7F0, 5D0 -> 7F1, and 5D0 -> 7F3 transitions were observed. The measured electrical conductivity was comparable to that reported for polymer electrolyte composites prepared using passive fillers (non luminescent. This approach is therefore promising for production of high intensity luminescent polymer electrolyte composites for use in development of hybrid battery/display.

  18. Upconversion luminescence properties of Y2O3:Yb3+, Er3+ nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Gejihu; Qin Weiping; Zhang Jishen; Zhang Jishuang; Wang, Yan; Cao Chunyan; Cui Yang

    2006-01-01

    Cubic Y 2 O 3 nanostructures doped with Yb 3+ and Er 3+ ions were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. Three distinct shapes such as nanotubes, nanospheres and nanoflakes formed in the products by adjusting the pH value of reacting solution. Powder X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that all the three nanostructures are pure cubic phase, while electron microscopy measurements confirm the formation of different morphologies. These nanostructures exhibit strong visible upconversion luminescence under the excitation of a 978-nm diode laser. In Yb 3+ - and Er 3+ - codoped Y 2 O 3 nanocrystals, the relative intensity of green emission became stronger as the size and morphology of sample changed from tubes to flakes

  19. Mechanical properties of Y2O3-doped W-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, M.V.; Martin, A.; Pastor, J.Y.; LLorca, J.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.

    2010-01-01

    W and W alloys are currently considered promising candidates for plasma facing components in future fusion reactors but most of the information on their mechanical properties at elevated temperature was obtained in the 1960s and 1970s. In this investigation, the strength and toughness of novel Y 2 O 3 -doped W-Ti alloys manufactured by powder metallurgy were measured from 25 o C up to 1000 o C in laboratory air and the corresponding deformation and failure micromechanisms were ascertained from analyses of the fracture surfaces. Although the materials were fairly brittle at ambient temperature, the strength and toughness increased with temperature and Ti content up to 600 o C. Beyond this temperature, oxidation impaired the mechanical properties but the presence of Y 2 O 3 enhanced the strength and toughness retention up to 800 o C.

  20. Indentation studies on Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dransmann, G.W.; Steinbrech, R.W.; Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Heuer, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Stable indentation cracks were grown in four-point bend tests to study the fracture toughness of two Y 2 O 3 -stabilized ZrO 2 ceramics containing 3 and 4 mol% Y 2 O 3 . By combining microscopic in situ stable crack growth observations at discrete stresses with crack profile measurements, the dependence of toughness on crack extension was determined from crack extension plots, which graphically separate the crack driving residual stress intensity and applied stress intensity factors. Both materials exhibit steeply rising R-curves, with a plateau toughness of 4.5 and 3.1 MPa·m 1/2 for the 3- and 4-mol% materials, respectively. The magnitude of the plateau toughness reflects the fraction of tetragonal grain contributing to transformation toughening

  1. Size Determination of Y2O3 Crystallites in MgO Composite Using Mie Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-07

    embedded in a magnesium oxide (MgO) polycrystalline matrix. The calculation takes into account the volume fraction of Y2O3 in MgO, the average...release; distribution is unlimited. v Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL... principle , and the percent of theoretical density (TD) was calculated based on a TD of the mixture being 3.616 g/cm3. Table 1 Sample preparation

  2. UV, blue and red upconversion emission in Tm3+ doped Y2O3 phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Anurag; Kaushal Kumar; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Optimized solution combustion route has been adopted to prepare Tm 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 phosphor. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the doped phosphor for getting the structural information has been performed. Intense UV, blue and red emissions exhibiting narrow band have been monitored using 980 nm diode laser excitation. The origin of UV, blue and red upconversion emissions has been explained based on the available data. (author)

  3. Effects of Y2O3 upon mechanical properties of laser coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Deng; Yong Wang; Yaping Zhang; Jiacheng Gao

    2005-01-01

    @@ Roles of Y2O3 in mechanical properties of the bioceramic coating by the laser cladding were reported in this paper. The bonding strength of interface between the laser coatings with/without Y2O3 and substrate Ti-6Al-4V (TC4), bending strength, compressive strength, tensile strength, and hardness in these coatings were contrastively tested, and the ceramic-metal interface was observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). These results indicated that the rare earth was the important factor which influenced the mechanical properties of the coating. Y2O3 was adequately dispersed in the melting pool of the laser coating, crystal grain got smaller after the melted coating was cooled, the impurity existing in crystal interface was reduced by chemical reactions, and so the strength was evidently improved. On the other hand, the rare earth could also obviously increase the hole numbers in the coating and decrease the compressive strength. So the effects of the rare earth on the laser coating were intricate and all-purpose.

  4. Fundamental absorption of Y2O3 and YAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.N.; Kuznetsov, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    Reflection spectra in the range of 4-14 eV were measured for Y 2 O 3 and YAlO 3 crystals. The spectra of the following optical characteristics were calculated with the aid of the Kramers-Kroning relation: absorption, refraction, dielectric constant, and effective number of electrons. Excitons with an energy of 6.0 eV and an oscillator strength of f approximately 0.1 were found in Y 2 O 3 , and the width of the forbidden zone was determined (approximately 6.1 eV). The scheme of genealogy and arrangement of the plane zones of Y 2 O 3 , in which a substantial role is attributed to interaction of 5s and 4d states of yttrium cations, is proposed and discussed at the qualitative level. The range of the beginning of fundamental absorption (hν > or approximately 7.5 eV) was determined for YAlO 3 . The composition dependence of the width of the forbidden zone of aluminated Ysub(x)Alsub(y)Osub(z) is plotted

  5. Effects of four step sintering on Y2O3: SiO2 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlawat, Rachna

    2015-01-01

    Need for high performance materials for advanced applications have led to the development of new concepts in materials design processing and their fabrication. The development of nanocrystalline materials with improved and novel properties is an important turning point in materials research. In present work, we report synthesis and structural characterization of Y 2 O 3 : SiO 2 nanocomposite. Sol-gel technique is being used to prepare-Y 2 O 3 SiO 2 nanocomposite due to its effectiveness in preparing samples with good mixing of starting materials and at relatively low reaction temperature. We have used Y(NO 3 ) 3 .4H 2 O and TEOS as precursors and followed usual approach of sol-gel technique, the final product of Y 2 O 3 : SiO 2 nanocomposite is obtained in the form of powder. The powder samples were sintered at different temperature for different time durations in programmable muffle furnace. The samples were characterized by complementary techniques as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). (author)

  6. Preparation and properties of multifunctional Fe-C-Y2O3:Eu3+ nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingxing; Yang Xuwei; Yang Hua

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multifunctional Fe/Fe 3 O 4 -Y 2 O 3 : Eu nanocomposites were prepared by a solvothermal method. ► Their structure, magnetic and luminescent properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, excitation and emission spectra and vibration sample magnetometry (VSM). ► It is shown that the nanocomposites exhibit high saturation magnetization and strong red emission under UV-light. - Abstract: Multifunctional Fe-C-Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ nanocomposites were prepared by the solvo thermal method, and their structure, magnetic and luminescent properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results show that the nanocomposites are spherical with a mean diameter of 700 nm and there are high special saturation magnetization (47.4 emu/g) and strong red emission under UV-light. Even dispersed in water solution, the nanocomposites also exhibit a strong red emission under ultraviolet light radiation, and it could be manipulated using an external magnet. Thus it looks promising for application in biomedicine field, especially in drug targeting and fluorescence label. And we also discussed the effect of the electron transfer process between the Fe magnetic core and Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ shell.

  7. Optical properties of silica-coated Y2O3:Er,Yb nanoparticles in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Kunio; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka; Hara, Masahiko; Odawara, Osamu; Wada, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-adsorbed and silica-coated Y 2 O 3 :Er,Yb nanoparticles produced by using PVP were studied for potential bio-applications of upconversion nanoparticles. We utilized PVP to better disperse Y 2 O 3 :Er,Yb nanoparticles in solution and to prepare silica-coated Y 2 O 3 :Er,Yb nanoparticles. The fluorescent intensity of PVP-adsorbed Y 2 O 3 :Er,Yb nanoparticles was 1.25 times higher than non-adsorbed Y 2 O 3 :Er,Yb nanoparticles, which was probably due to surface defects in Y 2 O 3 :Er,Yb nanoparticles being covered by the PVP. However, the fluorescent intensity of silica-coated Y 2 O 3 :Er,Yb nanoparticles decreased as silica layer thickness increased. This could be ascribed to the higher vibrational energy of PVP than that of the silica structure. Therefore, the optimum silica layer thickness is important in bio-applications to avoid deterioration of the optical properties of Y 2 O 3 :Er,Yb nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We prepared the silica-coated upconversion nanoparticles by using PVP. • We showed that PVP played an important role in coating nanoparticles. • PL intensity of silica-coated nanoparticles decreased as silica layer thickness increased

  8. Red, yellow, blue and green emission from Eu3+, Dy3+ and Bi3+ doped Y2O3 nanophosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loitongbam, Romeo Singh; Rameshwor Singh, W.

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth elements (RE = Eu 3+ and Dy 3+ ) and Bi 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by urea hydrolysis method in ethylene glycol, which acts as reaction medium as well as capping agent, at a low temperature (140℃), followed by calcination of the obtained product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal that a highly uniform ovoid shaped Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles of around 100 nm size range were obtained in this method. The respective RE and Bi 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 precursor nanoparticles when heated at 600 and 750℃, retains the same shape as that of the as-synthesized Y 2 O 3 precursor samples. XRD pattern reveals the crystalline nature of the heated nanoparticles and indicate the absence of any impurity phase other than cubic Y 2 O 3

  9. Y2O3: Eu,Zn nanocrystals as a fluorescent probe for the detection of biotin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjkhanlou, Y.; Hosseinnia, A.; Kazemzad, M.; Khanlarkhani, A.; Moghaddam, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the application of nanocrystals (NCs) of the type Y 2 O 3 : Eu,Zn as a probe for the fluorescent detection of biotin in aqueous solution. The NCs were dispersed in water in the presence of various surface modifiers including mercaptoethanol (ME), monoethanolamine and ethylene glycol. Both the absorbance of surfactant and the stability of the suspensions were investigated in order to optimize the experimental conditions. ME is found to be the most suitable surfactant for stabilization of the suspended NCs. Their photoluminescence intensity is found to be quenched by biotin. The Stern-Volmer constant for the quenching process is 7.6 x 10 3 M -1 . This NC probe can be applied to the detection of biotin in the 1-60 μM concentration range with detection limit of 1.89 μM. The possible mechanisms of quenching also are discussed. (author)

  10. Spectrally shaped broadband study of up-conversion in Y2O3:Er3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, A.L.; Gagnon, E.; Tulchinsky, L.; Krebs, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel scheme for studying up-conversion through excited state absorption (ESA) by using a broadband excitation source with spectral shaping capabilities. Up-conversion processes have typically been investigated using a single, narrowband excitation source, when the two steps of the process are coincident in frequency, which is often made possible by broadening mechanisms of the intermediate excited state manifolds. Thus, narrowband sources are limited in the systems they can excite and what material information they can provide. With broadband light, we are able to drive up-conversion with non-coincident frequencies as well. Finally, by windowing the spectrum, we determine the optimal excitation bandwidth for low-concentration (1%) Y 2 O 3 :Er 3+ nanocrystals. - Highlights: • Broadband excitation light is used to drive up-conversion in Y 2 O 3 :Er 3+ . • Broadband light excites all available transitions in the two-photon process. • A spectral shaping technique is used to alter the excitation frequencies present. • The optimal excitation bandwidth is measured by windowing the spectrum. • Broadband excitation reveals information inaccessible by narrowband sources

  11. Nano-phases of ZrO2 doped with Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duteanu, Narcis; Monty, Claude

    2001-01-01

    This work reports the method of obtaining oxygen sensors by using nano-phases of ZrO 2 doped with Y 2 O 3 95% molar in thin layers. In the first phase it is necessary to prepare a substratum based on La 1-x Sr 30 MnO 3 . This substratum is obtained by grinding powders of base, followed by mixing and then by baking of the product. The nano-phases of ZrO 2 doped with Y 2 O 3 95% molar are obtained using solar energy in a solar furnace; in the focus the temperature has value of 3000 deg. C. Such temperatures are enough to realize the process of vapor condensation. The nano-phases obtained will have used in thin layers, representing the active element. This layers are obtained directly through the process of vapor condensation in solar focus or using the spray method. The goal of this work was obtaining oxygen sensors which function at low temperatures (below 300 deg. C), because the sensors which are found on market, operate at a temperature of 800 deg. C. Those sensors are used to obtain a good combustion with engines with internal combustion. (authors)

  12. Microstructural characterization of Y2O3 ODS-Fe-Cr model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Munoz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.; Marquis, E.A.; Lozano-Perez, S.; Jenkins, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Two Fe-12 wt% Cr alloys, one containing 0.4 wt% Y 2 O 3 and the other Y 2 O 3 -free, have been produced by mechanical alloying followed by hot isostatic pressing. These oxide dispersion strengthened and reference alloys were characterized both in the as-HIPed state and after tempering by transmission electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography. The as-HIPed alloys exhibited the characteristic microstructure of lath martensite and contained a high density of dislocations. Small voids with sizes 3 C and M 23 C 6 carbides (M = Cr, Fe) probably as a result of C ingress during milling. After tempering at 1023 K for 4 h the microstructures had partially recovered. In the recovered regions, martensite laths were replaced by equiaxed grains in which M 23 C 6 carbides decorated the grain boundaries. In the ODS alloy nanoparticles containing Y were commonly observed within grains, although they were also present at grain boundaries and adjacent to large carbides.

  13. Photoluminescent and Thermoluminescent Studies of Dy3+ and Eu3+ Doped Y2O3 Phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Tarkeshwari; Agrawal, Sadhana

    2018-01-01

    Eu 3+ doped and Dy 3+ codoped yttrium oxide (Y 2 O 3 ) phosphors have been prepared using solid-state reaction technique (SSR). The prepared phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) and Thermoluminescence (TL) properties were studied in detail. PL emission spectra were recorded for prepared phosphors under excitation wavelength 254 nm, which show a high intense peak at 613 nm for Y 2 O 3 :Dy 3+ , Eu 3+ (1:1.5 mol %) phosphor. The correlated color temperature (CCT) and CIE analysis have been performed for the synthesized phosphors. TL glow curves were recorded for Eu 3+ doped and Dy 3+ codoped phosphors to study the heating rate effect and dose response. The kinetic parameters were calculated using peak shape method for UV and γ exposures through computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) technique. The phosphors show second order kinetics and activation energies varying from 5.823 × 10 - 1 to 18.608 × 10 - 1  eV.

  14. Effect of Y2O3 on microstructure and mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al-20% Si alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ya-feng; XU Chang-lin; WANG Hui-yuan; LIU Chang; JIANG Qi-chuan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Y2O3 on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the hypereutectic Al-20%Si(mass fraction) alloy was investigated. The results show that, with the addition of Y2O3 into the Al-P-Ti-TiC modifier, the average size of primary silicon in th.e Al-20%Si alloy modified by Al-P-Ti-TiC-Y2O3 modifier (approximately 15μm or less) is significantly reduced, and the morphology of eutectic silicon changes from coarse acicular and plate like to refined fibrous. The Brinell hardness (HB189) and tensile strength (301 MPa) of Al-20%Si alloy modified by the Al-P-Ti-TiC-Y2O3 increase by 11.6% and 10.7%, respectively, for the alloys afrer heat treatment.

  15. Effect of Al and Y2O3 on Mechanical Properties in Mechanically Alloyed Nanograin Ni-Based Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Seok; Kim, Il-Ho

    2015-08-01

    The effects of aluminum and Y2O3 on the mechanical properties in nano grain Ni-based alloys have been investigated. The test specimens are prepared by mechanical alloying at an Ar atmosphere. The addition of Y2O3 and Al may cause an increase in the tensile strength at room temperature, 400 °C and 600 °C. However, it was confirmed that the increase of tensile strength at room temperature and 400 °C was predominantly caused by addition of Y2O3, while that at 600 °C was mainly due to addition of Al. These results can be attributed to the dispersion strengthening of Y2O3, preventing the formation of Cr2O3 and the change of fracture mode at 600 °C by the addition of Al.

  16. Bio-inspired synthesis of Y2O3: Eu(3+) red nanophosphor for eco-friendly photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna kumar, J B; Ramgopal, G; Vidya, Y S; Anantharaju, K S; Daruka Prasad, B; Sharma, S C; Prashantha, S C; Premkumar, H B; Nagabhushana, H

    2015-04-15

    We report the synthesis of Y2O3: Eu(3+) (1-11 mol%) nanoparticles (NPs) with different morphologies via eco-friendly, inexpensive and simple low temperature solution combustion method using Aloe Vera gel as fuel. The formation of different morphologies of Y2O3: Eu(3+) NPs were characterized by PXRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, UV-Visible and PL techniques. The PXRD data and Rietveld analysis confirms the formation of single phase Y2O3 with cubic crystal structure. The influence of Eu(3+) ion concentration on the morphology, UV-Visible absorption, PL emission and photocatalytic activity of Y2O3: Eu(3+) nanostructures were investigated. Y2O3: Eu(3+) NPs exhibit intense red emission with CIE chromaticity coordinates (0.50, 0.47) and correlated color temperature values at different excitation ranges from 1868 to 2600 K. The control of Eu(3+) ion on Y2O3 matrix influences the photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue (MB) as a model compound was evaluated under UVA light. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of conical shaped Y2O3: Eu(3+) (1 mol%) was attributed to dopant concentration, crystallite size, textural properties and capability of reducing the electron-hole pair recombination. The trend of inhibitory effect in the presence of different radical scavengers followed the order SO4(2-)>Cl(-)>C2H5OH>HCO3(-)>CO3(2-). These findings show great promise of Y2O3: Eu(3+) NPs as a red phosphor in warm white LEDs as well as eco-friendly heterogeneous photocatalysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Emission properties of polymer composites doped with Er3+:Y2O3 nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Krzysztof; Jusza, Anna; Baran, Magdalena; Lipińska, Ludwika; Piramidowicz, Ryszard

    2012-10-01

    In this work we report the recent results of our investigation on visible emission properties of the PMMA-based polymer nanocomposites doped with Er3+:Y2O3 nanopowders. The set of active nanopowders, and polymer films, differing in active ions concentration, was characterized with respect of their luminescent properties in the green spectral range, available to a limited extent for semiconductor lasers. In particular - the concentration dependent emission spectra and fluorescence dynamics profiles were measured under direct (single photon) and up-converted excitation, enabling the comparison of luminescent properties of developed nanocomposite materials and original nanopowders, optimization of erbium dopant concentration as well as discussion of excitation mechanisms and analysis of the efficiency of depopulation processes.

  18. Some regularities in aging of solid oxide electrolytes ZrO2+Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on the temperature effect on the rate and depth of aging of solid oxide electrolytes ZrO 2 +Y 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 +Ho 2 O 3 , stabilized by 10-15 mol.% R 2 O 3 following isothermal hold-up during 2000-3000 h in the 725-1550 deg C range in oxidizing medium. It was shown that solid electrolyte aging proceeds only at temperatures below a certain boundary value. The depth of complete aging at that increases with the R 2 O 3 concentration and a temperature decrease. The aging rate depends substantially on both temperature and concentration of a stabilizing addition. A decrease in the electric conductivity with time is accompanied by an increase in the conductivity activation energy

  19. Crystallization and characterization of Y2O3-SiO2 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Charles H., III; Lee, William E.; Sanders, W. A.; Kiser, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Glasses in the yttria-silica system with 20 to 40 mol pct Y2O3 were subjected to recrystallization studies after melting at 1900 to 2100 C in W crucibles in 1 and 50 atm N2. The TEM and XRD results obtained indicate the presence of the delta, gamma, gamma prime, and beta-Y2Si2O7 crystalline phases, depending on melting and quenching conditions. Heat treatment in air at 1100 to 1600 C increased the amount of crystallization, and led to the formation of Y2SiO5, cristabalite, and polymorphs of Y2Si2O7. Also investigated were the effects of 5 and 10 wt pct zirconia additions.

  20. Structure and Properties of the Fe/Y2O3 Interface from First Principles Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Samrat; Stanek, Christopher R.; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2012-01-01

    Fundamentals of radiation damage are: (1) Formation of Frenkel pair (interstitial-vacancy pair) defects in the lattice; (2) Concentration of Frenkel pair defects >>> thermal equilibrium thermodynamic concentration; and (3) The radiation damage response of a material is determined by the fate of these excess Frenkel pair defects in the lattice. The objective is to understand the electronic and atomic structure of Fe/Y 2 O 3 interface and segregation behavior of the alloying elements at the interface. The significance of the results of this report are: (1) Provides a science based approach to design new radiation resistant materials. Obtained two controlling parameters - Dislocation density (composition, orientation relationship) and Oxygen partial pressure; (2) Applicable to any other metal/oxide interfaces (both functional and structural properties at the interface) - (a) Nano Catalysts: Oxide-supported metal catalysts Ni/ZrO 2 , (b) Thermal barrier coatings (Ni/Al 2 O 3 ), (c) Corrosion of metals and alloys.

  1. Fluctuation kinetics of fluorescence hopping quenching in the Nd3+:Y2O3 spherical nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlovskii, Yu.V.; Popov, A.V.; Platonov, V.V.; Fedorenko, S.G.; Sildos, I.; Osipov, V.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study the peculiarities of energy transfer kinetics from the 4 F 3/2 laser level in the Nd 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 spherical nanoparticles of monoclinic phase synthesized by laser ablation of solid targets with subsequent recondensation in flow of air at atmospheric pressure comparing to the similar bulk crystal. We show that the fluorescence quenching in the nanoparticles is determined by two processes depending on Nd 3+ concentration and the degree of dehydration. At concentrations less than 1% the fluorescence quenching is mainly determined by direct (static) quenching by vibrations of OH − molecular groups associated with oxygen vacancies. At concentrations greater than 1 at % quenching is due to energy migration over neodymium ions, followed by the Nd 3+ –OH − quenching. In the latter case, the first time in a solid-state impurity laser medium we observe non-stationary kinetics on the entire length of a time-dependent luminescence quenching, starting from static decay and ending with fluctuation kinetics of fluorescence hopping quenching. -- Highlights: ► We prepare monoclinic Nd 3+ :Y 2 O 3 spherical NPs of mean D=12 nm by laser ablation of solid targets. ► We detect the fluorescence quenching of Nd 3+ the 4 F 3/2 level by vibrations of OH – molecular groups. ► We find that at 0.1% of Nd 3+ the process of static quenching by vibrations of OH – dominates. ► We find that Nd 3+ –Nd 3+ energy migration accelerates the Nd 3+ –OH − quenching at 1% of Nd 3+ . ► We detect non-stationary quenching kinetics ending with fluctuation stage of hopping quenching

  2. Eu3+-doped Y2O3 hexagonal prisms: Shape-controlled synthesis and tailored luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Errui; Li, Guangshe; Fu, Chaochao; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Xinsong; Xu, Wen; Li, Liping

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach, which involves water at the bottom as aqueous phase and oleylamine in the above as oil phase. With this unique reaction system, precursors of hexagonal prisms Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) were first obtained by simply varying the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. Time-dependent experiments were systematically performed to reveal the growth mechanism of the precursor. After subsequent heat treatment, these precursors transformed to Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms with controlled diameters and aspect ratios varying from 4 to 19. Such a transformation is preceded via a topotactic process, as indicated by TG-DTA and mass spectra. Eventually, all Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were found to exhibit an intensive red emission at 611 nm, which corresponds to 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition of Eu 3+ . With varying the aspect ratio of hexagonal prisms and increasing Eu 3+ concentration in Y 2 O 3 , an optimum external quantum efficiency was achieved. - Graphical abstract: In this work, Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms with controlled aspect ratio from 4.4 to 19.3 were synthesized by transformation of the precursor Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) hexagonal prisms from a novel two-phase reaction system. The growth mechanism of the precursor has been systematically investigated, and a topotactic phase transformation from precursors to cubic Y 2 O 3 is for the first time put forward. By the size controlling and aspect ratio adjusting, the luminescence emission intensity as well as external quantum efficiency of Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms is further tailored to show an optimum. - Highlights: • Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach. • Inheriting mechanism of prisms morphology from Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) to Y 2 O 3 was discussed. • Aspect ratio of prisms was tailored by the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. • Luminescence properties were

  3. Synthesis, Optical and Electrochemical Properties of Y2O3 Nanoparticles Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Thulasingam; Raj, Srinivasan Gokul; Chandar, Nagamuthu Raja Krishna; Jayavel, Ramasamy

    2015-06-01

    Y2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation route using yttrium nitrate hexahydrate and ammonium hydroxide as precursors. The prepared sample was calcined at 500 degrees C and subjected to various characterization studies like thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-visible (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The XRD pattern showed the cubic fluorite structure of Y2O3 without any impurity peaks, revealing high purity of the prepared sample. TEM images revealed that the calcined Y2O3 nanoparticles consist of spherical-like morphology with an average particle size of 12 nm. The absorption spectrum of calcined samples shows blue-shift compared to the as-prepared sample, which was further confirmed by PL studies. The possible formation mechanism of Y2O3 nanoparticles has been discussed based on the experimental results. Electrochemical behavior of Y2O3 nanoparticles was studied by cyclic voltammetry to assess their suitability for supercapacitor applications.

  4. Effect of Ga2O3 addition on the properties of Y2O3-doped AlN ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect Ga2O3 addition on the densification and properties of Y2O3-doped AlN ceramics was investigated under the constraint of total sintering additives (Y2O3 and Ga2O3 of 4.5 wt%. Ga was detected in the AlN grain as well as the grain boundary phases. YAlO3 and Y4Al2O9 were observed as the secondary crystalline phases in all of the investigated compositions. As the substitution of Ga2O3 for Y2O3 increased, the quantity of the Y4Al2O9 phase decreased while that of YAlO3 was more or less similar. Neither additional secondary phases was identified, nor was the sinterability inhibited by the Ga2O3 addition; the linear shrinkage and apparent density were above 20 percent and 3.34-3.37 g/cm3, respectively. However, the optical reflectance and the elastic modulus generally decreased whereas the Poisson ratio increased significantly. The dielectric constant and the loss tangent of 4.0Y2O3-0.5Ga2O3-95.5Y2O3 at the resonant frequency of 8.22 GHz were 8.63 and 0.003, respectively.

  5. Thermoluminescent response of Y2O3:Ce,Eu irradiated with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez J, F. del R.; Sosa A, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The thermoluminescent response of various materials has been studied when irradiated with X-rays, and the parameters that characterize the order of the kinetics of the material, depth of traps and frequency have been determined. The objective of this project was to characterize the thermoluminescent response of dosimeters based on yttrium oxide (Y 2 O 3 ) irradiated with X-rays. To do this, the thermoluminescent response of the Y 2 O 3 :Ce,Eu dosimeter was measured and exposed to an X-ray radiation field; five levels of radiation were used: in the first, a potential of 53.5 kv was used and a working load of 5.6 m As, in the second: 70.0 kv, 12.5 m As; in the third: 81.0 kv, 20.0 m As; in the fourth: 109 kv, 32 m As, in the fifth: 121 kv, 80.0 m As, applying an exposure range between 17.7 and 40 R. The irradiation was performed exposing the sample at 104 cm from the focus of the X-ray tube. To obtain the readings of the thermoluminescent response, a Harshaw TLD 3500 reader was used. The data captured by the reader was processed using the WinREMS software. The deletion protocol was as follows: the dosimeters already read were placed, one hour in the Terlab MA12D muffle at a temperature of (400 ± 1) degrees centigrade, the dosimeters were removed and left at room temperature of 20 degrees centigrade for 20 minutes. Then they were placed in the Binder high temperature oven ED23 at 100 ± 1 centigrade degrees for 2 hours. The brightness curves were de convolved using the WebPlotDigitizer v 3.8 software and the individual peaks of the brightness curves were obtained. We found that: the synthesized materials presented a good thermoluminescent response when irradiated with X-rays. However, only one of the dosimeters, of Yttrium oxide doped with 0.5% Cerium, showed a relatively linear response in the applied dose range. The analysis made to the brightness curve of the Yttrium oxide doped with Cerium at 0.5%, applying the method of the three points for the parameters

  6. Enhancement of flux pinning of TFA-MOD YBCO thin films by embedded nanoscale Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, X M; Tao, B W; Tian, Z; Xiong, J; Zhang, X F; Li, Y R

    2006-01-01

    YBCO films with different levels of excess yttrium were prepared on single-crystal LaAlO 3 with metal-organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope measurements revealed excess yttrium in YBCO in the form of nanoscale Y 2 O 3 with (400) preferred orientation. The field dependence of J c demonstrated that YBCO films with Y 2 O 3 doping had enhanced J c in comparison with stoichiometric YBCO films in the magnetic fields. We think the reason for this is that the Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles act as pinning centres. YBCO films with 60% yttrium excess display 43% increased J c compared to stoichiometric YBCO films at a magnetic field of 1 T

  7. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of AlN-Y2O3 ceramics after ionising irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Bos, A.J.J.; Winkelman, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    , an essential drawback of AlN-Y2O3 is its high fading rate. Special attention has been focused on understanding and improving the fading properties. In particular, the influence of the ceramics production conditions and the additive concentration on the fading rate have been studied. Experimental results......Thermally (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were studied in AlN-Y2O3 ceramics after irradiation with ionising radiation. The extremely high TL sensitivity (approximately 60 times the sensitivity of LiF:Mg,Tl (TLD-100)) makes AlN-Y2O3 ceramics attractive as a TLD material. However...... on spectral properties and thermal evolution of OSL are also presented. The stimulation spectrum covers the spectral range from green to infrared light. A combination of thermal and optical stimulation allowed a correlation to be found between parameters of OSL and TL after the same irradiation dose...

  8. The fundamental study for Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 containing simulated TRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Ken-ichi; Kamizono, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Issei; Muraoka, Susumu; Yanagi, Tadashi.

    1991-06-01

    Borosilicate glass waste form is considered to be the most suitable material for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). However when the salt-free process on Purex method is adopted and the group partitioning technique of HLW is completely developed, ceramic waste forms which are excellent in thermal stability seem better for the immobilization of hazardous TRU elements. This work is a fundamental study on the solidification of TRU with Y 2 O 3 -stabilized ZrO 2 . In this work, Ce and Nd were used as substitutes for Pu and Am or Cm. TZ-8Y (submicron powder) and designed Ce(NO 3 ) 3 or Nd(NO 3 ) 3 solution were mixed into paste. After dried, the paste was pelletized by the rubber press, and then sintered at 1400degC for 16h. Densities of the sintered pellets were measured and their microstructure was observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that (1) the relative density of ceramic pellet sample was as high as 96.4%, (2) each element was distributed homogeneously and only cubic phase existed. From leach tests in nitric acid and distilled water at 150degC, those ceramic pellet samples showed aqueous corrosion rates which were about 10 2 to 10 3 times lower than that of a glass waste form(PO500). (author)

  9. Anti-bombing insensitivity life of molybdenum cathode doped with La2O3 and Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinshu; Wang Yiman; Zhou Meiling

    2006-01-01

    Anti-bombing insensitivity of La 2 O 3 -Y 2 O 3 -Mo secondary emitter has been studied in this paper. The variation of maximum secondary emission coefficient δ max with time was measured. The cathode after life experiment was analyzed by means of HRM, SEM, EDS and XRD. The results showed that δ max of La 2 O 3 -Y 2 O 3 -Mo cathode operating at 1100 deg. C under continuous electron bombardment of 300 W/cm 2 was still about 2.5 after 1000 h operation, indicating that this kind of cathode had good anti-bombing insensitivity. In the internal part of the cathode, RE 2 O 3 (rare earth oxide) and molybdenum grains distributed alternately and there existed a certain relationship between crystallographic orientation of RE 2 O 3 and that of molybdenum. It was found that a RE 2 O 3 layer was formed on the surface after operation. The high δ max of La 2 O 3 -Y 2 O 3 -Mo cathode was related to the RE 2 O 3 layer on the surface and the amount of nanosized La 2 O 3 particles on the Y 2 O 3 layer

  10. Pulsed laser deposition of YBCO coated conductor using Y2O3 as the seed and cap layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P N; Nekkanti, R M; Haugan, T J; Campbell, T A; Yust, N A; Evans, J M

    2004-01-01

    Although a variety of buffer layers have been routinely reported, a standard architecture commonly used for the Y Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) coated conductor is Y BCO/CeO 2 /Y SZ/CeO 2 /substrate or Y BCO/CeO 2 /Y SZ/Y 2 O 3 /substrate where ceria is typically the cap layer. CeO 2 is generally used as only a seed (or cap layer) since cracking within the film occurs in thicker CeO 2 layers due to the stress of lattice mismatching. Y 2 O 3 has been proposed as a seed and as a cap layer but usually not for both in a given architecture, especially with all layers deposited in situ. Yttrium oxide films grown on nickel by electron beam evaporation processes were found to be dense and crack free with good epitaxy. In this report, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of Y 2 O 3 is given where Y 2 O 3 serves as both the seed and cap layer in the YBCO architecture. A comparison to PLD CeO 2 is provided. Deposited layers of the YBCO coated conductor are also grown by laser ablation. Initial deposition resulted in specimens on textured Ni substrates with current densities of more than 1 MA cm -2 at 77 K, self-field

  11. Luminescence study on Eu3+ doped Y2O3 nanoparticles: particle size, concentration and core-shell formation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L Robindro; Ningthoujam, R S; Sudarsan, V; Srivastava, Iti; Singh, S Dorendrajit; Dey, G K; Kulshreshtha, S K

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles of Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 (core) and Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 covered with Y 2 O 3 shell (core-shell) are prepared by urea hydrolysis for 3 h in ethylene glycol medium at a relatively low temperature of 140 deg. C, followed by heating at 500 and 900 deg. C. Particle sizes determined from x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies are 11 and 18 nm for 500 and 900 deg. C heated samples respectively. Based on the luminescence studies of 500 and 900 deg. C heated samples, it is confirmed that there is no particle size effect on the peak positions of Eu 3+ emission, and optimum luminescence intensity is observed from the nanoparticles with a Eu 3+ concentration of 4-5 at.%. A luminescence study establishes that the Eu 3+ environment in amorphous Y (OH) 3 is different from that in crystalline Y 2 O 3 . For a fixed concentration of Eu 3+ doping, there is a reduction in Eu 3+ emission intensity for core-shell nanoparticles compared to that of core nanoparticles, and this has been attributed to the concentration dilution effect. Energy transfer from the host to Eu 3+ increases with increase of crystallinity

  12. Flame-Sprayed Y2O3 Films with Metal-EDTA Complex Using Various Cooling Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Toyama, Ayumu; Sekiya, Tetsuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Atsushi; Toda, Ikumi; Ohshio, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films were synthesized from a metal-ethylenediaminetetraacetic (metal-EDTA) complex by employing a H2-O2 combustion flame. A rotation apparatus and various cooling agents (compressed air, liquid nitrogen, and atomized purified water) were used during the synthesis to control the thermal history during film deposition. An EDTA·Y·H complex was prepared and used as the staring material for the synthesis of Y2O3 films with a flame-spraying apparatus. Although thermally extreme environments were employed during the synthesis, all of the obtained Y2O3 films showed only a few cracks and minor peeling in their microstructures. For instance, the Y2O3 film synthesized using the rotation apparatus with water atomization units exhibited a porosity of 22.8%. The maximum film's temperature after deposition was 453 °C owing to the high heat of evaporation of water. Cooling effects of substrate by various cooling units for solidification was dominated to heat of vaporization, not to unit's temperatures.

  13. Unclonable Security Codes Designed from Multicolor Luminescent Lanthanide-Doped Y2O3 Nanorods for Anticounterfeiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Nagpal, Kanika; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2017-04-26

    The duplicity of important documents has emerged as a serious problem worldwide. Therefore, many efforts have been devoted to developing easy and fast anticounterfeiting techniques with multicolor emission. Herein, we report the synthesis of multicolor luminescent lanthanide-doped Y 2 O 3 nanorods by hydrothermal method and their usability in designing of unclonable security codes for anticounterfeiting applications. The spectroscopic features of nanorods are probed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ , Y 2 O 3 :Tb 3+ , and Y 2 O 3 :Ce 3+ nanorods emit hypersensitive red (at 611 nm), strong green (at 541 nm), and bright blue (at 438 nm) emissions at 254, 305, and 381 nm, respectively. The SEM and TEM/HRTEM results reveal that these nanorods have diameter and length in the range of 80-120 nm and ∼2-5 μm, respectively. The two-dimensional spatially resolved photoluminescence intensity distribution in nanorods is also investigated by using confocal photoluminescence microscopic technique. Further, highly luminescent unclonable security codes are printed by a simple screen printing technique using luminescent ink fabricated from admixing of lanthanide doped multicolor nanorods in PVC medium. The prospective use of these multicolor luminescent nanorods provide a new opportunity for easily printable, highly stable, and unclonable multicolor luminescent security codes for anti-counterfeiting applications.

  14. Luminescence properties of Y2O3:Bi3+, Yb3+ co-doped phosphor for application in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Kroon, R. E.; Terblans, J. J.; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    Bismuth (Bi3+) and ytterbium (Yb3+) co-doped yttrium oxide (Y2O3) phosphor powder was successfully synthesised using the co-precipitation technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed that a single phase cubic structure with a Ia-3 space group was formed. The visible emission confirmed the two symmetry sites, C2 and S6, found in the Y2O3 host material and revealed that Bi3+ ions preferred the S6 site as seen the stronger emission intensity. The near-infrared (NIR) emission of Yb3+ increased significantly by the presence of the Bi3+ ions when compared to the singly doped Y2O3:Yb3+ phosphor with the same Yb3+ concentration. An increase in the NIR emission intensity was also observed by simply increasing the Yb3+ concentration in the Y2O3:Bi3+, Yb3+ phosphor material where the intensity increased up to x = 5.0 mol% of Yb3+ before decreasing due to concentration quenching.

  15. Broadband near infrared quantum cutting in Bi–Yb codoped Y2O3 transparent films on crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Minghao; Wang Ruzhi; Chen Yan; Zhang Ying; Li Kaiyu; Yan Hui

    2012-01-01

    By a pulsed laser deposition technique the efficient broadband near-infrared downconversion Bi–Yb codoped crystallization Y 2 O 3 transparent films have been grown successfully on Si (1 0 0) substrates. Upon excitation of ultraviolet photon varying from 300 to 400 nm, the near infrared quantum cutting has been obtained, which is originated from the transitions of the transition-metal Bi 3+3 P 1 level to Yb 3+2 F 5/2 level. The downconversion quantum efficiency of films is estimated to be 152%. The transparent Y 2 O 3 films may have potential application in enhancing the conversion efficiency of crystalline Si solar cells. - Highlights: ► The downconversion Y 2 O 3 :Bi,Yb films has good transparency. ► Y 2 O 3 :Bi,Yb films possess a broadband absorption in the UV region of 300–400 nm. ► The films may have potential application in enhancing the efficiency of c-Si cells.

  16. Performance improvement induced by asymmetric Y2O3-coated device structure to carbon-nanotube-film based photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanglin; Xu, Haitao; Huang, Huixin; Ma, Ze; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2017-11-01

    Film-based semiconducting carbon nanotube (CNT) photodetectors are promising candidates for industrial applications. However, unintentional doping from the environment such as water/oxygen (H2O/O2) redox, polymers, etc. changes the doping level of the CNT film. Here, we evaluate the performance of film-based barrier-free bipolar diodes (BFBDs), which are basically semiconducting CNT films asymmetrically contacted by perfect n-type ohmic contact (scandium, Sc) and p-type ohmic contact (palladium, Pd) at the two ends of the diode. We show that normal BFBD devices have large variances of forward current, reverse current, and photocurrent for different doping levels of the channel. We propose an asymmetric Y2O3-coated BFBD device in which the channel is covered by a layer of an Y2O3 film and an overlap between the Sc electrode and the Y2O3 film is designed. The Y2O3 film provides p-type doping to the channel. The overlap section increases the length of the base of the pn junction, and the diffusion current of holes is suppressed. In this way, the rectifier factors (current ratio when voltages are at +0.5 V and -0.5 V) of the asymmetric Y2O3-coated BFBD devices are around two orders of magnitude larger and the photocurrent generation is more stable compared to that of normal devices. Our results provide a way to conquer the influence of unintentional doping from the environment and suppress reverse current in pn diodes. This is beneficial to applications of CNT-based photodetectors and of importance for inspiring methods to improve the performances of devices based on other low dimensional materials.

  17. Tensile and fracture toughness properties of the nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy 13Cr-1W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiselt, Ch.Ch.; Klimenkov, M.; Lindau, R.; Moeslang, A.; Odette, G.R.; Yamamoto, T.; Gragg, D.

    2011-01-01

    The realization of fusion power as an attractive energy source requires advanced structural materials that can cope with ultra-severe thermo-mechanical loads and high neutron fluxes experienced by fusion power plant components, such as the first wall, divertor and blanket structures. Towards this end, two variants of a 13Cr-1W-0.3Ti-0.3Y 2 O 3 reduced activation ferritic (RAF-) ODS steel were produced by ball milling phase blended Fe-13Cr-1W, 0.3Y 2 0 3 and 0.3Ti powders in both argon and hydrogen atmospheres. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The as-HIPed alloys were then hot rolled into 6 mm plates. Microstructural, tensile and fracture toughness characterization of the hot rolled alloys are summarized here and compared to results previously reported for the as-HIPed condition.

  18. Development of process route for the production of Fe-0.12C-9CR-2W-0.35Y2O3 ODS alloy tubing for Indian FBR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Tonpe, S.; Jha, S.K.; Kapoor, Komal; Dubey, A.K.; Gurunadh, J.; Surender, A.; Deshpande, K.V.K.; Maity, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of Nuclear Renaissance, India is playing key role in generation of clean and green Nuclear Energy. It has entered into its second stage Nuclear Power Program on commercial scale with the commencement of construction of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam. Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad is playing a crucial role in the manufacture of all the critical sub-assemblies in SS (D9) grade materials for this reactor. The SS(D9) material with controlled cold work is having very good void swelling resistance and high temperature properties, which can sustain fluence of 100 dpa. The paper covers the manufacturing process and characterization of the ODS tubes for fuel clad application. Manufacturing of 9 Cr 2W Y 2 O 3 - ODS martensitic steel fuel cladding tube has been taken up in Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad with mechanical alloying followed by MS canning of mechanically alloyed powder, upsetting and hot extrusion and subsequently thermo mechanical process. Manufacturing technology of ODS steel tube is critical with respect its chemical composition, dimensional tolerances, Y 2 O 3 particle size and its distribution and achievement of mechanical properties with proper combination of cold working and heat treatment. The paper covers the manufacturing process and characterization of the ODS tubes for fuel clad application. Manufacturing process for the production of ODS alloy (9 Cr 2W Y 2 O 3 - ODS) has been optimized for mass scale production at NFC

  19. Synthesis of ZrO2-8%CeO2 and ZrO2-8%Y2O3 by polymeric precursors route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, D.A.; Macedo, M.C.; Melo, D.M.A.; Nascimento, R.M.; Rabelo, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The stabilization of zirconia in the cubical and tetragonal structures comes gaining importance because of its excellent thermal stability, chemical resistance, mechanical properties and oxygen conductivity. Its main applications include electrolytes of high temperature fuel cells, sensors of oxygen and electrochemical reactors. In this work the polymeric precursors route was used to synthesize ZrO 2 -8 mol% Y 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 -8 mol%CeO 2 . In this process the dopant concentration, besides making possible the stabilization of distinct structures, influences in the morphologic characteristics of the powders synthesized. The characterization of the powders was carried through X-ray diffraction for existing phases verification and average crystallite size, thermogravimetric analysis, specific surface area measures, particles size distribution by laser scattering and the powder morphology was observed using scanning electronic microscopy. The powder only calcined at 700 deg C had presented of average crystallite size of 6,77 nm for ZrO 2 -8%Y 2 O 3 and 7,14 nm for ZrO 2 -CeO 2 . (author)

  20. Intergranular phase of the Si3 N4 hot pressed with Mg O/Y2 O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Celio A.; Todd, Judith A.

    1997-01-01

    Monolithic and composite Si 3 N 4 hot-pressed with 3% Mgo or 6% Y 2 O 3 were analyzed with X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed materials to be composed of β-Si 3 N 4 grains and an intergranular phase which was partially crystalline and partially amorphous. For the materials sintered with Mg O, the identification of the intergranular phase was not conclusive. For the materials sintered with Y 2 O 3 . It was observed that the amount of intergranular crystalline phase decreased as whiskers were added to the material and the intergranular crystalline part had a crystallographic structure similar to yttrium-silicon-oxide-nitride family. (author)

  1. Optical investigation of Tb3+-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals prepared by Pechini-type sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, M.; Massari, A.; Boffelli, M.; Gonella, F.; Riello, P.; Cristofori, D.; Riccò, R.; Enrichi, F.

    2012-01-01

    We report an optical study of Tb 3+ -doped Y 2 O 3 nanocrystals synthesized by Pechini-type sol–gel method. The particles are investigated in terms of size and morphology by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis. It is shown how the simple Pechini method allows for the growth of monocrystalline nanoparticles with a volume-weighted average size of about 30 nm. The optical properties of Tb 3+ in the host lattice are studied in terms of PL, PLE, and lifetimes. Moreover, a correlation between the type of decay curves, the emission and excitation bands' shapes, and the site location of the emitting Tb 3+ in the host material Y 2 O 3 is proposed.

  2. Effect of K3PO4 addition as sintering inhibitor during calcination of Y2O3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, K.; Okumura, Y.; Tsuji, K.; Venkatachalam, N.

    2009-11-01

    Erbium-doped yttrium oxide nanoparticle is one of the most important for fluorescence bioimaging under near infrared excitation. Particle size of it below 100 nm is an important requirement for a cellular bioimaging. However, the synthesis with such small particles is difficult at the calcination temperature above 1200 °C due to the sintering and crystal growth of the particles. In this study, yttrium oxide nanoparticles with average size of 30 nm were successfully synthesized by using K3PO4 as a sintering inhibitor during the calcination. A single phase of cubic Y2O3 as the resultant material was confirmed by XRD, which was also confirmed to emit a bright upconversion emission under 980-nm excitation. Improvement of chemical durability due to the introduction of phosphate group on the surface of the Y2O3 particles is also reported.

  3. Repair behavior of He+-irradiated W-Y2O3 composites after different temperature-isochronal annealing experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; Tan, Xiao-Yue; Luo, Lai-Ma; Zan, Xiang; Liu, Jia-Qin; Xu, Qiu; Zhu, Xifao-Yong; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    W-2%Y2O3 composites were prepared by wet chemical and powder metallurgy. Commercial roll tungsten was selected as a comparative sample in the He+ irradiation experiment. The experiment was conducted under He+ beam energy of 50 eV, irradiation dose of approximately 9.9 × 1024 ions/m2, and temperature of 1503-1553 K. The samples were annealed at 1173, 1373, and 1573 K for 1 h. The irradiation surface was observed in situ. The W-2%Y2O3 composites and pure tungsten displayed different grain orientation damage morphologies. In addition, the fuzzy structure was more likely to converge densely at the phase interface. Annealing repairs material surface irradiation damage, whereas the phase interface acts as a He+ migration channel.

