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Sample records for stearates

  1. 21 CFR 184.1229 - Calcium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium stearate. 184.1229 Section 184.1229 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1229 Calcium stearate. (a) Calcium stearate (Ca(C17H35COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 1529-23-0) is the calcium salt of stearic acid derived from edible sources. It is prepared as...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  3. Preparation and characterization of aluminum stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of aluminum stearate by the precipitation method was examined under various conditions of stearic acid saponification with sodium hydroxide. It was proved that the most favorable ratio of acid/alkali was 1:1.5 and that the obtained soap was very similar to the commercial product. Endothermic effects determined by differential scanning calorimetry and also the other parameters showed that the soaps consisted mono-, di-, tristearates and non-reacted substances, where distearate was the dominant form.

  4. Structuring edible oil with lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pernetti, M.; Malssen, van K.; Kalnin, D.J.E.; Flöter, E.

    2007-01-01

    The gelation of edible oil by a mixture of lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate (STS) was studied. The two components individually in oil do not give structure at concentrations between 6% and 20% w/w: viscous, pourable solutions are obtained. A synergetic effect is observed with their mixture, at

  5. A COHERENT MATRIX MODEL FOR THE CONSOLIDATION AND COMPACTION OF AN EXCIPIENT WITH MAGNESIUM STEARATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEPMA, KA; VROMANS, H; LERK, CF

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that magnesium stearate sensitivity of brittle materials is not directly related to the degree of fragmentation during compression. A coherent matrix of magnesium stearate, created by the process of dry blending, is highly sustained during consolidation and compaction of the

  6. Efficient electron injection from solution-processed cesium stearate interlayers in organic light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Najafi, A.; Kist, R. J. P.; Kuik, M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The electron-injection capability of solution-processed cesium stearate films in organic light-emitting diodes is investigated. Cesium stearate, which is expected to exhibit good solubility and film formation due to its long hydrocarbon chain, is synthesized using a straightforward procedure.

  7. Degradability Enhancement of Poly(Lactic Acid) by Stearate-Zn3Al LDH Nanolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eili, Mahboobeh; Shameli, Kamyar; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2012-01-01

    Recent environmental problems and societal concerns associated with the disposal of petroleum based plastics throughout the world have triggered renewed efforts to develop new biodegradable products compatible with our environment. This article describes the preparation, characterization and biodegradation study of poly(lactic acid)/layered double hydroxide (PLA/LDH) nanocomposites from PLA and stearate-Zn3Al LDH. A solution casting method was used to prepare PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites. The anionic clay Zn3Al LDH was firstly prepared by co-precipitation method from a nitrate salt solution at pH 7.0 and then modified by stearate anions through an ion exchange reaction. This modification increased the basal spacing of the synthetic clay from 8.83 Å to 40.10 Å. The morphology and properties of the prepared PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile tests as well as biodegradation studies. From the XRD analysis and TEM observation, the stearate-Zn3Al LDH lost its ordered stacking-structure and was greatly exfoliated in the PLA matrix. Tensile test results of PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites showed that the presence of around 1.0–3.0 wt % of the stearate-Zn3Al LDH in the PLA drastically improved its elongation at break. The biodegradation studies demonstrated a significant biodegradation rate improvement of PLA in the presence of stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanolayers. This effect can be caused by the catalytic role of the stearate groups in the biodegradation mechanism leading to much faster disintegration of nanocomposites than pure PLA. PMID:22942682

  8. Investigation of melt agglomeration process with a hydrophobic binder in combination with sucrose stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Wong, Tin Wui; Cheong, Wai See

    2003-08-01

    The melt agglomeration process of lactose powder with hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCO) as the hydrophobic meltable binder was investigated by studying the physicochemical properties of molten HCO modified by sucrose stearates S170, S770 and S1570. The size, size distribution, micromeritic and adhesion properties of agglomerates as well as surface tension, contact angle, viscosity and specific volume of molten HCO, with and without sucrose stearates, were examined. The viscosity, specific volume and surface tension of molten HCO were found to be modified to varying extents by sucrose stearates which are available in different HLB values and melt properties. The growth of melt agglomerates was promoted predominantly by an increase in viscosity, an increase in specific volume or a decrease in surface tension of the molten binding liquid. The agglomerate growth propensity was higher with an increase in inter-particulate binding strength, agglomerate surface wetness and extent of agglomerate consolidation which enhanced the liquid migration from agglomerate core to periphery leading to an increased surface plasticity for coalescence. The inclusion of high concentrations of completely meltable sucrose stearate S170 greatly induced the growth of agglomerates through increased specific volume and viscosity of the molten binding liquid. On the other hand, the inclusion of incompletely meltable sucrose stearates S770 and S1570 promoted the agglomeration mainly via the reduction in surface tension of the molten binding liquid with declining agglomerate growth propensity at high sucrose stearate concentrations. In addition to being an agglomeration modifier, sucrose stearate demonstrated anti-adherent property in melt agglomeration process. The properties of molten HCO and melt agglomerates were dependent on the type and concentration of sucrose stearate added.

  9. Zinc-stearate-layered hydroxide nanohybrid material as a precursor to produce carbon nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Bagheri, Narjes; Sadrnezhaad, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this work, a new organic-clay nanohybrid material, in which the organic moiety is intercalated between the inorganic layers, was synthesized using stearate anion as a guest and zinc hydroxide nitrate as an inorganic layered host by ion-exchange technique. Carbon nanoparticles were obtained by heat treating of the nanohybrid material, zinc-stearate-layered hydroxide. The proposed method is very simple, the chemicals used in the synthesis are cheap and the manner is economic and suitable for a large scale production of nano-sized carbon nanoparticles. - Abstract: Zinc-stearate-layered hydroxide nanohybrid was prepared using stearate anion as an organic guest, and zinc layered hydroxide nitrate, as a layered inorganic host by the ion-exchange method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared results indicated that the stearate anion was actually intercalated into the interlayer of zinc layered hydroxide nitrate and confirmed the formation of the host-guest nanohybrid material. Also, surface properties data showed that the intercalation process has changed the porosity for the as-prepared nanohybrid material in comparison with that of the parent material, zinc hydroxide nitrate. The nanohybrid material was heat-treated at 600 deg. C under argon atmosphere. Stearate anion was chosen as a carbonaceous reservoir in the nanohybrid to produce carbon nanoparticles after heat-treating of the nanohybrid and subsequently acid washing process.

  10. Aging of magnesium stearate under high doses gamma irradiation and oxidative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebeau, D.; Beuvier, L.; Cornaton, M. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miserque, F. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, LECA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tabarant, M. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SEARS, LISL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Esnouf, S. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ferry, M., E-mail: muriel.ferry@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Magnesium stearate was radio-oxidized at very high doses using gamma-rays. • H{sub 2} emission was estimated as a function of the integrated dose. • Modifications in the organic solid were followed as a function of the integrated dose. • A non-exhaustive degradation mechanism of magnesium stearate was proposed. - Abstract: In nuclear waste packages conditioning processes, magnesium stearate is widely used because of its high lubricating properties. For safety purposes, the radiolytic degradation of these organic materials has to be better understood to be able to predict their aging in repository conditions. This study reports the radiolytic degradation of magnesium stearate, using gamma-rays at room temperature and under air. Modifications were followed using different analytical tools (XPS, ATR-FTIR, ICP-AES, ATG and mass spectrometry). It has been observed that molecules mainly formed up to 1000 kGy of gamma irradiation dose under radio-oxidation are alkanes, hydroperoxides, double bonds in the aliphatic chain, carboxylates with aliphatic chain shorter than the one of stearate and ketones. At a dose of 4000 kGy, dicarboxylic acids are observed: the formation of these molecules needs a dose of at least 1000 kGy to be created under radio-oxidation. These observations allow us to propose a non-exhaustive degradation mechanism of magnesium stearate under gamma-irradiation at room temperature and under air.

  11. Polymerization of vinyl stearate multilayers by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishii, Masanobu; Hatada, Motoyoshi

    1975-01-01

    Studies on the radiation-induced polymerization of vinyl stearate (VST) multilayers were carried out. The VST multilayers built-up on an aluminum plated glass plate by Langmuir-Blodgett technique were irradiated with electron beams from a Van de Graaff electron accelerator in nitrogen atmosphere. The structure of the multilayers and the effects of irradiation were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, contact angle measurement, multireflection infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The VST multilayers became insoluble to methanol by the irradiation, and the multi-reflection infrared spectrum of the VST multilayers turned into that of poly (VST) with increasing dosage. The polymerization proceeded during the irradiation at the temperature range between -10 0 and 10 0 C, and the conversion attained to 90% within 2.5 minutes (total dose, 5.6 Mrads). The multilayers irradiated above 13 Mrads turned into the polymer film insoluble to benzene, indicating that the polymer chains were cross-linked by the irradiation. Stearic acid which was formed by the irradiation of VST at nitrogen-water interface as a hydrolysis product was not detected in this system. (auth.)

  12. Challenges in detecting magnesium stearate distribution in tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakio, Satu; Vajna, Balázs; Farkas, István; Salokangas, Henri; Marosi, György; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2013-03-01

    Magnesium stearate (MS) is the most commonly used lubricant in pharmaceutical industry. During blending, MS particles form a thin layer on the surfaces of the excipient and drug particles prohibiting the bonding from forming between the particles. This hydrophobic layer decreases the tensile strength of tablets and prevents water from penetrating into the tablet restraining the disintegration and dissolution of the tablets. Although overlubrication of the powder mass during MS blending is a well-known problem, the lubricant distribution in tablets has traditionally been challenging to measure. There is currently no adequate analytical method to investigate this phenomenon. In this study, the distribution of MS in microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) tablets was investigated using three different blending scales. The crushing strength of the tablets was used as a secondary response, as its decrease is known to result from the overlubrication. In addition, coating of the MCC particles by MS in intact tablets was detected using Raman microscopic mapping. MS blending was more efficient in larger scales. Raman imaging was successfully applied to characterize MS distribution in MCC tablets despite low concentration of MS. The Raman method can provide highly valuable visual information about the proceeding of the MS blending process. However, the measuring set-up has to be carefully planned to establish reliable and reproducible results.

  13. Synthesis of manganese stearate for high density polyethylene (HDPE) and its biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Neny Rasnyanti M.; Arcana, I. Made

    2015-09-01

    An oxidant additive is one type of additive used for oxo-biodegradable polymers. This additive was prepared by reaction multivalent transition metals and fatty acids to accelerate the degradation process of polymers by providing a thermal treatment or irradiation with light. This study focused on the synthesis of manganese stearate as an additive for application in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), and the influence of manganese stearate on the characteristics of HDPE including their biodegradability. Manganese stearate was synthesized by the reaction of stearic acid with sodium hydroxide, and sodium stearate formed was reacted with manganese chloride tetrahydrate to form manganese stearate with a melting point of 100-110 °C. Based on the FTIR spectrum showed absorption peak at wave number around 1560 cm-1 which is an asymmetric vibration of CO functional group that binds to the manganese. The films of oxo-biodegradable polymer were prepared by blending HDPE and manganese stearate additives at various concentrations with using the polymer melting method, followed heating at a temperature of 50°C and 70°C for 10 days. The characterizations of the oxo-biodegradable polymers were carried out by analysis the functional groups (FTIR and ATR),thermal properties (TGA), surface properties (SEM), as well as analysis of the biodegradability (the biodegradation test by using activated sludge, % weight loss). Based on COi indicate that the additive of manganese stearate is active in oxidizing polymer by heating treatment. Results of biodegradation by microorganisms from activated sludge showed that the percentage weight loss of polymers increase with the increasing incubation time and the concentration of manganese stearate in HDPE. Biodegradability of HDPE with the addition of manganese stearate and followed by heating at a higher temperature was better observed. The highest percentage weight loss was obtained at the polymer with concentration of 0.2% manganese stearate

  14. Synthesis of manganese stearate for high density polyethylene (HDPE) and its biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aras, Neny Rasnyanti M., E-mail: neny.rasnyanti@gmail.com; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    An oxidant additive is one type of additive used for oxo-biodegradable polymers. This additive was prepared by reaction multivalent transition metals and fatty acids to accelerate the degradation process of polymers by providing a thermal treatment or irradiation with light. This study focused on the synthesis of manganese stearate as an additive for application in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), and the influence of manganese stearate on the characteristics of HDPE including their biodegradability. Manganese stearate was synthesized by the reaction of stearic acid with sodium hydroxide, and sodium stearate formed was reacted with manganese chloride tetrahydrate to form manganese stearate with a melting point of 100-110 °C. Based on the FTIR spectrum showed absorption peak at wave number around 1560 cm{sup −1} which is an asymmetric vibration of CO functional group that binds to the manganese. The films of oxo-biodegradable polymer were prepared by blending HDPE and manganese stearate additives at various concentrations with using the polymer melting method, followed heating at a temperature of 50°C and 70°C for 10 days. The characterizations of the oxo-biodegradable polymers were carried out by analysis the functional groups (FTIR and ATR),thermal properties (TGA), surface properties (SEM), as well as analysis of the biodegradability (the biodegradation test by using activated sludge, % weight loss). Based on COi indicate that the additive of manganese stearate is active in oxidizing polymer by heating treatment. Results of biodegradation by microorganisms from activated sludge showed that the percentage weight loss of polymers increase with the increasing incubation time and the concentration of manganese stearate in HDPE. Biodegradability of HDPE with the addition of manganese stearate and followed by heating at a higher temperature was better observed. The highest percentage weight loss was obtained at the polymer with concentration of 0.2% manganese

  15. Synthesis of manganese stearate for high density polyethylene (HDPE) and its biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, Neny Rasnyanti M.; Arcana, I Made

    2015-01-01

    An oxidant additive is one type of additive used for oxo-biodegradable polymers. This additive was prepared by reaction multivalent transition metals and fatty acids to accelerate the degradation process of polymers by providing a thermal treatment or irradiation with light. This study focused on the synthesis of manganese stearate as an additive for application in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), and the influence of manganese stearate on the characteristics of HDPE including their biodegradability. Manganese stearate was synthesized by the reaction of stearic acid with sodium hydroxide, and sodium stearate formed was reacted with manganese chloride tetrahydrate to form manganese stearate with a melting point of 100-110 °C. Based on the FTIR spectrum showed absorption peak at wave number around 1560 cm −1 which is an asymmetric vibration of CO functional group that binds to the manganese. The films of oxo-biodegradable polymer were prepared by blending HDPE and manganese stearate additives at various concentrations with using the polymer melting method, followed heating at a temperature of 50°C and 70°C for 10 days. The characterizations of the oxo-biodegradable polymers were carried out by analysis the functional groups (FTIR and ATR),thermal properties (TGA), surface properties (SEM), as well as analysis of the biodegradability (the biodegradation test by using activated sludge, % weight loss). Based on COi indicate that the additive of manganese stearate is active in oxidizing polymer by heating treatment. Results of biodegradation by microorganisms from activated sludge showed that the percentage weight loss of polymers increase with the increasing incubation time and the concentration of manganese stearate in HDPE. Biodegradability of HDPE with the addition of manganese stearate and followed by heating at a higher temperature was better observed. The highest percentage weight loss was obtained at the polymer with concentration of 0.2% manganese

  16. Structural studies on Langmuir-Blodgett ultra-thin films on tin (IV) stearate using X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Deraman; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Mohd Ali Sulaiman; Mohd Ali Sufi

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out on Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) ultra-thin films of tin (IV) stearate for different numbers of layers. The structural information such as interplanar spacing, unit cells spacing, molecular length and orientation of molecular chains were obtained from the diffraction data. This information is discussed and compared with that previously published for LB ultra-thin films of manganese stearate and cadmium stearate

  17. New generation of nuclear fuels: Stability of different stearates under high doses gamma irradiation in the manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebeau, D.; Esnouf, S. [Den-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gracia, J. [Den-Service d' Etudes des Combustibles et Matériaux à base d' Actinides (SECA), CEA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Audubert, F. [Den-Service d' Analyse et de Caractérisation du Comportement des Combustibles (SA3C), CEA, F- 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ferry, M., E-mail: muriel.ferry@cea.fr [Den-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-07-15

    In the future reactors, the pellets radioactivity will increase due to the modification of the plutonium concentration. The stability of the organic additive used as lubricating/deagglomerating agent has thus to be evaluated. Up to now, zinc stearate is employed, but new additives are tested in this study and compared to zinc stearate. In a first part of this paper, the order of magnitude of the dose deposited in the stearates has been estimated. Afterward, three different stearates have been irradiated, using gamma-rays at doses as high as 2000 kGy. Two atmospheres of irradiation were tested, i.e. inert atmosphere and air. Samples were characterized using the following analytical tools: mass spectrometry, thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The objective is the evaluation of the ageing of these materials. In the nuclear fuel pellets manufacturing context, the candidate which could replace zinc stearate, if this one is too degraded to fulfill its role of lubricant in the pellets of the future manufacturing, has been determined. - Highlights: •Dose deposition estimation for different stearates. •Stearates radiolysis and radio-oxidization at high doses using gamma-rays. •H{sub 2} emission estimation as a function of atmosphere and dose. •Chemical modifications in stearates as a function of atmosphere and dose. •Comparison of three stearates.

  18. Radicals as EPR probes of magnetization of gadolinium stearate Langmuir-Blodgett film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koksharov, Y.A.; Bykov, I.V.; Malakho, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    In the present work we have applied the method of the EPR spin probes which allows performing simultaneously EPR and magnetization measurements to the investigation of magnetism of the Cid stearate Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. For this purpose we have prepared and studied by the EPR technique...... the Gd and Y stearate LB films. Placing the small BDPA crystal on the film surface we have found that for the Gd LB sample the effective g-value of the radical's resonance depends on the film orientation in respect to the external magnetic field direction. The relative shift of the EPR signal...

  19. Palmitate and stearate binding to human serum albumin. Determination of relative binding constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Fisker, K; Honoré, B

    1997-01-01

    Multiple binding equilibria of two apparently insoluble ligands, palmitate and stearate, to defatted human serum albumin were studied in a 66 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C, by determination of dialytic exchange rates of ligands among identical equilibrium solutions. The expe...

  20. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN MAGNESIUM STEARAT DAN JENIS PROTEIN PADA PEMBUATAN BIODEGRADABLE FOAM DENGAN METODE BAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik hendrawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable foam with cassava starch, protein and chitosan as the basic ingredients can be produced by using baking process method. Variation on magnesium stearate amount and protein types gave different effect on the biodegradable foam quality. The amount of magnesium stearate was varied as 1; 1.6; 2.2; 2.8; 3.4 and 4 % w/w and the sources of protein used in this research were taken from soy bean, peanut and egg white. The foam produced in this research was then tested for its mechanical properties, water resistance and biodegradability. It was found that addition of magnesium stearate as much as 4% w/w reduced water adsorption and biodegradability of foam. Magnesium stearate affected the ability of absorption of water and foam degradation, but did not influence on tensile strength. Different types of protein also gave influence on water absorption, biodegradability and tensile strength. The best improvement of tensile strenght among the compounds tested was shown by soy bean based foam.

  1. Effect of magnesium stearate concentration on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunović, Alija; Vranić, Edina

    2007-08-01

    Most pharmaceutical formulations also include a certain amount of lubricant to improve their flowability and prevent their adhesion to the surfaces of processing equipment. Magnesium stearate is an additive that is most frequently used as a lubricant. Magnesium stearate is capable of forming films on other tablet excipients during prolonged mixing, leading to a prolonged drug liberation time, a decrease in hardness, and an increase in disintegration time. It is hydrophobic, and there are many reports in the literature concerning its adverse effect on dissolution rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different concentrations of magnesium stearate on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablet formulations labeled to contain 150 mg. The uniformity content was also checked. During the drug formulation development, several samples were designed for choice of the formulation. For this study, two formulations containing 0,77 and 1,1% of magnesium stearate added in the manufacture of cores were chosen. Fraction of ranitidine hydrochloride released in dissolution medium was calculated from calibration curves. The data were analyzed using pharmacopeial test for similarity of dissolution profiles ( f2 equation), previously proposed by Moore and Flanner. Application of f2 equation showed differences in time-course of ranitidine hydrochloride dissolution properties. The obtained values indicate differences in drug release from analyzed ranitidine hydrochloride formulations and could cause differences in therapeutic response.

  2. Effect of Magnesium Stearate Concentration on Dissolution Properties of Ranitidine Hydrochloride Coated Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alija Uzunović

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most pharmaceutical formulations also include a certain amount of lubricant to improve their flowability and prevent their adhesion to the surfaces of processing equipment. Magnesium stearate is an additive that is most frequently used as a lubricant. Magnesium stearate is capable of forming films on other tablet excipients during prolonged mixing, leading to a prolonged drug liberation time, a decrease in hardness, and an increase in disintegration time. It is hydrophobic, and there are many reports in the literature concerning its adverse effect on dissolution rates.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different concentrations of magnesium stearate on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablet formulations labeled to contain 150 mg. The uniformity content was also checked.During the drug formulation development, several samples were designed for choice of the formulation. For this study, two formulations containing 0,77 and 1,1% of magnesium stearate added in the manufacture of cores were chosen. Fraction of ranitidine hydrochloride released in dissolution medium was calculated from calibration curves. The data were analyzed using pharmaco-peial test for similarity of dissolution profiles (f2 equation, previously proposed by Moore and Flanner.Application of f2 equation showed differences in time-course of ranitidine hydrochloride dissolution properties. The obtained values indicate differences in drug release from analyzed ranitidine hydrochloride formulations and could cause differences in therapeutic response.

  3. Synthesis of cobalt stearate as oxidant additive for oxo-biodegradable polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asriza, Ristika O.; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Division of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Cobalt stearate is an oxidant additives that can initiate a process of degradation in high density polyethylene (HDPE). To determine the effect of cobalt stearate in HDPE, oxo-biodegradable polyethylene film was given an irradiation with UV light or heating at various temperature. After given a heating, the FTIR spectra showed a new absorption peak at wave number 1712 cm{sup −1} indicating the presence of carbonyl groups in polymers, whereas after irradiation with UV light is not visible the presence of this absorption peak. The increase concentration of cobalt stearate added in HDPE and the higher heating temperature, the intensity of the absorption peak of the carbonyl group increased. The increasing intensity of the carbonyl group absorption is caused the presence of damage in the film surface after heating, and this result is supported by analysis the surface properties of the film with using SEM. Biodegradation tests were performed on oxo-biodegradable polyethylene film which has been given heating or UV light with using activated sludge under optimal conditions the growth of microorganisms. After biodegradation, the maximum weight decreased by 23% in the oxo-biodegradable polyethylene film with a cobalt stearate concentration of 0.2% and after heating at a temperature of 75 °C for 10 days, and only 0.69% in the same film after irradiation UV light for 10 days. Based on the results above, cobalt stearate additive is more effective to initiate the oxidative degradation of HDPE when it is initiated by heating compared to irradiation with UV light.

  4. Synthesis of cobalt stearate as oxidant additive for oxo-biodegradable polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asriza, Ristika O.; Arcana, I. Made

    2015-09-01

    Cobalt stearate is an oxidant additives that can initiate a process of degradation in high density polyethylene (HDPE). To determine the effect of cobalt stearate in HDPE, oxo-biodegradable polyethylene film was given an irradiation with UV light or heating at various temperature. After given a heating, the FTIR spectra showed a new absorption peak at wave number 1712 cm-1 indicating the presence of carbonyl groups in polymers, whereas after irradiation with UV light is not visible the presence of this absorption peak. The increase concentration of cobalt stearate added in HDPE and the higher heating temperature, the intensity of the absorption peak of the carbonyl group increased. The increasing intensity of the carbonyl group absorption is caused the presence of damage in the film surface after heating, and this result is supported by analysis the surface properties of the film with using SEM. Biodegradation tests were performed on oxo-biodegradable polyethylene film which has been given heating or UV light with using activated sludge under optimal conditions the growth of microorganisms. After biodegradation, the maximum weight decreased by 23% in the oxo-biodegradable polyethylene film with a cobalt stearate concentration of 0.2% and after heating at a temperature of 75 °C for 10 days, and only 0.69% in the same film after irradiation UV light for 10 days. Based on the results above, cobalt stearate additive is more effective to initiate the oxidative degradation of HDPE when it is initiated by heating compared to irradiation with UV light.

  5. Degradability Enhancement of Poly(Lactic Acid by Stearate-Zn3Al LDH Nanolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Eili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent environmental problems and societal concerns associated with the disposal of petroleum based plastics throughout the world have triggered renewed efforts to develop new biodegradable products compatible with our environment. This article describes the preparation, characterization and biodegradation study of poly(lactic acid/layered double hydroxide (PLA/LDH nanocomposites from PLA and stearate-Zn3Al LDH. A solution casting method was used to prepare PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites. The anionic clay Zn3Al LDH was firstly prepared by co-precipitation method from a nitrate salt solution at pH 7.0 and then modified by stearate anions through an ion exchange reaction. This modification increased the basal spacing of the synthetic clay from 8.83 Å to 40.10 Å. The morphology and properties of the prepared PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, tensile tests as well as biodegradation studies. From the XRD analysis and TEM observation, the stearate-Zn3Al LDH lost its ordered stacking-structure and was greatly exfoliated in the PLA matrix. Tensile test results of PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites showed that the presence of around 1.0–3.0 wt % of the stearate-Zn3Al LDH in the PLA drastically improved its elongation at break. The biodegradation studies demonstrated a significant biodegradation rate improvement of PLA in the presence of stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanolayers. This effect can be caused by the catalytic role of the stearate groups in the biodegradation mechanism leading to much faster disintegration of nanocomposites than pure PLA.

  6. An investigation into the impact of magnesium stearate on powder feeding during roller compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Jason; Gamble, John F; Greenwood, Richard; Robbins, Phil; Tobyn, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic evaluation on the effect of magnesium stearate on the transmission of a placebo formulation from the hopper to the rolls during screw fed roller compaction has been carried out. It is demonstrated that, for a system with two 'knurled' rollers, addition of 0.5% w/w magnesium stearate can lead to a significant increase in ribbon mass throughput, with a consequential increase in roll gap, compared to an unlubricated formulation (manufactured at equivalent process conditions). However, this effect is reduced if one of the rollers is smooth. Roller compaction of a lubricated formulation using two smooth rollers was found to be ineffective due to a reduction in friction at the powder/roll interface, i.e. powder was not drawn through the rollers leading to a blockage in the feeding system. An increase in ribbon mass throughput could also be achieved if the equipment surfaces were pre-lubricated. However this increase was found to be temporary suggesting that the residual magnesium stearate layer was removed from the equipment surfaces. Powder sticking to the equipment surfaces, which is common during pharmaceutical manufacturing, was prevented if magnesium stearate was present either in the blend, or at the roll surface. It is further demonstrated that the influence of the hopper stirrer, which is primarily used to prevent bridge formation in the hopper and help draw powder more evenly into the auger chamber, can lead to further mixing of the formulation, and could therefore affect a change in the lubricity of the carefully blended input material.

  7. Preparation and properties of Mg/Al layered double hydroxide-oleate and -stearate intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Kazuya; Ogawa, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Mg/Al layered double hydroxide-oleate and -stearate intercalation compounds were successfully synthesized by the reconstruction method under hydrothermal conditions from calcined hydrotalcite. The intercalation compounds were characterized by the high structural regularity as evidenced by the sharp and intense X-ray diffraction peaks. The oleate intercalated layered double hydroxide exhibits unique physicochemical properties such as a reversible thermoresponsive change in the basal spacing and swelling in organic solvents such as n-alkanes. (author)

  8. Effect of synthesized zinc stearate on the properties of natural rubber vulcanizates in the absence and presence of some fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helaly, F.M.; El Sabbagh, S.H.; El Kinawy, O.S.; El Sawy, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The mechanical properties of NR were enhanced through partial and complete replacement of zinc stearate. → The effect of adding different concentrations of zinc stearate on the physic-mechanical and SEM properties has been investigated. → Zinc stearate was found to play dual role, it reinforces the matrix blow its melting point and higher temperature it plasticizers the system. → Zinc stearate can be used as activator for sulfur vulcanization process of rubber instead of ZnO and stearic acid; in absence and presence of fillers. -- Abstract: Zinc stearate was synthesized by precipitation method through two steps; neutralization of stearic acid by sodium hydroxide then double decomposition using zinc sulphate to precipitate zinc stearate. Mass balances of the two steps were calculated and the physical properties of the prepared zinc stearate were measured and compared to standard. It was characterized and incorporated it into natural rubber in the absence and presence of some filler through mixing process of rubber. The vulcanization process was carried out at 142 o C. The rheological properties of natural rubber mixes were measured using oscillating disc rheometer. The plysico-mechanical properties of the vulcanizates were determined using tensile testing machine. It was found that, partial and complete replacement of synthesized zinc stearate instead of the conventional zinc oxide and stearic acid; enhanced the physico-mechanical properties of natural rubber. The measured reinforcing parameter value α f can be arranged according to the type of filler as follows: HAF>Hisil>CaCO 3 >Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 >BaSO 4 >Talc The highest value of α f represents the strength of filler and consequently the reinforcing effect of carbon black (HAF) filler while the lowest value of α f was observed for Talc which show moderate reinforcing effect of Talc. The scanning electron microscope study showed high surface homogenity and good dispersion of zinc

  9. Development of pH sensitive polymeric nanoparticles of erythromycin stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulekha Bhadra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bioavailability of conventional tablet of erythromycin stearate is low as it is unstable at acidic pH and also shows a low dissolution rate. Objective: It was proposed to protect it from the acidic condition of the stomach along with an increase in dissolution rate by formulating pH sensitive nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: The nanoparticles were prepared by the solvent evaporation technique using different quantities of Eudragit L100-55 and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Size reduction was achieved by high speed homogenization technique using Digital Ultra Turrax homogenizer. The formulation was optimized using 32 factorial design, keeping drug polymer ratio and surfactant concentration as independent variables. Particle size, entrapment efficiency, and drug-release (DR were studied as dependent variables. Results: Optimized batch containing 1:0.3 erythromycin stearate: Eudragit L100-55 ratio and 1.0% PVA showed 8.24 ± 0.71% DR in pH 1.2 in 1-h and 90.38 ± 5.97% in pH 5.5 and pH 6.8 within 2-h, respectively. Discussion: The optimized batch exhibited lower release in acidic pH and faster release in higher pH compared to the marketed preparation. Conclusion: Thus the present study concludes that pH sensitive nanoparticles of erythromycin stearate increases the dissolution of the drug in intestinal pH and also protect it from acidic pH, which may help in improving the bioavailability of erythromycin.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 12}-Stearate nanomagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shilpi [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Chennai 600113 (India); Verma, Apoorva [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Srivastava, Avanish K. [Electron and Ion Microscopy Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Gupta, Anurag, E-mail: anurag@mail.nplindia.org [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Surinder P. [Electron and Ion Microscopy Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Chennai 600113 (India); Singh, Priti, E-mail: pritichem@gmail.com [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Chennai 600113 (India)

    2016-07-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a fatty acid ligated Mn{sub 12}, [Mn{sub 12}O{sub 12}(CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 16}CO{sub 2}){sub 11}(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}], Mn{sub 12}-Stearate (2), a molecular nanomagnet of Mn{sub 12} family that exhibits the enhanced solubility (in organic solvents) and aqueous stability. The chemical composition and morphology of Mn{sub 12}-Stearate have been established using FT-IR, UV–Vis, Raman and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, XRD, elemental analysis, TGA and electron microscopic techniques. The powder XRD and HR-TEM of compound 2 have revealed the formation of crystalline structure. The FC and ZFC magnetization (M) as a function of temperature (T) shows a blocking temperature T{sub B} ∼ 3.0 K. At T ≤ 3 K, the presence of hysteresis and periodic steps in the measured M-H loops indicate the presence of quantum tunnelling of magnetization (QTM). In the same T region, the observed decrease of magnetic relaxation rate with a decrease in T further implies the QTM to be thermally assisted. The estimated anisotropy energy barrier is found to be ∼35 K. - Highlights: • A fatty acid ligated mixed-carboxylate SMM, Mn{sub 12}-Stearate, has been synthesized. • Powder XRD and HRTEM images show crystalline ordering in the synthesized cluster. • The cluster exhibits higher blocking temperature and periodic steps in hysteresis.

  11. Liquid chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of erythromycin stearate and trimethoprim in tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Hassib, Sonia T.; Farag, Awatef E.; Elkady, Ehab F.

    2011-01-01

    Simple, accurate and precise reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) and spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of erythromycin stearate (ERS) and trimethoprim (TMP) in mixture. In LC method, chromatographic separation was achieved on a Symmetry® Waters C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) based on isocratic elution using a mobile phase consisting of potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer pH (9):acetonitrile:water (25:100:50, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1...

  12. Characterization of Synthesized and Commercial Forms of Magnesium Stearate Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Sean P; Nethercott, Matthew J; Mays, Christopher J; Winquist, Nickolas T; Arthur, Donia; Calahan, Julie L; Sethi, Manish; Pardue, Daniel S; Kim, Junghyun; Amidon, Gregory; Munson, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium stearate is the salt of a complex mixture of fatty acids, with the majority being stearate and palmitate. It has multiple crystalline forms and, potentially, an amorphous form. Magnesium stearate is used in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry as a powder lubricant, and typically is added at low levels (∼1%) during the manufacturing process and blended for a relatively short time (∼5 min). Proper levels and mixing times are needed, as too short a mixing time or too small a quantity will result in improper lubrication, and too much can negatively impact dissolution rates. The complex mixture of multiple fatty acids and crystalline forms in magnesium stearate leads to variability between commercial sources, and switching between sources can impact both the amount of lubricant and mixing time needed for proper lubrication. In order to better understand the complex nature of magnesium stearate, a variety of analytical techniques were used to characterize both synthesized and commercial magnesium stearate samples. The results show that correlation among differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and other techniques provides a unique insight into the forms of magnesium stearate. Finally, the ability to monitor form changes of magnesium stearate in an intact tablet using solid-state NMR spectroscopy is shown. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Superhydrophobic honeycomb-like cobalt stearate thin films on aluminum with excellent anti-corrosion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jiawei; Sarkar, D. K.; Chen, X.-Grant

    2017-06-01

    Superhydrophobic cobalt stearate thin films with excellent anti-corrosion properties were successfully fabricated on aluminum substrates via electrodeposition process. The water-repellent properties were attributed to the honeycomb-like micro-nano structure as well as low surface energy of cobalt stearate. The correlation between the surface morphology, composition as well as wetting properties and the molar ratio of inorganic cobalt salt (Co(NO3)2) and organic stearic acid (SA) abbreviated as Co/SA, in the electrolyte were studied carefully. The optimum superhydrophobic surface obtained on the electrodeposited cathodic aluminum substrate, in the mixed ethanolic solution with Co/SA molar ratio of 0.2, was found to have a maximum contact angle of 161°. The polarization resistance of superhydrophobic aluminum substrates was calculated as high as 1591 kΩ cm2, which is determined to be two orders of magnitude larger than that of the as-received aluminum substrate as 27 kΩ cm2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also employed to evaluate the corrosion resistance properties of these samples. Furthermore, electrical equivalent circuits (EEC) have been suggested in order to better understand the corrosion phenomena on these surfaces based on the corresponding EIS data.

  14. Raman chemical mapping of magnesium stearate delivered by a punch-face lubrication system on the surface of placebo and active tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šašiċ, Slobodan; Ojakovo, Peter; Warman, Martin; Sanghvi, Tapan

    2013-09-01

    Raman chemical mapping was used to determine the distribution of magnesium stearate, a lubricant, on the surface of tablets. The lubrication was carried out via a punch-face lubrication system with different spraying rates applied on placebo and active-containing tablets. Principal component analysis was used for decomposing the matrix of Raman mapping spectra. Some of the loadings associated with minuscule variation in the data significantly overlap with the Raman spectrum of magnesium stearate in placebo tablets and allow for imaging the domains of magnesium stearate via corresponding scores. Despite the negligible variation accounted for by respective principal components, the score images seem reliable as demonstrated through thresholding the one-dimensional representation and the spectra of the hot pixels that show a weak but perceivable magnesium stearate band at 1295 cm(-1). The same approach was applied on the active formulation, but no magnesium stearate was identified, presumably due to overwhelming concentration and spectral contribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient.

  15. Synthesis of well-dispersed ZnO nanomaterials by directly calcining zinc stearate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Guangsheng; Shi Chen; Tao Dongliang; Qian Weizhong; Han Dongmei

    2009-01-01

    Well-dispersed ZnO nanomaterials were synthesized by direct calcination of zinc stearate. Results from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated both the decomposition degree of organic ligand and the purity of calcined products were increased with the calcination temperature. The influence of decomposition temperature on the morphology of ZnO nanomaterials was investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results revealed the morphology of ZnO transformed from nanosheets to hexagonal nanopyramids and then to nanoparticles at 573, 673 and 773 K respectively. Finally, a morphology evolution model of ZnO nanomaterials under different temperatures was proposed

  16. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate as a phase change material by interfacial polycondensation in a polyurea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)], E-mail: doseng_1982@hotmail.com; Xu Lingling; Shang Hongbo; Zhang Zhibin [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2009-03-15

    For the last 20 years, microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs), which combine microencapsulation technology and phase change material, have been attracted more and more interest. By overcoming some limitations of the PCMs, the MicroPCMs improve the efficiency of PCMs and make it possible to apply PCMs in many areas. In this experiment, polyurea microcapsules containing phase change materials were prepared using interfacial polycondensation method. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylenediamine (EDA) were chosen as monomers. Butyl stearate was employed as a core material. The MicroPCMs' properties have been characterized by dry weight analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectra analysis and optical microscopy. The results show that the MicroPCMs were synthesized successfully and that, the phase change temperature was about 29 deg. C, the latent heat of fusion was about 80 J g{sup -1}, the particle diameter was 20-35 {mu}m.

  17. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate as a phase change material by interfacial polycondensation in a polyurea system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Xu Lingling; Shang Hongbo; Zhang Zhibin

    2009-01-01

    For the last 20 years, microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs), which combine microencapsulation technology and phase change material, have been attracted more and more interest. By overcoming some limitations of the PCMs, the MicroPCMs improve the efficiency of PCMs and make it possible to apply PCMs in many areas. In this experiment, polyurea microcapsules containing phase change materials were prepared using interfacial polycondensation method. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylenediamine (EDA) were chosen as monomers. Butyl stearate was employed as a core material. The MicroPCMs' properties have been characterized by dry weight analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectra analysis and optical microscopy. The results show that the MicroPCMs were synthesized successfully and that, the phase change temperature was about 29 deg. C, the latent heat of fusion was about 80 J g -1 , the particle diameter was 20-35 μm

  18. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate as a phase change material by interfacial polycondensation in a polyurea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chen; Lingling, Xu; Hongbo, Shang; Zhibin, Zhang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2009-03-15

    For the last 20 years, microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs), which combine microencapsulation technology and phase change material, have been attracted more and more interest. By overcoming some limitations of the PCMs, the MicroPCMs improve the efficiency of PCMs and make it possible to apply PCMs in many areas. In this experiment, polyurea microcapsules containing phase change materials were prepared using interfacial polycondensation method. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylenediamine (EDA) were chosen as monomers. Butyl stearate was employed as a core material. The MicroPCMs' properties have been characterized by dry weight analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectra analysis and optical microscopy. The results show that the MicroPCMs were synthesized successfully and that, the phase change temperature was about 29 C, the latent heat of fusion was about 80 J g{sup -1}, the particle diameter was 20-35 {mu}m. (author)

  19. Phytosterol stearate esters elicit similar responses on plasma lipids and cholesterol absorption but different responses on fecal neutral sterol excretion and hepatic free cholesterol in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Hang, Jiliang; Dussault, Patrick H; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-07-01

    The dietary impact of specific phytosterols incorporated into phytosterol fatty acid esters has not been elucidated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that phytosterol esters containing different sterol moieties (sitosterol, sitostanol, or stigmasterol) but the same fatty acid moiety (stearic acid) produce different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian hamsters were fed sitosterol, sitostanol, and stigmasterol stearate esters (25 g/kg diet) in an atherogenic diet containing cholesterol (1.2 g/kg) and coconut oil (80 g/kg). The phytosterol stearates produced no decrease in cholesterol absorption or plasma non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol despite a reduction in liver free cholesterol in hamsters fed both sitosterol and sitostanol stearate diets. In addition, sitosterol stearate significantly increased fecal esterified and total neutral sterol excretion. Stigmasterol stearate did not differ from control in neutral sterol excretion, plasma lipids, or hepatic lipid concentration. Sitosterol stearate demonstrated the highest level of net intestinal hydrolysis, whereas sitostanol and stigmasterol stearate equivalently demonstrated the lowest. The cholesterol-lowering effect in liver-but not plasma-and the limited presence of fecal free sterols indicate that intact (unhydrolyzed) phytosterol stearates may impact cholesterol metabolism by mechanisms unrelated to the role of free phytosterols. The consumption of phytosterol esters at 2.5% of the diet elicited only modest impacts on cholesterol metabolism, although sitosterol stearate had a slightly greater therapeutic impact by lowering liver free cholesterol and increasing esterified and total neutral sterol fecal excretion, possibly due to a greater level of intestinal hydrolysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. TNYL peptide functional chitosan-g-stearate conjugate micelles for tumor specific targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen FY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Ying Chen,1 Jing-Jing Yan,1 Han-Xi Yi,2 Fu-Qiang Hu,2 Yong-Zhong Du,2 Hong Yuan,2 Jian You,2 Meng-Dan Zhao1 1Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nowadays, a real challenge in cancer therapy is to design drug delivery systems that can achieve high concentrations of drugs at the target site for improved therapeutic effect with reduced side effects. In this research, we designed and synthesized a homing peptide-(TNYLFSPNGPIA, TNYL modified chitosan-g-stearate (CS polymer micelle (named T-CS for targeting delivery. The peptide displayed specific binding affinity to EphB4 which is a member of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine protein kinases. The amphiphilic polymer T-CS can gather into micelles by themselves in an aqueous environment with a low critical micelle concentration value (91.2 µg/L and nano-scaled size (82.1±2.8 nm. The drug encapsulation efficiency reached 86.43% after loading the hydrophobic drug doxorubicin (DOX. The cytotoxicity of T-CS/DOX against SKOV3 cells was enhanced by approximately 2.3-fold when compared with CS/DOX. The quantitative and qualitative analysis for cellular uptake indicated that TNYL modification can markedly increase cellular internalization in the EphB4-overexpressing SKOV3 cell line, especially with a short incubation time. It is interesting that relatively higher uptake of the T-CS/DOX micelles by SKOV3 cells (positive-EphB4 than A549 cells (negative-EphB4 was observed when the two cells were co-incubated. Furthermore, in vivo distribution experiment using a bilateral-tumor model showed that there was more fluorescence accumulation in the SKOV3 tumor than in the A549 tumor over the whole experiment. These results suggest that TNYL-modified CS micelles may be promising drug carriers as targeting therapy for the EphB4-overexpressing

  1. Effect of Molecular Weight and Molar Ratio of Dextran on Self-Assembly of Dextran Stearate Polymeric Micelles as Nanocarriers for Etoposide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Varshosaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic polymer surfactants are composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers and are widely used in targeted drug delivery. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the effect of molecular weight and molar ratio of dextran on physicochemical properties of dextran stearate polymeric micelles. Dextran stearate was synthesized by acylation of dextran with stearoyl chloride. Etoposide loaded polymeric micelles were prepared by dialysis method. The resulting micelles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, critical micelle concentration (CMC, drug loading capacity, and release efficiency. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of micelles were studied in CT-26 colorectal carcinoma cell line. Molecular weight and molar ratio of dextran-stearate were impressive on zeta potential, CMC, drug loading capacity, and release efficiency. Unlike polymer molecular weight, molar ratio of stearate had a significant effect on cytotoxicity and particle size of etoposide loaded micelles. Although molecular weight of dextran had no significant effect on cytotoxicity of micelles on CT-26 cells, it had drastic attributes for stability of polymeric micelles. Consequently, both variables of molecular weight of dextran and molar ratio of stearate should be taken into account to have a stable and effective micelle of dextran-stearate.

  2. Liquid chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of erythromycin stearate and trimethoprim in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia T. Hassib

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple, accurate and precise reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (LC and spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of erythromycin stearate (ERS and trimethoprim (TMP in mixture. In LC method, chromatographic separation was achieved on a Symmetry® Waters C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm based on isocratic elution using a mobile phase consisting of potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer pH (9:acetonitrile:water (25:100:50, v/v/v at a flow rate of 1.6 ml min−1 with UV detection at 210 nm for ERS and 280 nm for TMP. Besides, two spectrophotometric methods were applied after reaction with perchloric acid (12 M which gives a colored product with ERS. Then, the spectral interference between the colored product of ERS and TMP was resolved by either ratio spectra derivative spectrophotometry in the first spectrophotometric method or chemometric techniques, namely classical least-squares (CLS, principal component regression (PCR and partial least-squares regression (PLS in the second spectrophotometric method. The results were statistically compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The methods developed were satisfactorily applied to the analysis of the pharmaceutical preparation containing the two drugs and proved to be specific and accurate for the quality control of the cited drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  3. Stability of zinc stearate under alpha irradiation in the manufacturing process of SFR nuclear fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, J.; Vermeulen, J.; Baux, D.; Sauvage, T.; Venault, L.; Audubert, F.; Colin, X.

    2018-03-01

    The manufacture of new fuels for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) will involve powders derived from recycling existing fuels in order to keep on producing electricity while saving natural resources and reducing the amount of waste produced by spent MOX fuels. Using recycled plutonium in this way will significantly increase the amount of 238Pu, a high energy alpha emitter, in the powders. The process of shaping powders by pressing requires the use of a solid lubricant, zinc stearate, to produce pellets with no defects compliant with the standards. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of alpha radiolysis on this additive and its lubrication properties. Experiments were conducted on samples in contact with PuO2, as well as under external helium ion beam irradiation, in order to define the kinetics of radiolytic gas generation. The yield results relating to the formation of these gases (G0) show that the alpha radiation of plutonium can be simulated using external helium ion beam irradiation. The isotopic composition of plutonium has little impact on the yield. However, an increased yield was globally observed with increasing the mean linear energy transfer (LET). A radiolytic degradation process is proposed.

  4. Ascorbyl Stearate Promotes Apoptosis Through Intrinsic Mitochondrial Pathway in HeLa Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Shirish D; Thoh, Maikho; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh K; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2016-12-01

    Ascorbic acid is proposed to have antitumor potential against certain cancer types but has the limitation of requiring high doses for treating cancer. Ascorbyl stearate (ASC-S) is a fatty acid ester derivative of ascorbic acid with comparable potent apoptotic activity. The present study was aimed at understanding the pathway involved in apoptotic activity of ASC-S in cervical cancer cells. The effect of ASC-S on reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was studied in HeLa cells. Furthermore, the dose-dependent effect of ASC-S on release of cytochrome c, pro-caspase-9, caspase-3, BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID), truncated BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (t-BID), FAS ligand (FASL) and transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and activator protein-1 (AP1) were studied in HeLa cells. Treatment of HeLa cells with ASC-S significantly increased the MMP. The modulation of MMP resulted in cleavage of BID, expression of FAS, cleavage of pro-caspase-9 and release of cytochrome c into cytosol. In addition, ASC-S treatment resulted in deregulation of transcription factors NF-ĸB, NFAT and AP1, which play an important role in the development of inflammation and cancer. Our data, for the first time, suggest that ASC-S has an apoptotic effect against HeLa cells by inducing change in mitochondrial membrane permeability, cytochrome c release and subsequent activation of caspase-3 and NF-ĸB. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. PEG-stearate coated solid lipid nanoparticles as levothyroxine carriers for oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Rostami, Elham

    2014-03-01

    In this study, poly ethylene glycol 100 stearate (PEG 100-S) was used to prepare coated solid lipid nanoparticles with loading levothyroxine sodium (levo-loaded PEG 100-S-coated SLNs) by microemulsification technique. Evaluation of the release kinetic of prepared colloidal carriers was conducted. The particle size and zeta potential of levo-loaded PEG 100-S-coated SLNs have been measured to be 187.5 nm and -23.0 mV, respectively, using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). Drug entrapment efficiency (EE) was calculated to be 99 %. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the majority of drug loaded in PEG 100-S-coated SLNs were in amorphous state which could be considered desirable for drug delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a new nanoparticle system, consisting lipid nanoparticles coated with PEG 100-S. The modification procedure led to a reduction in the zeta potential values, varying from -40.0 to -23.0 mV for the uncoated and PEG-coated SLNs, respectively. Stability results of the nanoparticles in gastric and intestinal media show that the low pH of the gastric medium is responsible for the critical aggregation and degradation of the uncoated lipid nanoparticles. PEG 100-S-coated SLNs were more stable due to their polymer coating layer which prevented aggregation of SLNs. Consequently, it is possible that the PEG surrounds the particles reducing the attachment of enzymes and further degradation of the triglyceride cores. Shape and surface morphology of particles were determined by transition electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy that revealed spherical shape of nanoparticles. In vitro drug release of PEG 100-S-coated SLNs was characterized using diffusion cell which showed a controlled release for drug.

  6. [The dry binders, Vivapur 102, Vivapur 12 and the effect of magnesium stearate on the strength of tablets containing these substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzíková, J; Horácek, J

    2003-07-01

    Vivapur is microcrystalline cellulose manufactured by the German firm J. Rettenmeier & Söhne GmbH + Co. The types Vivapur 102 and 12 enjoy priority use as dry binders for direct tablet compression. The present paper evaluates tensile strength of tablets made from these substances and the effect of an addition of the lubricant magnesium stearate in connection with its concentration and the conditions of the process of mixing, particularly the period and intensity of mixing. The tested concentrations of stearate were 0.4 and 0.8%, the tested periods of mixing being 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 minutes, intensities of mixing 17 and 34 rot./min. Sensitivity of dry binders to added stearate was evaluated by means of the LSR (lubricant sensitivity ratio) values. The results demonstrated higher sensitivity to an addition of the lubricant in Vivapur 12 than in Vivapur 102. In the first part of the paper focused on the effect of stearate concentration on tensile strength of tablets, Vivapur 102 was also compared with Avicel PH-102. Tablets from Vivapur 102 alone were stronger than those from Avicel PH-102. A concentration of stearate of 0.8% decreased the binding capacity of Vivapur 102 more than that of Avicel PH-102. With a prolonged period of mixing and increased intensity of mixing with stearate, tensile strength of tablets from both Vivapur types was decresed, and a prolonged period of mixing exerted a more marked effect on Vivapur 12 and increased intensity of mixing, on Vivapur 102.

  7. X-ray diffraction and X-ray standing-wave study of the lead stearate film structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagov, A. E.; Dyakova, Yu. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Kohn, V. G.; Marchenkova, M. A.; Pisarevskiy, Yu. V.; Prosekov, P. A., E-mail: prosekov@crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    A new approach to the study of the structural quality of crystals is proposed. It is based on the use of X-ray standing-wave method without measuring secondary processes and considers the multiwave interaction of diffraction reflections corresponding to different harmonics of the same crystallographic reflection. A theory of multiwave X-ray diffraction is developed to calculate the rocking curves in the X-ray diffraction scheme under consideration for a long-period quasi-one-dimensional crystal. This phase-sensitive method is used to study the structure of a multilayer lead stearate film on a silicon substrate. Some specific structural features are revealed for the surface layer of the thin film, which are most likely due to the tilt of the upper layer molecules with respect to the external normal to the film surface.

  8. Effect of Sucrose Stearate on the Sensory-Related Quality of the Broth and Porridge of Ready-To-Eat Ginseng Chicken Soup Samgyetang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyannanto, Endy; Lee, Keun Taik

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensory-related characteristics of the broth and porridge of ready-to-eat (RTE) ginseng chicken soup ( Samgyetang ) with sucrose stearate added at various concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) during storage at 25°C for 12 mon. Scores indicating the lightness and size of fat droplets in the broth increased during storage as the sucrose stearate concentration increased, while the clarity scores decreased until 9 mon and the taste scores decreased throughout the storage period ( p 0.05). The taste scores were lower for treated porridge samples than for the control group ( p 0.05). The addition of sucrose stearate to the RTE Samgyetang broth improved the lightness (CIE L *) value of the broth and various sensory palatability parameters, including the color and fat droplet size of the broth and the softness and vividness of the porridge, despite reductions in broth clarity and taste scores for the broth and porridge during storage.

  9. Effect of surface coating with magnesium stearate via mechanical dry powder coating approach on the aerosol performance of micronized drug powders from dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Qu, Li; Gengenbach, Thomas; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle surface coating with magnesium stearate on the aerosolization of dry powder inhaler formulations. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a model drug was dry coated with magnesium stearate using a mechanofusion technique. The coating quality was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Powder bulk and flow properties were assessed by bulk densities and shear cell measurements. The aerosol performance was studied by laser diffraction and supported by a twin-stage impinger. High degrees of coating coverage were achieved after mechanofusion, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concomitant significant increases occurred in powder bulk densities and in aerosol performance after coating. The apparent optimum performance corresponded with using 2% w/w magnesium stearate. In contrast, traditional blending resulted in no significant changes in either bulk or aerosolization behaviour compared to the untreated sample. It is believed that conventional low-shear blending provides insufficient energy levels to expose host micronized particle surfaces from agglomerates and to distribute guest coating material effectively for coating. A simple ultra-high-shear mechanical dry powder coating step was shown as highly effective in producing ultra-thin coatings on micronized powders and to substantially improve the powder aerosolization efficiency.

  10. Preparation and properties of thermal insulation coatings with a sodium stearate-modified shell powder as a filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiang; Zhang, Ya-mei; Zhang, Pei-gen; Shi, Jin-jie; Tian, Wu-bian; Sun, Zheng-ming

    2017-10-01

    Waste shell stacking with odor and toxicity is a serious hazard to our living environment. To make effective use of the natural resources, the shell powder was applied as a filler of outdoor thermal insulation coatings. Sodium stearate (SS) was used to modify the properties of shell powder to reduce its agglomeration and to increase its compatibility with the emulsion. The oil absorption rate and the spectrum reflectance of the shell powder show that the optimized content of SS as a modifier is 1.5wt%. The total spectrum reflectance of the coating made with the shell powder that is modified at this optimum SS content is 9.33% higher than that without any modification. At the optimum SS content of 1.5wt%, the thermal insulation of the coatings is improved by 1.0°C for the cement mortar board and 1.6°C for the steel plate, respectively. The scouring resistance of the coating with the 1.5wt% SS-modified shell powder is three times that of the coating without modification.

  11. Gas adsorption on commercial magnesium stearate: Effects of degassing conditions on nitrogen BET surface area and isotherm characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Darren P; Lapham, Julie L

    2017-09-15

    Commercial grades of magnesium stearate have been analysed by nitrogen adsorption having been pre-treated at temperatures between 30°C and 110°C and in the as-received state. Characteristics of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms are assessed through the linearity of low relative pressure isotherm data and the BET transform plot together with the extent of isotherm hysteresis. Comparison is made between thermal gravimetric analysis and mass loss on drying. Features of gas adsorption isotherms considered atypical are identified and possible causes presented. It is shown that atypical isotherm features and issues of applying BET theory to the calculation of S BET are linked to the presence of hydrated water and that these depend on the hydration state: being more pronounced for the di-hydrate than the mono-hydrate. Dehydration reduces the extent of atypical features. S BET of a mono-hydrate sample is 5.6m 2 g -1 and 3.2m 2 g -1 at 40°C and 100°C degassing respectively but 23.9m 2 g 1 and 5.9m 2 g -1 for di-hydrate containing samples under comparable degassing. Di-hydrated samples also show S BET >15m 2 g 1 , BET C-values adsorption data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rheology of oleo gels based on sorbitan and glyceryl mono stearates and vegetable oils for lubricating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Franco, J. M.; Delgado, M. A.; Valencia, C.; Gallegos, C.

    2011-07-01

    Oleo gels based on sorbitan and glyceryl mono stearates and different types of vegetable oils, potentially applicable as biodegradable alternatives to traditional lubricating greases, have been studied. In particular, the rheological behavior, by means of small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements, and some lubrication performance-related properties (mechanical stability and tribological response) have been evaluated in this work. SAOS response and mechanical stability of these oleo gels are significantly influenced by the type and concentration of the organogelator and the vegetable oil used in the formulations. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) generally produces stronger gels than sorbitan monostearate (SMS). The use of low-viscosity oils, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, yields gels with significantly higher values of the linear viscoelastic functions than oleo gels prepared with high-viscosity oils, i.e. castor oil. The rheological behavior of SMS-based oleo gels also depends on the cooling rate applied during the gelification process. On the other hand, the oleo gels studied present low values of the friction coefficient obtained in a tribological contact, although only some GMS/castor oil-based oleo gels exhibit a suitable mechanical stability. (Author) 28 refs.

  13. Investigation of the potential for direct compaction of a fine ibuprofen powder dry-coated with magnesium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li; Zhou, Qi Tony; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John A; Stewart, Peter J; Hapgood, Karen P; Gamlen, Michael; Morton, David A V

    2015-05-01

    Intensive dry powder coating (mechanofusion) with tablet lubricants has previously been shown to give substantial powder flow improvement. This study explores whether the mechanofusion of magnesium stearate (MgSt), on a fine drug powder can substantially improve flow, without preventing the powder from being directly compacted into tablets. A fine ibuprofen powder, which is both cohesive and possesses a low-melting point, was dry coated via mechanofusion with between 0.1% and 5% (w/w) MgSt. Traditional low-shear blending was also employed as a comparison. No significant difference in particle size or shape was measured following mechanofusion. For the low-shear blended powders, only marginal improvement in flowability was obtained. However, after mechanofusion, substantial improvements in the flow properties were demonstrated. Both XPS and ToF-SIMS demonstrated high degrees of a nano-scale coating coverage of MgSt on the particle surfaces from optimized mechanofusion. The study showed that robust tablets were produced from the selected mechanofused powders, at high-dose concentration and tablet tensile strength was further optimized via addition of a Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) binder (10% w/w). The tablets with the mechanofused powder (with or without PVP) also exhibited significantly lower ejection stress than those made of the raw powder, demonstrating good lubrication. Surprisingly, the release rate of drug from the tablets made with the mechanofused powder was not retarded. This is the first study to demonstrate such a single-step dry coating of model drug with MgSt, with promising flow improvement, flow-aid and lubrication effects, tabletability and also non-inhibited dissolution rate.

  14. Thermal treatment to improve the hydrophobicity of ground CaCO3 particles modified with sodium stearate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yong; Yu, Keyi; Zheng, Qinzhong; Xie, Jiuren; Wang, Ting-Jie

    2018-04-01

    The surface modification of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles, which is used as a filler, significantly affects the properties of the composed materials. The effects of thermal treatment on ground calcium carbonate (GCC) particles subjected to hydrophobic modification using sodium stearate (RCOONa) were studied. The contact angle of the modified GCC particles increased from 24.7° to 118.9° when the amount of RCOONa added was increased from 0% to 5% and then decreased to 97.5° when the RCOONa content was further increased to 10%. When a large amount of RCOONa was added, RCOO- reacts with Ca2+ and generates (RCOO)2Ca nuclei, which are adsorbed on the surface of the GCC particles, forming a discontinuous (RCOO)2Ca modified layer. After thermal treatment under sealed conditions, the contact angle of the GCC particles modified using 1.5% RCOONa/GCC increased from 112.8° to 139.6°. The thermal stability of the (RCOO)2Ca modified layer was increased, with the temperature increase of the mass-loss peak from 358.0 to 463.0 °C. It is confirmed that the spreading of melted (RCOO)2Ca nuclei on the surface of the GCC particles during the thermal treatment increased the continuity of the modified layer, converting the physical adsorption of the (RCOO)2Ca nuclei into chemisorption. The grafting density of RCOO- on the GCC particle surface after thermal treatment approximates to 5.00/nm2, which is close to the single-molecular-layer grafting density of RCOO-, indicating that excellent modification was achieved.

  15. Ascorbyl stearate and ionizing radiation potentiate apoptosis through intracellular thiols and oxidative stress in murine T lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Shirish D; Kamatham, Akhilender Naidu

    2018-02-01

    Ascorbyl stearate (Asc-s) is a derivative of ascorbic acid with better anti-tumour efficacy compared to its parent compound ascorbic acid. In this study, we have examined radio-sensitizing effect of Asc-s in murine T cell lymphoma (EL4) cells at 4 Gy. Asc-s and radiation treatment reduced cell proliferation, induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner by arresting the cells at S/G2-M phase of cell cycle. It also decreased the frequency of cancer stem cells per se, with significantly higher decrease in combination with radiation treatment./Further, Asc-s and radiation treatment increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), drop in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased caspase-3 activity resulting in apoptosis of EL4 cells. Further it also significantly decreased GSH/GSSG ratio due to binding of Asc-s with thiols. The increase in oxidative stress induced by Asc-s and radiation treatment was abrogated by thiol antioxidants in EL4 cells. Interestingly, this redox modulation triggered significant increase in protein glutathionylation in a time dependent manner. Asc-s treatment resulted in glutathionylation of IKK, p50-NF-kB and mutated p53, thereby inhibiting cancer progression during oxidative stress. Asc-s quenches GSH ensuing Asc-s + GSH adduct thereby further modulating GSH/GSSG ratio as evident from HPLC and docking studies. The anti-tumour effect of Asc-s along with radiation was studied by injecting EL4 cells in synegenicC57/BL6 male mice. Intraperitoneal injection of Asc-s followed by radiation exposure at 4 Gy to the tumour bearing mice resulted in radio-sensitization which is evident from significant regression of tumour as evident from tumour burden index. The survival study supports the data that Asc-s pre-treatment enhances radio-sensitization in murine lymphoma. Our data, suggest that Asc-s and ionizing radiation induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by perturbing redox balance through irreversible complexes of thiols with Asc

  16. Parenteral emulsions stabilized with a mixture of phospholipids and PEG-660-12-hydroxy-stearate: evaluation of accelerated and long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaa, Muhannad; Müller, Bernd W

    2002-09-01

    Different emulsion formulations were prepared using phospholipids (Lipoid S57) and PEG-660-12-hydroxy-stearate (Solutol HS15) as single emulsifiers or in mixtures. The accelerated stability after autoclaving, freezing and centrifugation was investigated. The long-term stability was also studied at different temperatures (4, 20, and 37 degrees C) for 8 months. Emulsion stabilized with phospholipids displayed a stable behavior after the autoclaving and centrifugation, but it broke down after the freezing process. In mixture with Solutol HS15, however, the emulsion showed appropriate shelf stability at different temperatures for 8 months. A change in the particle size of the emulsion prepared only with Solutol HS15 was observed after centrifugation (slight) and after autoclaving (marked). In contrast to phospholipid emulsion, this emulsion (with only Solutol HS15) was less prone to breaking down after the freezing, as no complete phase separation was observed. The results obtained using an emulsifier mixture revealed that a combination of an anionic surfactant (phospholipids) and non-ionic surfactant (PEG-660-12-hydroxy-stearate) improves the emulsion's stability, compared to the emulsion's stability prepared using only a single emulsifier. However, no direct correlation could be found between the accelerated and the long-term stability data.

  17. Trials to improve the colour of colour fixed cottonseed oil using sodium oleate and sodium stearate in the absence and presence of azeotropic extract of cottonseed meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef, Elham A. A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of two additives, namely, laboratory prepared sodium oleate and sodium stearate to improve the colour of colour fixed cottonseed oil was studied. Also the presence of the azeotropic extract of cottonseed meal together with 5% Na oleate or 10%Na stearate was taken In consideration. Improvement in the colour index of most treated refined and bleached oil samples is observed. This is confirmed with the reduction of gossypol contents of the refined and bleached treated oil samples compared with the untreated oil sample.

    Se estudió la eficacia de dos aditivos, a saber, oleato sódico y estearato sódico preparados en laboratorio para mejorar el color del aceite de semilla de algodón con color fijado. También se tuvo en consideración la presencia de extracto azeotrópico de harina de semilla de algodón junto con oleato sódico al 50% o estearato sódico al 10%. Se observó la mejora en el índice de color de la mayoría de las muestras de aceite decolorado y refinado tratado. Esto está confirmado con la reducción de los contenidos en gosipol de las muestras de aceites refinados y decolorados tratados comparado con la muestra de aceite no tratado.

  18. Mitigating crystallization of saturated FAMES (fatty acid methyl esters) in biodiesel: 4. The phase behavior of 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl glycerol – Methyl stearate binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanan, Athira; Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the phase behavior of a model binary system made of OPO (1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl glycerol); a TAG (triacylglycerol) highly effective in depressing onset of crystallization of biodiesel, and MeS (methyl stearate); a prevalent saturated FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) in biodiesel. The thermal behavior, crystal structure and microstructure of the OPO/MeS mixtures were investigated with DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), XRD (X-ray diffraction) and PLM (polarized light microscope). The OPO/MeS system presented a phase diagram with peritectic and eutectic transitions. A simple thermodynamic modeling of the liquidus line indicated a relatively complex mixing behavior, and highlighted the prevailing effect of the peritectic compound on solubility. Different types of microstructures that were more or less influenced by MeS, OPO or/and compound microstructures were observed in the mixtures. They are associated with the crystal phases and the thermal transitions. Furthermore, MeS, OPO and compound crystal structures (monoclinic, orthorhombic and triclinic, respectively) served as templates for the crystal forms of the coexisting phases. The singularities in the liquidus line are attributed to chain length mismatch between the palmitic acid and the FAME (fatty acid methyl ester). The phase diagram achieved for OPO/MeS system is complete and can help in designing additive formulations to improve the cold flow behavior of biodiesel. - Highlights: • 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl glycerol/methyl stearate (OPO/MeS) studied in detail. • Phase diagram with thermal transitions, polymorphism, microstructure achieved. • Phase trajectory singularities attributed to length mismatch of linear chains. • Mechanism for disruption of crystallization of biodiesel evidenced and explained.

  19. Mitigating crystallization of saturated FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) in biodiesel: 2. The phase behavior of 2-stearoyl diolein–methyl stearate binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Mark; Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S.

    2015-01-01

    The phase behavior of a model binary system made of OSO (2-stearoyl diolein) and MeS (methyl stearate) was investigated with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The study is part of a series of investigations of unconventional additives such as TAGs (triacylglycerols) and dimers of TAGs with a demonstrated potential to significantly alter the crystallization of biodiesel. The TAG (triacylglycerol) was found to be effective in depressing the crystallization onset of the FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) significantly even at low concentration. OSO was shown to affect the crystallization of the mixtures strongly, and to dramatically alter their polymorphism. The system's phase diagram involved marked transformation lines including eutectics and solid–solid transitions. The molecular interactions were evaluated using a simple thermodynamic model. A mechanism for disruption of crystallization was proposed to be dependent on the peculiar geometry of OSO: the “straight” stearic acid participates easily in the lamellar packing of the equally “straight” FAME, whilst its kinked oleic acids effectively halt additional saturated FAMEs from participating due to steric hindrances. The findings of the study indicate that judicious loadings of TAGs which would target biodiesel's saturated FAMEs will have a substantial beneficial effect on the low temperature performance of the fuel. - Highlights: • 2-Steroyl diolein/methyl stearate (OSO/MeS) binary system investigated comprehensively. • OSO/MeS mixtures presented very complex phase trajectories and behavior. • OSO alters crystallization at both nucleation and growth stages profoundly. • Mechanism for disruption of crystallization proposed and verified. • OSO and homologues formulations can be effectives cold flow additives for biodiesel

  20. (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the binary systems {l_brace}water + glycerol{r_brace} and {l_brace}ethanol + glycerol, ethyl stearate, and ethyl palmitate{r_brace} at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Renata; Santos, Priscilla G. dos; Mafra, Marcos R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Cardozo-Filho, Lucio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Corazza, Marcos L., E-mail: corazza@ufpr.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measured VLE for the binary system {l_brace}ethyl stearate and palmitate + ethanol{r_brace}. > The boiling temperatures were obtained using Othmer-type ebuliometer. > The experimental data were modeled using NRTL, UNIQUAC, and UNIFAC models. - Abstract: This work reports the experimental measurements {l_brace}(vapor + liquid) equilibrium{r_brace} for the systems {l_brace}water(1) + glycerol(2){r_brace}, {l_brace}ethanol(1) + glycerol(2){r_brace}, {l_brace}ethanol(1) + ethyl stearate(2){r_brace}, and {l_brace}ethanol(1) + ethyl palmitate(2){r_brace}. Boiling temperatures were measured using an Othmer-type ebulliometer over a pressure range of 14 kPa to 96 kPa. The experimental data were well correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The performance of the UNIFAC-Dortmund model in relation to predicting the phase equilibrium of the systems was also studied.

  1. The Effect of Zn-Al-Hydrotalcites Composited with Calcium Stearate and β-Diketone on the Thermal Stability of PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runjuan Wen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A clean-route synthesis of Zn-Al-hydrotalcites (Zn-Al-LDHs using zinc oxide and sodium aluminate solution has been developed. The as-obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effects of metal ions at different molar ratios on the performance of hydrotalcites were discussed. The results showed that the Zn-Al-hydrotalcites can be successfully synthesized at three different Zn/Al ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1. Thermal aging tests of polyvinyl chloride (PVC mixed with Zn-Al-LDHs, calcium stearate (CaSt2 and β-diketone were carried out in a thermal aging test box by observing the color change. The results showed that Zn-Al-LDHs can not only enhance the stability of PVC significantly due to the improved capacity of HCl-adsorption but also increase the initial stability and ensure good-initial coloring due to the presence of the Zn element. The effects of various amounts of Zn-Al-LDHs, CaSt2 and β-diketone on the thermal stability of PVC were discussed. The optimum composition was determined to be 0.1 g Zn-Al-LDHs, 0.15 g CaSt2 and 0.25 g β-diketone in 5 g PVC.

  2. Vapour liquid equilibria of monocaprylin plus palmitic acid or methyl stearate at P = (1.20 and 2.50) kPa by using DSC technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunico, Larissa P.; Damaceno, Daniela S.; Matricarde Falleiro, Rafael M.; Sarup, Bent; Abildskov, Jens; Ceriani, Roberta; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel VLE data for binary mixtures involving a partial acylglycerol (monocaprylin). • Use of a promising technique for measuring VLE/vapour pressure data (DSC technique). • The consistency of experimental data is analysed by a proposed methodology. • Regressed parameters are given for excess Gibbs thermodynamic models. • New regressed parameters are presented for UNIFAC to account for nonidealities. - Abstract: The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) technique is used for measuring isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria for two binary mixtures: {monocaprylin + palmitic acid (system 1) or methyl stearate (system 2)} at two different pressures P = (1.20 and 2.50) kPa. The obtained PTx data are correlated by Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The original UNIFAC group contribution method is also considered and new binary interaction parameters for the main groups CH 2 , CCOO, OH and COOH are regressed, to account for the non-idealities found in these lipid systems. Established thermodynamic consistency tests are applied and attest the quality of the measured data. In terms of relevance of the selected components, system 1 can be found in the purification and deodorization steps during the production of edible oils, while, system 2 can be found in the purification steps of biodiesel. It should be noted that no such data could be found in the open literature, not only for the specific components selected but also for the combination of the classes of components considered; that is, acylglycerol plus fatty acid or fatty ester.

  3. Mitigating crystallization of saturated FAMEs in biodiesel 6: The binary phase behavior of 1, 2-dioleoyl-3-stearoyl sn-glycerol – Methyl stearate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanan, Athira; Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S.

    2016-01-01

    The derivatives of vegetable oils with specific chemical structures, such as TAG (triacylglycerols) having mixed straight and kinked moieties, have proven very effective in lowering the crystallization of biodiesel. SOO (1, 2-dioleoyl-3-stearoyl sn-glycerol)/MeS (methyl stearate) is part of a series of studies of TAG/FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) binary model systems conducted to establish structure–function relationships of lipid-based cold flow improvers in biodiesel with a particular attention to the effect of molecular symmetry in contrast with a previously published study of the OSO (1, 3-dioleoyl-2-stearoyl sn-glycerol)/MeS binary system. The phase behavior of several SOO/MeS mixtures were investigated at different length scales with XRD (X-ray diffraction), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and PLM (polarized light microscope). A complete phase diagram including the transformation lines, crystal structure and microstructure was constructed. The solubility behavior was discussed using a simple thermodynamic model based on the Hildebrand equation and pair interactions. The asymmetric position of the oleic moieties of SOO was shown to be crucial in modifying the thermal transformation behavior of MeS. The findings may be used to design effective crystallization modifiers of biodiesel based on particular structural determinants, and underscores the importance of symmetry in such designs. - Highlights: • Effect of symmetry of triglyceride on biodiesel crystallization established. • Complete phase diagram of model triacylglycerol/biodiesel binary system achieved. • Correlation between thermal transitions, crystal structure and microstructure revealed. • Transformation points useful for improving the cold flow of biodiesel identified. • Necessary knowledge gathered to design effective biodiesel cold flow improvers.

  4. Co-milled API-lactose systems for inhalation therapy: impact of magnesium stearate on physico-chemical stability and aerosolization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    Particle micronization for inhalation can impart surface disorder (amorphism) of crystalline structures. This can lead to stability issues upon storage at elevated humidity from recrystallization of the amorphous state, which can subsequently affect the aerosol performance of the dry powder formulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of an additive, magnesium stearate (MGST), on the stability and aerosol performance of co-milled active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with lactose. Blends of API-lactose with/without MGST were prepared and co-milled by the jet-mill apparatus. Samples were stored at 50% relative humidity (RH) and 75% RH for 1, 5, and 15 d. Analysis of changes in particle size, agglomerate structure/strength, moisture sorption, and aerosol performance were analyzed by laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), and in-vitro aerodynamic size assessment by impaction. Co-milled formulation with MGST (5% w/w) led to a reduction in agglomerate size and strength after storage at elevated humidity compared with co-milled formulation without MGST, as observed from SEM and laser diffraction. Hysteresis in the sorption/desorption isotherm was observed in the co-milled sample without MGST, which was likely due to the recrystallization of the amorphous regions of micronized lactose. Deterioration in aerosol performance after storage at elevated humidity was greater for the co-milled samples without MGST, compared with co-milled with MGST. MGST has been shown to have a significant impact on co-milled dry powder stability after storage at elevated humidity in terms of physico-chemical properties and aerosol performance.

  5. Investigation into the Manufacture and Properties of Inhalable High-Dose Dry Powders Produced by Comilling API and Lactose with Magnesium Stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the impact of different concentrations of the additive material, magnesium stearate (MGST), and the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), respectively, on the physicochemical properties and aerosol performance of comilled formulations for high-dose delivery. Initially, blends of API/lactose with different concentrations of MGST (1-7.5% w/w) were prepared and comilled by the jet-mill apparatus. The optimal concentration of MGST in comilled formulations was investigated, specifically for agglomerate structure and strength, particle size, uniformity of content, surface coverage, and aerosol performance. Secondly, comilled formulations with different API (1-40% w/w) concentrations were prepared and similarly analyzed. Comilled 5% MGST (w/w) formulation resulted in a significant improvement in in vitro aerosol performance due to the reduction in agglomerate size and strength compared to the formulation comilled without MGST. Higher concentrations of MGST (7.5% w/w) led to reduction in aerosol performance likely due to excessive surface coverage of the micronized particles by MGST, which led to failure in uniformity of content and an increase in agglomerate strength and size. Generally, comilled formulations with higher concentrations of API increased the agglomerate strength and size, which subsequently caused a reduction in aerosol performance. High-dose delivery was achieved at API concentration of >20% (w/w). The study provided a platform for the investigation of aerosol performance and physicochemical properties of other API and additive materials in comilled formulations for the emerging field of high-dose delivery by dry powder inhalation.

  6. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate with melamine-formaldehyde resin: Effect of decreasing the pH value on the composition and thermal stability of microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krajnc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to investigate how different decreasing of pH regimes during microencapsulation process with melamine-formaldehyde (MF resin affects the composition, morphology and thermal stability of microcapsules containing a phase-change material (PCM. Technical butyl stearate was used as PCM. Microencapsulation was carried out at 70°C. For all experiments the starting pH value was 6.0. After one hour of microencapsulation at the starting pH value, the pH value was lowered to final pH value (5.5; 5.0; 4.5 in a stepwise or linear way. The properties of microcapsules were monitored during and after the microencapsulation process. The results showed that pH value decreasing regime was critical for the morphology and stability of microcapsules. During microencapsulations with a stepwise decrease of pH value we observed faster increase of the amount of MF resin in the microencapsulation product compared to the microencapsulations with a linear pH value decrease. However, faster deposition in the case of microencapsulations with stepwise decrease of pH value did not result in thicker MF shells. The shell thickness increased much faster when the pH value was decreased in a linear way or in several smaller steps. It was shown that for the best thermal stability of microcapsules, the pH value during microencapsulation had to be lowered in a linear way or in smaller steps to 5.0 or lower.

  7. Physicochemical properties of the liquid mixture between stearate methyl / acid methyl sulfur stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alfonso Torres Ortega

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The need of new alternatives for advance of the domestic oil-chemical industry, based local natural resources, make use of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis, as a source for obtaining alkyl esters, an excellent alternative development to be explored initially by the research groups at universities or institutions of scientifc innovation and development. The sulfonation process for the manufacture of surfactant were conducted in a falling flm reactor by the absorption and chemical reaction with SO3 gas on methyl esters derived from hydrogenated palm stearin. Identifying the properties of the reactants, products, and its mix is very important for the characterized by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. It presents the properties of these inputs as a result of a series of experiments, which varies the mole ratio of the mixture of reactants and products, the process temperature and the percentage of sulfonate agent in the gas fow.

  8. 氧化石墨烯增强聚苯乙烯/硬脂酸丁脂微胶囊相变材料的研究∗%Study on reinforcing of graphene oxide to microcapsule phase change materials of polystyrene/butyl stearate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭军红; 张鹏中; 慕波; 邵竞尧; 杨保平; 崔锦峰

    2016-01-01

    Modified graphene oxide (MGO)was obtained by using graphene oxide (GO)modified with theγ-methyl-propylene (KH-570).Microcapsule phase change materials of polystyrene/butyl stearate (MGO-Mi-croPCMs),reinforced by graphene oxide,was prepared by the seeded micro-suspension polymerization using the MGO and styrene monomer composites as wall material,n-Butyl stearate as core material.The chemical compositions,microstructure,thermal stability and mechanical properties of MGO-MicroPCMs were character-ized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),scanning e-lectron microscopy (SEM),contact angle tester,particle size analyzer,differential scanning calorimeter (DSC),thermogravimetric analyzer (TG)and nano-indenter.The results showed that MGO-MicroPCMs was a spherical structure with uniform distribution.With the increase of MGO content,the average particle diameter of the microcapsules was reduced,the sealing property of microcapsules increased,permeability decreased 32.17% when the content of MGO was 0.6wt%,the hardness increased from 5.83 to 11.79 MPa,the thermal stability and hydrophilicity were also improved obviously.%采用γ-甲基丙烯酰氧基丙基三甲氧基硅烷(KH-570)对氧化石墨烯(GO)进行功能化改性,得到改性氧化石墨烯(MG O ),以MG O 和苯乙烯单体的复合体系为囊壁,硬脂酸丁酯为芯材,通过种子微悬浮聚合法制备氧化石墨烯增强聚苯乙烯/硬脂酸丁酯微胶囊相变材料(MGO-MicroPCMs).利用红外光谱(IR)、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、接触角测试仪、粒度分析仪、差示扫描量热仪(DSC)、热重分析仪(TG)和纳米压痕仪等表征了MGO-MicroPCMs的化学组成、微观结构、热性能和力学性能.结果表明,MGO-MicroPCMs 为粒径分布均匀的球形结构,随着MG O 含量增加,平均粒径减小,分布变窄,密封性逐渐提高,当添加0.6%(质量分数)MGO

  9. 21 CFR 178.3690 - Pentaerythritol adipate-stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fabrication of rigid and semi-rigid polyvinyl chloride and/or vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers complying... Conshohocken, Philadelphia, PA 19428-2959, or may be examined at the National Archives and Records... Conshohocken, Philadelphia, PA 19428-2959, or available for inspection at the National Archives and Records...

  10. Effects of low-stearate palm oil and high-stearate lard high-fat diets on rat liver lipid metabolism and glucose tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, S.; Heemskerk, M.M.; van den Berg, S.A.; van Riel, N.A.; Nicolaij, K.; Willems van Dijk, K.; Prompers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excess consumption of energy-dense, high-fat Western diets contributes to the development of obesity and obesity-related disorders, such as fatty liver disease. However, not only the quantity but also the composition of dietary fat may play a role in the development of liver steatosis.

  11. Sintesis 9-n-Pentoksi 10-Hidroksi n-Pentil Stearat Campuran Dari Asam Oleat

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Aspriadi

    2011-01-01

    Compound of 9-n-penthoxy 10-hidroxy n-pentyl stearic mixture which is derivative of fatty acid and can be used for some activities such as lubricant, biodiesel, surfactan, or manufacture of polymeric materials by using oleic acid as substrat through esterification, epoxidation, followed by alcoxylation. Esterification of oleic acid with n-penthanol using catalyst concentrated sulfuric acid in benzen as solvent in reflux condition produce n-pentyl oleic with 89% of rendement. Epoxidation to n-...