  4. Microstructure and tensile properties of in situ synthesized (TiB+Y2O3)/Ti composites at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Ke; Lu Weijie; Zhang Di

    2003-01-01

    A novel titanium matrix composites reinforced with TiB and rare earth oxides (Y 2 O 3 ) were prepared by a non-consumable arc-melting technology. Microstructures of the composites were observed by means of optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to identify the phases in the composites. There are three phases: TiB, Y 2 O 3 and titanium matrix alloy. TiB grows in needle shape, whereas Y 2 O 3 grows from near-equiaxed shape to dendritic shape with increase of yttrium content in the composite. The interfaces between reinforcements and titanium matrix are very clear. There is no interfacial reaction. Tensile properties of the composites were tested at 773, 823 and 873 K. Both the fracture surfaces and longitudinal sections of the fractured tensile specimens were comprehensively examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The fracture mode and fracture process at different temperatures were analyzed and explained. The results show that the tensile strength of the composites has a significant improvement at elevated temperatures. The predominant fracture mode of composites is cleavaged at 773 and 823 K. Fracture occurs by ductile failure at 873 K

  5. Nanostructured ZnO/Y2O3:Eu for use as fillers in luminescent polymer electrolyte composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Panatarani, Camellia; Kim, Tae-Oh; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnO/Eu and ZnO/Y 2 O 3 :Eu composites have been produced by hydrolizing a mixture of zinc acetate, yttrium acetate and europium acetate in ethanol solution, followed by mixing with lithium hydroxide. By analyzing the ICP data, XRD patterns and luminescence emission spectra we concluded that the europium and yttrium compounds appeared as coating layer on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. Without heating, these layers were in amorphous state and transformed into crystalline state after annealing at temperatures of above 600 deg. C around 30 min. We observed the presence of lithium hydroxide concentration threshold below which no coating layer was formed on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. The emission intensity of ZnO/Y 2 O 3 :Eu was found to increase with increasing annealing temperature, while the crystalline size of Y 2 O 3 (close to 20 nm) decreased with increasing the annealing temperature. The powder produced might be used as fillers in luminescent polymer electrolyte composites, which can produce two colors, i.e., red (Eu emission) when excited using a wavelength of around 254 nm and green (emitted by ZnO nanoparticles) when excited using a wavelength of around 365 nm

  6. Luminescence and scintillation enhancement of Y2O3:Tm transparent ceramic through post-fabrication thermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, M.G.; Marchewka, M.R.; Roberts, S.A.; Schmitt, J.M.; McMillen, C.; Kucera, C.J.; DeVol, T.A.; Ballato, J.; Jacobsohn, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of post-fabrication thermal processing in O 2 flux on the luminescence and scintillation of a Y 2 O 3 :Tm transparent ceramic were investigated. The results showed that the strategy of post-fabrication processing can be beneficial to the performance of the ceramics, depending on the cumulative processing time. After the first hour of processing, about 40% enhancement in the luminescence output together with about 20% enhancement in the scintillation light yield were obtained. The enhancements were tentatively assigned to the incorporation of oxygen into vacancy sites. Longer cumulative processing times lead to the incorporation of oxygen as interstitials that is detrimental to scintillation light yield but not to luminescence output. This work also revealed that thermoluminescence measurements are a useful tool to predict scintillation light yield of Y 2 O 3 :Tm. - Highlights: • Scintillation and PL enhancement of transparent ceramics through thermal processing. • First thermoluminescence measurements of Y 2 O 3 :Tm above room temperature. • Observation of correlation between TL and scintillation light yield results

  7. Y2O3:Yb/Er nanotubes: Layer-by-layer assembly on carbon-nanotube templates and their upconversion luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Weishi; Shen, Jianfeng; Wan, Lei; Chang, Yu; Ye, Mingxin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Well-shaped Y 2 O 3 :Yb/Er nanotubes have been successfully synthesized on a large scale via layer-by-layer assembly on carbon nanotubes templates followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. The as-prepared Y 2 O 3 :Yb/Er nanotubes show a strong red emission corresponding to the 4 F 9/2 – 4 I 15/2 transition of the Er 3+ ions under excitation at 980 nm. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Well-shaped Y 2 O 3 :Yb/Er nanotubes have been successfully synthesized. ► CNTs were used as templates for Y 2 O 3 :Yb/Er nanotubes. ► LBL assembly and calcination were used for preparation of Y 2 O 3 :Yb/Er nanotubes. ► The as-prepared Y 2 O 3 :Yb/Er nanotubes show a strong red emission. -- Abstract: Well-shaped Y 2 O 3 :Yb/Er nanotubes have been successfully synthesized on a large scale via layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) templates followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. The crystal structure, element analysis, morphology and upconversion luminescence properties were characterized. XRD results demonstrate that the diffraction peaks of the samples calcinated at 800 °C or above can be indexed to the pure cubic phase of Y 2 O 3 . SEM images indicate that a large quantity of uniform and rough nanotubes with diameters of about 30–60 nm can be observed. The as-prepared Y 2 O 3 :Yb/Er nanotubes show a strong red emission corresponding to the 4 F 9/2 – 4 I 15/2 transition of the Er 3+ ions under excitation at 980 nm, which have potential applications in such fields as nanoscale devices, molecular catalysts, nanobiotechnology, photonics and optoelectronics.

  8. Y2O3-MgO Nano-Composite Synthesized by Plasma Spraying and Thermal Decomposition of Solution Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoto, Chigozie Kenechukwu

    This research aims to identify the key feedstock characteristics and processing conditions to produce Y2O3-MgO composite coatings with high density and hardness using solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) and suspension plasma spray (SPS) processes, and also, to explore the phenomena involved in the production of homogenized nano-composite powders of this material system by thermal decomposition of solution precursor mixtures. The material system would find potential application in the fabrication of components for optical applications such as transparent windows. It was shown that a lack of major endothermic events during precursor decomposition and the resultant formation of highly dense particles upon pyrolysis are critical precursor characteristics for the deposition of dense and hard Y2O3-MgO coatings by SPPS. Using these principles, a new Y2O3-MgO precursor solution was developed, which yielded a coating with Vickers hardness of 560 Hv. This was a considerable improvement over the hardness of the coatings obtained using conventional solution precursors, which was as low as 110 Hv. In the thermal decomposition synthesis process, binary solution precursor mixtures of: yttrium nitrate (Y[n]) or yttrium acetate (Y[a]), with magnesium nitrate (Mg[n]) or magnesium acetate (Mg[a]) were used in order to study the effects of precursor chemistry on the structural characteristics of the resultant Y2O3-MgO powders. The phase domains were coarse and distributed rather inhomogeneously in the materials obtained from the Y[n]Mg[n] and Y[a]Mg[a] mixtures; finer and more homogeneously-distributed phase domains were obtained for ceramics produced from the Y[a]Mg[n] and Y[n]Mg[a] mixtures. It was established that these phenomena were related to the thermal characteristics for the decomposition of the precursors and their effect on phase separation during oxide crystallization. Addition of ammonium acetate to the Y[n[Mg[n] mixture changed the endothermic process to exothermic

  9. Nanosecond Tm:Y2O3 ceramic laser passively Q-switched by a Ho:LuAG ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Haitao; Wang, Shiqiang; Shen, Deyuan

    2018-02-01

    A passively Q-switched 2.05-μm Tm:Y2O3 ceramic laser, employing Ho:LuAG ceramic as a saturable absorber, was demonstrated for the first time. Under the absorbed pump power of 20.5 W, a maximum output power of 497 mW was obtained. Pulses with a minimum pulse width of 642 ns under the repetition rate of 33 kHz were achieved. Our works validate that Ho-doped materials have good potential for passive Q-switching of Tm-doped lasers at 2-μm wavelength region.

  10. The photoluminescent properties of Y2O3:Bi3+, Eu3+, Dy3+ phosphors for white-light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiumei; Feng, Xu; Qi, Xiwei; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Mingya

    2014-05-01

    Bi3+, Eu3+, Dy3+ activated Y2O3 phosphors were prepared through the sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the resulting phosphors. The XRD patterns show the refined crystal structure of Y2O3. The energy transfer processes of Bi(3+)-Eu3+ occurred in the host lattices. The thermal stability of Y2O3:Bi3+, Eu3+, Dy3+ phosphors was studied. Under short wavelength UV excitation, the phosphors show excellent characteristic red, blue, and yellow emission with medium intensity.

  11. Synthesis of Y2O3: Eu added the group 1 or 2 elements using complex-polymerization and its luminescent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Mi; Jang, Ho G.; Kim, Chang Hae; Park, Joung Kyu; Park, Hee Dong

    2001-01-01

    Europium activated yttrium oxide (Y 2 O 3 :Eu) is extensively applied to red phosphor for Flat Panel Display because of its high efficiency and the thermal and chemical stability. Flat Panel Display screen which have a high resolution and high efficiency needs to the phosphors of ideally small size spherical particle. In this study, we prepared a Y 2 O 3 :Eu phosphor using polymeric precursor methods and investigated the codoping effect by introducing the group 1 or 2 elements to Y 2 O 3 :Eu phosphor in view of improvement of luminance efficiency

  12. Optical properties of highly crystalline Y2O3:Er,Yb nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunokawa, Takashi; Odawara, Osamu; Wada, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Y 2 O 3 :Er,Yb nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation in water. We investigated crystallinity, distribution of dopant, and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles. The full-width half-maximum (FWHD) of the crystalline peak of nanoparticles measured by an x-ray diffractometer (XRD) barely changed. Further, using scanning transmission electron microscopy–energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (STEM–EDX), we confirmed the peaks of Y, Er, Yb, and O. Moreover, on the basis of the optical properties of the nanoparticles, the emission of red ( 2 F 9/2  →  4 I 15/2 ) and green ( 2 H 11/2 , 4 S 3/2  →  4 I 15/2 ) was confirmed. We also investigated the emission intensity as a function of the excitation power of 980 nm LD in the prepared nanoparticles. The photon avalanche effect was observed at the excitation power of 100 mW. These results confirmed that uniformly Er-Yb-doped Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared by laser ablation in water. (paper)

  13. Growth of Yb3+-doped Y2O3 single crystal rods by the micro-pulling-down method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, J.H.; Novoselov, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Boulon, G.; Fukuda, T.

    2005-01-01

    The rare-earth sesquioxides (RE 2 O 3 , RE = Lu, Y and Sc) are very promising host crystals for advanced laser diode (LD)-pumped Yb 3+ -doped solid-state lasers due to unusual combination, almost unique of favourable structural, thermal and spectroscopic properties which are described. In spite of these favourable properties, the bulk single crystal growth technology for the rare-earth sesquioxides has not been established yet. The extremely high melting temperature at around 2400 deg. C has prevented it. However, we shall show that yttrium oxide crystals (Yb x Y 1-x ) 2 O 3 , x = 0.0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.15 of cylindrical shape as laser rods with 4.2 mm in diameter and 15-20 mm in length have been grown from rhenium crucibles by the micro-pulling-down method. The crystal quality characterisation of undoped Y 2 O 3 crystal was determined using X-ray rocking curve (XRC) analysis. Yb were homogeneously distributed in Y 2 O 3 host crystal

  14. Quantitative determination of phases in ZrO2 (MgO) (Y2O3) using the Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Antonio Carlos de

    2007-01-01

    The key objective of this work is the crystallographic characterization of the zircon co-doped with Yttria and magnesium with the application of the Rietveld method for quantitative phase analysis of zircon polymorph (zircon monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic). Samples of zircon polymorph were obtained from zircon doped with Yttria and magnesium at defined molar concentrations. The zircon polymorph stability during subeutetoid aging at 1350 deg C were investigated to determine ZrO 2 - MgO - Y 2 0 3 phases degradation and to define the solid solutions stability environment. ZrO 2 powders doped with 8 mol por cent of MgO and 1 mol por cent of Y 2 O 3 , and 9 mol por cent of MgO and 0 mol por cent of Y 2 O 3 have been prepared by chemical route using the co-precipitation method. These samples have been calcinate at 550 deg C, sintered at 1500 deg C and characterized by the Rietveld method using the X-ray diffraction data. The variation of the lattice parameter, changes in the phase composition and their microstructures are discussed. The application of the Rietveld method for quantitative phase analysis of zircon polymorph (zircon tetragonal and cubic) reveals no formation of tetragonal phase and indicating that the matrix is the cubic phase with low concentration of monoclinic phase.(author)

  15. In situ Raman spectroscopy of phase transformation in CrOx-Y2O3 system at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Liqiong; Lu Jiqing; Bi Qingyuan; Pu Zhiying; Guo Ming; Wang Yuejuan; Luo Mengfei

    2010-01-01

    A CrO x -Y 2 O 3 sample was prepared by a deposition-precipitation method and phase transformation of the sample under N 2 and air atmospheres was characterized by in situ Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It was found that when the CrO x -Y 2 O 3 sample was heated, CrO 3 transformed to YCrO 4 and then to YCrO 3 and Cr 2 O 3 . Also, the transformation started from the surface region of the sample and then extended to the bulk, due to the fact that the phase transformation was detected by Raman spectroscopy at lower temperature compared to that by XRD. In addition, both atmosphere and temperature had influence on the phase transformation in the surface region, while the phase transformation in the bulk was merely dependent on the temperature. It was also found that low oxidation state Cr(III) species on the surface could be re-oxidized to high oxidation state Cr(V) or Cr(VI) species when the thermal treated sample was exposed to ambient air.

  16. Directed laser processing of compacted powder mixtures Al2O3-TiO2-Y2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phase formation, microstructure and surface texture of laser treated ternary powder mixtures of Al2O3-TiO2-Y2O3 had been studied. Rapid high temperature heating and subsequent rapid cooling due to the directed movement of the laser beam forms concave ceramic tracks. Phase composition and microstructure of the tracks depends on the Al2O3 content and the TiO2/Y2O3 ratio of the initial mixtures. The main phases observed are Y3Al5O12, Y2Ti2O7, Al2O3 and Al2TiO5. Due to the temperature gradient in the heating zone, complex layered structures are formed. The tracks consist of three main layers: a thin surface layer, a layer of crystallization products of eutectic alloys, and a lower sintered layer. The thickness of the crystallization layer and the shrinkage of the irradiation zone depend on the amount of Y3Al5O12 and Al2O3 crystallized from the melt.

  17. Bioimaging of M1 cells using ceramic nanophosphors: Synthesis and toxicity assay of Y2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, N; Soga, K; Tsuji, T; Okumura, Y; Fukuda, R

    2009-01-01

    Er 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by enzymatic and polymer-assisted homogeneous co-precipitation methods. Resultant particle size is about 30-40 nm with narrow size distribution whereas the particle size is smaller than those acquired by conventional homogeneous and alkali precipitation methods. The particles shows bright green (550 nm) and red (660 nm) upconversion (UC) as well as near infrared (NIR) fluorescence (1550 nm) under 980 nm excitation. Bioimaging of M1 cells using the nanoparticles were successfully attempted. It is observed that 0.5 mg/ml of nanoparticles is the nominal concentration for bioimaging of M1 cells under the physiological conditions. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles is evidenced from bright field, UC and NIR fluorescence images of live M1 cells. Our studies suggest that lower concentration of nanoparticles is sufficient for imaging when the particles are taken in the M1 cells and also the concentration can keep the cells alive. Further it was demonstrated that under the physiological conditions, Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles emit UC and NIR fluorescence in M1 cells even after the surface modification with PEG-b-PAAc polymer. Moreover, surface modified nanoparticles shows lower toxic effect in M1 cells while compare to bare nanoparticles.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and upconversion emission properties of the nanocrystals of Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3-YOF-Y2O3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhihua; Zheng Longzhen; Zhang Luning; Xiong Leyan

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Yb 3+ , Er 3+ -codoped fluoride (YF 3 ), oxyfluoride (YOF), and oxide (Y 2 O 3 ) phosphors have been synthesized by a facile pyrolysis of a yttrium trifluoroacetate precursor. YF 3 , YOF and Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles were demonstrated to be good host materials for lanthanides. Varied hosts led to different optical properties. Red, green, and blue up-conversion (UC) was observed upon excitation in the NIR spectral range in all synthesized compounds. The UC mechanisms were also analyzed

  19. Sintering of nanopowders of ZrO_2 (Y_2O_3): Effect of compaction pressure on densification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmeira, Alexandre Alvarenga; Magnago, Roberto de Oliveira; Pereira, Glayce Cassaro; Bondioli, Marcelo Jose; Strecker, Kurt; Santos, Claudinei dos

    2014-01-01

    In this work studied the powders (nano) sintered of ZrO_2 (Y_2O_3) by dilatometry. Was identified the effect of compaction pressure variation in the final results of densification of materials. Powders were compacted at different compaction pressures. The compacts were subjected to temperatures of 1250°C to 1400°C with sintering levels ranging from 0 to 8 hours. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and relative density using Archimedes method. The results were compared with powders (micro) of similar composition in order to compare the effect of particle size on densification parameters. The samples were further subjected to microstructural characterization in order to identify the average grain size of the sintering under each condition used in both materials. (author)

  20. Investigation of hydrogen adsorption centers on Y2O3 by IR-spectroscopy method in diffusive-scattered light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, S.A.; Borovkov, V.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    Adsorption of hydrogen and carbon oxide at the yttrium oxide at 80 K (5x30 3 PaH 2 ) and 300 K (6.5x10 2 PaCO) respectively are studied by the method of IR spectroscopy. It is shown, that at the surface of yttrium oxide trained in vacuum at 970 K, at least four types of centres of hydrogen adsorption, able to polarize H-H bond in a molecule, exist. Acid-base couple is the highest polarized centre, in the content of which there is a coordination-unsaturated highly-charged yttrium cation. Low-temperature dissociation of hydrogen on Y 2 O 3 surface occurs on the centres which polarized H-H bond in molecule comparatively slow

  1. Adhesion of Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 coatings to typical aerospace substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marraco-Borderas, C.; Nistal, A.; Garcia, E.; Sainz, M.A.; Martin de la Escalera, F.; Essa, Y.; Miranzo, P.

    2016-01-01

    High performance lightweight materials are required in the aerospace industry. Silicon carbide, carbon fiber reinforced carbon and slicon carbide composites comply with those requirements but they suffer from oxidation at the high temperature of the service conditions. One of the more effective approaches to prevent this problem is the use of protecting ceramic coatings, where the good adhesion between substrates and coatings are paramount to guarantee the optimal protection performance. In the present work, the adhesion between those substrates and glass coatings of the Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system processed by oxyacetylene flame spraying is analyzed. Increasing load scratch tests are employed for determining the failure type, maximum load and their relation with the elastic and mechanical properties of the coatings. The results points to the good adhesion of the coatings to silicon carbide and carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide while the carbon fiber reinforced carbon is not a suitable material to be coated. (Author)

  2. Blue and green emission from Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-doped Y2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loitongbam, Romeo Singh; Singh, W. Rameshwor; Phaomei, Ganngam; Singh, N. Shanta

    2013-01-01

    Tb 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles of 4–10 nm size were synthesized from nitrate precursors by the urea hydrolysis method in ethylene glycol medium at a low temperature of 140 °C. Characteristic green emission of Tb 3+ corresponding to 5 D 4 → 7 F J is observed to be very strong, which is further enhanced with heat treatment temperature. Characteristic blue color emission of Ce 3+ ion originating from 5d→ 2 F 7/2 (424 nm) and 2 F 5/2 (486 nm) transitions are found to be very strong in as-synthesized Ce 0.02 Tb 0.06 Y 1.92 O 3 nanoparticles. However, its luminescence intensity decreases with increase in heating temperature or increase in the particle size/crystallinity, whereas a weak emission peak of Tb 3+ ion at 545 nm is witnessed. The polycrystalline nature of the as-prepared sample changed to highly crystalline state when heated at an elevated temperature (1200 °C). -- Highlights: • Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles doped with Tb 3+ and Ce 3+ of 4–10 nm are synthesized. • Strong green emission of Tb 3+ from 5 D 4 → 7 F J transition is observed. • Strong blue emission of Ce 3+ from 5d→ 2 F 7/2 and 2 F 5/2 transitions is observed. • Ce 3+ emission decreases with annealing or increase in particle size. • Such nanoparticles can be used in LEDs and bio-labeling

  3. Thermal stability of the grain structure in the W-2V and W-2V-0.5Y2O3 alloys produced by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, J.; Savoini, B.; Monge, M.A.; Muñoz, A.; Armstrong, D.E.J.; Pareja, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • W-2V and ODS W-2V-0.5Y 2 O 3 alloys have been produced following a powder metallurgy route. • Grain microstructure and microhardness have been studied after isothermal treatments in vacuum. • Both alloys exhibit a duplex grain size population: a submicron-sized grain and a coarse grained one. • The Y 2 O 3 addition inhibits growth of the coarse grains for T 2 O 3 nanoparticles enhance the microhardness of W-2V-0.5Y 2 O 3 . -- Abstract: W-2V and ODS W-2V-0.5Y 2 O 3 alloys have been produced following a powder metallurgy route consisting of mechanical alloying and a subsequent high isostatic pressing HIP at 1573 K. The grain microstructure and microhardness recovery of the alloys have been studied in samples subjected to isothermal treatments in vacuum in temperature range 1073–1973 K. Both alloys exhibit a duplex grain size distribution consisting of a submicron-sized grain and a coarse-grained population. It has been found that the Y 2 O 3 addition inhibits growth of the coarse grains at T 2 O 3 , respectively, was observed at T ≥ 1573 K. It resulted that the rate constant for grain growth is 30 times higher in W-2V-0.5Y 2 O 3 than in W-2V. The considerable enhancement of the microhardness in the W-2V-0.5Y 2 O 3 appears to be associated to dispersion strengthening

  4. Effect of Y2O3 Nanoparticles on Critical Current Density of YBa2Cu3O7-x Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H. D.; Reddy, Sreekantha; Wie, C. H.; Kang, B.; Oh, Sang Jun; Lee, Sung Ik

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of proper impurity into YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thin films is an effective way to enhance its flux-pinning properties. We investigate effect of Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the critical current density J c of the YBCO thin films. The Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles were created perpendicular to the film surface (parallel with the c-axis) either between YBCO and substrate or on top of YBCO, YBCO/Y 2 O 3 /LAO or Y 2 O 3 /YBCO/STO, by pulsed laser deposition. The deposition temperature of the YBCO films were varied (780 degree C and 800 degree C) to modify surface morphology of the YBCO films. Surface morphology characterization revealed that the lower deposition temperature of 780 degree C created nano-sized holes on the YBCO film surface which may behave as intrinsic pinning centers, while the higher deposition temperature produced much denser and smoother surface. J-c values of the YBCO films with Y 2 O 3 particles were either remained nearly the same or decreased for the samples in which YBCO is grown at 780 degree C. On the other hand, J-c values were enhanced for the samples in which YBCO is grown at higher temperature of 800 degree C. The difference in the effect of Y 2 O 3 can be explained by the fact that the higher deposition temperature of 800 degree C reduces intrinsic pinning centers and J c is enhanced by introduction of artificial pinning centers in the form of Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles.

  5. Phase relations in the ZrO2-Nd2O3-Y2O3 system. Experimental study and CALPHAD assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrichnaya, Olga; Savinykh, Galina; Schreiber, Gerhard; Seifert, Hans J.

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamic parameters of the Nd 2 O 3 Y 2 O 3 system were re-assessed for better reproduction of experimental data. The thermodynamic parameters were combined from binary descriptions to calculate phase diagrams for the ternary system ZrO 2 -Nd 2 O 3 Y 2 O 3 . The calculated phase diagrams were used to select compositions for the experimental studies at 1250, 1400 and 1600 C. The samples were synthesised by co-precipitation and heat treated at 1250-1600 C, investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was found that solubility of the Y 2 O 3 in the pyrochlore phase exceeds 10 mol.%. The experimental data obtained for phase equilibria were used to derive thermodynamic parameters for fluorite, Y 2 O 3 cubic phase C, monoclinic B and Nd 2 O 3 hexagonal A phases by CALPHAD method. The isothermal sections and liquidus surface were calculated for the ZrO 2 -Nd 2 O 3 Y 2 O 3 system. (orig.)

  6. Effects of Er3+ concentration on UV/blue upconverted luminescence and a three-photon process in the cubic nanocrystalline Y2O3:Er3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Shan Guiye; Chao Kefu; Zhang Youlin; Liu Ruilin; Feng Liyun; Zeng Qinghui; Sun Yajuan; Liu Yichun; Kong Xianggui

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)/blue upconverted luminescent properties of the cubic Y 2 O 3 :Er 3+ nanocrystals as a function of the erbium concentration were investigated upon 488 nm Ar + laser excitation. The remarkable decrease of upconverted emission intensity and the quenching of the 2 P 3/2 → 4 I 11/2 / 4 I 13/2 transitions were observed in the Y 2 O 3 nanocrystals with high erbium concentration. The emission spectra and the exciting power dependence of upconverted luminescent intensities reveal that the possible upconversion mechanisms are excited-state absorption (ESA) and energy transfer (ET). Moreover, a UV/violet upconverted emission spectrum of nanocrystalline Y 2 O 3 :Er 3+ upon 980 nm light excitation was also observed and a three-photon process made a contribution to this upconverted emission

  7. The performance of Y2O3 as interface layer between La2O3 and p-type silicon substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulong Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of Y2O3 as interface layer between La2O3 and p-type silicon substrate is studied with the help of atomic layer deposition (ALD and magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology of the bilayer films with different structures are observed after rapid thermal annealing (RTA by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results show that Y2O3/Al2O3/Si structure has a larger number of small spikes on the surface and its surface roughness is worse than Al2O3/Y2O3/Si structure. The reason is that the density of Si substrate surface is much higher than that of ALD growth Al2O3. With the help of high-frequency capacitance-voltage(C-V measurement and conductivity method, the density of interface traps can be calculated. After a high temperature annealing, the metal silicate will generate at the substrate interface and result in silicon dangling bond and interface trap charge, which has been improved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and interface trap charge density calculation. The interface trapped charge density of La2O3/Al2O3/Si stacked gate structure is lower than that of La2O3/Y2O3/Si gate structure. If Y2O3 is used to replace Al2O3 as the interfacial layer, the accumulation capacitance will increase obviously, which means lower equivalent oxide thickness (EOT. Our results show that interface layer Y2O3 grown by magnetron sputtering can effectively ensure the interface traps near the substrate at relative small level while maintain a relative higher dielectric constant than Al2O3.

  8. Diode-pumped high power 2.7 μm Er:Y2O3 ceramic laser at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Huang, Haitao; Shen, Deyuan; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hao; Tang, Dingyuan

    2017-09-01

    Investigation of room temperature laser performance of the polycrystalline Er:Y2O3 ceramic at 2.7 μm with respect to dopant concentrations was conducted. With 7 at.% Er3+ concentration Er:Y2O3 ceramic as laser gain medium, over 2.05 W of CW output power at 2.7 μm was generated with a slope efficiency of 11.1% with respect to the absorbed LD pump power. The prospects for improvement in lasing efficiency and output power are considered.

  9. Tetragonal-cubic phase boundary in nanocrystalline ZrO2-Y2O3 solid solutions synthesized by gel-combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabregas, Ismael O.; Craievich, Aldo F.; Fantini, Marcia C.A.; Millen, Ricardo P.; Temperini, Marcia L.A.; Lamas, Diego G.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Gel-combustion synthesis yields compositionally homogeneous, single-phased ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 nanopowders, that exhibit the presence at room temperature of three different phases depending on Y 2 O 3 content, namely two tetragonal forms (t' and t'') and the cubic phase. → Phase identification can be achieved by synchrotron XPD (SXPD) and Raman spectroscopy since the tetragonal forms and the cubic phase can be distinguished by these techniques. → The crystallographic features of ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 nanopowders were determined by SXPD. They are similar to those reported by Yashima and coworkers for compositionally homogeneous materials containing larger (micro)crystals. However, the lattice parameters are slightly different and the axial ratios c/a of our t' samples are smaller than those reported by these authors. → Compositional t'/t'' and t''/cubic phase boundaries are located at (9 ± 1) and (10.5 ± 0.5) mol% Y 2 O 3 , respectively. → For the whole series of nanocrystalline ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 solid solutions studied in the present work, no evidences of the presence of a mixture of phases - as reported by Yashima and coworkers for microcrystalline solid solutions - were detected. - Abstract: By means of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXPD) and Raman spectroscopy, we have detected, in a series of nanocrystalline and compositionally homogeneous ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 solid solutions, the presence at room temperature of three different phases depending on Y 2 O 3 content, namely two tetragonal forms and the cubic phase. The studied materials, with average crystallite sizes within the range 7-10 nm, were synthesized by a nitrate-citrate gel-combustion process. The crystal structure of these phases was also investigated by SXPD. The results presented here indicate that the studied nanocrystalline ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 solid solutions exhibit the same phases reported in the literature for compositionally homogeneous materials containing larger (micro

  10. Preparation of Au/Y2O3 and Au/NiO catalysts by co-precipitation and their oxidation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreethawong, Thammanoon; Sitthiwechvijit, Norsit; Rattanachatchai, Apiwat; Ouraipryvan, Piya; Schwank, Johannes W.; Chavadej, Sumaeth

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The catalytic activity of Au catalysts supported on Y 2 O 3 and NiO prepared by co-precipitation was investigated for CO and methanol oxidation. → The phase transformation of yttrium support greatly affected the CO oxidation activity. → The Au/Y 2 O 3 exhibited the same activity as Au/NiO for the methanol oxidation while the Au/NiO gave higher activity for CO oxidation. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to investigate the catalytic activity of gold catalysts supported on two metal oxides, yttrium oxide and nickel oxide, prepared by co-precipitation for CO and methanol oxidation reactions. The TGA and XRD results confirmed that yttrium hydroxide (Y(OH) 3 ) was formed at calcination temperature below 300 deg. C. When it was calcined at 400 deg. C, the Y(OH) 3 was transformed to yttrium oxide hydroxide (YOOH). Finally, when calcination temperature was raised to 600 deg. C, the YOOH was completely transformed to yttrium oxide (Y 2 O 3 ). Interestingly, the gold loaded on YOOH calcined at 400 deg. C and gold loaded on Y 2 O 3 calcined at 500 deg. C comparatively showed the highest catalytic activity for complete CO oxidation at a reaction temperature of 300 deg. C. The 0.12% Au/Y 2 O 3 catalyst calcined at 500 deg. C was employed for both CO and methanol oxidation studies. For complete CO oxidation, the reaction temperatures of Au/Y 2 O 3 and Au/NiO catalysts were 325 deg. C and 250 deg. C, respectively. The light-off temperatures of Au/Y 2 O 3 and Au/NiO catalysts for methanol oxidation were 210 deg. C and 205 deg. C, respectively. Conclusively, the Au/Y 2 O 3 clearly exhibited the same activity as that of Au/NiO for methanol oxidation while the Au/NiO gave higher activity for CO oxidation.

  11. Synthesis and mechanical properties of stabilized zirconia ceramics: MgO-ZrO_2 and Y_2O_3-MgO- ZrO_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, C.; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H.; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Precursor MgO-ZrO_2 and Y_2O_3-MgO-ZrO_2 ceramic powders were synthesized by the method of co-precipitation and characterized by techniques such as laser diffraction, QELS (Quasi Elastic Light Scattering), XRD, BET, and SEM. Nanoscale powders with specific surface area higher than 60 m"2. g"-"1 was achieved. Sintered ceramic obtained from the synthesized powders, were characterized to mechanical tests using Vickers indentation technique. The addition of Y_2O_3 promoted an increase in hardness of the ceramics and total cubic crystalline phase stabilization. (author)

  12. Properties of lithium disilicate reinforced with ZrO_2 (3mol%Y_2O_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.F.R.P.; Cossu, C.M.F.A.; Santos, C.; Simba, B.G.

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of dental ceramics based on lithium disilicate, Li_2Si_2O_5, allows the production of restorative prosthetic with reduced times compared to alumina and / or zirconia (Y-TZP). A great limitation of their use is related low fracture strength of such glass-ceramics, which reduces their use in unit fixed prosthesis. In this work, lithium disilicate reinforced with 10% ZrO_2 (3-mol% Y_2O_3) is characterized by relative density, crystalline phase, hardness, fracture toughness and microstructural aspects. Lithium metasilicate and tetragonal zirconia, prior to heat treatment. After thermal treatment under vacuum at 840 deg C-8min the lithium metasilicate is converted to lithium disilicate as the ZrO_2 phase remains in the tetragonal structure. This maintenance of the tetragonal phase ensures the material a good fracture toughness, reaching average values near 2MPam"1"/"2, while the average hardness of 600HV. Morphological analysis of the samples indicates that ZrO_2 particles are uniformly dispersed in the matrix composed of high aspect ratio lithium disilicate grains, which contributes to the results presented.. A critical analysis of the performance of toughening mechanisms such as cracks deflection, phase transformation of ZrO_2 (T-M), residual stress between the matrix and the reinforcement are presented, discussed and compared with other ceramic materials used in dentistry restorer. (author)

  13. Gamma-induced defect production in ZrO2-Y2O3 crystals with different defectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurov, M.Kh.; Amonov, M.Z.; Rakov, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The defectiveness degree of ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 crystals depends on stabilizer concentration. The work is aimed at study gamma-induced defect production in crystals with different concentration of stabilizer and defects generated by neutron irradiation. Absorption spectra were measured with Specord M-40. It was found, that after gamma-irradiation of as-grown crystals up to some dose the intensity of absorption band at 420 nm reaches the maximum level of saturation. The dose of saturation depends of the concentration of stabilizer. It means that gamma-radiation does not produce any additional defects of structure. The oxygen vacancies existing in as-grown crystals are filled by the radiation induced electrons. Since the number of oxygen vacancies depends on the stabilizer concentration, then all these vacancies can be occupied by electrons at different gamma-doses. In crystals pre-irradiated with different neutron fluences followed by gamma-irradiation, the intensity of absorption bands at 420 and 530 nm increases in two stages. The gamma-dose of the second stage beginning decreases as the neutron fluence grows. The first stage of the absorption increase is due to developing of vacancies existing in as-grown crystals. The second stage is caused by generation of additional vacancies as the result of non-radiative exciton decay near the existing structure damages. The decrease of the gamma-dose, when the second stage of vacancy accumulation begins, results from the neutron induced structure damage degree

  14. Investigation of the sinterability of ZrO_2 (Y_2O3_)-bioglass dental ceramics by dilatometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicalho, Luiz de Araujo; Barboza, Miguel Ribeiro Justino; Santos, Claudinei dos; Habibe, Alexandre Fernandes; Magnago, Roberto de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study by dilatometry, the liquid phase sintering of ZrO_2 ceramics using bioglass as sintering additive. Y_2 O_3 - stabilized ZrO_2 powders were mixed with 3, 5 and 10 wt% of bioglass with the composition based on 3CaOP_2 O_5 -MgO-SiO_2 system. Specimens were prepared by cold uniaxial pressing under 80MPa and the green relative density was determined. The sintering behavior was studied by measuring the linear shrinkage of samples in a dilatometer in relation to the temperature. The heating and cooling rates used in this study were 10 deg C/min and the maximum sintering temperatures was 1300 deg C with a 120 min isothermal holding time. The results of the shrinkage and shrinkage rates in regard of the sintering temperature and time were related to the amount of bioglass added. The sintered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and their relative density. SEM micrographs indicates similar microstructure, and an increase of bioglass content leads to increasing of monoclinic ZrO_2 phase content. The dilatometry results indicate a reduction of the temperature where a maximum shrinkage rate occurs, as function of bioglass increasing. Furthermore, the use of liquid phase reduces the maximum sintering temperature of 1447 deg C to 1250-1280 deg C. (author)

  15. Effect of Microstructure on the Thermal Conductivity of Plasma Sprayed Y2O3 Stabilized Zirconia (8% YSZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of microstructure on the thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs is investigated. Nine freestanding samples deposited on aluminum alloys are studied. Cross-section morphology such as pores, cracks, m-phase content, grain boundary density of the coated samples are examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD. Multiple linear regressions are used to develop quantitative models that describe the relationship between the particle parameters, m-phase content and features of the microstructure such as porosity, crack-porosity, and the length density of small and big angle-cracks. Moreover, the relationship between the microstructure and thermal conductivity is investigated. Results reveal that the thermal conductivity of the coating is mainly determined by the microstructure and grain boundary density at room temperature (25 °C, and by the length density of big-angle-crack, monoclinic phase content and grain boundary density at high temperature (1200 °C.

  16. Density functional theory calculations of the water interactions with ZrO2 nanoparticles Y2O3 doped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhoni, Mekhrdod; Kholmurodov, Kholmirzo; Doroshkevich, Aleksandr; Asgerov, Elmar; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Lyubchyk, Andrei; Almasan, Valer; Madadzada, Afag

    2018-03-01

    Development of a new electricity generation techniques is one of the most relevant tasks, especially nowadays under conditions of extreme growth in energy consumption. The exothermic heterogeneous electrochemical energy conversion to the electric energy through interaction of the ZrO2 based nanopowder system with atmospheric moisture is one of the ways of electric energy obtaining. The questions of conversion into the electric form of the energy of water molecules adsorption in 3 mol% Y2O3 doped ZrO2 nanopowder systems were investigated using the density functional theory calculations. The density functional theory calculations has been realized as in the Kohn-Sham formulation, where the exchange-correlation potential is approximated by a functional of the electronic density. The electronic density, total energy and band structure calculations are carried out using the all-electron, full potential, linear augmented plane wave method of the electronic density and related approximations, i.e. the local density, the generalized gradient and their hybrid approximations.

  17. The effect of growth temperature on the irreversibility line of MPMG YBCO bulk with Y2O3 layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnaz, Sedat; Çakır, Bakiye; Aydıner, Alev

    2017-07-01

    In this study, three kinds of YBCO samples which are named Y1040, Y1050 and Y1060 were fabricated by Melt-Powder-Melt-Growth (MPMG) method without a seed crystal. Samples seem to be single crystal. The compacted powders were located on a crucible with a buffer layer of Y2O3 to avoid liquid to spread on the furnace plate and also to support crystal growth. YBCO samples were investigated by magnetoresistivity (ρ-T) and magnetization (M-T) measurements in dc magnetic fields (parallel to c-axis) up to 5 T. Irreversibility fields (Hirr) and upper critical fields (Hc2) were obtained using 10% and 90% criteria of the normal state resistivity value from ρ-T curves. M-T measurements were carried out using the zero field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) processes to get irreversible temperature (Tirr). Fitting of the irreversibility line results to giant flux creep and vortex glass models were discussed. The results were found to be consistent with the results of the samples fabricated using a seed crystal. At the fabrication of MPMG YBCO, optimized temperature for crystal growth was determined to be around 1050-1060 °C.

  18. Spark plasma sintering of α-Si3N4 ceramics with Al2O3 and Y2O3 as additives and its morphology transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceja-Cardenas, L.; Lemus-Ruiz, J.; Jaramillo-Vigueras, D.; Torre, S.D. de la

    2010-01-01

    The spark plasma sintering SPS technique has been used to densify pure α-Si 3 N 4 commercial powder, having Y 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 additions; from 0, 2.5 and 5.0 wt% to 0, 1.5 and 3 wt%, respectively. Such powder admixtures were previously spray-dried at 160 o C in such a way that powder was thoroughly homogenized. Set sintering treatment included: 0-20 min holding time and 38 MPa axial load, sintering temperature of 1500 o C and heating rate of 300 o C/min. The maximum relative density developed on studied specimens ranged from 99.4 to 99.8% and could only be attained once the β-phase nucleated from the α-silicon nitride matrix. Obtained Si 3 N 4 composites combine both α- and β-phases. The later phase becomes evident trough the rod-like geometry, which forms throughout the presence of a liquid face. The largest hardness value developed (1588 Hv (20kgf) ) on studied ceramics (3M-series - 3 min) matched close to the corresponding counterpart found in literature (1600 Hv), the former developed in much shorter sintering times. Using X-ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscope SEM analyses, the two major phases of Si 3 N 4 were identified in the resultant microstructures. The morphology evolution of Si 3 N 4 particles as occurred upon SPS-sintering is analyzed.

  19. Room temperature d (0) ferromagnetism in hole doped Y2O3: widening the choice of host to tailor DMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Ramaniah, Lavanya M

    2016-08-24

    Transition metal-free-ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) is of much current interest in view of the search for more efficient DMS materials for spintronics applications. Our DFT results predict for the first time, that impurities from group1A (Li(+), Na(+), K(+)) doped on Y2O3 can induce a magnetic signature with a magnetic moment around 2.0 μ B per defect at hole concentrations around 1.63  ×  10(21) cm(-3), which is one order less than the critical hole density of ZnO with ferromagnetic coupling large enough to promote room temperature ferromagnetism. The induction of room temperature ferromagnetism by hole doping with an impurity atom from group 1A, which injects two holes per defect in the system, implies that the recommendation of three holes per defect given in the literature, which puts a restriction on the choice of host material and the impurity, is not a necessary criterion for hole induced room temperature ferromagnetism. DFT simulations with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), confirmed by the more sophisticated hybrid functional, Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06), predict that the magnetic moment is mostly contributed by O atoms surrounding the impurity atom and the magnetic moment scale up with impurity concentration which is a positive indicator for practical applications. We quantitatively and extensively demonstrate through the analysis of the density of states and ferromagnetic coupling that the Stoner criterion is satisfied by pushing the Fermi level inside the valence band to activate room temperature ferromagnetism. The stability of the structure and the persistence of ferromagnetism at room temperature were demonstrated by ab initio MD simulations and computation of Curie temperature through the mean field approximation. This study widens the choice of host oxides to tailor DMS for spintronics applications.

  20. Enhanced Light Stability of InGaZnO Thin-Film Transistors by Atomic-Layer-Deposited Y2O3 with Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hanearl; Kim, Woo-Hee; Park, Bo-Eun; Woo, Whang Je; Oh, Il-Kwon; Lee, Su Jeong; Kim, Yun Cheol; Myoung, Jae-Min; Gatineau, Satoko; Dussarrat, Christian; Kim, Hyungjun

    2018-01-17

    We report the effect of Y 2 O 3 passivation by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using various oxidants, such as H 2 O, O 2 plasma, and O 3 , on In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs). A large negative shift in the threshold voltage (V th ) was observed in the case of the TFT subjected to the H 2 O-ALD Y 2 O 3 process; this shift was caused by a donor effect of negatively charged chemisorbed H 2 O molecules. In addition, degradation of the IGZO TFT device performance after the O 2 plasma-ALD Y 2 O 3 process (field-effect mobility (μ) = 8.7 cm 2 /(V·s), subthreshold swing (SS) = 0.77 V/dec, and V th = 3.7 V) was observed, which was attributed to plasma damage on the IGZO surface adversely affecting the stability of the TFT under light illumination. In contrast, the O 3 -ALD Y 2 O 3 process led to enhanced device stability under light illumination (ΔV th = -1 V after 3 h of illumination) by passivating the subgap defect states in the IGZO surface region. In addition, TFTs with a thicker IGZO film (55 nm, which was the optimum thickness under the current investigation) showed more stable device performance than TFTs with a thinner IGZO film (30 nm) (ΔV th = -0.4 V after 3 h of light illumination) by triggering the recombination of holes diffusing from the IGZO surface to the insulator-channel interface. Therefore, we envisioned that the O 3 -ALD Y 2 O 3 passivation layer suggested in this paper can improve the photostability of TFTs under light illumination.

  1. [In vitro evaluation of low-temperature aging effects of Y2O3 stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals dental ceramics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yuan-fu; Liu, Hong-chen; Wang, Chen; Tian, Jie-mo; Wen, Ning

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the influence of in vitro low-temperature degradation (LTD) treatment on the structural stability of 5 kinds of Y2O3 stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) dental ceramics. TZ-3YS powder was compacted at 200 MPa using cold isostatic pressure and pre-sintered at 1050 degrees C for 2 h forming presintered blocks. Specimens were sectioned into 15 mm x 15 mm x 1.5 mm slices from blocks of TZ-3YS, Vita In-Ceram YZ, Ivoclar, Cercon Smart, and Kavo Y-TZP presintered blocks, 18 slices for each brand, and then densely sintered. Specimens were divided into 6 groups and subjected to an accelerated aging test carried out in an autoclave in steam at 134 degrees C, 0.2 MPa, for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to identify crystal phases and relative content of monoclinic phase was calculated. Specimens for three-point bending test were fabricated using TZ-3YS ceramics according to the ISO 6872 standard and bending strength was tested before and after aging. The polished and aging specimens of TZ-3YS and Cercon Smart zirconia ceramics were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to evaluate surface microstructure. Tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation was detected for specimens of TZ-3YS, Vita In-Ceram YZ, Ivoclar, and Kavo zirconia ceramics except for Cercon Smart ceramics after aging, and the relative content of monoclinic phase was increasing with the prolonged aging time. TZ-3YS was the most affected material, Kavo took the second, and Vita and Ivoclar were similar. Aging had no significant negative effects on flexural strength of TZ-3YS with average bending strength being over 1100 MPa. The nucleation and growth of monoclinic phase were detected by AFM in surface of Cercon Smart zirconia in which monoclinic phase was not detected by XRD. The results suggest that LTD of dental Y-TZP is time dependent, but the aging test does not reduce the flexural strength of TZ-3YS. The long-term clinical serviceability of dental

  2. Characterizing the residual glass in a MgO/Al2O3/SiO2/ZrO2/Y2O3 glass-ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Sabrina; Patzig, Christian; Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Gawronski, Antje; Hu, Yongfeng; Höche, Thomas; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The non-isochemical crystallization of glasses leads to glass-ceramics in which the chemical composition of the amorphous matrix differs from that of the parent glass. It is challenging to solely analyse the properties of these residual glassy phases because they frequently contain finely dispersed crystals. In this study, the composition of the residual glass matrix after the crystallization of a glass with the mol% composition 50.6 SiO2 · 20.7 MgO · 20.7 Al2O3 · 5.6 ZrO2 · 2.4 Y2O3 is analysed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) including energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXS). A batch of the residual glass with the determined composition is subsequently melted and selected properties are analysed. Furthermore, the crystallization behaviour of this residual glass is studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy including electron backscatter diffraction and STEM-EDXS analyses. The residual glass shows sole surface crystallization of indialite and multiple yttrium silicates while bulk nucleation does not occur. This is in contrast to the crystallization behaviour of the parent glass, in which a predominant bulk nucleation of spinel and ZrO2 is observed. The crystallization of the residual glass probably leads to different crystalline phases when it is in contact to air, rather than when it is enclosed within the microstructure of the parent glass-ceramics. PMID:27734918

  3. Estudo da viabilidade de obtenção de cerâmicas de SiC por infiltração espontânea de misturas eutéticas de Y2O3-AlN, Y2O3-Al2O3, R2O3-AlN Study of the viability to produce SiC ceramics by Y2O3-AlN, Y2O3-Al2O3, R2O3-AlN spontaneous infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. R. Garcia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As cerâmicas de carbeto de silício, SiC, apresentam excelentes propriedades quando obtidas por infiltração de determinados líquidos. Na infiltração o tempo de contato entre o líquido e o SiC a temperaturas elevadas é muito curto, diminuindo a probabilidade de formação dos produtos gasosos que interferem negativamente na resistência da peça final, como ocorre na sinterização via fase líquida. O objetivo deste trabalho é mostrar uma correlação entre molhabilidade e capacidade de infiltração de alguns aditivos em compactos de SiC. Foram preparados compactos de SiC por prensagem isostática a frio e posterior pré-sinterização via fase sólida. Nesses compactos foram infiltradas misturas de Y2O3-AlN, Y2O3-Al2O3, R2O3-AlN, nas composições eutéticas, 10 ºC acima da temperatura de fusão das respectivas misturas por 4, 8 e 12 min. Após infiltração, as amostras foram analisadas quanto à densidade aparente e real, fases cristalinas, microestrutura e grau de infiltração, sendo que as amostras infiltradas com Y2O3-AlN apresentaram melhores resultados.Silicon carbide ceramics, SiC, obtained by liquid infiltration have shown excellent properties. In infiltration process the contact time of the liquid with SiC at elevated temperature is short, decreasing the probability to form gaseous products that contribute negatively in the final product properties. This phenomenon occurs during SiC liquid phase sintering. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between wettability and infiltration tendency of some additives in SiC compacts. SiC compacts were prepared by cold isostatic pressing followed by solid phase pre-sintering. Into the compacts were introduced Y2O3-AlN, Y2O3-Al2O3, R2O3-AlN liquids with eutectic compositions at a temperature 10 ºC higher than the melting point of each mixture for 4, 8 and 12 min. Before infiltration, the samples were analyzed by determining densities, crystalline phases

  4. Optical properties and crystal structure of Eu3+ -doped Y2O3 crystals prepared under different conditions and with different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Hwa; Jang, Ki Wan; Kim, Il Gon; Kim Sang Su; Lee, Yong Ill; Park, Seong Tae; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2003-01-01

    The optical properties and the crystal structure of 6-mol% Eu 3+ -doped Y 2 O 3 powders prepared under different conditions and with different methods were studied through emission spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. All samples exhibited the normal fluorescence spectrum of Eu 3+ -doped cubic Y 2 O 3 powders. The peak positions of the 5 D 0 → 7 F 0 transitions of Eu 3+ ions were shifted to the short-wavelength direction as the sintering temperature was lowered or the size of the host particle itself was decreased. The dynamic properties, such as the rise or the decay time of the 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition, depended on other factors than the size of the grain contained in each particle and the size of host particle itself. The morphologies of the studied samples were also observed by using a scanning electron microscope

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured Y2O3 and (Y0.75Gd0.25)2O3 based phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mančić, Lidija; Lojpur, Vesna; Marinković, Bojan A.; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.; Milošević, Olivera

    2013-08-01

    Examples of (Y2O3-Gd2O3):Eu3+ and Y2O3:(Yb3+/Er3+) rare earth oxide-based phosphors are presented to highlight the controlled synthesis of 1D and 2D nanostructures through simple hydrothermal method. Conversion of the starting nitrates mixture into carbonate hydrate phase is performed with the help of ammonium hydrogen carbonate solution during hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C/3 h. Morphological architectures of rare earth oxides obtained after subsequent powders thermal treatment at 600 and 1100 °C for 3 and 12 h and their correlation with the optical characteristics are discussed based on X-ray powder diffractometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. Strong red and green emission followed by the superior decay times are attributed to the high powders purity and homogeneous dopants distribution over the host lattice matrix.

  6. Effects of the addition of H2O and NH4OH in the electrical properties of thin films of Y2O3 deposited by pyrolytic spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera S, H.J.; Alarcon F, G.; Aguilar F, M.; Falcony, C.; Garcia H, M.; Guzman M, J.; Araiza I, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we studied the electrical properties of yttrium oxide thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis from Y(acac) 3 and N,N-DMF. The films were deposited on Si(100) substrates at temperatures of 400, 450, 500 and 550 C. The electrical characteristic of the films was improved when a mist of H 2 O and/or NH 4 0H was simultaneously added to the deposition system. Current and capacitance versus voltage measurements were obtained when the Y 2 O 3 films were integrated in MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) structures. Y 2 O 3 films with a dielectric constant up to 15 were obtained. The films can stand electric fields up to 2 MV/cm. An interface state density in the range of 10 10 -10 11 cm -2 eV -1 was measured at midgap from the high and low frequency capacitance measurements. (Author)

  7. Amperometric L-cysteine sensor based on a carbon paste electrode modified with Y_2O_3 nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Suling; Li, Gang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Guifang; Qu, Lingbo

    2016-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for L-cysteine that is based on the use of Y_2O_3 nanoparticles (Y_2O_3-NPs) supported on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO). The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. Deposited on a carbon paste electrode, the material displays a strongly oxidation peak for L-cysteine at pH 7.0 (compared to an unmodified electrode). The current, measured at a potential 0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), increases linearly in the 1.3 to 720 μM L-cysteine concentration range, and the detection limit is 0.8 μM. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination L-cysteine in spiked syrup. (author)

  8. Dual-Function Au@Y2O3:Eu3+ Smart Film for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency and Long-Term Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Woo; Eom, Tae Young; Yang, In Seok; Kim, Byung Su; Lee, Wan In; Kang, Yong Soo; Kang, Young Soo

    2017-07-28

    In the present study, a dual-functional smart film combining the effects of wavelength conversion and amplification of the converted wave by the localized surface plasmon resonance has been investigated for a perovskite solar cell. This dual-functional film, composed of Au nanoparticles coated on the surface of Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphor (Au@Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ ) nanoparticle monolayer, enhances the solar energy conversion efficiency to electrical energy and long-term stability of photovoltaic cells. Coupling between the Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphor monolayer and ultraviolet solar light induces the latter to be converted into visible light with a quantum yield above 80%. Concurrently, the Au nanoparticle monolayer on the phosphor nanoparticle monolayer amplifies the converted visible light by up to 170%. This synergy leads to an increased solar light energy conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells. Simultaneously, the dual-function film suppresses the photodegradation of perovskite by UV light, resulting in long-term stability. Introducing the hybrid smart Au@Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ film in perovskite solar cells increases their overall solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency to 16.1% and enhances long-term stability, as compared to the value of 15.2% for standard perovskite solar cells. The synergism between the wavelength conversion effect of the phosphor nanoparticle monolayer and the wave amplification by the localized surface plasmon resonance of the Au nanoparticle monolayer in a perovskite solar cell is comparatively investigated, providing a viable strategy of broadening the solar spectrum utilization.

  9. Studies on effect of europium concentration on the photoemission of laser ablated Y2O3:Eu based nano-phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissamudeen, K.M.; Krishnan, Renju R.; Rajan, Geo; Gopchandran, K.G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Phosphors are essential materials in display applications. Oxide-based phosphors are likely to emerge as the potential choice for the FED red phosphor. Among those oxide-based phosphors, there has been significant research interest in the development of Y 2 O 3 :Eu thin films as one of the most promising oxide based red phosphor systems. Yttrium oxide mixed with europium exhibit strong UV and cathode-ray-excited luminescence that are useful in lamp and display applications. Dielectric Y 2 O 3 film has recently attracted much attention for its potential application as an electric insulation layer in electroluminescent devices and high-density dynamic random access memory gate dielectrics because of its high band gap (5.8 eV) and large dielectric constant (14 to 18). Another important application of Y 2 O 3 has been in luminescent displays as a host material for rare-earth ions, specifically europium, in order to get emission of red light. In the present study thin films were deposited under a vacuum of 10 -6 mbar on fused amorphous quartz substrates using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, 532 nm, pulse width 9 n sec, and repetition frequency of 10 Hz, with sintered Y 2 O 3 pellets having different europium concentration as target material. Attempts were made to understand the effect of europium concentration and annealing process on the photoemission properties of the films. A europium concentration of 8 wt% and an annealing temperature of 1173 K were found to be optimum conditions for maximum photoemission. The dependence of structure and morphology of the films on the photoemission intensity are described with XRD patterns and images obtained from AFM and SEM studies

  10. The effect of preliminary hydrolysis on the properties of ZrO2-7% Y2O3 powders prepared by hydroxide precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirenkina, Nina V.; Mashkovtsev, Maxim A.; Bereskina, Polina A.; Zakirov, Ilsur F.; Baksheev, Evgenie O.; Bujnachev, Sergey V.; Vereshchagin, Artem O.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the effect of preliminary hydrolysis of zirconyl oxysulfate on the properties of ZrO2-7 % Y2O3 powders prepared by hydroxides precipitation at a constant pH of 5 was studied. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the monophasic nature of the samples and the insignificant difference between CSR (coherent scattering regions). Samples differed in particle size distribution, porosity and morphology.

  11. The effects of additives (MgO, La2O3 and Y2O3) in the translucency of alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genova, L.A.; Bressiani, A.H.A.; Bressiani, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the addition of small amounts of Mg O, La 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 in the optical characteristics of the high purity alumina has been studied. Specimens with high transmittance in the visible region has been obtained. High purity alumina powders have also been obtained through the crystallization of ammonium alum. Translucent samples have been produced from these powders. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Mechanical properties and thermal shock performance of W-Y2O3 composite prepared by high-energy-rate forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Youyun; Liu, Xiang; Feng, Fan; Song, Jiupeng; Yan, Binyou; Wang, Yingmin; Wang, Jianbao; Chen, Jiming

    2017-12-01

    The effects of the addition of Y2O3 and hot-deformation on the mechanical properties of tungsten (W) have been studied. The processing route comprises a doping technique for the distribution of Y2O3 particles in a tungsten matrix, conventional sintering in a hydrogen environment, and high-energy-rate forging (HERF). The microstructure of the composite was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction imaging technique, and its mechanical properties were studied by means of tensile testing. The thermal shock response of the HERF processed W-Y2O3 was evaluated by applying edge-localized mode-like loads (100 pulses) with a pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1 GW m-2 at various temperatures between room temperature and 200 °C. HERF processing has produced elongated W grains with preferred orientations and a high density of structure defects in the composite. The composite material exhibits high tensile strength and good ductility, and a thermal shock cracking threshold lower than 100 °C.

  13. Microstructural evolution and stability of tetragonal precipitates in Y2O3 partially-stabilized ZrO2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Jimenez-Melendo, M.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The microstructure and morphology of tetragonal precipitates (t-ZrO 2 ) in yttria partially-stabilized zirconia single crystals containing various amounts of Y 2 O 3 (3, 4, 4.7 and 5.8 mol%) have been studied as a function of aging time at 1,600 C in air. The precipitate size and volume fraction of t-ZrO 2 phase were determined using transmission electron microscopy. The evolution of the precipitate volume fraction with aging time indicated that the precipitation reaction was completed after 24 h of annealing, in agreement with the values of the Y 2 O 3 composition in the matrix measured by analytical electron microscopy. Further aging coarsened the precipitates which joined together forming fiber-like particles of several micrometers in length and remaining untransformed despite their large size. The stability of the t-ZrO 2 precipitates against the tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in the ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 system seems to be related to interactions between precipitates due to coherency stresses rather than with their morphological characteristics

  14. Dependence of the up-conversion emission of Li+ co-doped Y2O3:Er3+ films with dopant concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meza-Rocha, A.N.; Huerta, E.F.; Caldiño, U.; Carmona-Téllez, S.; Bettinelli, M.; Speghini, A.; Pelli, S.; Righini, G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of dopant concentration on the up-conversion emission, and in particular on the Er 3+ related green and red emissions of spray pyrolysis deposited films of Y 2 O 3 :Er 3+ co-doped with Li + , is reported. Er 3+ concentrations in the films in the range of 1.1–5.6 at% (1.5–14 at% Er 3+ in the spraying solution) were studied, as well as the effect of co-doping them with Li + . Large concentrations of Er 3+ favor the red emission, especially for contents higher than 10 at% in the spraying solution. Li + co-doping improves the green and red emissions up to 365 and 171 times, respectively, depending on the Er 3+ and Li + concentrations. - Highlights: Up-converting Y 2 O 3 :Er 3+ and Y 2 O 3 :Er 3+ , Li + films were deposited by spray pyrolysis. The effect of Li + co-doping on the green and red UC Er 3+ emission is reported. Li + co-doping improves the green and red emission up to 365 and 171 times

  15. Thermal shock behavior of W-0.5 wt% Y_2O_3 alloy prepared via a novel chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Mei-Ling; Luo, Lai-Ma; Lin, Jing-Shan; Zan, Xiang; Zhu, Xiao-Yong; Luo, Guang-Nan; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A wet-chemical method combined with spark plasma sintering was used to prepare W-0.5 wt% Y_2O_3 alloy. The W-0.5 wt% Y_2O_3 precursor was reduced at 800 °C for 4 h under different hydrogen flow rates of 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 ml/min. The reduced powder was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle size analyzer (LPSA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An optimized process for reducing precursor was discussed. After sintering, the specimens were exposed to different laser beam irradiation energies (90, 120, 150, and 180 W) to simulate loads as expected for edge localized modes (ELMs). Top surface and cross-sectional morphology were observed by SEM, and the changes in hardness were evaluated. The changes in microstructural properties (i.e., Y_2O_3-particle distribution, crack propagation direction, depth of thermal shock effect, and grain size of the recrystallization region) after thermal shock were investigated.

  16. Tailoring the luminescence properties of Y_2O_3:Sm"3"+ nanophosphors by 6 MeV electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunitha, D.V.; Nagabhushana, H.; Hareesh, K.; Bhoraskar, V.N.; Dhole, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Sm"3"+ (3 mol%) ions doped Y_2O_3 nanophosphors were synthesized by green synthesis route using Aloe Vera gel as fuel. The final product was irradiated by 6 MeV electron beam (E-beam) to different fluences in the range (2–10 × 10"1"3 e"− cm"−"2) and well characterized. Powder X-ray Diffractogram (PXRD) results revealed the loss of crystalline nature due to lattice disorder created during irradiation. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic results showed absorption peaks around 688–843 cm"−"1 (Y-O bond), 1076 and 1398 cm"−"1 (C-O bond), 1505–1765 cm"−"1 and 3498 cm"−"1 (O-H bond). Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) images showed flake like morphological features. The Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectrum recorded at 407 nm excitation showed magnetic and electric dipole transitions at ∼569–575 ("4G_5_/_2 → "6H_5_/_2), ∼607–623 ("4G_5_/_2 → "6H_7_/_2) and ∼655–668 nm ("4G_5_/_2 → "6H_9_/_2) respectively. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve consists of three peaks in E-beam irradiated nanophosphors at 158, 243 and 352 °C due to creation of more number of trapping and luminescent centers. The E-beam irradiated Y_2O_3:Sm"3"+ nanophosphors showed strong PL emission with color co-ordinate values lying in the orange-red region. Therefore, this material can be potentially used as a red component in WLEDs (White LEDs). - Highlights: • Y_2O_3:Sm"3"+ nanophosphor was synthesized by solution combustion technique using Aloe Vera gel as a fuel. • Y_2O_3:Sm"3"+ nanophosphor was irradiated with 6 MeV E-beam in the fluence range 2–10 × 10"1"3e"− cm"−"2. • The size of the particle decreases and surface area increases with increase in E-beam fluence. • The E-beam irradiated Y_2O_3:Sm"3"+ nanophosphors PL intensity increases and CIE coordinate values moves towards red region indicating the potential usage of this phosphor for LED applications.

  17. Microstructures and properties of TiN reinforced Co-based composite coatings modified with Y_2O_3 by laser cladding on Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Fei; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Liu, Jianli; Zhao, Longjie

    2015-01-01

    In this study, TiN reinforced composite coatings were fabricated on Ti–6Al–4V substrate by laser cladding with Co42 self-fluxing alloy, TiN and Y_2O_3 mixed powders. Microstructures and wear resistance of the cladding coatings with and without Y_2O_3 addition were investigated comparatively. Results showed that the coatings were mainly comprised of γ-Co/Ni, TiN, CoTi, CoTi_2, NiTi, TiC, Cr_7C_3, TiB, Ti_5Si_3 and TiC_0_._3N_0_._7 phases. The coatings showed metallurgical bonding free of pores and cracks with the substrate. Compared with the Ti–6Al–4V substrate, the microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings was enhanced by 3–4 times and 9.5–11.9 times, respectively. With 1.0 wt.% Y_2O_3 addition, the microstructure of the coating was refined significantly, and the microhardness and dry sliding wear resistance were enhanced further. The effects of Y_2O_3 were attributed to the residual Y_2O_3 and decomposed Y atoms. - Graphical abstract: The diagram illustration for the action mechanism of Y_2O_3: (a) dissolution of Y_2O_3 and TiN, (b) re-formation of TiN and in situ formation of TiC, (c) growth of TiN, TiC and the distribution of Y atoms. - Highlights: • Coatings showing metallurgical bonding with the substrate were fabricated. • The effect of Y_2O_3 on the refinement of the microstructure is notable. • A kind of Y_2O_3 centered core–shell structure was picked out in the coating. • Microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings was enhanced significantly.

  18. Effect of 100 MeV swift Si8+ ions on structural and thermoluminescence properties of Y2O3:Dy3+nanophosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaramu, N. J.; Lakshminarasappa, B. N.; Nagabhushana, K. R.; Singh, Fouran

    2016-05-01

    Nanoparticles of Y2O3:Dy3+ were prepared by the solution combustion method. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the 900°C annealed sample shows a cubic structure and the average crystallite size was found to be 31.49 nm. The field emission scanning electron microscopy image of the 900°C annealed sample shows well-separated spherical shape particles and the average particle size is found to be in a range 40 nm. Pellets of Y2O3:Dy3+ were irradiated with 100 MeV swift Si8+ ions for the fluence range of 3 × 1011_3 × 1013 ions cm-2. Pristine Y2O3:Dy3+ shows seven Raman modes with peaks at 129, 160, 330, 376, 434, 467 and 590 cm-1. The intensity of these modes decreases with an increase in ion fluence. A well-resolved thermoluminescence glow with peaks at ∼414 K (Tm1) and ∼614 K (Tm2) were observed in Si8+ ion-irradiated samples. It is found that glow peak intensity at 414 K increases with an increase in the dopant concentration up to 0.6 mol% and then decreases with an increase in dopant concentration. The high-temperature glow peak (614 K) intensity linearly increases with an increase in ion fluence. The broad TL glow curves were deconvoluted using the glow curve deconvoluted method and kinetic parameters were calculated using the general order kinetic equation.

  19. The behavior of ZrO_2/20%Y_2O_3 and Al_2O_3 coatings deposited on aluminum alloys at high temperature regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintilei, G.L.; Crismaru, V.I.; Abrudeanu, M.; Munteanu, C.; Baciu, E.R.; Istrate, B.; Basescu, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In both the ZrO_2/20%Y_2O_3 and Al_2O_3 coatings the high temperature caused a decrease of pores volume and a lower thickness of the interface between successive splats. • The NiCr bond layer in the sample with a ZrO_2/20%Y_2O_3 suffered a fragmentation due to high temperature exposure and thermal expansion which can lead to coating exfoliation. • The NiCr bond layer in the sample with an Al_2O_3 coating showed an increase of pore volume due to high temperature. - Abstract: Aluminum alloy present numerous advantages like lightness, high specific strength and diversity which recommend them to a high number of applications from different fields. In extreme environments the protection of aluminum alloys is difficult and requires a high number of requirements like high temperature resistance, thermal fatigue resistance, corrosion fatigue resistance and galvanic corrosion resistance. To obtain these characteristics coatings can be applied to the surfaces so they can enhance the mechanical and chemical properties of the parts. In this paper two coatings were considered for deposition on an AA2024 aluminum alloy, ZrO_2/20%Y_2O_3 and Al_2O_3. To obtain a better adherence of the coating to the base material an additional bond layer of NiCr is used. Both the coatings and bond layer were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying on the samples. The samples were subjected to a temperature of 500 °C and after that slowly cooled to room temperature. The samples were analyzed by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to determine the morphological and phase changes that occurred during the temperature exposure. To determine the stress level in the parts due to thermal expansion a finite element analysis was performed in the same conditions as the tests.

  20. Influence of preliminary loading on fracture toughness of ceramics ZrO2-(3,4) mol.% Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, G.Ya.; Timchenko, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of preliminary mechanical loading on the fracture toughness of ceramics of the ZrO 2 -3-4 mol.% Y 2 O 3 composition is studied. It is shown that the fracture toughness monotonously increases and the increment constitutes ∼ 50% from the initial value. It is supposed that by the preliminary loading there takes place slow isothermal stage of the martensitic phase transformation of the part of the material grains. This leads to increase in the transformation degree by mechanical testing which is expressed in the increase in the fracture toughness [ru

  1. Short-Pulse-Width Repetitively Q-Switched ~2.7-μm Er:Y2O3 Ceramic Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A short-pulse-width repetitively Q-switched 2.7-μm Er:Y2O3 ceramic laser is demonstrated using a specially designed mechanical switch, a metal plate carved with slits of both slit-width and duty-cycle optimized. With a 20% transmission output coupler, stable pulse trains with durations (full-width at half-maximum, FWHM of 27–38 ns were generated with a repetition rate within the range of 0.26–4 kHz. The peak power at a 0.26 kHz repetition rate was ~3 kW.

  2. Complex structural hierarchies observed in Y2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 eutectic ceramics prepared by laser melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian-Zheng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous Y2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 beads were directly melted by a Nd:YAG laser. The structural features in multi-scale of the samples after solidification were investigated. The results showed that the cooling speed in the applied processing conditions was not high enough to retain the amorphous nature of ceramic beads into the consolidated bulks. In addition to an amorphous phase two crystalline phases, YAG and α-Al2O3, were formed yielding the formation of complex structural hierarchies.

  3. Inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics of ZrO2, Y2O3 and ThSiO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Preyoshi P.; Mittal, R.; Choudhury, N.; Chaplot, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO 2 ), yttria (Y 2 O 3 ) and thorite (ThSiO 4 ) are ceramic materials used for a wide range of industrial applications. The dynamical properties of these materials are of interest as they exhibit numerous interesting phase transitions at high temperature and pressure. Using a combination of inelastic neutron scattering and theoretical lattice dynamics we have studied the phonon spectra and thermodynamic properties of these compounds. The experimental data validate the theoretical model, while the model enables microscopic interpretations of the observed data. The calculated thermodynamic properties are in good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  4. Effect of ion-irradiation on the microstructure and microhardness of the W-2Y2O3 composite materials fabricated by sintering and hot forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battabyal, M.; Spätig, P.; Baluc, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • W-2Y 2 O 3 material is fabricated using sintering and hot forging method with 99.3 vol.% density. • Microstructure and microhardness of the material after heavy ion irradiation are almost similar irrespective of the sample holder heating temperatures. • Dislocation loops are found on the W grains of irradiated sample where as radiation induced fine voids are observed on yttria particles. • We also observe few radiation loops on yttria particles. • No surface crack at the grain boundary is observed and significant difference in radiation hardening is confirmed. -- Abstract: A W-2Y 2 O 3 material was developed in collaboration with the Plansee Company (Austria). An ingot of the material having approximate dimension of 95 mm × 20 mm was fabricated by mixing the elemental powders followed by pressing, sintering and hot forging. The microstructure of the W-2Y 2 O 3 composite was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microhardness was studied using nano-indentation technique. We observed that the W-grains having a mean size of about 1 μm already formed and these grains contain very low density of dislocations. The size of the yttria particles was between 300 nm and 1 μm and the Berkovich hardness was about 4.8 GPa. The specimens were irradiated/implanted with Fe and He ions at JANNuS facility located at Orsay/Saclay, France. The TEM disks kept were irradiated/implanted at 300 and 700 °C using Fe and He ions with an energy of 24 and 2 MeV, respectively. The calculated radiation dose was about 5 dpa produced by Fe ions and total He content is 75 appm at both 300 and 700 °C. From the TEM investigation of irradiated samples, few radiation loops are present on the W grains, whereas on yttria particles, the radiation induced damages appear as voids. Berkovich hardness of the irradiated sample is higher than that of the non-irradiated sample. Results on the microstructure and microhardness of the ion-irradiated W-2Y 2 O 3

  5. Synthesis of Y2O3 particle enhanced Ni/TiC composite on TC4 Ti alloy by laser cladding%TC4钛合金表面激光熔覆法制备Y2O3颗粒增强Ni/TiC复合涂层

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可敏; 邹建新; 李军; 于治水; 王慧萍

    2012-01-01

    A Y2O3 particle enhanced Ni/TiC composite coating was fabricated in-situ on a TC4 Ti alloy by laser surface cladding.The phase component,microstructure,composition distribution and properties of the composite layer were investigated.The composite layer has graded microstructures and compositions,due to the fast melting followed by rapid solidification and cooling during laser cladding.The TiC powders are completely dissolved into the melted layer during melting and segregated as fine dendrites when solidified.The size of TiC dendrites decreases with increasing depth.Y2O3 fine particles distribute in the whole clad layer.The Y2O3 particle enhanced Ni/TiC composite layer has a quite uniform hardness along depth with a maximum value of HV1380,which is 4 times higher than the initial hardness.The wear resistance of the Ti alloy is significantly improved after laser cladding due to the high hardness of the composite coating.%采用激光熔覆法在TC4钛合金表面原位制备Y2O3颗粒增强Ni/TiC复合涂层,研究涂层的相组成、微结构、成分分布及性能.结果表明,复合涂层内的微结构和成分在深度方向具有分层现象,这主要是由激光熔覆过程的快速熔凝和冷却过程所致.在激光熔覆过程中,TiC粉末完全熔化并在凝固过程中析出为细小枝晶,这些TiC枝晶的尺寸随着深度的增加而减小,而Y2O3颗粒则分布在整个重熔层中.Y2O3颗粒增强Ni/TiC复合涂层具有较均匀的硬度,其最高值约为HV1380,比基体高4倍以上.由于复合涂层具有高的硬度,钛合金经过激光熔覆后其耐磨性得到大幅度提高.

  6. Controlled agglomeration of Tb-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals studied by x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray excited luminescence, and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, Y.L.; Huang, S.W.; Kao, Y.H.; Chhabra, V.; Kulkarni, B.; Veliadis, J.V.; Bhargava, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    Local environment surrounding Y atoms in Y 2 O 3 :Tb nanocrystals under various heat treatment conditions has been investigated by using the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) technique. X-ray excited luminescence (XEL) with the incident x-ray energy near Y K edge and Tb L edges has also been measured to investigate the mechanisms of x-ray-to-visible down conversion in these doped nanoparticles. The observed changes in EXAFS, XEL, and photoluminescent data can be explained on the basis of increased average size of the nanoparticles as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy studies. Our results thus demonstrate that the doped nanoparticles can agglomerate to a controllable degree by varying the heat treatment temperature. At higher temperatures, the local environment surrounding Y atoms in the nanoparticles is found to become similar to that in bulk Y 2 O 3 while the XEL output still shows the characteristics of nanocrystals. These results indicate that appropriate heat treatment can afford an effective means to control the intensity and signal-to-background ratio of green luminescence output of these doped nanocrystal phosphors, potentially useful for some device applications. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  7. Effect of Y2O3 addition on the crystal growth and sintering behavior of YSZ nanopowders prepared by a sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, C.-W.; Shen, Y.-H.; Hung, I-M.; Wen, S.-B.; Lee, H.-E.; Wang, M.-C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Y 2 O 3 (8 mol% ≤ Y 2 O 3 ≤ 10 mol%) addition on the crystal growth and sintering behavior of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanocrystallites prepared by a sol-gel process with various mixtures of ZrOCl 2 .8H 2 O and Y(NO 3 ) 3 .6H 2 O ethanol-water solutions at low temperatures has been studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area analyses (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED) and dilatometric analysis (DA) have been utilized to characterize the YSZ nanocrystallites. Characterization reveals that the YSZ nanopowders are weakly agglomerated. When calcined at various temperatures for 2 h, the crystallite size increases and the surface area of the YSZ powders decreases when the calcination temperature increased from 673 to 1273 K. A nanocrystallite size distribution between 10 and 15 nm is obtained in the TEM examination, which is consistent with the XRD investigation. The activation energy for crystal growth were determined as 5.75 ± 0.68, 4.22 ± 0.51, and 5.24 ± 0.20 kJ/mol for 8, 9 and 10 YSZ precipitates, respectively. The morphology of the YSZ sintered at high temperature indicates the abnormal growth is due to the low activation energy for crystallite growth

  8. A Comparative Study of Er3+, Er3+-Eu3+, Er3+-Tb3+, and Er3+-Eu3+-Tb3+ Codoped Y2O3 Nanoparticles as Optical Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Sobral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR technique, based on the thermal coupling of H11/22 and S3/24 energy levels of erbium ions, was used to study the optical heating behavior of rare earth doped yttrium oxide nanophosphors (Y2O3:Er3+, Y2O3:Er3+-Eu3+, Y2O3:Er3+-Tb3+, and Y2O3:Er3+-Eu3+-Tb3+ synthesized via PVA-assisted sol-gel route. The samples were optically heated by an 800 nm CW diode laser, while the upconverted green emissions were used to measure their temperatures in real time. The experimental results indicate that the studied nanoparticles are promising candidates to applications such as photothermal treatments and hyperthermia.

  9. Influence of Y2O3 Addition on Crystallization, Thermal, Mechanical, and Electrical Properties of BaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 Glass-Ceramic for Ceramic Ball Grid Array Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Li, Wei; Zheng, Jingguo

    2018-01-01

    Y2O3 addition has a significant influence on the crystallization, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of BaO -Al2O3 -B2O3 -SiO2 (BABS) glass-ceramics. Semi-quantitative calculation based on x-ray diffraction demonstrated that with increasing Y2O3 content, both the crystallinity and the phase content of cristobalite gradually decreased. It is effective for the additive Y2O3 to inhibit the formation of cristobalite phase with a large coefficient of thermal expansion value. The flexural strength and the Young's modulus, thus, are remarkably increased from 140 MPa to 200 MPa and 56.5 GPa to 63.7 GPa, respectively. Also, the sintering kinetics of BABS glass-ceramics with various Y2O3 were investigated using the isothermal sintering shrinkage curve at different sintering temperatures. The sintering activation energy Q sharply decreased from 99.8 kJ/mol to 81.5 kJ/mol when 0.2% Y2O3 was added, which indicated that a small amount of Y2O3 could effectively promote the sintering procedure of BABS glass-ceramics.

  10. Transformational dynamics of BZO and BHO nanorods imposed by Y2O3 nanoparticles for improved isotropic pinning in YBa2Cu3O7 -δ thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Bibek; Sebastian, Mary Ann; Chen, Shihong; Shi, Jack; Haugan, Timothy; Xing, Zhongwen; Zhang, Wenrui; Huang, Jijie; Wang, Haiyan; Osofsky, Mike; Prestigiacomo, Joseph; Wu, Judy Z.

    2017-07-01

    An elastic strain model was applied to evaluate the rigidity of the c-axis aligned one-dimensional artificial pinning centers (1D-APCs) in YBa2Cu3O7-δ matrix films. Higher rigidity was predicted for BaZrO3 1D-APCs than that of the BaHfO3 1D-APCs. This suggests a secondary APC doping of Y2O3 in the 1D-APC/YBa2Cu3O7-δ nanocomposite films would generate a stronger perturbation to the c-axis alignment of the BaHfO3 1D-APCs and therefore a more isotropic magnetic vortex pinning landscape. In order to experimentally confirm this, we have made a comparative study of the critical current density Jc (H, θ, T) of 2 vol.% BaZrO3 + 3 vol.%Y2O3 and 2 vol.%BaHfO3 + 3 vol.%Y2O3 double-doped (DD) YBa2Cu3O7-δ films deposited at their optimal growth conditions. A much enhanced isotropic pinning was observed in the BaHfO3 DD samples. For example, at 65 K and 9.0 T, the variation of the Jc across the entire θ range from θ=0 (H//c) to θ=90 degree (H//ab) is less than 18% for BaHfO3 DD films, in contrast to about 100% for the BaZrO3 DD counterpart. In addition, lower α values from the Jc(H) ˜ H-α fitting were observed in the BaHfO3 DD films in a large θ range away from the H//c-axis. Since the two samples have comparable Jc values at H//c-axis, the improved isotropic pinning in BaHfO3 DD films confirms the theoretically predicted higher tunability of the BaHfO3 1D-APCs in APC/YBa2Cu3O7-δ nanocomposite films.

  11. Effect of Y2O3 Content on Microstructure of Gradient Bioceramic Composite Coating Produced by Wide-Band Laser Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qibin; Zou Jianglong; Zheng Min; Dong Chuang

    2005-01-01

    To eliminate thermal stress and cracks in the process of laser cladding, a kind of bioceramic coating with gradient compositional design was prepared on the surface of Ti alloy by using wide-band laser cladding. And effect of Y2O3 content on gradient bioceramic composite coating was studied. The experimental results indicate that adding rare earth can refine grain. Different rare earth contents affect formation of HA and β-TCP in bioceramic coating. When the content of rare earth ranges from 0.4% to 0.6%, the active extent of rare earth in synthesizing HA and β-TCP is the best, which indicates that "monosodium glutamate" effect of rare earth plays a dominant role. However, when rare earth content is up to 0.8%, the amount of synthesizing HA and β-TCP in coating conversely goes down, which demonstrates that rare earth gradually losts its catalysis in manufacturing HA and β-TCP.

  12. Characterization of Mixed xWO3(1-xY2O3 Nanoparticle Thick Film for Gas Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Shahrokh Abadi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural, topology, inner morphology, and gas-sensitivity of mixed xWO3(1-xY2O3 nanoparticles (x = 1, 0.95, 0.9, 0.85, 0.8 thick-film semiconductor gas sensors were studied. The surface topography and inner morphological properties of the mixed powder and sensing film were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Also, gas sensitivity properties of the printed films were evaluated in the presence of methane (CH4 and butane (C4H10 at up to 500 °C operating temperature of the sensor. The results show that the doping agent can modify some structural properties and gas sensitivity of the mixed powder.

  13. Realization of synaptic learning and memory functions in Y2O3 based memristive device fabricated by dual ion beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mangal; Kumar, Amitesh; Singh, Rohit; Than Htay, Myo; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2018-02-01

    Single synaptic device with inherent learning and memory functions is demonstrated based on a forming-free amorphous Y2O3 (yttria) memristor fabricated by dual ion beam sputtering system. Synaptic functions such as nonlinear transmission characteristics, long-term plasticity, short-term plasticity and ‘learning behavior (LB)’ are achieved using a single synaptic device based on cost-effective metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure. An ‘LB’ function is demonstrated, for the first time in the literature, for a yttria based memristor, which bears a resemblance to certain memory functions of biological systems. The realization of key synaptic functions in a cost-effective MIS structure would promote much cheaper synapse for artificial neural network.

  14. Studies on powder processing and sintering behaviour of ZrO2-9.0 mol% Y2O3 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.; Gonal, M.R.; Upadhyaya, D.D.; Ram Prasad

    1998-01-01

    In the present investigation the synthesis and densification behaviour of ZrO 2 -9.0 mol% Y 2 O 3 ceramics has been described. Powder preparation was based on the co-precipitation method. It was found that variation in the precipitation conditions and washing steps of the precipitated gels resulted in powder of different agglomerate sizes. The effect of different precipitations and washing conditions on the crystallite size of the 600 deg C calcined powders were examined by x-ray diffraction. The powders produced were essentially of the cubic fluorite phase. The ball-milled powders were analyzed for particle size distribution. Densification behaviour of the bodies made by slip casting has also been studied. (author)

  15. Investigation of creep threshold stresses using in situ TEM straining experiment in an Al-5Y2O3-10SiC composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, S.P.; Mishra, R.S.; Robertson, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    Creep behavior of metal matrix composites is similar to dispersion strengthen alloys and characterized by the presence of a threshold stress below which the creep rate is negligible. This threshold stress is attributed, at least in dispersion-strengthened alloys, to dislocation particle interactions in which the detachment of the dislocations from the particle is the rate-limiting step. Creep experiments were performed on an Al-5Y 2 O 3 -10SiC composite in the temperature range of 473 and 573 K and the nature of the dislocation-particle interaction was determined by performing in situ straining experiments at elevated temperature in a transmission electron microscope. The threshold stress and the detachment stress are temperature dependent and the detachment stress is less than the threshold stress emphasizing the contribution of load transfer from the matrix to the reinforcement phase.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties of nanocrystaline Y2O3-coated TiO2 in the ethanol dehydration reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, Humberto Vieira; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson Roberto; Libanori, Rafael; Probst, Luiz Fernando Dias; Carreno, Neftali Lenin Villarreal

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, TiO 2 nano powder was partially coated with Y 2 O 3 precursors generated by a sol-gel modified route. The system of nanocoated particles formed an ultra thin structure on the TiO 2 surfaces. The modified nanoparticles were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Zeta potential and surface area through N 2 physisorption measurements. Bioethanol dehydration was used as a probe reaction to investigate the modifications on the nanoparticles surface. The process led to the obtainment of nanoparticles with important surface characteristics and catalytic behavior in the bioethanol dehydration reaction, with improved activity and particular selectivity in comparison to their non-coated analogs. The ethylene production was disfavored and selectivity toward acetaldehyde, hydrogen and ethane increased over modified nanoparticles. (author)

  17. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties of nanocrystaline Y2O3-coated TiO2 in the ethanol dehydration reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Vieira Fajardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, TiO2 nanopowder was partially coated with Y2O3 precursors generated by a sol-gel modified route. The system of nanocoated particles formed an ultra thin structure on the TiO2 surfaces. The modified nanoparticles were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, Zeta potential and surface area through N2 fisisorption measurements. Bioethanol dehydration was used as a probe reaction to investigate the modifications on the nanoparticles surface. The process led to the obtainment of nanoparticles with important surface characteristics and catalytic behavior in the bioethanol dehydration reaction, with improved activity and particular selectivity in comparison to their non-coated analogs. The ethylene production was disfavored and selectivity toward acetaldehyde, hydrogen and ethane increased over modified nanoparticles.

  18. Mullite and Mullite/ZrO2-7wt.%Y2O3 Powders for Thermal Spraying of Environmental Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, E.; Mesquita-Guimarães, J.; Miranzo, P.; Osendi, M. I.; Wang, Y.; Lima, R. S.; Moreau, C.

    2010-01-01

    Mullite and mullite/ZrO2-7wt.%Y2O3 coatings could be thought among the main protective layers for environment barrier coatings (EBCs) to protect Si-based substrates in future gas turbine engines. Considering that feedstock of the compound powder is not commercially available, two powder processing routes Spray Drying (SD) and Flame Spheroidization (FS) were implemented for both types of powders. For each method the particle size, the morphology, and microstructure of the powder particles was determined. In addition, the effect of the heat treatment on the powder crystallinity and microstructure of FS powders was also investigated. To evaluate their suitability as feedstock materials, the powders were plasma sprayed and their in-flight particle characteristics monitored for coatings production. The powder morphology was correlated to the in-flight particle characteristics and splat morphology to gain insight about into the influence of powder characteristics on the coating formation.

  19. Dependence of glass-forming ability on starting compositions in Y2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 system

    OpenAIRE

    Yixiang Chen; Zengchao Yang; Bin He; Guanghua Liu; Jiangtao Li; Liang Wu

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of glass-forming ability on starting compositions in Y2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 (YAS) system has been investigated by melting experiment. Transparent YAS glasses have been prepared under the condition of furnace cooling instead of quenching. It is found that, in the YAS ternary phase diagram, the compositions on the Y3Al5O12–SiO2 line and with 52-68 mol% SiO2 have a higher glass-forming ability to produce pure glass. For the compositions with too much or less SiO2 or with Y/Al = 5/3, 1/1,...

  20. 1887 nm lasing in Tm3+-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glass microstructured fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunbin; Yao, Chuanfei; Jia, Zhixu; Qin, Guanshi; Qin, Weiping

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate ∼2 μm lasing in Tm3+-doped fluorotellurite microstructured fibers. The Tm3+-doped fibers are based on TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses and fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. Under the pump of a 1570 nm Er3+-doped fiber laser, lasing at 1887 nm is obtained in a ∼42.5 cm long Tm3+-doped fiber with a threshold pump power of 94 mW. As the pump power increases to 780 mW, the obtained maximum unsaturated power reaches up to ∼408 mW with a slop efficiency of ∼58.1%. This result indicates that the Tm3+-doped fluorotellurite fibers are promising gain media for ∼2 μm fiber lasers.

  1. Preparation and studies of Eu3+ and Tb3+ co-doped Gd2O3 and Y2O3 sol-gel scintillating films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Ramirez, A. de J; Garcia Murillo, A.; Carrillo Romo, F. de J; Ramirez Salgado, J.; Le Luyer, C.; Chadeyron, G.; Boyer, D.; Moreno Palmerin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Eu 3+ (2.5 at.%) and Tb 3+ (0.005-0.01 at.%) co-doped gadolinium and yttrium oxide (Gd 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 ) powders and films have been prepared using the sol-gel process. High density and optical quality thin films were prepared with the dip-coating technique. Gadolinium (III) 2,4-pentadionate and yttrium (III) 2,4-pentadionate were used as precursors, and europium and terbium in their nitrate forms were used as doping agents. Chemical and structural analyses (infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy) were conducted on both sol-gel precursor powders and dip-coated films. The morphology of thin films heat-treated at 700 o C was studied by means of atomic force microscopy. It was shown that the highly dense and very smooth films had a root mean roughness (RMS) of 2 nm ± 0.2 (A = 0.0075 Tb 3+ ) and 24 nm ± 3.0 (B = 0.01 Tb 3+ ). After treatment at 700 o C, the crystallized films were in the cubic phase and presented a polycrystalline structure made up of randomly oriented crystallites with grain sizes varying from 20 to 60 nm. The X-ray induced emission spectra of Eu 3+ - and Tb 3+ -doped Gd 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 powders showed that Tb 3+ contents of 0.005, 0.0075 and 0.01 at.% affected their optical properties. Lower Tb 3+ concentrations (down to 0.005 at.%) in both systems enhanced the light yield.

  2. Evaluation of defect formation in helium irradiated Y2O3 doped W-Ti alloys by positron annihilation and nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Asta; Anwand, Wolfgang; Chen, Chun-Liang; Böttger, Roman

    2017-10-01

    Helium implanted tungsten-titanium ODS alloys are investigated using positron annihilation spectroscopy and nanoindentation. Titanium reduces the brittleness of the tungsten alloy, which is manufactured by mechanical alloying. The addition of Y2O3 nanoparticles increases the mechanical properties at elevated temperature and enhances irradiation resistance. Helium ion implantation was applied to simulate irradiation effects on these materials. The irradiation was performed using a 500 kV He ion implanter at fluences around 5 × 1015 cm-2 for a series of samples both at room temperature and at 600 °C. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the pristine and irradiated W-Ti-ODS alloy are compared with respect to the titanium and Y2O3 content. Radiation damage is studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy analyzing the lifetime and the Doppler broadening. Three types of helium-vacancy defects were detected after helium irradiation in the W-Ti-ODS alloy: small defects with high helium-to-vacancy ratio (low S parameter) for room temperature irradiation, larger open volume defects with low helium-to-vacancy ratio (high S parameter) at the surface and He-vacancy complexes pinned at nanoparticles deeper in the material for implantation at 600 °C. Defect induced hardness was studied by nanoindentation. A drastic hardness increase is observed after He ion irradiation both for room temperature and elevated irradiation temperature of 600 °C. The Ti alloyed tungsten-ODS is more affected by the hardness increase after irradiation compared to the pure W-ODS alloy.

  3. Structural and chemical degradation mechanisms of pure YSZ and its components ZrO2 and Y2O3 in carbon-rich fuel gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck, Eva-Maria; Kogler, Michaela; Götsch, Thomas; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon

    2016-05-25

    Structural and chemical degradation mechanisms of metal-free yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ-8, 8 mol% Y2O3 in ZrO2) in comparison to its pure oxidic components ZrO2 and Y2O3 have been studied in carbon-rich fuel gases with respect to coking/graphitization and (oxy)carbide formation. By combining operando electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), operando Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the removal and suppression of CH4- and CO-induced carbon deposits and of those generated in more realistic fuel gas mixtures (syngas, mixtures of CH4 or CO with CO2 and H2O) was examined under SOFC-relevant conditions up to 1273 K and ambient pressures. Surface-near carbidization is a major problem already on the "isolated" (i.e. Nickel-free) cermet components, leading to irreversible changes of the conduction properties. Graphitic carbon deposition takes place already on the "isolated" oxides under sufficiently fuel-rich conditions, most pronounced in the pure gases CH4 and CO, but also significantly in fuel gas mixtures containing H2O and CO2. For YSZ, a comparative quantification of the total amount of deposited carbon in all gases and mixtures is provided and thus yields favorable and detrimental experimental approaches to suppress the carbon formation. In addition, the effectivity and reversibility of removal of the coke/graphite layers was comparably studied in the pure oxidants O2, CO2 and H2O and their effective contribution upon addition to the pure fuel gases CO and CH4 verified.

  4. Characterization investigations during mechanical alloying and sintering of Ni-W solid solution alloys dispersed with WC and Y2O3 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genc, Aziz; Luetfi Ovecoglu, M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Characterization investigations on the Ni-W solid solution alloys fabricated via mechanical alloying and the evolution of the properties of the powders with increasing MA durations. → Reinforcement of the selected Ni-W powders with WC and Y 2 O 3 particles and further MA together for 12 h. → There is no reported literature on the development and characterization of Ni-W solid solution alloys matrix composites fabricated via MA. → Sintering of the developed composites and the characterization investigations of the sintered samples. → Identification of new 'pomegranate-like' structures in the bulk of the samples. - Abstract: Blended elemental Ni-30 wt.% W powders were mechanically alloyed (MA'd) for 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h and 48 h in a Spex mixer/mill at room temperature in order to investigate the effects of MA duration on the solubility of W in Ni and the grain size, hardness and particle size. Microstructural and phase characterizations of the MA'd powders were carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). On the basis of achieved saturation on the solid solubility, hardness and particle size, the Ni-30 wt.% W powders MA'd for 48 h were chosen as the matrix which was reinforced with different amounts of WC and/or with 1 wt.% Y 2 O 3 particles. The reinforced powders were further MA'd for 12 h. The MA'd powders were sintered at 1300 o C for 1 h under Ar and H 2 gas flowing conditions. Microstructural characterizations of the sintered samples were conducted via XRD and SEM. Sintered densities were measured by using the Archimedes' method. Vickers microhardness tests were performed on both MA'd powders and the sintered samples. Sliding wear experiments were done in order to investigate wear behaviors of the sintered samples.

  5. Single-Crystal Y2O3 Epitaxially on GaAs(001 and (111 Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal atomic-layer-deposited (ALD Y\\(_{\\mathrm{2}}\\O\\(_{\\mathrm{3}}\\ films 2 nm thick were epitaxially grown on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE GaAs(001-4 \\(\\times\\ 6 and GaAs(111A-2 \\(\\times\\ 2 reconstructed surfaces. The in-plane epitaxy between the ALD-oxide films and GaAs was observed using \\textit{in-situ} reflection high-energy electron diffraction in our uniquely designed MBE/ALD multi-chamber system. More detailed studies on the crystallography of the hetero-structures were carried out using high-resolution synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction. When deposited on GaAs(001, the Y\\(_{\\mathrm{2}}\\O\\(_{\\mathrm{3}}\\ films are of a cubic phase and have (110 as the film normal, with the orientation relationship being determined: Y\\(_{\\mathrm{2}}\\O\\(_{\\mathrm{3}}\\(\\(110\\[\\(001\\][\\(\\overline{1}10\\]//GaAs(\\(001\\[\\(110\\][\\(1\\overline{1}0\\]. On GaAs(\\(111\\A, the Y\\(_{\\mathrm{2}}\\O\\(_{\\mathrm{3}}\\ films are also of a cubic phase with (\\(111\\ as the film normal, having the orientation relationship of Y\\(_{\\mathrm{2}}\\O\\(_{\\mathrm{3}}\\(\\(111\\[\\(2\\overline{1}\\overline{1}\\] [\\(01\\overline{1}\\]//GaAs (\\(111\\ [\\(\\overline{2}11\\][\\(0\\overline{1}1\\]. The relevant orientation for the present/future integrated circuit platform is (\\(001\\. The ALD-Y\\(_{\\mathrm{2}}\\O\\(_{\\mathrm{3}}\\/GaAs(\\(001\\-4 \\(\\times\\ 6 has shown excellent electrical properties. These include small frequency dispersion in the capacitance-voltage CV curves at accumulation of ~7% and ~14% for the respective p- and n-type samples with the measured frequencies of 1 MHz to 100 Hz. The interfacial trap density (Dit is low of ~10\\(^{12}\\ cm\\(^{−2}\\eV\\(^{−1}\\ as extracted from measured quasi-static CVs. The frequency dispersion at accumulation and the D\\(_{it}\\ are the lowest ever achieved among all the ALD-oxides on GaAs(\\(001\\.

  6. Effect of CeO2 and Y2O3 on microstructure, bioactivity and degradability of laser cladding CaO-SiO2 coating on titanium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Chen, C Z; Weng, F

    2015-03-01

    To solve the lack of strength of bulk biomaterials for load-bearing applications and improve the bioactivity of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), CaO-SiO2 coatings on titanium alloy were fabricated by laser cladding technique. The effect of CeO2 and Y2O3 on microstructure and properties of laser cladding coating was analyzed. The cross-section microstructure of ceramic layer from top to bottom gradually changes from cellular-dendrite structure to compact cellular crystal. The addition of CeO2 or Y2O3 refines the microstructure of the ceramic layer in the upper and middle regions. The refining effect on the grain is related to the kinds of additives and their content. The coating is mainly composed of CaTiO3, CaO, α-Ca2(SiO4), SiO2 and TiO2. Y2O3 inhibits the formation of CaO. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), the calcium phosphate layer is formed on the coating surface, indicating the coating has bioactivity. After soaking in Tris-HCl solution, the samples doped with CeO2 or Y2O3 present a lower weight loss, indicating the addition of CeO2 or Y2O3 improves the degradability of laser cladding sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanostructured Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skandan, G.; Hahn, H.; Parker, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    It has been shown that a variety of nanostructured (n-) metal-oxide ceramics such as n-TiO 2 , n-ZrO 2 , n-Al 2 O 3 , n-ZnO and n-MgO can be produced using the inert gas condensation process. Amongst all the nanostructured oxides, the synthesis, microstructure, sintering, and mechanical properties of n-TiO 2 have been studied the most extensively. The gas condensation preparation of nanostructured metal-oxide ceramics involves evaporation of metal nanoparticles, collection and post- oxidation. The original synthesis studies of n-TiO 2 showed that in order to avoid formation of the many low oxidation state oxides in the Ti-O system, the post-oxidation had to be performed by rapidly exposing the Ti nanoparticles to pure oxygen gas. By doing so, the highest oxidation state and the most stable structure, rutile, was obtained. An undesired feature of this step is that the nanoparticles heat up to high temperatures for a brief period of time due to the exothermic nature of the oxidation. As a consequence, the particles with an average size of 12 nm tend to agglomerate into larger structures up to 50 nm. The agglomerated state of the powder is important since it determines the original density and pore size distribution after compaction, as well as the sintering characteristics and final microstructure of the bulk sample. As a consequence of the preparation procedure of n-TiO 2 and the resulting agglomeration, the pore size distribution of n-TiO 2 compacted at room temperature is very wide, with pore sizes ranging from 1 to 200 nm. Nevertheless, the n-TiO 2 sinters at temperatures several hundred degrees lower than conventional coarse grained ceramics. From the previous results on n- TiO 2 it is anticipated that better microstructures and properties can be achieved by reducing the agglomeration of nanostructured powders through a more controlled post- oxidation process

  8. Study of directionally solidified eutectic Al2O3-ZrO2(3%Y2O3 doped with TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, J. I.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An study of directionally grown samples of the eutectic composition in the Al2O3-ZrO2 (3 mol% Y2O3 system, with small TiO2 additions (1 wt%, is presented. The microstructural changes induced by this addition are analysed using SEM (EDX techniques. The mechanical changes, when TiO2 is added, are studied by measuring the flexural strength by three point bending. Also, the toughness is determined by Vickers indentation method. When slow growth rates (10 mm/h are used, interpenetratred and homogeneous microstructure is obtained, independently of the TiO2 doping. When growth rates are higher (300 and 1000 mm/h the structure changes and the phases are organized in form of colonies or cells, which have smaller size when TiO2 is present. This size reduction is accompanied with an increase of the toughness.Este trabajo presenta un estudio de muestras crecidas direccionalmente del sistema Al2O3-ZrO2 (3 mol% Y2O3 en su composición eutéctica con pequeñas adiciones de óxido de titanio (1% de TiO2 en peso. Se analizan los cambios microestructurales inducidos por esta adición mediante SEM (EDX y se estudian los cambios en su comportamiento mecánico medido por flexión en tres puntos, así como la tenacidad de fractura mediante indentación Vickers. Con velocidades lentas de solidificación (10 mm/h se obtiene en ambos casos una microestructura homogénea e interpenetrada, mientras que a velocidades mayores, 300 y 1000 mm/h, se forma una estructura en las que las fases se organizan en forma de colonias o células, siendo éstas de menor tamaño en las muestras dopadas. Esta disminución en el tamaño viene acompañada de un aumento de la tenacidad de fractura medida por indentación.

  9. Protocol of thermal treatments for the recovery of tetragonal phase in infrastructures of dental prostheses base of ZrO_2 (3-Y_2O_3) mills in CAD / CAM systems or panthories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simba, B.G.; Ferreira, B.; Santos, C.

    2011-01-01

    ZrO_2(3%Y_2O_3) bioceramics are used as dental materials mainly as prosthesis components, because present high mechanical properties and translucence. The use of CAD/CAM machining technique needs final grinding which promotes tetragonal monoclinic transformation reducing the reliability of this ceramic. In this work, ZrO_2(3%Y_2O_3) ceramics were sintered at 1450-0h, 1530-2h or 1600-4h and characterized. Different heat-treatment (400-1200 deg C) are proposed aiming the recuperation of the tetragonal crystalline phase. (author)

  10. Upconversion Properties of the Er-Doped Y2O3, Bi2O3 and Sb2O3 Nanoparticles Fabricated by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamiri Reza; Bahari-Poor Hamid-Reza; Zakaria Azmi; Jorfi Raheleh; Zamiri Golnoush; Rebelo Avito; Omar Akrajas Ali

    2013-01-01

    Er-doped Y 2 O 3 , Bi 2 O 3 and Sb 2 O 3 nanoparticles are synthesized using pulsed laser ablation in a liquid. Ceramic targets of Y 2 O 3 :Er 3+ , Bi 2 O 3 :Er 3+ and Sb 2 O 3 :Er 3+ for ablation process are prepared by standard solid-state reaction technique and ablation is carried out in 5-ml distilled water using nanosecond Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The morphology and size of the fabricated nanoparticles are evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and the luminescence emission properties of the prepared samples are investigated under different excitation wavelengths

  11. Insights on the High-Temperature Operational Limits of ZrO2-Y2O3 TBCs Manufactured via Air Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.