  12. Modification of the hydrotalcite with sodium stearate and its influence in the polyurethane nanocomposites obtained by the in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, Danieli M. do; Oliveira, Marcia G. de; Soares, Bluma G.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites of PU with synthetic hydrotalcite and organoclay were obtained by the in situ polymerization. The addition of clay in the reaction has occurred with and without dispersion previous, using equipment ultraturrax and ultrasound bath. The results of XRD and FTIR confirmed the clay organophilization process. The viscosity analysis of the dispersions showed increased nanocarga-monomer interaction with the time counter, especially for samples containing LDH-st. Such interactions with possibility reaction between the phases may have contributed to the unbalance of the stoichiometry required for polymerization, resulting in lower molecular weight polymer formed in situ. As a result there was minor degradation temperature values, modulus and viscosity for samples subjected to the methodologies TBT and T. However, these methods in conjunction with LDH-st were fundamentals to improving dispersion in the matrix, accord to visual analysis. (author)

  13. Modification of the hydrotalcite with sodium stearate and its influence in the polyurethane nanocomposites obtained by the in situ polymerization; Nanocompositos de poliuretano/hidrotalcita via polimerizacao in situ: efeito da modificacao da argila e dos metodos dispersivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Danieli M. do, E-mail: danielimcarmo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Marcia G. de [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Soares, Bluma G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas Profa. Eloisa Mano

    2015-07-01

    Nanocomposites of PU with synthetic hydrotalcite and organoclay were obtained by the in situ polymerization. The addition of clay in the reaction has occurred with and without dispersion previous, using equipment ultraturrax and ultrasound bath. The results of XRD and FTIR confirmed the clay organophilization process. The viscosity analysis of the dispersions showed increased nanocarga-monomer interaction with the time counter, especially for samples containing LDH-st. Such interactions with possibility reaction between the phases may have contributed to the unbalance of the stoichiometry required for polymerization, resulting in lower molecular weight polymer formed in situ. As a result there was minor degradation temperature values, modulus and viscosity for samples subjected to the methodologies TBT and T. However, these methods in conjunction with LDH-st were fundamentals to improving dispersion in the matrix, accord to visual analysis. (author)

  14. Vapour liquid equilibria of monocaprylin plus palmitic acid or methyl stearate at P=(1.20 and 2.50) kPa by using DSC technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa P.; Damaceno, Daniela S.; Matricarde Falleiro, Rafael M.

    2015-01-01

    are applied and attest the quality of the measured data. In terms of relevance of the selected components, system 1 can be found in the purification and deodorization steps during the production of edible oils, while, system 2 can be found in the purification steps of biodiesel. It should be noted...

  15. Ionic Liquid as a Solvent and Catalyst for Acylation of Maltodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalyst-free esterification of maltodextrin was carried out in ionic liquid. Stearate esters of maltodextrin were obtained in various degree of substitution (DS) when vinyl stearate or stearic acid was heated with maltodextrin in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cyanamide (bmim[dca]). Re...

  16. De-Lubrication Behavior Of Novel EBS Based Admixed Lubricant In Aluminum P/M Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh M.C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research is to develop a novel lubricant for Al-Cu-Mg P/M alloy and to address the effects of the lubricant and compaction pressure on sintered properties. A lubricant mixture consisting of Ethylene Bis Stearamide, Zn-Stearate, and fatty acid was newly developed in this study, and the de-lubrication behavior was compared with that of other commercial lubricants, such as Ethylene Bis Stearamide, Zn-Stearate, and Al-Stearate. Density and transverse rupture strength of sintered materials with each lubricant were examined, respectively. The microstructural analysis was conducted using optical microscope.

  17. Effect of mixing state on criticality safety evaluation in MOX powder and additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Criticality safety analyses are discussed in which MOX powder and additive (e.g. zinc-stearate) are mixed in a powder treatment process of MOX fuel fabrication. The multiplication factor k eff is largely affected by how they are mixed, i.e., how the density and volume change with the mixing. In general, k eff increases when MOX powder is mixed with zinc-stearate. However, plutonium content and density of MOX powder make a difference in the k eff 's changes. Especially, MOX powder with a higher plutonium content and a higher density is not always unsafe in terms of criticality if it is mixed with zinc-stearate. (author)

  18. Embedment of Chlorpheniramine Maleate in Directly Compressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) from its matrix tablets prepared by direct compression. Methods: Different ratios of compritol and kollidon SR (containing 50 % matrix component) in 1:1, 1:2, ... Magnesium stearate and hydrochloric acid were.

  19. Synthesis and Application of a New Amphiphilic Antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hanaa M; Arafat, Shaker M; Basuny, Amany M; Shattory, Y El-

    2017-11-01

    A new amphiphilic antioxidant (tannyl stearate) derived from reaction of tannic acid with stearic acid was synthesized in order to improve tannic acid solubility in lipid materials. This reaction gives many products having different degree of esterification (tannyl mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta……stearate) which were separated using silica gel column chromatography and tentative identification was carried out using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The intrinsic viscosities (η) were used to differentiate between the different molecular weight of the produced esters 1) . Tannyl penta stearate is assumed to be the most suitable amphiphilic antioxidant derivative, where those derivatives with less degree of esterification would be less soluble in fat, and those of higher degree of esterification would exhaust more hydroxyl group that cause decreases of antioxidant activity. The structure of tannyl penta stearate was approved depending on its chemical analysis and spectral data (IR, H 1 NMR,). The emulsification power of tannyl penta stearate was then determined according to method described by El-Sukkary et al. 2) , in order to prove its amphiphilic property. Then tannyl penta stearate was tested for its antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in three different manners, those are, lipid oxidation in sunflower oil using Rancimat, (DPPH) free radical scavenging and total antioxidant activity. {Pure tannic acid (T), butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) were used as reference antioxidant radical saving compounds}. Then tannyl penta stearate was added to sunflower oil, frying process was carried out and all physicochemical parameters of the oil were considered, and compared to other reference antioxidant in order to study the effect of this new antioxidant toward oil stability. Acute oral toxicity of the tannyl penta stearate was carried out using albino mice of 21-25 g body weight to determine its safety according to the method

  20. The development of Cutina lipogels and gel microemulsion for topical administration of fluconazole

    OpenAIRE

    Ellaithy, H. M.; El-Shaboury, K. M. F.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the vehicle on the release and permeation of fluconazole, a topical antifungal drug dissolved in Jojoba oil was evaluated. Series of Cutina lipogels (Cutina CPA [cetyl palmitate], CBS [mixture of glyceryl stearate, cetearyl alcohol, cetyl palmitate, and cocoglycerides], MD [glyceryl stearate], and GMS [glyceryl monostearate]) in different concentrations as well as gel microemulsion were prepared. In-vitro drug release in Sorensens citrate buffer (pH 5.5) and permeation throug...

  1. Study on the effect of stabilizers on discoloring of PVC by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chaorong; Wang Jingxia; Chen Zhuping; Liu Siyang

    2009-01-01

    Composites of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filled with stabilizers was irradiated by 60 Co γ-ray. The effect of different stabilizers on the radiation-induced discoloring of PVC was investigated and the structures of irradiated PVC were characterized by ultraviolet spectrum (UV) and Fourrier transfer infrared spectrum (FT-IR). It shows that the stabilizers including calcium stearate/zinc stearate, epoxidised oil, phosphite and photostabilizer can improve the property of resistance to radiation-induced discoloring of PVC, and phosphite can improve the property of resistance to radiation-induced oxidation of PVC. Among the stabilizers, formulations with calcium stearate/zinc stearate show high transparency and excellent property of resistance to radiation at same absorbed dose. Change rate of yellow index of formulation (calcium stearate: zinc stearate=2:1) has been determined to be 8.3% at the absorbed dose of 30 kGy. It has been found that the structures of PVC with numbers of conjugated double bond or α, β-unsaturated ketone are formed after irradiation by γ-rays. (authors)

  2. Self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic hybrid nanocomposite coatings on Al with excellent corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, V.; Mohan Raj, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) coatings were formed on Al by anodization and electro-polymerisation techniques. • The superhydrophobic coating was fabricated on copolymer by electrodeposition of zinc stearate. • The superhydrophobicity mechanism relies on morphologies and chemical components on surface is the key factor. • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate coated Al has excellent corrosion resistance and good self-cleaning performance. - Abstract: Protective ceramic-PANI, ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coatings were formed on Al surface by the processes involving anodization, electropolymerisation and electrodeposition under optimum conditions. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were evaluated by ATR-IR and XRD studies. SEM studies performed on nanocomposite coatings reveal that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating shows a cauliflower-like cluster with crack-free morphology compared to ceramic-PANI and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) nanocomposite coatings. The mechanical properties of different nanocomposite coatings were measured using Vicker microhardness tester and Taber Abrasion tester. The ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite has higher mechanical stability. The corrosion resistance of the coatings measured by Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, shows that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coated aluminum has higher corrosion resistance than other coatings and bare Al. Wettability studies prove that superhydrophobic nature of ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating with contact angle of 155.8° is responsible for good self-cleaning property and excellent corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  3. Self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic hybrid nanocomposite coatings on Al with excellent corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, V., E-mail: alaguraj2@rediffmail.com; Mohan Raj, R., E-mail: chem_mohan@rediffmail.com

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) coatings were formed on Al by anodization and electro-polymerisation techniques. • The superhydrophobic coating was fabricated on copolymer by electrodeposition of zinc stearate. • The superhydrophobicity mechanism relies on morphologies and chemical components on surface is the key factor. • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate coated Al has excellent corrosion resistance and good self-cleaning performance. - Abstract: Protective ceramic-PANI, ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coatings were formed on Al surface by the processes involving anodization, electropolymerisation and electrodeposition under optimum conditions. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were evaluated by ATR-IR and XRD studies. SEM studies performed on nanocomposite coatings reveal that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating shows a cauliflower-like cluster with crack-free morphology compared to ceramic-PANI and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) nanocomposite coatings. The mechanical properties of different nanocomposite coatings were measured using Vicker microhardness tester and Taber Abrasion tester. The ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite has higher mechanical stability. The corrosion resistance of the coatings measured by Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, shows that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coated aluminum has higher corrosion resistance than other coatings and bare Al. Wettability studies prove that superhydrophobic nature of ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating with contact angle of 155.8° is responsible for good self-cleaning property and excellent corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  4. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate/Poly(butyleneadipate-co-terephthalate/Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Leng Pak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate/poly(butyleneadipate-co-terephthalate/layered double hydroxide (PHB/PBAT/LDH were prepared from a binary blend of PHB/PBAT and stearate-Zn3Al LDH via a solution casting method using chloroform as solvent in this study. The pristine Zn3Al LDH was synthesized from nitrate salts solution at pH 7 by using coprecipitation technique and then was modified by stearate anions surfactant via ion exchange reaction. As a result, the basal spacing of the LDH was increased from 8.77 to 24.94 Å after the modification. Intercalated nanocomposites were formed due to the presence of diffraction peak in XRD diffractograms. The infrared spectrum of stearate-Zn3Al LDH exhibited the existence of stearate anions in the synthesized Zn3Al LDH. Mechanical properties with 2 wt% stearate-Zn3Al LDH loading nanocomposites showed 56 wt% improvements in elongation at break compared to those of the blend.

  5. Green fabrication of coloured superhydrophobic paper from native cotton cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qiuying; Guo, Fei; Yang, Fuchao; Guo, Zhiguang

    2017-07-01

    Paper is kind of essential materials in our daily life. However, it can be easily destroyed by water owing to its superhydrophilic surface. Here, we reported a simple and green fabrication of coloured superhydrophobic paper via swelling and approximate dissolution of cotton followed by precipitation of cellulose and doping coloured stearates. The obtained paper exhibited uniform colour and superhydrophobicity, of which the colour was consistent with the doped stearates owing to the adhesion of stearate powders to the tiny floc fiber surface and we proved that the superhydrophobicity could not be damaged after abrasion resulting from the inner and outer superhydrophobicity and the increased surface roughness. This coloured superhydrophobic paper would be avoided from moisture damage and may be useful in different fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. One-step spray-coating process for the fabrication of colorful superhydrophobic coatings with excellent corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wu, Runni; Jing, Zhijiao; Yan, Long; Zha, Fei; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-10-06

    A simple method was used to generate colorful hydrophobic stearate particles via chemical reactions between inorganic salts and sodium stearate. Colored self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings were prepared through a facile one-step spray-coating process by spraying the stearate particle suspensions onto stainless steel substrates. Furthermore, the colorful superhydrophobic coating maintains excellent chemical stability under both harsh acidic and alkaline circumstances. After being immersed in a 3.5 wt % NaCl aqueous solution for 1 month, the as-prepared coatings remained superhydrophobic; however, they lost their self-cleaning property with a sliding angle of about 46 ± 3°. The corrosion behavior of the superhydrophobic coatings on the Al substrate was characterized by the polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical corrosion test results indicated that the superhydrophobic coatings possessed excellent corrosion resistance, which could supply efficient and long-term preservation for the bare Al substrate.

  7. A recent source modification for noble gases at the Los Alamos on-line mass analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Forman, L.

    1976-01-01

    The Los Alamos on-line mass analysis experiment at the Godiva-IV burst reactor facility has been modified to determine independent fission yields of noble gases. The gases are released from a stearate target and ionization by electron bombardment. The distance traveled by the gases from the target to the ionization chamber is 20 cm. The efficiency of the electron bombardment source is lower than that of the surface ionization source that was employed to measure the yields of Rb and Cs. But this effect is compensated by the larger quantity of target metal that is possible when using a stearate target. (Auth.)

  8. Comparative evaluation of topical Sodium fusidate cream in common pyodermas with topical gentamicin ointment and systemic antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy AK

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One hundred cases of common pyodermas consisting of four groups, namely impetigo, furunculosis and chronic folliculitis were taken. Each group containing twenty five cases were divided again into three subgroups. From each group, 15 were treated with 2 percent Sodium fusidate cream, 5 were with 0.1 percent Gentamycin sulphate cream and the rest 5 with systemic Erythromycin stearate. In the group of Impetigo, Bockhart′s Impetigo and Furunculosis, topical Sodium fusidate cream showed excellent result, better than Gentamycin topical and equal to that of systemic Erythromycin stearate.

  9. Design of the ME-I powder mixer. Report of the design and construction of the powder mixer, according to the safety requisites of the pellets fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano H, E.

    1991-03-01

    In order to fulfill the requirements of preparation of powder of UO 2 ; according to procedure P-M-PP-01, rev. 0, for the process of production of pellets, it was designed and manufactured a powders mixer to incorporate the lubricant one (zinc stearate) to the powder of UO 2 . This equipment allows to mix the powder of UO 2 evenly with the one zinc stearate, without forming considerable quantities of fine of UO 2 , besides a sure control for the operators of the process and an easy access to the mixer to inspect the mixture. (Author)

  10. Critical micelle concentrations of allelopathic substances produced by Nannochloris oculata which affect a red tide organism, Gymnodinium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, E; Martin, D F

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory cultures of the green algae Nannochloris oculata and Nannochloris eucaryotum are known to cause lysis of Gymnodinium breve, which is Florida's red tide organism. Two cytolytic agents were previously identified as methyl palmitate and methyl stearate. In this study, the critical micelle concentrations of these substances were determined by ultraviolet light and turbidimetric methods to be 3.5 +/- 0.3 ppm (methyl stearate) and 4.3 +/- 0.6 (methyl palmitate). There were no significant differences in results obtained using the two methods.

  11. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate/Poly(butyleneadipate-co-terephthalate)/Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Yen Leng; Bin Ahmad, Mansor; Shameli, Kamyar; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin

    2013-01-01

    Nanocomposites of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate/poly(butyleneadipate-co-terephthalate)/layered double hydroxide (PHB/PBAT/LDH) were prepared from a binary blend of PHB/PBAT and stearate-Zn3Al LDH via a solution casting method using chloroform as solvent in this study. The pristine Zn3Al LDH was synthesized from nitrate salts solution at pH 7 by using coprecipitation technique and then was modified by stearate anions surfactant via ion exchange reaction. As a result, the basal spacing of the LDH was ...

  12. Synthesis and characterization of lamellar aragonite with hydrophobic property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chengyu; Xu Yang; Liu Yalan; Li Jian

    2009-01-01

    A novel and simple synthetic method for the preparation of hydrophobic lamellar aragonite has been developed. The crystallization of aragonite was conducted by the reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride in the presence of sodium stearate. The resulting products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the contact angle. The results revealed that sodium stearate plays an important role in determining the structure and morphology of the sample. Besides, we have succeeded in surface modification of particles in situ at the same time. The contact angle of the modified aragonite reached 108.59 deg.

  13. Design of the ME-I powder mixer. Report of the design and construction of the powder mixer, according to the safety requisites of the pellets fabrication process; Diseno de mezclador de polvo ME-I. Reporte del diseno y construccion del mezclador de polvos, de acuerdo a los requisitos de seguridad del proceso de fabricacion de pastillas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano H, E

    1991-03-15

    In order to fulfill the requirements of preparation of powder of UO{sub 2}; according to procedure P-M-PP-01, rev. 0, for the process of production of pellets, it was designed and manufactured a powders mixer to incorporate the lubricant one (zinc stearate) to the powder of UO{sub 2}. This equipment allows to mix the powder of UO{sub 2} evenly with the one zinc stearate, without forming considerable quantities of fine of UO{sub 2}, besides a sure control for the operators of the process and an easy access to the mixer to inspect the mixture. (Author)

  14. Development and Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... crospovidone and magnesium stearate as key excipients, and with cherry flavor and aspartame as flavor and sweetener, respectively. These formulations were then evaluated using pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial physical and chemical tests. Dissolution and assay tests were performed using USP apparatus II ...

  15. Establishment and Characterization of an Anaerobic Thermophilic (55 degrees C) Enrichment Culture Degrading Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    A thermophilic, long-chain fatty acid-oxidizing culture was enriched. Stearate was used as the substrate, and methane and carbon dioxide were the sole end products. Cultivation was possible only when a fed-batch system was used or with addition of activated carbon or bentonite. The enrichment...

  16. Size selective dustiness and exposure; simulated workplace comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Links, I.H.M.; Vreede, S.A.F. de; Christopher, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A simulated workplace study was conducted to investigate the relation between inhalation exposure and dustiness determined with a rotating drum dustiness tester. Three powders were used in the study, i.e. magnesium stearate, representing a very dusty powder, and aluminium oxide and calcium

  17. Effects of Coating Materials and Processing Conditions on Flow Enhancement of Cohesive Acetaminophen Powders by High-Shear Processing With Pharmaceutical Lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guoguang; Mangal, Sharad; Denman, John; Gengenbach, Thomas; Lee Bonar, Kevin; Khan, Rubayat I; Qu, Li; Li, Tonglei; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2017-10-01

    This study has investigated the surface coating efficiency and powder flow improvement of a model cohesive acetaminophen powder by high-shear processing with pharmaceutical lubricants through 2 common equipment, conical comil and high-shear mixer. Effects of coating materials and processing parameters on powder flow and surface coating coverage were evaluated. Both Carr's index and shear cell data indicated that processing with the lubricants using comil or high-shear mixer substantially improved the flow of the cohesive acetaminophen powder. Flow improvement was most pronounced for those processed with 1% wt/wt magnesium stearate, from "cohesive" for the V-blended sample to "easy flowing" for the optimally coated sample. Qualitative and quantitative characterizations demonstrated a greater degree of surface coverage for high-shear mixing compared with comilling; nevertheless, flow properties of the samples at the corresponding optimized conditions were comparable between 2 techniques. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated different coating mechanisms with magnesium stearate or l-leucine (magnesium stearate forms a coating layer and leucine coating increases surface roughness). Furthermore, surface coating with hydrophobic magnesium stearate did not retard the dissolution kinetics of acetaminophen. Future studies are warranted to evaluate tableting behavior of such dry-coated pharmaceutical powders. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 173.340 - Defoaming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cooking purposes, whereby no more than 10 parts per million is present in the cooked food. Formaldehyde As... alcohol Magnesium stearate As defined in § 172.863 of this chapter. Mineral oil: Conforming with § 172.878... chapter. Soybean oil fatty acids, hydroxylated Tallow, hydrogenated, oxidized or sulfated Tallow alcohol...

  19. Consolidation of titanium hydride powders during the production of titanium PM parts: The effect of die wall lubricants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machio, Christopher N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of die wall lubricants on the cold compaction of titanium hydride powder are studied. Three commonly-used die wall powder metallurgy lubricants – zinc stearate, Acrawax® C dispersion and Mirror Glaze® – are compared. The influence...

  20. Chemical method for producing nanoscale semiconductor compound CdS in a polymer matrix; Khimicheskij metod polucheniya nanorazmernogo poluprovodnikovogo soedineniya CdS v polimernoj matritse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goglidze, Natalia; Dement' ev, Igor' ; Zadorozhnyj, Aleksandru; Koval' , Andrej; Gashin, Petr [Moldavskij gosudarstvennyj univ., Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Gutsul, Tatiana; Taraburkin, Aleksandr [Academiya nauk Moldovy, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    The results of cadmium sulfide synthesis in a polymer matrix from cadmium stearate and tiourea are given. Luminescent properties of the obtained materials were studied. It was shown that the elaborated method allows to efficiently synthesize 2-6 semiconductor compounds with the nano-granulated particles in various organic media including biopolymers. (authors)

  1. A comparative study of the flow enhancing properties of bentonite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of granule flow enhancing property of bentonite, magnesium stearate, talc and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was undertaken. Bentonite was processed into fine powder. A 10 %w/w of starch granules was prepared and separated into different sizes (˂180, 180-500, 500-710 and 710-850 μm).

  2. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six . Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days ...

  3. Radiation effects on components of orally administrated medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmatovich-Shmajke, T.; Yuz'byak, Kh.; Ovcharchik, A.

    1976-01-01

    Physicochemical changes occuring in starch, lactose, sucrose, gum arabic, talc, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and magnesium stearate irradiated on an electronic linear accelerator type LUE-13/9 were studied. Bond breakage in sugars and molecular degradation in starch and PVP were noted. Paramagnetic centers were found to form in most of the test substances. (author)

  4. LUBRICANT SENSITIVITY IN RELATION TO BULK-DENSITY FOR GRANULATIONS BASED ON STARCH OR CELLULOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOS, CE; VROMANS, H; LERK, CF

    1991-01-01

    The study described in this paper was concerned with the susceptibility to lubrication with magnesium stearate of tablets compressed from granulations based on native starches or on modified celluloses. Different properties of the granulations, like particle size, flowability and surface area, were

  5. Low-Temperature Processed Ga-Doped ZnO Coatings from Colloidal Inks

    KAUST Repository

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; Bersani, Marco; Cittadini, Michela; Guglielmi, Massimo; Pagani, Diego; Noriega, Rodrigo; Mehra, Saahil; Salleo, Alberto; Martucci, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We present a new colloidal synthesis of gallium-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals that are transparent in the visible and absorb in the near-infrared. Thermal decomposition of zinc stearate and gallium nitrate after hot injection of the precursors in a

  6. Incorporation of Certain Hydrophobic Excipients in the Core of Melt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    incorporation of hydrophobic materials (talc or magnesium stearate) in the core of such granules may further retard .... (500mg) was filled into a capsule shell and ... of the drug particles. The effect of melt granulation on the release profiles of paracetamol is shown in Fig 1. The melt granulations displayed a retarded release.

  7. Formulation and Evaluation of Two-Pulse Drug Delivery System of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a pH-controlled two-pulse drug delivery system of amoxicillin in order to overcome ... delivery have lately been applied in developing a .... Note: Each tablet contained 2 mg each of magnesium stearate and colloidal silicon dioxide; total weight of each ..... and Manufacture of Medicines, 3rd edn, Elsevier,.

  8. Experimental and Modeling Studies on the Synthesis and Properties of Higher Fatty Esters of Corn Starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junistia, Laura; Sugih, Asaf K.; Manurung, Robert; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    This paper describes a systematic study on the synthesis of higher fatty esters of corn starch (starch laurate and starch stearate) by using the corresponding vinyl esters. The reactions were carried out in DMSO using basic catalysts (Na(2)HPO(4), K(2)CO(3), and Na-acetate). The effect of the

  9. Omega-functionalized fatty acids, alcohols, and ethers via olefin metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl 17-hydroxy stearate was converted to methyl octadec-16-enoate using copper sulfate adsorbed on silica gel. This compound, possessing unsaturation at the opposite end of the chain from the carboxylate, served as a useful substrate for the olefin metathesis reaction. As a result, several fatt...

  10. Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots of one-pot preparation in octadecene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Q.; Kong, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2008-01-01

    CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots were synthesized using a new one-pot procedure where the core was prepared in octadecene. A ZnSe shell around a CdSe nanoparticle was formed by the reaction of selenium-richness on the surfaces of CdSe nanoparticles with Zn2+ from the injected zinc stearate

  11. A new experimental design method to optimize formulations focusing on a lubricant for hydrophilic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Du Hyung; Shin, Sangmun; Khoa Viet Truong, Nguyen; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2012-09-01

    A robust experimental design method was developed with the well-established response surface methodology and time series modeling to facilitate the formulation development process with magnesium stearate incorporated into hydrophilic matrix tablets. Two directional analyses and a time-oriented model were utilized to optimize the experimental responses. Evaluations of tablet gelation and drug release were conducted with two factors x₁ and x₂: one was a formulation factor (the amount of magnesium stearate) and the other was a processing factor (mixing time), respectively. Moreover, different batch sizes (100 and 500 tablet batches) were also evaluated to investigate an effect of batch size. The selected input control factors were arranged in a mixture simplex lattice design with 13 experimental runs. The obtained optimal settings of magnesium stearate for gelation were 0.46 g, 2.76 min (mixing time) for a 100 tablet batch and 1.54 g, 6.51 min for a 500 tablet batch. The optimal settings for drug release were 0.33 g, 7.99 min for a 100 tablet batch and 1.54 g, 6.51 min for a 500 tablet batch. The exact ratio and mixing time of magnesium stearate could be formulated according to the resulting hydrophilic matrix tablet properties. The newly designed experimental method provided very useful information for characterizing significant factors and hence to obtain optimum formulations allowing for a systematic and reliable experimental design method.

  12. A facile method of hydrophobic surface modification for acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate terpolymer based on the out-migration property of metallic soaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanli; Chen, Tingting; Zhang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Hydrophobic surface modification is conducted in this study by using additives with long alkyl chains. Several kinds of metallic soaps, such as calcium stearate (CaSt), zinc stearate (ZnSt), magnesium stearate (MgSt) and barium stearate (BaSt) were employed. Polymer matrix is acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA) terpolymer due to its wonderful weather resistance property. The surface chemical characterization was studied by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) technology and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Carboxylate (Osbnd Csbnd O-) indexes of composites in both transmittance and reflection modes were calculated according to FTIR results. As to the ratio of carboxylate index in reflection mode to that in transmittance mode, the sample added with 5 wt% ZnSt shows a higher value of 8.77, and a much higher value of 14.47 for the sample added with 10 wt% ZnSt. The corresponding Csbnd C/ Csbnd H /Cdbnd C peak areas of the samples added with 5 wt% or 10 wt% ZnSt are 75.4% and 77.3% respectively, much higher than other samples. This indicates ZnSt is much easier to out-migrate to material surface and therefore is more suitable for hydrophobic surface modification. In particular, the water contact angle of the ASA/ZnSt composite added with 10 wt% ZnSt significantly increased to 127o (40o increase in comparison with pure ASA), successfully converting the surface wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic.

  13. The Lubricant Properties of LUBRITAB | Onyechi | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the lubricants on tablet hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution rate were also determined. Tablets containing LUBRITAB at a concentration level of 3 - 4 (% w/w) gave values of unit ejection force comparable with those of tablets containing 2% magnesium stearate. The tablets containing LUBRITAB ...

  14. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranga, Carla C.; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D.; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-01-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  15. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga, Carla C., E-mail: curanga@cicese.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beld, Joris, E-mail: joris.beld@drexelmed.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Mrse, Anthony, E-mail: amrse@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Córdova-Guerrero, Iván, E-mail: icordova@uabc.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC), Calzada Universidad 14418 Parque Industrial Internacional Tijuana, Tijuana, B.C. 22390 (Mexico); Burkart, Michael D., E-mail: mburkart@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Hernández-Martínez, Rufina, E-mail: ruhernan@cicese.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  16. An evaluation of the performance and mechanistic action of the costabiliser N-phenyl-3-acetyl pyrrolidine-2,4-dione and its derivatives in poly(vinyl chloride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, H.I.

    1999-10-01

    N-phenyl-3-acetyl pyrrolidine-2,4-dione (F6) and its derivatives (F6c and F6d) have been investigated as costabilisers for PVC at processing temperatures, along with the commercial costabilisers: dehydroacetic acid (DHA) and Rhodiostab-83 (R83). Spectroscopic (fluorescence, Fourier-transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance) studies on PVC itself, and model compounds of PVC impurities (e.g. 4-chloro-2-hexene) have shown two distinct modes of action: in which a metal complex between the costabiliser and a metal soap stabiliser (zinc stearate and calcium stearate is the active entity, one in which costabiliser action is facilitated by release of zinc chloride. F6 was shown to substitute for allylic chloride by a C-alkylation reaction so inhibiting polyene formation and giving very good initial colour. It was demonstrated that F6 formed a complex with the zinc stearate at room temperature to give a chelate in which the zinc ion is tetracoordinated. Because the costabiliser is able to co-ordinate readily to zinc stearate, this leads to good initial colour, but a more rapid evolution of HCl ('short-term' costabilisation). When the -C=O substituent in the 3-position was replaced by a '-C=N-alkyl' (F6d), or a '-C=N-phenyl' (F6c) group, the behaviour was changed markedly. FTIR and HCl evolution showed that F6d was unstable at 180 deg. C and reacted with HCl evolved from the degraded PVC, decomposing into a basic gas and a structure similar to F6. F6d being more basic formed a complex with the Lewis acid ZnCI 2 instead of zinc stearate. F6c did not interact with the ZnCl 2 or ZnSt 2 , despite the fact that it has an extra nitrogen atom. The reason for this is that the π orbital system of the N-substituted phenyl ring in the 3-position in the pyrrolidine ring is conjugated with the C=N double bond. DHA also interacted with the zinc stearate, but this interaction was significant only at higher temperatures, i.e. after heating to processing temperatures. The

  17. Poly(glycerol adipate)-fatty acid esters as versatile nanocarriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Verena M; Naolou, Toufik; Hause, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Poly(glycerol adipate) (PGA) is a biodegradable polymer with promising features for nanoparticulate drug carrier systems. By acylation of PGA with fatty acids, composite systems with amphiphilic properties can be obtained. Variation of the fatty acid (laurate, stearate and behenate) and their sub...... and the nanoparticles. With their diverse particle shapes and internal structures as well as their different thermal behavior, aggregate states and polarities, the systems offer promising possibilities as delivery systems for lipophilic, amphiphilic and water soluble drugs.......Poly(glycerol adipate) (PGA) is a biodegradable polymer with promising features for nanoparticulate drug carrier systems. By acylation of PGA with fatty acids, composite systems with amphiphilic properties can be obtained. Variation of the fatty acid (laurate, stearate and behenate...

  18. Deactivation in Continuous Deoxygenation of C18-Fatty Feedstock over Pd/Sibunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Rozmysłowicz, Bartosz; Mäki-Arvela, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic continuous deoxygenation of stearic acid, ethyl stearate and tristearin without any solvents was investigated using Pd/Sibunit as a catalyst in a trickle bed reactor at 300 °C. The main emphasis was to investigate the effect of gas atmosphere and catalyst deactivation. In addition....... The relative ratios between stearic acid, ethyl stearate and tristearin conversions to alkanes after 3 days time-on-stream were 2.8/2.3/1.0, respectively using 5 % H2/Ar as a gas atmosphere, whereas rapid catalyst deactivation occurred with all substrates under H2-lacking atmosphere. The spent catalyst......’s specific surface area profile along the downward reactor was maximum in the middle of the catalyst beds with the highest pore shrinking in the beginning and at the end of the reactor catalyst segments in the case of stearic acid and tristearin deoxygenation whereas that decreased consecutively as ethyl...

  19. Rare-gas yields in 238U and 232Th fission by 14MeV neutrons, measured by an emanating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feu Alvim, C.A.; Bocquet, J.P.; Brissot, R.; Crancon, J.; Moussa, A.

    1977-01-01

    A direct method, using emanation of rare gases by uranyle stearate and thorium stearate, has been applied to the measurement of cumulative fractional yields of certain isotopes of krypton and xenon, in the fissions of 238 U and 232 Th by 14MeV-neutrons. The independent yields of the same isotopes were measured previously by means of isotopic on-line separation. From these results, the widths of the mass and charge distributions, the relative chain yields, the fractional cumulative yields of certain bromine and iodine isotopes, the values of Zsub(p) the most probable charge, in the isobaric chains 87-93 and 137-142, and the elemental yields of krypton and xenon were calculated [fr

  20. Coated limestone as a filler for the production of PVC-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of laboratory investigations of the possibility to obtain coated limestone for the production of PVC-products are presented in this paper. Limestone from the "Venčac" deposit (Aranđelovac, Serbia and Montenegro was used as the raw material. The investigations were carried out in two phases: obtaining the coated limestone and determination of the degree of coating. The results of the investigations showed that successful coating of the surface of the limestone particles with Ca-stearate (Ca-stearate content 3% was achieved in a vibro mill with rings and the obtained degree of coating was higher than 95%. The coating degree was determined in transmitted light by a polarization microscope applying the immersion method (water immersion.

  1. Water-repellent coatings prepared by modification of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Dinesh Kumar, V.

    Superhydrophobic coatings with a static water contact angle (WCA) > 150° were prepared by modifying ZnO nanoparticles with stearic acid (ZnO@SA). ZnO nanoparticles of size ˜14 nm were prepared by solution combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal that as prepared ZnO has hexagonal wurtzite structure whereas the modified coatings convert to zinc stearate. Field emission scanning electron micrographs (FE-SEM) show the dual morphology of the coatings exhibiting both particles and flakes. The flakes are highly fluffy in nature with voids and nanopores. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectrum shows the stearate ion co-ordinates with Zn2+ in the bidentate form. The surface properties such as surface free energy (γp) and work of adhesion (W) of the unmodified and modified ZnO coatings have been evaluated. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy reveals that surface defects play a major role in the wetting behavior.

  2. DSC, FT-IR, NIR, NIR-PCA and NIR-ANOVA for determination of chemical stability of diuretic drugs: impact of excipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumieniczek Anna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that drugs can directly react with excipients. In addition, excipients can be a source of impurities that either directly react with drugs or catalyze their degradation. Thus, binary mixtures of three diuretics, torasemide, furosemide and amiloride with different excipients, i.e. citric acid anhydrous, povidone K25 (PVP, magnesium stearate (Mg stearate, lactose, D-mannitol, glycine, calcium hydrogen phosphate anhydrous (CaHPO4 and starch, were examined to detect interactions. High temperature and humidity or UV/VIS irradiation were applied as stressing conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, FT-IR and NIR were used to adequately collect information. In addition, chemometric assessments of NIR signals with principal component analysis (PCA and ANOVA were applied.

  3. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... A 10 (4.54) Lead fluoride A 10 (4.54) Lead iodide A 10 (4.54) Lead nitrate A 10 (4.54) Lead stearate... fluoride X 1 (0.454) Beryllium nitrate X 1 (0.454) Butyl acetate D 5,000 (2,270) Butylamine C 1,000 (454) n... B 100 (45.4) Cupric acetoarsenite X 1 (0.454) Cupric chloride A 10 (4.54) Cupric nitrate B 100 (45.4...

  4. Influence of trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length on the physicochemical and immunopotentiating properties of DDA/TDX liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallerup, Rie Selchau; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Schiøth, Mikkel Lohmann

    2015-01-01

    Linking physicochemical characterization to functional properties is crucial for defining critical quality attributes during development of subunit vaccines toward optimal safety and efficacy profiles. We investigated how the trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length influenced the physicochemical...... and immunopotentiating properties of the clinically tested liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and analogues of trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB). TDB analogues with symmetrically shortened acyl chains [denoted X: arachidate (A), stearate (S), palmitate (P), myristate (Myr) and laurate...

  5. Environ: E00509 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00509 Ganoderma applanatum fruit body Elfvingia Crude drug beta-(1->3),(1->4) D-g...AX:40483] ... Polyporaceae Ganoderma applanatum fruit body (dried) Component: beta-(...derma applanatum [TAX:29884], Fomes fomentarius [TAX:40442], Fomitopsis pinicola [T...3beta-stearate, Betulin [CPD:C08618], Palmitic acid [CPD:C00249], Oleic acid [CPD:C00712], Linolic acid, Ergosterol [CPD:C01694] Gano

  6. Obtención de resinas fenólicas termoestables de lignina extraída del bagazo de la caña de azúcar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra León

    2016-03-01

    • The lignine is then reacted during the molding operation, with hexamethylentetraamine, that acts like a crosslinking agent. Some properties of the synthetized resins were determinate; it a was found that the best formulation consist of 46,0% of resin (phenollignine, 34,5% of bagasse, 13,8% of hexamethylentetraamine, 3,7% of magnesium oxide and 2,0% of zinc stearate.

  7. Studium lisovatelnosti přímo lisovatelné maltosy

    OpenAIRE

    Balhárková, Eva

    2007-01-01

    In the work is studied mechanical strength and disintegration time of tablets prepared by direct compression of the spray dried maltose product - AdvantoseTM 100 and its mixture with Vivapur 102 in the ratio of 1:1 according to the compression force (6, 8, 10 kN), addition of lubricants (magnesium stearate, Pruv) and addition of model active substances (acetylsalicylic acid and ascorbic acid). Used concentration of lubricants was 1 %, of model active substance 50 %. Tablet strength and disint...

  8. Neural network: an instrument to study flow and packing properties of pharmaceutical powders

    OpenAIRE

    Mulas, Gilberto; Kachrimanis, K.; Gavini, Elisabetta; Giunchedi, Paolo; Malamataris, S.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study five brands of microcrystalline cellulose (Ph101, Vivapur, Ph 301, Emcocel and Prosolv), three brands of Crospovidone (XL, XL-10 and INF) and pregelatinized Starch were mixed with 2% w/w of Aerosil 200, Aerosil R972 (two different kinds of colloidal silicon dioxide) or Mg stearate, to obtain 27 distinct mixtures. Flow rate, bulk and tapped density of mixtures were measured and tablets were prepared.

  9. Studium lisovacího procesu a vlastností tablet z různých typů hydrogenfosforečnanu vápenatého.

    OpenAIRE

    Koryťáková, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    The thesis evaluates anhydrous and dihydrate calcium hydrogen phosphate from the view point of the tensile strength, disintegration time of tablets depending on the compression force. Two firm products - Anhydrous Emcompress® and Di-Cafos® A 60 are used as anhydrate and Emcompress® is used as dihydrate. A compression force together with lubricants (magnesium stearate, sodium stearyl fumarate) and an addition of microcrystalline cellulose (Vivapur® 102) are the influential factors. In addition...

  10. Spectroscopic investigation of the aggregation state of amphotericin B during loading, freeze-drying, and reconstitution of polymeric micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica; Kwon, Glen S

    2004-11-22

    To investigate the relative aggregation state of amphotericin B (AmB) during loading and reconstitution of polymeric micelles. Hexanoate and stearate derivatives of PEO-b-p (L-Asp) were prepared. The polymers and AmB were dissolved in methanol (MeOH). Milli-Q water was then added slowly, and the MeOH was removed via rotary evaporation. The solutions were freeze-dried in the presence of trehalose. During micelle preparation, the aggregation state of AmB was assessed using absorption spectroscopy. Upon reconstitution, the samples were analyzed using vapor-pressure osmometry, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and absorption spectroscopy. The absorption spectrum of AmB in the presence of the block copolymers was compared to that of AmB alone under the same conditions. AmB was loaded into micelles prepared from acyl derivatives of PEO-b-p (L-Asp). Absorption spectroscopy indicated that the aggregation state was preserved during the loading process. AmB exists in a self-aggregated state in polymeric micelles containing hexanoate ester cores and in a relatively monomeric state in polymeric micelles containing stearate ester cores. Vapor-pressure osmometry confirmed the isotonicity of the formulations, while SEC indicated that the micelles were approximately 10(6) g/mol. Depending on the polymer structure and assembly conditions, it is possible to encapsulate AmB in a relatively nonaggregated or aggregated state in micelles prepared from acyl derivatives of PEO-b-p (L-Asp). In polymeric micelles containing stearate side chains, AmB was loaded in a nearly monomeric state, possibly due to interaction with the stearate side chains. The final aggregation state of the drug is preserved during lyophilization and reconstitution of polymeric micelles prepared by a novel solvent evaporation procedure.