    2017-03-01

    The effective high-temperature operation limit of a ZrO2-7-8 wt.%Y2O3 (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) manufactured via air plasma spray (APS) is considered to be 1300 °C. This is related to the metastable tetragonal t'-phase formed during the rapid quenching of the YSZ particles during spraying. The t'-phase transforms into the equilibrium tetragonal and cubic phases at temperatures ≥ 1300 °C, which can lead to the formation of the monoclinic phase of YSZ upon cooling to room temperature. This formation of the monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume expansion that leads to TBC failure due to extensive micro-cracking. To further investigate this limitation, an APS YSZ TBC was sprayed on a CMSX-4 substrate. By using a thermal (laser) gradient cyclic testing, a temperature gradient was generated across the TBC/substrate system. The YSZ T- front and substrate backside T- back temperature levels were 1500 and 1000 °C, respectively. In cycle conditions (5-min or 1-h hot and 2-min cool), no TBC failure has been observed. This behavior was partially attributed to the unexpected absence of the monoclinic phase of the YSZ in the cycled coatings. Although preliminary, these results are promising regarding increasing the effective high-temperature operational limits of APS YSZ TBCs.

  12. Structural morphology, upconversion luminescence and optical thermometric sensing behavior of Y2O3:Er(3+)/Yb(3+) nano-crystalline phosphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, C; Dwivedi, A; Rai, S B

    2014-08-14

    Infrared-to-visible upconverting rare earths Er(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped Y2O3 nano-crystalline phosphor samples have been prepared by solution combustion method followed by post-heat treatment at higher temperatures. A slight increase in average crystallite size has been found on calcinations verified by X-ray analysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirms the nano-crystalline nature of the as-prepared and calcinated samples. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis shows the structural changes in as-prepared and calcinated samples. Upconversion and downconversion emission recorded using 976 and 532 nm laser sources clearly demonstrates a better luminescence properties in the calcinated samples as compared to as-prepared sample. Upconversion emission has been quantified in terms of standard chromaticity diagram (CIE) showing a shift in overall upconversion emission of as-prepared and calcinated samples. Temperature sensing behaviour of this material has also been investigated by measurement of fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) of various signals in green emission in the temperature range of 315 to 555 K under 976 nm laser excitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dependence of glass-forming ability on starting compositions in Y2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiang Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of glass-forming ability on starting compositions in Y2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 (YAS system has been investigated by melting experiment. Transparent YAS glasses have been prepared under the condition of furnace cooling instead of quenching. It is found that, in the YAS ternary phase diagram, the compositions on the Y3Al5O12–SiO2 line and with 52-68 mol% SiO2 have a higher glass-forming ability to produce pure glass. For the compositions with too much or less SiO2 or with Y/Al = 5/3, 1/1, or 1/3, crystallization occurs with the formation of Y3Al5O12, Y2Si2O7, Al6Si2O13, or SiO2. The densities of the YAS glasses increase with decreasing SiO2 contents and increasing Y/Al ratios, and for the samples with Y/Al = 3/5 there is a good linear relationship between the density and SiO2 content.

  14. The behavior of ZrO2/20%Y2O3 and Al2O3 coatings deposited on aluminum alloys at high temperature regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintilei, G. L.; Crismaru, V. I.; Abrudeanu, M.; Munteanu, C.; Baciu, E. R.; Istrate, B.; Basescu, N.

    2015-10-01

    Aluminum alloy present numerous advantages like lightness, high specific strength and diversity which recommend them to a high number of applications from different fields. In extreme environments the protection of aluminum alloys is difficult and requires a high number of requirements like high temperature resistance, thermal fatigue resistance, corrosion fatigue resistance and galvanic corrosion resistance. To obtain these characteristics coatings can be applied to the surfaces so they can enhance the mechanical and chemical properties of the parts. In this paper two coatings were considered for deposition on an AA2024 aluminum alloy, ZrO2/20%Y2O3 and Al2O3. To obtain a better adherence of the coating to the base material an additional bond layer of NiCr is used. Both the coatings and bond layer were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying on the samples. The samples were subjected to a temperature of 500 °C and after that slowly cooled to room temperature. The samples were analyzed by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to determine the morphological and phase changes that occurred during the temperature exposure. To determine the stress level in the parts due to thermal expansion a finite element analysis was performed in the same conditions as the tests.

  15. Soft-x-ray emission and the local p-type partial density of electronic states in Y2O3: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.R.; Ederer, D.L.; van Ek, J.; OBrien, W.L.; Dong, Q.Y.; Jia, J.; Callcott, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Photon-excited yttrium M IV,V , and electron-excited oxygen K x-ray emission spectra for yttrium oxide are presented. It is shown that, as in the case of yttrium metal, the decay of M IV vacancies does not contribute substantially to the oxide M IV,V emission. The valence emission is interpreted in a one-electron picture as a measure of the local p-type partial density of states. The yttrium and oxygen valence emission bands are very similar and strongly resemble published photoelectron spectra. Using local-density approximation electronic structure calculations, we show that the broadening of the Y-4p signal in yttrium oxide relative to Y metal are due to two inequivalent yttrium sites in Y 2 O 3 . Features present in the oxide, but not the metal spectrum, are the result of overlap (hybridization) between the Y-4p wave function and states in the oxygen 2s subband. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. The use of the thermo-emf method to investigate the reversibility of gas cell electrodes with the ZrO2+Y2O3 electrolyte in the gaseous phase of any composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfil'ev, M.V.; Fadeev, G.I.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of using the thermo-e.m.f. method to determine the minimum temperature at which the electrode potential of solid electrolyte sells remains equilibrium relatively to the gaseous phase in the atmospheres of the arbitrary composition, is considered. The above method and the method of concentration e.m.f. have been used to determine maximum temperatures of reversibility of powder platinum electrodes in the CO+CO 2 atmosphere with CO 2 content from 5 to 95%. Both methods are shown to produce similar results. It is supposed that the reason for the deviation of electrode potential from the equilibrium value at low temperatures is the absence of equilibrium between the gaseous phase and the adsorption layer. Parameters which are included in the equation for thermo-e.m.f. in any atmosphere are determined for the electrolyte of the 0.93 ZrO 2 +0.07 Y 2 O 3 composition. Oxygen vacancies are shown to interact with the formation of complexes at measurement temperatures of 300 deg-800 deg C

  17. Crystal defects and related stress in Y2O3 thin films: Origin, modeling, and consequence on the stability of the C-type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Bertrand; Paumier, Fabien; Gaboriaud, Rolly J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact that the crystal defects have on the C-type structure of rare earth sesquioxide thin films grown by ion-beam sputtering, through the example of Y 2 O 3 . By monitoring the energy of the argon beam used in the sputter deposition process (between 600 and 1200 eV), we show that it is possible to control the microstructure (defects concentration, stress state and phase) in the oxide layer. Two main types of defects, ascribed to the 'atomic peening effect', are evidenced by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and nuclear reaction analysis experiments: anti-Frenkel pairs, leading to a disorder on the oxygen-vacancy network, and oxygen-vacancy dislocations loops, to accommodate the strong nonstoichiometry. From a macroscopic measurement of the residual stresses in the as-deposited and the annealed layers, through x-ray diffraction and the sin 2 Ψ method, we have modeled the related stress state using an enhanced triaxial stress model. In the as-grown films, we evidence the coexistence of a biaxial and a hydrostatic stress, due to inclusions of atomic size defects. Quantitative information of the concentration and the nature of each type of defect (size effect) have also been determined, in good agreement with experiments. Interestingly, in the most energetic growth conditions corresponding to the highest degree of disorder on the oxygen-vacancy network and to the highest stress field in the film, we demonstrate that it is possible to stabilize an unexpected and metastable non equilibrium fluorite-like phase (X-type).

  18. Compressive strain-dependent bending strength property of Al2O3-ZrO2 (1.5 mol% Y2O3) composites performance by HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Rojas, A.; Esparza-Ponce, H.; De la Torre, S.D.; Torres-Moye, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nanometric powders and sintered ceramics of Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 (1.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 ) prepared by hot isostatic pressing HIP have been studied. A detailed crystallographic study has been performed through X-ray diffraction, Williamson-Hall method, Rietveld method and high-resolution electron microscopy HREM analysis. The crystallographic structure data, such as domain size, lattice parameters, wt% phase, and micro-strain direction have been obtained using Rietveld refinement and Williamson-Hall methods. The results revealed that the compressive strain (ε) increased from 0.56 to 1.18 (10 -3 ) as the t-ZrO 2 content increased too. The HREM interface study conducted along the [0 0 0 1]Al 2 O 3 ||[0 0 1]ZrO 2 zone axis revealed a micro-strain lattice distortion accumulated at the grain boundary due to the ZrO 2 martensitic phase transformation on cooling, t-ZrO 2 grains coalescence and to the grain growth of α-Al 2 O 3 which cause elongated tetragonal crystals. Micro-strain lattice distortion is adjusted by the shear displacements of the planes (1 1 0) and (11-bar0) along [1-bar10] and [1-bar1-bar0] crystallographic directions, respectively; these planes are arrested by the (101-bar0) alumina plane. In this case, semi-coherent interfaces were observed along the grain boundary. It is verified that the bending strength increased in connection with the strain accumulation and amount of tetragonal structure

  19. Effect of cooling rate on tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in hot pressed ZrO2(Y2O3) ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W.Z.; Ding, Z.S.; Lei, T.C.; Zhou, Y.

    1995-01-01

    It is well documented that the tetragonal (T) to monoclinic (M) transition in either pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia is the origin of toughening in that resistance to the propagation of cracks can be greatly enhanced by the concurrent appearance of the stress field of the transformation. In the present paper, the effect of cooling rate on the T → M phase transformation in yttria-containing zirconia and its resultant mechanical properties have been studied by means of thermal expansion analysis. Both the T → M and M → T transformations are affected by the cooling and heating rates, respectively. The amount of M-phase decreases with increasing cooling rate. T → M transition occurring within the interior part of specimen can be completely inhibited by the cooling rate of 100 C/min for ZrO 2 (2mol% Y 2 O 3 ) ceramic sintered at 1,600 C. The start point and end point of the T → M transformation decreases and increases, respectively, with increasing cooling rate. Both the start point and end point of the M → T transformation increase with increasing cooling rate. The divergence between the results of X-ray diffraction and the thermal expansion analysis has been rationalized in terms of the both internal and external factors, namely, preferential sites of surface for the formation of the M-phase and limited sensitivity of measurement of the thermal expansion apparatus. Both the water-cooled and air-cooled specimens show much improved mechanical properties regardless of the sintering temperatures or yttria content because of the relatively higher T-phase fraction retained to room temperature

  20. Super ODS steel R and D for fuel cladding of next generation nuclear systems. 2) Effect of minor alloying elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, S.; Hashimoto, N.; Ukai, S.; Kimura, A.; Inoue, Masaki; Kaito, Takeji; Fujisawa, T.; Okuda, T.; Abe, F.

    2009-01-01

    For development of advanced ferritic ODS steels including high concentration of Cr and Al, the effect of minor alloying elements on fine dispersion of oxide particle was investigated. Microstructural analysis for Fe-16Cr-4Al-mY 2 O 3 -nZr or mHf due to TEM indicated that 0.3Zr or 0.6Hf are the optimum concentration. The mechanism of nano-sized oxide formation was also discussed. (author)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Al2O3NbC composite and the effect of Y2O3 addition on its sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasotti, Rosa Maria da Rocha

    1999-01-01

    Alumina composites containing ceramic particles have been intensively studied because they show improved mechanical properties and some advantages over fibres and whiskers based composites mainly for processing. The embedment of NbC particles in an Al 2 O 3 matrix has been investigated in this work. Composite materials were obtained by the conventional ceramic processing with compositions Al 2 O 3 -x NbC where x=10, 20, and 40 weight %. Materials were sintered in argon at 1650 deg C/30 min, and at 1750 deg C/15min using a graphite resistance furnace. Three sets of samples were processed: containing NbC powder as received; containing NbC powder milled for 30 h; and containing 3 weight % of Y 2 O 3 added to the Al 2 O 3 matrix. After sintering samples were analysed to evaluate the densification grade. Phases were determined by X-ray diffraction, and samples were analysed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to observe the microstructure features. Hardness and fracture toughness at room temperature were also determined by the indentation method, and the sintering kinetic was evaluated by dilatometry. The present work shows that Al 2 O 3 -NbC composite can be produced by using pressureless sintering, leading to materials with densities higher than 95% of the theoretical density for all composites containing NbC and sintered at 1750 deg C. The same result can be obtained for composites containing 10 and 20 weight % of NbC, and sintered at temperatures as low as 1650 deg C. Higher concentration of NbC in the Al 2 O 3 matrix promotes an improvement of fracture toughness. Samples with 40-wt % of NbC show K IC equals to 4.5 MPa.m 1/2 . This value is compared to the ones previously determined for Al 2 O 3 - TiC composites, available commercially and used in ceramic cutting-tools. (author)

  2. Bioactivity of Y2O3 and CeO2 doped SiO2-SrO-Na2O glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placek, L M; Keenan, T J; Wren, A W

    2016-08-01

    The bioactivity of yttrium and cerium are investigated when substituted for Sodium (Na) in a 0.52SiO2-0.24SrO-0.24-xNa2O-xMO glass-ceramics (where x = 0.08 and MO = Y2O3 or CeO2). Bioactivity is monitored through pH and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry where pH of simulated body fluid ranged from 7.5 to 7.6 and increased between 8.2 and 10.0 after 14-day incubation with the glass-ceramic disks. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels in simulated body fluid after incubation with yttrium and cerium containing disks show a continual decline over the 14-day period. In contrast, Con disks (not containing yttrium or cerium) caused the elimination of Ca in solution after 1 day and throughout the incubation period, and initially showed a decline in P levels followed by an increase at 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Ca and P on the surface of the simulated body fluid-incubated disks and showed precipitates on Con and HCe (8 mol% cerium) samples. Cell viability of MC3T3 osteoblasts was not significantly affected at a 9% extract concentration. Optical microscopy after 24 h cell incubation with disks showed that Con samples do not support osteoblast or Schwann cell growth, while all yttrium and cerium containing disks have direct contact with osteoblasts spread across the wells. Schwann cells attached in all wells, but only showed spreading with the HY-S (8 mol% yttrium, heated to sintering temperature) and YCe (4 mol% yttrium and cerium) disks. Scanning electron microscopy of the compatible disks shows osteoblast and sNF96.2 Schwann cells attachment and spreading directly on the disk surfaces. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Enhanced flux pinning by BaZrO3 and (Gd,y)2O3 nano-structures in metal organic chemical vapor deposited GdYBCO high temperature superconductor tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Lee, Dominic F [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Zhang, Yifei [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    We have formed BaZrO3 nano-columns and (Gd,Y)2O3 nano-precipitates in reel-to-reel MOCVD processed (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3O7-x coated conductors and increased the critical currents (Ic) of the conductors in applied magnetic fields to remarkable levels. A (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3O7-x tape of 1m length with 6.5% Zr-additions and 30% composition rich in both Gd and Y showed Ic values of 813 A/cm-width at (self-field, 77K) and above 186 A/cm-width at (1T, 77K). The strongly enhanced flux pinning over a wide range of magnetic field orientations can be attributed to the bidirectionally aligned defect structures of BaZrO3 and (Gd,Y)2O3 created by optimized MOCVD conditions.

  4. Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses for ∼1.2 μm laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunbin; Li, Chengzhi; Yao, Chuanfei; Jia, Shijie; Jia, Zhixu; Qin, Guanshi; Qin, Weiping

    2017-02-01

    Intense ∼1.2 μm fluorescence is observed in Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses under 915 nm laser diode excitation. The 1.2 μm emission can be ascribed to the transition 5I6→5I8 of Ho3+. With the introducing of BaF2, the content of OH in the glasses drops markedly, and the 1.2 μm emission intensity increases gradually as increasing the concentration percentage of BaF2. Furthermore, microstructured fibers based on the TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses are fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method, and a relative positive gain of ∼9.42 dB at 1175.3 nm is obtained in a 5 cm long fiber.

  5. Effect of structure, particle size and relative concentration of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions on the luminescence properties of Eu3+ co-doped Y2O3:Tb nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S; Sudarsan, V; Vatsa, R K; Tyagi, A K; Godbole, S V; Kadam, R M; Bhatta, U M

    2008-01-01

    Eu 3+ co-doped Y 2 O 3 :Tb nanoparticles were prepared by the combustion method and characterized for their structural and luminescence properties as a function of annealing temperatures and relative concentration of Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ions. For Y 2 O 3 :Eu,Tb nanoparticles annealed at 600 and 1200 deg. C, variation in the relative intensity of excitation transitions between the 7 F 6 ground state and low spin and high spin 4f 7 5d 1 excited states of Tb 3+ is explained due to the combined effect of distortion around Y 3+ /Tb 3+ in YO 6 /TbO 6 polyhedra and the size of the nanoparticles. Increase in relative intensity of the 285 nm peak (spin-allowed transition denoted as peak B) with respect to the 310 nm peak (spin-forbidden transition denoted as peak A) with decrease of Tb 3+ concentration in the Y 2 O 3 :Eu,Tb nanoparticles heated at 1200 deg. C is explained based on two competing effects, namely energy transfer from Tb 3+ to Eu 3+ ions and quenching among the Tb 3+ ions. Back energy transfer from Tb 3+ to Eu 3+ in these nanoparticles is found to be very poor

  6. Effects of Y2O3 on crystallization kinetics of SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-CaF2 oxy-fluoride glass-ceramic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soleymani Zarabad

    Full Text Available Differential thermal analysis (DTA patterns of SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-CaF2 oxy-fluoride glass system with adding different amounts of Y2O3 from 0.5 (wt% to 1.5 (wt% have been studied under isochronal circumstances. It is concluded that, the crystallization of the glasses is a process controlled by Avrami nucleation, three dimensional diffusion controlled growth and anisotropic growth impingement mode. Afterwards, the effective activation energy Qp, growth exponent, nucleation activation energy QN, and growth activation energy QG, have been determined and were in the range of 283–321 kJ mol−1, 2.05–2.25, 190–249 kJ mol−1 and 325–349 kJ mol−1, respectively. Qp, QN, QG and np are increased with increase of Y2O3 amount, which is related to the network forming role of Y2O3 in these systems. Keywords: Oxy-fluoride glass-ceramics, Activation energy, Crystallization mechanism, Growth exponent

  7. Fabrication of Au_n_a_n_o_p_a_r_t_i_c_l_e@mSiO_2@Y_2O_3:Eu nanocomposites with enhanced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huiqin; Kang, Jianmiao; Yang, Jianhui; Wu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Herein, Au_n_a_n_o_p_a_r_t_i_c_l_e@mSiO_2@Y_2O_3:Eu nanocomposites are synthesized through layer-by-layer assembly technology. Au_n_a_n_o_p_a_r_t_i_c_l_e@mSiO_2 core–shell nanospheres were prepared at first in the presence of CTAB in aqueous solution system by the modified one-pot method. A chemical precipitation method and a succeeding calcination process were adopted to the growth of Y_2O_3:Eu shells on the surfaces of Au_n_a_n_o_p_a_r_t_i_c_l_e@mSiO_2 core–shell nanospheres. The structure, morphology and composition of the nanocomposites were confirmed by XRD, TEM and UV–vis absorption spectrum. The prepared Au_n_a_n_o_p_a_r_t_i_c_l_e@mSiO_2@Y_2O_3:Eu nanocomposites have showed the emission intensity enhances to 6.23 times at 30 nm thickness of the silica spacer between the core of Au nanoparticle and the shell of Y_2O_3:Eu. According to the observations of fluorescent lifetime and the modeling of local electric field, the metal-enhanced and quenched fluorescence is closely related with the enhancement of excitation and radiative decay rate and the quenching by NRET comes as a result of competition between the distance-dependent mechanisms. This kind of multifunctional inorganic material will be widely used in electronics, biology and medical drug loading, etc. - Highlights: • Fabrication of Au_n_a_n_o_p_a_r_t_i_c_l_e@mSiO_2@Y_2O_3:Eu nanocomposites with core-spacer-shell structure. • The controllable fluorescence is achieved by adjusting the spacer thickness of silica. • The fluorescence enhancement is 6.23-fold at an optimal spacer thickness about 30 nm. • The metal-enhanced fluorescence mechanism is proposed.

  8. Y2O3:Yb,Er@mSiO2-CuxS double-shelled hollow spheres for enhanced chemo-/photothermal anti-cancer therapy and dual-modal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Yang, Guixin; Wang, Xingmei; Lv, Ruichan; Gai, Shili; He, Fei; Gulzar, Arif; Yang, Piaoping

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional composites have gained significant interest due to their unique properties which show potential in biological imaging and therapeutics. However, the design of an efficient combination of multiple diagnostic and therapeutic modes is still a challenge. In this contribution, Y2O3:Yb,Er@mSiO2 double-shelled hollow spheres (DSHSs) with up-conversion fluorescence have been successfully prepared through a facile integrated sacrifice template method, followed by a calcination process. It is found that the double-shelled structure with large specific surface area and uniform shape is composed of an inner shell of luminescent Y2O3:Yb,Er and an outer mesoporous silica shell. Ultra small CuxS nanoparticles (about 2.5 nm) served as photothermal agents, and a chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin, DOX) was then attached onto the surface of mesoporous silica, forming a DOX-DSHS-CuxS composite. The composite exhibits high anti-cancer efficacy due to the synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT) induced by the attached CuxS nanoparticles and the enhanced chemotherapy promoted by the heat from the CuxS-based PTT when irradiated by 980 nm near-infrared (NIR) light. Moreover, the composite shows excellent in vitro and in vivo X-ray computed tomography (CT) and up-conversion fluorescence (UCL) imaging properties owing to the doped rare earth ions, thus making it possible to achieve the target of imaging-guided synergistic therapy.Multifunctional composites have gained significant interest due to their unique properties which show potential in biological imaging and therapeutics. However, the design of an efficient combination of multiple diagnostic and therapeutic modes is still a challenge. In this contribution, Y2O3:Yb,Er@mSiO2 double-shelled hollow spheres (DSHSs) with up-conversion fluorescence have been successfully prepared through a facile integrated sacrifice template method, followed by a calcination process. It is found that the double-shelled structure with large

  9. Synthesis of Y2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 composite coatings on carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composite by an electro-plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Lin, Xiang; Chen, Weiwei; Cheng, Huanwu; Wang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper the Y2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 composite coating was successfully synthesized on carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composite by an electro-plasma process. The deposition process, microstructures and oxidation resistance of the coatings with different SiO2 concentrations were systematically investigated. A relatively dense microstructure was observed for the Y2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 composite coating with the SiO2 concentration above 5 g/L. The coating exhibited very good oxidation resistance at 1273 K with the mass loss rate as low as ∼30 wt.%, compared to 100 wt.% of the substrate. The formation of the ceramic composites was discussed in detail based on the electrochemical mechanism and the deposition dynamics in order to explain the effect of the plasma discharge. We believe that the electro-plasma process will find wide applications in preparing ceramics and coatings in industries.

  10. Effect of ion nitriding on the crystal structure of 3 mol% Y2O3-doped ZrO2 thin-films prepared by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, A.L.; Diaz-Parralejo, A.; Borrero-Lopez, O.; Guiberteau, F.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ion nitriding on the crystal structure of 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 -doped ZrO 2 (3YSZ) thin-films prepared by the sol-gel method. For this purpose, we used X-ray diffractometry to determine the crystalline phases, the lattice parameters, the crystal sizes, and the lattice microstrains, and glow discharge-optical emission spectroscopy to obtain the depth profiles of the elemental chemical composition. We found that nitrogen atoms substitute oxygen atoms in the 3YSZ crystal, thus leading to the formation of unsaturated-substitutional solid solutions with reduced lattice parameters and Zr 0.94 Y 0.06 O 1.72 N 0.17 stoichiometric formula. We also found that ion nitriding does not affect the grain size, but does generate lattice microstrains due to the increase in point defects in the crystalline lattice

  11. The effect of thermal cycling on tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in ZrO2(2%Y2O3) ceramic studied by high temperature X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W.Z.; Lei, T.C.; Zhou, Y.

    1993-01-01

    It has been established that brittleness and reliability of ceramics can be improved by a stress-triggered tetragonal (T) to monoclinic (M) transformation in zirconia termed transformation toughening. The T → M transformation is not only influenced by such intrinsic factors as the variety and amount of stabilizers, grain size and morphology of T phase, but can be affected by the cooling rate as well. A previous study by Tsubadin, using a dilation experiment to determine the effect of thermal cycling on the T → M transformation in partially stabilized zirconia suggested that sintering temperature determined the role of thermal cycling, while the underlying cause still remains ambiguous. The intent of the present paper is to reinvestigate the effect of thermal cycling on the T → M transition in a hot pressed ZrO 2 (2%y 2 O 3 ) ceramic, using a high temperature x-ray diffractometer, and rationalize the experimental results from the viewpoint of thermodynamics

  12. Optical dephasing, hyperfine structure, and hyperfine relaxation associated with the 580.8-nm 7F0-5D0 transition of europium in Eu/sup 3+/:Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babbitt, W.R.; Lezama, A.; Mossberg, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    We have employed spectral-hole-burning, coherent-transient, and optical-rf double-resonance techniques to measure various parameters associated with the 580.8-nm 7 F 0 - 5 D 0 transition of Eu/sup 3+/ doped into Y 2 O 3 . In particular, we have measured the hyperfine splittings of the terminal levels (for both /sup 151/Eu and /sup 153/Eu), an effective thermalization rate of the ground-state ( 7 F 0 ) hyperfine manifold over the temperature range of ≅4--15 K, and the homogeneous linewidth of the optical transition over the range of ≅14--35 K. Large ratios of inhomogeneous to homogeneous linewidth at elevated temperatures (10 3 at 25 K) and long ground-state hyperfine thermalization times (>30 h at 4 K) make this an interesting crystal in the context of spectrally addressable optical memories

  13. Improving the strength of amalgams by including steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Calvin T. [Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032 (United States); Van Hoose, James R. [Siemens, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); McGill, Preston B. [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM20, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Grugel, Richard N., E-mail: richard.n.grugel@nasa.gov [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM30, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A room temperature liquid Ga-In alloy was successfully substituted for mercury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physically sound amalgams with included steel fibers can be made. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small volume fraction inclusion of fibers increased strength by {approx}20%. - Abstract: Mercury amalgams, due to their material properties, are widely and successfully used in dental practice. They are, however, also well recognized as having poor tensile strength. With the possibility of expanding amalgam applications it is demonstrated that tensile strength can be increased some 20% by including a small amount of steel fibers. Furthermore, it is shown that mercury can be replaced with a room temperature liquid gallium-indium alloy. Processing, microstructures, and mechanical test results of these novel amalgams are presented and discussed in view of means to further improve their properties.

  14. High resolution neutron diffraction crystallographic investigation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened steels of interest for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, R.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Wang, M.; Zhang, G.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out to characterize the crystallographic phases present in different Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels of interest for fusion technology. The different lattice structures, Im3m for the ferritic ODS and Fm3m for the austenitic ODS, are resolved showing line anisotropy effects possibly correlated with differences in dislocation densities and texture. Many contributions from minority phases are detected well above the background noise; none of the expected crystallographic phases, such as M 23 C 6 and including Y 2 O 3 , fits them, but the TiN phase is identified in accordance with results of other microstructural techniques

  15. Helium behavior in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel: Insights from ab initio modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Li, Ruihuan; Ding, Jianhua; Huang, Shaosong; Zhang, Pengbo; Lu, Zheng; Zhao, Jijun

    2018-02-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we systemically investigate the energetics and stability behavior of helium (He) atoms and small Hen (n = 2-4) clusters inside oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel, as well as the incorporation of large amount of He atoms inside Y2O3 crystal. From the energetic point of view, He atom inside Y2O3 cluster is most stable, followed by the interstitial sites at the α-Fe/Y2O3 interface, and the tetrahedral interstitial sites inside α-Fe region. We further consider Hen (n = 2-4) clusters at the tetrahedral interstitial site surrounded by four Y atoms, which is the most stable site in the ODS steel model. The incorporation energies of all these Hen clusters are lower than that of single He atom in α-Fe, while the binding energy between two He atoms is relatively small. With insertion of 15 He atoms into 80-atom unit cell of Y2O3 crystal, the incorporation energy of He atoms is still lower than that of He4 cluster in α-Fe crystal. These theoretical results suggest that He atoms tend to aggregate inside Y2O3 clusters or at the α-Fe/Y2O3 interface, which is beneficial to prevent the He embrittlement in ODS steels.

  16. Análisis de la zona fundida en el crecimiento del compuesto eutéctico Al2O3-ZrO2(Y2O3 por fusión zonal con láser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, J. I.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work a study of the floating zone during the growth of bars of Al2O3-ZrO2(Y2O3 by the laser floating zone technique is presented. The axial thermal gradient in the solidification interface has been calculated and compared with the experimental one of 6.5*105 K/m. For this calculation the coefficients of heat transference during the solidification process have been determined. The floating zone profile has been also studied and the maximum stable length for the zone determined, verifying the stability criterion established by some authors. The study is completed with an estimation of the laser power necessary to carry out the growth. This value is compared with the measured one during the growth of 2 mm diameter bars.En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de la zona flotante durante el crecimiento de barras de Al2O3-ZrO2 (Y2O3 por la técnica de fusión zonal por láser. Se ha calculado el gradiente térmico axial existente en la intercara de solidificación y comparado con el que se ha medido de forma experimental, siendo éste de 6,5*105 K/m. Para este cálculo se han determinado los coeficientes de transferencia de calor durante el proceso de resolidificación. También se ha estudiado el perfil de la zona flotante y analizado el rango de estabilidad en términos de longitud máxima de zona, verificándose experimentalmente los límites teóricos establecidos por algunos autores. El estudio se completa con una estimación de la potencia necesaria para llevar a cabo el crecimiento confirmando su validez para el caso particular de cilindros de 2 mm de diámetro.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Nanoparticles Doped with Ytterbium and Gadolinium: ZrO2 9.5Y2O3 5.6Yb2O3 5.2Gd2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamirian, M.; Hadavi, S. M. M.; Rahimipour, M. R.; Farvizi, M.; Keyvani, A.

    2018-06-01

    Defect cluster thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are attractive alternatives to Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in advanced applications. In this study, YSZ nanoparticles doped with ytterbium and gadolinium (ZrO2 9.5Y2O3 5.6Yb2O3 5.2Gd2O3 (ZGYbY)) were synthesized through a chemical co-precipitation and calcination method, and characterized by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis in the temperature range of 25 °C to 1000 °C (HTK-XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Precise cell parameters of t-prime phase and the best zirconia phase for TBC applications were calculated by Cohen's and Rietveld refinement methods. Optimum crystallization temperature of the precursor powder was found to be 1000 °C. Furthermore, FE-SEM results for the calcined ZGYbY powders indicated orderly particles of uniform shape and size with a small tendency toward agglomeration. Average lattice thermal expansion coefficient in the temperature range of 25 °C to 1000 °C was determined to be 31.71 × 10-6 K-1.

  18. Effect of Ca2+ Ions on Electrical Properties of Ba1-x Ca x Ti0.90Sn0.10O3-0.05Y2O3 Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-hui; Li, Zhi-wei; Ding, Jian-ning; Zhao, Tian-xiang; Qiu, Jian-hua; Zhu, Ke-qian; Xu, Jiu-jun; Zhang, Bing

    2018-03-01

    Ba1-x Ca x Ti0.90Sn0.10O3-0.05Y2O3 (BCTSY) lead-free piezoceramics with x = 0.02 to 0.10 have been fabricated by solid-state sintering method at 1420°C. The effects of Ca2+ ions on the microstructure and electrical properties of the samples were studied. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all samples possessed pure perovskite structure with Ca2+ ions diffused into the matrix lattice. The rhombohedral phase and tetragonal phase coexisted in the composition range of 0.02 ceramic became more homogeneous with addition of Ca2+ ions, and the average grain size of the samples decreased from 97 μm (x = 0.02) to 18 μm (x = 0.10). Addition of Ca2+ remarkably improved the piezoelectric properties, enhanced the dielectric frequency dispersion, and increased the Curie temperature of the ceramics. The piezoelectric properties of the ceramics were optimized at x = 0.04 with d 33 and K p values of 579 pC/N and 52.7%, respectively.

  19. Sequential Ar-O2 sputtering of Y2O3, BaF2, and CuO targets for preparation of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting films without wet-O2 annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, M.; Strauss, A.J.; Finn, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) films have been prepared by ex situ O 2 annealing of multilayer films deposited on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates by sequential rf diode sputtering of Y 2 O 3 , BaF 2 , and CuO targets, all of which are chemically stable. If sputtering is performed in an Ar ambient, the as-deposited films contain sufficient F to require its removal by annealing in wet O 2 at about 800 degree C or above before the superconducting YBCO phase can be formed by annealing in dry O 2 . However, sputtering in an Ar-O 2 ambient greatly reduces the F content, making it possible to obtain the superconducting phase by annealing in dry O 2 only. If the ambient contains about 20% O 2 , films with T c (R=0)>85 K can be prepared without wet-O 2 annealing. The Ar-O 2 process therefore has the potential for in situ preparation of superconducting YBCO films

  20. Development of AL_2O_3 - ZrO_2 ceramic composite reinforced with rare earth oxides (Y_2O)3) for inert coating of storage and transport systems of crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.C.; Yadava, Y.P.; Sanguinetti Ferreira, R.A.; Albuquerque, L.T.

    2014-01-01

    The advancement of the oil sector has generated the need for the use of materials resistant to aggressive environments to oil. Although ceramics have high melting point and high hardness is, on the other hand, more fragile and less tough, which can cause damage to the metal structure. The Al_2O_3 based ceramics reinforced with rare earth oxide can improve tenaciousness and makes the ceramic material more resistant. This article aims to present the production of composite Al_2O_3 - Y_2O_3 stabilized ZrO_2 by uniaxial pressing, following sintering (1200-1350 deg C). Structural and microstructural characterizations as XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and mechanical tests as Vickers hardness, % absorption and % linear shrinkage were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the composite and ceramic coating for storage and transportation of oil tanks. The results indicate that the proportions of 5%, 10% and 30% ZrO_2 make it suitable as a good composite suitable coating. (author)

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Nanoparticles Doped with Ytterbium and Gadolinium: ZrO2 9.5Y2O3 5.6Yb2O3 5.2Gd2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamirian, M.; Hadavi, S. M. M.; Rahimipour, M. R.; Farvizi, M.; Keyvani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Defect cluster thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are attractive alternatives to Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in advanced applications. In this study, YSZ nanoparticles doped with ytterbium and gadolinium (ZrO2 9.5Y2O3 5.6Yb2O3 5.2Gd2O3 (ZGYbY)) were synthesized through a chemical co-precipitation and calcination method, and characterized by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis in the temperature range of 25 °C to 1000 °C (HTK-XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Precise cell parameters of t-prime phase and the best zirconia phase for TBC applications were calculated by Cohen's and Rietveld refinement methods. Optimum crystallization temperature of the precursor powder was found to be 1000 °C. Furthermore, FE-SEM results for the calcined ZGYbY powders indicated orderly particles of uniform shape and size with a small tendency toward agglomeration. Average lattice thermal expansion coefficient in the temperature range of 25 °C to 1000 °C was determined to be 31.71 × 10-6 K-1.

  2. Investigating the Effect of Glass Ion Release on the Cytocompatibility, Antibacterial Eflcacy and Antioxidant Activity of Y2O3 / CeO2 doped SiO2-SrO-Na2O glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Placek L. M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect on ion release and cytocompatibility of Yttrium (Y and Cerium (Ce are investigated when substituted for Sodium (Na in a 0.52SiO2-0.24SrO-0.24-Na2OMOglass series (where MO= Y2O3 or CeO2. Glass leaching was evaluated through pH measurements and Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES analysiswhere the extract pH increased during incubation (11.2 - 12.5. Ion release of Silicon (Si, Na and Strontium (Sr from the Con glass was at higher than that of glasses containing Y or Ce, and reached a limit after 1 day. Ion release from Y and Ce containing glasses reached a maximum of 1800 μg/mL, 1800 μg/mL, and 10 μg/mL for Si, Na, and Sr, respectively. Release of Y and Cewas below the ICP- OES detection limit 75% of bacteria at a 9% extract concentration. Antioxidant capacity (mechanism for neuroprotection was evaluated using the ABTS assay. All glasses had inherent radical oxygen species (ROS scavenging capability with Con reaching 9.5 mMTE.

  3. Análisis de la adhesión de recubrimientos del sistema Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 sobre sustratos de interés para la industria aeroespacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta Marraco-Borderas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available En la industria aeroespacial se necesitan materiales ligeros que tengan unas altas prestaciones mecánicas combinadas con una baja densidad. El carburo de silicio, el carbono reforzado con fibra de carbono y el carburo de silicio reforzado con fibra de carbono son materiales que cumplen con estos requisitos, pero a altas temperaturas presentan problemas de oxidación. Una de las formas más efectivas de prevenir este fenómeno es la utilización de recubrimientos cerámicos, cuya correcta adhesión sobre los distintos sustratos es fundamental para garantizar su funcionamiento. En el caso del presente trabajo, se analiza la adhesión de recubrimientos vítreos del sistema Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 obtenidos mediante proyección térmica por llama oxiacetilénica. Para ello, se realizan ensayos de rayado a carga creciente analizando el tipo y la carga de fallo y su relación con las propiedades elásticas y mecánicas de los recubrimientos. Los resultados indican que la adhesión sobre los sustratos carburo de silicio y carburo de silicio reforzado con fibra de carbono es buena, mientras que el carbono reforzado con fibra de carbono no es un material adecuado para recubrir.

  4. Investigations on the determination of traces of some rare earths (Eu, Sm, Gd, Y) in oxides of rare earths (Y2O3, Sm2O3, Gd2O3) by emission spectrography in d.c. arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, K.; Gajek, M.; Luan, P.

    1978-01-01

    The evaporation of traces and matrices of rare earth elements was investigated in different atmospheres. It was found, that low-boiling rare earths elements, because of their extended formation of carbides evaporate more slowly than high-boiling rare earths elements. The evaporation of the traces depends on the matrices. 3 cases for the determination of traces of rare earths elements in oxides of other rare earths elements are derived from the results of the evaporation: Low- to high-boiling traces of rare earths elements in low-boiling matrices of rare earths elements, low-boiling traces in medium- to high-boiling matrices, and medium- to high-boiling traces in medium- to high-boiling matrices. The results of the determination are: in Y 2 O 3 : 14 ppm Sm, 2 ppm Eu; in Gd 2 O 3 : 18 ppm Y, 3 ppm Sm, 2 ppm Eu; in Sm 2 O 3 : 70 ppm Y, 370 ppm Gd, 16 ppm Eu. (author)

  5. Extremely fine structured cathode for solid oxide fuel cells using Sr-doped LaMnO3 and Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 nano-composite powder synthesized by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Sumi, Hirofumi; Nomura, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu

    2017-02-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) for high power density operation was developed with a microstructure-controlled cathode using a nano-composite powder of Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) and Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) synthesized by spray pyrolysis. The individual LSM-YSZ nano-composite particles, formed by crystalline and amorphous nano-size LSM and YSZ particles, showed spherical morphology with uniform particle size. The use of this powder for cathode material led to an extremely fine microstructure, in which all the LSM and YSZ grains (approximately 100-200 nm) were highly dispersed and formed their own network structures. This microstructure was due to the two phase electrode structure control using the powder, namely, nano-order level in each particle and micro-order level between particles. An anode-supported SOFC with the LSM-YSZ cathode using humidified H2 as fuel and ambient air as oxidant exhibited high power densities, such as 1.29 W cm-2 under a voltage of 0.75 V and a maximum power density of 2.65 W cm-2 at 800 °C. Also, the SOFC could be stably operated for 250 h with no degradation, even at a high temperature of 800 °C.

  6. Improvement of the ab initio embedded cluster method for luminescence properties of doped materials by taking into account impurity induced distortions: the example of Y2O3:Bi(3+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réal, Florent; Ordejón, Belén; Vallet, Valérie; Flament, Jean-Pierre; Schamps, Joël

    2009-11-21

    New ab initio embedded-cluster calculations devoted to simulating the electronic spectroscopy of Bi(3+) impurities in Y(2)O(3) sesquioxide for substitutions in either S(6) or C(2) cationic sites have been carried out taking special care of the quality of the environment. A considerable quantitative improvement with respect to previous studies [F. Real et al. J. Chem. Phys. 125, 174709 (2006); F. Real et al. J. Chem. Phys. 127, 104705 (2007)] is brought by using environments of the impurities obtained via supercell techniques that allow the whole (pseudo) crystal to relax (WCR geometries) instead of environments obtained from local relaxation of the first coordination shell only (FSR geometries) within the embedded cluster approach, as was done previously. In particular the uniform 0.4 eV discrepancy of absorption energies found previously with FSR environments disappears completely when the new WCR environments of the impurities are employed. Moreover emission energies and hence Stokes shifts are in much better agreement with experiment. These decisive improvements are mainly due to a lowering of the local point-group symmetry (S(6)-->C(3) and C(2)-->C(1)) when relaxing the geometry of the emitting (lowest) triplet state. This symmetry lowering was not observed in FSR embedded cluster relaxations because the crystal field of the embedding frozen at the genuine pure crystal positions seems to be a more important driving force than the interactions within the cluster, thus constraining the overall symmetry of the system. Variations of the doping rate are found to have negligible influence on the spectra. In conclusion, the use of WCR environments may be crucial to render the structural distortions occurring in a doped crystal and it may help to significantly improve the embedded-cluster methodology to reach the quantitative accuracy necessary to interpret and predict luminescence properties of doped materials of this type.

  7. Effect of Y2O3-Al2O3 ratio on inter-granular phases and films in tape-casting α-SiC with high toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Rong; Gu Hui; Zhang Jingxian; Jiang Dongliang

    2005-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics prepared from liquid phase sintering after aqueous-tape-casting can yield high toughness when appropriate amount of Y 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 are added, even though no elongated grains are present. Grain boundaries (GB), second-phases and hetero-phase boundaries (HB) in 2 samples with additive mole ratios of 3:5 and 3:7 are investigated using high-resolution and analytical electron microscopy (HREM and AEM). The meta-stable YAlO 3 (YAP) was nucleated from SiC surfaces in the sample with Y/Al = 3:5 as revealed by crystallographic relations across the HB, whilst relatively thick amorphous films were found at GB. In contrary, the higher level of Al 2 O 3 additives decreases the GB film thickness in the sample with Y/Al = 3:7, and the homogeneous nucleation of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (YAG) occurs at triple pockets accompanying with thick HB films. The strong variation of GB widths is a result of GB wetting in the sample with Y/Al = 3:5 and HB wetting in the sample of Y/Al = 3:7, both by liquid Al 2 O 3 . The energy of GB in the former sample is higher than the energy of HB as exhibited by the preferential nucleation of meta-stable YAP on SiC surfaces, which results in wetting of GB by the liquid; the situation is opposite in the latter sample as the wetting of HB occurs, leading to de-wetting of GB. The thermal mismatch between SiC and YAP or YAG as well as the presence of amorphous films facilitate the creation of micro-crack to promote inter-granular fracture and result in high toughness in both SiC ceramics

  8. Quantification of oxide particle composition in model oxide dispersion strengthened steel alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, A J; Lozano-Perez, S; Moody, M P; Amirthapandian, S; Panigrahi, B K; Sundar, C S; Grovenor, C R M

    2015-12-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels (ODS) are being considered for structural components of future designs of fission and fusion reactors because of their impressive high-temperature mechanical properties and resistance to radiation damage, both of which arise from the nanoscale oxide particles they contain. Because of the critical importance of these nanoscale phases, significant research activity has been dedicated to analysing their precise size, shape and composition (Odette et al., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38 (2008) 471-503 [1]; Miller et al., Mater. Sci. Technol. 29(10) (2013) 1174-1178 [2]). As part of a project to develop new fuel cladding alloys in India, model ODS alloys have been produced with the compositions, Fe-0.3Y2O3, Fe-0.2Ti-0.3Y2O3 and Fe-14Cr-0.2Ti-0.3Y2O3. The oxide particles in these three model alloys have been studied by APT in their as-received state and following ion irradiation (as a proxy for neutron irradiation) at various temperatures. In order to adequately quantify the composition of the oxide clusters, several difficulties must be managed, including issues relating to the chemical identification (ranging and variable peak-overlaps); trajectory aberrations and chemical structure; and particle sizing. This paper presents how these issues can be addressed by the application of bespoke data analysis tools and correlative microscopy. A discussion follows concerning the achievable precision in these measurements, with reference to the fundamental limiting factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly Stable Sr-Free Cobaltite-Based Perovskite Cathodes Directly Assembled on a Barrier-Layer-Free Y2 O3 -ZrO2 Electrolyte of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Na; Li, Na; Rickard, William D A; Cheng, Yi; Chen, Kongfa; Jiang, San Ping

    2017-03-09

    Direct assembly is a newly developed technique in which a cobaltite-based perovskite (CBP) cathode can be directly applied to a barrier-layer-free Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 (YSZ) electrolyte with no high-temperature pre-sintering steps. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on directly assembled CBPs such as La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3-δ show high performance initially but degrade rapidly under SOFC operation conditions at 750 °C owing to Sr segregation and accumulation at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Herein, the performance and interface of Sr-free CBPs such as LaCoO 3-δ (LC) and Sm 0.95 CoO 3-δ (SmC) and their composite cathodes directly assembled on YSZ electrolyte was studied systematically. The LC electrode underwent performance degradation, most likely owing to cation demixing and accumulation of La on the YSZ electrolyte under polarization at 500 mA cm -2 and 750 °C. However, the performance and stability of LC electrodes could be substantially enhanced by the formation of LC-gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) composite cathodes. Replacement of La by Sm increased the cell stability, and doping of 5 % Pd to form Sm 0.95 Co 0.95 Pd 0.05 O 3-δ (SmCPd) significantly improved the electrode activity. An anode-supported YSZ-electrolyte cell with a directly assembled SmCPd-GDC composite electrode exhibited a peak power density of 1.4 W cm -2 at 750 °C, and an excellent stability at 750 °C for over 240 h. The higher stability of SmC as compared to that of LC is most likely a result of the lower reactivity of SmC with YSZ. This study demonstrates the new opportunities in the design and development of intermediate-temperature SOFCs based on the directly assembled high-performance and durable Sr-free CBP cathodes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Performance and stability of (ZrO2)0.89(Y2O3)0.01(Sc2O3)0.10-LaCr0.85Cu0.10Ni0.05O3-δ oxygen transport membranes under conditions relevant for oxy-fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirou, Stéven; Bermudez, Jose M.; Tak Na, Beom

    2018-01-01

    Self-standing, planar dual-phase oxygen transport membranes consisting of 70 vol.% (ZrO2)0.89(Y2O3)0.01(Sc2O3)0.10 (10Sc1YSZ) and 30 vol.% LaCr0.85Cu0.10Ni0.05O3-δ (LCCN) were successfully developed and tested. The stability of the composite membrane was studied in simulated oxy-fuel power plant...

  11. Microstructure refinement and strengthening mechanisms of a 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel by zirconium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hai Jian; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Dong Mei; Liu, Chunming

    2017-01-01

    To study the effects of zirconium (Zr) addition on the microstructure, hardness and the tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels, two kinds of 9Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%) of Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Y_2O-3 and Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Zr-0.3Y_2O_3 were fabricated by the mechanical alloying (MA) of premixed powders and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. The experimental results showed that the average grain size decreases with Zr addition. The trigonal δ-phase Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 oxides and body-centered cubic Y_2O_3 oxides are formed in the 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel and 9Cr non-Zr ODS steel, respectively, and the average size of Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 particles is much smaller than that of Y_2O_3. The dispersion morphology of the oxide particles in 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel is significantly improved and the number density is 1.1 x 10"2"3/m"3 with Zr addition. The 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel shows much higher tensile ductility, ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time

  12. 77 FR 70478 - RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, Wheeling Office, A Division Of RG Steel, LLC, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives LLC, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Through Severstal..., Wheeling Office, a division of RG Steel, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Pro Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives, LLC, Wheeling, West Virginia (TA-W-81,880) and Mountain State Carbon, LLC, including...

  13. A temperature dependent cyclic plasticity model for hot work tool steel including particle coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilg, Andreas; Seifert, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Hot work tools are subjected to complex thermal and mechanical loads during hot forming processes. Locally, the stresses can exceed the material's yield strength in highly loaded areas as e.g. in small radii in die cavities. To sustain the high loads, the hot forming tools are typically made of martensitic hot work steels. While temperatures for annealing of the tool steels usually lie in the range between 400 and 600 °C, the steels may experience even higher temperatures during hot forming, resulting in softening of the material due to coarsening of strengthening particles. In this paper, a temperature dependent cyclic plasticity model for the martensitic hot work tool steel 1.2367 (X38CrMoV5-3) is presented that includes softening due to particle coarsening and that can be applied in finite-element calculations to assess the effect of softening on the thermomechanical fatigue life of hot work tools. To this end, a kinetic model for the evolution of the mean size of secondary carbides based on Ostwald ripening is coupled with a cyclic plasticity model with kinematic hardening. Mechanism-based relations are developed to describe the dependency of the mechanical properties on carbide size and temperature. The material properties of the mechanical and kinetic model are determined on the basis of tempering hardness curves as well as monotonic and cyclic tests.

  14. Grinding media of Zr O2-Y2 O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ussui, V.; Leitao, F.; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment carried out to test Yttria 3 mol% stabilized zirconia as a grinding media. The Powders were produced in experimental operations of a wet chemical coprecipitation process at the Zirconium Pilot Plant in IPEN. The stabilised zirconia powders obtained were cold pressed in to cylindrical shapes and sintered at 1500 0 C for hour. The ceramics produced presented good wear resistance and were found to be efficient as zirconia powders grinding media. (author)

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ferritic Steel via a Sol-Gel Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qinxing; Zhang Tao; Wang Xianping; Fang Qianfeng; Hu Jing; Liu Changsong

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel powders with nominal composition of Fe-14Cr-3W-0.3Ti-0.4Y 2 O 3 are synthesized using sol-gel method and hydrogen reduction. At low reduction temperature the impurity phase of CrO is detected. At higher reduction temperature the impurity phase is Cr 2 O 3 which eventually disappears with increasing reduction time. A pure ODS ferritic steel phase is obtained after reducing the sol-gel resultant products at 1200°C for 3 h. The HRTEM and EDS mapping indicate that the Y 2 O 3 particles with a size of about 15 nm are homogenously dispersed in the alloy matrix. The bulk ODS ferritic steel samples prepared from such powders exhibit good mechanical performance with an ultimate tensile stress of 960 MPa.

  16. Effect of milling time and annealing temperature on nanoparticles evolution for 13.5% Cr ODS ferritic steel powders by joint application of XAFS and TEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, P.; Hoffmann, J.; Möslang, A.

    2018-04-01

    The characteristics of strengthening nanoparticles have a major influence on the mechanical property and irradiation resistance of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. To determine how to control nanoparticles evolution, 0.3% Ti with 0.3% Y2O3 were added in 13.5%Cr pre-alloyed steel powders via different milling and consolidation conditions, then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) at synchrotron irradiation facility. The dissolution of Y2O3 is greatly dependent on the milling time at fixed milling speeds. After 24 h of milling, only minor amounts of the initially added Y2O3 dissolve into the steel matrix whereas TEM results reveal nearly complete dissolution of Y2O3 in 80-h-milled powder. The annealed powder FT-A800 (at 800 °C for 1 h) exhibits a structure near to the initially added Y2O3. The slightly deviation may be accounted for considerable lattice distortion related to the presence of atomic vacancies or formation of Y-Ti-O nucleus. The annealed powders FT-A1000 and FT-A1100 contain complex mixtures of Y-O/Y-Ti-O oxides, which cannot be fitted by any single thermally stable compounds. The coordination numbers of these first two shells in the annealed powders significantly raise as a function of the annealing temperature, indicating the formation of more ordered Y-O or Y-Ti-O particles. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectrum could not necessarily distinguish the dominant oxide species.

  17. Correlation between evolution of inclusions and pitting corrosion in 304 stainless steel with yttrium addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weining; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe

    2018-03-19

    Effects of the evolution of inclusions on the pitting corrosion resistance of 304 stainless steel with different contents of the rare-earth element yttrium (Y) were studied using thermodynamic calculations, accelerated immersion tests, and electrochemical measurements. The experimental results showed that regular Y 2 O 3 inclusions demonstrated the best pitting resistance, followed in sequence by (Al,Mn)O inclusions, the composite inclusions, and irregular Y 2 O 3 inclusions. The pitting resistance first decreased, then increased, and then decreased again with increasing Y content, because sulfide inclusions were easily generated when the Y content was low and YN inclusions were easily generated at higher Y contents. The best pitting corrosion resistance was obtained for 304 stainless steel with addition of 0.019% Y.

  18. Dislocation concepts applied to fatigue properties of austenitic stainless steels including time-dependent modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.A.

    1986-10-01

    Dislocation substructures formed in austenitic stainless steel 304L and 316L, fatigued at 673 K, 823 K and 873 K under total imposed strain ranges of 0.7 to 2.25%, and their correlation with mechanical properties have been investigated. In addition substructures formed at lower strain ranges have been examined using foils prepared from parts of the specimens with larger cross-sections. Investigation has also been extended to include the effect of intermittent hold-times up to 1.8 x 10/sup 4/s and sequential creep-fatigue and fatigue-creep. The experimental results obtained are analysed and their implications for current dislocation concepts and mechanical properties are discussed.

  19. The influence of Cr content on the mechanical properties of ODS ferritic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaofu; Zhou, Zhangjian; Jang, Jinsung; Wang, Man; Hu, Helong; Sun, Hongying; Zou, Lei; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Liwei

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation aimed at researching the mechanical properties of the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels with different Cr content, which were fabricated through a consolidation of mechanical alloyed (MA) powders of 0.35 wt.% nano Y2O3 dispersed Fe-12.0Cr-0.5Ti-1.0W (alloy A), Fe-16.0Cr-0.5Ti-1.0W (alloy B), and Fe-18.0Cr-0.5Ti-1.0W (alloy C) alloys (all in wt.%) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) with 100 MPa pressure at 1150 °C for 3 h. The mechanical properties, including the tensile strength, hardness, and impact fracture toughness were tested by universal testers, while Young's modulus was determined by ultrasonic wave non-destructive tester. It was found that the relationship between Cr content and the strength of ODS ferritic steels was not a proportional relationship. However, too high a Cr content will cause the precipitation of Cr-enriched segregation phase, which is detrimental to the ductility of ODS ferritic steels.

  20. Effect of mechanical alloying atmosphere on the microstructure and Charpy impact properties of an ODS ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksiuta, Z.; Baluc, N.

    2009-01-01

    Two types of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels, with the composition of Fe-14Cr-2W-0.3Ti-0.3Y 2 O 3 (in weight percent), have been produced by mechanically alloying elemental powders of Fe, Cr, W, and Ti with Y 2 O 3 particles either in argon atmosphere or in hydrogen atmosphere, degassing at various temperatures, and compacting the mechanically alloyed powders by hot isostatic pressing. It was found in particular that mechanical alloying in hydrogen yields a significant reduction in oxygen content in the materials, a lower dislocation density, and a strong improvement in the fast fracture properties of the ODS ferritic steels, as measured by Charpy impact tests.

  1. Wrought stainless steel butt-welding fittings: including reference to other corrosion resistant materials - approved 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    ANSI B16.9 is the American Standard for steel butt-welding fittings and although not so stated, it is implied that its scope deals primarily with the schedules of wall thicknesses which are common to carbon steel and the grades of alloy steel piping that are selected for pressure and temperature considerations. The purpose of this standard is to provide industry with a set of dimensional standards for butt-welding fittings that can be used with these light wall pipes of corrosion resisting materials. The center-to-end dimensions of all fittings are identical with those in ANSI B16.9 which give to industry the advantage of uniform design room practice and a maximum utilization of existing die equipment. The only departure from this is in the lap-joint stub end where for purposes of economy the face-to-end of the product has been reduced for use with thin wall piping

  2. Character evaluation of strength in dispersion strengthened ferritic steel. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Fuyuki; Nakashima, Hideharu

    1997-03-01

    In order to clarify the high-temperature deformation behaviour and the origin of threshold stress of ODS martensite steel with Y 2 O 3 particles, the stress-strain curves were measured by compression test at 600 to 700degC and at strain rates from 2x10 -5 to 2x10 -3 s -1 , and the threshold stress was measured by stress abruptly loading test (SAL test) at 650degC. Further, the possibility of temperature dependence of threshold stress was discussed by estimating the activation energy for dislocations to detach the Y 2 O 3 particles. The results are summarized as follows. 1) The stress exponents of ODS martensite steel were 22-35. And the activation energy of high-temperature deformation was 742 kJ/mol. Those deformation behaviour of ODS martensite steel agrees with the deformation behaviour of ODS ferritic steel. 2) The Orowan stress and the void-hardening stress calculated from dispersion parameters approximately agreed with the threshold stress obtained by SAL test. It is concluded that the originating mechanism of the threshold stress in ODS martensite steel is the Srolovitz's one. 3) The calculated activation energy for a dislocation to detach the particles was very high compared to the thermal energy. Therefor, the threshold stress is almost independent of temperature. (author)

  3. Study of the microstructure evolution of ferritic stainless ODS steels during hot working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karch, Abdellatif

    2014-01-01

    The production of ODS steels involves a powder consolidation step usually using the hot extrusion (HE) process. The anisotropic properties of extruded materials, especially in the ODS ferritic grades (≥wt%12Cr), need a better understanding of the metallurgical phenomena which may occur during HE and lead to the observed microstructure. The hot working behavior of these materials is of particular interest. The methodology of this work includes the microstructure analysis after interrupted hot extrusion, hot torsion and hot compression (1000-1200 C) tests of ferritic steels with 14%Cr and different amounts in Ti and Y 2 O 3 . The microstructure evolution during hot extrusion process is associated with continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX). It leads to the creation of new grains by the formation of low angle boundaries, and then the increase of their misorientation under plastic deformation. The investigations highlight also the role of precipitation on the kinetics of this mechanism; it remains incomplete in the presence of fine and dense nano-precipitates. After hot deformation in torsion and compression, it is noticed that both precipitates and temperature deformation have a significant impact on the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution. Indeed, the CDRX is dominant when temperature and amount of reinforcement are limited. However, when they are increased, limited microstructure evolution is observed. In this case, the results are interpreted through a mechanism of strain accommodation at grain boundaries, with low dislocation activity in the bulk of the grains. (author) [fr

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of 12Cr Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haijian; Lu, Zheng; Jia, Chunyan; Gao, Hao; Liu, Chunming

    2016-03-01

    Nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels with nominal compositions (wt%): Fe-12Cr-2W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3 were produced by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. The microstructure was characterized by means of electron microscopy (EBSD, TEM and HRTEM) and the hardness and the tensile properties at different temperatures were measured. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength of the fabricated 12Cr-ODS steel reached nearly 1,100 MPa at room temperature and maintained around 340 MPa at 700°C. Nano-oxide particles with size ranging from several nm to 30 nm and the number density was 3.6 × 1020/m3 were observed by TEM. Following heat treatment, including normalizing at 1,100°C for 1 h and tempering at 750°C for 2 h, the average grain size was a little decreased. The number of nano-oxide particles increased and the number density was 8.9 × 1020/m3. Specimens showed much higher ductility and there was a slight increase of ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time.

  5. European column buckling curves and finite element modelling including high strength steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Stan, Tudor-Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Eurocode allows for finite element modelling of plated steel structures, however the information in the code on how to perform the analysis or what assumptions to make is quite sparse. The present paper investigates the deterministic modelling of flexural column buckling using plane shell elements...... imperfections may be very conservative if considered by finite element analysis as described in the current Eurocode code. A suggestion is given for a slightly modified imperfection formula within the Ayrton-Perry formulation leading to adequate inclusion of modern high grade steels within the original four...... bucking curves. It is also suggested that finite element or frame analysis may be performed with equivalent column bow imperfections extracted directly from the Ayrton-Perry formulation....

  6. Experimental study and modelling of the high temperature mechanical behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckmeyer, A.

    2012-01-01

    The strength of metals, and therefore their maximum operating temperature, can be improved by oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS). Numerous research studies are carried out at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in order to develop a cladding tube material for Gen IV nuclear power reactors. Oxide dispersion strengthened steels appear to be the most promising candidates for such application, which demands a minimum operating temperature of 650 C. The present dissertation intends to improve the understanding of the mechanical properties of ODS steels, in terms of creep lifetime and mechanical anisotropy. The methodology of this work includes mechanical tests between room temperature and 900 C as well as macroscopic and polycrystalline modelling. These tests are carried out on a Fe-14Cr1W0,26Ti + 0,3 Y 2 O 3 ODS ferritic steel processed at CEA by mechanical alloying and hot extrusion. The as-received material is a bar with a circular section. The mechanical tests reveal the high mechanical strength of this steel at high temperature. A strong influence of the strain rate on the ductility and the mechanical strength is also observed. A macroscopic mechanical model has been developed on the basis of some experimental statements such as the high kinematic contribution to the flow stress. This model has a strong ability to reproduce the mechanical behaviour of the studied material. Two different polycrystalline models have also been developed in order to reproduce the mechanical anisotropy of the material. They are based on its specific grain morphology and crystallographic texture. The discrepancy between the predictions of both models and experimental results reveal the necessity to formulate alternate assumptions on the deformation mechanisms of ODS ferritic steels. (author) [fr

  7. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.; Savukov, V.P.; Runov, A.E.; Belov, V.A.; Sobolev, J.V.; Sobolev, V.V.; Pavlov, N.M.; Paton, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Steels also containing Al, N and arsenic, are suitable for the construction of large components for high-power nuclear reactors due to their good mechanical properties such as good through-hardening, sufficiently low brittleness conversion temperature and slight displacement of the latter with neutron irradiation. Defined steels and their properties are described. (IHOE) [de

  8. 75 FR 5146 - Tempel Steel Company Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek Staffing Chicago, IL; Tempel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... the production of lamination sheet steel for electric motors and transformers. New findings show that... affected by a shift in production of lamination sheet steel for electric motors and transformers to Mexico...

  9. In-situ formation of complex oxide precipitates during processing of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasankar, K.; Pandey, Abhishek; Mishra, B.K.; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of dual drive planetary ball mill for Bench scale (>1 kg) production. • X-ray diffraction and TEM were used to study transformations during sintering. • HIPped and rolled samples with nearly 99% density successfully produced. - Abstract: In fusion and fission reactor material development, ODS alloys are the most suitable candidate materials due to its high temperature creep properties and irradiation resistance properties. This paper describes the preparation of oxide dispersion strengthened alloy powder in large quantity (>1 kg batch) in dual drive planetary ball mill using pre-alloyed ferrtic steel powder with nano sized Y_2O_3. The consolidation of the powders was carried out in hot isostatic press (HIP) followed by hot rolling. 99% of the theoretical density was achieved by this method. The vickers hardness values of pressed and rolled samples were in the range of 380 ± 2HV and 719 ± 2HV, respectively. Samples were further investigated using X-ray diffraction particle size analyzer and electron microscope. Initial increase in particle size with milling was observed showing flattening of the particle. It was found that 5 h of milling time is sufficient to reduce the particle size to achieve the desired size. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of milled ODS steel powder revealed a uniform distribution of combustion synthesized nano-Y_2O_3 in ferritic steel matrix after a milling time of 5 h. Preliminary results demonstrated suitability of dual drive planetary ball mill for mass production of alloy within a short time due to various kinds of forces acting at a time during milling process. Fine monoclinic Y_2Si_2O_7 precipitates were also observed in the steel. This study explains the particle characteristics of nano Y_2O_3 dispersed ODS powder and formation of nano clusters in ODS ferritic alloy.

  10. Statistical analysis of oxides particles in ODS ferritic steel using advanced electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unifantowicz, P.; Schäublin, R.; Hébert, C.; Płociński, T.; Lucas, G.; Baluc, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this work a combination of advanced transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques enabled a statistically significant analysis of various types of few nanometer size oxides particles in Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 ferritic steel. These methods include a scanning TEM with EDS and EFTEM coupled with EELS. In addition, principal component analysis was applied to the chemical maps obtained by EFTEM, which drastically improved the signal to noise ratio. Three types of particles were identified in a size range from 2 to 300 nm, namely Cr–Ti–O, Y–O and Y–Ti–O particles, with an average size of 33,16 and 8 nm, respectively. The Cr–Ti–O particles contain Y and Ti enriched zones, which were not observed previously. The EFTEM analysis showed that the titanium addition leads to formation of Y–Ti–O nano-particles, which constitute 84% of the oxides but also precipitation of larger Cr–Ti–O. The presence of small amount of Y–O particles indicated a not sufficient amount of Ti available for reaction during mechanical alloying or consolidation.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel by a new fabrication route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lina; Jia Chengchang; Hu Benfu; Li Huiying

    2010-01-01

    A reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with nominal composition of Fe-12Cr-2.5W-0.25Ti-0.2V-0.4Y 2 O 3 (designated 12Cr-ODS) was produced by using EDTA-citrate complex method to synthesize and add Y 2 O 3 particles to an argon atomized steel powder, followed by hot isostatic pressing at 1160 deg. C for 3 h under the pressure of 130 MPa, forging at 1150 deg. C, and heat treatment at 1050 deg. C for 2 h. The microstructure, tensile, and Charpy impact properties of the 12Cr-ODS steel were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that the 12Cr-ODS steel exhibits the characteristic ferritic structure containing few dislocations. Tensile characterization has shown that the 12Cr-ODS steel has superior tensile strength accompanied by good elongation at room temperature and 550 deg. C. The material exhibits very attractive Charpy impact properties with upper shelf energy of 22 J and a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of about -15 deg. C. The formation of small, equiaxed grains and fine dispersion of oxide particles are the main reasons for the good compromise between tensile strength and impact properties.

  12. Influence of HIP pressure on tensile properties of a 14Cr ODS ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksiuta, Z.; Ozieblo, A.; Perkowski, K.; Osuchowski, M.; Lewandowska, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The HIPping parameters of the 14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 ODS steel powder were investigated. • The density and microstructure of the tested specimens after HIPping were studied. • The mechanical properties, high temperature tensile tests, were performed. • Residual porosity was observed in all tested specimens. • HIPping pressure has negligible influence on the strength of the ODS steel however improves material ductility. - Abstract: An oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with a nominal composition of Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 (in wt.%) was consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1150 °C under various pressures in the range of 185–300 MPa for 3 h. The microstructure, microhardness and high temperature tensile properties of the steel were investigated. With increasing compaction pressure the density of specimens also increased, however OM and SEM observations revealed residual porosity in all tested specimens and similar ferritic microstructure with bimodal-like grains and numerous of large oxide particles, located at the grain boundaries. Mechanical testing revealed that compaction pressure has negligible influence on the hardness and tensile strength of the ODS steel, however improves the material ductility

  13. Irradiation and inhomogeneity effects on ductility and toughness of (ODS)-7 -13Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preininger, D.

    2007-01-01

    fracture stress involving dispersions. That reduction, however, enhances by localized flow due to strain-induced dislocation inhomogeneity formations. As shown experimentally in agreement with predictions at high yield strengths above a critical value σ c * uniform ductility generally disappear. This critical strength increases by dispersion hardening and increasing strain rate sensitivity of strength 0 ≥ m δlnσ y =/δlnε' ≤ 1 but reduces due to pronounced loop strengthening at higher T I and preexisted inhomogeneities. An additional strain-induced inhomogeneity formation otherwise reduces uniform ductility and toughness more pronounced at lower yield strengths. Thus, the strength-induced reduction of uniform ductility diminishes in contrast to an increase of strain rate sensitivity m as expected with increasing irradiation hardening and strain rate. As experimentally observed in 7-13Cr steels irradiated at 100-550 deg. C to the high lattice damage c * c and uniform ductility and additionally strongly enhances also their strength-induced reduction. The deduced analytical and numerical results are especially used for the analyses of experimental results of tensile ductility and dynamic toughness obtained from conventional 9- 12CrMoVNb and (ODS)-RAFM steels with 0- 0.5wt.%Y 2 O 3 irradiated to <60 dpa at 100- 550 deg. C including particularly (ODS)-Eurofer'97. (authors)

  14. Optimum Design of Braced Steel Space Frames including Soil-Structure Interaction via Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse T. Daloglu; Musa Artar; Korhan Ozgan; Ali İ. Karakas

    2018-01-01

    Optimum design of braced steel space frames including soil-structure interaction is studied by using harmony search (HS) and teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithms. A three-parameter elastic foundation model is used to incorporate the soil-structure interaction effect. A 10-storey braced steel space frame example taken from literature is investigated according to four different bracing types for the cases with/without soil-structure interaction. X, V, Z, and eccentric V-shaped...

  15. A low cycle fatigue model for low carbon manganese steel including the effect of dynamic strain aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhi Yong, E-mail: huangzy@scu.edu.cn [Sichuan University, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No.29 Jiuyanqiao Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wagner, Danièle [Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense (France); Wang, Qing Yuan; Khan, Muhammad Kashif [Sichuan University, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No.29 Jiuyanqiao Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chaboche, Jean–Louis [ONERA, DMSM, 29 avenue de la Division Lecerc, F-92320, Chatillon (France)

    2016-01-27

    Carbon–manganese steel A48 (French standards) is used in steam generator pipes of the nuclear power plant where it is subjected to the cyclic thermal load. The Dynamic Strain Aging (DSA) influences the mechanical behavior of the steel in low cycle fatigue (LCF) at favorable temperature and strain rate. The peak stress of A48 steel experiences hardening–softening–hardening (HSH) evolution at 200 °C and 0.4% s{sup −1} strain rate in fatigue loading. In this study, isotropic and kinematic hardening rules with DSA effect have been modified. The HSH evolution of cyclic stress associated with cumulative plastic deformation has also been estimated.

  16. Fast high-temperature consolidation of Oxide-Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels: process, microstructure, precipitation, properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulnat, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    characterization of the precipitation state was performed on consolidated ODS steels. The experimental data obtained by transmission electron microscopy, small angle neutron scattering and atom-probe tomography evidenced the presence of dense and nano-sized particles in SPS ODS steels, similarly to what is observed in conventional ODS steels. This is of great importance since it proves that the precipitation is very rapid and mainly occurs during the heating stage of the consolidation process. Using a thermodynamic model, the precipitation kinetics of Y 2 O 3 and Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 were successfully reproduced at various consolidation temperatures. Both experimental and numerical findings agree with the rapid precipitation of nanoparticles that are then extremely stable, even at high temperature. Consequently, this model can be an efficient tool to design ODS steels (author) [fr

  17. Electron microscopy study of microstructure of the oxide-dispersion-strengthed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, H.; Sun, J.; Zhou, Z.J.

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure of the ODS ferritic-martensitic steel with chemical composition of Fe-12Cr-2W-0.5Ti-0.2V-0.2Si-0.13C-0.35Y 2 O 3 wt% fabricated by MA and HIP has been investigated by TEM. The emphasis is focused on the structure and chemical composition of the fine ODS particles and inclusions. The results showed that two types of complex ODS particles such as Y-Ti-O and Y-Si-O with nanometer size distribute homogeneously and incoherently in the matrix of the steel. Additionally, large (Ti,V)N inclusions were observed in the steel. The results of microstructural characterization are discussed to correlate with the processing and mechanical properties of the ODS steel. (author)

  18. Tube manufacturing and characterization of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Shigeharu; Mizuta, Shunji; Yoshitake, Tunemitsu; Okuda, Takanari; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Hagi, Shigeki; Kobayashi, Toshimi

    2000-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels have an advantage in radiation resistance and superior creep rupture strength at elevated temperature due to finely distributed Y 2 O 3 particles in the ferritic matrix. Using a basic composition of low activation ferritic steel (Fe-12Cr-2W-0.05C), cladding tube manufacturing by means of pilger mill rolling and subsequent recrystallization heat-treatment was conducted while varying titanium and yttria contents. The recrystallization heat-treatment, to soften the tubes hardened due to cold-rolling and to subsequently improve the degraded mechanical properties, was demonstrated to be effective in the course of tube manufacturing. For a titanium content of 0.3 wt% and yttria of 0.25 wt%, improvement of the creep rupture strength can be attained for the manufactured cladding tubes. The ductility is also adequately maintained

  19. Effect of Thermal Distress on Residual Behavior of CFRP-Strengthened Steel Beams Including Periodic Unbonded Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the residual behavior of wide-flange steel beams strengthened with high-modulus carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates subjected to thermal loading. Because the coefficients of thermal expansion of the steel and the CFRP are different, temperature-induced distress may take place along their interface. Periodic unbonded zones are considered to represent local interfacial damage. Five test categories are designed depending on the size of the unbonded zones from 10 to 50 mm, and corresponding beams are loaded until failure occurs after exposing to a cyclic temperature range of ΔT = 25 °C (−10 to 15 °C up to 84 days. The composite action between the CFRP and the steel substrate is preserved until yielding of the beams happens, regardless of the thermal cycling and periodic unbonded zones. The initiation and progression of CFRP debonding become apparent as the beams are further loaded, particularly at geometric discontinuities in the vicinity of the unbonded zones along the interface. A simple analytical model is employed to predict the interfacial stress of the strengthened beams. A threshold temperature difference of ΔT = 30 °C is estimated for the initiation and progression of CFRP debonding. Multiple debonding-progression stages in conjunction with the extent of thermal distress appear to exist. It is recommended that high-modulus CFRP be restrictively used for strengthening steel members potentially exposed to a wide temperature variation range.

  20. High yttria ferritic ODS steels through powder forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Prakash, Ujjwal; Dabhade, Vikram V.; Laha, K.; Sakthivel, T.

    2017-05-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are being developed for future nuclear reactors. ODS Fe-18%Cr-2%W-0.2%Ti steels with 0, 0.35, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% Y2O3 (all compositions in weight%) dispersion were fabricated by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The powders were placed in a mild steel can and forged in a stream of hydrogen gas at 1473 K. The steels were forged again to final density. The strength of ODS steel increased with yttria content. Though this was accompanied by a decrease in tensile elongation, all the steels showed significant ductility. The ductility in high yttria alloys may be attributed to improved inter-particle bonding between milled powders due to reduction of surface oxides by hydrogen. This may permit development of ODS steels with yttria contents higher than the conventional limit of 0.5%. It is suggested that powder forging is a promising route to fabricate ODS steels with high yttria contents and improved ductility.

  1. Casting technology for ODS steels - dispersion of nanoparticles in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, M.; Grants, I.; Kaldre, I.; Bojarevics, A.; Gerbeth, G.

    2017-07-01

    Dispersion of particles to produce metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNC) can be achieved by means of ultrasonic vibration of the melt using ultrasound transducers. However, a direct transfer of this method to produce steel composites is not feasible because of the much higher working temperature. Therefore, an inductive technology for contactless treatment by acoustic cavitation was developed. This report describes the samples produced to assess the feasibility of the proposed method for nano-particle separation in steel. Stainless steel samples with inclusions of TiB2, TiO2, Y2O3, CeO2, Al2O3 and TiN have been created and analyzed. Additional experiments have been performed using light metals with an increased value of the steady magnetic field using a superconducting magnet with a field strength of up to 5 T.

  2. Atom probe characterization of yttria particles in ODS Eurofer steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleev, A.A.; Zaluzhny, A.G.; Nikitin, A.A.; Rogozhkin, S.V.; Iskandarov, N.A.; Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A.; Lindau, R.; Klimenkov, M.

    2009-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened steels exhibit higher temperature and radiation resistance than conventionally produced ferritic/martensitic steels. Such behaviour, as believed, is mainly caused by presence of highly dispersed and extremely stable oxide particles with sizes of few nanometers. It was shown that the most promising oxide additive was yttria (Y 2 O 3 ) and as mechanical parameters were strongly depended on size and number density of formed peculiarities it is required to reduce their dimensions to few nanometers and drastically increase their number. At present, considerable effort is focused on investigation of behaviour and properties of such particles. Recent studies of Eurofer ODS steel (9%-CrWVTa) by SANS and PoAS revealed the presence of high number density structural peculiarities with size approximately one nanometer. At the same time, previous studies by TEM identified only high number of small (5-10 nm) Y 2 O 3 particles. So, the purpose of this work was to look into this material by means of tomographic atom probe and find out the chemistry and origin of peculiarities with sizes less than 5 nm. These investigations revealed fine (∼ 2 nm) particles that were enriched not only in yttrium and oxygen but also in vanadium and nitrogen. Concentration of vanadium in them is approximately at the same level as yttrium. Moreover, some particles were found to be enriched in only three or even two elements mentioned above. However, total concentration of chemical elements in these particles is considerably less than that of iron. Estimated number density for detected particles is (1 / 5) x 10 23 m -3 . (author)

  3. Improvement of the including sink material for around steel pot hot water department; Yokoka yuataribuyo nagashikomizai no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakiwara, R.

    1999-02-01

    As for life of steel pot, there are many rates which a place hit part occupies even in some copies. How to construct the castable which was different from other parts was examined, and it worked for high durability performance only around the hot water hit city for that. It worked for the life extension by this report to prevent spool for which to be a main damage factor thunder big fault grains were increased it was added .20% of the durability improvement could be confirmed so far more than goods as that result by adding big fault grain 40%. (translated by NEDO)

  4. Optimum Design of Braced Steel Space Frames including Soil-Structure Interaction via Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse T. Daloglu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimum design of braced steel space frames including soil-structure interaction is studied by using harmony search (HS and teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithms. A three-parameter elastic foundation model is used to incorporate the soil-structure interaction effect. A 10-storey braced steel space frame example taken from literature is investigated according to four different bracing types for the cases with/without soil-structure interaction. X, V, Z, and eccentric V-shaped bracing types are considered in the study. Optimum solutions of examples are carried out by a computer program coded in MATLAB interacting with SAP2000-OAPI for two-way data exchange. The stress constraints according to AISC-ASD (American Institute of Steel Construction-Allowable Stress Design, maximum lateral displacement constraints, interstorey drift constraints, and beam-to-column connection constraints are taken into consideration in the optimum design process. The parameters of the foundation model are calculated depending on soil surface displacements by using an iterative approach. The results obtained in the study show that bracing types and soil-structure interaction play very important roles in the optimum design of steel space frames. Finally, the techniques used in the optimum design seem to be quite suitable for practical applications.

  5. The effect of Y2O3 addition on thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pošarac Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of yttria additive on the thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel has been investigated. As a starting material we used spinel (MgAl2O4 obtained by the modified glycine nitrate procedure (MGNP. Sintered products were characterized in terms of phase analysis, densities, thermal shock, monitoring the damaged surface area in the refractory specimen during thermal shock and ultrasonic determination of the Dynamic Young modulus of elasticity. It was found that a new phase between yttria and alumina is formed, which improved thermal shock properties of the spinel refractories. Also densification of samples is enhanced by yttria addition.

  6. Preparation of stabilized zirconia (Zr O2) with Yttria (Y2 O3) by simultaneous precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M. de.

    1993-01-01

    The preparation of cubic or tetragonal partially stabilized zirconia with Yttria by simultaneous precipitation was studied. The metals Zr and Y, in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide medium, were precipitated with ammonia solution. The variables studied were: the pH of the aqueous medium (8, 9 e 10) and yttrium molar concentration (2, 3 and 5 mol %) in the final product. The resulting oxide samples were divided and calcined at 500, 700 and 900 0 C, separately. After that, all samples were sintered at 1500 0 C for one hour. For physico-chemical characterization were used techniques such as: ICP-AES, XRF, XRD, SEM etc. The results have showed that using this approach predominant cubic and/or tetragonal phases can be reached with theoretical density over 92% and grain size lower than 1 μm. (author)

  7. Zr O2-Y2 O3 ceramic bodies forming by slip casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Cristiane A.B. de; Menezes, Fernanda; Ussui, Valter; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Paschoal, Jose Otavio A.

    1996-01-01

    Slip casting technique of 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia powders suspensions has been used for ceramic bodies forming. The powders were produced by coprecipitation process with ammonium hydroxide in the Zirconium Pilot Plant of IPEN (Institute for Energy and Nuclear Researches, Sao Paulo, SP, (Brazil). Experiments were performed by preparing suspensions of powders with dispersing agents. These suspensions were submitted to milling and casting in plaster molds. After drying and heating at 700 deg C, the obtained specimens were sintered at 1500 deg C for 3 hours. The ceramic bodies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and tested in high temperature conditions. (author)

  8. Structure and Properties of the Fe/Y2O3 Interface from First Principles Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Samrat [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanek, Christopher R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uberuaga, Blas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-31

    Fundamentals of radiation damage are: (1) Formation of Frenkel pair (interstitial-vacancy pair) defects in the lattice; (2) Concentration of Frenkel pair defects >>> thermal equilibrium thermodynamic concentration; and (3) The radiation damage response of a material is determined by the fate of these excess Frenkel pair defects in the lattice. The objective is to understand the electronic and atomic structure of Fe/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface and segregation behavior of the alloying elements at the interface. The significance of the results of this report are: (1) Provides a science based approach to design new radiation resistant materials. Obtained two controlling parameters - Dislocation density (composition, orientation relationship) and Oxygen partial pressure; (2) Applicable to any other metal/oxide interfaces (both functional and structural properties at the interface) - (a) Nano Catalysts: Oxide-supported metal catalysts Ni/ZrO{sub 2}, (b) Thermal barrier coatings (Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), (c) Corrosion of metals and alloys.

  9. Sintering of a freeze-dried 10 mol% Y2O3-stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotoson, A.; Paulus, M.

    1983-01-01

    After presenting the results of freeze drying a sulfate solution, the authors describe a preparation process in which the freeze-drying technique by addition of a suspension of stabilized zirconia in the liquid solution before freeze-drying. This process breaks the polymeric chains, increases the green density of the compact, and decreases the sintering temperature. The mechanisms involved are discussed

  10. Rietveld refinement of Y2O3 using the pearson VII profile shape function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrcok, L.

    1989-01-01

    Very good agreement between the observed and the calculated intensities was obtained using the Pearson VII profile shape function. The variable exponent m could be refined only in the damped iterations involving exclusively the profile parameters. Simultaneous refinement of the m with the positional and/or thermal parameters has led to large oscillations of the shifts of almost all parameters. Precision of the refined atomic coordinates is better than those from previously published Rietveld refinement and is comparable with single crystal results. The degree of serial correlation in residuals has been determined by the use of the Durbin-Watson d statistic. Normal probability plot based on δR i has been almost linear with the slope greater than one. The weighting scheme with w i = 1/y oi has proved to be good first approximation. (author)

  11. Inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics of ZrO2, Y2O3 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lichtenbergstr 1, 85747 Garching, Germany. *Corresponding ... rials are of interest as they exhibit numerous interesting phase transitions at high temper- ature and ... Final energy of the neutrons were analysed using a Be-filter. The phonon ...

  12. Synthesis, characterization and a.c. conductivity of polypyrrole/Y2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    bine in some special fashion with the conducting polymers to give rise to the composites. In almost all the cases some specific nature of association between the two compo- nents have been observed. Polypyrrole is an important conducting polymer with high electrical conductivity and appreciable environmental stability ...

  13. High temperature oxidation test of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasushi

    2006-07-01

    In a feasibility study of ODS steel cladding, its high temperature oxidation resistance was evaluated. Although addition of Cr is effective for preventing high temperature oxidation, excessively higher amount of Cr leads to embrittlement due to the Cr-rich α' precipitate formation. In the ODS steel developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Cr content is controlled in 9Cr-ODS martensite and 12Cr-ODS ferrite. In this study, high temperature oxidation test was conducted for ODS steels, and their results were compared with that of conventional austenitic stainless steel and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) 9Cr-ODS martensitic and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel have superior high temperature oxidation resistance compared to 11mass%Cr PNC-FMS and even 17mass% SUS430 and equivalent to austenitic PNC316. (2) The superior oxidation resistance of ODS steel was attributed to earlier formation of the protective alpha-Cr 2 O 3 layer at the matrix and inner oxide scale interface. The grain size of ODS steel is finer than that of PNC-FMS, so the superior oxidation resistance of ODS steel can be attributed to the enhanced Cr-supplying rate throughout the accelerated grain boundary diffusion. Finely dispersed Y 2 O 3 oxide particles in the ODS steel matrix may also stabilized the adherence between the protective alpha-Cr 2 O 3 layer and the matrix. (author)

  14. TEM and HRTEM study of oxide particles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with Hf addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Peng; Kimura, Akihiko; Kasada, Ryuta; Okuda, Takanari; Inoue, Masaki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Ohnuki, Somei; Fujisawa, Toshiharu; Abe, Fujio; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    The nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with Hf addition, i.e., SOC-16 (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.62Hf-0.35Y 2 O 3 ), have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Relative to an Al-alloyed high-Cr ODS ferritic steel without Hf addition, i.e., SOC-9 (Fe-15.5Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.35Y 2 O 3 ), the dispersion morphology and coherency of the oxide nanoparticles in SOC-16 were significantly improved. Almost all the small nanoparticles (diameter <10 nm) in SOC-16 were found to be consistent with cubic Y 2 Hf 2 O 7 oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure and coherent with the bcc steel matrix. The larger particles (diameter >10 nm) were also mainly identified as cubic Y 2 Hf 2 O 7 oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure. The results presented here are compared with those of SOC-9 with a brief discussion of the underlying mechanisms of the unusual thermal and irradiation stabilities of the oxides as well as the superior strength, excellent irradiation tolerance and extraordinary corrosion resistance of SOC-16.

  15. Interlayer utilization (including metal borides) for subsequent deposition of NSD films via microwave plasma CVD on 316 and 440C stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Jared

    Diamond thin films have promising applications in numerous fields due to the extreme properties of diamonds in conjunction with the surface enhancement of thin films. Biomedical applications are numerous including temporary implants and various dental and surgical instruments. The unique combination of properties offered by nanostructured diamond films that make it such an attractive surface coating include extreme hardness, low obtainable surface roughness, excellent thermal conductivity, and chemical inertness. Regrettably, numerous problems exist when attempting to coat stainless steel with diamond generating a readily delaminated film: outward diffusion of iron to the surface, inward diffusion of carbon limiting necessary surface carbon precursor, and the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion yielding substantial residual stress. While some exotic methods have been attempted to overcome these hindrances, the most common approach is the use of an intermediate layer between the stainless steel substrate and the diamond thin film. In this research, both 316 stainless steel disks and 440C stainless steel ball bearings were tested with interlayers including discrete coatings and graded, diffusion-based surface enhancements. Titanium nitride and thermochemical diffusion boride interlayers were both examined for their effectiveness at allowing for the growth of continuous and adherent diamond films. Titanium nitride interlayers were deposited by cathodic arc vacuum deposition on 440C bearings. Lower temperature diamond processing resulted in improved surface coverage after cooling, but ultimately, both continuity and adhesion of the nanostructured diamond films were unacceptable. The ability to grow quality diamond films on TiN interlayers is in agreement with previous work on iron and low alloy steel substrates, and the similarly seen inadequate adhesion strength is partially a consequence of the lacking establishment of an interfacial carbide phase

  16. Effect of zirconium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS ferritic steels containing aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, R.; Zhang, T.; Wang, X.P.; Fang, Q.F.; Liu, C.S.

    2014-01-01

    The oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels with nominal composition of Fe–16Cr–2W–0.5Ti–0.4Y 2 O 3 –4Al–1Zr (16Cr–4Al–Zr–ODS) were fabricated by a sol–gel method combining with mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique, and the 16Cr–ODS and 16Cr–4Al–ODS steels were prepared for comparison in the same way. Microstructure characterization reveals that in the 16Cr–4Al–ODS steel coarse Y–Al–O particles were formed while in the 16Cr–4Al–Zr–ODS steel finer Y–Zr–O particles were formed. The mean size and number density of the nano-oxide particles in the 16Cr–4Al–Zr–ODS steel are about 25 nm and 2.6 × 10 21 /m 3 , respectively. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the 16Cr–ODS steel is about 1045 MPa, but UTS of the 16Cr–4Al–ODS steel decreases to 974 MPa. However, UTS of the 16Cr–4Al–Zr–ODS steel increases to 1180 MPa while keeping a large uniform elongation up to 23%, indicating the enhancement of mechanical properties by Zr addition

  17. Metallurgical comparison between the experimental ED-ODS and commercial ODS steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Serrano, M.; Lapena, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Recently, reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steels have been identified as potential structural material candidates for first wall and blanket structures of fusion devices. These steels allow to increase the operation temperature of the fusion reactor, around of 100 deg. C or even more, because of their excellent thermal creep resistance. ODS steels are being developed and investigated for nuclear fission and fusion applications in Japan, Europe and the United States. Commercial ODS products, such as MA956 and PM2000 are available and are being used for high temperature applications. Since no reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are commercially available at present, the European Materials Fusion Programme has considered in the last years initiate adequate research activities to produce and characterize these materials to evaluate the feasibility of their use in the different blanket designs. Nowadays, the ODS steel that are being extensively investigated in Europe is the denominated EU-ODS. This alloy has the basic composition of the Eurofer'97 with 0.3% of Y 2 O 3 particles. In this paper, the metallurgical properties (microstructural, Charpy, etc) of the newly developed EU-ODS steel are presented and discussed together with the properties of the commercial MA956 and PM2000 ODS steels, also studied in this work, in order to show the differences and similarities between these ODS alloys. (authors)

  18. Effect of yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS RAF steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M.A.; Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Tarcísio-Costa, J.; Monge, M.A.; Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    2014-01-01

    An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy with nominal composition Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.24Y (wt.%) was produced by mechanical alloying using elemental powders, and subsequent hot isostatic pressing. The microstructure of the material and characteristics of the oxide particle dispersion were investigated by electron microscopy. The effect of heat treatments on the microhardness and tensile properties at room temperature was also studied. The results show that a fine dispersion of Y–O-rich nanoparticles is achieved, together with larger (Cr, Ti)-rich precipitates. The absence of Ti is apparent in the majority of these nanoparticles, in contrast with reported results for ODS Ti-modified steels processed with Y 2 O 3 addition

  19. Phase stability of oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steels in neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, S.; Oka, K.; Ohnuki, S.; Akasaka, N.; Ukai, S.

    2002-01-01

    Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steels were irradiated by neutrons up to 21 dpa and studied by microstructural observation and microchemical analysis. The original high dislocation density did not change after neutron irradiation, indicating that the dispersed oxide particles have high stability under neutron irradiation. However, there is potential for recoil resolution of the oxide particles due to ballistic ejection at high dose. From the microchemical analysis, it was implied that some of the complex oxides have a double-layer structure, such that TiO 2 occupied the core region and Y 2 O 3 the outer layer. Such a structure may be more stable than the simple mono-oxides. Under high-temperature irradiation, Laves phase was the predominant precipitate occurring at grain boundaries α phase and χ phase were not observed in this study

  20. Electrochemical behaviour of ceramic yttria stabilized zirconia on carbon steel synthesized via sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, M.A. Dominguez; Murillo, A. Garcia; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Yanez-Zamora, C.; Carrillo-Romo, F. de J

    2009-01-01

    Chromate conversion coatings have been widely applied for the corrosion of different metallic substrates. However, the waste containing Cr 6+ has many limitations due to the environmental consideration and health hazards. An interesting alternative seems to be the deposition on metallic surface of thin layers of yttria or zirconia or both by the sol-gel process. In this study, Ytttria and Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, 8% Y 2 O 3 ) thin films were used for coating commercial carbon steel substrates by sol-gel method and the dip-coating process. The evolution of organic compounds up to crystallization process as a function of heat treatments was study by FT-IR spectroscopy. The structure and morphology of the coatings were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anticorrosion performance of the coatings has been evaluated by using electrochemical techniques in an aggressive media (3.5 wt.% NaCl). The corrosion behaviour of sol-gel method was compared with traditional chromate conversion coatings. Differences in the electrochemical behaviour of YSZ coatings are related to the development of microcracks during the sintering process and to the presence of organic compounds during growth film. Electrochemical results showed that sol-gel YSZ and Y 2 O 3 coatings can act as protective barriers against wet corrosion; however yttria films displayed low adhesion to substrate. The corrosion parameters provide an explanation of the role of each film and show a considerable increase in the corrosion resistance for coated samples in comparison to the bare steel samples.

  1. Different types of stainless steel used in equipment in meat plants do not affect the initial microbial transfer, including pathogens, from pork skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière-Gauthier, Guillaume; Quessy, Sylvain; Fournaise, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Fravalo, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    This study describes and measures the impact of different compositions and finishes of stainless steel used in equipment in the meat industry on the transfer of natural flora and selected pathogens from artificially contaminated pork skin. It is known that the adhesion to surfaces of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, 2 pathogens frequently found in contaminated pork meat, depends on the nature and roughness of the surface. Our results show no statistically significant differences in microbial transfer regardless of the types of stainless steel considered, with the highest measured transfer difference being 0.18 log colony-forming units (CFUs)/800 cm(2). Moreover, no differences in total microbial community were observed after transfer on the 5 types of stainless steel using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). It was concluded that the different characteristics of the stainless steel tested did not affect the initial bacterial transfer in this study.

  2. A comparison between different oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel ongoing in situ oxide dissolution in High Voltage Electron Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, I.; Van den Berghe, T.; Dubuisson, Ph.

    2012-01-01

    ODS materials are considered for nuclear applications but previous experimental studies have shown a partial dissolution of some oxides under neutron irradiation. In this work, electron irradiations were used to evaluate the stability of the oxides depending on the chemical composition of the oxide dispersion. Four ferritic steels based on EM10 (Fe–9Cr–1Mo) and reinforced respectively by Al 2 O 3 , MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 and Y 2 O 3 , were studied. These materials were irradiated with 1 MeV or 1.2 MeV electrons in a High Voltage Electron Microscope. This technique allows to follow one single oxide and to determine the evolution of its size during the irradiation. In situ HVEM observations indicate that the dissolution rate depends on the chemical composition of the oxide, on the temperature and on the irradiation dose.

  3. ODS steel fabrication: relationships between process, microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couvrat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising candidate materials for generation IV and fusion nuclear energy systems thanks to their excellent thermal stability, high-temperature creep strength and good irradiation resistance. Their superior properties are attributed both to their nano-structured matrix and to a high density of Y-Ti-O nano-scale clusters (NCs). ODS steels are generally prepared by Mechanical Alloying of a pre-alloyed Fe-Cr-W-Ti powder with Y 2 O 3 powder. A fully dense bar or tube is then produced from this nano-structured powder by the mean of hot extrusion. The aim of this work was to determine the main parameters of the process of hot extrusion and to understand the link between the fabrication process, the microstructure and the mechanical properties. The material microstructure was characterized at each step of the process and bars were extruded with varying hot extrusion parameters so as to identify the impact of these parameters. Temperature then appeared to be the main parameter having a great impact on microstructure and mechanical properties of the extruded material. We then proposed a cartography giving the microstructure versus the process parameters. Based on these results, it is possible to control very accurately the obtained material microstructure and mechanical properties setting the extrusion parameters. (author) [fr

  4. See Also:physica status solidi (a)physica status solidi (c)Copyright © 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimGet Sample CopyFree Online Trial -->Recommend to Your LibrarianSave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert var homepagelinks = new Array(new Array("Journal Home","/cgi-bin/jhome/40001185",""),new Array("Issues","/cgi-bin/jtoc/40001185/",""),new Array("Early View","/cgi-bin/jeview/40001185/",""),new Array("News","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/news/index.html",""),new Array("Reviews","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/reviews.html",""),new Array("Read Cover Story","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/cover/2232/current.html","e"),new Array("","","s"),new Array("Product Information","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/2232_info.html",""),new Array("Editorial Board","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/edbd.html",""),new Array("For Authors","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/authors.html",""),new Array("For Referees","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/refserv.html",""),new Array("Subscribe","http://jws-edcv.wiley.com/jcatalog/JournalsCatalogOrder/JournalOrder?PRINT_ISSN=0370-1972",""),new Array("Contact","/cgi-bin/jabout/40001185/contact.html",""),new Array("Online Submission","http://www.manuscriptxpress.org/osm/",""),new Array("","","x"));writeJournalLinks("", "40001185");issue nav --> Previous Issue | Next Issue >issue nav -->Volume 241, Issue13 (November 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Rapid Research NoteStrong Eu emission of annealed Y2O3:Eu nanotube and nano-sized crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Masami; Iwanaga, Kenichi; Hamasuna, Tomomi; Mohri, Shinji; Uota, Masafumi; Yada, Mitsunori; Kijima, Tsuyoshi

    2004-11-01

    We have observed a drastic increase of the Eu3+ emission intensity by annealing nanotubes and nano-sized hexagonal-mesostructured crystals of the Y2O3:Eu system together with bulk samples. It is found that there are three Eu3+ sites in all samples. Stark splitting schemes are proposed for the three homogeneous sites.

  5. On the dielectric strengths of atmospheric plasma sprayed Al2O3 ,Y2O3 , ZrO2 - 7% Y2O3 and (Ba,Sr)TiO3 coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlan, Jiří; Seshadri, R.C.; Sampath, S.; Ctibor, Pavel; Pala, Zdeněk; Mušálek, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2015), s. 11169-11176 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : X-ray methods * Grain size * Electrical properties * Insulators * Dielectric strength Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.758, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272884215009955#

  6. Internal state variable plasticity-damage modeling of AISI 4140 steel including microstructure-property relations: temperature and strain rate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacif el Alaoui, Reda

    Mechanical structure-property relations have been quantified for AISI 4140 steel. under different strain rates and temperatures. The structure-property relations were used. to calibrate a microstructure-based internal state variable plasticity-damage model for. monotonic tension, compression and torsion plasticity, as well as damage evolution. Strong stress state and temperature dependences were observed for the AISI 4140 steel. Tension tests on three different notched Bridgman specimens were undertaken to study. the damage-triaxiality dependence for model validation purposes. Fracture surface. analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to quantify the void. nucleation and void sizes in the different specimens. The stress-strain behavior exhibited. a fairly large applied stress state (tension, compression dependence, and torsion), a. moderate temperature dependence, and a relatively small strain rate dependence.

  7. Efficacy of humidity retention bags for the reduced adsorption and improved cleaning of tissue proteins including prion-associated amyloid to surgical stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, T J; Pinchin, H E; Hervé, R C; Keevil, C W

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drying time adversely affects attachment of tissue proteins and prion-associated amyloid to surgical stainless steel, and reduces the efficacy of commercial cleaning chemistries. This study tested the efficacy of commercial humidity retention bags to reduce biofouling on surgical stainless steel and to improve subsequent cleaning. Surgical stainless steel surfaces were contaminated with ME7-infected brain homogenates and left to dry for 15 to 1,440 min either in air, in dry polythene bags or within humidity retention bags. Residual contamination pre/post cleaning was analysed using Thioflavin T/SYPRO Ruby dual staining and microscope analysis. An increase in biofouling was observed with increased drying time in air or in sealed dry bags. Humidity retention bags kept both protein and prion-associated amyloid minimal across the drying times both pre- and post-cleaning. Therefore, humidity bags demonstrate a cheap, easy to implement solution to improve surgical instrument reprocessing and to potentially reduce associated hospital acquired infections.