  11. The selective recycling of mixed plastic waste of polylactic acid and polyethylene terephthalate by control of process conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carné Sánchez, Arnau; Collinson, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    The glycolysis of postconsumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste was evaluated with catalysts of zinc acetate, zinc stearate and zinc sulfate, showing that zinc acetate was the most soluble and effective. The chemical recycling by solvolysis of polylactic acid (PLA) and PET waste in either methanol or ethanol was investigated. Zinc acetate as a catalyst was found to be necessary to yield an effective depolymerization of waste PLA giving lactate esters, while with the same reaction condit...

  12. TAK-242, a small-molecule inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 signalling, unveils similarities and differences in lipopolysaccharide- and lipid-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Sophie E; Liang, Hanyu; Costford, Sheila R; Klip, Amira; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Sanchez-Avila, Alicia; Ely, Brian; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-11-30

    Emerging evidence suggests that TLR (Toll-like receptor) 4 and downstream pathways [MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) and NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)] play an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. LPS (lipopolysaccharide) and saturated NEFA (non-esterified fatty acids) activate TLR4, and plasma concentrations of these TLR4 ligands are elevated in obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Our goals were to define the role of TLR4 on the insulin resistance caused by LPS and saturated NEFA, and to dissect the independent contribution of LPS and NEFA to the activation of TLR4-driven pathways by employing TAK-242, a specific inhibitor of TLR4. LPS caused robust activation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in L6 myotubes, along with impaired insulin signalling and glucose transport. TAK-242 completely prevented the inflammatory response (MAPK and NF-κB activation) caused by LPS, and, in turn, improved LPS-induced insulin resistance. Similar to LPS, stearate strongly activated MAPKs, although stimulation of the NF-κB axis was modest. As seen with LPS, the inflammatory response caused by stearate was accompanied by impaired insulin action. TAK-242 also blunted stearate-induced inflammation; yet, the protective effect conferred by TAK-242 was partial and observed only on MAPKs. Consequently, the insulin resistance caused by stearate was only partially improved by TAK-242. In summary, TAK-242 provides complete and partial protection against LPS- and NEFA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance, respectively. Thus, LPS-induced insulin resistance depends entirely on TLR4, whereas NEFA works through TLR4-dependent and -independent mechanisms to impair insulin action.

  13. TAK-242, a small-molecule inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 signalling, unveils similarities and differences in lipopolysaccharide- and lipidinduced inflammation and insulin resistance in muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Sophie E.; Liang, Hanyu; Costford, Sheila R.; Klip, Amira; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Sanchez-Avila, Alicia; Ely, Brian; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that TLR (Toll-like receptor) 4 and downstream pathways [MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) and NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)] play an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. LPS (lipopolysaccharide) and saturated NEFA (non-esterified fatty acids) activate TLR4, and plasma concentrations of these TLR4 ligands are elevated in obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Our goals were to define the role of TLR4 on the insulin resistance caused by LPS and saturated NEFA, and to dissect the independent contribution of LPS and NEFA to the activation of TLR4-driven pathways by employing TAK-242, a specific inhibitor of TLR4. LPS caused robust activation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in L6 myotubes, along with impaired insulin signalling and glucose transport. TAK-242 completely prevented the inflammatory response (MAPK and NF-κB activation) caused by LPS, and, in turn, improved LPS-induced insulin resistance. Similar to LPS, stearate strongly activated MAPKs, although stimulation of the NF-κB axis was modest. As seen with LPS, the inflammatory response caused by stearate was accompanied by impaired insulin action. TAK-242 also blunted stearate-induced inflammation; yet, the protective effect conferred by TAK-242 was partial and observed only on MAPKs. Consequently, the insulin resistance caused by stearate was only partially improved by TAK-242. In summary, TAK-242 provides complete and partial protection against LPS- and NEFA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance, respectively. Thus, LPS-induced insulin resistance depends entirely on TLR4, whereas NEFA works through TLR4-dependent and -independent mechanisms to impair insulin action. PMID:23050932

  14. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin-induced liver damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, N; Garba, S H; Timothy, H

    2009-12-01

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six. Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100 mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days respectively. Rats in group III were administered 450 mg/kg body weight of Psidium guajava only for 7 days while rats in groups IV, V and VI were administered Psidium guajava extract for 7 days and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin for 14 days. Histopathological investigation of the liver tissues revealed striking oedema and mild periportal mononuclear cell infiltration of hepatic cords in the liver of rats administered 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. Pretreatment with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract showed a slight degree of protection against the induced hepatic injury caused by 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate. Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained revealed a significant increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes measured in the groups administered with 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract compared to the control groups and those pretreated with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. This study has shown that the aqueous extract of psidium guajava leaf possesses hepatoprotective property at lower dose and a hepatotoxic property at higher dose but further studies with prolonged duration is recommended.

  15. Extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, John F.; Stauffer, Edgar Eugene

    1976-10-12

    A low chloride extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires comprising from substantially 75 to substantially 94 weight percent of sodium carbonate as the basic fire extinguishing material, from substantially 1 to substantially 5 weight percent of a water-repellent agent such as a metal stearate, from substantially 2 to substantially 10 weight percent of a flow promoting agent such as attapulgus clay, and from substantially 3 to substantially 15 weight percent of a polyamide resin as a crusting agent.

  16. Role of the thickening agent concentration and surfactant additions in the system's soap-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchegolev, G.G.; Trapeznikov, A.A.; Taranenko, V.G.

    1973-03-01

    The effect of the thickening agent concentration, surfactant additions and mechanical treatment on the microstructure and structural-mechanical properties of the system's lithium stearate-oil has been studied. The rate of cooling of the soap-oil system has been shown also to be of importance. The surfactants are less effective when introduced into a finished pseudogel, than when added during crystallization.

  17. Effect of temperature on the morphology and electro-optical properties of liquid crystal physical gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaw, W.L.; Mamat, C.R.; Triwahyono, S.; Jalil, A.A.; Bidin, N.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystal physical gels were (thermally) prepared with cholesteryl stearate as a gelator in nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl. The electro-optical performance of liquid crystal physical gels is almost entirely dependent on the gels' inherent morphology. This study involved an empirical investigation of the relationships among all of the gelation temperature, morphology, and electro-optical properties. Besides continuous cooling at room temperature, isothermal cooling was also performed at both 18 and 0 °C, corresponding to near-solid and solid phases of 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl respectively. Nevertheless, the liquid crystal physical gel was also isothermally rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen. Polarizing optical microscopy showed that the gel structure became thinner when isothermal cooling was carried out. These thinner gel aggregates then interconnected to form larger liquid crystal domains. Moreover, it was also revealed that the gel networks were randomized. Electron spin resonance results showed that the liquid crystal director orientation was severely randomized in the presence of gel networks. Conversely, isothermal cooling using liquid nitrogen generated a higher liquid crystal director orientation order. The 6.0 wt% cholesteryl stearate/4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl physical gel that was isothermally cooled using liquid nitrogen showed the lowest response time in a twisted nematic mode optical cell. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystal physical gel was prepared using nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl and cholesteryl stearate as gelator. Isothermal cooling at lower temperature produced thinner gel network and larger liquid crystal domain. - Highlights: • 5CB nematic liquid crystal was successfully gelled by cholesteryl stearate gelator. • The morphology of gel network was controlled by different cooling conditions. • Thinner gel network was formed by the rapid cooling using liquid nitrogen. • Enhanced

  18. Effect of temperature on the morphology and electro-optical properties of liquid crystal physical gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaw, W.L. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Mamat, C.R., E-mail: che@kimia.fs.utm.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Triwahyono, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Jalil, A.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Centre of Hydrogen Energy, Institute of Future Energy, Univerisiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bidin, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-12-01

    Liquid crystal physical gels were (thermally) prepared with cholesteryl stearate as a gelator in nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl. The electro-optical performance of liquid crystal physical gels is almost entirely dependent on the gels' inherent morphology. This study involved an empirical investigation of the relationships among all of the gelation temperature, morphology, and electro-optical properties. Besides continuous cooling at room temperature, isothermal cooling was also performed at both 18 and 0 °C, corresponding to near-solid and solid phases of 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl respectively. Nevertheless, the liquid crystal physical gel was also isothermally rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen. Polarizing optical microscopy showed that the gel structure became thinner when isothermal cooling was carried out. These thinner gel aggregates then interconnected to form larger liquid crystal domains. Moreover, it was also revealed that the gel networks were randomized. Electron spin resonance results showed that the liquid crystal director orientation was severely randomized in the presence of gel networks. Conversely, isothermal cooling using liquid nitrogen generated a higher liquid crystal director orientation order. The 6.0 wt% cholesteryl stearate/4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl physical gel that was isothermally cooled using liquid nitrogen showed the lowest response time in a twisted nematic mode optical cell. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystal physical gel was prepared using nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl and cholesteryl stearate as gelator. Isothermal cooling at lower temperature produced thinner gel network and larger liquid crystal domain. - Highlights: • 5CB nematic liquid crystal was successfully gelled by cholesteryl stearate gelator. • The morphology of gel network was controlled by different cooling conditions. • Thinner gel network was formed by the rapid cooling using liquid nitrogen.

  19. Thermal, Mechanical and Water Resistance Properties of LDPE/Starch Bio-Based Polymer Blends for Food Packing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Berber Yamak, Hale

    2016-01-01

    In this study, low density polyethylene, LDPE was melt blended with starch using twin screw extruder to form biodegradable polymer blends. The LDPE/starch blend films used in food packing were obtained by hot pressing of the granules produced by extrusion process. The starch content was varied from 0 to 40 wt% of LDPE. To provide fine starch dispersion, glycerol and zinc stearate were used as plasticizer and compatibilizer, respectively. The effect of starch content on the properties of LDPE ...

  20. Solid phase carrier for radioimmuno analyses, as well as its manufacture and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriadec, B.; Roubertie, P.

    1979-01-01

    The solid phase carrier is in the form of a tablet containing freeze-dried protein-bonded gel, dicalcium phosphate and magnesium stearate. It is able to absorb 0.400 microlitre of an a solution containing antigen-antibody. When contacted with the solution, the tablet swells up and adapts to the shape of the column. The carrier is suitable for the TSH RIA test. (DG) [de

  1. A radionuclide generator for the production of 211Pb and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atcher, R.W.; Friedman, A.M.; Huizenga, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    211 Pb and its daughters are produced in a generator system which utilizes the distillation of the intermediate daughter 219 Rn from 223 Ra. The radium is precipitated as the stearate to isolate the parent while allowing the gaseous daughter to emanate. While the yield of the system is low, approximately 10%, the radionuclidic purity is extremely high. No measurable 223 Ra is found in the product. 223 Ra is separated from its parent, 227 Ac, by cation exchange. (author) 7 refs

  2. Studium vlastností výlisků z různých typů přímo lisovatelného xylitolu

    OpenAIRE

    Komínková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the study of properties of tablets from two types of directly compressible xylitol, namely Xylitab® 100 and Xylitab® 200. The focus of the study was the dependence of the tensile strength and disintegration time of the tablets on the compression force, the addition of lubricants, namely magnesium stearate and sodium stearyl fumarate (Pruv), with a concentration of 1%, and a 50% addition of model active ingredients, namely acetylsalicylic acid and ascorbic acid. The compr...

  3. Porovnání vlastností výlisků ze silicifikovaných mikrokrystalických celulos o různé velikosti částic

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Petra

    2007-01-01

    In the work is studied mechanical strength and disintegration time of tablets prepared by direct compression of the two form silicified microcrystalline celluloses - Prosolv SMCC 50 and Prosolv SMCC 90 according to the compression force (3; 3,5; 4kN), addition of lubricants (magnesium stearate, Pruv) and addition of model active substances (acetylsalicylic acid, ascorbic acid). Studied co-processed filler-binders differ by the size of elements. Used concentration of lubricants was 0,5 %, of m...

  4. Studium vlastností tablet ze dvou typů mikrokrystalické celulosy

    OpenAIRE

    Lišková, Simona

    2010-01-01

    The thesis studies mechanical strenght and disintegration time of tablets from two types of Microcel - Microcel® MC - 12 a Microcel® MC - 500. These characteristics were studied depending on compression force (3, 4 and 5 kN) and addition of two types of lubricants (magnesium stearate, natrium stearyl fumarate) in two concentrations - 0, 5 % and 1 % and addition of two model active substances in concentration 50 % (acetylsalicylic acid and ascorbic acid). For compression with active substance ...

  5. [A study of the properties of tablets from mixtures of two size degrees of alpha-lactose monohydrate and microcrystalline cellulose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzíková, J

    2006-03-01

    The paper examines the strength and disintegration time of compacts from the mixtures of two types of Tablettosas. Tablettosa 70 and Tablettosa 100 with microcrystalline cellulose represented by Vivapur 102. The mixtures of dry binders were prepared in the ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. The effect of two concentrations of the lubricant magnesium stearate on the strength and disintegration time of compacts was also examined. Tablet strength increased with higher representation of microcrystalline cellulose in the mixture, and decreased with higher stearate concentration. The compacts from the mixtures with Tablettosa 100 showed higher strength. Disintegration time was highest in the compacts with the largest perccintage of microcrystalline cellulose, and longer in the case of the mixtures with Tablettosa 100. Stearate did not exert a negative effect on disintegration time. In the mixtures of Tablettosas with Vivapur 102 in a ratio of 1:1, the effect of the model active ingredient acetylsalicylic acid on the above-mentioned properties of tablets was tested. acetylsalicylic acid produced a further decrease in the strength of compacts and shortened the disintegration time in more instances in the cased of the mixtures with Tahlettosa 100.

  6. A study of the properties of tablets made of directly compressible maltose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzíková, J; Balhárková, J

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of the strength and disintegration time of tablets made of directly compressible maltose Advantose 100. It studies the differences of the effects of two types of lubricants, magnesium stearate and sodium stearylfumarate, on the above-mentioned properties, and it also tests the mixtures of the substance with microcrystalline cellulose Vivapur 102 in a ratio of 1:1 and with ascorbic and acetylsalicylic acids. The compacts are obtained by using three compression forces, excepting mixtures with active ingredients, where one compression force is used. In the compression forces of 6 and 8 kN, no statistically significant difference was found in the intervention of the lubricants into the strength of the compacts made of Advantose 100, only in the compression force of 10 kN Pruv decreased the strength more than stearate. The mixture of Advantose 100 and Vivapur 102 yielded the strongest tablets, an addition of Pruv to it decreased the strength of compacts more than stearate. The periods of disintegration time of Advantose compacts as well as those of the mixture of dry binders were longer with an addition of Pruv. The compacts with acetylsalicylic acid possessed higher strength and a longer period of disintegration than those with ascorbic acid. There was no statistically significant difference within the type of the lubricant employed, both in the case of Advantose 100 and its mixture with Vivapur 102, between the values of strength of the compacts with acetylsalicylic acid.

  7. Diet Modulation is an Effective Complementary Agent in Preventing and Treating Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangmin; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Wang, Dezhi; Siegal, Gene P.; Hardy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    A significant percentage of breast cancer victims will suffer from metastases indicating that new approaches to preventing breast cancer metastasis are thus needed. Dietary stearate and chemotherapy have been shown to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We tested the complementary use of dietary stearate with a taxol-based chemotherapy which work through separate mechanisms to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We therefore carried out a prevention study in which diets were initiated prior to human MDA-MB-435 cancer cells being injected into the host and a treatment study in which diets were combined with paclitaxel (PTX). Using an orthotopic athymic nude mouse model and three diets (corn oil control diet/CO, low fat /LF or stearate/ST) the prevention study demonstrated that the ST diet decreased the incidence of lung metastasis by 50% compared to both the LF and CO diets. The ST diet also reduced the number and size of metastatic lung nodules compared to the LF diet. Results of the treatment study indicated that both the CO and ST diets decreased the number of mice with lung metastasis compared to the LF diet. Both CO and ST also decreased the number of lung metastases per mouse compared to the LF diet however only the ST diet cohort was significant. Histomorphometric analysis of the lung tumor tissue indicated that the ST diet plus PTX decreased angiogenesis compared to the LF diet plus PTX. In conclusion these results support combining diet with chemotherapy in both treatment and prevention settings. PMID:24832758

  8. Variability of some diterpene esters in coffee beverages as influenced by brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeenfard, Marzieh; Erny, Guillaume L; Alves, Arminda

    2016-11-01

    Several coffee brews, including classical and commercial beverages, were analyzed for their diterpene esters content (cafestol and kahweol linoleate, oleate, palmitate and stearate) by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) combined with spectral deconvolution. Due to the coelution of cafestol and kahweol esters at 225 nm, HPLC-DAD did not give accurate quantification of cafestol esters. Accordingly, spectral deconvolution was used to deconvolve the co-migrating profiles. Total cafestol and kahweol esters content of classical coffee brews ranged from 5-232 to 2-1016 mg/L, respectively. Commercial blends contained 1-54 mg/L of total cafestol esters and 2-403 mg/L of total kahweol esters. Boiled coffee had the highest diterpene esters content, while filtered and instant brews showed the lowest concentrations. However, individual diterpene esters content was not affected by brewing procedure as in terms of kahweol esters, kahweol palmitate was the main compound in all samples, followed by kahweol linoleate, oleate and stearate. Higher amounts of cafestol palmitate and stearate were also observed compared to cafestol linoleate and cafestol oleate. The ratio of diterpene esters esterified with unsaturated fatty acids to total diterpene esters was considered as measure of their unsaturation in analyzed samples which varied from 47 to 52%. Providing new information regarding the diterpene esters content and their distribution in coffee brews will allow a better use of coffee as a functional beverage.

  9. Mechanical properties of potato starch modified by moisture content and addition of lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Mateusz; Molenda, Marek; Horabik, Józef; Mueller, Peter; Opaliński, Ireneusz

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory testing was conducted to deliver a set of characteristics of structure and mechanical properties of pure starch and starch with an addition of a lubricant - magnesium stearate. Considerable influence of moisture content of potato starch was found in the case of density, parameters of internal friction, coefficients of wall friction and flowability. Elasticity was found to be strongly influenced by water content of the material. Addition of magnesium stearate affected density and parameters of flowability, internal friction and elasticity. Bulk density increased from 604 to 774 kg m-3 with decrease in moisture content of potato starch from 17 to for 6%. Addition of magnesium stearate resulted in approximately 10% decrease in bulk density. Angle of internal friction obtained for 10 kPa of consolidation stress decreased from 33 to 24º with increase in moisture content, and to approximately 22º with addition of the lubricant. With an increase of moisture content from 6 to 18% and with addition of the lubricant, the modulus of elasticity during loading decreased from approximately 1.0 to 0.1 MPa. Modulus of elasticity during unloading was found in the range from 19 to 42 MPa and increased with increase of moisture content and amount of lubricant.

  10. Effect of ionizing radiation on mechanical and thermal properties of low-density polyethylene containing pro-degradant agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardi, Marcelo A.G.; Kodama, Yasko; Machado, Luci D.B.; Giovedi, Claudia; Rosa, Derval S.

    2009-01-01

    The wide use of plastics on packages of short-lifetime products has presented harmful consequences for the environment due to their low degradation rate. By this way, improved results to the bio-assimilation of polyolefins have been achieved by the incorporation of pro-oxidant components. The aim of this work is to evaluate the mechanical and thermal behavior of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) modified by those agents and submitted to ionizing radiation by gamma rays. LDPE was modified using a masterbatch containing calcium stearate (CaSt), or magnesium stearate (MgSt) or Clariant R commercial metallic complex. The final amount of stearate in modified LDPE was 0.2%. The films were obtained by compression molding. Samples were gamma irradiated at absorbed doses of 15 kGy and 100 kGy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) were performed on samples, as well as mechanical analysis by universal testing machine. Thermal properties of samples presenting pro-degradant agents were affected by the ionizing radiation in the dose range studied, and some of the mechanical properties were clearly modified by reducing their values of tensile strength at break and elongation at break. (author)

  11. Effect of ionizing radiation on mechanical and thermal properties of low-density polyethylene containing pro-degradant agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardi, Marcelo A.G.; Kodama, Yasko; Machado, Luci D.B., E-mail: magbardi@ipen.b, E-mail: ykodama@ipen.b, E-mail: lmachado@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: giovedi@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Derval S., E-mail: derval.rosa@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The wide use of plastics on packages of short-lifetime products has presented harmful consequences for the environment due to their low degradation rate. By this way, improved results to the bio-assimilation of polyolefins have been achieved by the incorporation of pro-oxidant components. The aim of this work is to evaluate the mechanical and thermal behavior of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) modified by those agents and submitted to ionizing radiation by gamma rays. LDPE was modified using a masterbatch containing calcium stearate (CaSt), or magnesium stearate (MgSt) or Clariant{sup R} commercial metallic complex. The final amount of stearate in modified LDPE was 0.2%. The films were obtained by compression molding. Samples were gamma irradiated at absorbed doses of 15 kGy and 100 kGy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) were performed on samples, as well as mechanical analysis by universal testing machine. Thermal properties of samples presenting pro-degradant agents were affected by the ionizing radiation in the dose range studied, and some of the mechanical properties were clearly modified by reducing their values of tensile strength at break and elongation at break. (author)

  12. Preparation and characterization of poly(lactic acid)/ zinc-aluminium layered double hydroxide nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eili Mahboobeh; Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus; Zobir Hossein; Mansor Ahmad; Norazowa Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Poly (lactic acid)/ stearate - zinc aluminum layered double hydroxide/ (PLA/ SZnAl LDH) nano composites were prepared via solution intercalation process using a modified ZnAl LDH. The anionic clay Zn 3 Al-NO 3 -LDH was prepared by a co-precipitation method and then modified with stearate ions by ion exchange process. Stearate-ZnAl LDH particles were then homogeneously dispersed in PLA matrix by a solution casting method. The pristine and modified ZnAl LDH was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which suggested that the modification was successful. The XRD analysis showed that during modification of LDH, the basal spacing increased from 8.83 Angstrom to 40.1 Angstrom. The PLA/ ZnAl LDH nano composites were characterized by tensile testing and XRD. The obtained nano composites showed dramatic enhancements in elongation at break as compared to those of the pure PLA. XRD results indicated that the materials formed are nano composites. (author)

  13. Influencia de las concentraciones de aceite y emulsionante en las propiedades reológicas de emulsiones aceite en agua del tipo salsa fina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco, José María

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The viscous and viscoelastic behaviour of food emulsions containing a mixture of egg yolk and sucrose stearate as a function of oil and sucrose stearate concentrations were studied. Oil concentrations ranged between 40- 55% w/w for emulsions containing 5% w/w sucrose stearate and sucrose ester concentrations varied between 0-10% w/w for emulsions containing 50% w/w oil. steady flow, linear oscillatory shear tests and droplet size distribution measurements were carried out. An increase in oil or emulsifier concentration produced an increase in both the steady-state viscosity and in the viscoelastic functions. The results have been explained on the basis of the relationship between the structural parameters and the rheology of the emulsions studied.

    Se ha estudiado la influencia que ejercen las concentraciones de aceite y emulsionante sobre el comportamiento viscoso y viscoelástico de emulsiones alimentarias con bajo contenido en aceite estabilizadas por una mezcla de yema de huevo y estearato de sacarosa. Se han preparado emulsiones variando la concentración de aceite entre el 40 y el 55% p/p en emulsiones con un 5% p/p en sucroéster y la concentración de sucroéster entre el 0 y el 10% p/p manteniendo un 50% p/p en aceite. Se han realizado medidas reológicas en cizalla oscilatoria dentro del intervalo de viscoelasticidad lineal, representativas de un estado imperturbado, y medidas en cizalla estacionaria, que causan una gran destrucción estructural. También se han determinado las distribuciones de tamaños de gota. Un aumento en el contenido de aceite o emulsionante produce un aumento de las funciones viscoelásticas dinámicas y de la viscosidad estacionaria. Estos resultados se explican en función de los parámetros estructurales de las emulsiones.

  14. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnesium stearine production via direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, M.; Ylitervo, P.; Pettersson, A.; Prakoso, T.; Soerawidjaja, T. H.

    2017-06-01

    The fossil oil production could not compensate with the increase of its consumption, because of this reason the renewable alternative energy source is needed to meet this requirement of this fuel. One of the methods to produce hydrocarbon is by decarboxylation of fatty acids. Vegetable oil and fats are the greatest source of fatty acids, so these can be used as raw material for biohydrocarbon production. From other researchers on their past researchs, by heating base soap from divalent metal, those metal salts will decarboxylate and produce hydrocarbon. This study investigate the process and characterization of magnesium soaps from palm stearine by Blachford method. The metal soaps are synthesized by direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide to produce magnesium stearine and magnesium stearine base soaps at 140-180°C and 6-10 bar for 3-6 hours. The operation process which succeed to gain metal soaps is 180°C, 10 bar, for 3-6 hours. These metal soaps are then compared with commercial magnesium stearate. Based on Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA) results, the decomposition temperature of all the metal soaps were 250°C. Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis have shown the traces of sodium sulphate for magnesium stearate commercial and magnesium hydroxide for both type of magnesium stearine soaps. The analysis results from Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (MP-AES) have shown that the magnesium content of magnesium stearine approximate with magnesium stearate commercial and lower compare with magnesium stearine base soaps. These experiments suggest that the presented saponification process method could produced metal soaps comparable with the commercial metal soaps.

  16. Assessment of environmental impact of ultraviolet radiation or electron beam cured print inks on plastic packaging materials; Avaliacao do impacto ambiental gerado por tintas graficas curadas por radiacao ultravioleta ou feixe de eletrons em materiais para embalagens plasticas convencionais ou biodegradaveis pos-consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Goncalves

    2014-07-01

    The high level of pollution generated by the inadequate disposal of polymeric materials has motivated the search for environmentally friendly systems and techniques such as the application of biodegradable polymers and the replacement of the solvent-based paint systems by those with high solids content, based water or cured by radiation, practically free of volatile organic compounds. However, the cured polymer coatings are neither soluble nor molten, increasing the complexity of the reprocessing, recycling and degradation. Thus, this work aimed to develop print inks modified with pro-degrading agents, cured by ultraviolet radiation or electron beam, for printing or decoration in plastic packaging products of short lifetime, which are biodegradable or not. Six coatings (varnish and inks in five colors: yellow, blue, white, black and red), three pro-degrading agents (cobalt stearate, cerium stearate and manganese stearate), five polymeric substrates (Ecobras®, low density polyethylene and its respective modifications with pro-degrading agents). The coatings were applied to the substrates and cured by ultraviolet radiation or electron beam, resulting in 180 samples. These materials were then exposed to accelerated aging chamber, type 'QUV', and composting in natural environment. In order to assess the effects of the polymer coatings on the degradation process of the specimens, only the yellow and black samples were exposed to a controlled composting environment via respirometry, reducing to 16 the number of samples. The organic compound generated by the biodegradation process was analyzed by the ecotoxicity tests. It was observed that the coating layer acted as a barrier that inhibits degradation of the plastic when exposed to weathering. The addition of pro-degrading agents promoted acceleration in the degradation process, promoting the migration of the metal ion to the medium without affecting the final quality of the organic compost. (author)

  17. Assessment of environmental impact of ultraviolet radiation or electron beam cured print inks on plastic packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Goncalves

    2014-01-01

    The high level of pollution generated by the inadequate disposal of polymeric materials has motivated the search for environmentally friendly systems and techniques such as the application of biodegradable polymers and the replacement of the solvent-based paint systems by those with high solids content, based water or cured by radiation, practically free of volatile organic compounds. However, the cured polymer coatings are neither soluble nor molten, increasing the complexity of the reprocessing, recycling and degradation. Thus, this work aimed to develop print inks modified with pro-degrading agents, cured by ultraviolet radiation or electron beam, for printing or decoration in plastic packaging products of short lifetime, which are biodegradable or not. Six coatings (varnish and inks in five colors: yellow, blue, white, black and red), three pro-degrading agents (cobalt stearate, cerium stearate and manganese stearate), five polymeric substrates (Ecobras®, low density polyethylene and its respective modifications with pro-degrading agents). The coatings were applied to the substrates and cured by ultraviolet radiation or electron beam, resulting in 180 samples. These materials were then exposed to accelerated aging chamber, type 'QUV', and composting in natural environment. In order to assess the effects of the polymer coatings on the degradation process of the specimens, only the yellow and black samples were exposed to a controlled composting environment via respirometry, reducing to 16 the number of samples. The organic compound generated by the biodegradation process was analyzed by the ecotoxicity tests. It was observed that the coating layer acted as a barrier that inhibits degradation of the plastic when exposed to weathering. The addition of pro-degrading agents promoted acceleration in the degradation process, promoting the migration of the metal ion to the medium without affecting the final quality of the organic compost. (author)

  18. Adjuvants based on synthetic mycobacterial cord factor analogues: Biophysical properties of neat glycolipids and nano-self-assemblies with DDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallerup, Rie Selchau; Franzyk, Henrik; Schiøth, Mikkel Lohmann

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic mycobacterial cord factor analogues, e.g., trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB), are highly promising adjuvants due to their strong immunopotentiating capabilities, but their biophysical properties have remained poorly characterized. Here, we report the synthesis of an array of synthetic TDB...... trehalose mono- (TMX) and diester (TDX) analogues with symmetrically shortened acyl chains [denoted by X: arachidate (A), stearate (S), palmitate (P), myristate (Myr) and laurate (L)] and an analogue with a short hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker inserted between the trehalose headgroup of TDS...

  19. Uranyl soaps - thermal, electronic and infrared spectral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, A.K.; Bhandari, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The electronic and infrared spectra and TGA thermogram of uranyl soaps (laurate, mystrate, palmitate and stearate) have been studied. The environment about the UO 2+ 2 ion would comprise two 'short bite' bidentate carboxylate groups and oxygen atoms bridging from adjacent carboxylic molecules. The uranyl soaps have UO 2+ 2 vibronic absorption (approx. equal to 22730 cm -1 ) in the range found for eight coordinate uranyl complexes. The greater resistance to thermal degradation (approx. equal to 300 0 C) of these soaps and their stepwise thermal degradation infer strong metal-ligand interaction. (orig.) [de

  20. Studium vlastností výlisků z přímo lisovatelné fructosy

    OpenAIRE

    Lišková, Simona

    2008-01-01

    In this work is studied mechanical strenght an disintegration time of tablets from direct compressed fructose - Advantose ™ FS 95, prepared by coprocessing method of spray- drying of fructose and a small amount of starch and its mixture with microcrystalline cellulose Vivapur 102 in the ratio of 1:1 according to the compression force 10, 12,5 and 15 kN, addition of two lubricants (magnesium stearate, Pruv) in the same concentration 1% and addition of two model active substances (acetylsalicyl...

  1. Development of a Moldable, Biodegradable Polymeric Bone Repair Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-30

    26% Cellulose 2 85% PCL 1250 15% Calcium Carbonate 2 85% PCL 1250 15% Carnauba Wax 3 80% PCL 1250 20% Carboxymethyl 4 Cellulose 85% PCL 1250 15% Gum...Tragacanth 4 83% PCL 1250 17% Gelatin 5 83% PCL 1250 17% Gum Xanthan 7 79% PCL 2000 21% Carnauba Wax 7 85% PCL 2000 15% Calcium Stearate 7 83% PLA 2000...azaum 200 wo ) After the revision of the statement of work, the objective of this contract was the development of a biodegradable bone wax . It would be

  2. Ultrasonic measurements and other allied parameters of yttrium soaps in mixed organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Tandon, K.

    1990-01-01

    The ultrasonic measurements of yttrium soaps were made in a mixture of 70 % benzene and 30 % dimethylsulfoxide (ν/ν) to determine the critical micelle concentration, soap-solvent interaction and various acoustic and thermodynamic parameters. The values of the CMC decrease with increasing chainlength of fatty acid constituent of the soap molecule and are in agreement with the values obtained from other micellar properties. The various acoustic parameters (intermolecular freelength, adiabatic compressibility, apparent molar compressibility, specific acoustic impedance, apparent molar volume, molar sound velocity, solvation number, available volume and relative association) for yttrium soaps (myristate, palmitate, stearate and oleate) have been evaluated by ultrasonic velocity measurements. (Authors)

  3. The manufacture process and properties of (U, Gd)O2 burnable poisonous fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Wei; Tang Yueming; Dai Shengping; Yang Youqing; Zuo Guoping; Wu Shihong; Gu Xiaofei; Gu Mingfei

    2006-03-01

    The main properties of important raw powder materials used in the (U, Gd)O 2 burnable poisonous fuel pellets production line of NPIC are presented. The powders included UO 2 , Gd 2 O 3 , (U, Gd) 3 O 8 and necessary additives, such as ammonium oxalate and zinc stearate. And the main properties of (U, Gd)O 2 burnable poisonous fuel pellets and the manufacture processes, such as ball-milling blending, granulation, pressing, sintering and grinding are also described. Moreover, the main effect of the process parameters controlled in the manufacture process have been discussed. (authors)

  4. Heated uranium tetrafluoride target system to release non-rare gas fission products for the TRISTAN isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.L.

    1977-10-01

    Off-line experiments indicated that fluorides of As, Se, Br, Kr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Sb, Te, I and Xe could be volatilized, but except for Br, Kr, I and Xe, none of these elements were observed after mass separation in the on-line experiments. The results of the on-line experiments indicated a very low level of hydride contamination at ambient temperature and consequently, uranium tetrafluoride replaced uranyl stearate as the primary gaseous fission product target. Possible reasons for the failure of the heated target system to yield non-rare gas activities are discussed and suggestions for designing a new heated target system are presented

  5. Microemulsion systems studied by positron annihilation techniques. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.; Olea, O.; Fucugauchi, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The positron annihilation technique was applied to assess the effect of the double bond of the surfactant molecule on the microemulsion formation mechanism by replacing sodium stearate by sodium oleate in surfactant-cosurfactant-solvent-water systems. Diameters of microemulsions were measured by dynamic laser light scattering, and the obtained values concur with the present positron annihilation data. Structures of these microemulsions have been assessed by considering the available conformation and shapes of the surfactant-cosurfactant-solvent-assemblies. Volumes of the same aggregates have been calculated by taking into consideration the packing constraint imposed upon kink formation. (Auth.)

  6. Fabrication of superhydrophobic sol-gel composite films using hydrophobically modified colloidal zinc hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, R V; Basu, Bharathibai J

    2009-11-15

    A superhydrophobic sol-gel composite film was fabricated by incorporating hydrophobically modified colloidal zinc hydroxide (CZH) in sol-gel matrix. CZH was prepared by controlled precipitation and modified by treatment with stearic acid. The concentration of stearic acid and stirring time were optimized to obtain modified CZH with very high water contact angle (WCA) of 165 degrees and sliding angle (SA)superhydrophobic surfaces. FTIR spectrum also confirmed the presence of zinc stearate in the composite film. The method is simple and cost-effective and does not involve any expensive chemicals or equipments.

  7. Application of D-optimal experimental design method to optimize the formulation of O/W cosmetic emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuris, J; Vasiljevic, D; Jokic, S; Ibric, S

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the application of D-optimal mixture experimental design in optimization of O/W cosmetic emulsions. Cetearyl glucoside was used as a natural, biodegradable non-ionic emulsifier in the relatively low concentration (1%), and the mixture of co-emulsifiers (stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol and glyceryl stearate) was used to stabilize the formulations. To determine the optimal composition of co-emulsifiers mixture, D-optimal mixture experimental design was used. Prepared emulsions were characterized with rheological measurements, centrifugation test, specific conductivity and pH value measurements. All prepared samples appeared as white and homogenous creams, except for one homogenous and viscous lotion co-stabilized by stearic acid alone. Centrifugation testing revealed some phase separation only in the case of sample co-stabilized using glyceryl stearate alone. The obtained pH values indicated that all samples expressed mild acid value acceptable for cosmetic preparations. Specific conductivity values are attributed to the multiple phases O/W emulsions with high percentages of fixed water. Results of the rheological measurements have shown that the investigated samples exhibited non-Newtonian thixotropic behaviour. To determine the influence of each of the co-emulsifiers on emulsions properties, the obtained results were evaluated by the means of statistical analysis (ANOVA test). On the basis of comparison of statistical parameters for each of the studied responses, mixture reduced quadratic model was selected over the linear model implying that interactions between co-emulsifiers play the significant role in overall influence of co-emulsifiers on emulsions properties. Glyceryl stearate was found to be the dominant co-emulsifier affecting emulsions properties. Interactions between the glyceryl stearate and other co-emulsifiers were also found to significantly influence emulsions properties. These findings are especially important

  8. Investigation of nuclear criticality within a powder using coupled neutronics and thermofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.L.M.A. [Imperial College London, Department of Earth Sciences and Engineering, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pain, C.C. [Imperial College London, Department of Earth Sciences and Engineering, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.pain@imperial.ac.uk; Eaton, M.D.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Piggott, M.D. [Imperial College London, Department of Earth Sciences and Engineering, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ziver, A.K. [RM Consultants Ltd., Suite 7, Hitching Court, Abingdon Business Park, OX14 1RA (United Kingdom); Oliveira, C.R.E. de [University of New Mexico, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Yamane, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    This paper investigates the dynamics of a postulated criticality in a powder used as part of fuel processing. Numerical simulations are performed in 2D and 3D geometries in which layers of MOX, UO{sub 2} and zinc stearate (acting as a moderating lubricant) powders become supercritical. The system simulated here were initialised with a step reactivity insertion of 1$, 2$ and 5$. The coupled radiation and multiphase-multicomponent simulations showed complex dynamics with an increase of powder temperature and mixing of the moderator into the MOX.

  9. Hydrodeoxygenation of fatty acid esters catalyzed by Ni on nano-sized MFI type zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Moritz W.; Rodriguez-Niño, Daniella; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of support morphology and composition on the intrinsic activity of Ni supported on MFI-type zeolite was explored in the hydrodeoxygenation of methyl stearate, tristearate, and algae oil (mixture of triglycerides). The nano-sized structure of the support (self-pillared nanosheets) is beneficial for the activity of the catalysts. Higher Ni dispersion and concomitant higher reaction rates were obtained on nano-structured supports than on zeolite with conventional morphology. Rates normalized to accessible Ni atoms (TOF), however, varied little with support morphology. Acidity of the support increases the rate of Ni-catalyzed C-O hydrogenolysis per surface metal site.

  10. Studium lisovacího procesu a vlastností tablet z aglomerované a granulované laktosy

    OpenAIRE

    Neprašová, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The thesis studied tensile strength, disintegration time of tablets and energy profile of compression of agglomerated lactose Tablettose® 80 and of granulated lactose SuperTab® 30GR. Tested parameters were studied depending on compression force, addition of two concentrations of the lubricant magnesium stearate (0.5 and 1%) and 25% microcrystalline cellulose Microcel® MC-200. The tablets were compressed using the material testing machine T1 - FRO 50 TH.A1K Zwick/Roell. Used compression forces...

  11. Formulation of Dipyridamole Sustained Release Tablet Using Floating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Mauilida Valentina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dipyridamole is a drug for prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complication of heart valve replacement and long term therapy of angina pectoris will be well absorbed in stomach. To maintain therapeutic plasma concentration in long time and to increase bioavalaibility is needed a sustained release dosage form having the long residence time in the stomach. The objective of this research was to make floating sustained release tablet of dipyridamole conforming to the requirement that was set up by dipyridamol therapeutic concentration. Tablets were made by wet granulation method using aquadest as a liquid binder, HPMC K4M, Ac-di-sol, Avicel PH 102, talk, and Mg stearat. Dissolution assay was carried out using type 2 release tester at rotation speed of 50 rpm in medium 900 mL HCl 0.1 N at 37 ± 0.5 °C for 8 hours. The formulation containing of 50 mg dipirydamole, HPMC K4M (30%, Ac-di-sol (20%, Avicel PH 102 (37%, talk (2%, and Mg stearat (1% released 59.61 ± 6.73% and 89.34 ± 5.87% of dipyridamole respectively after 4 and 8 hours that conformed to the requirement.

  12. In situ synthesis and modification of calcium carbonate nanoparticles via a bobbling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Modified calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles with cubic- and spindle-like configuration were synthesized in situ by the typical bobbling (gas-liquid-solid) method. The modifiers, such as sodium stearate, octadecyl dihydrogen phosphate (ODP) and oleic acid (OA), were used to obtain hydrophobic nanoparticles. The different modification effects of the modifiers were investigated by measuring the active ratio, whiteness and the contact angle. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA analysis) were employed to characterize the obtained products. A preliminary reaction mechanism was discussed. According to the results, the active ratio of CaCO3 modified by ODP was ca. 99.9% and the value of whiteness was 97.3% when the dosage of modifiers reached 2%. The contact angle was 122.25° for the CaCO3 modified in the presence of sodium stearate, ODP and OA. When modified CaCO3 was filled into PVC, the mechanical properties of products were improved greatly such as rupture intensity, pull intensity and fuse temperature. The compatibility and affinity between the modified CaCO3 nanoparticles and the organic matrixes were greatly improved.