  8. Spark plasma sintering and mechanical properties of $ZrO_{2} (Y_{2}O_{3})-Al_{2}O_{3}$ composites

    CERN Document Server

    Jin Sheng H; Dalla Torre, S; Miyamoto, H; Miyamoto, K

    2000-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was conducted on nanocrystalline ZrO/sub 2/(Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/)-20 mol% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ powder at a heat rate of 600 degrees C/min with a short holding time. Full density was obtained at sintering temperatures >1300 degrees C. Considerable grain growth occurred relative to the initial powder particles, but smaller grain size and higher density can be obtained as compared to hot-pressing. High flexural strength and fracture toughness were also achieved for the SPS-resulted composite. (8 refs).

  9. Photoluminescent properties of Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors prepared via urea precipitation in non-aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.; Qi, L.; Lee, M.; Lee, B.I.; Samuels, W.D.; Exarhos, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Europium-doped yttrium oxide phosphors were obtained by firing precursors prepared by urea precipitation in ethanol and ethylenediamine. The precipitation in non-aqueous solution was carried out in an autoclave at 150 deg. C to allow the decomposition of urea. The photoluminescent intensities of the phosphors prepared in ethanol and ethylenediamine increased by about 30% compared to that of the phosphor prepared by the conventional urea homogeneous precipitation in aqueous solution. Amorphous carbonates and amorphous hydroxides/carbonates mixtures were identified as precursors from ethanol and ethylenediamine, respectively. The morphology and particle size were studied by SEM and dynamic laser scattering method

  10. Studies of ZrO2-Y2O3 ceramics properties sintered in conventional and microwave oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfuso, M.V.; Capistrano, D.; Thomazini, D.; Grzebielucka, E.C.; Chinelatto, A.L.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The ceramic materials processing with nano grain size has developed materials with new properties or improves some of its existing properties. To obtain ceramics with nano grain size, besides that to obtaining nanometric powders, a major goal is to keep the grains size after sintering. Contributing in this line of research, this study aimed to sinter zirconia-Yttria powders through two processes: conventional and microwave sintering. Zirconia stabilized with Yttria powders were obtained by chemical route based on Pechini method. Cylindrical samples were sintered between 1300 to 1500 deg C between 10 and 40 minutes. The samples were characterized by Xray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and apparent density. It was observed that the final microstructure is influenced by both methods of sintering as the curve of firing used. (author)

  11. Synthesis of nanocrystalline Y2O3 in a specially designed atmospheric pressure radio frequency thermal plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamale, G. D.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Ghorui, S.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of yttrium oxide nanoparticles in a specially designed radio frequency thermal plasma reactor is reported. Good crystallinity, narrow size distribution, low defect state concentration, high purity, good production rate, single-step synthesis, and simultaneous formation of nanocrystalline monoclinic and cubic phases are some of the interesting features observed. Synthesized particles are characterized through X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-luminescence (TL), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. Polymorphism of the nanocrystalline yttria is addressed in detail. Synthesis mechanism is explored through in-situ emission spectroscopy. Post-synthesis environmental effects and possible methods to eliminate the undesired phases are probed. Defect states are investigated through the study of TL spectra

  12. Synthesis and structural characterization of (Bi2O3)1–x (Y2O3)x and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Fast ion conductors; fluorite structure; fuel cell materials. 1. Introduction. Fast ion conductors have been a subject of extensive re- search because of their interesting physical properties as ... potential of enormous commercial and ecologi- cal benefits provided suitable high performance material can be developed.

  13. Tensile behavior of EUROFER ODS steel after neutron irradiation up to 16.3 dpa between 250 and 450 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materna-Morris, Edeltraud; Lindau, Rainer; Schneider, Hans-Christian; Möslang, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The first 9%CrWVTa steel (0.5% Y_2O_3), EUROFER ODS HIP, have been neutron irradiated up to 16.3 dpa, between 250 and 450 °C, in the High Flux Reactor (HFR). • After post-irradiation tensile tests, there was not any increase of the upper yield strength or strain localization after irradiation which is typical of RAFM steels. • Initially higher yield strength, R_p_0_._2, and distinctive tensile strength, R_m, of EUROFER ODS HIP compared to EUROFER97 steel. • These values increased due to the neutron irradiation at lower irradiation temperatures. - Abstract: During the development of structural material for future fusion reactors, a 50 kg heat of reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic 9%CrWVTa steel with nanoscaled Y_2O_3-particles, EUROFER97 ODS HIP, was produced using powder metallurgy fabrication technology. This first batch of EUROFER97 ODS HIP and, for comparison, the steel EUROFER97 were prepared for a post-irradiation tensile test program. During neutron irradiation in the HFR (High Flux Reactor, The Netherlands), an accumulated dose of up to 16.3 dpa was reached for 771 days at full power, with the irradiation temperature ranging between 250 and 450 °C. During the post-examinations, all specimens showed the highest tensile strength at lower irradiation temperatures between 250 and 350 °C. However, ODS-alloy and steel were found to clearly differ in the mechanical behavior, which could be documented by fully instrumented tensile tests. In the un-irradiated state, tensile strength of the ODS-alloy already was increased considerably by about 60% compared to the steel. Strengthening was further increased by another 20% after neutron irradiation, but with a much better ductility than observed in the steel. The typical irradiation-induced strain localization of EUROFER97 or RAFM steels could not be observed in the EUROFER97 ODS HIP alloy.

  14. Mechanosynthesis of A Ferritic ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) Steel Containing 14% Chromium and Its Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivai, A. K.; Dimyati, A.; Adi, W. A.

    2017-05-01

    One of the advanced materials for application at high temperatures which is aggressively developed in the world is ODS (Oxide Dispersion strengthened) steel. ODS ferritic steels are one of the candidate materials for future nuclear reactors in the world (Generation IV reactors) because it is able to be used in the reactor above 600 °C. ODS ferritic steels have also been developed for the interconnect material of SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) which will be exposed to about 800 °C of temperature. The steel is strengthened by dispersing homogeneously of oxide particles (ceramic) in nano-meter sized in the matrix of the steel. Synthesis of a ferritic ODS steel by dispersion of nano-particles of yttrium oxide (yttria: Y2O3) as the dispersion particles, and containing high-chromium i.e. 14% has been conducted. Synthesis of the ODS steels was done mechanically (mechanosynthesis) using HEM (High Energy ball Milling) technique for 40 and 100 hours. The resulted samples were characterized using SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectroscope), and XRD (X-ray diffraction) to analyze the microstructure characteristics. The results showed that the crystal grains of the sample with 100 hours milling time was much smaller than the sample with 40 hours milling time, and some amount of alloy was formed during the milling process even for 40 hours milling time. Furthermore, the structure analysis revealed that some amount of iron atom substituted by a slight amount of chromium atom as a solid solution. The quantitative analysis showed that the phase mostly consisted of FeCr solid-solution with the structure was BCC (body-centered cubic).

  15. Advances in ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds. Towards a 3D description of the material including attenuation and optimisation by inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysan, J.; Gueudré, C.; Ploix, M.-A.; Corneloup, G.; Guy, Ph.; Guerjouma, R. El; Chassignole, B.

    In the case of multi-pass welds, the material is very difficult to describe due to its anisotropic and heterogeneous properties. Anisotropy results from the metal solidification and is correlated with the grain orientation. A precise description of the material is one of the key points to obtain reliable results with wave propagation codes. A first advance is the model MINA which predicts the grain orientations in multi-pass 316-L steel welds. For flat position welding, good predictions of the grains orientations were obtained using 2D modelling. In case of welding in position the resulting grain structure may be 3D oriented. We indicate how the MINA model can be improved for 3D description. A second advance is a good quantification of the attenuation. Precise measurements are obtained using plane waves angular spectrum method together with the computation of the transmission coefficients for triclinic material. With these two first advances, the third one is now possible: developing an inverse method to obtain the material description through ultrasonic measurements at different positions.

  16. In-pile Tritium Permeation through F82H Steel with and without a Ceramic Coating of Cr2O3-SiO2 Including CrPO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Hayashi, K.; Kulsartov, T.V.; Afanasyev, S.E.; Shestakov, V.P.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Kenzhin, E.A.; Kolbaenkov, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Development of coating on blanket structural materials with significant reduction capability of tritium permeation is highly required in order to realize a reasonable design of a tritium recovery and processing system of demonstration (DEMO) fusion reactors. An effective coating has been developed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) using a ceramic material of Cr 2 O 3 -SiO 2 including CrPO 4 . In previous out-of-pile deuterium permeation experiments at 600 o C [T.V. Kulsartov et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 81 (2006) 701], a significant permeation reduction factor (PFR) of about 300 was obtained for the coating on the inner-side surface of tubular diffusion cells made by ferritic steel (F82H). In the present study, in-pile experiments on tritium permeation were conducted for F82H steel with and without the same coating, using a testing reactor IGV-1M in Kazakhstan. The tritium source used was liquid lithium-lead eutectics, Pb17Li, which was poured into a space around a tubular diffusion cell (specimen) of F82H steel with or without the coating on the inner side the cell. The irradiation time was about 4 hours, which corresponds to a fast-neuron fluence of about 2x10 21 m -2 (E > 1.1 MeV). The permeation reduction factor (PRF) was obtained by comparison of kinetics curves of tritium permeation through the diffusion cell of F82H steel with and without the coating. The PRFs at 600 and 500 o C were 292 and 30, respectively. These values are close to corresponding PRF values of 307 and 45, which had been obtained at 600 and 500 o C, respectively, in the previous out-of-pile experiments [T.V. Kulsartov et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 81 (2006) 701]. (author)

  17. Tube manufacturing trials by different routes in 9CrW-ODS martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, S.; Narita, T.; Alamo, A.; Parmentier, P.

    2004-01-01

    In the collaboration work between JNC and CEA-Saclay, JNC and CEA independently manufactured ODS martensitic cladding tubes by their own fabrication routes. Manufacturing started from the same hollow shape mother tubes with a composition of 9Cr-2W-0.1Ti-0.24Y 2 O 3 . The HPTR cold-rolling process was used by both JNC and CEA, but the applied fabrication routes included different cross-section reduction ratios, number of passes and intermediate heat treatments. The manufactured claddings exhibited an isotropic grain structure and equivalent tensile strength in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Even though different cross-section reduction ratios and intermediate annealing treatments were used, both cladding tubes manufactured by JNC and CEA showed similar levels of tensile and internal creep rupture strength

  18. Development of the mitigation method for carbon steel corrosion with ceramics in PWR secondary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Masato; Shibasaki, Osamu; Miyazaki, Toyoaki; Kaneko, Tetsuji

    2012-09-01

    To verify the effect of depositing ceramic (TiO 2 , La 2 O 3 , and Y 2 O 3 ) on carbon steel to mitigate corrosion, corrosion tests were conducted under simulated chemistry conditions in a PWR secondary system. Test specimens (STPT410) were prepared with and without deposited ceramics. The ceramics were deposited on the specimens under high-temperature and high-pressure water conditions. Corrosion tests were conducted under high pH conditions (9.8) with a flow rate of 1.0-4.7 m/s at 185 deg. C for 200 hours. At a flow rate of 1.0 m/s, the amount of corrosion of the specimens with the ceramics was less than half of that of the specimens without the ceramics. As the flow rate increased, the amount of corrosion increased. However, even at a flow rate of 4.7 m/s, the amount of corrosion was reduced by approximately 30% by depositing the ceramics. After the corrosion tests, the surfaces of the specimens were analyzed with SEM and XRD. When the deposited ceramic was TiO 2 , the surface was densely covered with fine particles (less than 1 μm). From XRD analysis, these particles were identified as ilmenite (FeTiO 3 ). We consider that ilmenite may play an important role in mitigating the corrosion of carbon steel. (authors)

  19. Optimization of consolidation parameters of 18Cr-ODS ferritic steel through microstructural and microtexture characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Manmath Kumar; Mythili, R.; Dasgupta, Arup; Saroja, S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the optimization of consolidation process based on the evolution of microstructure, microtexture and densification in 18%-Cr Oxide Dispersion Strengthened steel. The steel powder of composition Fe-18Cr-0.01C-2W-0.25Ti-0.35Y2O3 has been consolidated by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) for green compaction after mechanical milling. Sintering (1000-1250 °C) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150 °C has been employed to achieve good densification on compacted CIP specimen. The effect of sintering temperatures on densification behavior was evaluated and sintering at 1150°C was identified to be optimum for achieving good compaction (92% density) and homogeneous polygonal microstructure with a uniform distribution of fine pores. In addition, HIP of CIP product at 1150°C was found to yield a more homogeneous microstructure as compared to sintered product with 97% density. A static/dynamic recrystallization associated with (1 1 1) texture is observed during consolidation process. A statistical comparison has been made based on frequency of grain boundary distribution and associated texture with its theoretical attributes.

  20. Reactive-inspired ball-milling synthesis of an ODS steel: study of the influence of ball-milling and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocq, M.

    2010-10-01

    In the context of the development of new ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) steels as core materials in future nuclear reactors, we investigated a new process inspired by reactive ball-milling which consists in using YFe 3 andFe 2 O 3 as starting reactants instead of Y 2 O 3 to produce a dispersion of nano-oxides in a steel matrix and the influence of synthesis conditions on the nano-oxide characteristics were studied. For that aim, ODS steels were prepared by ball-milling and then annealed. Multi-scale characterizations were performed after each synthesis step, using notably atom probe tomography and small angle neutron scattering. The process inspired by reactive ball-milling was shown to be efficient for ODS steel synthesis, but it does not modify the nano-oxide characteristics as compared to those of oxides directly incorporated in the matrix by ball-milling. Broadly speaking, the nature of the starting oxygen bearing reactants has no influence on nano-oxide formation. Moreover, we showed that the nucleation of nano-oxides nucleation can start during milling and continues during annealing with a very fast kinetic. The final characteristics of nano-oxides formed in this way can be monitored through ball-milling parameters (intensity, temperature and atmosphere) and annealing parameters (duration and temperature). (author)

  1. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels...

  2. Study of the stability of the nanometer-sized oxides dispersed in ODS steels under ion irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescoat, M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Ferritic-Martensitic (FM) alloys are expected to play an important role as cladding materials in Generation IV sodium fast reactors operating in extreme temperature (400-500 C) and irradiation conditions (up to 200 dpa). Since nano-oxides give ODS steels their high temperature strength, the stability of these particles is an important issue. The present study evaluates the radiation response of nano-oxides by the use of in-situ and ex-situ ion irradiations performed on both Fe18Cr1W0,4Ti +0,3 Y 2 O 3 and Fe18Cr1W0,4Ti + 0.3 MgO ODS steels. In particular, the results showed that Y-Ti-O nano-oxides are quite stable under very high irradiation dose, namely 219 dpa at 500 C, and that the oxide interfacial structures are likely playing an important role on the behavior under irradiation (oxide stability and point defect recombination. (author) [fr

  3. Effect of thermo-mechanical treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an ODS ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksiuta, Z.; Mueller, P.; Spaetig, P.; Baluc, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Fe-14Cr-2W-0.3Ti-0.3Y 2 O 3 oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) reduced activation ferritic (RAF) steel was fabricated by mechanical alloying of a pre-alloyed, gas atomised powder with yttria nano-particles, followed by hot isostatic pressing and thermo-mechanical treatments (TMTs). Two kinds of TMT were applied: (i) hot pressing, or (ii) hot rolling, both followed by annealing in vacuum at 850 deg. C. The use of a thermo-mechanical treatment was found to yield strong improvement in the microstructure and mechanical properties of the ODS RAF steel. In particular, hot pressing leads to microstructure refinement, equiaxed grains without texture, and an improvement in Charpy impact properties, especially in terms of the upper shelf energy (about 4.5 J). Hot rolling leads to elongated grains in the rolling direction, with a grain size ratio of 6:1, higher tensile strength and reasonable ductility up to 750 deg. C, and better Charpy impact properties, especially in terms of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (about 55 deg. C).

  4. Annealing effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled 14Cr-ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, R.; Zhang, T.; Ding, H.L.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, X.P.; Fang, Q.F.; Liu, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    The oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels with nominal composition (weight percent) of Fe–14Cr–2W-0.5Ti-0.06Si-0.2V-0.1Mn-0.05Ta-0.03C-0.3Y_2O_3 were fabricated by sol–gel method, mechanical alloying, and hot isostatic pressing techniques. The evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of the hot-rolled specimens with heat treatment was investigated. Tensile strength and hardness of hot-rolled ODS steel are significantly enhanced due to the formation of mechanical twins and high density dislocations. Uniformly dispersed oxide particles (10–40 nm) and fine-grained structure (200–400 nm) are responsible for the superior mechanical properties of the hot-rolled specimen annealed between 650 °C and 850 °C. With further increasing annealing temperature, the grain size of the hot-rolled specimens increases while the size of oxide particles decreases, which leads to lower strength and hardness but better ductility. The tensile strength and total elongation of samples in the rolling direction are higher than those in the transverse direction after the same treatments owing to the grain anisotropy induced by the large mechanical deformation.

  5. Annealing effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled 14Cr-ODS steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, R.; Zhang, T.; Ding, H. L.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, X. P.; Fang, Q. F.; Liu, C. S.

    2015-10-01

    The oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels with nominal composition (weight percent) of Fe-14Cr-2W-0.5Ti-0.06Si-0.2V-0.1Mn-0.05Ta-0.03C-0.3Y2O3 were fabricated by sol-gel method, mechanical alloying, and hot isostatic pressing techniques. The evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of the hot-rolled specimens with heat treatment was investigated. Tensile strength and hardness of hot-rolled ODS steel are significantly enhanced due to the formation of mechanical twins and high density dislocations. Uniformly dispersed oxide particles (10-40 nm) and fine-grained structure (200-400 nm) are responsible for the superior mechanical properties of the hot-rolled specimen annealed between 650 °C and 850 °C. With further increasing annealing temperature, the grain size of the hot-rolled specimens increases while the size of oxide particles decreases, which leads to lower strength and hardness but better ductility. The tensile strength and total elongation of samples in the rolling direction are higher than those in the transverse direction after the same treatments owing to the grain anisotropy induced by the large mechanical deformation.

  6. Aircraft Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    component usage. PH 13-8Mo is a precipitation-hardenable martensitic stainless steel combining excellent corrosion resistance with strength. Custom 465 is...a martensitic , age-hardenable stainless steel capable of about 1,724 MPa (250 ksi) UTS when peak-aged (H900 condition). Especially, this steel can...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Five high strength steels (4340, 300M, AerMet 100, Ferrium S53, and Hy-Tuf) and four stainless steels (High Nitrogen, 13

  7. Steels from materials science to structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Steels and computer-based modelling are fast growing fields in materials science as well as structural engineering, demonstrated by the large amount of recent literature. Steels: From Materials Science to Structural Engineering combines steels research and model development, including the application of modelling techniques in steels.  The latest research includes structural engineering modelling, and novel, prototype alloy steels such as heat-resistant steel, nitride-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel and low nickel maraging steel.  Researchers studying steels will find the topics vital to their work.  Materials experts will be able to learn about steels used in structural engineering as well as modelling and apply this increasingly important technique in their steel materials research and development. 

  8. Atom probe characterization of nano-scaled features in irradiated Eurofer and ODS Eurofer steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozkin, S.; Aleev, A.; Nikitin, A.; Zaluzhnyi, A.; Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A.; Lindau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Outstanding performance of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels at high temperatures and up to high doses allowed to consider them as potential candidates for fusion and fission power plants. At the same time their mechanical parameters strongly correlate with number density of oxide particles and their size. It is believed that fine particles are formed at the last stage of sophisticated production procedures and play a crucial role in higher heat- and radiation resistance in comparison with conventional materials. However, due to their small size - only few nanometers, characterization of such objects requires considerable efforts. Recent study of ODS steel by tomographic atom probe, the most appropriate technique in this case, shown considerable stability of these particles under high temperatures and ion-irradiation. However, these results were obtained for 12/14% Cr with addition of 0.3% Y 2 O 3 and titanium which is inappropriate in case of ODS Eurofer 97 and possibility to substitute neutron by ion irradiation is still under consideration. In this work effect of neutron irradiation on nanostructure behaviour of ODS Eurofer are investigated. Irradiation was performed on research reactor BOR-60 in SSC RF RIAR (Dimitrovgrad, Russia) up to 30 dpa at 280 deg. C and 580 deg. C. Recent investigation of unirradiated state revealed high number density of nano-scaled features (nano-clusters) even without addition of Ti in steel. It was shown that vanadium played significant role in nucleation process and core of nano-clusters was considerably enriched with it. In irradiated samples solution of vanadium in matrix was observed while the size of particles stayed practically unchanged. Also no nitrogen was detected in these particles in comparison with unirradiated state where bond energy of N with V was considered to be high as VN 2+ ions were detected on mass-spectra. (author)

  9. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  10. Stahlschüssel key to steel

    CERN Document Server

    Wegst, W S

    2016-01-01

    The Key to Steel (Stahlschlüssel/Stahlschluessel) cross reference book will help you to decode / decipher steel designations and find equivalent materials worldwide. The 2016 edition includes more than 70,000 standard designations and trade names from approximately 300 steelmakers and suppliers. Presentation is trilingual: English, French, and German. Materials covered include structural steels, tool steels, valve steels, high temperature steels and alloys, stainless and heat-resisting steels, and more. Standards and designations from 25 countries are cross-referenced.

  11. Processing of a novel nano-structured ferritic steel via spark plasma sintering and investigation of its mechanical and microstructural characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasebani, Somayeh; Charit, Indrajit; Wu, Yaqiao; Burns, Jatuporn; Allahar, Kerry N.; Butt, Darryl P.; Cole, James I.

    2015-01-01

    Nano-structured ferritic steels (NFSs) with 12-14 wt% Cr have attracted widespread interest for potential high temperature structural and fuel cladding applications in advanced nuclear reactors. They have excellent high temperature mechanical properties and high resistance to radiation-induced damage. The properties of the NFSs depend on the composition that mainly consists of Cr, Ti, W or Mo, and Y 2 O 3 as alloying constituents. In this study, a novel nano-structured ferritic steel (Fe-14Cr-1Ti-0.3Mo-0.5La 2 O 3 , wt%) termed as 14LMT was developed via high energy ball milling and spark plasma sintering. Vickers microhardness values were measured. Microstructural studies of the developed NFSs were performed by EBSD and TEM, which revealed a bimodal grain size distribution. A significant number density of nano-precipitates was observed in the microstructure. The diameter of the precipitates varied between 2-70 nm and the morphology from the spherical to faceted shape. The Cr-La-Ti-O-enriched nano-clusters were identified by APT studies. (authors)

  12. Computer simulation of ZrO2 + 8 % Y2O3 and Al2O3 powder particles heating under plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smurov, I.; Gusarov, A.; Hurevich, V.; Kundas, S.; Kashko, T.

    2001-01-01

    The optimization of plasma spraying processes and investigation of the influence of different parameters and variables on particle trajectories, final temperature distributions and velocities were the aim of this study. A mathematical model for simulation of powder particle heating and acceleration in a plasma jet with particle evaporation and diameter reduction is developed. The choice of the evaporation model strongly depends on the pressure of surrounded gas, for low and atmospheric pressures models were developed. A software with a database for material properties was developed, the first allows to conduct simulation of plasma spraying and contains several models for simulating the different stages of plasma spraying, providing a common interface and access to the database for all the models. The input or output data can be represented as ordinary graphic, distributed diagram or by special way, i.e. animation of particle moving and heating in plasma jet, diagram of phase changing etc. By using this program the process of stabilized zirconium oxide and aluminium oxide coating plasma spraying was simulated. (nevyjel)

  13. Efecto de la nitruración en la degradación hidrotérmica de circona tetragonal policristalina estabilizada con Y2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anglada, M.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nitridation at 1650 ºC during 2 hours on hydrothermal aging of Y-TZP stabilized with 2.5 % moles of yttria has been studied. It has been shown that the superficial layer of nitrided samples was resistant to t→m phase transformation in water at 100 ºC during the investigated time period (850 hours. Conversely, the non-nitrided material transformed at the surface but no significant reduction in biaxial strength was observed. However, the biaxial strength of nitrided samples diminishes with hydrothermal aging time, which is thought to be due to the presence of an important amount of monoclinic phase inside the sample which is due to the high transformability of tetragonal grains. It appears that water does not play any important role in degradation of nitrided samples. The observations has been associated to changes in crystalline structure of a surface layer and to the high transformability of the tetragonal phase to monoclinic one inside the nitrided samples.Se ha estudiado el efecto de la nitruración a 1650 ºC durante 2 horas en la degradación hidrotérmica de una cerámica policristalina (YTZP estabilizada con 2.5% molar de itria. Se ha observado que la microestructura superficial de la cerámica nitrurada es resistente a la transformación de fase t→m en presencia de agua a 100 ºC durante el período de tiempo investigado (850 horas, mientras que el material de partida se transforma en la superficie, pero no sufre ninguna reducción significativa en la resistencia. Sin embargo, en las muestras nitruradas se observa una disminución de la resistencia a flexión biaxial con el tiempo de ataque hidrotérmico, la cual se atribuye a la presencia de una cantidad importante de fase monoclínica en el interior de la muestra. Es decir, los granos situados en esta zona son más transformables en las probetas nitruradas, sin que el agua desempeñe aparentemente ningún papel en la degradación de la resistencia de estas muestras. El comportamiento observado frente a la degradación hidrotérmica en las condiciones estudiadas se atribuye al cambio en la estructura cristalina de la capa superficial y a la transformabilidad de la fase tetragonal a fase monoclínica en el interior de las muestras.

  14. Phase equilibrium and crystallization of glasses in Na2O-La2O3-Y2O3-P2O5 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, E.N.; Shmatok, L.K.; Kozhina, I.I.; Barabanova, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    Phase diagrams of La(PO 3 ) 3 -NaPO 3 and Y(PO 3 ) 3 -NaPO 3 sections in which binary metaphosphates NaLa(PO 3 ) 4 and NaY(PO 3 ) 4 are formed have been studied. For La(PO 3 ) 3 -Y(PO 3 ) 3 and LaP 5 O 14 -YP 5 O 14 sections liquidus curves are plotted. In the pentaphosphate system the existence of solid solutions has been found. In La(PO 3 ) 3 -NaPO 3 , Y(PO 3 ) 3 -NaPO 3 , La(PO 3 ) 3 -Y(PO 3 ) 3 and LaP 5 O 17 -YP 5 O 14 pseudobinary systems in the whole concentration range glasses are formed. Pentaphosphate glasses have the least tendency to crystallization. The glasses of La(PO 3 ) 3 -NaPO 3 , Y(PO 3 ) 3 -NaPO 3 , La(PO 3 ) 3 -Y(PO 3 ) 3 sections possess high crystallizability. Crystallooptical and roentgenometric characteristics of La(PO 3 ) 3 , Y(PO 3 ) 3 , NaPO 3 , NaLa(PO 3 ) 4 and NaY(PO 3 ) 4 compounds are determined

  15. The synthesis and characterization of mixed Y2O3-doped ZrO2 and ¿-Fe2O3 nanosized powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raming, T.P.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Verweij, H.

    2002-01-01

    Several wet chemical precipitation methods used to synthesise nanocrystalline composite powders containing zirconium oxide, yttrium oxide and iron(III) oxide are described. The crystallisation and phase composition of the precipitates were studied as a function of temperature. A co-precipitation

  16. Mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy investigation of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2(100) and (110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, G.S.; Henderson, M.A.; Starkweather, K.A.; McDaniel, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the (100) and (110) surfaces of yttria-stabilized cubic ZrO 2 using Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction (LEED), direct recoil spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The concentration of yttrium at the surface was weakly influenced by the surface structure under the experimental conditions investigated. Both MSRI and SIMS indicated a more enhanced yttrium signal than zirconium signal at the surface compared to the respective bulk concentrations. The surfaces were not very well ordered as indicated by LEED. The yttria-stabilized cubic ZrO 2 single crystal surfaces may not be a suitable model material for pure phase ZrO 2 surfaces due to significant yttria concentrations at the surface. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  17. Single crystal growth of pure and Nd-doped Y2O3 by flotating zone method with Xe arc lamp imaging furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuiki, H.; Kitazawa, K.; Fueki, K.; Masumoto, T.; Shiroki, K.

    1980-01-01

    Single crystals of undoped and Nd-doped yttrium oxide were grown by the floating zone method with a Xe arc lamp imaging furnace. The crystals were grown in the and directions. Transparent and subgrain-free single crystals were obtained at a growth rate of 30-60 mm/h for the undoped yttrium oxide. Facets of the cubic [100] and [211] were observed though the high temperature phase of the crystal is hexagonal. Dislocation densities of undoped yttrium oxide are given. (orig./WE)

  18. Effect of rare earth addition on ionic conductivity on ZrO2:3 mol % Y2O3 based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M.R.A.; Silva, C.R.M.; Narvaez, S.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia based solid electrolytes were sintered with 5.39, 10.54, 15.45 wt % of REO as sintering aids. Characterization was made by X-Ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, laser particle size and transmission electron microscopy. Samples were prepared by uniaxial cold press and sintered at 1400 deg C, followed by electric properties determination via impedance spectroscopy. Complimentary characterization was made by X-Ray diffractometry, density by the Archimedes method and scanning electron microscopy. The ionic conductivity is affected by the amount of REO additive and this effect is correlated to the existing tetragonal and cubic phases for each composition. (author)

  19. Super ODS steels R and D for fuel cladding of next generation nuclear systems. 4) Mechanical properties at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Inoue, Masaki; Okuda, Takanari; Abe, Fujio; Ohnuki, Somei; Fujisawa, Toshiharu; Kimura, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    As fuel cladding material for lead bismuth-cooled fast reactors and supercritical pressurized water-cooled fast reactors, our research group has been developing highly corrosion-resistant oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels with superior high-temperature strength. In this study, the mechanical properties of super ODS steel candidates at elevated temperature have been evaluated. Tensile tests, creep tests and low cycle fatigue tests were carried out for a total of 21 types of super ODS steel candidates which have a basic chemical composition of Fe-16Cr-4Al-0.1Ti- 0.35Y 2 O 3 , with small variations. The testing temperatures were 700degC (for tensile, creep and low cycle fatigue tests) and 450degC (for tensile test). The major alloying parameters of the candidate materials were the compositions of Cr, Al, W and the minor elements such as Hf, Zr and Ce etc. The addition of the minor elements is considered effective in the control of the formation of the Y-Al complex oxides, which improves high-temperature strength. The addition of Al was very effective for the improvement of corrosion resistance. However, the addition also caused a reduction in high-temperature tensile strength. Among the efforts aimed at increasing high-temperature strength, such as the low-temperature hot-extrusion process, solution strengthening by W and the addition of minor elements, a remarkable improvement of strength was observed in ODS steel with a basic chemical composition of 2W-0.6Hf steel (SOC-14) or 2W-0.6Zr steel (SOC-16). The same behavior was also observed in creep tests, and the creep rupture times of SOC-14 and SOC-16 at 700degC - 100MPa were greater than 10,000 h. The strength was similar to that of no-Al ODS steels. No detrimental effect by the additional elements on low-cycle fatigue strength was observed in this study. These results showed that the addition of Hf/Zr to ODS-Al steels was effective in improving high-temperature strength. (author)

  20. Hydrogen effects in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen on stainless steels have been reviewed and are summarized in this paper. Discussion covers hydrogen solution and transport in stainless steels as well as the effects of hydrogen on deformation and fracture under various loading conditions. Damage is caused also by helium that arises from decay of the hydrogen isotope tritium. Austenitic, ferritic, martensite, and precipitation-hardenable stainless steels are included in the discussion. 200 references

  1. Some comments about the situation of the Steel Industry in the Arab Countries (Arab Steel Summit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, Y.; Astier, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Arab Steel Summit, that convened in Abu Dhabi in April, gave us another opportunity to review the situation of the Arab Iron and Steel Industry, with regard to the present World economic context. We will address: - the World situation of steel production, focusing on the Arab Countries; - the related situation of steel consumption; - the steel trade, including imports, exports and prices; - the consequences for technology and economy. (authors)

  2. Influence of hot rolling and high speed hydrostatic extrusion on the microstructure and mechanical properties of RAF ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksiuta, Z.; Kurzydlowski, K.J.; Baluc, N.

    2009-01-01

    Argon gas atomized, pre-alloyed Fe-14Cr-2W-0.3Ti oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel powder was mechanically alloyed with 0.3Y2O3 (wt.%) nano-particles in attritor ball mill and consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150 deg. C under pressure of 200 MPa for 3 hrs. To improve mechanical properties of as HIPped ODS ingots the material was undergone further thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT), namely: hot rolling (HR) at 850 deg. C or high speed hot extrusion (HSHE) at 850 deg. C. After TMT both materials were annealed at 1050 deg. C for 1 h in vacuum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the ODS alloys after TMT and heat treatment exhibited elongated in a longitudinal direction grains with an average size of 75 μm. However, an equiaxed, smaller than 500 nm grains were also found in the microstructure of both materials. Different size and morphology of oxides particles were also observed. Bigger, about 150 nm Ti-Al-O particles were usually located at grain boundaries whereas Y-Ti-O nanoclusters of about 5 nm were uniformly distributed in ODS steel matrix. The Charpy impact tests revealed significantly better about 90% (5.8 J) upper shelf energy (USE) of material after HSHE but ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of both alloys was unsatisfactory. As-HR ODS steel has shown DBTT of about 55 deg. C whereas HSHE ODS steel has about 75 deg. C. This relatively high values of transition temperature were probably caused by oxides particles present at grain boundaries of the ODS alloys which decreased fracture properties of the ODS steels. High temperature tensile properties of both ODS alloys are found to be satisfactory in full range of the testing temperature from 23 up to 750 deg. C. However, about 15% better UTS and YS0.2 (1350 MPa and 1285 MPa, respectively) as well as ductility were measured in the case of the as-HSHE ODS steel. These results indicates that HSHE process of the ODS steel can be considered as more

  3. MICROALLOYED STEELS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanshu Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    is the so-called “3rd Generation” AHSS. These steels are designed to fill the region between the dual-phase/TRIP and the Twin Induced Plasticity (TWIP steels with very high ductility at strength levels comparable to the conventional AHSS. Enhanced Q&P steels may be one method to achieve this target. Other ideas include TRIP assisted dual phase steels, high manganese steels and carbide-free bainitic (CFB steels. Finally the post hardened steels (PHS are an important component of the strategy of future vehicles. In this paper, some of the above families of advanced formable and high strength steels with micro-alloying additions, utilized in the automotive industry will be discussed.

  4. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  5. The role of yttrium and titanium during the development of ODS ferritic steels obtained through the STARS route: TEM and XAS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordás, Nerea; Gil, Emma; Cintins, Arturs; de Castro, Vanessa; Leguey, Teresa; Iturriza, Iñigo; Purans, Juris; Anspoks, Andris; Kuzmin, Alexei; Kalinko, Alexandr

    2018-06-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ferritic Steels (ODS FS) are candidate materials for structural components in future fusion reactors. Their high strength and creep resistance at elevated temperatures and their good resistance to neutron radiation damage is obtained through extremely fine microstructures containing a high density of nanometric precipitates, generally yttrium and titanium oxides. This work shows transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) characterization of Fe-14Cr-2W-0.3Ti-0.24Y ODS FS obtained by the STARS route (Surface Treatment of gas Atomized powder followed by Reactive Synthesis), an alternative method to obtain ODS alloys that avoids the mechanical alloying to introduce Y2O3 powder particles. In this route, FS powders already containing Ti and Y, precursors of the nanometric oxides, are obtained by gas atomization. Then, a metastable Cr- and Fe-rich oxide layer is formed on the surface of the powder particles. During consolidation by HIP at elevated temperatures, and post-HIP heat treatments above the HIP temperature, this oxide layer at Prior Particle Boundaries (PPBs) dissociates, the oxygen diffuses, and Y-Ti-O nano-oxides precipitate in the ferritic matrix. TEM characterization combined with XAFS and XANES analyses have proven to be suitable tools to follow the evolution of the nature of the different oxides present in the material during the whole processing route and select appropriate HIP and post-HIP parameters to promote profuse and fine Y-Ti-O nanometric precipitates.

  6. Energy-filtered TEM imaging and EELS study of ODS particles and argon-filled cavities in ferritic-martensitic steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimiankou, M; Lindau, R; Möslang, A

    2005-01-01

    Oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels with yttrium oxide (Y(2)O(3)) have been produced by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing for use as advanced material in fusion power reactors. Argon gas, usually widely used as inert gas during mechanical alloying, was surprisingly detected in the nanodispersion-strengthened materials. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) led to the following results: (i) chemical composition of ODS particles, (ii) voids with typical diameters of 1-6 nm are formed in the matrix, (iii) these voids are filled with Ar gas, and (iv) the high-density nanosized ODS particles serve as trapping centers for the Ar bubbles. The Ar L(3,2) energy loss edge at 245 eV as well as the absorption features of the ODS particle elements were identified in the EELS spectrum. The energy resolution in the EEL spectrum of about 1.0 eV allows to identify the electronic structure of the ODS particles.

  7. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  8. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.

    2005-01-01

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  9. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  10. The industrial ecology of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  11. Hegelian Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Even in our globalized world the notion of national economies remain incredibly strong, just as a considerable part of the literature on transnational governance and globalization continue to rely on a zero-sum perspective concerning the relationship between the national and the transnational. De...... of the European steel industry....

  12. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed

  13. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed.

  14. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  15. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included

  16. Effect of mechanical alloying and compaction parameters on the mechanical properties and microstructure of EUROFER 97 ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramar, A.; Oksiuta, Z.; Baluc, N.; Schaeublin, R.

    2006-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic / martensitic (F/M) steels appear to be promising candidates for the future fusion reactor. Their inherent properties, good thermal conductivity, swelling resistance and low radiation damage accumulation, deriving from the base material EUROFER 97, are further enhanced by the presence of the fine dispersion of oxide particles. They would allow in principle for a higher operating temperature of the fusion reactor, which improves its thermal efficiency. In effect, their strength remains higher than the base material with increasing temperature. Their creep properties are also improved relatively to the base material. It is the pinning of dislocations at dispersed oxide particles that helps to improve the high temperature mechanical properties. EUROFER97 is a reduced activation F/M steel, whose chemical composition is 8.9 wt. % Cr, 1.1 wt. % W, 0.47 wt. % Mn, 0.2 wt. % V, 0.14 wt. % Ta and 0.11 wt. % C and Fe for the balance. A new ODS F/M steel based on EUROFER 97 is developed with the strengthening material as Y 2 O 3 maintained at 0.3wt% based on our past experience. The ODS powder is produced by a different powder metallurgy route. The Eurofer 97 atomized powder with particle sizes around 45 μm is ball milled in argon atmosphere in a planetary ball mill together with Yttria particles with sizes about 10 to 30 nm. The milled powders are now canned in a steel container. They are degassed at 450 o C for 3 hours under a vacuum of 10-5 mbar. The canned sample is sealed in vacuum and finally compacted by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) in argon atmosphere under a pressure of 180 MPa at 1000 o C for 1 hour. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction observations are done at regular intervals during ball milling to identify changes in the particle and crystallite size and in particular with the solubility of Yttria in the matrix. Further, The microstructure and mechanical properties of final compacted material is assessed. The

  17. Improvement of adhesion and barrier properties of biomedical stainless steel by deposition of YSZ coatings using RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Z.E.; Domínguez-Crespo, M.A.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Onofre-Bustamante, E.; Andraca Adame, J.; Dorantes-Rosales, H.

    2014-01-01

    The AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) has been widely used in both artificial knee and hip joints in biomedical applications. In the present study, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, ZrO 2 + 8% Y 2 O 3 ) films were deposited on AISI 316L SS by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using different power densities (50–250 W) and deposition times (30–120 min) from a YSZ target. The crystallographic orientation and surface morphology were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of the surface modification on the corrosion performance of AISI 316L SS were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution using an electrochemical test on both the virgin and coated samples. The YSZ coatings have a (111) preferred orientation during crystal growth along the c-axis for short deposition times (30–60 min), whereas a polycrystalline structure forms during deposition times from 90 to 120 min. The corrosion protective character of the YSZ coatings depends on the crystal size and film thickness. A significant increase in adhesion and corrosion resistance by at least a factor of 46 and a higher breakdown potential were obtained for the deposited coatings at 200 W (120 min). - Highlights: • Well-formed and protective YSZ coatings were achieved on AISI 316L SS substrates. • Films grown at high power and long deposition time have polycrystalline structures. • The crystal size varies from ∼ 5 to 30 nm as both power and deposition time increased. • The differences of corrosion resistance are attributed to internal film structure

  18. Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, John C.; Kotecki, Damian J.

    2005-03-01

    Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, the first book in over twenty years to address welding metallurgy and weldability issues associated with stainless steel, offers the most up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of these topics currently available. The authors emphasize fundamental metallurgical principles governing microstructure evolution and property development of stainless steels, including martensistic, ferric, austenitic, duplex, and precipitation hardening grades. They present a logical and well-organized look at the history, evolution, and primary uses of each stainless steel, including detailed descriptions of the associated weldability issues.

  19. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  20. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  1. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths ( τ ( app)) and slip coefficient ( β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle ( ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  2. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel sau...

  3. Methods of forging steel

    OpenAIRE

    Pečoler, Primož

    2014-01-01

    The following work presents processes of steel forming, challenges when forging steel, forming machines suitable for forging and which choice of machine is most suitable for forging. We can separate steel forming to free forging and drop forging. Free forging can be divided to hand forging and machine forging. The correct choice of furnaces is also very important. We must reach correct temperature in the furnace for raw steel to melt with less scalings. In diploma I mentioned some machine...

  4. Prospects of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannykh, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of world steel production is considered as well as the development strategy of metallurgy industry in the Russian Federation through to 2020. The main factors determining the conservation of steel as perspective material for industry are given: energy expenses on production, the well-proven recirculation technology, the capability of changing steel properties in wide range, temperature range of operation. The conclusion is made that in the immediate future steel will not lose its importance [ru

  5. Trends in steel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Dual phase steels, composite products, and microalloyed steels are making inroads in the automotive industry applications for bumpers, automotive parts, bodies, mechanical parts, suspension and steering equipment and truck bumpers. New steels are also used to support solar mirrors and cells, in corrosive environments in the oil and gas industry, fusion reactors, and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants

  6. Corrosion of steels in sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a study on the effects of sour gas environments on steels. Emphasis is placed on alloys commonly used in the heavy water, sour gas and refining industries. In addition, 'high strength, low alloy' steels, known as 'oil country tubular goods', are included. Reference is made to the effects of hydrogen sulphide environments on austenitic steels and on certain specialty steels. Theories of hydrogen-related cracking mechanisms are outlined with emphasis placed on sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking in carbon and low alloy steels. Methods of controlling sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking are addressed separately. Case histories from the heavy water, refining, and sour gas industries are used to illustrate operating experience and failure mechanisms. Finally, recommendations, based largely on the author's industrial experience, are made with respect to quality assurance and inspection requirements for sour service components. Only published literature was surveyed. Abstracts were made of all references, reviewing the major sources in detail

  7. Weldability of Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    It gives an outline of metallographic properties of welding zone of stainless steels, generation and mechanisms of welding crack and decreasing of corrosion resistance of welding zone. It consists of seven chapters such as introduction, some kinds of stainless steels and properties, metallographic properties of welding zone, weld crack, toughness of welding zone, corrosion resistance and summary. The solidification modes of stainless steels, each solidification mode on the cross section of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy phase diagram, each solidification mode of weld stainless steels metal by electron beam welding, segregation state of alloy elements at each solidification mode, Schaeffler diagram, Delong diagram, effects of (P + S) mass content in % and Cr/Ni equivalent on solidification cracking of weld stainless steels metal, solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, effects of trace impurity elements on solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, ductile fracture susceptibility of weld austenitic stainless steels metal, effects of H2 and ferrite content on generation of crack of weld 25Cr-5N duplex stainless steels, effects of O and N content on toughness of weld SUS 447J1 metals, effect of ferrite content on aging toughness of weld austenitic stainless steel metal, corrosion morphology of welding zone of stainless steels, generation mechanism of knife line attack phenomenon, and corrosion potential of some kinds of metals in seawater at room temperature are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  8. The steel scrap age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  9. Japanese steel mills update and expectations to Canadian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, I.

    2008-01-01

    Kobe Steel's (Kobelco) corporate strategy includes expanding from only-one product such as high tensile strength steel sheet, and enlarging overseas production capacity through joint ventures and technical alliances. A new steel making process from low quality iron ore and steaming coal called ITmk3 has been developed by Kobe Steel that does not require any coke, reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 20 per cent, and reduces the cost of transporting slag. This strategy and technology was presented along with the changes surrounding the Japanese steel industry and raw materials market. These changes include the rise of emerging oil-producing countries; world steel production and exports; the rise in prices of resources; and the slowdown of the United States economy. The current situation of Japanese crude steel production, pig-iron production, and coke expansion plans were also presented. The presentation also outlined expectation's of the Canadian coal industry with reference to Canadian coal imports to Japan. tabs., figs

  10. A review of temperature measurement in the steel reheat furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martocci, A.P.; Mihalow, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    The incentive for conducting research and development on reheat furnaces is substantial; the domestic steel industry spent approximately one billion dollars on fuel in reheat furnaces in 1981. Bethlehem Steel Corp. spent /145 million of that total, and neither figure includes fuel consumed in soaking pits or annealing furnaces. If the authors set a goal to save 10% of these annual fuel costs, that translates into /100 million for the domestic steel industry and /14.5 million for Bethlehem Steel. These large sums of money are significant incentives. The purpose of this paper is to review the historical heating practices and equipment at steel reheat furnaces along with current practices and instrumentation

  11. Mechanism of an acoustic wave impact on steel during solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nowacki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic steel processing in an ingot mould may be the final stage in the process of quality improvement of a steel ingot. The impact of radiation and cavitation pressure as well as the phenomena related to the acoustic wave being emitted and delivered to liquid steel affect various aspects including the internal structure fragmentation, rigidity or density of steel. The article provides an analysis of the mechanism of impact of physical phenomena caused by an acoustic wave affecting the quality of a steel ingot.

  12. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, A.T.W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    θ-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The θ-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  13. Effects of Cr2N Precipitation on the Antibacterial Properties of AISI 430 Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Je-Kang Du; Chih-Yeh Chao; Yu-Ting Jhong; Chung-Hao Wu; Ju-Hui Wu

    2016-01-01

    Based on their mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, some commercial Ni-Cr stainless steels have been widely applied as biomaterials, including the austenitic 304 stainless steel, the austenitic 316 stainless steel, the duplex 2205 stainless steel, and the ferritic 430 stainless steel. In order to reduce the occurrence of infections resulting from biomaterial implants, instruments, and medical devices, Cu2+ and Ag2+ ions have been added onto biomaterials for increasing the anti...

  14. The optical metallography of some maraging steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, E.; Pollock, J.T.A.

    1981-05-01

    The structural features of maraging steels, including those that impose limitations on strength and toughness, are briefly reviewed. Phase relationships in the iron-nickel matrix system are introduced which, in conjunction with alloy composition and heat treatment, allow the interpretation of microstructure. Details are presented of methods for revealing the microstructure of maraging steels; the prior austenite grain size following a variety of heat treatments is of special interest since excessive grain size can lead to poor ductility. These methods are illustrated with micrographs of the microstructures of MAR 350 and MAR 400 steels in the cast, solution-treated, aged and cold-worked states

  15. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Casuccio (RJ Lee Group); Michael Potter (RJ Lee Group); Fred Schwerer (RJ Lee Group); Dr. Richard J. Fruehan (Carnegie Mellon University); Dr. Scott Story (US Steel)

    2005-12-30

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel

  16. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary Casuccio; Michael Potter; Fred Schwerer; Richard J. Fruehan; Dr. Scott Story

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet

  17. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  18. Chemical resistance of the stainless REMANIT steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The leaflet contains tables showing the corrosion behaviour of the REMANIT steels in various media, as e.g. in acids, brines, salty solutions, or in organic environments. The data given include information on the composition and concentration of the attacking agent, and on temperatures. The documentation is intended to serve as a guide for selecting the suitable steel quality for intended applications. (MM) [de

  19. Steel: Price and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Steel prices remain at historically elevated levels. The rapid growth of steel production and demand in China is widely considered as a major cause of the increases in both steel prices and the prices of steelmaking inputs...

  20. Symbolic aesthetics in steel structural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Abdul-Mun'em Khuraibet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic expression and its orders are important for steel structures forming. Steel structures are a compilation of structural elements, where its shapes have standard dimensions and pre-fabricated. As the steel construction systems not only aim to achieve the functional requirements for users, but must also have the symbolic aesthetics which provides visually and cognitive expression for viewers. In this sense the research interested in expressional aesthetics in these systems and highlights the importance of attention as structural items. Therefore the visual items which related with steel structures contain some of the most powerful forms of modern architecture, steel structures with a glass cladding, agility and accuracy in manufacture of structural elements as visual items, structural interest in the forms of spaces which have long span systems or in high buildings are different forms of expression and influence. So the research focuses on the study of those expressive patterns related with the steel construction properties, including the advantages of these systems at the level of strength and firmness, flexibility and economy as well as aesthetic and expression. Accordingly, the research problem concentrated on educational shortage in the study of the structural steel system aspects concerning constructional characteristic, expressive and aesthetic features, and how to deal with them as a language bearing the symbols and meanings which have clear structural style, because it the best ways to make those systems as communication means with users, by premise that the use of expressional symbol in steel construction increases the aesthetic value. Therefore the research aims to reveal the most structural and expressive patterns by analysis the expressional means and steel structural aesthetics.