  13. In situ synthesis and modification of calcium carbonate nanoparticles via a bobbling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO LiNa; FENG JingDong; WANG ZiChen

    2009-01-01

    Modified calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles with cubic- and spindle-like configuration were synthesized in situ by the typical bobbling (gas-liquid-solid) method.The modifiers,such as sodium stearate,octadecyl dihydrogen phosphate (ODP) and oleic acid (OA),were used to obtain hydrophobic nanoparticles.The different modification effects of the modifiers were investigated by measuring the active ratio,whiteness and the contact angle.Moreover,transmission electron microscopy (TEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA analysis) were employed to characterize the obtained products.A preliminary reaction mechanism was discussed.According to the results,the active ratio of CaCO3 modified by ODP was ca.99.9% and the value of whiteness was 97.3% when the dosage of modifiers reached 2%.The contact angle was 122.25° for the CaCO3 modified in the presence of sodium stearate,ODP and OA.When modified CaCO3 was filled into PVC,the mechanical properties of products were improved greatly such as rupture intensity,pull intensity and fuse temperature.The compatibility and affinity between the modified CaCO3 nanoparticles and the organic matrixes were greatly improved.

  14. Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, vitamins A and E, and carotenoids in six canid and four ursid species at four zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissey, S; Ange, K; Slifka, K; Bowen, P; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M; Langman, C; Sadler, W; Ward, A

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional status for six captive canid species (n=34) and four captive ursid species (n=18) were analyzed. The species analyzed included: African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), gray wolf (Canis lupus), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baleiyi), red wolf (Canis rufus), brown bear (Ursus arctos), polar bear (Ursus maritimus), spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), and sun bear (Ursus malayanus). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diet for each species at each institution met probable dietary requirements. Blood samples were collected from each animal and analyzed for vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D, vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Family differences were found for 25(OH)D, retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol. Species differences were found for all detectable measurements. Carotenoids were not detected in any species. The large number of animals contributing to these data, provides a substantial base for comparing the nutritional status of healthy animals and the differences among them.

  15. Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Jacobsen, Krista L; Slifka, Kerri A; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Langman, Craig B; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diets at each institution met the probable dietary requirements for each species except for the pallas cat. Blood samples were collected from each animal (n = 69) and analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), vitamin D metabolites [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D)], vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Species differences were found for all except triacylglycerides and 1,25(OH)(2)D. Genus differences were found for retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Circulating nutrient concentrations for many of the species in this study have not been reported previously and most have not been compared with the animals' dietary intakes. The large number of animals analyzed provides a substantial base for comparing the serum nutrient concentrations of healthy animals, for both wild and captive exotic species.

  16. Synthesis and application of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU You-nian; LI Hong-bing; SHU Wan-gen; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2005-01-01

    A new type of thermal stabilizer, antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate)(Sb(SCH2COOC8H17)5), was synthesized by using antimony trioxide, isooctanol and thioglycolic acid in 2 steps. Firstly, antimony trioxide was oxidized into colloidal antimony peroxide. Then antimony peroxide and isooctyl thioglycollate reacted stoichiometrically for 2 h with the yield of 87%. This compound was used as thermal stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride(PVC). The results show that the thermal stability time is 52 min at 200 ℃ by heat-ageing oven test when adding 2.5% thermal stabilizer to PVC resin. Compared with antimony tris(isooctyl thiolycollate), the initial thermal stability of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) is better than that of antimony tris(isooctyl thioglycollate), while the long-term thermal stability time is shorter than that of antimony tris(isooctyl thioglycollate). Meanwhile, the synergism of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) with calcium stearate was studied, indicating that when the mass ratio of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) to calcium stearate is 2:1, the thermal stability time of PVC is 58 min.

  17. A study of degradation resistance and cytocompatibility of super-hydrophobic coating on magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufen; Feyerabend, Frank; Tang, Shawei; Hu, Jin; Lu, Xiaopeng; Blawert, Carsten; Lin, Tiegui

    2017-09-01

    Calcium stearate based super-hydrophobic coating was deposited on plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) pre-treated magnesium substrate. The pre-treated magnesium and super-hydrophobic coating covered sample were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical corrosion measurements. The cytocompatibility and degradation resistance of magnesium, pre-treated magnesium and super-hydrophobic coating were analysed in terms of cell adhesion and osteoblast differentiation. The results indicate that the calcium stearate top coating shows super-hydrophobicity and that the surface is composed of micro/nanostructure. The super-hydrophobic coating covered sample shows higher barrier properties compared with the PEO pre-treated magnesium and bare magnesium. Human osteoblast proliferation, but not differentiation is enhanced by the PEO coating. Contrary, the super-hydrophobic coating reduces proliferation, but enhances differentiation of osteoblast, observable by the formation of hydroxyapatite. The combination of corrosion protection and cell reaction indicates that this system could be interesting for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving the hardness of dry granulated tablets containing sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Francis; Okelo, Geoffrey; Colón, Ivelisse; Kushner, Joseph

    2010-11-15

    The impact of the addition of a wetting agent, the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), on the tablet hardness of a dry granulated, solid oral dosage form was investigated. In three batches, SLS was added concurrently with: (1) a poorly soluble, highly hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the other excipients prior to the initial blending step, (2) magnesium stearate prior to roller compaction, or (3) magnesium stearate prior to tableting. A fourth batch, which did not contain SLS, served as a control. The maximum hardness of 100 mg, 1/4″-SRC tablets for the four batches--SLS added initially, prior to roller compaction, prior to tableting, and no SLS--were 61±3, 71±3, 89±5, and 86±3N, respectively, suggesting reduced processing of SLS improves tablet hardness by ∼50%. Dissolution of the tablets in 900 ml of simulated gastric fluid with paddles at 75 rpm showed that: (1) there was no impact on the insertion point of SLS into the process on API dissolution, and (2) that the presence of SLS improved dissolution by 5% compared to the control tablets. Adding SLS just prior to tableting can improve tablet hardness and yield similar dissolution performance relative to SLS addition prior to the initial blending step. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of different emulsifiers on characteristics of eggless cake containing soy milk: Modeling of physical and sensory properties by mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Nazanin Fatemeh; Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Emulsifiers of different structures and functionalities are important ingredients usually used in baking cakes with satisfactory properties. In this study, three emulsifiers including distilled glycerol mono stearate (DGMS), lecithin and sorbitan mono stearate (SMS) were used to bake seven eggless cakes containing soy milk and optimization was performed by using mixture experimental design to produce an eggless cake sample with optimized properties. Physical properties of cake batters (viscosity, specific gravity and stability), cake quality parameters (moisture loss, density, specific volume, volume index, contour, symmetry, color and texture) and sensory attributes of eggless cakes were analyzed to investigate functional potential of the emulsifiers and results were compared with those of control cake containing egg. Almost in all cases emulsifiers, compared to the control cake, changed properties of eggless cakes significantly. Regarding models of different response variables (except for some properties) and their high R(2) (99.51-100), it could be concluded that models obtained by mixture design were significantly fitted for the studied responses.

  20. Spinnability and Characteristics of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)-based Bicomponent Fibers with a Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Modified Polypropylene Core for Piezoelectric Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauß, Benjamin; Steinmann, Wilhelm; Walter, Stephan; Beckers, Markus; Seide, Gunnar; Gries, Thomas; Roth, Georg

    2013-07-03

    This research explains the melt spinning of bicomponent fibers, consisting of a conductive polypropylene (PP) core and a piezoelectric sheath (polyvinylidene fluoride). Previously analyzed piezoelectric capabilities of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are to be exploited in sensor filaments. The PP compound contains a 10 wt % carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2 wt % sodium stearate (NaSt). The sodium stearate is added to lower the viscosity of the melt. The compound constitutes the fiber core that is conductive due to a percolation CNT network. The PVDF sheath's piezoelectric effect is based on the formation of an all-trans conformation β phase, caused by draw-winding of the fibers. The core and sheath materials, as well as the bicomponent fibers, are characterized through different analytical methods. These include wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) to analyze crucial parameters for the development of a crystalline β phase. The distribution of CNTs in the polymer matrix, which affects the conductivity of the core, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermal characterization is carried out by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Optical microscopy is used to determine the fibers' diameter regularity (core and sheath). The materials' viscosity is determined by rheometry. Eventually, an LCR tester is used to determine the core's specific resistance.

  1. Solving manufacturing problems for L-carnitine-L-tartrate to improve the likelihood of successful product scale-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badawi Aliaa A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available L-carnitine-L-tartrate, a non-essential amino acid, is hygroscopic. This causes a problem in tablet production due to pronounced adhesion of tablets to punches. A 33 full factorial design was adopted to suggest a tablet formulation. Three adsorbents were suggested (Aerosil 200, Aerosil R972, talc to reduce stickiness at three concentrations (1, 3 and 5 %, and three fillers (mannitol, Avicel PH 101, Dibasic calcium phosphate were chosen to prepare 27 formulations. Micromeritic properties of formulations were studied, and tablets were prepared by wet granulation. Absence of picking, sticking or capping, recording of sufficient hardness, acceptable friability and tablet ejection force indicated formulation success. The resulting formulation prepared using Avicel PH 101 and 1 % Aerosil 200 was submitted to further investigation in order to choose the most suitable compression conditions using a 33 full factorial design. Variables included compression force, tableting rate and magnesium stearate (lubricant concentration. The formulation prepared at compression force of 25 kN, using 2 % magnesium stearate, at a production rate of 30 tablets/ minute, was found to be the most appropriate scale up candidate.

  2. Estudios físico-químicos de miscelas de aceites vegetales XIV. Volumen molar, refracción molar y viscosidad de disoluciones de estearato de metilo en ciciohexano, hexano, tetracloroetileno o tricloroetileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Cueto, María J.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available In the miscelies studied, molar volume and molar refraction values show linear dependence with the molar fraction of methyl stearate. Viscosity values fit Hildebrand's modified equation, where the "Vo" parameter is a linear function of the molar fraction of methyl stearate. Regarding with this three physico-chemical properties, the mixtures studied behave like ideal mixtures of two organic liquids without ionization.

    En todas las miscelas estudiadas los valores del volumen molar y de la refracción molar presentan variaciones lineales en función de la fracción molar de estearato de metilo. Los valores de viscosidad de las miscelas estudiadas se ajustan a la ecuación de fluidez de Hildebrand modificada, siendo su parámetro "Vo" función lineal de la fracción molar de estearato de metilo. En relación con estas tres características, el comportamiento de las miscelas estudiadas no difiere significativamente del correspondiente a una mezcla "ideal" de dos líquidos orgánicos sin ionizar.

  3. Infectious flare-ups and serious sequelae following endodontic treatment: a prospective randomized trial on efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in cases of asymptomatic pulpal-periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D R; Furst, M L; Belott, R M; Lefkowitz, R D; Spritzer, I B; Sideman, B H

    1987-07-01

    Without peritreatment antibiotics, infectious flare-ups (about 15% incidence) and serious sequelae follow endodontic treatment of asymptomatic teeth with necrotic pulps and associated periapical lesions. Antibiotics administered after endodontic treatment (4-day regimen) reduce the flare-up incidence to about 2%, but hypersensitivity responses, sensitization, resistant microbes, and drug-taking compliance are potential problems. To ascertain whether a specific prophylactic antibiotic (high-dose, 1-day regimen) would preferentially maintain this low flare-up incidence while overcoming antibiotic-related problems, 315 patients with quiescent pulpal necrosis and an associated periapical lesion were randomly given either penicillin V or erythromycin (base or stearate). Evaluations of flare-up after endodontic treatment were done at 1 day, 1 week, and 2 months. A 2.2% flare-up incidence was found, with no statistically significant differences for penicillin (0.0%), base (2.9%), and stearate (3.8%). No hypersensitivity responses occurred. Gastrointestinal side effects were found primarily with the erythromycins (12.4%). A comparative analysis of the data from our first study (no peritreatment antibiotics) and the pooled data from our last two investigations (including the current trial) showed that peritreatment antibiotic coverage significantly reduced flare-ups and serious sequelae after endodontic treatment (p less than 0.001).

  4. Enzyme-Catalyzed Regioselective Modification of Starch Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Soma [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing of Macromolecules, Othmer Dept. of Chemical and Biological Science and Engineering; Sahoo, Bishwabhusan [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing of Macromolecules, Othmer Dept. of Chemical and Biological Science and Engineering; Teraoka, Iwao [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing of Macromolecules, Othmer Dept. of Chemical and Biological Science and Engineering; Miller, Lisa M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); Gross, Richard A. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing of Macromolecules, Othmer Dept. of Chemical and Biological Science and Engineering

    2004-12-13

    The selective esterification of starch nanoparticles was performed using as catalyst Candida antartica Lipase B (CAL-B) in its immobilized (Novozym 435) and free (SP-525) forms. The starch nanoparticles were made accessible for acylation reactions by formation of Aerosol-OT (AOT, bis(2-ethylhexyl)sodium sulfosuccinate) stabilized microemulsions. Starch nanoparticles in microemulsions were reacted with vinyl stearate, ε-caprolactone, and maleic anhydride at 40 °C for 48 h to give starch esters with degrees of substitution (DS) of 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4, respectively. Substitution occurred regioselectively at the C-6 position of the glucose repeat units. Infrared microspectroscopy (IRMS) revealed that AOT-coated starch nanoparticles diffuse into the outer 50 μm shell of catalyst beads. Thus, even though CAL-B is immobilized within a macroporous resin, CAL-B is sufficiently accessible to the starch nanoparticles. When free CAL-B was incorporated along with starch within AOT-coated reversed micelles, CAL-B was also active and catalyzed the acylation with vinyl stearate (24 h, 40 °C) to give DS = 0.5. After removal of surfactant from the modified starch nanoparticles, they were dispersed in DMSO or water and were shown to retain their nanodimensions.

  5. Development of a New Punch Head Shape to Replicate Scale-Up Issues on a Laboratory Tablet Press III: Replicating sticking phenomenon using the SAS punch and evaluation by checking the tablet surface using 3D laser scanning microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Manabu; Aoki, Shigeru; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Yamato, Keisuke

    2018-04-20

    Sticking is a common observation in the scale-up stage on the punch tip using a commercial tableting machine. The difference in the total compression time between a laboratory and a commercial tableting machine is considered one of the main root causes of scale up issues in the tableting processes. The proposed Size Adjusted for Scale-up (SAS) punch can be used to adjust the consolidation and dwell times for commercial tableting machine. As a result, the sticking phenomenon is able to be replicated at the pilot scale stage. As reported in this paper, the quantification of sticking was measured using a 3D laser scanning microscope to check the tablet surface. It was shown that the sticking area decreased with the addition of magnesium stearate in the formulation, but the sticking depth was not affected by the additional amount of magnesium stearate. It is proposed that use of a 3D laser scanning microscope can be applied to evaluate sticking as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and so sticking can be monitored continuously without stopping the machine. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Screening of several excipients for direct compression of tablets: A new perspective based on functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Excipients are widely used to formulate solid drug forms by direct compression. However, the powderforming and tableting properties of these excipients are affected by the presence of lubricants and active ingredients. In this study, a screening methodology was employed to test the performance of an excipient for direct compression. The effects of three lubricants (magnesium stearate, stearic acid and talc on the compressibility and compaction of these excipients were assessed by the compressibility index and lubricant sensitivity ratio, respectively. Likewise, the dilution potential in blends with a poorly compactible drug such as acetaminophen was also assessed. Finally, the elastic recovery of tablets was evaluated five days after production. All lubricants increased the compressibility of these excipients and improved their flowability. However, hydrophobic lubricants such as magnesium stearate had a marked negative effect on compactibility, especially in plastic-deforming and more regularlyshaped materials with a smooth surface such as Starch 1500. Alginic acid, rice and cassava starches had the largest elastic recovery (>5%, indicating a tendency to cap. Moreover, highly plastic deforming materials such as sorbitol and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K30 exhibited the best dilution potential (~10%, whereas alginic acid showed a very high value (~70%. In terms of performance, sorbitol, PVP-K30, Avicel PH-101, sodium alginate and pregelatinized starch were the most appropriate excipients for the direct compression of drugs.

  7. Data from mass spectrometry, NMR spectra, GC–MS of fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Uranga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data described herein is related to the article with the title “Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings” C.C. Uranga, J. Beld, A. Mrse, I. Cordova-Guerrero, M.D. Burkart, R. Hernandez-Martinez (2016 [1]. Data includes nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and GC–MS data used for the identification and characterization of fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. GC–MS traces are also shown for incubations in defined substrate, consisting in Vogel׳s salts supplemented with either 5% grapeseed oil or 5% glucose, the two combined, or 5% fructose. Traces for incubations in the combination of 5% grapeseed oil and 5% glucose for different fungal species are also included. Images of mycelium morphology when grown in 5% glucose with or without 5% grapeseed oil are shown due to the stark difference in mycelial pigmentation in the presence of triglycerides. High concentration gradient data for the plant model Nicotiana tabacum germinated in ethyl stearate (SAEE and ethyl linoleate (LAEE is included to show the transition between growth inhibition and growth induction in N. tabacum by these compounds. Keywords: NMR, GC–MS, Fatty acid esters, Ethyl stearate, Ethyl linoleate, Growth inhibition, Growth induction

  8. Fabrication of Hydrophobic Membrane for the Separation of n-Hexane/Water Mixture Using Novel Oleophilic Nanoparticle and Kevlar Fabric, as a Superior Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Karimnezhad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of functionalized membranes with hydrophobic/oleophilic surfaces for the elimination of n-hexane from water using para-aminobenzoate alumoxane, boehmite-epoxide and a novel nanoparticle, i.e., Stearate Alumoxane by a simple coating technique, is reported here. FTIR was used to characterize nanoparticles. SEM and contact angle measurement analyses were used to identify the nanocomposite membranes. The concentrations of oil in permeate and retentate were measured by UV/vis spectrophotometer. The morphology of Stearate alumoxane nanoparticles was investigated by means of SEM images. The composed film of nanoparticles on the Kevlar fabric was hydrophobic with water contact angle of ~ 145° and oleophilic with oil contact angle of ~ 0º. In addition, the membranes retained stable hydrophobicity and high separation efficiency even after employing for 6 times. Applying these properties, a setup was considered using the functionalized Kevlar fabric to separate oil through down to a collector and leave water drops. Our batch filtration system was exclusively gravity-driven. The achieved separation system can separate the oily water mixture (with the concentration of 20 % (v/v n-hexane in water, effectively with a separation efficiency of 84%.

  9. Effects of disintegration-promoting agent, lubricants and moisture treatment on optimized fast disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late, Sameer G; Yu, Yi-Ying; Banga, Ajay K

    2009-01-05

    Effects of calcium silicate (disintegration-promoting agent) and various lubricants on an optimized beta-cyclodextrin-based fast-disintegrating tablet formulation were investigated. Effects of moisture treatment were also evaluated at 75, 85 and 95% relative humidities. A two factor, three levels (3(2)) full factorial design was used to optimize concentrations of calcium silicate and lubricant. Magnesium stearate, being commonly used lubricant, was used to optimize lubricant concentration in optimization study. Other lubricants were evaluated at an obtained optimum concentration. Desiccator with saturated salt solutions was used to analyze effects of moisture treatments. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that concentration of calcium silicate had no effect; however concentration of lubricant was found to be important for tablet disintegration and hardness. An optimized value of 1.5% of magnesium stearate gave disintegration time of 23.4 s and hardness of 1.42 kg. At an optimized concentration, glycerol dibehenate and L-leucine significantly affected disintegration time, while talc and stearic acid had no significant effect. Tablet hardness was significantly affected with L-leucine, while other lubricants had no significant effect. Hardness was not affected at 75% moisture treatment. Moisture treatment at 85 and 95% increased hardness of the tablets; however at the same time it negatively affected the disintegration time.

  10. Effects of anticaking agents and relative humidity on the physical and chemical stability of powdered vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipasek, Rebecca A; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that is widely used by the food industry in the powder form for both its nutritional and functional properties. However, vitamin C is deliquescent, and deliquescence has been linked to physical and chemical instabilities. Anticaking agents are often added to powder systems to delay or prevent caking, but little is known about their effect on the chemical stability of powders. In this study, various anticaking agents (calcium phosphate, calcium silicate, calcium stearate, corn starch, and silicon dioxide) were combined with sodium ascorbate at 2% and 50% w/w ratios and stored at various relative humidities (23%, 43%, 64%, 75%, 85%, and 98% RHs). Chemical and physical stability and moisture sorption were monitored over time. Additionally, saturated solution samples were stored at various pHs to determine the effect of surface pH and dissolution on the vitamin degradation rate. Storage RH, time, and anticaking agent type and ratio all significantly affected (P vitamin C stability. Silicon dioxide and calcium silicate (50% w/w) and calcium stearate (at both ratios) were the only anticaking agents to improve the physical stability of powdered sodium ascorbate while none of the anticaking agents improved its chemical stability. However, corn starch and calcium stearate had the least adverse effect on chemical stability. Dissolution rate and pH were also important factors affecting the chemical and physical stability of the powders. Therefore, monitoring storage environmental conditions and anticaking agent usage are important for understanding the stability of vitamin C. Anticaking agent type and ratio significantly affected the physical and chemical stability of vitamin C over time and over a range of RHs. No anticaking agent improved the chemical stability of the vitamin, and most caused an increase in chemical degradation even if physical stability was improved. It is possible that anticaking agents would greatly affect other

  11. In vivo study of doxorubicin-loaded cell-penetrating peptide-modified pH-sensitive liposomes: biocompatibility, bio-distribution, and pharmacodynamics in BALB/c nude mice bearing human breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Y

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Ding,1,* Wei Cui,2,* Dan Sun,1 Gui-Ling Wang,1 Yu Hei,1 Shuai Meng,1 Jian-Hua Chen,3 Ying Xie,1 Zhi-Qiang Wang4 1Beijing Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmaceutics and New Drug Delivery Systems, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 2School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 3School of Medicine, Jianghan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kent State University Geauga, Burton, OH, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In vivo evaluation of drug delivery vectors is essential for clinical translation. In BALB/c nude mice bearing human breast cancer tumors, we investigated the biocompatibility, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of doxorubicin (DOX-loaded novel cell-penetrating peptide (CPP-modified pH-sensitive liposomes (CPPL (referred to as CPPL(DOX with an optimal CPP density of 4%. In CPPL, a polyethylene glycol (PEG derivative formed by conjugating PEG with stearate via acid-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG2000-Hz-stearate was inserted into the surface of liposomes, and CPP was directly attached to liposome surfaces via coupling with stearate to simultaneously achieve long circulation time in blood and improve the selectivity and efficacy of CPP for tumor targeting. Compared to PEGylated liposomes, CPPL enhanced DOX accumulation in tumors up to 1.9-fold (p<0.01 and resulted in more cell apoptosis as a result of DNA disruption as well as a relatively lower tumor growth ratio (T/C%. Histological examination did not show any signs of necrosis or inflammation in normal tissues, but large cell dissolving areas were found in tumors following the treatment of animals with CPPL(DOX. Our findings provide important and detailed information regarding the distribution of CPPL(DOX in vivo and reveal their abilities of tumor penetration and potential for the treatment of

  12. A cellular model to study drug-induced liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Application to acetaminophen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaut, Anaïs; Le Guillou, Dounia [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Moreau, Caroline [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Service de Biochimie et Toxicologie, CHU Pontchaillou, Rennes (France); Bucher, Simon [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); McGill, Mitchell R. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Martinais, Sophie [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Gicquel, Thomas; Morel, Isabelle [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Service de Biochimie et Toxicologie, CHU Pontchaillou, Rennes (France); Robin, Marie-Anne [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Jaeschke, Hartmut [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fromenty, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.fromenty@inserm.fr [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2016-02-01

    Obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can increase susceptibility to hepatotoxicity induced by some xenobiotics including drugs, but the involved mechanisms are poorly understood. For acetaminophen (APAP), a role of hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is suspected since the activity of this enzyme is consistently enhanced during NAFLD. The first aim of our study was to set up a cellular model of NAFLD characterized not only by triglyceride accumulation but also by higher CYP2E1 activity. To this end, human HepaRG cells were incubated for one week with stearic acid or oleic acid, in the presence of different concentrations of insulin. Although cellular triglycerides and the expression of lipid-responsive genes were similar with both fatty acids, CYP2E1 activity was significantly increased only by stearic acid. CYP2E1 activity was reduced by insulin and this effect was reproduced in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Next, APAP cytotoxicity was assessed in HepaRG cells with or without lipid accretion and CYP2E1 induction. Experiments with a large range of APAP concentrations showed that the loss of ATP and glutathione was almost always greater in the presence of stearic acid. In cells pretreated with the CYP2E1 inhibitor chlormethiazole, recovery of ATP was significantly higher in the presence of stearate with low (2.5 mM) or high (20 mM) concentrations of APAP. Levels of APAP-glucuronide were significantly enhanced by insulin. Hence, HepaRG cells can be used as a valuable model of NAFLD to unveil important metabolic and hormonal factors which can increase susceptibility to drug-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequent in obese individuals. • NAFLD can favor hepatotoxicity induced by some drugs including acetaminophen (APAP). • A model of NAFLD was set up by using HepaRG cells incubated with stearate or oleate. • Stearate-loaded HepaRG cells presented higher cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1

  13. Particle interaction of lubricated or unlubricated binary mixtures according to their particle size and densification mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Piera; Joiris, Etienne; Martelli, Sante

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess an experimental approach for technological development of a direct compression formulation. A simple formula was considered composed by an active ingredient, a diluent and a lubricant. The active ingredient and diluent were selected as an example according to their typical densification mechanism: the nitrofurantoine, a fragmenting material, and the cellulose microcrystalline (Vivapur), which is a typical visco-elastic material, equally displaying good bind and disintegrant properties. For each ingredient, samples of different particle size distribution were selected. Initially, tabletability of pure materials was studied by a rotary press without magnesium stearate. Vivapur tabletability decreases with increase in particle size. The addition of magnesium stearate as lubricant decreases tabletability of Vivapur of greater particle size, while it kept unmodified that of Vivapur of lower particle size. Differences in tabletability can be related to differences in particle-particle interactions; for Vivapur of higher particle size (Vivapur 200, 102 and 101), the lower surface area develops lower surface available for bonds, while for Vivapur of lower particle size (99 and 105) the greater surface area allows high particle proximity favouring particle cohesivity. Nitrofurantoine shows great differences in compression behaviour according to its particle size distribution. Large crystals show poorer tabletability than fine crystals, further decreased by lubricant addition. The large crystals poor tabletability is due to their poor compactibility, in spite of high compressibility and plastic intrinsic deformability; in fact, in spite of the high densification tendency, the nature of the involved bonds is very weak. Nitrofurantoine samples were then mixed with Vivapurs in different proportions. Compression behaviour of binary mixes (tabletability and compressibility) was then evaluated according to diluents proportion in the mixes. The

  14. Distribution of a low dose compound within pharmaceutical tablet by using multivariate curve resolution on Raman hyperspectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiret, Mathieu; de Juan, Anna; Gorretta, Nathalie; Ginot, Yves-Michel; Roger, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-25

    In this work, Raman hyperspectral images and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) are used to study the distribution of actives and excipients within a pharmaceutical drug product. This article is mainly focused on the distribution of a low dose constituent. Different approaches are compared, using initially filtered or non-filtered data, or using a column-wise augmented dataset before starting the MCR-ALS iterative process including appended information on the low dose component. In the studied formulation, magnesium stearate is used as a lubricant to improve powder flowability. With a theoretical concentration of 0.5% (w/w) in the drug product, the spectral variance contained in the data is weak. By using a principal component analysis (PCA) filtered dataset as a first step of the MCR-ALS approach, the lubricant information is lost in the non-explained variance and its associated distribution in the tablet cannot be highlighted. A sufficient number of components to generate the PCA noise-filtered matrix has to be used in order to keep the lubricant variability within the data set analyzed or, otherwise, work with the raw non-filtered data. Different models are built using an increasing number of components to perform the PCA reduction. It is shown that the magnesium stearate information can be extracted from a PCA model using a minimum of 20 components. In the last part, a column-wise augmented matrix, including a reference spectrum of the lubricant, is used before starting MCR-ALS process. PCA reduction is performed on the augmented matrix, so the magnesium stearate contribution is included within the MCR-ALS calculations. By using an appropriate PCA reduction, with a sufficient number of components, or by using an augmented dataset including appended information on the low dose component, the distribution of the two actives, the two main excipients and the low dose lubricant are correctly recovered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  15. Formulation and Evaluation of Extended- Release Tablet of Zolpidem Tartrate by Wet Granulation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pourhashem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to design and evaluate extended - release system of the hypnotic agent, Zolpidem tartrate usefulness for the treatment of insomnia. The half-life of this drug is about 1.9 - 3 hours that indicating it a candidate for the extended release formulation. Our investigation relates to development of extended drug delivery system based on Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMCK4M as release retardant, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP k30 as binder and Magnesium Stearate using Factorial design. In vitro release study of matrix tablets was carried out in 0.01N HCl for 2 hours. All prepared matrix tablets were evaluated for physicochemical evaluation and drug content. The formulation that had release profile according to United State Pharmacopoeia selected for stability study according to ICH guidelines.

  16. Protection of cesium-antimony photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzulutskov, A.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Prager, M.; Shefer, E.

    1996-06-01

    In order to operate gaseous photomultipliers in the visible range it was suggested to protect sensitive photocathodes against contact to air and counting gases by their coating with a thin solid dielectric film. We present data on coating of cesium- antimony photocathodes with alkali-halide (NaI, CsI, CsF, NaF), oxide (SiO) and organic (hexatriacontane, calcium stearate) films. The photoelectron transmission through these films and their protection capability have been studied in detail. Cesium-antimony photocathodes are shown to withstand exposure to considerable doses of oxygen and dry air when coated with Nal films. This opens ways to their operation in gas media. (authors), 11 refs., 6 figs

  17. The majority of vitamin A is transported as retinyl esters in the blood of most carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, F J; Ryder, O A; Rambeck, W A; Zucker, H

    1990-01-01

    1. In canines and mustelides total vitamin A was 10-50 times higher compared to other species due to a high amount of retinyl esters (40-99% of total vitamin A) in blood plasma. The dominant vitamin A ester was in most species retinyl stearate. 2. In Ursidae, Procyonidae, Viveridae and Felidae, total vitamin A was much lower. When present, however, retinyl esters also represented 10-65% of total vitamin A in plasma. 3. Only retinol was detected in plasma of the family, Hyaenidae, and the suborder, Pinnipedia. 4. In maned wolf cubs it was found that retinol, retinyl esters and alpha-tocopherol increased with the age of the animals, reaching values comparable to adult animals at the age of 5 months.

  18. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  19. SHRINKAGE REDUCTION AND CRACK PREVENTION OF ALKALI-ACTIVATED PHOSPHOROUS SLAG CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fly ash, calcium oxide and polypropylene fiber on the physical and mechanical properties, shrinkage and cracking behaviors of alkali-activated phosphorous slag cement (AA-PS-C were studied. The results show that replacing 10-15% phosphorous slag by fly ash and adding calcium oxide as an expansive agent reduce the shrinkage of AA-PS-C. Fly ash will increase the flexural strength, although the compressive strength will be slightly decreased, while the calcium oxide expansive agent coated with aluminum stearate will slightly shorten the setting time and reduce the strength. Adding polypropylene fiber can greatly increase the crack-resistance of AA-PS-C.

  20. Trehalose diester glycolipids are superior to the monoesters in binding to Mincle, activation of macrophages invitro and adjuvant activity invivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Alexandra; Kallerup, Rie S.; Korsholm, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    The T-cell adjuvanticity of mycobacterial cord factor trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) is well established. The identification of the C-type lectin Mincle on innate immune cells as the receptor for TDM and its synthetic analogue trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) has raised interest in development...... of synthetic Mincle ligands as novel adjuvants. Trehalose mono- (TMXs) and diesters (TDXs) with symmetrically shortened acyl chains [denoted by X: arachidate (A), stearate (S), palmitate (P), and myristate (M)] were tested. Upon stimulation of murine macrophages, G-CSF secretion and NO production were strongly...... activity of trehalose diesters. Overall, immune activation in vitro and in vivo by trehalose esters of simple fatty acids requires two acyl chains of length and involves Mincle....

  1. Formation of a hydrophobic and corrosion resistant coating on magnesium alloy via a one-step hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianxu; Hu, Yaobo; Zhang, Yuxin; Pan, Fusheng

    2017-11-01

    A hydrophobic coating was fabricated on the surface of magnesium alloy using a simple one-step hydrothermal method with the use of environmentally friendly agent. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle test were used to characterize the surfaces. Corrosion behavior in a 3.5wt.% NaCl solution was evaluated using OCP time curves test, potentiodynamic polarization test and EIS analysis. The findings show that the substrate is covered by the coating of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium stearate, reaching a contact angle of around 146°. Corrosion behavior show huge improvement, the progress with increase of treatment time could be related to the increased growth rate of coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of waste bulk moulded composite (BMC) as a filler for isotactic polypropylene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczewski, Mateusz; Matykiewicz, Danuta; Andrzejewski, Jacek; Skórczewska, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to produce isotactic polypropylene based composites filled with waste thermosetting bulk moulded composite (BMC). The influence of BMC waste addition (5, 10, 20 wt%) on composites structure and properties was investigated. Moreover, additional studies of chemical treatment of the filler were prepared. Modification of BMC waste by calcium stearate (CaSt) powder allows to assess the possibility of the production of composites with better dispersion of the filler and more uniform properties. The mechanical, processing, and thermal properties, as well as structural investigations were examined by means of static tensile test, Dynstat impact strength test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), melt flow index (MFI) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Developed composites with different amounts of non-reactive filler exhibited satisfactory thermal and mechanical properties. Moreover, application of the low cost modifier (CaSt) allows to obtain composites with better dispersion of the filler and improved processability.

  3. Discrimination symbol applying method for sintered nuclear fuel product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Jin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a symbol applying method for applying discrimination information such as an enrichment degree on the end face of a sintered nuclear product. Namely, discrimination symbols of information of powders are applied by a sintering aid to the end face of a molded member formed by molding nuclear fuel powders under pressure. Then, the molded product is sintered. The sintering aid comprises aluminum oxide, a mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide, aluminum hydride or aluminum stearate alone or in admixture. As an applying means of the sintering aid, discrimination symbols of information of powders are drawn by an isostearic acid on the end face of the molded product, and the sintering aid is sprayed thereto, or the sintering aid is applied directly, or the sintering aid is suspended in isostearic acid, and the suspension is applied with a brush. As a result, visible discrimination information can be applied to the sintered member easily. (N.H.)

  4. Study on preparation of montmorillonite-based composite phase change materials and their applications in thermal storage building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiaoming; Zhang Zhengguo; Chen Zhonghua

    2008-01-01

    Three composite phase change materials (PCMs) were prepared by blending butyl stearate, dodecanol and RT20 with an organically modified montmorillonite (MMT), respectively. After the three composite PCMs were characterized by DSC, it was indicated that the RT20/MMT composite PCM was a good candidate for building applications due to its large latent heat, suitable phase change temperature and good performance stability. Compared with RT20, the RT20/MMT composite PCM exhibited higher heat transfer efficiency and had good compatibility with gypsum due to the combination with MMT. The composite gypsum boards containing RT20/MMT composite PCM had the function of reducing building energy consumption by reducing the indoor temperature variation, and the function was enhanced with the increase in the mass ratio of the RT20/MMT composite PCM

  5. The complex reaction sequence of the thermal and radiolytic degradation of polyvinyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichert, W.

    1983-03-01

    The degradation of PVC-foils was been tested by thermal and radiolytic stress in N 2 - and O 2 -atmosphere. Additionally was determined the influence of plasticizers, Fe-, Zn- and Cu-stearates and other additives, which partially are known as stabilizators. Complex mechanisms of degradation are proposed, which were deduced from the HCl-elimination, consumption of oxygen and the shift of the molmass by the scission and crosslinking of main chains both for PVC as combination of PVC with additives. The mechanism corresponds to other known experimental results, too. It was shown, that the radiolytical degradation caused by radicals, which initiate a radical chain mechanism, if the temperature is higher than the glass temperature (Tg). The thermical degradation in a N 2 -atmosphere was explained by an ionic complex mechanism. At the presence of oxygen the ionic mechanism was superimposed by a radical chain mechanism following the oxidation of polyene structures. (author)

  6. Facile Phosphine-Free Synthesis of CdSe/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals Without Precursor Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Chang-Qing

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA new simple method for synthesis of core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals (NCs is present. By adapting the use of cadmium stearate, oleylamine, and paraffin liquid to a non-injection synthesis and by applying a subsequent ZnS shelling procedure to CdSe NCs cores using Zinc acetate dihydrate and sulfur powder, luminescent CdSe/ZnS NCs with quantum yields of up to 36% (FWHM 42–43 nm were obtained. A seeding-growth technique was first applied to the controlled synthesis of ZnS shell. This method has several attractive features, such as the usage of low-cost, green, and environmentally friendlier reagents and elimination of the need for air-sensitive, toxic, and expensive phosphines solvent. Furthermore, due to one-pot synthetic route for CdSe/ZnS NCs, the approach presented herein is accessible to a mass production of these NCs.

  7. Compatibility and stability of valsartan in a solid pharmaceutical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamíris Amanda Júlio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Valsartan (VAL is a highly selective blocker of the angiotensin II receptor that has been widely used in the treatment of hypertension. Active pharmaceutical ingredient compatibility with excipients (crospovidone, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and titanium dioxide is usually evaluated in solid pharmaceutical development. Compatibility and stability can be evaluated by liquid chromatography. Studies were performed using binary mixtures of 1:1 (w/w VAL/excipient; samples were stored under accelerated stability test conditions (40 ºC at 75% relative humidity. The results indicate that VAL is incompatible with crospovidone and hypromellose, which reduced the VAL content and gave rise to new peaks in the chromatogram due to degradation products.

  8. EPR response characterization of drugs excipients for applying in accident dosimetry; Caracterizacao da resposta RPE dos excipientes dos medicamentos para aplicacao em dosimetria de acidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczewski, Barbara S.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Galante, Ocimar L.; Costa, Zelia M. da; Campos, Leticia L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Some drugs are widely used by the population and can be employed to dose retrospective. The carbohydrates (saccharides), commonly used as excipients in the pharmaceutical industry, produce a quantity of free radicals after gamma irradiation, making them useful for dosimetry in emergency or accident situations that imply in dose evaluation from the materials found nearly or in contact with victims. In general, EPR signal from pulverized pills of some drugs are very complex due to the variety of components in the formulation. Because of this fact, some pharmaceutical excipients identified in the pill composition were also analysed by EPR spectrometry. On the counter drugs were studied: Cebion glucose, AAS, Aspirina, Conmel, Lacto-Purga and sugar substitutive ZeroCal. The excipients were: lactose, amide, anhydrous glucose and magnesium stearate. In some samples the number of radicals produced increased with the dose, showing a linear response for a dose range of interest and an adequate sensibility for dosimetry in accident cases.

  9. The manufacture, quality control and performance of KANUPP fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.I.; Salim, M.; Ahmad, I.

    1989-01-01

    KANUPP is a 137 MWe CANDU reactor. The fuel material is high-density sintered pellets (95-97% T.D.) of natural UO 2 in Zircaloy 4 sheaths. Reactor-grade UO 2 powder is precompacted, granulated, blended with 0.2% zinc stearate, and compacted into green pellets. The pellets are sintered in a reducing atmosphere, then finished by grinding, culled, and loaded into Zr-4 tubes. The welded elements are assembled into a fuel bundle. Quality control and quality assurance procedures are followed during all stages of manufacturing. The entire core of KANUPP now consists of locally manufactured fuel. Several bundles have already achieved the design burnup (8650 MWD/TU). There have never been any failures of these fuel bundles. (6 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.)

  10. Effect of ionizing radiation on cholesterol in aqueous dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakritz, L.; Maerker, G.

    1989-01-01

    Aqueous sodium stearate dispersions of cholesterol were irradiated at 0-2 degrees C with absorbed doses ranging from 2.5 to 50 kGy. The resulting mixture of cholesterol derivatives was isolated and examined for 7-ketocholesterol and cholesterol 5 alpha, 6 alpha-epoxide and 5 beta, 6 beta-epoxide content. Concentrations of all three compounds increased with dose, while the ratio of 7-ketocholesterol to total epoxides decreased with increasing dose. The ratio of 7-ketocholestrol to the epoxides was approximately 1 or below at all dose levels while the same ratio in autoxidations of cholesterol in dispersions was normally 6 or greater. The change in the keto/epoxide ratio may be a means for determining whether meat or other foods containing cholesterol have been subjected to ionizing radiation

  11. EPR response characterization of drugs excipients for applying in accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewski, Barbara S.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Galante, Ocimar L.; Costa, Zelia M. da; Campos, Leticia L.

    2002-01-01

    Some drugs are widely used by the population and can be employed to dose retrospective. The carbohydrates (saccharides), commonly used as excipients in the pharmaceutical industry, produce a quantity of free radicals after gamma irradiation, making them useful for dosimetry in emergency or accident situations that imply in dose evaluation from the materials found nearly or in contact with victims. In general, EPR signal from pulverized pills of some drugs are very complex due to the variety of components in the formulation. Because of this fact, some pharmaceutical excipients identified in the pill composition were also analysed by EPR spectrometry. On the counter drugs were studied: Cebion glucose, AAS, Aspirina, Conmel, Lacto-Purga and sugar substitutive ZeroCal. The excipients were: lactose, amide, anhydrous glucose and magnesium stearate. In some samples the number of radicals produced increased with the dose, showing a linear response for a dose range of interest and an adequate sensibility for dosimetry in accident cases

  12. Systematic evaluation of common lubricants for optimal use in tablet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shubhajit; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2018-05-30

    As an essential formulation component for large-scale tablet manufacturing, the lubricant preserves tooling by reducing die-wall friction. Unfortunately, lubrication also often results in adverse effects on tablet characteristics, such as prolonged disintegration, slowed dissolution, and reduced mechanical strength. Therefore, the choice of lubricant and its optimal concentration in a tablet formulation is a critical decision in tablet formulation development to attain low die-wall friction while minimizing negative impact on other tablet properties. Three commercially available tablet lubricants, i.e., magnesium stearate, sodium stearyl fumerate, and stearic acid, were systematically investigated in both plastic and brittle matrices to elucidate their effects on reducing die-wall friction, tablet strength, tablet hardness, tablet friability, and tablet disintegration kinetics. Clear understanding of the lubrication efficiency of commonly used lubricants as well as their impact on tablet characteristics would help future tablet formulation efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Navy Mobility Fuels Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-20

    1040 - - - 15 - Carnauba Wax - 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 MT Carbon 15 - - 15 - - Austin Black 325 - 20 20 20 20 20 G-1000 Resin* - 5 5 5 5 - Na Stearate 2...14310-91 -11 -22 -32 -41 -53 -63 73-6 Aflas 100H 100 Nordel 1040 15 Carnauba Wax 1.5 Austin Black 325 30 204 Teflon T-8A 5 10 5 5 10 B-3000 10 20...to Evaluate Effect of Silane Plasticizer in Aflas/EPDM Blend Parts by Weight Aflas lOOH 100 Nordel 1040 15 Carnauba Wax 1.5 Sample 14919-48A* 30 Diak

  14. Capsule Formulation of Ethanolic Extract of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma Longifolia Jack., and its Effect on Human Health Vital Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Hayu Nurani

    2017-08-01

    cover the bitter taste of E. longifolia. Clinical trials in this study use design pre-post treatment in healthy humans. Subjects used were male - healthy men and healthy women who met inclusion criteria and were subjected with formulated capsule for 14 days. The study resulted capsule formula comprising of the ethanolic extract of E. longifolia 300 mg, vivapur 101 300 mg, 58 mg maydis starch, aerosil 3%, talc 2%, and Mg stearate 1%. The results showed that the capsule of E. longifolia did not affect the value of heart rate, respiration rate, body temperature and weight (P > 0.05, based on paired t-test, but they causes a decrease in blood pressure of healthy human. The ethanol extract of E. longifolia caused vasodilation of blood vessels that can be used in antihypertensive therapy.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of diclofenac sodium orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu Valeriu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs are dosage forms which disintegrate in mouth within seconds without need of water. This type of quality in dosage form can be attained by addition of different varieties of excipients. Pharmaburst™ 500 is a co-processed excipient system which allows rapid disintegration and low adhesion to punches. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate 25 mg diclofenac sodium ODTs (orodispersible tablets batches by direct compression method at different compression forces 10 kN (F1 and 20 kN (F2 and directly compressible excipients used in different ratio (Avicel PH 102, magnesium stearate and coprocessed excipient Pharmaburst™ 500, 70% and 80% w/w. The obtained batches were analyzed for appearance, tablet thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and non-compendial methods (wetting time. Co-processed Pharmaburst™ 500 excipient 70% used for sodium diclofenac ODT obtaining determined good results for quality control tests evaluation.

  16. Luminescence properties of In(Zn)P alloy core/ZnS shell quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Ung Thi Dieu; Reiss, Peter; Liem, Nguyen Quang

    2010-11-01

    Chemically synthesized InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are studied using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Zinc stearate, which is added during the synthesis of the InP core, significantly improves the optical characteristics of the QDs. The luminescence quantum yield (QY) reaches 60%-70% and the emission is tunable from 485 to 586 nm by varying the Zn2+:In3+ molar ratio and growth temperature. The observed increased Stokes shift, luminescence decay time, and QY in the presence of Zn are rationalized by the formation of an In(Zn)P alloy structure that causes band-edge fluctuation to enhance the confinement of the excited carriers.

  17. Characterization of the surface physico-chemistry of plasticized PVC used in blood bag and infusion tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salloum, H; Saunier, J; Dazzi, A; Vigneron, J; Etcheberry, A; Marlière, C; Aymes-Chodur, C; Herry, J M; Bernard, M; Jubeli, E; Yagoubi, N

    2017-06-01

    Commercial infusion tubing and blood storage devices (tubing, blood and platelets bags) made of plasticized PVC were analyzed by spectroscopic, chromatographic and microscopic techniques in order to identify and quantify the additives added to the polymer (lubricants, thermal stabilizers, plasticizers) and to put into evidence their blooming onto the surface of the devices. For all the samples, deposits were observed on the surface but with different kinds of morphologies. Ethylene bis amide lubricant and metallic stearate stabilizers were implicated in the formation of these layers. In contact with aqueous media, these insoluble deposits were damaged, suggesting a possible particulate contamination of the infused solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential scanning calorimetry as a screening technique in compatibility studies of acyclovir extended release formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, Fernanda M.; Vecchia, Debora D.; Tagliari, Monika P.; Ferreira, Andrea Granada; Silva, Marcos A.S.; Stulzer, Hellen K.

    2009-01-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) has been investigated during the past years, mainly due to its antiviral activity. Assessment of possible incompatibility between an active component and different excipients along with the evaluation of thermal stability are crucial parts of a normal study prior to the final formulation setting of a medicine. Thermal analysis studies were used as important and complementary tools during pre-formulation to determine the compatibility of drug excipients with the purpose of developing an acyclovir extended release formulation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analyses were also realized. The results showed that ACV only exhibited interaction which could influence the stability of the product in the binary mixtures of ACV/magnesium stearate. (author)

  19. Structural studies of Langmuir-Blodgett films containing rare-earth metal cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khomutov, G.B.; Antipina, M.N.; Bykov, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    Comparative structural study of gadolinium stearate Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films formed by monolayer deposition from either aqueous gadolinium acetate or gadolinium chloride solutions have been carried out. Structure of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared...... spectroscopy, high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that when subphase pH had a value at which all monolayer stearic acid molecules were ionized and bound with Gd3+ cations (pH > 5), the LB films deposited from gadolinium acetate and gadolinium....... The data obtained indicate that the control of multivalent metal cations complexes formation in the subphase and at the monolayer surface can be an instrument for optimization, the conditions to form metal-containing LB film with regulated structure and properties....

  20. Investigation of the powder flow behaviour of binary mixtures of microcrystalline celluloses and paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Soppela

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The flow behaviour of binary mixtures of paracetamol and different grades of microcrystalline celluloses (Avicel® PH101, PH102 and PH200 was studied using a new testing method. The effect of physical characteristics of the powder including tribocharging and the addition of lubricant on the flow properties of the different mixtures was investigated. As expected, the flowability of the samples was affected both by the amount of paracetamol and the physical properties of microcrystalline celluloses (MCC and the mixtures. The effect of lubricant varied depending on the MCC grade: magnesium stearate was able to improve the flowability of the mixtures containing PH102 and PH200 while it did not affect the flowability of PH101. Multivariate analysis showed that the flow of the binary excipient-drug mixtures through an orifice is affected by several phenomena, such as charging, surface moisture, carrier payload and particle size.

  1. Effect of processing parameters on Cu-Co-Fe-based diamond impregnated metal matrix composite for stone cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawani, K.; Shahid, M.; Arshad, S.N.; Hasaini, M.H.; Khan, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    Diamond Impregnated Metal Matrix Composites (DIMMC), manufactured by powder metallurgy route, playa major role in stone cutting tool industry. Unfortunately, these diamond tools are not manufactured locally. Our industry relies heavily on the import of these diamond tools to meet the local demand. This study was undertaken as a first step towards indigenous development of these diamond tools. Most of the diamond tools exist in the form of a composite structure with diamond grits embedded in a metallic matrix. This paper investigates the effect of various processing variables on the properties of DIMMC. Effect of pressure on the compaction behavior, sintering time and temperature has been investigated. Relatively better homogeneity has been observed with dry mixing of individual powders using zinc stearate as lubricant compared to wet mixing. A linear increase in green density has been found by increasing compaction pressure up to 400 MPa. (author)

  2. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...

  3. Community Structure in Methanogenic Enrichments Provides Insight into Syntrophic Interactions in Hydrocarbon-Impacted Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, Jane; Toth, Courtney R. A.; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    , but such information has important implications for bioremediation and microbial enhanced energy recovery technologies. Many factors such as changing environmental conditions or substrate variations can influence the composition and biodegradation capabilities of syntrophic microbial communities in hydrocarbon......The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil involves the conversion of hydrocarbons to methanogenic substrates by syntrophic bacteria and subsequent methane production by methanogens. Assessing the metabolic roles played by various microbial species in syntrophic communities remains a challenge......-impacted environments. In this study, a methanogenic crude oil-degrading enrichment culture was successively transferred onto the single long chain fatty acids palmitate or stearate followed by their parent alkanes, hexadecane or octadecane, respectively, in order to assess the impact of different substrates...

  4. Degradation behavior of PVC film in aqueous solution at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Shun-Myung; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Lee, Soo [Changwon National University, Changwon(Korea)

    2001-02-28

    The heat treatment of PVC film containing PVC 65%, DOP (Dioctyl Phthalate) 32% as plasticizer, Ca-Zn stearates and surface agent was performed under several conditions to study the dehydrochlorination of PVC and char production. In the case of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the dehydrochlorination was ca.100% at 250 deg.C for 3h. The char involving the smaller pores was produced with hydrothermal treatment. The pore size became small with increasing the treatment time and temperature. In the case of treatment with Ca(OH){sub 2}, the sizes of pores produced in char were about sever {approx}10 {mu}m at 225 deg.C for 12h. In the case of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the size of pores were about 1 {mu}m in 5M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 12h. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  5. Effect of reaction temperature on biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using lipase as biocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiningrum, Reni Banowati; Aprianto, Toni; Pamungkas, Febria Lutfi Udin

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on conversion of biodiesel from waste cooking oil enzymatically using lipase extracted from rice bran. The feedstock was simulated waste cooking oil and lipase enzyme was extracted with buffer pH variation. The enzyme activity was titrimetrically determined and the optimum pH buffer was used to study the effect of temperature on the transesterification reaction. Temperature effects were assessed in the range of 45-60 °C and the content of methyl esters in biodiesel was determined by GC-MS. The reaction temperature significantly influences the transesterification reaction with optimum biodiesel conversion occurred at 55 °C with methyl ester content of 81.19%. The methyl ester composition in the resulting biodiesel is methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl stearate.

  6. [The development and validation of the methods for the quantitative determination of sibutramine derivatives in dietary supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, K I; Malkova, T L

    The objective of the present study was the development and validation of sibutramine demethylated derivatives, desmethyl sibutramine and didesmethyl sibutramine. Gas-liquid chromatography with the flame ionization detector was used for the quantitative determination of the above substances in dietary supplements. The conditions for the chromatographic determination of the analytes in the presence of the reference standard, methyl stearate, were proposed allowing to achieve the efficient separation. The method has the necessary sensitivity, specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision (on the intra-day and inter-day basis) which suggests its good validation characteristics. The proposed method can be employed in the analytical laboratories for the quantitative determination of sibutramine derivatives in biologically active dietary supplements.

  7. Determinação de sibutramina em formas farmacêuticas através de espectroscopia no infravermelho com refletância difusa e métodos de calibração multivariada Determination of sibutramine in pharmaceutical formulations by diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Florencio Maluf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is the development and validation of an analytical method for fast quantification of sibutramine in pharmaceutical formulations, using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and partial least square regression. The multivariate model was elaborated from 22 mixtures containing sibutramine and excipients (lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide and magnesium stearate and using fragmented (750-1150/ 1350-1500/ 1850-1950/ 2600-2900 cm-1 and smoothing spectral data. Using 10 latent variables, excellent predictive capacity were observed in the calibration (n=20, RMSEC=0.004, R= 0.999 and external validation (n=5, RMSEC= 9.36, R=0.999 phases. In the analysis of synthetic mixtures the precision (SD=3,47% was compatible with the rules of the Agencia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA-Brazil. In the analysis of commercial drugs good agreement was observed between spectroscopic and chromatographic methods.

  8. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface on a wood substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Shi, Junyou; Liu, Changyu; Xie, Cheng; Wang, Chengyu

    2011-09-01

    A layer of lamellar superhydrophobic coating was fabricated on a wood surface through a wet chemical process. The superhydrophobic property of the wood surface was measured by contact angle (CA) measurements. The microstructure and chemical composition of the superhydrophobic coating were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). An analytical characterization revealed that the microscale roughness of the lamellar particles was uniformly distributed on the wood surface and that a zinc stearate monolayer (with the hydrophobic groups oriented outward) formed on the ZnO surface as the result of the reaction between stearic acid and ZnO. This process transformed the wood surface from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic: the water contact angle of the surface was 151°, and the sliding angle was less than 5°.

  9. Chalk effect on PVC cross-linking under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudinova, V.V.; Guzeev, V.V.; Mozzhukhin, V.B.; Pomerantseva, Eh.G.; Nozrina, F.D.; Zhil'tsov, V.V.; Zubov, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of nonmodified and modified chalk on curing degree of polymer matrix was studied under-irradiation of PVC-compositions. Films of the compositions (100 mass part 7 PVC, 0-100 mas.part of chalk, 2.5 - lead sulfate, 1.5 - lead stearate and 0.3 - glycerin) were irradiated up to absorbed dose 0.1 MGy in an inert medium. Content of gel-fraction after boiling in THF was determined with use of IR spectroscopy. It was established, that intensive dehydrochlorination and polymer curing took place on chalk particle surface. Network fixed strongly chalk particles. However, chalk inhibited processes of dehydrochlorination and PVC curing, increasing amount of noncured PVC in polymer matrix

  10. Chalk effect on PVC cross-linking under irradiation; Vliyanie mela na sshivanie PVKh pri obluchenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudinova, V V; Guzeev, V V; Mozzhukhin, V B; Pomerantseva, Eh G; Nozrina, F D; Zhil` tsov, V V; Zubov, V P

    1994-12-31

    Effect of nonmodified and modified chalk on curing degree of polymer matrix was studied under-irradiation of PVC-compositions. Films of the compositions (100 mass part 7 PVC, 0-100 mas.part of chalk, 2.5 - lead sulfate, 1.5 - lead stearate and 0.3 - glycerin) were irradiated up to absorbed dose 0.1 MGy in an inert medium. Content of gel-fraction after boiling in THF was determined with use of IR spectroscopy. It was established, that intensive dehydrochlorination and polymer curing took place on chalk particle surface. Network fixed strongly chalk particles. However, chalk inhibited processes of dehydrochlorination and PVC curing, increasing amount of noncured PVC in polymer matrix.

  11. Statistical optimization for lipase production from solid waste of vegetable oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Mohit; Mohanty, Swati; Sawyer, Matthew; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M; Sukla, Lala Behari; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2018-04-21

    The production of biofuel using thermostable bacterial lipase from hot spring bacteria out of low-cost agricultural residue olive oil cake is reported in the present paper. Using a lipase enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis, a 66.5% yield of methyl esters was obtained. Optimum parameters were determined, with maximum production of lipase at a pH of 8.2, temperature 50.8°C, moisture content of 55.7%, and biosurfactant content of 1.693 mg. The contour plots and 3D surface responses depict the significant interaction of pH and moisture content with biosurfactant during lipase production. Chromatographic analysis of the lipase transesterification product was methyl esters, from kitchen waste oil under optimized conditions, generated methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, and methyl linoleate.

  12. Method to study the effect of blend flowability on the homogeneity of acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llusá, Marcos; Pingali, Kalyana; Muzzio, Fernando J

    2013-02-01

    Excipient selection is key to product development because it affects their processability and physical properties, which ultimately affect the quality attributes of the pharmaceutical product. To study how the flowability of lubricated formulations affects acetaminophen (APAP) homogeneity. The formulations studied here contain one of two types of cellulose (Avicel 102 or Ceollus KG-802), one of three grades of Mallinckrodt APAP (fine, semi-fine, or micronized), lactose (Fast-Flo) and magnesium stearate. These components are mixed in a 300-liter bin blender. Blend flowability is assessed with the Gravitational Displacement Rheometer. APAP homogeneity is assessed with off-line NIR. Excluding blends dominated by segregation, there is a trend between APAP homogeneity and blend flow index. Blend flowability is affected by the type of microcrystalline cellulose and by the APAP grade. The preliminary results suggest that the methodology used in this paper is adequate to study of the effect of blend flow index on APAP homogeneity.

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAR RUSLAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesia showed to contain relatively the same profile of chemical contents. Dominant compounds that were detected by GCMS are hidrocarbon such as 2-heptenal, decadienal, hexsadecane, pentadecane, cyclooctane etc, fatty acid such as oktadecanoate acid, etthyl linoleate, ethyl stearate, heksadecanoate acid and steroid such as stigmasterol, fucosterol, sitosterol. No phorbol ester and its derivatives have been detected yet by the GCMS method. Callus and suspension cultures of J. curcas have been established to be used for further investigation.

  14. One-pot process combining transesterification and selective hydrogenation for biodiesel production from starting material of high degree of unsaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ru; Su, Mengxing; Li, Min; Zhang, Jianchun; Hao, Xinmin; Zhang, Hua

    2010-08-01

    A one-pot process combining transesterification and selective hydrogenation was established to produce biodiesel from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil which is eliminated as a potential feedstock by a specification of iodine value (IV; 120 g I(2)/100g maximum) contained in EN 14214. A series of alkaline earth metal oxides and alkaline earth metal supported copper oxide were prepared and tested as catalysts. SrO supported 10 wt.% CuO showed the superior catalytic activity for transesterification with a biodiesel yield of 96% and hydrogenation with a reduced iodine value of 113 and also exhibited a promising selectivity for eliminating methyl linolenate and increasing methyl oleate without rising methyl stearate in the selective hydrogenation. The fuel properties of the selective hydrogenated methyl esters are within biodiesel specifications. Furthermore, cetane numbers and iodine values were well correlated with the compositions of the hydrogenated methyl esters according to degrees of unsaturation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and investigation of mefenamic acid - polyethylene glycol - sucrose ester solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöp, Ibolya; Gyéresi, Árpád; Kiss, Lóránd; Deli, Mária A; Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Aigner, Zoltán

    2015-12-01

    Mefenamic acid (MA) is a widely used non-steroidal antiinflammatory (NSAID) drug. The adverse effects typical of NSAIDs are also present in the case of MA, partly due to its low water solubility. The aim of this study was to increase the water solubility of MA in order to influence its absorption and bioavailability. Solid dispersions of MA were prepared by the melting method using polyethylene glycol 6000 and different types (laurate, D-1216; palmitate, P-1670; stearate, S-1670) and amounts of sucrose esters as carriers. The X-ray diffraction results show that MA crystals were not present in the products. Dissolution tests carried out in artificial intestinal juice showed that the product containing 10 % D-1216 increased water solubility about 3 times. The apparent permeability coefficient of MA across human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell layers was high and, despite the difference in solubility, there was no further increase in drug penetration in the presence of the applied additives.

  16. Lipid Nanocapsule-Based Gels for Enhancement of Transdermal Delivery of Ketorolac Tromethamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Varshosaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports show ineffective transdermal delivery of ketorolac by nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs. The aim of the present work was enhancement of transdermal delivery of ketorolac by another colloidal carriers, lipid nanocapsules (LNCs. LNCs were prepared by emulsification with phase transition method and mixed in a Carbomer 934P gel base with oleic acid or propylene glycol as penetration enhancers. Permeation studies were performed by Franz diffusion cell using excised rat abdominal skin. Aerosil-induced rat paw edema model was used to investigate the in vivo performance. LNCs containing polyethylene glycol hydroxyl stearate, lecithin in Labrafac as the oily phase, and dilution of the primary emulsion with 3.5-fold volume of cold water produced the optimized nanoparticles. The 1% Carbomer gel base containing 10% oleic acid loaded with nanoparticles enhanced and prolonged the anti-inflammatory effects of this drug to more than 12 h in Aerosil-induced rat paw edema model.

  17. Finger millet (Eleucine coracana) flour as a vehicle for fortification with zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Bhumika; Platel, Kalpana

    2010-01-01

    Millets, being less expensive compared to cereals and the staple for the poorer sections of population, could be the choice for fortification with micronutrients such as zinc. In view of this, finger millet, widely grown and commonly consumed in southern India, was explored as a vehicle for fortification with zinc in this investigation. Finger millet flour fortified with either zinc oxide or zinc stearate so as to provide 50mg zinc per kg flour, was specifically examined for the bioaccessibility of the fortified mineral, as measured by in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion procedure and storage stability. Addition of the zinc salts increased the bioaccessible zinc content by 1.5-3 times that of the unfortified flour. Inclusion of EDTA along with the fortified salt significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of zinc from the fortified flours, the increase being three-fold. Inclusion of citric acid along with the zinc salt and EDTA during fortification did not have any additional beneficial effect on zinc bioaccessiblity. Moisture and free fatty acid contents of the stored fortified flours indicated the keeping quality of the same, up to 60 days. Both zinc oxide and zinc stearate were equally effective as fortificants, when used in combination with EDTA as a co-fortificant. The preparation of either roti or dumpling from the fortified flours stored up to 60 days did not result in any significant compromise in the bioaccessible zinc content. Thus, the present study has revealed that finger millet flour can effectively be used as a vehicle for zinc fortification to derive additional amounts of bioaccessible zinc, with reasonably good storage stability, to combat zinc deficiency. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. PVC mixtures’ mechanical properties with the addition of modified calcite as filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Dušica R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study mechanical properties of PVC mixtures (PVC, stabilizer, lubricant, filler such as tensile strength, tensile elongation, breaking strength, and breaking elongation were investigated. Unmodified calcite, as well as calcite modified by stearic acid, were used as fillers in wet and dry processes. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet procedure have better mechanical properties compared to those with the calcite modified by the dry process. Tensile and breaking strength of the PVC mixture containing the calcite modified with 1.5% stearic acid using wet process, are higher for 2.8% and 5.2%, respectively, compared to the PVC mixture containing the calcite modified with the same amount of acid used in the dry process. The tensile strength difference between the mixtures increases with the increase of the concentration of used stearic acid up to 3%. The strength of PVC mixture with the calcite modified by wet process is 3.1% higher compared to the mixture containing calcite modified by dry process. The results showed that the bonding strength between calcite and the adsorbed organic component affected tensile strength, tensile elongation and breaking strength of the PVC mixtures. The best filler was obtained by wet modification using 1.5% stearic acid solution that provided the formation of a stearate monolayer chemisorbed on calcite. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet process using 1.5% stearic acid solution exhibited the best mechanical properties. This calcite was completely hydrophobic with dominant chemically adsorbed surfactant, which means that stearate chemisorbed on calcite provided stronger interaction in the calcite-stearic acid-PVC system.

  19. Application of Terahertz Attenuated Total Reflection Spectroscopy to Detect Changes in the Physical Properties of Lactose during the Lubrication Process Required for Drug Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohi, Masafumi; Momose, Wataru; Yamashita, Kazunari; Hakomori, Tadashi; Sato, Shusaku; Noguchi, Shuji; Terada, Katsuhide

    2017-02-01

    Manufacturing the solid dosage form of an orally administered drug requires lubrication to enhance manufacturability, ensuring that critical quality attributes such as disintegration and dissolution of the drug product are maintained during manufacture. Here, to evaluate lubrication performance during manufacture, we used terahertz attenuated total reflection (THz-ATR) spectroscopy to detect differences in the physical characteristics of the lubricated powder. We applied a simple formulation prepared by blending granulated lactose as filler with magnesium stearate as lubricant. A flat tablet was prepared using the lubricated powder to acquire sharp THz-ATR absorption peaks of the samples. First, we investigated the effects of lubricant concentration and compression pressure on preparation of the tablet and then determined the effect of the pressure applied to samples in contact with the ATR prism on sample absorption amplitude. We focused on the differences in the magnitudes of spectra at the lactose-specific frequency. Second, we conducted the dynamic lubrication process using a 120-L mixer to investigate differences in the magnitudes of absorption corresponding to the lactose-specific frequency during lubrication. In both studies, enriching the lubricated powder with a higher concentration of magnesium stearate or prolonging blending time correlated with higher magnitudes of spectra at the lactose-specific frequency. Further, in the dynamic lubrication study, the wettability and disintegration time of the tablets were compared with the absorption spectra amplitudes at the lactose-specific frequency. We conclude that THz-ATR spectroscopy is useful for detecting differences in densities caused by a change in the physical properties of lactose during lubrication.

  20. Naturally-occurring estradiol-17β-fatty acid esters, but not estradiol-17β, preferentially induce mammary tumorigenesis in female rats: Implications for an important role in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Laura H.; Yu Jina; Xu Xiaomeng; Lee, Anthony J.; Zhu Baoting

    2008-01-01

    Because mammary glands are surrounded by adipose tissues, we hypothesize that the ultra-lipophilic endogenous estrogen-17β-fatty acid esters may have preferential hormonal and carcinogenic effects in mammary tissues compared to other target organs (such as the uterus and pituitary). This hypothesis is tested in the present study. We found that all 46 rats implanted with an estradiol-17β pellet developed large pituitary tumors (average weight = 251 ±103 mg) and had to be terminated early, but only 48% of them developed mammary tumors. In addition, approximately one-fourth of them developed a huge uterus. In the 26 animals implanted with a mixture containing estradiol-17β-stearate and estradiol-17β-palmitate (two representative estradiol-17β-fatty acid esters) or in the 29 animals implanted with estradiol-17β-stearate alone (in the same molar dose as estradiol-17β), 73% and 79%, respectively, of them developed mammary tumors, whereas only 3 or 2 animals, respectively, had to be terminated early due to the presence of a large pituitary tumor. Both tumorous and normal mammary tissues contained much higher levels of estrogen esterase than other tissues, which catalyzes the releases of bioactive estrogens from their fatty acid esters. In conclusion, while estradiol-17β is much stronger in inducing pituitary tumor (100% incidence) than mammary tumor, estradiol-17β-fatty acid esters have a higher efficacy than estradiol-17β in inducing mammary tumor and yet it only has little ability to induce uterine out-growth and pituitary tumorigenesis. This study establishes the endogenous estrogen-17β-fatty acid esters as preferential inducers of mammary tumorigenesis

  1. Effect of side chain length and degree of polymerization on the decomposition and crystallization behaviour of chlorinated poly(vinyl ester) oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinze, D.; Mang, Th.; Popescu, C.; Weichold, O.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal behaviour of telomerized polyvinyl esters is investigated. • Thermal stability relies mainly on the contribution of side chains. • At equal molecular weights thermal stability is dictated by length of side chain. • Increasing the length of side chains improves also the packing degree of polymer. - Abstract: Four members of a homologous series of chlorinated poly(vinyl ester) oligomers CCl_3–(CH_2CH (OCO(CH_2)_mCH_3))_n–Cl with degrees of polymerization of 10 and 20 were prepared by telomerisation using carbon tetrachloride. The number of side chain carbon atoms ranges from 2 (poly(vinyl acetate) to 18 (poly(vinyl stearate)). The effect of the n-alkyl side chain length and of the degree of polymerization on the thermal stability and crystallization behaviour of the synthesized compounds was investigated. All oligomers degrade in two major steps by first losing HCl and side chains with subsequent breakdown of the backbone. The members with short side chains, up to poly(vinyl octanoate), are amorphous and show internal plasticization, whereas those with high number of side chain carbon atoms are semi-crystalline due to side-chain crystallization. A better packing for poly(vinyl stearate) is also noticeable. The glass transition and melting temperatures as well as the onset temperature of decomposition are influenced to a larger extent by the side chain length than by the degree of polymerization. Thermal stability is improved if both the size and number of side chains increase, but only a long side chain causes a significant increase of the resistance to degradation. This results in a stabilization of PVAc so that oligomers from poly(vinyl octanoate) on are stable under atmospheric conditions. Thus, the way to design stable, chlorinated PVEs oligomers is to use a long n-alkyl side chain.

  2. Longitudinal Associations of Phospholipid and Cholesteryl Ester Fatty Acids With Disorders Underlying Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Luke W; Harris, Stewart B; Retnakaran, Ravi; Zinman, Bernard; Giacca, Adria; Liu, Zhen; Bazinet, Richard P; Hanley, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Specific serum fatty acid (FA) profiles predict the development of incident type 2 diabetes; however, limited longitudinal data exist exploring their role in the progression of insulin sensitivity (IS) and β-cell function. To examine the longitudinal associations of the FA composition of serum phospholipid (PL) and cholesteryl ester (CE) fractions with IS and β-cell function over 6 years. The Prospective Metabolism and Islet Cell Evaluation (PROMISE) cohort is a longitudinal observational study, with clinic visits occurring every 3 years. Three visits have been completed, totaling 6 years of follow-up. Individuals (n = 477) at risk for diabetes recruited from the general population in London and Toronto, Canada. Values from an oral glucose tolerance test were used to compute 1/HOMA-IR and the Matsuda index for IS, the insulinogenic index over HOMA-IR, and the insulin secretion-sensitivity index-2 for β-cell function. Thin-layer chromatograph and gas chromatograph quantified FA. Generalized estimating equations were used for the analysis. IS and β-cell function declined by 8.3-19.4% over 6 years. In fully adjusted generalized estimating equation models, PL cis-vaccenate (18:1n-7) was positively associated with all outcomes, whereas γ-linolenate (GLA; 18:3n-6) and stearate (18:0) were negatively associated with IS. Tests for time interactions revealed that PL eicosadienoate (20:2n-6) and palmitate (16:0) and CE dihomo-γ-linolenate (20:3n-6), GLA, and palmitate had stronger associations with the outcomes after longer follow-up. In a Canadian population at risk for diabetes, we found that higher PL stearate and GLA and lower cis-vaccenic acid predicted consistently lower IS and β-cell function over 6 years.

  3. Assessing the biodegradability of microparticles disposed down the drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen; Itrich, Nina; Casteel, Kenneth; Menzies, Jennifer; Williams, Tom; Krivos, Kady; Price, Jason

    2017-05-01

    Microparticles made from naturally occurring materials or biodegradable plastics such as poly(3-hydroxy butyrate)-co-(3-hydroxy valerate), PHBV, are being evaluated as alternatives to microplastics in personal care product applications but limited data is available on their ultimate biodegradability (mineralization) in down the drain environmental compartments. An OECD 301B Ready Biodegradation Test was used to quantify ultimate biodegradability of microparticles made of PHBV foam, jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, stearyl stearate, blueberry seeds and walnut shells. PHBV polymer was ready biodegradable reaching 65.4 ± 4.1% evolved CO 2 in 5 d and 90.5 ± 3.1% evolved CO 2 in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles (125-500 μm) were mineralized extensively with >66% CO 2 evolution in 28 d and >82% CO 2 evolution in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles were mineralized at a similar rate and extent as microparticles made of jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, and stearyl stearate which reached 84.8  ± 4.8, 84.9  ± 2.2, 82.7  ± 4.7, and 86.4 ± 3.2% CO 2 evolution respectively in 80 d. Blueberry seeds and walnut shells mineralized more slowly only reaching 39.3  ± 6.9 and 5.1 ± 2.8% CO 2 evolution in 80 d respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the combined effect of lubrication and compaction temperature on properties of iron-based P/M parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babakhani, Abolfazl; Haerian, Ali; Ghambari, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Addition of lubricant in the form of admixed with powder reduces friction between die wall and powder during compaction of P/M parts. However, it has detrimental effect on mechanical properties. On the other hand, warm compaction of powders improves density and hence, the mechanical properties of these parts. Die wall lubrication can be used along with warm compaction to avoid the disadvantages of the admixed lubricant while reducing the friction, and benefiting the advantages of warm compaction. In this study, the combined effect of warm compaction and die wall lubrication with various amounts of admixed lubricant has been examined. Compacts were made of admixed powders containing from 0 to 0.6% lithium stearate with the die wall lubricated by 1.5% emulsion of lithium stearate under two different pressing pressures of 500 and 650 MPa. The temperatures used were: RT, 130, 150 and 165 deg. C. It was found out that at both compaction pressures, reduction of admixed lubricant down to 0% increased the green density and mechanical properties of the sintered parts. For samples pressed at 500 and 650 MPa the increase in green density due to elimination of admixed lubricant and using die wall lubrication was 0.33 and 0.35 g/cm 3 , respectively. It was also found out that die wall lubrication is more effective in increasing green density at higher compaction pressures. Sinter density and mechanical properties increased by increasing compaction temperature up to 150 deg. C. Both parameters were deteriorated above this temperature for admixed powders, while it kept increasing for die wall lubrication

  5. A comparison of erythromycin and cefadroxil in the prevention of flare-ups from asymptomatic teeth with pulpal necrosis and associated periapical pathosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D R; Furst, M L; Lefkowitz, R D; D'Angelo, D; Esposito, J V

    1990-05-01

    In a previous study by our group with patients having asymptomatic teeth with pulpal necrosis and an associated periapical radiolucent lesion (PN/PL), it was shown that prophylactic administration of penicillin V or erythromycin (high-dose, 1-day regimen) resulted in a low incidence of flare-up (mean = 2.2%) and a low incidence of swelling and pain not associated with flare-up. No hypersensitivity responses occurred, and gastrointestinal side effects were found primarily with the erythromycins. To ascertain whether a single-dose administration of a long-acting 1-gm tablet of the cephalosporin antibiotic cefadroxil would result in a similar outcome, the present study was undertaken with 200 patients having quiescent PN/PL. The patients were randomly given either cefadroxil or erythromycin (base or stearate). Evaluations of flare-up were done 1 day, 1 week, and 2 months after endodontic treatment. A 2.0% flare-up incidence was found, with no statistically significant differences for cefadroxil (1.0%), stearate (2.0%), or base (4.0%). No hypersensitivity responses occurred. Gastrointestinal side effects were found primarily with the erythromycins (19.0%). The results showed that a 1-gm, single-dose regimen of cefadroxil was as effective as erythromycin and penicillin in preventing flare-ups and serious sequelae. A comparative analysis of the data from our first study (no peritreatment antibiotics) and the pooled data from our last three investigations (including the current trial) showed that peritreatment antibiotic coverage significantly reduced flare-ups and serious sequelae after endodontic treatment of asymptomatic PN/PL (p less than 0.001).

  6. Rectal microbicides: clinically relevant approach to the design of rectal specific placebo formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezzutti Charlene

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to identify the critical formulation parameters controlling distribution and function for the rectal administration of microbicides in humans. Four placebo formulations were designed with a wide range of hydrophilic characteristics (aqueous to lipid and rheological properties (Newtonian, shear thinning, thermal sensitive and thixotropic. Aqueous formulations using typical polymers to control viscosity were iso-osmotic and buffered to pH 7. Lipid formulations were developed from lipid solvent/lipid gelling agent binary mixtures. Testing included pharmaceutical function and stability as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Results The aqueous fluid placebo, based on poloxamer, was fluid at room temperature, thickened and became shear thinning at 37°C. The aqueous gel placebo used carbopol as the gelling agent, was shear thinning at room temperature and showed a typical decrease in viscosity with an increase in temperature. The lipid fluid placebo, myristyl myristate in isopropyl myristate, was relatively thin and temperature independent. The lipid gel placebo, glyceryl stearate and PEG-75 stearate in caprylic/capric triglycerides, was also shear thinning at both room temperature and 37°C but with significant time dependency or thixotropy. All formulations showed no rectal irritation in rabbits and were non-toxic using an ex vivo rectal explant model. Conclusions Four placebo formulations ranging from fluid to gel in aqueous and lipid formats with a range of rheological properties were developed, tested, scaled-up, manufactured under cGMP conditions and enrolled in a formal stability program. Clinical testing of these formulations as placebos will serve as the basis for further microbicide formulation development with drug-containing products.

  7. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, R L

    1997-10-01

    Pearlizing agents have been used for many years in cosmetic formulations to add a pearlescent effect. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends are mixtures of glycol stearates and surfactants which can be blended in the cold into a wide range of personal-care formulations to create a pearlescent lustre effect. Under controlled manufacturing conditions constant viscosities and crystalline characteristics can be obtained. The development of these blends has been driven by efforts to improve the economics of adding solid pearlizing agents directly into a hot mix formulation. This paper summarizes the history of pearlizers, describes their advantages and physical chemistry of the manufacturing process. Finally some suggestions for applications are given. Les agents nacrants sont utilises depuis de nombreuses annees dans les formulations cosmetiques pour ajouter un effet nacre. Les melanges a froid a base de tensioactif nacre sont des melanges de stearates de glycol et de tensioactifs qui peuvent etre melanges a froid dans une large gamme de formulations d'hygiene personnelle pour creer un effet de lustre nacre. On peut obtenir des viscosites et des proprietes cristallines constantes avec des conditions de fabrication maitrisees. Le developpement de ces melanges a ete porte par les efforts pour ameliorer les couts de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee a chaud. Cet article resume l'histoire des agents nacrants, decrit leurs avantages et al physico-chimie du procede de fabrication. On emet a la fin cetaines suggestions d'applications.

  8. The influence of alkali fatty acids on the properties and the stability of parenteral O/W emulsions modified with solutol HS 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszello, K; Harnisch, S; Müller, R H; Müller, B W

    2000-03-01

    Arachis oil based parenteral O/W emulsions were prepared using soya bean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) and different combinations of co-emulsifiers containing polyethylene glycol fatty acid esters (Solutol HS 15) and alkali fatty acids (sodium laurate, sodium stearate). The parameters measured were droplet size (both by photon correlation spectroscopy and laser diffractometry), pH and zeta potential. All emulsions were subjected to autoclaving. The addition of polyethylene glycol 12-hydroxy stearate (Solutol HS 15) led to a significant decrease of mean oil droplet size. For long-term stability the amount added turned out to be the most important factor. With increased amounts of Solutol HS 15 the packing density of the emulsifier layer and the zeta potential decreased leading to instability. The optimum load of Solutol HS 15 was found to be 15 micromol/ml. Alkali fatty acids markedly improved the physical stability of the emulsions. Improved stability properties conferred to emulsions by alkali fatty acids could be attributed to the zeta potential increase even in the presence of Solutol HS 15. Consequently a mixed emulsifier film was established in which the ionized fatty acids determined the interface charge. In addition to this a strengthening of the molecular interactions occurring between phospholipid and Solutol HS 15 emulsifier in the presence of ionized fatty acids at the O/W interface can be assumed (L. Rydhag, The importance of the phase behaviour of phospholipids for emulsion stability, Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 81 (1979) 168-173). Different co-emulsifier mixtures were shown to have a pronounced impact on the plasma protein adsorption onto emulsion droplets.

  9. Delivery of theophylline as dry powder for inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline (TP is a very well established orally or intravenously delivered antiasthma drug with many beneficial effects. This study aims to improve asthma treatment by creating a dry powder inhalable (DPI formulation of TP to be delivered directly to the lung, avoiding the side effects associated with conventional oral delivery. The DPI TP formulation was investigated for its physico-chemical characteristics using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, thermal analysis and dynamic vapour sorption. Furthermore, aerosol performance was assessed using the Multi Stage Liquid Impinger (MSLI. In addition, a Calu-3 cell transport assay was conducted in vitro using a modified ACI to study the impact of the DPI formulation on lung epithelial cells. Results showed DPI TP to be physico-chemically stable and of an aerodynamic size suitable for lung delivery. The aerosolisation performance analysis showed the TP DPI formulation to have a fine particle fraction of 29.70 ± 2.59% (P < 0.05 for the TP formulation containing 1.0% (w/w sodium stearate, the most efficient for aerosolisation. Regarding the deposition of TP DPI on Calu-3 cells using the modified ACI, results demonstrated that 56.14 ± 7.62% of the total TP deposited (13.07 ± 1.69 µg was transported across the Calu-3 monolayer over 180 min following deposition, while 37.05 ± 12.62% of the deposited TP was retained in the cells. This could be due to the presence of sodium stearate in the current formulation that increased its lipophilicity. A DPI formulation of TP was developed that was shown to be suitable for inhalation.