  1. Thermophysical properties of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.

    1975-09-01

    Recommended values of the thermodynamic and transport properties of stainless steels Type 304L and Type 316L are given for temperatures from 300 to 3000 0 K. The properties in the solid region were obtained by extrapolating available experimental data to the melting range, while appropriate correlations were used to estimate the properties in the liquid region. The properties evaluated include the enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, vapor pressure, density, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and viscosity. (9 fig, 11 tables)

  2. Mechanical wet-milling and subsequent consolidation of ultra-fine Al2O3-(ZrO2+3%Y2O3) bioceramics by using high-frequency induction heat sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalil Abdelrazek KHALIL; Sug Won KIM

    2007-01-01

    Alumina/zirconia composites were synthesized by wet-milling technique and rapid consolidation with high frequency induction heat sintering(HFIHS). The starting materials were a mixture of alumina micro-powder (80%, volume fraction) and 3YSZ nano-powders (20%). The mixtures were optimized for good sintering behaviors and mechanical properties. Nano-crystalline grains are obtained after 24 h milling. The nano-structured powder compacts are then processed to full density at different temperatures by HFIHS. Effects of temperature on the mechanical and microstructure properties were studied. Al2O3-3YSZ composites with higher mechanical properties and small grain size are successfully developed at relatively low temperatures through this technique.

  3. A novel design of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with Y 2O 3-doped Bi 2O 3, LaGaO 3 and La-doped CeO 2 trilayer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weimin; Liu, Jiang

    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with a trilayered yttria-doped bismuth oxide (YDB), strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) and lanthanum-doped ceria (LDC) composite electrolyte film are developed. The cell with a YDB (18 μm)/LSGM (19 μm)/LDC (13 μm) composite electrolyte film (designated as cell-A) shows the open-circuit voltages (OCVs) slightly higher than that of a cell with an LSGM (31 μm)/LDC (17 μm) electrolyte film (designated as cell-B) in the operating temperature range of 500-700 °C. The cell-A using Ag-YDB composition as cathode exhibits lower polarization resistance and ohmic resistance than those of a cell-B at 700 °C. The results show that the introduction of YDB to an anode-supported SOFC with a LSGM/LDC composite electrolyte film can effectively block electronic transport through the cell and thus increased the OCVs, and can help the cell to achieve higher power output.

  4. Effects of the addition of H2O and NH4OH in the optical and structural properties of the thin films of Y2O3 deposited by pyrolytic spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon F, G.; Carvajal V, R.; Aguilar F, M.; Falcony, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we studied the optical and structural properties of yttrium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis. Yttrium acetylacetonate was used as raw material and N, N-DMF was used as solvent. The films were deposited on Si (100) and Si (111) substrates at temperatures of 400, 450, 500 and 550 C. The optical and structural characteristics of the films were dramatically improved when a mist of H 2 O and/or NH 4 0H was simultaneously added during deposition of the films. A refraction index up to 1.88, and deposition rates lower than 10 A/sec were obtained in the films. Infrared spectroscopy measurements indicate that the films resulted free from -OH bonds. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the films were polycrystalline. In addition, the relative chemical composition of the films was determined by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and the surface morphology was analyzed in the Atomic Force Microscope. (Author)

  5. Production and characterization of ceramic composite Al_2O_3-TiO_2 reinforced with Y_2O_3 and its stability in crude oil for internal coating of petroleum tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadava, Y.P.; David, N.R.; Sanguinetti Ferreira, R.A.; Shinohara, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    The internal surfaces of crude petroleum tankers are subjected to corrosive environments, therefore it is of great importance to research coatings for the protection of those structures. Ceramic materials generally exhibit characteristic chemical inertness and are shown as material option for this application. In this study alumina-titania ceramic composites have been produced and reinforced with yttria. These composites were produced by thermo-mechanical process, sintered at 1350 ° C for 24 hours, and left to cool down in the oven. The structural and microstructural characterization of the sintered material was tested by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. And its mechanical property was studied by Vickers microhardness test. After this characterization, the samples underwent a stability test where they were immersed in crude oil at room temperature for 60 days, during which were periodically subjected to tests related to stability, which was found found that the material was free from cracks, fissures or fractures, presenting for these reasons characteristics of inertia when subjected to crude oil environment. (author)

  6. Evaluación del comportamiento tribológico de recubrimientos híbridos vidrio/grafeno del sistema Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Gómez, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    En la actualidad, industrias como la aeroespacial y la aeronáutica están introduciendo materiales cerámicos en la producción de elementos estructurales o sistemas de propulsión, impulsados por las excelentes propiedades de este tipo de materiales. En particular, materiales como el SiC y compuestos de C/C y SiC/C son utilizados en Sistemas de Protección Térmica en aplicaciones de alta exigencia como lanzaderas espaciales, donde se exponen a condiciones excepcionalmente adversas con elevadas te...

  7. Damascus steels: history, processing, properties and carbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, a class of steels containing high levels of carbon (∼ 1-2 wt% C) was developed for superplastic characteristics - that is, the ability to plastically deform to an extraordinary degree in tension at intermediate temperatures. Because these steels also had excellent room temperature properties, they were developed for their commercial potential. In the late 1970s, we became aware of the striking compositional similarities between these modern steels and the ancient steels of Damascus. This observation led us to revisit the history and metallurgy of Damascus steels and related steels. The legends and origins of Damascus steel date back to the time of Alexander the Great (323 BC) and the medieval Crusades (11th and 12th century AD), and this material has also been the subject of scrutiny by famous scientist in Europe, including Michael Faraday. Modern attempts to reproduce the legendary surface patterns which famously characterized Damascus steels are described. The extend to which the characteristics of Damascus steels are unusual is discussed. Finally, a program on radiocarbon dating was initiated to directly determine the age of about 50 ancient steels, including a Damascus knife, and the results are summarized. (author)

  8. The reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Szteke, W.; Przyborska, M.; Wasiak, J.; Wieczorkowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper the fundamental steels using in the construction of pressure vessel water reactor are discussed. The properties of these steels as well as the influence of neutron irradiation on its degradation in the time of exploitation are also done. (authors)

  9. Steel Industry Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  10. Hybrid Laser Welding of Large Steel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhi, Farhang

    Manufacturing of large steel structures requires the processing of thick-section steels. Welding is one of the main processes during the manufacturing of such structures and includes a significant part of the production costs. One of the ways to reduce the production costs is to use the hybrid...... laser welding technology instead of the conventional arc welding methods. However, hybrid laser welding is a complicated process that involves several complex physical phenomena that are highly coupled. Understanding of the process is very important for obtaining quality welds in an efficient way....... This thesis investigates two different challenges related to the hybrid laser welding of thick-section steel plates. Employing empirical and analytical approaches, this thesis attempts to provide further knowledge towards obtaining quality welds in the manufacturing of large steel structures....

  11. Energy management system for an integrated steel plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perti, A.K.; Sankarasubramian, K.; Shivramakrishnan, J. (Bhilai Steel Plant, Bhilai (India))

    1992-09-01

    The cost of energy contributes 35 to 40% to the cost of steel production. Thus a lot of importance is being given to energy conservation in steel production. The paper outlines energy conservation measures at the Bhilai Steel Plant, India. Measures include: modifications to furnaces; partial briquetting of coal charge; and setting up an energy centre to integrate measurement and computer systems with despatches, engineers and managers of energy. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Corrosion aspects of steel radioactive waste containers in cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Nick Smart from Serco, UK, gave an overview of the effects of cementitious materials on the corrosion of steel during storage and disposal of various low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Steel containers are often used as an overpack for the containment of radioactive wastes and are routinely stored in an open atmosphere. Since this is an aerobic and typically humid environment, the steel containers can start to corrode whilst in storage. Steel containers often come into contact with cementitious materials (e.g. grout encapsulants, backfill). An extensive account of different steel container designs and of steel corrosion mechanisms was provided. Steel corrosion rates under conditions buffered by cementitious materials have been evaluated experimentally. The main conclusion was that the cementitious environment generally facilitates the passivation of steel materials. Several general and localised corrosion mechanisms need to be considered when evaluating the performance of steel containers in cementitious environments, and environmental thresholds can be defined and used with this aim. In addition, the consequences of the generation of gaseous hydrogen by the corrosion of carbon steel under anoxic conditions must be taken into account. Discussion of the paper included: Is crevice corrosion really significant in cementitious systems? Crevice corrosion is unlikely in the cementitious backfill considered because it will tend to neutralise any acidic conditions in the crevice. What is the role of microbially-induced corrosion (MIC) in cementitious systems? Microbes are likely to be present in a disposal facility but their effect on corrosion is uncertain

  13. Microstructural stability of ODS Fe–14Cr (–2W–0.3Ti steels after simultaneous triple irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šćepanović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous triple-ion beam irradiation experiments with Fe5+, He+ and H+ ions were performed to simulate fusion damage on two nanostructured ferritic alloys with nominal composition Fe–14Cr–0.3Y2O3 and Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y2O3. Samples were irradiated at 600°C to an estimated dose of ∼ 30dpa, 600appm He, 1500appm H, and the effects on the microstructure of these alloys investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy. The results reveal the development of nanovoids, or small bubbles, undetected in the unirradiated samples, and a virtual compositional stability of the dispersion. Nevertheless, upon irradiation the measured size distribution indicates a slight growth of those dispersoids having the smaller sizes.

  14. Damascus steel ledeburite class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D. A.; Arkhangelsky, L. B.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbide”. It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.

  15. Electrochemical aspects of stainless steel behaviour in biocorrosive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, D.

    1990-01-01

    Electrochemical measurements have been used to evaluate and follow, to understand and control microbial induced corrosion of stainless steels. Results include seawater loop tests and laboratory-based microbiological experiments. With natural flowing seawater, impedance spectroscopy measurements have been used to evaluate and follow biofilms on stainless steel tube-electrodes. With batch cultures of single bacterial strain (Sulphate Reducing Bacteria), open-circuit potential measurements and polarization curves performed on 316 L and 430 Ti stainless steels, have shown that the corrosion behaviour of these stainless steels is mainly dependent on the sulphide content of the culture media [fr

  16. Structural amorphous steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.P.; Liu, C.T.; Porter, W.D.; Thompson, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist's dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed

  17. CASE-HARDENING OF STAINLESS STEEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to case-hardening of a stainless steel article by means of gas including carbon and/or nitrogen, whereby carbon and/or nitrogen atoms diffuse through the surface into the article. The method includes activating the surface of the article, applying a top layer on the activated...

  18. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2011-01-27

    The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

  19. Performance Steel Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    system components to be built. Figure la shows the machine design . PSC-2012 Page 94 Glue Application Sheet Transfer Feed Elevator Figure la...Department of Defense such as cleats, ejection chutes , control arms, muzzle brakes, mortar components, clevises, tow bar clamps, ammo conveyor elements...Foundry and the members of Steel Founders’ Society of America. Abstract Weapon system designers and builders need advanced steel casting technology

  20. Life after Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  1. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  2. Larson-Miller Constant of Heat-Resistant Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Manabu; Abe, Fujio; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2013-06-01

    Long-term rupture data for 79 types of heat-resistant steels including carbon steel, low-alloy steel, high-alloy steel, austenitic stainless steel, and superalloy were analyzed, and a constant for the Larson-Miller (LM) parameter was obtained in the current study for each material. The calculated LM constant, C, is approximately 20 for heat-resistant steels and alloys except for high-alloy martensitic steels with high creep resistance, for which C ≈ 30 . The apparent activation energy was also calculated, and the LM constant was found to be proportional to the apparent activation energy with a high correlation coefficient, which suggests that the LM constant is a material constant possessing intrinsic physical meaning. The contribution of the entropy change to the LM constant is not small, especially for several martensitic steels with large values of C. Deformation of such martensitic steels should accompany a large entropy change of 10 times the gas constant at least, besides the entropy change due to self-diffusion.

  3. Stainless steel leaches nickel and chromium into foods during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L; Hobbie, Kevin A; Anderson, Kim A

    2013-10-02

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan, cooking times of 2-20 h, 10 consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After 6 h of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold, respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34-fold and Cr increased approximately 35-fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, although significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage.

  4. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan; cooking times of 2 to 20 hours, ten consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After six hours of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34 fold and Cr increased approximately 35 fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, though significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle, resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage. PMID:23984718

  5. Formability Characterization of a New Generation High Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriram Sadagopan; Dennis Urban; Chris Wong; Mai Huang; Benda Yan

    2003-05-16

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are being progressively explored by the automotive industry all around the world for cost-effective solutions to accomplish vehicle lightweighting, improve fuel economy, and consequently reduce greenhouse emissions. Because of their inherent high strength, attractive crash energy management properties, and good formability, the effective use of AHSS such as Duel Phase and TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels, will significantly contribute to vehicle lightweighting and fuel economy. To further the application of these steels in automotive body and structural parts, a good knowledge and experience base must be developed regarding the press formability of these materials. This project provides data on relevant intrinsic mechanical behavior, splitting limits, and springback behavior of several lots of mild steel, conventional high strength steel (HSS), advanced high strength steel (AHSS) and ultra-high strength steel (UHSS), supplied by the member companies of the Automotive Applications Committee (AAC) of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Two lots of TRIP600, which were supplied by ThyssenKrupp Stahl, were also included in the study. Since sheet metal forming encompasses a very diverse range of forming processes and deformation modes, a number of simulative tests were used to characterize the forming behavior of these steel grades. In general, it was found that formability, as determined by the different tests, decreased with increased tensile strength. Consistant with previous findings, the formability of TRIP600 was found to be exceptionally good for its tensile strength.

  6. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered welding electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for covered corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes. These electrodes normally are used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium-nickel steels in which chromium exceeds 4.0 percent and nickel does not exceed 50.0 percent

  7. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered welding electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for covered corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes. These electrodes are normally used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4.0% and nickel does not exceed 50.0%

  8. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered welding electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for covered corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes. These electrodes are normally used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4.0 percent and nickel does not exceed 50.0 percent

  9. Processing and refinement of steel microstructure images for assisting in computerized heat treatment of plain carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shubhank; Panda, Aditi; Naskar, Ruchira; Mishra, Dinesh Kumar; Pal, Snehanshu

    2017-11-01

    Steels are alloys of iron and carbon, widely used in construction and other applications. The evolution of steel microstructure through various heat treatment processes is an important factor in controlling properties and performance of steel. Extensive experimentations have been performed to enhance the properties of steel by customizing heat treatment processes. However, experimental analyses are always associated with high resource requirements in terms of cost and time. As an alternative solution, we propose an image processing-based technique for refinement of raw plain carbon steel microstructure images, into a digital form, usable in experiments related to heat treatment processes of steel in diverse applications. The proposed work follows the conventional steps practiced by materials engineers in manual refinement of steel images; and it appropriately utilizes basic image processing techniques (including filtering, segmentation, opening, and clustering) to automate the whole process. The proposed refinement of steel microstructure images is aimed to enable computer-aided simulations of heat treatment of plain carbon steel, in a timely and cost-efficient manner; hence it is beneficial for the materials and metallurgy industry. Our experimental results prove the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  10. Refractories for steel-works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanova, R.A.; Galant, C.L.; Haas, C.; Rosenbaum, V.

    The routine procedures utilized for quality control of refractory materials used by PIRATINI's steel-works, are presented ' under an objetive and practical maner. The attention of the paper is concentrated upon the following' refractory types with higher consume: silicon-aluminous; aluminous; basic magnesia; basic chrom-magnesia. All steps of utilization are described, including specification, supplies programation, storage; sampling; physical tests, and also aplication procedures. Results from routine analysis during a six month period, by ' means of X-Ray Quantometry, using the fusion pearls procedure, are presented compared with Atomic Absorption [pt

  11. Clean steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels

  12. Cold formability of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, G.; Leclerq, G.; Moliexe, F.; Namdar, R.; Roesch, L.; Sanz, G.

    1977-01-01

    This work was essentially aimed to the study of the following three questions. Is it possible to assess the cold formability of steels using simple material properties as criteria. What values of mechanical properties can one expect to reach in cold formed parts. Are there simple ways of characterizing the speroidization treatments carried out on steels before cold forming operations. The present report describes the results obtained during this investigation. It is logically divided into three separate parts. Experimental study of cold formability in wire drawing. Influence of metallurgical variables on mechanical properties of high carbon cold drawn wires. Contribution to the study of characterization methods of cold forming steels subjected to a spheroidization heat treatment

  13. Direct Coating of Nanocrystalline Diamond on Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Kazuo; Kawaki, Shyunsuke; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates without any substrate pretreatments to promote diamond nucleation, including the formation of interlayers. A low-temperature growth technique, 400 °C or lower, in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using a surface-wave plasma has cleared up problems in diamond growth on ferrous materials, such as the surface graphitization, long incubation time, substrate softening, and poor adhesion. The deposited nanocrystalline diamond films on stainless steel exhibit good adhesion and tribological properties, such as a high wear resistance, a low friction coefficient, and a low aggression strength, at room temperature in air without lubrication.

  14. Fusion welding of borated stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robino, C.V.; Cieslak, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Borated austenitic stainless steels have been developed for use in the nuclear industry where storage, transport, and reprocessing of nuclear materials are required. The objective of this work is to develop appropriate joining technology for borated stainless steels based upon understanding the response of these materials to thermal processing involving melting. This understanding is being developed through the application of physical metallurgy techniques to determine the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties within the various regions of the HAZ. Initial investigations include development of the kinetics of boride coarsening in the solid-state region of HAZ and the effect of boride coarsening on the impact properties of this region of the weld zone. Microstructures of the borated stainless steels, their response to high temperature isothermal heat treatments, and the implications of these heat treatments with respect to welding behavior will be presented

  15. Complex Protection of Vertical Stainless Steel Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrislamov Radik Zakievich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problem of fail-safe oil and oil products storage in stainless steel tanks and present the patented tank inner side protection technology. The latter provides process, ecological and fire safety and reducing soil evaporation of oil products, which is a specific problem. The above-mentioned technology includes corrosion protection and heat insulation protection providing increase of cover durability and RVS service life in general. The offered technological protection scheme is a collaboration of the author, Steel Paint GmbH firm and JSC “Koksokhimmontazhproyekt”. PU foam unicomponent materials of Steel Paint GmbH firm provide the protection of tank inner side and cover.

  16. National steel tries wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudak, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, National Steel felt the need to take the next step to make its Detroit-based division, Great Lakes Steel, more competitive in the world flat-rolled steel market. In 1988, Great Lakes Steel started flowing natural gas through the first fully litigated bypass (Competitive Sourcing Option) of a local distribution company. In 1989, the second connection with the new supply route for gas transportation, Panhandle Eastern had started flowing and the LDC, Michigan Consolidated Gas Co. (MichCon) had pulled out their piping previously serving the plants. Since we had been able to structure a fully reliable supply route, storage and balancing program for gas in the face of such strong opposition by the LDC, the author felt it was time to attack the next singularly sourced major commodity, electricity. Electricity, at this major integrated steel plant, represented approximately 7% of plant cost yearly. Yet being monopolized, Great Lakes Division (GLD) could not multiple source this commodity like it does with its other 93% of costs, except for labor (25% of the 93%). Multiple sourcing is done to bring competitive pressure to suppliers and to diversify supplies and protect plant operation in the event of failure by one supplier. This paper describes National Steel's strategy to reduce the cost of power, at the minimum of capital costs, the most expedient way possible, that does not sacrifice any major long-term potential cost improvements. The results show that competitively priced power is available across the mid-west, at prices well below many state regulated electric utilities, for at least 5 to 15 years, but with major obstacles in obtaining transmission access

  17. Volatilization from PCA steel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagrman, D.L.; Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Petti, D.A.

    1996-08-01

    The mobilizations of key components from Primary Candidate Alloy (PCA) steel alloy have been measured with laboratory-scale experiments. The experiments indicate most of the mobilization from PCA steel is due to oxide formation and spalling but that the spalled particles are large enough to settle rapidly. Based on the experiments, models for the volatization of iron, manganese, and cobalt from PCA steel in steam and molybdenum from PCA steel in air have been derived.

  18. Fatigue damage of steel components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fæster, Søren; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2014-01-01

    Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials......Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials...

  19. Performance of Retrofitted Self-Compacting Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Beams Using External Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. M. AL-Shaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete-filled steel tube (SCCFST beams, similar to other structural members, necessitate retrofitting for many causes. However, research on SCCFST beams externally retrofitted by bolted steel plates has seldom been explored in the literature. This paper aims at experimentally investigating the retrofitting performance of square self-compacting concrete-filled steel tube (SCCFST beams using bolted steel plates with three different retrofitting schemes including varied configurations and two different steel plate lengths under flexure. A total of 18 specimens which consist of 12 retrofitted SCCFST beams, three unretrofitted (control SCCFST beams, and three hollow steel tubes were used. The flexural behaviour of the retrofitted SCCFST beams was examined regarding flexural strength, failure modes, and moment versus deflection curves, energy absorption, and ductility. Experimental results revealed that the implemented retrofitting schemes efficiently improve the moment carrying capacity and stiffness of the retrofitted SCCFST beams compared to the control beams. The increment in flexural strength ranged from 1% to 46%. Furthermore, the adopted retrofitting schemes were able to restore the energy absorption and ductility of the damaged beams in the range of 35% to 75% of the original beam ductility. Furthermore, a theoretical model was suggested to predict the moment capacity of the retrofitted SCCFST beams. The theoretical model results were in good agreement with the test results.

  20. Energy conservation at the Nippon Steel Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Shigetoshi

    1979-07-01

    Characteristics of the Japanese energy demand-supply structure are discussed. Nippon Steel's energy consumption and energy conservation measures are discussed. Results of Nippon's energy conservation activities are summarized. Additional information on the Japanese short-range measures for the reduction in oil consumption, the effect of efforts for the reduction of petroleum consumption, and concrete measures for securing the effect is included.

  1. Stainless steel forgings for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This Specification covers detailed requirements for the supply of austenitic stainless steel forgings used in radioactive and corrosive areas within the Nuclear Industry. With the exception of 316S51 the materials specified are all suitable for contact with nitric acid, 316S51 being included as suitable for use in contact with sodium and other alkali metals at elevated temperatures. (author)

  2. Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme-Smith, Christopher Neil; Ooi, Shgh Woei; Bhadeshia, Harshad K. D. H.

    2017-10-01

    Two novel nanocrystalline steels were designed to withstand elevated temperatures without catastrophic microstructural changes. In the most successful alloy, a large quantity of nickel was added to stabilize austenite and allow a reduction in the carbon content. A 50 kg cast of the novel alloy was produced and used to verify the formation of nanocrystalline bainite. Synchrotron X-ray diffractometry using in situ heating showed that austenite was able to survive more than 1 hour at 773 K (500 °C) and subsequent cooling to ambient temperature. This is the first reported nanocrystalline steel with high-temperature capability.

  3. Joining uranium to steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, M.A.

    1976-05-01

    A method has been devised which will allow the joining of uranium to steel by fusion welding through the use of an intermediate material. Uranium-0.5 titanium was joined to AISI 304L stainless steel by using a vanadium insert. Also, a method is now available for selecting possible filler metals when two entirely dissimilar metals need to be joined. This method allows a quantitative ranking to be made of the possible filler metals and thus the most likely candidate can be selected

  4. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  5. Nitrogen-alloyed martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, H.

    1988-01-01

    A report is presented on initial results with pressure-nitrided martensitic steels. In heat-resistant steels, thermal stability and toughness are raised by nitrogen. In cold work steel, there is a more favourable corrosion behaviour. (orig./MM) [de

  6. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  7. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  8. Low-temperature creep of austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.; Walsh, R. P.

    2017-09-01

    Plastic deformation under constant load (creep) in austenitic stainless steels has been measured at temperatures ranging from 4 K to room temperature. Low-temperature creep data taken from past and unreported austenitic stainless steel studies are analyzed and reviewed. Creep at cryogenic temperatures of common austenitic steels, such as AISI 304, 310 316, and nitrogen-strengthened steels, such as 304HN and 3116LN, are included. Analyses suggests that logarithmic creep (creep strain dependent on the log of test time) best describe austenitic stainless steel behavior in the secondary creep stage and that the slope of creep strain versus log time is dependent on the applied stress/yield strength ratio. The role of cold work, strain-induced martensitic transformations, and stacking fault energy on low-temperature creep behavior is discussed. The engineering significance of creep on cryogenic structures is discussed in terms of the total creep strain under constant load over their operational lifetime at allowable stress levels.

  9. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  10. 76 FR 75871 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... order includes certain steel nails having a shaft length up to 12 inches. Certain steel nails include... any type of steel, and have a variety of finishes, heads, shanks, point types, shaft lengths and shaft... collated with adhesive or polyester film tape backed with a heat seal adhesive. Also excluded from the...

  11. Progress in thermomechanical control of steel plates and their commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Kiyoshi; Ichikawa, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    The water-cooled thermomechanical control process (TMCP) is a technology for improving the strength and toughness of water-cooled steel plates, while allowing control of the microstructure, phase transformation and rolling. This review describes metallurgical aspects of the microalloying of steel, such as niobium addition, and discusses advantages of TMCP, for example, in terms of weldability, which is reduced upon alloying. Other covered topics include the development of equipment, distortions in steel plates, peripheral technologies such as steel making and casting, and theoretical modeling, as well as the history of property control in steel plate production and some early TMCP technologies. We provide some of the latest examples of applications of TMCP steel in various industries such as shipbuilding, offshore structures, building construction, bridges, pipelines, penstocks and cryogenic tanks. This review also introduces high heat-affected-zone toughness technologies, wherein the microstructure of steel is improved by the addition of fine particles of magnesium-containing sulfides and magnesium- or calcium-containing oxides. We demonstrate that thanks to ongoing developments TMCP has the potential to meet the ever-increasing demands of steel plates. PMID:27877477

  12. Progress in thermomechanical control of steel plates and their commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Nishioka and Kazutoshi Ichikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-cooled thermomechanical control process (TMCP is a technology for improving the strength and toughness of water-cooled steel plates, while allowing control of the microstructure, phase transformation and rolling. This review describes metallurgical aspects of the microalloying of steel, such as niobium addition, and discusses advantages of TMCP, for example, in terms of weldability, which is reduced upon alloying. Other covered topics include the development of equipment, distortions in steel plates, peripheral technologies such as steel making and casting, and theoretical modeling, as well as the history of property control in steel plate production and some early TMCP technologies. We provide some of the latest examples of applications of TMCP steel in various industries such as shipbuilding, offshore structures, building construction, bridges, pipelines, penstocks and cryogenic tanks. This review also introduces high heat-affected-zone toughness technologies, wherein the microstructure of steel is improved by the addition of fine particles of magnesium-containing sulfides and magnesium- or calcium-containing oxides. We demonstrate that thanks to ongoing developments TMCP has the potential to meet the ever-increasing demands of steel plates.

  13. Guns, Germs and Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Guns, Germs and Steel - A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 years. Suri Venkatachalam. Book Review Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 84-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Underwater welding of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental basis to understand the behavior of wet underwater welding of steel is introduced. Both the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy concepts are discussed. Modifications of welding consumables and practice are suggested. This chapter promotes further contributions of meatllurgical research to improve and promote wet underwater welding. (orig.)

  15. On choice of tempered steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorov, A.A.; Pan'shin, I.F.; Rakhmanov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a graphical method for choosing structural steels, a change in the propagation work of a crack and in the critical temperature of brittleness of 40, 40Kh, 40KhN, and 40KhNM steels, was examined depending on the hardness after hardening and tempering. A diagram enabling to choose the grade of steel for making an article of known dimensions according to the preset values of its mechanical properties has been plotted. The developed selection scheme takes into account the hardenability of steels and the influence of the hardness after thermal treatment on the cold-shortness of steel

  16. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  17. Challenges in Special Steel Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, G.

    2018-02-01

    Special bar quality [SBQ] is a long steel product where an assured quality is delivered by the steel mill to its customer. The bars have enhanced tolerance to higher stress application and it is demanded for specialised component making. The SBQ bars are sought for component making processing units such as closed die hot forging, hot extrusion, cold forging, machining, heat treatment, welding operations. The final component quality of the secondary processing units depends on the quality maintained at the steel maker end along with quality maintained at the fabricator end. Thus, quality control is ensured at every unit process stages. The various market segments catered to by SBQ steel segment is ever growing and is reviewed. Steel mills need adequate infrastructure and technological capability to make these higher quality steels. Some of the critical stages of processing SBQ and the critical quality maintenance parameters at the steel mill in the manufacture has been brought out.

  18. Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Digges, Thomas

    1966-01-01

    .... Chemical compositions, heat treatments, and some properties and uses are presented for structural steels, tool steels, stainless and heat-resisting steels, precipitation-hardenable stainless steels...

  19. Aluminide Coating on Stainless Steel for Nuclear Reactor Application: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishamuddin Husain; Zaifol Samsu; Yusof Abdullah; Muhamad Daud

    2015-01-01

    Stainless steels have been used as structural materials in the nuclear reactor since its first generation. Stainless steels type 304 and 316 are commonly used in structural components. Since the first generation materials, improvements were made on Stainless steels. This includes addition of stabilizing elements and by modification of metallurgical structure. This study investigates the formation of aluminide coating on Stainless steels by diffusion to help improve corrosion resistance. Stainless steels type 304 and 316 substrates were immersed in molten aluminium at 750 degree Celsius for 5 minutes. Interaction between molten aluminium and solid to form the outer aluminide coating by hot dipped aluminizing is studied. (Author)

  20. Progress in the Research of Fatigue of Weathering Steel after Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianyu, Liang; Jian, Yao; Youwu, Xu

    2017-12-01

    Weathering steel has a good corrosion resistance in the atmosphere, and the application of weathering steel in civil structure also reduces the cost of painting and maintenance. It is also possible for the bare weathering steel to bear the fatigue load with a rust layer. This paper summarizes the fatigue researches after corrosion of weathering steel, including the shape of specimens, failure modes of fatigue and the conclusions obtained through experimental investigations. It is also introduced the fatigue model of weathering steel after corrosion, which can be useful for the engineering application or further researches.

  1. Method of making steel strapping and strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Reilly

    2000-02-16

    The technical progress obtained for this time frame consisted of the awarding of two contracts for determination of metallurgical parameters for heat treatment of strapping and strip which are unavailable from current technology and/or published data in this field. The two contractors were Bricmont, Inc. and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Technological Institute of Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. Phase 1 of the two stage contract with Bricmont, Inc. which provided a computer analysis of the cooling rates of a typical range of thickness' of strapping was completed. This study was developed for the purpose of determining the time parameters for quenching low carbon steels to a martensitic microstructure within the time frame of the design of the proposed process. It also provides design criteria for cooling to ambient for the total process. This data is required for Phase 2 of the Bricmont proposal which completes the design and specifications of the total heat treating and cooling system for the process. This becomes the basis for developing the cost and space requirements for this component of the production line. The authors do not intend to award Phase 2 until the work done at Northwestern University discussed hereafter is completed. On or about May 1, 1999 a contract for a project entitled ``Effects of Steel Composition and Quench Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Strapping'' to be performed at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering was awarded. The delay in initiating this project was due to the legal interpretation and final agreement of the intellectual provisions of the award by the author's attorneys, Northwestern's attorneys and the legal representative in the Chicago office of the DOE. The work to date includes rapid quenching of a number of different steel compositions and microstructure on an existing drop quench test apparatus. It was initially assumed that this

  2. Control of radioactivity at the Luxembourg steel-making facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, C.

    1999-01-01

    The Luxembourg steel industry has a yearly capacity of close to 3 million tonnes of raw steel produced from scrap at three electric arc furnace steel-making plants. It has introduced in 1994 a comprehensive system of measuring devices to prevent radioactive material from being introduced into its meltshops. Detection equipment has been installed at the road and railroad accesses to the three plants. Further to the controls of incoming scrap, radioactivity is monitored on both the steel and the slag samples of each heat produced at the plants. This measure is taken in order to detect any incident involving the melting of a radioactive source that might have escaped the controls of incoming material as soon as possible. The triple purpose of these controls is: (i) to protect the personnel of the steel making plants from radiation hazards; (ii) to maintain the integrity of the equipment; and (iii) to assure integrity of the products. The presentation describes the possible origins of radioactive contamination in steel scrap as well as the behaviour in the steel making process of the different radionuclides that can be expected to be introduced into the steel making vessels through steel scrap. Together with the government agency for radiation protection, procedures have been developed for the management of any event of detection of radioactivity in the plants and to assure optimum availability of the measuring equipment. These procedures are described and commented in the presentation. The presentation includes also a report on the experience from 4 years of monitoring, during which more than 10 million tonnes of scrap have passed the gates of the steel-making plants of ProfilARBED and ARES. (author)

  3. Response of ferritic steels to nonsteady loading at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    High-temperature operating experience is lacking in pressure vessel materials that have strength levels above 586 MPa. Because of their tendency toward strain softening, we have been concerned about their behavior under nonsteady loading. Testing was undertaken to explore the extent of softening produced by monotonic and cyclic strains. The specific materials included bainitic 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel, a micro-alloyed version of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel, a micro-alloyed version of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel containing vanadium, titanium, and boron, and a martensitic 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb steel. Tests included tensile, creep, variable stress creep, relaxation, strain cycling, stress cycling, and non-isothermal creep ratchetting experiments. We found that these steels had very low uniform elongation and exhibited small strains to the onset of tertiary creep compared to annealed 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel. Repeated relaxation test data also indicated a limited capacity for strain hardening. Reversal strains produced softening. The degree of softening increased with increased initial strength level. We concluded that the high strength bainitic and martensitic steels should perform well when used under conditions where severe cyclic operation does not occur

  4. Steel for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A steel contains, in percent by weight, the following constituents: carbon from 0.13 to 0.18, silicon from 0.17 to 0.37, manganese from 0.30 to 0.60, chromium from 1.7 to 2.4, nickel from 1.0 to 1.5, molybdenum from 0.5 to 0.7, vanadium from 0.05 to 0.12, aluminium from 0.01 to 0.035, nitrogen from 0.05 to 0.012, copper from 0.11 to 0.20, arsenic from 0.0035 to 0.0055, iron and impurities, the balance. This steel is preferable for use in the manufacture of nuclear reactors. 1 table

  5. Advances in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj; Jayakumar, T.; Saibaba, Saroja; Sivaprasad, P.V.; Shankar, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book covers a broad spectrum of topics spanning the entire life cycle of stainless steel-from alloy design and characterization to engineering design, fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, quality assurance of components, in-service performance assessment, life prediction and finally failure analysis of materials and components. The contents provide useful feedback for further developments aimed at effective utilization of this class of materials. The book comprises articles that bring out contemporary developments in stainless steels and is thematically classified into the following sections. 1. Component design, modelling and structural integrity, 2. Manufacturing technology, 3. Property evaluation, 4. Alloy development and applications, 5. NDE methods, 6. Corrosion and surface modification. The book commences with articles on component design and structural integrity, thus opening up the areas of challenge for researchers and academia. The articles in the book relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.G.; Fly, G.W.; Baker, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Steel Containment Buckling program is in its fourth phase of work directed at the evaluation of the effects of the structural failure mode of steel containments when the membrane stresses are compressive. The structural failure mode for this state of stress is instability or buckling. The program to date has investigated: (1) the effect on overall buckling capacity of the ASME area replacement method for reinforcing around circular penetrations; (2) a set of benchmark experiments on ring-stiffened shells having reinforced and framed penetrations; (3) large and small scale experiments on knuckle region buckling from internal pressure and post-buckling behavior to failure for vessel heads having torispherical geometries; and (4) buckling under time-dependent loadings (dynamic buckling). The first two investigations are complete, the knuckle buckling experimental efforts are complete with data analysis and reporting in progress, and the dynamic buckling experimental and analytical work is in progress

  7. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear steel containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require a dynamic capacity reduction factor to be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are suggested

  8. Effect of aluminizing on hardenability of steel (S45C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayitno, D.; Sugiarto, R.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of research is to know the effect of aluminizing on hardenability of steel (S45C). The research methodologies were as follows. The Steels (S45C) were machined into the Jominy test samples. Next the samples were preheating at 700 ° C for 30 minutes and then the samples were dipped into the molten of aluminium for 3 minutes as a hot dip aluminizng method. The aluminium molten was 700 ° C. Then the samples were cooled into room temperatures. Finally the samples were into the jominy tested. The results show that the aluminizing (include the preheating process) increases the hardenability of steel (S45C).

  9. Reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaouuadi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use

  10. Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaoudi, R

    1998-07-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels in performed in support of the RVP integrity assessment. Its main objectives are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate the applied methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  11. Steele Richardson Olszewski syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayashree S Gokhale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease and its plus syndromes are an important cause of morbidity in the geriatric age group. Its plus syndromes show a myriad of clinical features characterized by progressive symptoms. Here we present a 65-year-old woman with progressive "Parkinsonian-like features," i.e., mask-like face, slowness of all movements and tendency to fall, and difficulty in eye movements, leading to the diagnosis of Steele Richardson Olszewski Syndrome or progressive supranuclear palsy.

  12. Steels and welding nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessa, M.; Milella, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This ENEA Data-Base regards mechanical properties, chemical composition and heat treatments of nuclear pressure vessel materials: type A533-B, A302-B, A508 steel plates and forgings, submerged arc welds and HAZ before and after nuclear irradiation. Irradiation experiments were generally performed in high flux material test reactors. Data were collected from international available literature about water nuclear reactors pressure vessel materials embrittlement

  13. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  14. The Study for Recycling NORM - Contaminated Steel Scraps from Steel Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, K. F.; Lee, Y. S.; Chao, H. E.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1994, most of the major steel industries in Taiwan have installed portal monitor to detect the abnormal radiation in metal scrap feed. As a result, the discovery of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has increased in recent years. In order to save the natural resources and promote radiation protection, an experimental melting process for the NORM contaminated steel scraps was carried out by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) Taiwan, ROC. The experimental melting process has a pretreatment step that includes a series of cutting and removal of scales, sludge, as well as combustible and volatile materials on/in the steel scraps. After pretreatment the surface of the steel scraps are relatively clean. Then the scraps are melted by a pilot-type induction furnace. This experiment finally produced seven ingots with a total weight of 2,849 kg and 96.8% recovery. All of the surface dose rates are of the background values. The activity concentrations of these ingots are also below the regulatory criteria. Thus, these NORM-bearing steel scraps are ready for recycling. This study has been granted by the regulatory authority

  15. Forming of High-strength Steels Using a Hot-melt Dry Lubricant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörnström, Sven-Erik; Karlsson, Erik; Olsson, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    during forming resulting in seizure of the tool/steel sheet contact and extensive scratching of the steel sheet surface. As a result, a number of concepts have been developed in order to reduce the tendency to galling in metal forming, including the development of new dry lubricants, new forming tool...... steel grades and improved surface engineering treatments such as the deposition of low friction CVD and PVD coatings. In the present study the performance of a hot-melt dry lubricant in the forming of hot and cold rolled and hot-dip galvanized high strength steel has been evaluated and compared...... with a conventional rust protection oil using four different tests methods, i.e. a strip reduction test, a bending under tension test, a stretch-forming test and a pin-on disc test. In the tests, two different cold work tool steels, a conventional steel grade and a nitrogen alloyed PM steel grade were evaluated...

  16. Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corwin, W.R.

    1990-08-01

    The primary goal of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program is to provide a thorough, quantitative assessment of the effects of neutron irradiation on the material behavior (particularly the fracture toughness properties) of typical pressure-vessel steels as they relate to light-water-reactor pressure-vessel integrity. The program includes direct continuation of irradiation studies previously conducted by the Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program augmented by enhanced examinations of the accompanying microstructural changes. Effects of specimen size; material chemistry; product form and microstructure; irradiation fluence, flux, temperature, and spectrum; and postirradiation annealing are examined on a wide range of fracture properties. Detailed statistical analyses of the fracture data on K Ic shift of high-copper welds were performed. Analysis of the first phase of irradiated crack-arrest testing on high-copper welds was completed. Final analysis and publication of the results of the second phase of the irradiation studies on stainless steel weld-overlay cladding were completed. Determinations were made of the variations in chemistry and unirradiated RT NDT of low upper-shelf weld metal from the Midland reactor. Final analyses were performed on the Charpy impact and tensile data from the Second and Third Irradiation series on low upper-shelf welds, and the report on the series was drafted. A detailed survey of existing data on microstructural models and data bases of irradiation damage was performed, and initial development of a reaction-rate-based model was completed. 40 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Phase Transformations During Cooling of Automotive Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Matthew C.

    This thesis explores the effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and phases in advanced high strength steels (AHSS). In the manufacturing of automobiles, the primary joining mechanism for steel is resistance spot welding (RSW), a process that produces a high heat input and rapid cooling in the welded metal. The effect of RSW on the microstructure of these material systems is critical to understanding their mechanical properties. A dual phase steel, DP-600, and a transformation induced plasticity bainitic-ferritic steel, TBF-1180, were studied to assess the changes to their microstructure that take place in controlled cooling environments and in uncontrolled cooling environments, i.e. resistance spot welding. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were developed using strip specimens of DP-600 and TBF-1180 to determine the phase transformations that occur as a function of cooling rate. The resulting phases were determined using a thermal-mechanical simulator and dilatometry, combined with light optical microscopy and hardness measurements. The resulting phases were compared with RSW specimens where cooling rate was controlled by varying the welding time for two-plate welds. Comparisons were drawn between experimental welds of DP-600 and simulations performed using a commercial welding software. The type and quantity of phases present after RSW were examined using a variety of techniques, including light optical microscopy using several etchants, hardness measurements, and x-ray diffraction (XRD).

  18. Development of a lean duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljas, M.; Johansson, P.; Liu Hui-Ping; Olsson, C.O.A. [Avesta Research Centre, Avesta (Sweden). Outokumpu Stainless

    2008-06-15

    The classic series of duplex stainless steels shows very high corrosion resistance and can be used for very demanding applications. A new lean duplex steel, LDX 2101 {sup registered} (EN 1.4162, UNS S32101), has been developed with corrosion resistance on a par with standard austenitic grades. Application areas include: structural components, chemical industry, tanks and containers. The steel was designed to have equal amounts of ferrite and austenite in annealed condition and with an austenite that is stable against strain-induced martensite. Thanks to its high nitrogen content, the steel has a fast austenite reformation when subjected to thermal cycling, e.g. welding. Unlike conventional duplex grades, the formation of intermetallic phase is very sluggish, although precipitation of nitrides and carbides has a certain impact on material properties after exposure in the temperature range 600 to 800 C. The precipitation behaviour after different isothermal treatments is described and its influence on different product properties is shown. A good agreement was found between impact toughness and corrosion resistance for a wide range of thermal treatments. (orig.)

  19. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradomski Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  20. Laser Cladding of CPM Tool Steels on Hardened H13 Hot-Work Steel for Low-Cost High-Performance Automotive Tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Xue, L.

    2012-06-01

    This paper summarizes our research on laser cladding of high-vanadium CPM® tool steels (3V, 9V, and 15V) onto the surfaces of low-cost hardened H13 hot-work tool steel to substantially enhance resistance against abrasive wear. The results provide great potential for fabricating high-performance automotive tooling (including molds and dies) at affordable cost. The microstructure and hardness development of the laser-clad tool steels so obtained are presented as well.

  1. The morphology and formation mechanism of pearlite in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M.-X., E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [Division of Materials, School of Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kelly, P.M. [Division of Materials, School of Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    A number of morphological features of pearlite were revealed through scanning electron microscopy using deeply etched specimens. These include cementite branching, bridging, gaps, holes and curvature. The presence of cementite thin films or networks along the austenite grain boundaries in eutectoid steel and at the interface between pearlite and proeutectoid ferrite in hypoeutectoid steel is another characteristic of pearlite. Furthermore, ferrite thin films surrounding the proeutectoid cementite in hypereutectoid steels are also observed. Hence, it is considered that in hypoeutectoid steels the nucleus for pearlite is a film of cementite rather than the expected proeutectoid ferrite and, similarly, in hypereutectoid steels pearlite forms from a ferrite film rather than from proeutectoid cementite. Convergent beam Kikuchi line diffraction was used to accurately determine the orientation relationships between pearlitic constituents and parent austenite in a Hadfields steel. The results show that neither the pearlitic ferrite nor the cementite is crystallographically related to the austenite grain into which the pearlite was growing and to that into which it was not growing. In addition, a new orientation relationship between pearlitic cementite and ferrite in the Hadfield steel was also observed.

  2. The heat treatment of steel. A mathematical control problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoemberg, Dietmar; Kern, Daniela

    2009-07-21

    The goal of this paper is to show how the heat treatment of steel can be modelled in terms of a mathematical optimal control problem. The approach is applied to laser surface hardening and the cooling of a steel slab including mechanical effects. Finally, it is shown how the results can be utilized in industrial practice by a coupling with machine-based control. (orig.)

  3. Vibration Properties of a Steel-PMMA Composite Beam

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yuyang; Jin, Xiaoxiong

    2015-01-01

    A steel-polymethyl methacrylate (steel-PMMA) beam was fabricated to investigate the vibration properties of a one-dimensional phononic crystal structure. The experimental system included an excitation system, a signal acquisition system, and a data analysis and processing system. When an excitation signal was exerted on one end of the beam, the signals of six response points were collected with acceleration sensors. Subsequent signal analysis showed that the beam was attenuated in certain fre...

  4. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  5. Radiotracers in Swedish Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, I.; Erwall, L. G. [Isotope Techniques Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyquist, O. [Surahammars Bruks AB, Surahammar (Sweden)

    1967-06-15

    Recent tracer investigations in Swedish steel plants have mainly dealt with problems concerning uon-metallic inclusions, slag weight determination and - labelling of special steel qualities for identification. Suspected inclusion sources, such as furnace slag, ladle-bottom mortar and some brick materials as stopper, nozzle.and channel bricks have been labelled radioactively in different ways. The labelling technique has been studied for the different systems and a new method was developed for brick materials. This includes vacuum impregnation with an aqueous solution of the inactive tracer, reheating to 1300 Degree-Sign C and neutron-irradiation in a reactor. A sufficiently homogeneous labelling of the material was obtained in this way. The tracer used was terbium, which was added as the nitrate and then decomposed to oxide during the heating process. The oxide is strongly bound to the ceramic material. The number of radioactive inclusions was determined by.autoradiography, and related to the total number pf inclusions, obtained by visual slag-counting, to give the percentage of inclusions originating from the labelled object. Some investigations have been made using simultaneous labelling of two or more sources. It seems to be difficult, however, to measure separately more than two tracers: one short-lived (e.g. 140La) and one long-lived (e.g. {sup 160}Tb). The slag weight determinations were made using the isotope dilution technique with {sup 131}Ba and {sup 140}La as tracers. A difference in slag weight is sometimes obtained. An attempt is made to explain these deviations. The material transport through a blast furnace has been followed by using a piece of graphite, labelled with {sup 140}La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and measuring the radiation intensity outside the furnace walls and in the tuyere. Studies have been made to determine suitable radiotracers for labelling of steel for subsequent identification. Up to three different isotopes can be used simultaneously

  6. Iodine/steel reactions under severe accident conditions in LWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, F.; Greger, G-U.; Hellman, S.; Bleier, A.; Morell, W.

    1994-01-01

    Due to large surface areas, the reaction of volatile, molecular iodine (I 2 ) with steel surfaces in the containment may play an important role in predicting the source term to the environment. Both wall retention of iodine and conversion of volatile into non-volatile iodine compounds at steel surfaces have to be considered. Two types of laboratory experiments were carried out at Siemens/KWU in order to investigate the reaction of I 2 at steel surfaces representative for German power plants. 1) For steel coupons submerged in an I 2 solution at T = 50 deg C, 90 deg C or 140 deg C the reaction rate of the I 2 /I - conversion was determined. No iodine loading was observed on the steel in the aqueous phase tests. I 2 reacts with the steel components (Fe, Cr or Ni) to form metal iodides on the surface which are all immediately dissolved in water under dissociation into the metal and the iodide ions. From these experiments, the I 2 /I - conversion rate constants over the temperature range 50 deg C - 140 deg C as well as the activation energy were determined. The measured data are suitable to be included in severe accident iodine codes such as IMPAIR. 2) Steel tubes were exposed to a steam/I 2 flow under dry air at T=120 deg C and steam-condensing conditions at T= 120 deg C and 160 deg C. In dry air I 2 was retained on the steel surface and a deposition rate constant was measured. Under steam-condensing conditions there is an effective conversion of volatile I 2 to non-volatile I - which is subsequently washed off from the steel surface. The I 2 /I - conversion rate constants suitable for modelling this process were determined. No temperature dependency was found in the range 120 deg C - 160 deg C. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  7. Steels for nuclear power. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohusova, O.; Brumovsky, M.; Cukr, B.; Hatle, Z.; Protiva, K.; Stefec, R.; Urban, A.; Zidek, M.