  10. Consuming a balanced high fat diet for 16 weeks improves body composition, inflammation and vascular function parameters in obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Heidi J; Kang, Hakmook; Keil, Charles D; Muldowney, James A; Kocalis, Heidi; Fazio, Sergio; Vaughan, Douglas E; Niswender, Kevin D

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: a) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5±2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5±2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD+placebo, HFD+stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD+linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%). Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CONSUMING A BALANCED HIGH FAT DIET FOR 16 WEEKS IMPROVES BODY COMPOSITION, INFLAMMATION AND VASCULAR FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN OBESE PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Heidi J.; Kang, Hakmook; Keil, Charles D.; Muldowney, James A.; Kocalis, Heidi; Fazio, Sergio; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Niswender, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10 years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: a) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Methods Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9 g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Results Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5 ± 2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5 ± 2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD+placebo, HFD+stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD+linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%). Conclusions Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach. PMID:24559846

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of Surface Modified Lactose Particles for Improved Performance of Fluticasone Propionate Dry Powder Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepak J; Jain, Rajesh R; Soni, P S; Abdul, Samad; Darshana, Hegde; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Menon, Mala D

    2015-08-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPI) are generally formulated by mixing micronized drug particles with coarse lactose carrier particles to assist powder handling during the manufacturing and powder aerosol delivery during patient use. In the present study, surface modified lactose (SML) particles were produced using force control agents, and their in vitro performance on dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of Fluticasone propionate was studied. With a view to reduce surface passivation of high surface free energy sites on the most commonly used DPI carrier, α- lactose monohydrate, effects of various force control agents such as Pluronic F-68, Cremophor RH 40, glyceryl monostearate, polyethylene glycol 6000, magnesium stearate, and soya lecithin were studied. DPI formulations prepared with SML showed improved flow properties, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies revealed decrease in surface roughness. The DSC and X-ray diffraction patterns of SML showed no change in the crystal structure and thermal behavior under the experimental conditions. The fine particle fraction (FPF) values of lactose modified with Pluronic F-68, Cremophor RH 40, glyceryl monostearate were improved, with increase in concentration up to 0.5%. Soya lecithin and PEG 6000 modified lactose showed decrease in FPF value with increase in concentration. Increase in FPF value was observed with increasing concentration of magnesium stearate. Two different DPI devices, Rotahaler(®) and Diskhaler(®), were compared to evaluate the performance of SML formulations. FPF value of all SML formulations were higher using both devices as compared to the same formulations prepared using untreated lactose. One month stability of SML formulations at 40°C/75% RH, in permeable polystyrene tubes did not reveal any significant changes in FPF values. SML particles can help in reducing product development hindrances and improve inhalational properties of DPI.

  13. OPTIMASI EKSTRAKSI ENFLEURASI FRAGRANCE DARI BUNGA BINTARO (Cerbera odallam G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sudarsana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Ekstraksi Enfleurasi dapat dioptimasi dengan memvariasikan perbandingan lemak dan bunga Bintaro serta waktu ekstraksi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk menentukan kondisi optimal ekstraksi enfleurasi dan kandungan senyawa fragrance pada bunga Bintaro. Optimasi ekstraksi enfleurasi dilakukan dengan memvariasikan perbandingan lemak dan bunga Bintaro serta waktu ekstraksi. Identifikasi senyawa pada fragrance dari bunga Bintaro dilakukan menggunakan Kromatografi Gas Spektrometri Massa (GC-MS. Perbandingan lemak dan bunga serta variasi waktu optimal yang diperoleh untuk ekstraksi enfleurasi adalah 3 : 21 (w/w dan 48 jam. Senyawa fragrance dalam bunga bintaro  muncul  tiga puncak asing-masing dengan waktu retensi (tR adalah 4,2; 6,9; dan 10,4 menit. Senyawa fragarance yang diduga berturut-turut adalah feniletil alkohol, indol, dan alfa-farnesen.  Selanjutnya terdeteksi pula senyawa golongan ester yaitu etil palmitat, etil oleat, dan etil stearat  dengan waktu retensi adalah  18,1; 20,4; dan 20,7 menit.   ABSTRACT: Enfleurage extraction can be optimized by varying the ratio of fat and Bintaro flower and extraction time. The aims of this study were to determine the optimal extraction and identify kind of compounds in fragrances of Bintaro flowers. Enfleurage extraction optimization was done by varying the ratio of fat and Bintaro flower and extraction time. Identification of compounds in the fragrances of Bintaro flowers was performed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Optimal ratio of fat and Bintaro flower and optimal extraction time were 3: 21 (w / w and 48 hours. Fragrance compound in Bintaro flower show three peaks with retention time (tR 4,2; 6,9; and 10,4 minutes. The fragrance compound are allegedly phenylethyl alcohol, indole, and alpha farnesene. Ester compounds which are ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate, are detected as well with retention Time 18,1; 20,4; and 20,7 minutes.

  14. Effect of side chain length and degree of polymerization on the decomposition and crystallization behaviour of chlorinated poly(vinyl ester) oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, D.; Mang, Th. [Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Popescu, C., E-mail: crisan.popescu@kao.com [KAO Germany GmbH, Pfungstädterstr. 98-100, 64297 Darmstadt (Germany); Weichold, O., E-mail: weichold@ibac.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Building Materials Research, Schinkelstr. 3, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-08-10

    Highlights: • Thermal behaviour of telomerized polyvinyl esters is investigated. • Thermal stability relies mainly on the contribution of side chains. • At equal molecular weights thermal stability is dictated by length of side chain. • Increasing the length of side chains improves also the packing degree of polymer. - Abstract: Four members of a homologous series of chlorinated poly(vinyl ester) oligomers CCl{sub 3}–(CH{sub 2}CH (OCO(CH{sub 2}){sub m}CH{sub 3})){sub n}–Cl with degrees of polymerization of 10 and 20 were prepared by telomerisation using carbon tetrachloride. The number of side chain carbon atoms ranges from 2 (poly(vinyl acetate) to 18 (poly(vinyl stearate)). The effect of the n-alkyl side chain length and of the degree of polymerization on the thermal stability and crystallization behaviour of the synthesized compounds was investigated. All oligomers degrade in two major steps by first losing HCl and side chains with subsequent breakdown of the backbone. The members with short side chains, up to poly(vinyl octanoate), are amorphous and show internal plasticization, whereas those with high number of side chain carbon atoms are semi-crystalline due to side-chain crystallization. A better packing for poly(vinyl stearate) is also noticeable. The glass transition and melting temperatures as well as the onset temperature of decomposition are influenced to a larger extent by the side chain length than by the degree of polymerization. Thermal stability is improved if both the size and number of side chains increase, but only a long side chain causes a significant increase of the resistance to degradation. This results in a stabilization of PVAc so that oligomers from poly(vinyl octanoate) on are stable under atmospheric conditions. Thus, the way to design stable, chlorinated PVEs oligomers is to use a long n-alkyl side chain.

  15. Bias voltage dependence of molecular orientation of dialkyl ketone and fatty acid alkyl ester at the liquid–graphite interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibino, Masahiro, E-mail: hibino@mmm.muroran-it.ac.jp [Department of Applied Sciences, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 18-pentatriacontanone (as ketone) and stearyl stearate (as ester) were formed on a graphite surface at the liquid–solid interface. • Orientations of the molecules in SAMs on the substrate were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. • A perpendicular carbon skeleton-plane orientation with the CO pointing up on the surface is favorable for a substrate with negative charge and vice versa. - Abstract: Molecular orientations of self-assembled 18-pentatriacontanone (as ketone) and stearyl stearate (as ester) monolayers adsorbed on a graphite surface were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at the liquid–solid interface. At a positive sample bias, the central areas of the dialkyl ketone and fatty acid alkyl ester molecules in the STM images appeared as two bright regions on both sides of a dim spot and a bright region on one side of a dim spot, whereas at a negative sample bias, the areas appeared dim. This contrast variation indicates that a perpendicular carbon skeleton-plane orientation with the CO pointing down on the surface is favorable for a substrate with positive charge and vice versa because of the greater electronegativity of the oxygen atom. Upon the bias voltage reversal, the delay time for the STM image contrast change in the region was observed on a time scale of minutes. The difference between the delay time lengths for the direction of bias polarity change indicates that the perpendicular configuration with CO pointing up is more stable than that with CO pointing down. These results indicate that the use of an electric field along a direction vertical to the monolayer on the substrate provides control over the orientations of the molecules between two stable states at the liquid–solid interface.

  16. Machinability of zinc-aluminum alloy5; zamzk5; alloy produced by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, I.O.; Momani, M.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Powder metallurgy process (P/M) is repeatedly reported as a near-net or net-shape manufacturing process with the ability of producing parts of complicated or intricate shapes with high required dimensional accuracy and high surface quality. However, some finishing and machining operations are sometimes necessary and must be done to meet dimensional tolerances or accommodate design features that can be achieved during compaction such as transverse holes, undercuts and threads. Therefore, it is necessary to study the machinability of P/M products. ZAMAK5 alloy is widely used in engineering applications in the automobile industry, particularly in the manufacturing of bushes and recently self -lubricated bearings which are manufactured by the P/M process. Therefore it is anticipated that studying the machinability of this alloy as produced by the powder metallurgy process is worthwhile investigating. In this paper, the machinability of ZAMAK5, alloy produced by powder metallurgy, under different cutting conditions of speed, depth of cut and feed rate is carried out. Surface roughness was used as a criterion for assessing machinability at the different conditions. It was found that specimens compacted at 475 MPa and having 1% addition of zinc stearates as a binder and lubricant gave better surface quality than those produced at 550 MPa compacting pressure,whereas at 1.5% addition of zinc stearates produced worse surface quality (i.e. Higher surface roughness than in case of 475 MPa compacting pressure). On the whole, the results of the experimental work revealed that the surface roughness at the different cutting conditions remained within the accepted level in industry, less than 2 microns. (author)

  17. Uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled chondroitin sulfate by chondrocytes and cartilage: a promising agent for imaging of cartilage degeneration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobal, Grazyna [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria)], E-mail: grazyna.sobal@meduniwien.ac.at; Menzel, Johannes [Institute of Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Sinzinger, Helmut [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria)

    2009-01-15

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is used in the treatment of human osteoarthritis as a slow-acting symptomatic drug. For this reason, we performed uptake studies with {sup 99m}TcCS using different chondrocyte cultures, as well as cartilage tissue in vitro. For uptake studies, adherent monolayer cultures of human chondrocytes (2.7x10{sup 4} cells/well) and {sup 99m}TcCS (1 {mu}Ci) were used. In parallel, we also performed uptake studies with cell suspensions of human chondrocytes at 1x10{sup 6} cells/well incubated with {sup 99m}TcCS (5 {mu}Ci) under identical conditions. Uptake was studied also in cartilage tissue samples and frozen tissue sections for autoradiography. The uptake was monitored for 10-240 min, every 10-30 min for cell cultures and for cartilage tissue up to 72 h. As the commercially available drug Condrosulf (IBSA, Lugano, Switzerland) contains magnesium (Mg) stearate as additive, we investigated the uptake with and without this additive. The washout of the tracer was assessed after the uptake experiments with PBS buffer for different time intervals (10 min-3 h). Tracer uptake in monolayer{+-}additives with low number of cells was low. With the use of chondrocytes in culture suspensions with higher number of cells, a higher uptake of 5.9{+-}0.65% and 1.0{+-}0.1% (n=6) was found, with and without additive, respectively. The saturation was achieved after 100 min. With the use of human rib cartilage, the uptake of {sup 99m}TcCS was continuously increasing with time and was very high with additive amounting to 101.8{+-}5.2% vs. 53.0{+-}8.3% (n=6) without after 72 h and showing delayed saturation up to 30 h. Thus, not only the resorption of the drug is enhanced by Mg-stearate, but also the uptake. The washout of the tracer from cartilage after 3 h of uptake amounted to 3.75{+-}1.5% with additive vs. 13.1{+-}2.1% without. After 24 h, washout was lower amounting to 1.75{+-}0.15% vs. 3.25{+-}0.25%, respectively. The autoradiographic studies paralleled the results

  18. Modeling of quantitative relationships between physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients and tensile strength of tablets using a boosted tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Oishi, Takuya; Shirotori, Kaede; Marumo, Yuki; Kosugi, Atsushi; Kumada, Shungo; Hirai, Daijiro; Takayama, Kozo; Onuki, Yoshinori

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of boosted tree (BT) to develop a correlation model between active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) characteristics and a tensile strength (TS) of tablets as critical quality attributes. First, we evaluated 81 kinds of API characteristics, such as particle size distribution, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner ratio, moisture content, elastic recovery, molecular weight, and partition coefficient. Next, we prepared tablets containing 50% API, 49% microcrystalline cellulose, and 1% magnesium stearate using direct compression at 6, 8, and 10 kN, and measured TS. Then, we applied BT to our dataset to develop a correlation model. Finally, the constructed BT model was validated using k-fold cross-validation. Results showed that the BT model achieved high-performance statistics, whereas multiple regression analysis resulted in poor estimations. Sensitivity analysis of the BT model revealed that diameter of powder particles at the 10th percentile of the cumulative percentage size distribution was the most crucial factor for TS. In addition, the influences of moisture content, partition coefficients, and modal diameter were appreciably meaningful factors. This study demonstrates that BT model could provide comprehensive understanding of the latent structure underlying APIs and TS of tablets.

  19. Zinc absorption in experimental osmotic diarrhea: effect of long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Wapnir, R A

    1993-03-01

    The effect of free fatty acids on zinc absorption was studied in a rat model of chronic osmotic diarrhea induced with magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein. In vivo rates of zinc removal from the lumen and analysis of tissue for zinc uptake and metallothionein alterations were monitored. One mmol/L stearate enhanced zinc absorption in rats with or without diarrhea, from 207 +/- 22 and 353 +/- 13 pmol/min x cm to 676 +/- 34 and 610 +/- 26 pmol/min x cm, respectively. Palmitate was only effective in normal rats. Zinc absorption inversely correlated with mucosal zinc content in the perfused intestinal segments, in both type of rats. Hepatic metallothionein was enhanced by zinc and even more by oleate plus zinc in both groups; kidney metallothionein in animals with diarrhea was normalized by either oleate or zinc. The data support previous reports on the effect of long-chain fatty acids on the enhancement of zinc absorption: saturation and a longer chain appear to be positive factors. A membrane modification role of long-chain fatty acids could have nutritional implications in the formulation of special diets.

  20. Recognition of malignant processes with neural nets from ESR spectra of serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, P. [Inst. of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Univ. Leipzig (Germany); Gurachevsky, A.; Muravsky, V.; Schnurr, K.; Seibt, G. [Medinnovation GmbH, Wildau (Germany); Matthes, G. [Inst. of Transfusion Medicine, Univ. Hospital Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Cancer diseases are the focus of intense research due to their frequent occurrence. It is known from the literature that serum proteins are changed in the case of malignant processes. Changes of albumin conformation, transport efficiency, and binding characteristics can be determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The present study analysed the binding/dissociation function of albumin with an ESR method using 16-doxyl stearate spin probe as reporter molecule and ethanol as modifier of hydrophobic interactions. Native and frozen plasma of healthy donors (608 samples), patients with malignant diseases (423 samples), and patients with benign conditions (221 samples) were analysed. The global specificity was 91% and the sensitivity 96%. In look-back samples of 27 donors, a malignant process could be detected up to 30 months before clinical diagnosis. To recognise different entities of malignant diseases from the ESR spectra, Artificial neural networks were implemented. For 48 female donors with breast cancer, the recognition specificity was 85%. Other carcinoma entities (22 colon, 18 prostate, 12 stomach) were recognised with specificities between 75% and 84%. Should these specificity values be reproduced in larger studies, the described method could be used as a new specific tumour marker for the early detection of malignant processes. Since transmission of cancer via blood transfusion cannot be excluded as yet, the described ESR method could also be used as a quality test for plasma products. (orig.)

  1. Lipid- and temperature-dependent structural changes in Acholeplasma laidlawii cell membrances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.; Branton, D.

    1973-01-01

    The lipids in cell membranes of Acholeplasma laidlawii were enriched with different fatty acids selected to produce membranes showing molecular motion discontinuities at temperatures between 10 and 35/sup 0/C. Molecular motion in these membranes was probed by ESR after labelling with 12-nitroxide stearate, and structure in these membranes was examined by electron microscopy after freeze-etching. Freeze-etching and electron microscopy showed that under certain conditions the particles in the A. laidlawii membranes aggregated, resulting in particle-rich and particle-depleted regions in the cell membrane. Depending upon the lipid content of the membrane, this aggregation could begin at temperatures well above the ESR-determined discontinuity. Aggregation increased with decreasing temperature but was completed at or near the discontinuity. However, cell membranes grown and maintained well below their ESR-determined discontinuity did not show maximum particle aggregation until after they had been exposed to temperatures at or above the discontinuity. The results show that temperatures at or near a phase transition temperature can induce aggregation of the membrane particles. This suggests that temperature-induced changes in the lipid phase of a biological membrane can induce phase separations which affect the topography of associated proteins.

  2. Evaluation about wettability, water absorption or swelling of excipients through various methods and the correlation between these parameters and tablet disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baixue; Wei, Chen; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qifang; Li, Sanming

    2018-04-06

    To evaluate parameters about wettability, water absorption or swelling of excipients in forms of powders or dosage through various methods systematically and explore its correlation with tablet disintegration. The water penetration and swelling of powders with different proportions of excipients including microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), mannitol, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC), crospolyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP), carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS-Na), croscarmellose sodium (CCMC-Na) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) were determined by Washburn capillary rise. Both contact angle of water on the excipient compacts and surface swelling volume were measured by sessile drop technique. Moreover, the test about water absorption and swelling of compacts was fulfilled by a modified method. Eventually, the disintegration of tablets with or without loratadine was performed according to the method described in USP. These parameters were successfully identified by the methods above, which proved that excipient wettability or swelling properties varied with the structure of excipients. For example, MgSt could improve the water uptake, while impeded tablet swelling. Furthermore, in the present study it is verified that tablet disintegration was closely related to these parameters, especially wetting rate and initial water absorption rate. The higher wetting rate of water on tablet or initial water absorption rate, the faster swelling it be, resulting in the shorter tablet disintegration time. The methods utilized in the present study were feasible and effective. The disintegration of tablets did relate to these parameters, especially wetting rate and initial water absorption rate.

  3. Modulation of the wettability of excipients by surfactant and its impacts on the disintegration and release of tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baixue; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiuxiao; Li, Sanming

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the modulation of the wettability of excipients by different types of surfactants and its impacts on the disintegration of tablets and drug release. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactants, including sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and polysorbate (Tween-20 and Tween-80), was obtained using the platinum ring method. Contact angles of surfactant solutions on the excipient compacts and double-distilled water on the mixture of surfactant and the other excipient (magnesium stearate (MgSt) or sodium alginate (SA)) were measured by the sessile drop technique. Besides, surface free energy of excipients was calculated by the Owens method. Finally, the disintegration of tablets and in vitro dissolution testing were performed according to the method described in USP. The wettability of excipients could be enhanced to different extent with low concentration of surfactant solutions and maintained stable basically after CMC. For MgSt (hydrophobic excipient), the shorter the hydrophobic chain (C 12 , including SDS and DTAB), the better the wettability with the addition of surfactant in the formulation, leading to the shorter disintegration time of tablets and higher drug release rate. In contrast, the wettability of SA (hydrophilic excipient) was reduced by adding surfactant, resulting in the longer disintegration time of tablets and lower release rate. The modulation of the wetting of pharmaceutical excipients by surfactant had changed the disintegration time of tablets and drug release rate to a greater extent.

  4. Fatty acid synthase as a factor required for exercise-induced cognitive enhancement and dentate gyrus cellular proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya E Chorna

    Full Text Available Voluntary running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Given that fatty acid synthase (FASN, the key enzyme for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, is critically involved in proliferation of embryonic and adult neural stem cells, we hypothesized that FASN could mediate both exercise-induced cell proliferation in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG and enhancement of spatial learning and memory. In 20 week-old male mice, voluntary running-induced hippocampal-specific upregulation of FASN was accompanied also by hippocampal-specific accumulation of palmitate and stearate saturated fatty acids. In experiments addressing the functional role of FASN in our experimental model, chronic intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. microinfusions of C75, an irreversible FASN inhibitor, and significantly impaired exercise-mediated improvements in spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze. Unlike the vehicle-injected mice, the C75 group adopted a non-spatial serial escape strategy and displayed delayed escape latencies during acquisition and memory tests. Furthermore, pharmacologic blockade of FASN function with C75 resulted in a significant reduction, compared to vehicle treated controls, of the number of proliferative cells in the DG of running mice as measured by immunoreactive to Ki-67 in the SGZ. Taken together, our data suggest that FASN plays an important role in exercise-mediated cognitive enhancement, which might be associated to its role in modulating exercise-induced stimulation of neurogenesis.

  5. A new pentacyclic phenol and other constituents from the root bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lamk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Renuka; Yadav, Namita; Bhagchandani, Teena; Jain, Satish C

    2013-10-01

    This work reported the isolation of one unknown (1) and 10 known compounds (2-11) from the root bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. (family: Caesalpiniaceae). Racemosolone (1) was characterised as a pentacyclic phenolic compound possessing an unusual skeleton with a cycloheptane ring and a rare furopyran moiety. The structure elucidation was carried out on the basis of UV, infrared (IR), HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra and finally confirmed by the single crystal X-ray analysis. The known compounds were characterised as n-tetracosane, β-sitosteryl stearate, eicosanoic acid, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, racemosol, octacosyl ferulate, de-O-methyl racemosol, lupeol and 1,7,8,12b-tetrahydro-2,2,4-trimethyl-2H-benzo[6,7]cyclohepta [1,2,3-de] [1] benzopyran-5,10,11 triol on the basis of spectroscopic data comparison with the literature value. Compounds with skeleton similar to 1 have never been reported from any natural or other source.

  6. The fabrication of novel nanobubble ultrasound contrast agent for potential tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing Zhanwen; Ke Hengte; Yue Xiuli; Dai Zhifei [Nanobiotechnology Division, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, School of Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Wang Jinrui; Zhao Bo [Department of Ultrasonography, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu Jibin, E-mail: zhifei.dai@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: ji-bin.liu@jefferson.edu [Ultrasound Research and Education Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Novel biocompatible nanobubbles were fabricated by ultrasonication of a mixture of Span 60 and polyoxyethylene 40 stearate (PEG40S) followed by differential centrifugation to isolate the relevant subpopulation from the parent suspensions. Particle sizing analysis and optical microscopy inspection indicated that the freshly generated micro/nanobubble suspension was polydisperse and the size distribution was bimodal with large amounts of nanobubbles. To develop a nano-sized contrast agent that is small enough to leak through tumor pores, a fractionation to extract smaller bubbles by variation in the time of centrifugation at 20g (relative centrifuge field, RCF) was suggested. The results showed that the population of nanobubbles with a precisely controlled mean diameter could be sorted from the initial polydisperse suspensions to meet the specified requirements. The isolated bubbles were stable over two weeks under the protection of perfluoropropane gas. The acoustic behavior of the nano-sized contrast agent was evaluated using power Doppler imaging in a normal rabbit model. An excellent power Doppler enhancement was found in vivo renal imaging after intravenous injection of the obtained nanobubbles. Given the broad spectrum of potential clinical applications, the nano-sized contrast agent may provide a versatile adjunct for ultrasonic imaging enhancement and/or treatment of tumors.

  7. Dissolution process analysis using model-free Noyes-Whitney integral equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Haruna, Yoshimasa; Otsuka, Makoto

    2013-02-01

    Drug dissolution process of solid dosages is theoretically described by Noyes-Whitney-Nernst equation. However, the analysis of the process is demonstrated assuming some models. Normally, the model-dependent methods are idealized and require some limitations. In this study, Noyes-Whitney integral equation was proposed and applied to represent the drug dissolution profiles of a solid formulation via the non-linear least squares (NLLS) method. The integral equation is a model-free formula involving the dissolution rate constant as a parameter. In the present study, several solid formulations were prepared via changing the blending time of magnesium stearate (MgSt) with theophylline monohydrate, α-lactose monohydrate, and crystalline cellulose. The formula could excellently represent the dissolution profile, and thereby the rate constant and specific surface area could be obtained by NLLS method. Since the long time blending coated the particle surface with MgSt, it was found that the water permeation was disturbed by its layer dissociating into disintegrant particles. In the end, the solid formulations were not disintegrated; however, the specific surface area gradually increased during the process of dissolution. The X-ray CT observation supported this result and demonstrated that the rough surface was dominant as compared to dissolution, and thus, specific surface area of the solid formulation gradually increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A rapid and universal bacteria-counting approach using CdSe/ZnS/SiO2 composite nanoparticles as fluorescence probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Huang, Kelong; Liu, Suqin

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a rapid, simple, and sensitive method was described for detection of the total bacterial count using SiO(2)-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as a fluorescence marker that covalently coupled with bacteria using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnS were prepared by applying cadmium oxide and zinc stearate as precursors instead of pyrophoric organometallic precursors. A reverse-microemulsion technique was used to synthesize CdSe/ZnS/SiO(2) composite nanoparticles with a SiO(2) surface coating. Our results showed that CdSe/ZnS/SiO(2) composite nanoparticles prepared with this method possessed highly luminescent, biologically functional, and monodispersive characteristics, and could successfully be covalently conjugated with the bacteria. As a demonstration, it was found that the method had higher sensitivity and could count bacteria in 3 x 10(2) CFU/mL, lower than the conventional plate counting and organic dye-based method. A linear relationship of the fluorescence peak intensity (Y) and the total bacterial count (X) was established in the range of 3 x 10(2)-10(7) CFU/mL using the equation Y = 374.82X-938.27 (R = 0.99574). The results of the determination for the total count of bacteria in seven real samples were identical with the conventional plate count method, and the standard deviation was satisfactory.

  9. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  10. Effect of Ingredient Loading on Surface Migration Kinetics of Additives in Vulcanized Natural Rubber Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan B. Pajarito

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface migration kinetics of chemical additives in vulcanized natural rubber compounds were studied as function of ingredient loading. Rubber sheets were compounded according to a 212-8 fractional factorial design of experiment, where ingredients were treated as factors varied at two levels of loading. Amount of migrated additives in surface of rubber sheets was monitored through time at ambient conditions. The maximum amount and estimated rate of additive migration were determined from weight loss kinetic curves. Attenuated total reflection–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy were used to characterize the chemical structure and surface morphology of sheet specimens during additive migration. ANOVA results showed that increased loading of reclaimed rubber, CaCO3, and paraffin wax signif icantly decreased the maximum amount of additive migration; by contrast, increased loading of used oil, asphalt, and mercaptobenzothiazole disulphide (MBTS increased the maximum amount. Increased loading of sulfur, diphenylguanidine (DPG, and paraffin wax significantly decreased the additive migration rate; increased loading of used oil, asphalt, and stearic acid elicited an opposite effect. Comparison of ATRFTIR spectra of migrated and cleaned rubber surfaces showed signif icant variation in intensity of specif ic absorbance bands that are also present in infrared spectra of migrating chemicals. Paraffin wax, used oil, stearic acid, MBTS, asphalt, and zinc stearate were identified to bloom and bleed in the rubber sheets. Optical micrographs of migrated rubber surfaces revealed formation of white precipitates due to blooming and of semi-transparent wet patches due to bleeding.

  11. A method to evaluate the effect of contact with excipients on the surface crystallization of amorphous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Wei; Yu, Lian; Huang, Jun; Hussain, Munir A; Derdour, Lotfi; Qian, Feng; de Villiers, Melgardt M

    2014-12-01

    Amorphous drugs are used to improve the solubility, dissolution, and bioavailability of drugs. However, these metastable forms of drugs can transform into more stable, less soluble, crystalline counterparts. This study reports a method for evaluating the effect of commonly used excipients on the surface crystallization of amorphous drugs and its application to two model amorphous compounds, nifedipine and indomethacin. In this method, amorphous samples of the drugs were covered by excipients and stored in controlled environments. An inverted light microscope was used to measure in real time the rates of surface crystal nucleation and growth. For nifedipine, vacuum-dried microcrystalline cellulose and lactose monohydrate increased the nucleation rate of the β polymorph from two to five times when samples were stored in a desiccator, while D-mannitol and magnesium stearate increased the nucleation rate 50 times. At 50% relative humidity, the nucleation rates were further increased, suggesting that moisture played an important role in the crystallization caused by the excipients. The effect of excipients on the crystal growth rate was not significant, suggesting that contact with excipients influences the physical stability of amorphous nifedipine mainly through the effect on crystal nucleation. This effect seems to be drug specific because for two polymorphs of indomethacin, no significant change in the nucleation rate was observed under the excipients.

  12. Development of Organogel-Derived Capsaicin Nanoemulsion with Improved Bioaccessibility and Reduced Gastric Mucosa Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Muwen; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-06-15

    Capsaicin (CAP) is the major active component in chili peppers with health-promoting benefits. However, the low bioavailability and irritating quality of CAP greatly limit its applications in functional foods. The objective of this study was to develop a food-grade nanoemulsion to increase the dissolution and bioaccessibility of CAP and to alleviate its irritating effects. To achieve this goal, CAP was first dissolved in medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT), followed by the addition of sucrose stearate S-370 as organogelator to develop CAP-loaded organogel. The oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion was formed using organogel as the oil phase and Tween 80 as the emulsifier. After ultrasonication treatment, droplet sizes of emulsion were decreased to 168 nm with enhanced dissolution rate and bioaccessibility. In vivo study further confirmed the reduced rat gastric mucosa irritation caused by CAP. The organogel-derived nanoemulsion was proved to be an effective delivery system for CAP-based functional food products.

  13. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nytoft, H. Peter

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m, may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been reported from the same sample. These hydrocarbons show some similarities to petroleum generatedfrom the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous Kimmeridge Clay type source rocks present in surrounding areas. Except for this sample, the results generally show the presence of a variety of contaminantsof different origins such as ‘naturally greasy fingers’ (squalene and cholesterol, cosmetics such as chap stick or hand lotion (e.g. esters such as butyl-stearate, stearyl-palmitate, vitamin A, plasticisers (phthalates, diesel oil and ‘pipe dope’.

  14. Optimization of LDL targeted nanostructured lipid carriers of 5-FU by a full factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Andalib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC are a mixture of solid and liquid lipids or oils as colloidal carrier systems that lead to an imperfect matrix structure with high ability for loading water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to find the best proportion of liquid and solid lipids of different types for optimization of the production of LDL targeted NLCs used in carrying 5-Fu by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Materials and Methods: The influence of the lipid type, cholesterol or cholesteryl stearate for targeting LDL receptors, oil type (oleic acid or octanol, lipid and oil% on particle size, surface charge, drug loading efficiency, and drug released percent from the NLCs were studied by a full factorial design. Results: The NLCs prepared by 54.5% cholesterol and 25% of oleic acid, showed optimum results with particle size of 105.8 nm, relatively high zeta potential of −25 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38% and release efficiency of about 40%. Scanning electron microscopy of nanoparticles confirmed the results of dynamic light scattering method used in measuring the particle size of NLCs. Conclusions: The optimization method by a full factorial statistical design is a useful optimization method for production of nanostructured lipid carriers.

  15. Comparison of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate/Polylactic Acid and Halloysite/Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuetao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PLA nanocomposites with stearate coated precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC and halloysite natural nanotubes (HNT were prepared by melt extrusion. The crystallization behavior, mechanical properties, thermal dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA, and the morphology of the PCC/PLA, HNT/PLA, and HNT/PCC/PLA composites were discussed. Compared to halloysite nanotubes, PCC nanoparticles showed a better nucleating effect, which decreased both the glass transition and cold crystallization temperatures. The tensile performance of PLA composites showed that the addition of inorganic nanofillers increased Young’s modulus but decreased tensile strength. More interestingly, PLA composites with PCC particles exhibited an effectively increased elongation at break with respect to pure PLA, while HNT/PLA showed a decreased ultimate deformation of composites. DMTA results indicated that PLA composites had a similar storage modulus at temperatures below the glass transition and the addition of nanofillers into PLA caused Tg to shift to lower temperatures by about 3°C. The morphological analysis of fractures surface of PLA nanocomposites showed good dispersion of nanofillers, formation of microvoids, and larger plastic deformation of the PLA matrix when the PCC particles were added, while a strong aggregation was noticed in composites with HNT nanofillers, which has been attributed to a nonoptimal surface coating.

  16. In vitro evaluation of antitumor activity of doxorubicin-loaded nanoemulsion in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhatib, Mayson H., E-mail: mhalkhatib@kau.edu.sa; AlBishi, Hayat M. [College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Biochemistry (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-03-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anticancer drug used to treat several cancer diseases. However, it has several dose limitation aspects because of its poor bioavailability, hydrophobicity, and cytotoxicity. In this study, five nanoemulsion (NE) formulations, containing soya phosphatidylcholine/polyoxyethylenglycerol trihydroxy-stearate 40 (EU)/sodium oleate as surfactant, cholesterol (CHO) as oil phase, and Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.22), were produced. The NE droplets morphologies of the entire blank and DOX-loaded formulations, revealed by the transmission electron microscope, were spherical. The droplet sizes of blank NEs, obtained between 2.9 and 6.4 nm, decreased significantly with the increase in the ratio of surfactant-to-oil, whereas the droplets sizes of DOX-loaded NE formulations were significantly higher and found in the range of 7.7-15.9 nm. The evaluation for both blank and DOX-loaded NE formulations proved that the NE carrier had improved the DOX efficacy and reduced its cytotoxicity. It showed that the cell growth inhibition of the breast cancer cells (MCF-7) have exceeded the commercial DOX by a factor of 1.7 with increased apoptosis activity and minimal cytotoxicity against the normal human foreskin cells (HFS). In contrast, commercial DOX was found to exhibit a significant non-selective toxicity against both MCF-7 and HFS cells. In conclusion, we have developed DOX-loaded NE formulations which selectively and significantly inhibited cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells and increased apoptosis.

  17. Structural and surface morphological studies of long chain fatty acid thin films deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nayan Mani, E-mail: nayanmanidas3@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Roy, Dhrubojyoti [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Gupta, Mukul [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Gupta, P.S. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2012-12-15

    In the present work we aim to study the structural and surface morphological characteristics of divalent cation (cadmium ion, Cd{sup 2+}) induced thin mono- to multilayer films of fatty acids such as arachidic acid and stearic acid prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. These ultra thin films of various numbers of layers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). In this specific Y-type deposition, it was found that as the individual layer thickness increases, the corresponding layer by layer interfacial electron density of the thin films decreases. Since the fatty acid chain tries to maintain its minimum value of cross-sectional area, tilting occurs with respect to its nearest neighbor. The tilt angle calculated for 9 layers of cadmium arachidate (CdA{sub 2}) and cadmium stearate (CdSt{sub 2}) are 18 Degree-Sign and 19.5 Degree-Sign , respectively. An asymmetric air gap of thickness {approx}3 A was also seen between the tail parts of 2 molecular chains. The RMS roughness and average height factors calculated through AFM studies show non-uniform surface morphology of both CdA{sub 2} and CdSt{sub 2}, although the calculated topographic variations were found to have more irregularity in case of CdSt{sub 2} than in case of CdA{sub 2}.

  18. Collapse of Langmuir monolayer at lower surface pressure: Effect of hydrophobic chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikdas2089@gmail.com; Kundu, Sarathi [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Long chain fatty acid molecules (e.g., stearic and behenic acids) form a monolayer on water surface in the presence of Ba{sup 2+} ions at low subphase pH (≈ 5.5) and remain as a monolayer before collapse generally occurs at higher surface pressure (π{sub c} > 50 mN/m). Monolayer formation is verified from the surface pressure vs. area per molecule (π-A) isotherms and also from the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the films deposited by single upstroke of hydrophilic Si (001) substrate through the monolayer covered water surface. At high subphase pH (≈ 9.5), barium stearate molecules form multilayer structure at lower surface pressure which is verified from the π-A isotherms and AFM analysis of the film deposited at 25 mN/m. Such monolayer to multilayer structure formation or monolayer collapse at lower surface pressure is unusual as at this surface pressure generally fatty acid salt molecules form a monolayer on the water surface. Formation of bidentate chelate coordination in the metal containing headgroups is the reason for such monolayer to multilayer transition. However, for longer chain barium behenate molecules only monolayer structure is maintained at that high subphase pH (≈ 9.5) due to the presence of relatively more tail-tail hydrophobic interaction.

  19. Optimization of LDL targeted nanostructured lipid carriers of 5-FU by a full factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalib, Sare; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Sadeghi, Hojjat

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are a mixture of solid and liquid lipids or oils as colloidal carrier systems that lead to an imperfect matrix structure with high ability for loading water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to find the best proportion of liquid and solid lipids of different types for optimization of the production of LDL targeted NLCs used in carrying 5-Fu by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method. The influence of the lipid type, cholesterol or cholesteryl stearate for targeting LDL receptors, oil type (oleic acid or octanol), lipid and oil% on particle size, surface charge, drug loading efficiency, and drug released percent from the NLCs were studied by a full factorial design. The NLCs prepared by 54.5% cholesterol and 25% of oleic acid, showed optimum results with particle size of 105.8 nm, relatively high zeta potential of -25 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38% and release efficiency of about 40%. Scanning electron microscopy of nanoparticles confirmed the results of dynamic light scattering method used in measuring the particle size of NLCs. The optimization method by a full factorial statistical design is a useful optimization method for production of nanostructured lipid carriers.

  20. Characterization of Compaction Process on UO2 Powder Pelletisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachmawati, M; Langenati, R; Saputra, T.T; Mahpudin, A; Histori; Sutarya, D; Zahedi

    1998-01-01

    Determination of compaction pressure of pelletization which is based on density characterization in conjunction with satisfactory green strength of the UO 2 pellet, is carried out in this experiment. Cameco UO 2 powder has been mixed up with Zn-stearate lubricant prior to compaction process. The compaction pressure is varied from the range of 2 Mp up to 6 Mp. The mechanical strength is determined using diametral compression strength with the speed of loading of 0.1 mm.min 1 . The density measurement and compression strength test are performed on each of the applied pressure. The result shows that compaction at 5 Mp gives the maximum green strength of UO 2 pellet, while the maximum density is achieved at 5.7 Mp. The maximum green strength and green density of UO 2 (+ TiO 2 ) pellets is achieved at the addition of 0.25% and 0.125% TiO 2 respectively. The compaction pressure which is showing the maximum pellet green strength but still having the required density, is chosen to be the determinant compaction pressure in condition of pelletization

  1. Formulation development and comparative in vitro study of metoprolol tartrate (IR) tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Tazeen; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Maboos, Madiha; Khan, Madeeha; Bashir, Lubna; Naz, Shazia

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop Immediate Release (IR) tablets of Metoprolol Tartrate (MT) and to compare trial formulations to a reference product. Six formulations (F1-F6) were designed using central composite method and compared to a reference brand (A). Two marketed products (brands B and C) were also evaluated. F1-F6 were prepared with Avicel PH101 (filler), Crospovidone (disintegrant) and Magnesium Stearate (lubricant) by direct compression. Pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial methods were used to assess their quality. Furthermore, drug profiles were characterized using model dependent and independent (f(2)) approaches. Brands B and C and F5 and F6 did not qualify the tests for content uniformity. Moreover, brand B did not meet weight variation criteria and brand C did not satisfy requirements for single point dissolution test. Of the trial formulations, F2 failed the test for uniformity in thickness while F4 did not disintegrate within time limit. Only F1 and F3 met all quality parameters and were subjected to accelerated stability testing without significant alterations in their physicochemical characteristics. Based on AIC and r(2)(adjusted) values obtained by applying various kinetic models, drug release was determined to most closely follow Hixson-Crowell cube root law. F1 was determined to be the optimized formulation.