    1976-01-01

    The principles are listed of nuclear reactor operation and the reactors are classified by neutron energy, fuel and moderator designs, purpose and type of moderator. The trend and the development of light-water reactor applications are described. The fundamental operating parameters of the WWER type reactors are indicated. The effect is discussed of neutron radiation on reactor structural materials. The characteristics are described of steel corrosion due to the contact of the steel with steam or sodium in the primary coolant circuit. The reasons for stress corrosion are given and the effects of radiation on corrosion are listed. The requirements and criteria are given for the choice of low-alloy steel for the manufacture of pressure vessels, volume compensators, steam generators, cooling conduits and containment. A survey is given of most frequently used steels for pressure vessels and of the mechanical and structural properties thereof. The basic requirements for the properties of steel used in the primary coolant circuit are as follows: sufficient strength in operating temperature, toughness, good weldability, resistance to corrosion and low brittleness following neutron irradiation. The materials are listed used for the components of light-water and breeder reactors. The production of corrosion-resistant steels is discussed with a view to raw materials, technology, steel-making processes, melting processes, induction furnace steel-making, and to selected special problems of the chemical composition of steels. The effects are mainly discussed of lead, bismuth and tin as well as of some other elements on hot working of high-alloy steels and on their structure. The problems of corrosion-resistant steel welding and of pressure vessel cladding are summed up. Also discussed is the question of the concept and safeguards of the safety of nuclear installation operation and a list is presented of most commonly used nondestructive materials testing methods. The current

  8. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (≤ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important. (orig.)

  9. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (/le/ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important. (orig.).

  10. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  11. Ferritic stainless steels: corrosion resistance + economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remus, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steels provide corrosion resistance at lower cost. They include Type 409, Type 439, 18SR, 20-Mo (1.6 Mo), 18-2 (2 Mo), 26-1S, E-Brite 26-1, 29 Cr-4 Mo, and 29 Cr-4 Mo-2 Ni. Their corrosion and mechanical properties are examined. Resistance to stress-corrosion cracking is an advantage compared to austenitic types

  12. Steel designers' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gorenc, Branko; Tinyou, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The Revised 7th Edition of Steel Designers' Handbook is an invaluable tool for all practising structural, civil and mechanical engineers as well as engineering students at university and TAFE in Australia and New Zealand. It has been prepared in response to changes in the design Standard AS 4100, the structural Design Actions Standards, AS /ANZ 1170, other processing Standards such as welding and coatings, updated research as well as feedback from users. This edition is based on Australian Standard (AS) 4100: 1998 and subsequent amendments. The worked numerical examples in the book have been e

  13. Stainless steels low temperature nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, T.; Darbeida, A.; Von Stebut, J.; Michel, H.; Lebrun, J.P.; Hertz, D.

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen ions implantation of 316L stainless steel leads to monophasic diffusion layers, which are constituted of a solid solution (γ N ) fcc, metastable, nitrogen sur-saturated, and without order. This article shows that for 316L stainless steels,these layers improve the tribological properties without degradation of the corrosion resistance. (A.B.). 13 refs. 6 figs

  14. Metadynamic recrystallization in C steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    EN24 and EN2 steels, a drop from 4000 s to 6 s for similar temperature rise was observed. Metadynamic ... carbon–manganese or silicon–manganese steels, but stops after a reduction at ... growth by strain-induced grain boundary migration;.

  15. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP

  16. A Tale of Wootz Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    manufacture of steel in south India by a crucible process at ... indicates that the production of wootz steel was almost on an industrial scale in ... in an Age of Design marked by ... The Russian Anasoff also studied the process of manufacturing.

  17. Irradiation creep in ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeulen, W.; Bremaecker, A. de; Burbure, S. de; Huet, J.J.; Asbroeck, P. van

    Pressurized and non-pressurized capsules of several ferritic steels have been irradiated in Rapsodie between 400 and 500 0 C up to 3.7 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV). Results of the diameter measurements are presented and show that the total in-pile deformation is lower than for austenitic steels

  18. Steel structures for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In the guide the requirements concerning design and fabrication of steel structures for nuclear facilities and documents to be submitted to the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are presented. Furthermore, regulations concerning inspection of steel structures during construction of nuclear facilities and during their operation are set forth

  19. The fracture toughness of Type 316 steel and weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picker, C.

    This paper describes the results of fracture toughness tests on Type 316 steel and Manual Metal Arc (MMA) weld metal over a range of temperatures from 20 deg. C to 550 deg. C, and includes the effects on toughness of specimen size, post weld heat treatment and thermal ageing. The conclusions reached are that Type 316 steel possesses a superior toughness to the weld metal in the as-welded or stress relieved conditions but the toughness of the steel is degraded to a level similar to that of the weld metal following thermal ageing at temperatures over 600 deg. C. Relatively short term thermal ageing in the temperature range 370 deg. C to 450 deg. C does not appear to affect the toughness of either Type 316 steel or weld metal. (author)

  20. The electrochemical corrosion of maraging steel in various media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Hussain, S.W.; Qamar, I.; Salam, I.

    1993-01-01

    Electrochemical corrosion behavior of maraging steel in various media has been studied using electrode kinetic measurements. The media used included IN H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, IN HCl and artificial sea water, all at room temperature. The steel used was 350 grade of maraging steel and its corrosion behavior was studied in annealed as well as aged condition. In addition to the general behavior observed using potentiodynamic polarization, the corrosion rates were also evaluated using our own method known as Z TCorr . This method has been proved to be robust and accurate as compared to any other known method. The surfaces of corroded specimens were examined in an scanning electron microscope. The pitting observed in samples corroded by sea water was found to be associated with the inclusion present in the steel. Passive behavior was noted in IN H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ but not IN HCl or artificial sea water. (author)

  1. Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coteata, Margareta; Pop, Nicolae; Slatineanu, Laurentiu; Schulze, Hans-Peter; Besliu, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

  2. Concrete and steel construction quality control and assurance

    CERN Document Server

    El-Reedy, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Starting with the receipt of materials and continuing all the way through to the final completion of the construction phase, Concrete and Steel Construction: Quality Control and Assurance examines all the quality control and assurance methods involving reinforced concrete and steel structures. This book explores the proper ways to achieve high-quality construction projects, and also provides a strong theoretical and practical background. It introduces information on quality techniques and quality management, and covers the principles of quality control. The book presents all of the quality control and assurance protocols and non-destructive test methods necessary for concrete and steel construction projects, including steel materials, welding and mixing, and testing. It covers welding terminology and procedures, and discusses welding standards and procedures during the fabrication process, as well as the welding codes. It also considers the total quality management system based on ISO 9001, and utilizes numer...

  3. Low Temperature Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The embrittlement trend curve development project for HFIR reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels was carried out with three major tasks. Which are (1) data collection to match that used in HFIR steel embrittlement trend published in 1994 Journal Nuclear Material by Remec et. al, (2) new embrittlement data of A212B steel that are not included in earlier HFIR RPV trend curve, and (3) the adjustment of nil-ductility-transition temperature (NDTT) shift data with the consideration of the irradiation temperature effect. An updated HFIR RPV steel embrittlement trend curve was developed, as described below. NDTT( C) = 23.85 log(x) + 203.3 log (x) + 434.7, with 2- uncertainty of 34.6 C, where parameter x is referred to total dpa. The developed update HFIR RPV embrittlement trend curve has higher embrittlement rate compared to that of the trend curve developed in 1994.

  4. Residual stress studies of austenitic and ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrenko, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Residual studies have been made on austenitic and ferritic steels of the types used as structural materials. The residual stress results presented here will include residual stress measurements in the heat-affected zone on butt welded Type 304 stainless steel pipes, and the stresses induced in Type 304 austenitic stainless steel and Type A508 ferritic steel by several surface preparations. Such surface preparation procedures as machining and grinding can induce large directionality effects in the residual stresses determined by X-ray techniques and some typical data will be presented. A brief description is given of the mobile X-ray residual stress apparatus used to obtain most of the data in these studies. (author)

  5. Joining dissimilar stainless steels for pressure vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Sun; Huai-Yue Han

    1994-01-01

    A series of studies was carried out to examine the weldability and properties of dissimilar steel joints between martensitic and austenitic stainless steels - F6NM (OCrl3Ni4Mo) and AISI 347, respectively. The weldability tests included weld thermal simulation of the martensitic steel for investigating the influence of weld thermal cycles and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the mechanical properties of the heat-affected zone (HAZ); implant testing for examining the tendency for cold cracking of martensitic steel; rigid restraint testing for determining hot crack susceptibility of the multi-pass dissimilar steel joints. The joints were subjected to various mechanical tests including a tensile test, bending test and impact test at various temperatures, as well as slow strain-rate test for examining the stress corrosion cracking tendency in the simulated environment of a primary circuit of a PWR. Based on the weldability tests, a welding procedure - tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding for root passes with HNiCrMo-2B wire followed by manual metal arc (MMA) welding using coated electrode ENiCrFe-3B - was developed and a PWHT at 600 deg C/2h was recommended. Furthermore, the welding of tube/tube joints between these dissimilar steels is described. (21 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.)

  6. Assessing the national steel-making problem: the demand for steel products in Brazil (1901-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Barros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the demand for steel products inBrazil between 1901 and 1940, considering its dimension, its composition and its evolution, as well as the contemporaries’ perception on the issue. In order to do this, a wide array of primary sources is used, including original disaggregated foreign exchange data. Based on these sources, it is observed that the dimension of the potential domestic market exhibited a certain stability along the more than three decades during which the steel-making debate took place, and that this reflected on the contemporary estimates of the size of the market. This relative stability of the market size was accompanied by a diversification process of the demand for steel products. Furthermore, the share of iron and steel products on the value of imports showed a growth trend along the period, highlighting the importance the external constraint had in the shaping of this market in the country.

  7. Connections: Superplasticity, Damascus Steels, Laminated Steels, and Carbon Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a description is given of the connections that evolved from the initial development of a family of superplastic plain carbon steels that came to be known as Ultra-High Carbon Steels (UHCS). It was observed that their very high carbon contents were similar, if not identical, to those of Damascus steels. There followed a series of attempts to rediscover how the famous patterns found on Damascus steels blades were formed. At the same time, in order to improve the toughness at room temperature of the newly-developed UHCS, laminated composites were made of alternating layers of UHCS and mild steel (and subsequently other steels and other metals). This led to a study of ancient laminated composites, the motives for their manufacture, and the plausibility of some of the claims relating to the number of layers in the final blades. One apparently ancient laminated composite, recovered in 1837 from the great pyramid of Giza which was constructed in about 2750 B.C., stimulated a carbon dating study of ancient steels. The modern interest in "Bladesmithing" has connections back to many of these ancient weapons.

  8. The RS-485 communication system design of the waste steel radioactivity detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongli

    2014-01-01

    The importance and schematic structure of the waste steel radioactivity detector system is given firstly in this paper, and then the RS-485 communication system design including the circuit and program of the waste steel radioactivity detector system is provided. The test result of RS-485 communication system is also introduced, that shows the design completely meets the requirements of the waste steel radioactivity detector system. (author)

  9. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Phillips, Nathaniel Steven [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  10. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Experiences within British Steel since 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    The experience of British steel is that there is a serious and continuing threat of radioactive material being included in scrap delivered to steelworks. All scrap entering the steelworks is monitored for radioactivity. The scrap suppliers and the national authorities have recognized the difficulties caused by the presence of radioactivity in scrap, and are working to minimise the problem. Both domestic and imported scrap has been found to contain radioactivity, but the imported scrap is much more likely to contain radioactivity. If radioactivity is found the Environmental Agency is informed, and established procedures are used to minimise the hazard, and to isolate the radioactivity. Detecting, and isolating radioactive scrap, and preventing it being re-melted in the steelmaking process, is part of the overall commitment of British Steel to work safely, and to provide a safe, good quality, product (author)

  13. Heavy-section steel irradiation program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.; Iskander, S.K.; Haggag, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    Since a failure of the RPV carries the potential of major contamination release and severe accident, it is imperative to safe reactor operation to understand and be able to accurately predict failure models of the vessel material. For this reason, the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program has been established with its primary goal to provide a thorough, quantitative assessment of the effects of neutron irradiation on the material behavior, and in particular the fracture toughness properties, of typical pressure vessel steels as they relate to light-water RPVs. The program includes the direct continuation of irradiation studies previously conducted within the Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program augmented by enhanced examinations of the accompanying microstructural changes. Effects of specimen size, material chemistry, product form and microstructure, irradiation fluence, flux, temperature and spectrum, and postirradiation annealing are being examined on a wide range of fracture properties including fracture toughness (K Ic and J Ic ), crack-arrest toughness (K Ia ), ductile tearing resistance (dJ/da), Charpy V-notch impact energy, dropweight nil-ductility temperature (NDT), and tensile properties. Models based on observations of radiation-induced microstructural changes using field ion and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy provide a firmer basis for extrapolating the measured changes in fracture properties to wider ranges of irradiation conditions. The principal materials examined within the HSSI Program are highcopper welds since their postirradiation properties are most frequently limiting in the continued safe operation of commercial RPVs. In addition, a limited effort will focus on stainless steel weld overlay cladding, typical of that used on the inner surface of RPVs, since its postirradiation fracture properties have the potential for strongly affecting the extension of small surface flaws during overcooling transients. (orig./GL)

  14. Occupational Profiles in the European Steel Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Hans-Werner; And Others

    The steel industry in Europe has faced great changes, with resulting layoffs and restructuring. Now that the most basic changes seem to be over, it has become evident that the remaining steel industry requires more highly trained workers than was the case previously. Although steel maintenance employees were always highly skilled, steel production…

  15. Methods of making bainitic steel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Michael Paul; Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung; Zagula, Thomas Andrew; Langhorst, Benjamin Robert

    2018-01-16

    Methods of making bainitic steels may involve austenitizing a quantity of steel by exposing the quantity of steel to a first temperature. A composition of the quantity of steel may be configured to impede formation of non-bainite ferrite, pearlite, and Widmanstatten ferrite. The quantity of steel may be heat-treated to form bainite by exposing the quantity of steel to a second, lower temperature. The second, lower temperature may be stabilized by exposing the quantity of steel to the second, lower temperature in the presence of a thermal ballast.

  16. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  17. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions)

  18. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require that a dynamic capacity reduction factor be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are recommended. (orig.)

  19. Utilizing steel slag in environmental application - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. W.; Chew, L. H.; Choong, T. S. Y.; Tezara, C.; Yazdi, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Steel slags are generated as waste material or byproduct every day from steel making industries.The potential environmental issues which are related with the slag dump or reprocessing for metal recovery are generally being focused in the research. However the chemistry and mineralogy of slag depends on metallurgical process which is able to determine whether the steel slag can be the reusable products or not. Nowadays, steel slag are well characterized by using several methods, such as X-ray Diffraction, ICP-OES, leaching test and many more. About the industrial application, it is mainly reused as aggregate for road construction, as armour stones for hydraulic engineering constructions and as fertilizers for agricultural purposes. To ensure the quality of steel slag for the end usage, several test methods are developed for evaluating the technical properties of steel slag, especially volume stability and environmental behaviour. In order to determine its environmental behaviour, leaching tests have been developed. The focus of this paper however is on those applications that directly affect environmental issues including remediation, and mitigation of activities that negatively impact the environment.

  20. Fatigue Life of High-Strength Steel Offshore Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Ingomar; Agerskov, Henning; Lopez Martinez, Luis

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high-strength......In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high......-strength steel with a yield stress of 820-830 MPa and with high weldability and toughness properties. The test specimens of both series had the same geometry. The present report concentrates on the results obtained in the investigation on the high-strength steel tubular joints.The test specimens were fabricated...... from Ø 324-610 mm tubes, and the joints were loaded in in-plane bending. Both fatigue tests under constant amplitude loading and tests with a stochastic loading that is realistic in relation to offshore structures, are included in the investigation.A comparison between constant amplitude and variable...

  1. Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Buried Steel Pipeline Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, Amy J; Law, David W; Ward, Liam P; Cole, Ivan S; Best, Adam S

    2017-08-01

    Buried steel infrastructure can be a source of iron ions for bacterial species, leading to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Localized corrosion of pipelines due to MIC is one of the key failure mechanisms of buried steel pipelines. In order to better understand the mechanisms of localized corrosion in soil, semisolid agar has been developed as an analogue for soil. Here, Pseudomonas fluorescens has been introduced to the system to understand how bacteria interact with steel. Through electrochemical testing including open circuit potentials, potentiodynamic scans, anodic potential holds, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy it has been shown that P. fluorescens increases the rate of corrosion. Time for oxide and biofilms to develop was shown to not impact on the rate of corrosion but did alter the consistency of biofilm present and the viability of P. fluorescens following electrochemical testing. The proposed mechanism for increased corrosion rates of carbon steel involves the interactions of pyoverdine with the steel, preventing the formation of a cohesive passive layer, after initial cell attachment, followed by the formation of a metal concentration gradient on the steel surface.

  2. CO2 Abatement In The Iron And Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    The iron and steel industry is the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions due to the energy intensity of steel production, its reliance on carbon-based fuels and reductants, and the large volume of steel produced -- over 1414 Mt in 2010. With the growing concern over climate change, steel makers are faced with the challenge of finding ways of lowering CO2 emissions without seriously undermining process efficiency or considerably adding to costs. This report examines ways of abating CO2 emissions from raw materials preparation (coking, sintering and pelletising plants) through to the production of liquid steel in basic oxygen furnaces and electric arc furnaces. Direct reduction and smelting reduction processes are covered, as well as iron making in a blast furnace. A range of technologies and measures exist for lowering CO2 emissions including minimising energy consumption and improving energy efficiency, changing to a fuel and/or reducing agent with a lower CO2 emission factor (such as wood charcoal), and capturing the CO2 and storing it underground. Significant CO2 reductions can be achieved by combining a number of the available technologies. If carbon capture and storage is fitted than steel plants could become near zero emitters of CO2.

  3. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  4. Micropurity in stainless steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, Z.

    1981-01-01

    New technologies were developed by the Vitkovice research institutes in response to high requirements for the quality of high-alloy steels for nuclear power, viz., duplex technology with double vacuum degassing at the DH unit and oxidation vacuum degassing using the VAKUVIT equipment. The steel produced shows low contents of impurities and high micropurity. A study was conducted into changes in carbon content and the formation of titanium nitrides and carbonitrides in austenitic steels during their production, and optimum technological parameters were found for eliminating their formation in forgings. (author)

  5. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and : transverse mild steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams : exhibit earl...

  6. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and transverse mild : steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams exhibit early-...

  7. [The Steel factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Cortés, J R

    1997-01-01

    Mice bearing mutations at either of two loci, dominant White spotting(W) or Steel(Sl), exhibit development defects in hematopoietic, melanocytic and germ cells. Genetics studies have shown that the SI locus encodes the Steel factor (SF), which is the ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor c-kit, the product of the W locus. SF is synthesized in membrane-bound form and can be processed to produce a soluble form. Cell-cell interaction is important in the production of normal blood cells in vivo and in vitro and in the cellular expansion of leukemic cells. We discuss here how SF decreases the requirements in cell interaction for blast colony formation in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and the presence of membrane-bound SF possibly contributes to the density-dependent growth of the AML blasts. We explain that SF is mainly a survival factor for hematopoietic cells, of little proliferative effect, which maintains CD34+ hematopoietic cells in an undifferentiated state. These properties would potentially allow the maintenance of hematopoietic cells in culture for the purpose of marrow purging or gene therapy. The activation of the c-kit signal transduction pathway may play a significant role in the development of many types of non-hematological malignancies by disrupting normal cell-cell interactions and allowing the growth of cancer cell populations. In summary, the properties of the SF indicate it has a role for survival signals during the process of normal differentiation, AML proliferation and in the maintenance of many c-kit+ tumors.

  8. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of line pipe steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Taylor Roth

    The effects of test temperature on the tensile properties of four line pipe steels were evaluated. The four materials include a ferrite-pearlite line pipe steel with a yield strength specification of 359 MPa (52 ksi) and three 485 MPa (70 ksi) yield strength acicular ferrite line pipe steels. Deformation behavior, ductility, strength, strain hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and fracture behavior were characterized at room temperature and in the temperature range of 200--350 °C, the potential operating range for steels used in oil production by the steam assisted gravity drainage process. Elevated temperature tensile testing was conducted on commercially produced as-received plates at engineering strain rates of 1.67 x 10 -4, 8.33 x 10-4, and 1.67 x 10-3 s-1. The acicular ferrite (X70) line pipe steels were also tested at elevated temperatures after aging at 200, 275, and 350 °C for 100 h under a tensile load of 419 MPa. The presence of serrated yielding depended on temperature and strain rate, and the upper bound of the temperature range where serrated yielding was observed was independent of microstructure between the ferrite-pearlite (X52) steel and the X70 steels. Serrated yielding was observed at intermediate temperatures and continuous plastic deformation was observed at room temperature and high temperatures. All steels exhibited a minimum in ductility as a function of temperature at testing conditions where serrated yielding was observed. At the higher temperatures (>275 °C) the X52 steel exhibited an increase in ductility with an increase in temperature and the X70 steels exhibited a maximum in ductility as a function of temperature. All steels exhibited a maximum in flow strength and average strain hardening rate as a function of temperature. The X52 steel exhibited maxima in flow strength and average strain hardening rate at lower temperatures than observed for the X70 steels. For all steels, the temperature where the maximum in both flow

  9. On the determining role of microstructure of niobium-microalloyed steels with differences in impact toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anumolu, R.; Kumar, B. Ravi; Misra, R.D.K.; Mannering, T.; Panda, D.; Jansto, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between microstructure and impact toughness was investigated for niobium-microalloyed steels with similar yield strength. The nominal steel composition was similar and any variation in processing history was unintentional. The general microstructure of the investigated steel was similar and consisted of 85% polygonal ferrite and 15% pearlite. Despite these similarities, they exhibited variation in toughness and were classified as high- and low-toughness steels. Detailed microstructural investigation including stereological analysis and electron microscopy implied that toughness is strongly influenced by mean intercept length of polygonal ferrite and pearlite colony, and their distribution, interlamellar spacing, and degenerated pearlite

  10. On the determining role of microstructure of niobium-microalloyed steels with differences in impact toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anumolu, R. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Kumar, B. Ravi [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Misra, R.D.K. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States)], E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu; Mannering, T.; Panda, D. [Nucor-Yamato Steel, P.O. Box 1228, 5929 East State Highway 18, Blytheville, AR 72316 (United States); Jansto, S.G. [Reference Metals, 1000 Old Pond Road, Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The relationship between microstructure and impact toughness was investigated for niobium-microalloyed steels with similar yield strength. The nominal steel composition was similar and any variation in processing history was unintentional. The general microstructure of the investigated steel was similar and consisted of 85% polygonal ferrite and 15% pearlite. Despite these similarities, they exhibited variation in toughness and were classified as high- and low-toughness steels. Detailed microstructural investigation including stereological analysis and electron microscopy implied that toughness is strongly influenced by mean intercept length of polygonal ferrite and pearlite colony, and their distribution, interlamellar spacing, and degenerated pearlite.

  11. Fatigue crack propagation in neutron-irradiated ferritic pressure-vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a number of experiments dealing with fatigue crack propagation in irradiated reactor pressure-vessel steels are reviewed. The steels included ASTM alloys A302B, A533B, A508-2, and A543, as well as weldments in A543 steel. Fluences and irradiation conditions were generally typical of those experienced by most power reactors. In general, the effect of neutron irradiation on the fatigue crack propagation behavior of these steels was neither significantly beneficial nor significantly detrimental

  12. Depositing laser-generated nanoparticles on powders for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersed strengthened alloy parts via laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, René; Wilms, Markus B.; Doñate-Buendía, Carlos; Weisheit, Andreas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Henrich Schleifenbaum, Johannes; Gökce, Bilal

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel route for the adsorption of pulsed laser-dispersed nanoparticles onto metal powders in aqueous solution without using any binders or surfactants. By electrostatic interaction, we deposit Y2O3 nanoparticles onto iron-chromium based powders and obtain a high dispersion of nano-sized particles on the metallic powders. Within the additively manufactured component, we show that the particle spacing of the oxide inclusion can be adjusted by the initial mass fraction of the adsorbed Y2O3 particles on the micropowder. Thus, our procedure constitutes a robust route for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys via oxide nanoparticles supported on steel micropowders.

  13. Tribological properties of ion-implanted steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1987-01-01

    The tribological properties such as surface hardness, friction and wear have been studied for low carbon steels and tool steels implanted with many types of ion including metallic elements. The hardness measured by Vickers or Knoop hardness testers as a function of normal load is dependent on the implanted species, fluence and substrate. The friction coefficients measured by Bowden-Leben type of friction tests or detected during wear tests also depend on the implantation conditions. The improvement in the wear resistance, which is most important for industrial use of implanted materials, has been investigated for AISI H13 prehardened and tool steels implanted with nitrogen and boron ions. The relationship between hardness, friction and wear is discussed in comparison with the microcharacteristics such as composition and chemical bonding states measured by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is concluded that the increase in hardness and/or the decrease in friction coefficient play(s) an important role in improving the wear resistance, and the relationship between relative wear volume and relative hardness is correlated for boron and nitrogen implantation. (orig.)

  14. High nitrogen stainless steels for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen alloying in stainless steels (SS) has myriad beneficial effects, including solid solution strengthening, precipitation effects, phase control and corrosion resistance. Recent years have seen a rapid development of these alloys with improved properties owing to advances in processing technologies. Furthermore, unlimited demands for high-performance advanced steels for special use in advanced applications renewed the interest in high nitrogen steels (HNS). The combination of numbers of attractive properties such as strength, fracture toughness, wear resistance, workability, magnetic properties and corrosion resistance of HNS has given a unique advantage and offers a number of prospective applications in different industries. Based on extensive studies carried out at IGCAR, nitrogen alloyed type 304LN SS and 316LN SS have been chosen as materials of construction for many engineering components of fast breeder reactor (FBR) and associated reprocessing plants. HNS austenitic SS alloys are used as structural/reactor components, i.e., main vessel, inner vessel, control plug, intermediate heat exchanger and main sodium piping for fast breeder reactor. HNS type 304LN SS is a candidate material for continuous dissolver, nuclear waste storage tanks, pipings, etc. for nitric acid service under highly corrosive conditions. Recent developments towards the manufacturing and properties of HNS alloys for application in nuclear industry are highlighted in the presentation. (author)

  15. Analysis of features of stainless steels in dissimilar welded joints in chloride inducted corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, S.; Łabanowski, J.

    2017-08-01

    Stainless steels of femtic-austenitic microstructure that means the duplex Cr-Ni-Mo steels, in comparison with austenitic steel includes less expensive nickel and has much better mechanical properties with good formability and corrosion resistance, even in environments containing chloride ions. Similar share of high chromium ferrite and austenite, which is characterized by high ductility, determines that the duplex steels have good crack resistance at temperatures up to approximately -40°C. The steels containing approximately 22% Cr, 5% Ni, 3% Mo and 0.2% N crystallizes as a solid solution δ, partially transforming from the temperature of about 1200°C to 850°C into the phase α. The stable structure of considered steels, at temperatures above 850°C, is ferrite, and at lower temperatures the mixture of phase γ+α +σ. The two-phase structure α+γ the duplex steel obtains after hyperquenching at the temperature of stability of the mixture of α+γ phases, and the share of the phases depends on the hyper quenching attributes. Hyperquenching in water, with a temperature close to 1200°C, ensures the instance in the microstructure of the steel a large share of ferrite and a small share of the high chromium austenite. This causes the increase of strength properties and reducing the plasticity of the steel and its resistance ability to cracking and corrosion. Slower cooling from the mentioned temperature, for example in the air, enables the partial transformation of the a phase into the γ one (α → γ) and increasing the share of austenite in the steel structure. It leads to improvement of plasticity properties. In the paper are presented the results of investigations of heteronymous welded joints of duplex steel and austenitic one. The results include the relation between the chemical composition of steels and their weldability.

  16. Austenitic stainless steel weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.; Emmons, J.S.; Michaels, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical techniques applied to ultrasonic waveforms obtained from inspection of austenitic stainless steel welds are described. Experimental results obtained from a variety of geometric and defect reflectors are presented. Specifically, frequency analyses parameters, such as simple moments of the power spectrum, cross-correlation techniques, and adaptive learning network analysis, all represent improvements over conventional time domain analysis of ultrasonic waveforms. Results for each of these methods are presented, and the overall inspection difficulties of austenitic stainless steel welds are discussed

  17. High-strength maraging steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, S.V.; Shejn, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of data on technological and operation properties of maraging steels on Fe-Cr-Ni, Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr-Co-Mo bases is given. Their advantages and drawbacks are pointed out. The scheme of strengthening heat treatment is considered. The fields of the most effective application of maraging steels for instance, for products operating under conditions of low-cycle and shock cyclic loading are mentioned

  18. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  19. Steel-Industry of the Future; Industrial Partnerships: Advancing Energy and Environmental Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.

    2001-01-01

    This tri-fold brochure describe the partnering activities of the Office of Industrial Technologies' (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) for Steel. Information on what works for the Steel industry, examples of successful partnerships, and benefits of partnering with OIT are included

  20. Designing of CK45 carbon steel and AISI 304 stainless steel dissimilar welds

    OpenAIRE

    Pouraliakbar,Hesam; Hamedi,Mohsen; Kokabi,Amir Hossein; Nazari,Ali

    2014-01-01

    Gas tungsten arc welding of CK45 and AISI304 stainless steel was performed through preparation of different types of samples using ER308L and ERNi-1 wires. Welded samples were studied by different techniques including optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction, hardness measurements and impact test. It was observed that in the buttered specimen, the structure of the weld metal was completely austenitic wh...

  1. Properties of hot rolled steels for enamelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilovski, Dragica; Gavrilovski, Milorad

    2003-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the structure and properties of experimental produced hot rolled steels suitable for enamelling are presented in the paper. Hot rolled steels for enamelling represent a special group of the steels for conventional enamelling. Their quality has to be adapted to the method and conditions of enamelling. Therefore, these steels should meet some specific requirements. In addition to usual investigation of the chemical composition and mechanical properties, microstructure and quality of the steel surface also were investigated. The basic aim was to examine steels capability for enamelling, i. e. steels resistance to the fish scales phenomena, by trial enamelling, as well as quality of the steel - enamel contact surface, to evaluate the binding. Also, the changes of the mechanical properties, especially the yield point, during thermal treatment, as a very specific requirement, were investigated, by simplified method. Good results were obtained confirming the steels capability for enamelling. (Original)

  2. An approach to ductile fracture resistance modelling in pipeline steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pussegoda, L.N.; Fredj, A. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd., Kanata (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Ductile fracture resistance studies of high grade steels in the pipeline industry often included analyses of the crack tip opening angle (CTOA) parameter using 3-point bend steel specimens. The CTOA is a function of specimen ligament size in high grade materials. Other resistance measurements may include steady state fracture propagation energy, critical fracture strain, and the adoption of damage mechanisms. Modelling approaches for crack propagation were discussed in this abstract. Tension tests were used to calibrate damage model parameters. Results from the tests were then applied to the crack propagation in a 3-point bend specimen using modern 1980 vintage steels. Limitations and approaches to overcome the difficulties associated with crack propagation modelling were discussed.

  3. Microstructural evolution in reactor pressure vessel steel under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Katsumi; Fukuya, Koji [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Seika, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Understanding microstructural changes in reactor pressure vessel steels is important in order to evaluate radiation-induced embrittlement, one of the major aging phenomena affecting the extension of plant life. In this study, actual surveillance test specimens and samples of rector vessel low-alloy steel (A533B steel) irradiated in a research reactor were examined using state-of-the-art techniques to clarify the neutron flux effect on the microstructural changes. These techniques included small angle neutron scattering and atom probes. Microstructural changes which are considered to be the main factors affecting embrittlement, including the production of copper-rich precipitates and the segregation of impurity elements, were confirmed by the results of the study. In addition, the mechanical properties were predicted based on the obtained quantitative data such as the diameters of precipitates. Consequently, the hardening due to irradiation was almost simulated. (author)

  4. Corrosion resistance of stainless steel pipes in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, L.; Camitz, G. [Swerea KIMAB AB, Box 55970, SE-102 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Peultier, J.; Jacques, S.; Baudu, V.; Barrau, F.; Chareyre, B. [Industeel and ArcelorMittal R and D, 56 rue Clemenceau, BP19, FR-71201 le Creusot, Cedex (France); Bergquist, A. [Outokumpu Stainless AB, P.O. Box 74, SE-774 22 Avesta (Sweden); Pourbaix, A.; Carpentiers, P. [Belgian Centre for Corrosion Study, Avenue des Petits-Champs 4A, BE 1410 Waterloo (Belgium)

    2011-04-15

    To be able to give safe recommendations concerning the choice of suitable stainless steel grades for pipelines to be buried in various soil environments, a large research programme, including field exposures of test specimens buried in soil in Sweden and in France, has been performed. Resistance against external corrosion of austenitic, super austenitic, lean duplex, duplex and super duplex steel grades in soil has been investigated by laboratory tests and field exposures. The grades included have been screened according to their critical pitting-corrosion temperature and according to their time-to-re-passivation after the passive layer has been destroyed locally by scratching. The field exposures programme, being the core of the investigation, uses large specimens: 2 m pipes and plates, of different grades. The exposure has been performed to reveal effects of aeration cells, deposits or confined areas, welds and burial depth. Additionally, investigations of the tendency of stainless steel to corrode under the influence of alternating current (AC) have been performed, both in the laboratory and in the field. Recommendations for use of stainless steels under different soil conditions are given based on experimental results and on operating experiences of existing stainless steel pipelines in soil. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. SAE 1045 steel/WC-Co/Ni-Cu-Ni/SAE 1045 steel joints prepared by dynamic diffusion bonding: Microelectrochemical studies in 0.6 M NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreatta, Francesco; Matesanz, Laura; Akita, Adriano H.; Paussa, Luca; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Fugivara, Cecilio S.; Gomez de Salazar, Jose M.; Benedetti, Assis V.

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion of SAE 1045 steel/WC-Co/Ni-Cu-Ni/SAE 1045 steel interfaces was investigated in 0.6 M NaCl solution using an electrochemical microcell, which enables local electrochemical characterization at the micrometer scale. Two pieces of steel, one with a WC-Co coating covered with Ni (12 μm) and Cu (5 μm) layers, and the other with a Ni (15 μm) layer, were welded by dynamic diffusion bonding. A WC-Co coating was applied to the steel by the high velocity oxygen-fuel process, and Ni-Cu and Ni layers by electroplating. Polarization curves were recorded using an electrochemical microcell. Different regions of welded samples were investigated, including steel, cermet coating, and steel/cermet and steel/Ni-Cu-Ni/cermet interfaces. Optical and electronic microscopes were employed to study the corroded regions. Potentiodynamic polarization curves obtained using the microcell revealed that the base metal was more susceptible to corrosion than the cermet. In addition, cermet steel/cermet and steel/Ni-Cu-Ni/cermet joints exhibited different breakdown potentials. Steel was strongly corroded in the regions adjacent to the interfaces, while the cermet was less corroded. Iron oxides/hydroxides and chloride salts were the main corrosion products of steel. After removal of the superficial layer of corrosion products, iron oxides were mainly observed. Chloride ions were detected mainly on a copper-enriched layer placed between two Ni-enriched layers.

  6. Current status and recent research achievements in ferritic/martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, A.-A. F.; Diegele, E.; Lindau, R.; Luzginova, N.; Tanigawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    When the austenitic stainless steel 316L(N) was selected for ITER, it was well known that it would not be suitable for DEMO and fusion reactors due to its irradiation swelling at high doses. A parallel programme to ITER collaboration already had been put in place, under an IEA fusion materials implementing agreement for the development of a low activation ferritic/martensitic steel, known for their excellent high dose irradiation swelling resistance. After extensive screening tests on different compositions of Fe-Cr alloys, the chromium range was narrowed to 7-9% and the first RAFM was industrially produced in Japan (F82H: Fe-8%Cr-2%W-TaV). All IEA partners tested this steel and contributed to its maturity. In parallel several other RAFM steels were produced in other countries. From those experiences and also for improving neutron efficiency and corrosion resistance, European Union opted for a higher chromium lower tungsten grade, Fe-9%Cr-1%W-TaV steel (Eurofer), and in 1997 ordered the first industrial heats. Other industrial heats have been produced since and characterised in different states, including irradiated up to 80 dpa. China, India, Russia, Korea and US have also produced their grades of RAFM steels, contributing to overall maturity of these steels. This paper reviews the work done on RAFM steels by the fusion materials community over the past 30 years, in particular on the Eurofer steel and its design code qualification for RCC-MRx.

  7. Behaviour of fibre reinforced concrete using steel slag coarse aggregate produced in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alnahhal Wael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of Qatar suffers from the shortage of natural resources needed for concrete production. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the feasibility of using by-product recycled materials as aggregates to maintain the concrete construction industry. Several types of recyclable materials are currently used in concrete. One of the potential resources of recycled concrete is steel slag. Knowing that Steel slag is the most significant solid waste generated by Qatar Steel Company in Qatar, replacing of natural coarse aggregate with steel slag aggregate will have a significant environmental and economic impact to the state of Qatar. This paper presents the compression and flexural test results of different concrete mixes made of steel slag coarse aggregate combined with a newly developed basalt chopped fibres. The parameters investigated included the volume fraction of the fibre used and the type of coarse aggregates (natural aggregates “Gabbro” and steel slag aggregates. Plain concrete specimens containing natural coarse aggregates and steel slag aggregates with no fibres added were also tested to serve as control. Test results showed that adding the basalt chopped fibres to the concrete mixes enhanced their flexural tensile strengths at different percentages. In addition, the compressive strength of concrete made with steel slag aggregate was higher than that made with natural gabbro aggregate. Test results clearly showed that steel slag aggregates can be used as sustainable and eco-friendly alternative materials in concrete structures.

  8. Current status and recent research achievements in ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.-A.F., E-mail: farhad.tavassoli@cea.fr [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/DANS/DMN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Diegele, E., E-mail: eberhard.diegele@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Lindau, R., E-mail: rainer.lindau@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Luzginova, N., E-mail: Natalia.Luzginova@gmail.com [NRG-Petten, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Tanigawa, H., E-mail: tanigawa.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Authority (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    When the austenitic stainless steel 316L(N) was selected for ITER, it was well known that it would not be suitable for DEMO and fusion reactors due to its irradiation swelling at high doses. A parallel programme to ITER collaboration already had been put in place, under an IEA fusion materials implementing agreement for the development of a low activation ferritic/martensitic steel, known for their excellent high dose irradiation swelling resistance. After extensive screening tests on different compositions of Fe–Cr alloys, the chromium range was narrowed to 7–9% and the first RAFM was industrially produced in Japan (F82H: Fe–8%Cr–2%W–TaV). All IEA partners tested this steel and contributed to its maturity. In parallel several other RAFM steels were produced in other countries. From those experiences and also for improving neutron efficiency and corrosion resistance, European Union opted for a higher chromium lower tungsten grade, Fe–9%Cr–1%W–TaV steel (Eurofer), and in 1997 ordered the first industrial heats. Other industrial heats have been produced since and characterised in different states, including irradiated up to 80 dpa. China, India, Russia, Korea and US have also produced their grades of RAFM steels, contributing to overall maturity of these steels. This paper reviews the work done on RAFM steels by the fusion materials community over the past 30 years, in particular on the Eurofer steel and its design code qualification for RCC-MRx.

  9. High temperature oxidation behavior of ODS steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaito, T.; Narita, T.; Ukai, S.; Matsuda, Y.

    2004-08-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are being developing for application as advanced fast reactor cladding and fusion blanket materials, in order to allow increased operation temperature. Oxidation testing of ODS steel was conducted under a controlled dry air atmosphere to evaluate the high temperature oxidation behavior. This showed that 9Cr-ODS martensitic steels and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steels have superior high temperature oxidation resistance compared to 11 mass% Cr PNC-FMS and 17 mass% Cr ferritic stainless steel. This high temperature resistance is attributed to earlier formation of the protective α-Cr 2O 3 on the outer surface of ODS steels.

  10. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  11. Irradiation effects in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels (Heavy-Section Steel Technology program series 4 and 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, J.J.; Nanstad, R.K.; Thoms, K.R.; Menke, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents studies on the irradiation effects in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels. The Fourth Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Irradiation Series, almost completed, was aimed at elastic-plastic and fully plastic fracture toughness of low-copper weldments (''current practice welds''). A typical nuclear pressure vessel plate steel was included for statistical purposes. The Fifth HSST Irradiation Series, now in progress, is aimed at determining the shape of the K/sub IR/ curve after significant radiation-induced shift of the transition temperatures. This series includes irradiated test specimens of thicknesses up to 100 mm and weldment compositions typical of early nuclear power reactor pressure vessel welds. 27 refs., 22 figs

  12. The Structure of the Silumin Coat on Alloy Cast Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Szymczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the analysis results of the structure of the coat obtained by dipping in silumin AlSi5 of two grades of alloy cast steel: GX6CrNiTi18-10 (LH18N9T and GX39Cr13 (LH14. The temperature of the silumin bath was 750±5°C, and the hold-up time of the cast steel element τ = 180 s. The absolute thickness of the coat obtained in the given conditions was g = 104 μm on cast steel GX6CrNiTi18-10 and g = 132 μm on GX39Cr13. The obtained coat consisted of three layers of different phase structure. The first layer from the base “g1`” was constructed of the phase AlFe including Si and alloy additives of the tested cast steel grades: Cr and Ni (GX6CrNiTi18-10 and Cr (GX39Cr13. The second layer “g1``” of intermetallic phases AlFe which also contains Si and Cr crystallizes on it. The last, external layer “g2” of the coat consists of the silumin containing the intermetallic phases AlFeSi which additionally can contain alloy additives of the cast steel. It was shown that there were no carbides on the coat of the tested cast steels which are the component of their microstructure, as it took place in the case of the coat on the high speed steels.

  13. The microstructure of steels and cast irons. History and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand-Charre, M.

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure of steels and cast irons is a monograph on the history and interpretation of the microstructure of steels and iron alloys. Its 400 pages are illustrated by a lot of micrographies of commercial alloys or model alloys at each the available scales with the modern investigations means of electronic microscopy and the optical macro/microscopy. The first part of this book is an historical introduction on the development of the metallurgical structures manually forged for the iron knowledge, in particular the famous structures called damask. The second part of this book deals with the fundamental notions in order to give all the reasoning bases required on the phases equilibria and the transformations kinetics. Concerning the phases equilibria, a lot of diagrams are included. The reading of ternary systems is analyzed for six systems representative of the reactions encountered in steels, Fe-Cr-C, Fe-Ni-Cr, Fe-Mn-S, Fe-Co-Cu, Fe-Mo-Cr and Fe-C-V. The solidification structures are studied through all the classical cases but in others too as the markings of peritectic or metatectic reactions or transformations in series. Solid phases transformations are illustrated and commented with recent interpretations, in particular in the case of bainitic structures. A lot of references allow to deepen the non developed aspects. The third part is a guide to understand and discuss on scientific bases the role of alloy elements and those of different specific treatments resulting to the optimisation of steels and iron casts, to define the micrographic characteristics in relation with the use properties. Steels are classified in series for the very low alloy steels to steels with high amounts in alloy elements resulting of a very fine composition adjustment. Cast irons are presented naturally according to their microstructure, classified in white irons, lamellar grey and nodular irons. (O.M.)

  14. Heavy-Section Steel Technology program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a status review of ongoing HSST program tasks aimed at refining the technology used in analysis of reactor pressure vessel fracture margins under pressurized thermal-shock (PTS) loading. Specific fracture-technology issues addressed include vessel flaw density and distribution, shallow flaws, fracture-toughness data transfer, circumferential cracks, ductile tearing and the influence of low-tearing toughness in stainless steel cladding. Preliminary results from the analysis and test programs are presented, together with interim assessments of their potential impact on a reactor vessel PTS analysis. 31 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab

  15. Notch aspects of RSP steel microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For a rather long time, basic research projects have been focused on examinations of mechanical properties for Rapid Solidification Powder (RSP steels. These state-of-art steels are commonly known as “powdered steels“. In fact, they combine distinctive attributes of conventional steel alloys with unusual resistance of construction material manufactured by so called “pseudo-powdered” metallurgy.Choice of suitable materials for experimental verification was carried out based on characteristic application of so called “modern steel”. First, groups of stainless and tool steel types (steel grades ČSN 17 and 19 were selected. These provided representative specimens for the actual comparison experiment. For stainless steel type, two steel types were chosen: hardenable X47Cr14 (ČSN 17 029 stainless steel and non-hardenable X2CrNiMo18-14-3 (ČSN 17 350 steel. They are suitable e.g. for surgical tools and replacements (respectively. For tooling materials, C80U (ČSN 19 152 carbon steel and American D2 highly-alloyed steel (ČSN “equivalent” being 19 572 steel were chosen for the project. Finally, the M390 Böhler steel was chosen as representative of powdered (atomized steels. The goal of this paper is to discuss structural aspects of modern stainless and tool steel types and to compare them against the steel made by the RSP method. Based on the paper's results, impact of powdered steel structural characteristics on the resistance to crack initiation shall be evaluated.

  16. Anodized Steel Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagu, Jagdeep S; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Bohm, Mallika; Bohm, Siva; Kumar Rout, Tapan

    2016-03-09

    Steel was anodized in 10 M NaOH to enhance its surface texture and internal surface area for application as an electrode in supercapacitors. A mechanism was proposed for the anodization process. Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) studies of anodized steel revealed that it contains a highly porous sponge like structure ideal for supercapacitor electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that the surface of the anodized steel was Fe2O3, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that the bulk remained as metallic Fe. The supercapacitor performance of the anodized steel was tested in 1 M NaOH and a capacitance of 18 mF cm(-2) was obtained. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that there was a large psueudocapacitive contribution which was due to oxidation of Fe to Fe(OH)2 and then further oxidation to FeOOH, and the respective reduction of these species back to metallic Fe. These redox processes were found to be remarkably reversible as the electrode showed no loss in capacitance after 10000 cycles. The results demonstrate that anodization of steel is a suitable method to produce high-surface-area electrodes for supercapacitors with excellent cycling lifetime.

  17. Corrosion of steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, C.M.

    1982-10-01

    A comparative study has been made of those properties of Massiv and Standard cements which are considered to determine their ability to protect steel reinforcement from corroding. Saturated Massiv cement has a higher evaporabel water content, but a significantly finer pore structure than has saturated Standard cement. This fine structure resulted in an electrical resistivity ten times higher and chloride diffusivity ten times lower than those of Standard cement. Electrochemical measurements have shown that the passive current density of steel in Massiv mortar is higher than that of steel in Standard mortar, but the higher current should lead to a more rapid decrease in potential to a level at which neither chloride attack of hydrogen evolution will occur. Whereas steel in Standard mortar was found to be highly susceptible to crevice corrosion, no such attack has been observed in Massiv mortar. Moreover, the initiation of chloride induced corrosion and the subsequent rates of corrosion were both lower in Massiv mortar than in Standard mortar. Thus, it may be predicted that Massiv cement would provide greater protection for steel reinforcement in underground structures exposed to chloride containing ground water than would Standard cement. (author)

  18. Ultimate limit states of steel containment vessel under earthquake loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Yuhara, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Seiichi; Hayashi, Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Tadao.

    1986-01-01

    The limit state induced by buckling of cylindrical steel structures under earthquake loadings was investigated from the standpoint of energy concept. A number of the buckling test of cylindrical steel shell structures has been made, which showed that they have a stable load-displacement relation and adequate deformation capacities beyond the buckling. The authors are proposing that the energy input imparted by strong earthquakes to buckled structures and the deformation capacity in post-buckling are suitable indices for seismic resistance of the cylindrical steel shell structures because the buckling does not cause the structure immediately to collapse in the case of such repeated loading as earthquake motions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the energy input to buckled cylindrical steel structures with an increase in the intensity of earthquake motions. A series of nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed under various types of earthquake records by using a hysteresis loop, including buckling, which was derived from the buckling tests. The limit state could be defined as the state in which the deformation of and the energy input into buckled structures increase divergently when the intensity of the earthquake excitation exceeds a certain value. The results obtained in this paper are intended to be adopted to the limit state in the post-buckling region to evaluate the margin of safety against the buckling resistance of cylindrical steel structures under strong earthquake loadings. (author)

  19. Steel skin - SMC laminate structures for lightweight automotive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliato, Luca; Jang, Changsoon; Murugesan, Mohanraj; Kim, Naksoo

    2017-09-01

    In the present research work an innovative material, made of steel skin and sheet molding compound core, is presented and is aimed to be utilized for the production of automotive body frames. For a precise description of the laminate structure, the material properties of all the components, including the adhesive utilized as an interlayer, have been carried out, along with the simple tension test of the composite material. The result have shown that the proposed laminate structure has a specific yield strength 114% higher than 6061 T6 aluminum, 34% higher than 7075 T6 aluminum, 186% higher than AISI 304 stainless steel (30HRC) and 42% than SK5 high-strength steel (52HRC), showing its reliability and convenience for the realization of automotive components. After calibrating the material properties of the laminate structure, and utilizing as reference the simple tension results of the laminate structure, the derived material properties have been utilized for the simulation of the mechanical behavior of an automotive B-pillar. The results have been compared with those of a standard B-pillar made of steel, showing that the MS-SMC laminate structure manifests load and impact carry capacity comparable with those of high strength steel, while granting, at least, an 11% weight reduction.

  20. Ductility of high chromium stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretyat'ko, V.N.; Kazantsev, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Aimed to optimize the hot working conditions for high chromium stainless steels the experiments were carried in the temperature range of 800-1300 deg C using hot torsion tests and cylindrical specimens of ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels 08Kh13, 12Kh13, 20Kh13, 30Kh13 and 40Kh13. Testing results showed that steel plasticity varies in a wide range depending on carbon content. Steels of lesser carbon concentration (08Kh13 and 12Kh13) exhibit a sharp increase in plasticity with a temperature rise, especially in the interval of 1200-1250 deg C. Steels 20Kh13 and 30Kh13 display insignificant plasticity increasing, whereas plastic properties of steel 40Kh13 increase noticeably in the range of 1000-1300 deg C. It is shown that optimal hot working conditions for specific steel must be selected with account of steel phase composition at high temperatures