  2. Advances in low atomic number element analysis by wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrebos, B.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, the analysis of low atomic number has been a chal1enging task for wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Among the most important factors influencing analysis of the low atomic number elements (from Z=11 downwards) are the fluorescence yield, absorption and the dispersion. The effect of each of these factors on the overall performance will be illustrated. The long wavelengths involved (longer than I nm) used to pose severe problems concerning the monochromator used. Early instruments relied on lead stearate or Blodgett Langmuir soap films for the diffraction of the characteristic radiation. Nowadays, synthetic multilayers are commonly used. The performance of these multilayers is determined by the reflectivity, the resolution and the absorption of the characteristic radiation to be diffracted. These parameters can be optimised by adequately selecting the composition of the materials involved. The sensitivity of the modem instruments is sufficient to allow quantitative analysis. However, this aspect of WDS XRF is still met with considerable scepticism. Examples of quantitative analysis will be given to illustrate the current capability

  3. The fabrication of novel nanobubble ultrasound contrast agent for potential tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhanwen; Ke Hengte; Yue Xiuli; Dai Zhifei; Wang Jinrui; Zhao Bo; Liu Jibin

    2010-01-01

    Novel biocompatible nanobubbles were fabricated by ultrasonication of a mixture of Span 60 and polyoxyethylene 40 stearate (PEG40S) followed by differential centrifugation to isolate the relevant subpopulation from the parent suspensions. Particle sizing analysis and optical microscopy inspection indicated that the freshly generated micro/nanobubble suspension was polydisperse and the size distribution was bimodal with large amounts of nanobubbles. To develop a nano-sized contrast agent that is small enough to leak through tumor pores, a fractionation to extract smaller bubbles by variation in the time of centrifugation at 20g (relative centrifuge field, RCF) was suggested. The results showed that the population of nanobubbles with a precisely controlled mean diameter could be sorted from the initial polydisperse suspensions to meet the specified requirements. The isolated bubbles were stable over two weeks under the protection of perfluoropropane gas. The acoustic behavior of the nano-sized contrast agent was evaluated using power Doppler imaging in a normal rabbit model. An excellent power Doppler enhancement was found in vivo renal imaging after intravenous injection of the obtained nanobubbles. Given the broad spectrum of potential clinical applications, the nano-sized contrast agent may provide a versatile adjunct for ultrasonic imaging enhancement and/or treatment of tumors.

  4. The fabrication of novel nanobubble ultrasound contrast agent for potential tumor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhanwen; Wang, Jinrui; Ke, Hengte; Zhao, Bo; Yue, Xiuli; Dai, Zhifei; Liu, Jibin

    2010-04-01

    Novel biocompatible nanobubbles were fabricated by ultrasonication of a mixture of Span 60 and polyoxyethylene 40 stearate (PEG40S) followed by differential centrifugation to isolate the relevant subpopulation from the parent suspensions. Particle sizing analysis and optical microscopy inspection indicated that the freshly generated micro/nanobubble suspension was polydisperse and the size distribution was bimodal with large amounts of nanobubbles. To develop a nano-sized contrast agent that is small enough to leak through tumor pores, a fractionation to extract smaller bubbles by variation in the time of centrifugation at 20g (relative centrifuge field, RCF) was suggested. The results showed that the population of nanobubbles with a precisely controlled mean diameter could be sorted from the initial polydisperse suspensions to meet the specified requirements. The isolated bubbles were stable over two weeks under the protection of perfluoropropane gas. The acoustic behavior of the nano-sized contrast agent was evaluated using power Doppler imaging in a normal rabbit model. An excellent power Doppler enhancement was found in vivo renal imaging after intravenous injection of the obtained nanobubbles. Given the broad spectrum of potential clinical applications, the nano-sized contrast agent may provide a versatile adjunct for ultrasonic imaging enhancement and/or treatment of tumors.

  5. The effect of different soft segments on the formation and properties of binary core microencapsulated phase change materials with polyurea/polyurethane double shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanhong; Chu, Xiaodong; Tang, Guoyi; Yao, Youwei

    2013-02-15

    A series of polyurea/polyurethane microcapsules with butyl stearate and paraffin as binary core materials are successfully synthesized via interfacial polymerization method. The phase change temperature of these microencapsulated phase change materials (micro-PCMs) can be adjusted by regulating the composition of the binary core. SEM photographs show that these micro-PCMs have relatively spherical profiles and compact surfaces with diameter ranging from 5 to 15 μm. DSC results indicate that the binary core content in micro-PCMs is in a range of 45-60 wt%. Moreover, after being treated under 50°C for 7 days or subjected to thermal-cycling test for 500 times, the micro-PCMs keep good thermal performances and stabilities. Besides, these micro-PCMs show good thermal stability, and the degradation temperature differs from the different compositions of the binary core and molecular weight of the water-soluble monomers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A newly developed lubricant, chitosan laurate, in the manufacture of acetaminophen tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Jaber, Ahmad; Kobayashi, Asuka; Yamada, Kyohei; Haj-Ali, Dana; Uchimoto, Takeaki; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-04-10

    To study the usefulness of chitosan laurate (CS-LA), a newly developed chitosan salt, as a lubricant, lubrication properties such as the pressure transmission ratio and ejection force were determined at different concentrations of CS-LA in tableting. In addition, tablet properties such as the tensile strength, disintegration time, and dissolution behavior, were also determined. When CS-LA was mixed at concentrations of 0.1%-3.0%, the pressure transmission ratio was increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and the value at a CS-LA concentration of 3% was equal to that of magnesium stearate (Mg-St), a widely used lubricant. Additionally, a reduction in the ejection force was observed at a concentration from 1%, proving that CS-LA has good lubrication performance. A prolonged disintegration time and decreased tensile strength, which are known disadvantages of Mg-St, were not observed with CS-LA. Furthermore, with CS-LA, retardation of dissolution of the drug from the tablets was not observed. Conjugation of CS with LA was found to be quite important for both lubricant and tablet properties. In conclusion, CS-LA should be useful as an alternative lubricant to Mg-St. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of the External Lubrication Method for a Rotary Tablet Press on the Adhesion of the Film Coating Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hisami; Toyota, Hiroyasu; Kamiya, Takayuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Hakomori, Tadashi; Imoto, Junko; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    External lubrication is a useful method which reduces the adhesion of powder to punches and dies by spraying lubricants during the tableting process. However, no information is available on whether the tablets prepared using an external lubrication system can be applicable for a film coating process. In this study, we evaluated the adhesion force of the film coating layer to the surface of tablets prepared using an external lubrication method, compared with those prepared using internal lubrication method. We also evaluated wettability, roughness and lubricant distribution state on the tablet surface before film coating, and investigated the relationship between peeling of the film coating layer and these tablet surface properties. Increasing lubrication through the external lubrication method decreased wettability of the tablet surface. However, no change was observed in the adhesion force of the film coating layer. On the other hand, increasing lubrication through the internal lubrication method, decreased both wettability of the tablet surface and the adhesion force of the film coating layer. The magnesium stearate distribution state on the tablet surface was assessed using an X-ray fluorescent analyzer and lubricant agglomerates were observed in the case of the internal lubrication method. However, the lubricant was uniformly dispersed in the external lubrication samples. These results indicate that the distribution state of the lubricant affects the adhesion force of the film coating layer, and external lubrication maintained sufficient lubricity and adhesion force of the film coating layer with a small amount of lubricant.

  8. Effect of surfactants or a water soluble polymer on the crystal transition of clarithromycin during a wet granulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Kenji; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-11-10

    To generate products containing a stable form of clarithromycin (CAM) (form II) regardless of the initial crystal form of CAM or type of granulation solvent, the effects of five surfactants, or a water-soluble polymer (macrogol 400) were determined on the crystal transition of CAM. The metastable form (form I) was kneaded with water, after adding surfactants, or a water-soluble polymer. Form II was also kneaded with ethanol, after adding the same additives. The resulting samples were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction. Form I was completely converted to form II by a wet granulation using water with additives bearing polyoxyethylene chains such as polysorbate 80 (PS80), polyoxyl 40 stearate or macrogol 400. The granulation of the form II using ethanol with these additives did not result in a crystal transition to form I. Furthermore, CAM tablets were manufactured using granules with PS80, and these crystal forms and dissolution behaviors were investigated. As a result, the wet granulation of CAM with PS80 gave CAM tablets containing only form II and PS80 did not have any adverse effects on tablet characteristics. Therefore, these data suggests that the crystal form of CAM can be controlled to be form II using a wet granulation process with additives bearing polyoxyethylene chains regardless of the initial crystal form of CAM or type of granulation solvent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Flavonóide e triterpenos de Stigmaphyllom paralias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jorge M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigmaphyllom paralias is a herb belonging to the family Malpighiaceae that occurs in sand soil of brazilian " restinga". This is the first report regarding phytochemical study with this species. The hexane extract of the aerial parts of plant afforded the triterpenes friedelin, lupenone, 3-oxo-alpha-amirin and 3-oxo-beta-amirin, the mixture of alpha-amirinyl palmitate and stearate, lupeol and 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid. The AcOEt extract yielded the flavonoid luteolin-7-rutinoside. All compounds were characterized by analysis of spectrometric data and the fatty acids esterified with alpha-amirine were identified by GC/MS of methyl derivatives of transesterified products . This is the first natural occurence of 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid and the 13C NMR spectral data were inequivocally assigned by two-dimensional techniques. This work also permitted to correct the 13C NMR resonances attributed to methyl groups C-26 and C-27 of fridelin.

  10. Thermal behavior and compatibility analysis of the new chemical entity LPSF/FZ4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Salvana Priscylla Manso; Ramos da Silva, Keyla Emanuelle; Rocha de Medeiros, Giovanna Christinne; Rolim, Larissa Araujo; Ferreira de Oliveira, Jamerson; Carmo Alves de Lima, Maria do; Galdino, Suely Lins; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Neto, Pedro Jose Rolim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We determined the thermal behavior of isolated LPSF/FZ4. • We used the isothermal and non-isothermal methods. • We reported the time of the stability of LPSF/FZ4 was measured in 4 months. • We also performed a compatibility study associated with excipients. • We reported the possible interactions of the prototype with lactose. - Abstract: In this study, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry were employed to determine the thermal behavior of LPSF/FZ4 isolated and associated with excipients (amide, β-cyclodextrin, cellulose, lactose, stearate of magnesium, aerosil, sodium lauryl sulfate, polysorbate and polyvinylpyrrolidone). Thus, the purity of the prototype calculated was 98%. Isothermal and non-isothermal methods were used to determine the kinetic parameters of decomposition, finding a first-reaction order and activation energy (A e ) of 98.22 kJ mol −1 . Also, the time of the stability of LPSF/FZ4 was measured in 4 months. The compatibility study showed possible interactions of the prototype with lactose due to a change in its heat of fusion, a reduction of more than 40 °C in its stability and a reduction of approximately 30% in A e of its decomposition reaction. The study demonstrated the importance of using thermal analytical methods to characterize new drugs to enable the development and quality control of pharmaceutical products

  11. Thermal behavior and compatibility analysis of the new chemical entity LPSF/FZ4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Salvana Priscylla Manso [Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil); Ramos da Silva, Keyla Emanuelle, E-mail: ramos.keyla@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil); Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (Brazil); Rocha de Medeiros, Giovanna Christinne; Rolim, Larissa Araujo; Ferreira de Oliveira, Jamerson [Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil); Carmo Alves de Lima, Maria do; Galdino, Suely Lins; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha [Departamento de Antibióticos, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil); Neto, Pedro Jose Rolim [Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: • We determined the thermal behavior of isolated LPSF/FZ4. • We used the isothermal and non-isothermal methods. • We reported the time of the stability of LPSF/FZ4 was measured in 4 months. • We also performed a compatibility study associated with excipients. • We reported the possible interactions of the prototype with lactose. - Abstract: In this study, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry were employed to determine the thermal behavior of LPSF/FZ4 isolated and associated with excipients (amide, β-cyclodextrin, cellulose, lactose, stearate of magnesium, aerosil, sodium lauryl sulfate, polysorbate and polyvinylpyrrolidone). Thus, the purity of the prototype calculated was 98%. Isothermal and non-isothermal methods were used to determine the kinetic parameters of decomposition, finding a first-reaction order and activation energy (A{sub e}) of 98.22 kJ mol{sup −1}. Also, the time of the stability of LPSF/FZ4 was measured in 4 months. The compatibility study showed possible interactions of the prototype with lactose due to a change in its heat of fusion, a reduction of more than 40 °C in its stability and a reduction of approximately 30% in A{sub e} of its decomposition reaction. The study demonstrated the importance of using thermal analytical methods to characterize new drugs to enable the development and quality control of pharmaceutical products.

  12. Understanding and optimizing the dual excipient functionality of sodium lauryl sulfate in tablet formulation of poorly water soluble drug: wetting and lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaberi, Ahmad; Chatterji, Ashish; Dong, Zedong; Shah, Navnit H; Malick, Waseem; Singhal, Dharmendra; Sandhu, Harpreet K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and optimize sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and magnesium stearate (Mg.St) levels, with respect to dissolution and compaction, in a high dose, poorly soluble drug tablet formulation. A model poorly soluble drug was formulated using high shear aqueous granulation. A D-optimal design was used to evaluate and model the effect of granulation conditions, size of milling screen, SLS and Mg.St levels on tablet compaction and ejection. The compaction profiles were generated using a Presster(©) compaction simulator. Dissolution of the kernels was performed using a USP dissolution apparatus II and intrinsic dissolution was determined using a stationary disk system. Unlike kernels dissolution which failed to discriminate between tablets prepared with various SLS contents, the intrinsic dissolution rate showed that a SLS level of 0.57% was sufficient to achieve the required release profile while having minimal effect on compaction. The formulation factors that affect tablet compaction and ejection were identified and satisfactorily modeled. The design space of best factor setting to achieve optimal compaction and ejection properties was successfully constructed by RSM analysis. A systematic study design helped identify the critical factors and provided means to optimize the functionality of key excipient to design robust drug product.

  13. Modyfication of the Rigid Polyurethane-Polyisocyanurate Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Czupryński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polyethylene glycol 1500 on physicomechanical properties of rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR foams has been studied. It was found that application of polyethylene glycol 1500 for synthesis of foams in amount from 0% to 20% w/w had an effect on reduction of brittleness and softening point, while the greater the increase in compressive strength the higher its content in foam composition was. Wastes from production of these foams were ground and subjected to glycolysis in diethylene glycol with the addition of ethanolamine and zinc stearate. Liquid brown products were obtained. Properties of the resulting products were defined in order to determine their suitability for synthesis of new foams. It was found that glycolysate 6 was the most suitable for reuse and its application in different amounts allowed us to prepare 4 new foams (nos. 25, 26, 27, and 28. Properties of foams prepared in this manner were determined and, on their basis, the suitability of glycolysates for production of rigid PUR-PIR foams was evaluated.

  14. Study of the Formulation and Preparation of Chewable Tablets With a Calcium Complex Association and Vitamin D3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Creţu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study objective was the development of
    chewable tablets with the calcium complex association, the minerals and vitamin D3 for children, subject to the rules as stipulated by the Romanian Pharmacopoeia Xth edition. Generating sources of calcium, used as raw materials in the preparation of these tablets are natural products represented by complex mineral rich in calcium - Lactoval (R HiCal (ratio of calcium and phosphorus is 2,2:1, report the same as breast milk and 30% bovine colostrums [1, 3], making the absorption of calcium should be increased. Also, in order to
    fix and better absorb calcium in the body was added to make the preparation of these chewable tablets and vitamin D3.
    Was chosen as a method of preparing direct compression. Excipients for direct compression are diluents-binder-disaggregated. They are unitary excipients or co-processed products, multi-processed excipients together to meet those properties: microcrystalline cellulose (Vivapur 102 Ludipress, lactose (Tablettose 80, Kollidon CL Isomalt DC 100. Was also added to a lubricant (magnesium stearate and sweetener and flavoring to carry out the preparation of tablets and after 30 days as provided Romanian Pharmacopoeia Xth and its 2001 supplement, which comprises: organoleptic control, uniformity of weight, strength, disintegration and their friability. Working method chosen and make the appropriate choice leads to tablets in terms of quality standards officinal.

  15. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Avio, Carlo G.; Mineo, Annabella; Lattin, Gwendolyn L.; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Belmonte, Genuario; Moore, Charles J.; Regoli, Francesco; Aliani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant. Sixteen different classes of synthetic materials were identified. Low-density polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene were the most abundant compounds, followed by polyamides, plastic-based paints, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol. Less frequent polymers included polyethylene terephthalate, polyisoprene, poly(vinyl stearate), ethylene-vinyl acetate, polyepoxide, paraffin wax and polycaprolactone, a biodegradable polyester reported for the first time floating in off-shore waters. Geographical differences in sample composition were also observed, demonstrating sub-basin scale heterogeneity in plastics distribution and likely reflecting a complex interplay between pollution sources, sinks and residence times of different polymers at sea.

  16. [The Use of Synthetic Polymers (Superdisintegrants) in Technology Tablets Containing Ethanol Dry Extract from Asparagus officinalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linka, Wojciech Andrzej; Wojtaszek, Ilona; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj; Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Dry extracts are now frequently used in medicine as an alternative to synthetic drugs. In the case of tablet technology with dry plant extracts, the proper selection of disintegrants (superdisintegrants) is particularly important. Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the polymers constituting superdisintegrants (Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Polyplasdone XL) in uncoated tablet formulation of alcoholic extracted from Asparagus officinalis. Dry the ethanol extract of Asparagus officinalis, Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Vivapur®, Kollidon VA64, Polyplasdone XL, magnesium stearate. Direct compression. Paddle method was carried out to study pharmacopoeial parameters and pharmaceutical availability. The calculation of equivalency factors: similarity [f2] and the difference [f1]. Approximation results. Tablets brownish-green, with a smooth and uniform surface, without stains, chipping and damage. The determined average weight of the tablets compiled with the standards. The test friability and crushing strength revealed that the most mechanically strong tablets contained Vivasol, Vivastar, Polyplasdone XL. These tablets also have a longer disintegration and dissolution time compared with tablets containing only Vivasol. These differences are also confirmed by the calculated f2 and f1. The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol significantly increases the mechanical strength of the tablets (crushing strength, resistance to crushing). The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol paradoxically increases the disintegration time of tablets (11.1 min). Single superdisintegrant breaks up the tablet more effectively than a mixture of superdisintegrants.

  17. Preparation and characterization of ultrafine alumina via sol-gel polymeric route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, D.M. [Ceramic Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Abu-Ayana, Y.M. [Polymers and Pigments Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: yosreya20@gmail.com

    2008-10-15

    Ultrafine alumina powder was prepared through resin formation between urea and formaldehyde. Aluminium stearate soap was introduced during resin preparation. Ethylene glycol was used to terminate the thermosetting reaction. Calcination of the product was carried out at 700, 1000, 1100, 1300 and 1400 deg. C to obtain aluminium oxide. IR and Raman spectroscopic analysis indicated the occupation of Al{sup 3+} at different sites in the polymer network (C=O, -NH{sub 2}, C-O, -NH, and -CH{sub 2}OH). X-ray diffraction of powder calcined at 1000 deg. C revealed the presence of a mixture of {alpha}- and {theta}-alumina together, while a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-alumina phases were obtained on calcination at 1400 deg. C. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination of the powder fired at 700 deg. C showed uniform grains in the form of clusters with average size between 22.02 and 30.5 nm. Clusters are multi-particles as evident from the electron diffraction pattern. Crystallite size of alumina powder calcined at 1000 deg. C was found to be {approx}25.67 nm, while that of powder calcined at1400 deg. C was {approx}30.52 nm. The calculated specific surface area of alumina powder calcined at 1000 deg. C was 59.17 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, while that calcined at 1400 deg. C was 49.77 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}.

  18. A simple solution-phase approach to synthesize high quality ternary AgInSe2 and band gap tunable quaternary AgIn(S1-xSe x)2 nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Tianyu

    2014-01-01

    A facile solution-phase route for the preparation of AgInSe2 nanocrystals was developed by using silver nitrate, indium stearate, and oleylamine-selenium (OAm-Se) as precursors. The evolution process of the AgInSe2 nanocrystals is discussed in detail and different reaction conditions all have a great impact on the growth and morphology of the nanocrystals. Alloyed AgIn(S1-xSex)2 nanocrystals with controlled composition across the entire range (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was also successfully prepared by modulating the S/Se reactant mole ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to confirm that the alloyed AgIn(S1-xSex)2 nanocrystals are homogeneous. The UV-vis absorption spectra revealed that the band gap energies of the alloyed AgIn(S1-xSex)2 nanocrystals could be continuously tuned by increasing the Se content. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  19. Determination of partition behavior of organic surrogates between paperboard packaging materials and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, V I; Akrida-Demertzi, K; Demertzis, P G

    2005-06-03

    The suitability of recycled paperboard packaging materials for direct food contact applications is a major area of investigation. Chemical contaminants (surrogates) partitioning between recycled paper packaging and foods may affect the safety and health of the consumer. The partition behavior of all possible organic compounds between cardboards and individual foodstuffs is difficult and too time consuming for being fully investigated. Therefore it may be more efficient to determine these partition coefficients indirectly through experimental determination of the partitioning behavior between cardboard samples and air. In this work, the behavior of organic pollutants present in a set of two paper and board samples intended to be in contact with foods was studied. Adsorption isotherms have been plotted and partition coefficients between paper and air have been calculated as a basis for the estimation of their migration potential into food. Values of partition coefficients (Kpaper/air) from 47 to 1207 were obtained at different temperatures. For the less volatile surrogates such as dibutyl phthalate and methyl stearate higher Kpaper/air values were obtained. The adsorption curves showed that the more volatile substances are partitioning mainly in air phase and increasing the temperature from 70 to 100 degrees C their concentrations in air (Cair) have almost doubled. The analysis of surrogates was performed with a method based on solvent extraction and gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) quantification.

  20. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Otero, José Luís; Míguez, Martha; Bermejo, Ana María; Martello, Simona; De Giovanni, Nadia; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Eightieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for seven food additives (benzoates; lipase from Fusarium heterosporum expressed in Ogataea polymorpha; magnesium stearate; maltotetraohydrolase from Pseudomonas stutzeri expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; mixed β-glucanase, cellulase and xylanase from Rasamsonia emersonii; mixed β-glucanase and xylanase from Disporotrichum dimorphosporum; polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)- polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer) and two groups of contaminants (non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and pyrrolizidine alkaloids). Specifications for the following food additives were revised or withdrawn: advantame; annatto extracts (solavnt extracted bixin, ad solvent-extracted norbixin); food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon (aluminium silicate; calcium aluminium silicate; calcium silicate; silicon dioxide, amorphous; sodium aluminium silicate); and glycerol ester of gum rosin. Annexed to the report are tables or text summarizing the toxicological and dietary exposure information and information on specifications as well as the Committees recommendations on the food additives and contaminants considered at this meeting.

  2. A tiered analytical approach for investigating poor quality emergency contraceptives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Monge

    Full Text Available Reproductive health has been deleteriously affected by poor quality medicines. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs are an important birth control method that women can use after unprotected coitus for reducing the risk of pregnancy. In response to the detection of poor quality ECPs commercially available in the Peruvian market we developed a tiered multi-platform analytical strategy. In a survey to assess ECP medicine quality in Peru, 7 out of 25 different batches showed inadequate release of levonorgestrel by dissolution testing or improper amounts of active ingredient. One batch was found to contain a wrong active ingredient, with no detectable levonorgestrel. By combining ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IMS-MS and direct analysis in real time MS (DART-MS the unknown compound was identified as the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. Quantitation by UHPLC-triple quadrupole tandem MS (QqQ-MS/MS indicated that the wrong ingredient was present in the ECP sample at levels which could have significant physiological effects. Further chemical characterization of the poor quality ECP samples included the identification of the excipients by 2D Diffusion-Ordered Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (DOSY 1H NMR indicating the presence of lactose and magnesium stearate.

  3. Investigation of photo-biodegradation of starch-filled polyethylene films under the environment conditions of Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeimian, F.; Khoylou, F.; Sheikh, N.; Akhavan, A.; Hassanpour, S.; Sohrabpour, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work biodegradable polymers have been formulated for packaging purposes and with a view to reduce the environmental accumulation of plastic waste. Degradation of the polymers under the specific weathering conditions of Tehran was studied. In this work low-density polyethylene was formulated with two wheat starch concentrations, maleic anhydride, glycerol as well as a pro-oxidant system of oleic acid, benzoyl peroxide and ferric stearate. The formulated master batches were mixed by using a laboratory two-roll mill at 190 d ig C prepared master batches were mixed with the commercial low-density polyethylene to prepare compounds 1 and 2 containing 1.2 and 6.4 percents wheat starch. The low-density polyethylene control films as well as the formulated compounds were compression moulded in a hot press at 130 d ig C films were subjected to three general conditions of atmospheric exposure, buried in soil and combined conditions of soil burial/ atmospheric exposure. The three environmental conditions impact upon the formulated and control films were investigated through tensile strength, elongation-at-break, carbonyl index, water absorption, weight loss as well as SEM analysis. The microbial investigation was followed by growing the Penicillium Asymmetrica, which had the main population in microbial flora of the soil, on formulated and control films. The studies revealed that the incorporation of this pro-oxidant system with the addition of 6.4% wheat starch enhance the degradation rate of commercial low-density polyethylene films to a significant degree

  4. Development and Validation of a Chromatography Method Using Tandem UV/Charged Aerosol Detector for Simultaneous Determination of Amlodipine Besylate and Olmesartan Medoxomil: Application to Drug-Excipient Compatibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne M. Brondi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate compatibility of amlodipine besylate and olmesartan medoxomil with a variety of pharmaceutical excipients. Both drugs are antihypertensive agents that can be administered alone, in monotherapy, or in pharmaceutical association. The studies were performed using binary and ternary mixtures, and samples were stored for 3 and 6 months at 40°C under 75% relative humidity and dry conditions. For this study, a method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine besylate and olmesartan medoxomil in samples from pharmaceutical preformulation studies using diode array detector (DAD and charged aerosol detector (CAD. The runtime per sample was 10 min with retention time of 7.926 min and 4.408 min for amlodipine and olmesartan, respectively. The validation was performed according to ICH guidelines. The calibration curve presents linear dynamic range from 12 to 250 μg mL−1 for amlodipine and from 25 to 500 μg mL−1 for olmesartan with coefficient of determination (R2 ≥ 0.9908 while repeatability and reproducibility (expressed as relative standard deviation were lower than 1.0%. The excipients such as corn starch, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, polyvinyl alcohol, talc, polyvinylpyrrolidone, lactose monohydrate, and polyethylene glycol showed potential incompatibilities after accelerated stability testing.

  5. New phenylethanoids from Buddleja cordata subsp. cordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, L; Martínez, E; Castañeda, P; Franzblau, S; Timmermann, B N; Linares, E; Bye, R; Mata, R

    2000-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude extract of the stem bark of Buddleja cordata subsp. cordata with significant antimycobacterial activity led to the isolation of a mixture composed by ten new long-chain esters of 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethanol (1-10), along with the lichen metabolites methyl beta-orcinolcarboxylate (11) and beta-orcinolcarboxylate (12). Extensive HPLC allowed the separation of the major components of the mixture, which were characterized by spectral means as 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl stearate (3), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl behenate (6), and 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl lignocerate (8). The minor esters were identified as 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl palmitate (1), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl heptadecanoate (2), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl nonadecanoate (4), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl arachidate (5), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl tricosanoate (7), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl pentacosanoate (9), and 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl hexacosanoate (10) by GC-MS analysis of the methyl esters derivatives of the fatty acids obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of the mixture. Compound 8 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC = 64 micrograms/ml).

  6. Production technology readiness assessment of surfactant in the research center for Chemistry-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Arief Ameir Rahman; Sulaswatty, Anny

    2017-11-01

    The common problem faced by the institution working on research, innovation and technology development is lack of quantitative measures to determine the technology readiness of research. No common communication language between R & D Institutions and industry about the level of preparedness of a research resulting a barrier to technology diffusion interaction. This lack of connection between R & D institutes with industry may lead to "sluggishness" occurs in innovating. For such circumstance, assessing technology readiness of research is very important. One of wide spread methods for the assessment is Technology Readiness Level (TRL, also known as Technometer), which is introduced by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). TRL is a general guide that provides an overview of maturity level of a technology. This study aims to identify and demonstrate the implementation of TRL to assess a number of surfactant researches in the Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences. According to the assessment, it has been obtained the surfactant recommended for further development towards commercialization of R & D results, i.e. Glycerol Mono Stearate (GMS), which has reached the level of TRL 7.

  7. Erythromycin as a safe and effective treatment option for erythema annulare centrifugum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chen Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC is an inflammatory dermatosis with unknown etiology. It is usually self-limited, but chronic disease may be difficult to treat. We observed incidentally the therapeutic effect of erythromycin for EAC among patients taking erythromycin for other diseases. Aim: To evaluate the treatment response of erythromycin for EAC. Materials and Methods: During the study period, from July 2007 to February 2011, all patients with EAC were assigned to erythromycin stearate tablet 1000 mg per day for two weeks. EAC was diagnosed by a constellation of clinical and pathological findings. The efficacy (before and after the treatment was assessed clinically by one dermatologist and photographically by two blinded dermatologists. Secondary outcomes included adverse drug effects and recurrence. Results: Eight patients were enrolled in this study. Most patients had chronic relapsing disease with poor response to previous treatment. All the patients showed rapid response with profound reduction in the size of lesion and erythema two weeks after initiation of erythromycin treatment. The response was so obvious and complete that a coincidental response was less likely. Three patients had recurrence of disease and they tended to have more extensive lesions. Readministration of erythromycin was effective. All patients tolerated the treatment well. Conclusion: Our study documented erythromycin as a safe and cost-effective treatment for EAC.

  8. Role of thermodynamic, kinetic and structural factors in the recrystallization behavior of amorphous erythromycin salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanakwani, Kapil; Modi, Sameer R.; Kumar, Lokesh; Bansal, Arvind K., E-mail: akbansal@niper.ac.in

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Crystallization kinetics of amorphous erythromycin salts was assessed. • Contribution of thermodynamic, kinetic and structural factors was evaluated. • Role of counterions on physical stability of amorphous salts was investigated. • Implications of the study: In rationalizing stabilization approach for amorphous form. - Abstract: Amorphous form has become an important drug delivery strategy for poorly water soluble drugs. However, amorphous form has inherent physical instability due to its tendency to recrystallize to stable crystalline form. In the present study, amorphous forms of erythromycin free base (ED) and its salts namely, stearate (ES), phosphate (EP) and thiocyanate (ET) were generated by in situ melt quenching and evaluated for their crystallization tendency. Salts were characterized for kinetic, thermodynamic and structural factors to understand crystallization behavior. Kinetics of crystallization followed the order as ES > EP > ET > ED. Fragility and molecular mobility does not completely explain these findings. However, configurational entropy (S{sub conf}), indicative of entropic barrier to crystallization, followed the order as ET > EP > ES > ED. Lower crystallization tendency of ED can be explained by its lower thermodynamic driving force for crystallization (H{sub conf}). This correlated well with different structural parameters for the counter ions.

  9. Preparation and evaluation of novel mixed micelles as nanocarriers for intravenous delivery of propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Novel mixed polymeric micelles formed from biocompatible polymers, poly(ethylene glycol-poly(lactide (mPEG-PLA and polyoxyethylene-660-12-hydroxy stearate (Solutol HS15, were fabricated and used as a nanocarrier for solubilizing poorly soluble anesthetic drug propofol. The solubilization of propofol by the mixed micelles was more efficient than those made of mPEG-PLA alone. Micelles with the optimized composition of mPEG-PLA/Solutol HS15/propofol = 10/1/5 by weight had particle size of about 101 nm with narrow distribution (polydispersity index of about 0.12. Stability analysis of the mixed micelles in bovine serum albumin (BSA solution indicated that the diblock copolymer mPEG efficiently protected the BSA adsorption on the mixed micelles because the hydrophobic groups of the copolymer were efficiently screened by mPEG, and propofol-loaded mixed micelles were stable upon storage for at least 6 months. The content of free propofol in the aqueous phase for mixed micelles was lower by 74% than that for the commercial lipid emulsion. No significant differences in times to unconsciousness and recovery of righting reflex were observed between mixed micelles and commercial lipid formulation. The pharmacological effect may serve as pharmaceutical nanocarriers with improved solubilization capacity for poorly soluble drugs.

  10. Ageing of Dry Cement Mixes for Finishing Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius VEKTARIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry building mixes, stored in the air, absorb water vapor and CO2 gas and ageing because properties of binding materials, mostly Portland cement, deteriorate after its prehydration and carbonation. In this paper the ageing singularities of dry cement mixes for finishing purposes and additives for retarding this process has been determinated. Ordinary and quickly hardening Portland cements absorb H2O and CO2 more than white cement – about 70 % – 75 % and 30 % – 38 % per month of innitial mass, respectively. White cement is more resistant to prehydration and carbonation, because it contains less C3A, C4AF and alkali, characterized initial activity. Dry mixes with white cement, although slower, but still worse after stored. Influence of routine dry mortar mixes ingredients and additives (methyl cellulose, pigments, sand and lime on prehydration properties of the mixes for finishing purpose is not substantial. Significant positive influence comes from the addition of fatty acid salts (zinc stearate or sodium oleate. The dry cement mixes for finishing purpose has been recomended to hydrophobisate with one of these additives, adding about 1 % by weight of cement during preducing mixes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5243

  11. Ageing of Dry Cement Mixes for Finishing Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius VEKTARIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry building mixes, stored in the air, absorb water vapor and CO2 gas and ageing because properties of binding materials, mostly Portland cement, deteriorate after its prehydration and carbonation. In this paper the ageing singularities of dry cement mixes for finishing purposes and additives for retarding this process has been determinated. Ordinary and quickly hardening Portland cements absorb H2O and CO2 more than white cement – about 70 % – 75 % and 30 % – 38 % per month of innitial mass, respectively. White cement is more resistant to prehydration and carbonation, because it contains less C3A, C4AF and alkali, characterized initial activity. Dry mixes with white cement, although slower, but still worse after stored. Influence of routine dry mortar mixes ingredients and additives (methyl cellulose, pigments, sand and lime on prehydration properties of the mixes for finishing purpose is not substantial. Significant positive influence comes from the addition of fatty acid salts (zinc stearate or sodium oleate. The dry cement mixes for finishing purpose has been recomended to hydrophobisate with one of these additives, adding about 1 % by weight of cement during preducing mixes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5243

  12. Ceramic grade (U,Pu)O2 powder fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristallini, O.A.; Villegas de Maroto, Marina; De Pino, J.I.; Osuna, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    Ceramic grade UO 2 powder was obtained by the homogeneous precipitation method. This procedure was afterwards applied to the fabrication of ceramic grade (U,Pu)O 2 powders, and mixed oxide powders with Pu content ranging from 0.7 to 16% were obtained. The obtainment of mixed ceramic oxides as well as the recuperation of fabrication scraps were developed in three steps: 1)study of the process of homogeneous precipitation of ammonium diuranate (ADU); 2) co-precipitation of ADU/PuO 2 .H 2 O for Pu concentrations of 0.6 and 6.8; 3) the thermal conditioning to mixed oxide (U,Pu)O 2 powders. The experimental procedure involves the following steps: preparation of the PuO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 solution; co-precipitation of the PuO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 solution with an UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 solution; filtration and drying of the precipitate, thermal treatment and finally, mixing, pressing and sintering of the (U,Pu)O 2 and Nukem UO 2 powder with a 0. of zinc stearate. Different controls were made by means of physical, chemical and ceramographic tests. This method can be used for the fabrication of fast reactor fuels or, previous mechanical dispersion in UO 2 powder, for the fabrication of thermal reactors fuels. (M.E.L.) [es

  13. Feasibility study of palm-based fuels for hybrid rocket motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi Ahmad, M.; Abidin, Razali; Taha, A. Latif; Anudip, Amzaryi

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the combined analysis done in pure palm-based wax that can be used as solid fuel in a hybrid rocket engine. The measurement of pure palm wax calorific value was performed using a bomb calorimeter. An experimental rocket engine and static test stand facility were established. After initial measurement and calibration, repeated procedures were performed. Instrumentation supplies carried out allow fuel regression rate measurements, oxidizer mass flow rates and stearic acid rocket motors measurements. Similar tests are also carried out with stearate acid (from palm oil by-products) dissolved with nitrocellulose and bee solution. Calculated data and experiments show that rates and regression thrust can be achieved even in pure-tested palm-based wax. Additionally, palm-based wax is mixed with beeswax characterized by higher nominal melting temperatures to increase moisturizing points to higher temperatures without affecting regression rate values. Calorie measurements and ballistic experiments were performed on this new fuel formulation. This new formulation promises driving applications in a wide range of temperatures.

  14. Self-organizing map analysis using multivariate data from theophylline tablets predicted by a thin-plate spline interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Akihito; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Rie; Takayama, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    The "quality by design" concept in pharmaceutical formulation development requires the establishment of a science-based rationale and a design space. We integrated thin-plate spline (TPS) interpolation and Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) to visualize the latent structure underlying causal factors and pharmaceutical responses. As a model pharmaceutical product, theophylline tablets were prepared based on a standard formulation. The tensile strength, disintegration time, and stability of these variables were measured as response variables. These responses were predicted quantitatively based on nonlinear TPS. A large amount of data on these tablets was generated and classified into several clusters using an SOM. The experimental values of the responses were predicted with high accuracy, and the data generated for the tablets were classified into several distinct clusters. The SOM feature map allowed us to analyze the global and local correlations between causal factors and tablet characteristics. The results of this study suggest that increasing the proportion of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) improved the tensile strength and the stability of tensile strength of these theophylline tablets. In addition, the proportion of MCC has an optimum value for disintegration time and stability of disintegration. Increasing the proportion of magnesium stearate extended disintegration time. Increasing the compression force improved tensile strength, but degraded the stability of disintegration. This technique provides a better understanding of the relationships between causal factors and pharmaceutical responses in theophylline tablet formulations.

  15. Self-organizing map analysis using multivariate data from theophylline powders predicted by a thin-plate spline interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Akihito; Onuki, Yoshinori; Kikuchi, Shingo; Takayama, Kozo

    2010-11-01

    The quality by design concept in pharmaceutical formulation development requires establishment of a science-based rationale and a design space. We integrated thin-plate spline (TPS) interpolation and Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) to visualize the latent structure underlying causal factors and pharmaceutical responses. As a model pharmaceutical product, theophylline powders were prepared based on the standard formulation. The angle of repose, compressibility, cohesion, and dispersibility were measured as the response variables. These responses were predicted quantitatively on the basis of a nonlinear TPS. A large amount of data on these powders was generated and classified into several clusters using an SOM. The experimental values of the responses were predicted with high accuracy, and the data generated for the powders could be classified into several distinctive clusters. The SOM feature map allowed us to analyze the global and local correlations between causal factors and powder characteristics. For instance, the quantities of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and magnesium stearate (Mg-St) were classified distinctly into each cluster, indicating that the quantities of MCC and Mg-St were crucial for determining the powder characteristics. This technique provides a better understanding of the relationships between causal factors and pharmaceutical responses in theophylline powder formulations. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  16. Comparative tests on the biodegradation of secondary alkane sulphonate, using 14C-labelled preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loetzsch, K.; Neufahrt, A.; Taeuber, G.

    1979-01-01

    The biodegradability of 14 C-labelled and unlabelled secondary alkane sulphonates (SAS) and an unlabelled alkyl benzene sulphonate as well as ar ring-labelled sodium-4-(dodecyl-(4'))-benzene sulphonate (LAS) was tested over a period of 12 days with slight germ introduction under aerobic conditions (Hach apparatus). In the 'one-pot method' (simultaneous determination of MBAS, DOC and BSB) with the unlabelled A-surfactants, it was shown that biodegradation of both substances started at different speeds and is almost finished after 15 days in the case of SAS and after 30 days in the case of LAS. The tests with radioactively labelled secondary alkane sulphonate showed that the greater part of the surfactant carbon is quickly degraded to CO 2 . It therefore behaves like uniformly labelled stearate or like a stearyl alcohol ethoxylate uniformly labelled in the alkyl chain. Both were included in the tests as reference substances. The dissimilation processes of the ring-labelled linear alkyl benzene sulphonate are delayed. Here, CO 2 formation started only after a few days. (orig.) [de

  17. Inline monitoring and a PAT strategy for pharmaceutical hot melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick R; Treffer, Daniel; Mohr, Stefan; Roblegg, Eva; Koscher, Gerold; Khinast, Johannes G

    2013-10-15

    Implementation of continuous manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry requires tight process control. This study focuses on a PAT strategy for hot melt extrusion of vegetable calcium stearate (CaSt) as matrix carrier and paracetamol as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The extrusion was monitored using in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A NIR probe was located in the section between the extrusion screws and the die, using a novel design of the die channel. A chemometric model was developed based on premixes at defined concentrations and was implemented in SIPAT for real time API concentration monitoring. Subsequently, step experiments were performed for different API concentrations, screw speeds and screw designs. The predicted API concentration was in good agreement with the pre-set concentrations. The transition from one API plateau to another was a smooth curve due to the mixing behaviour of the extruder. The accuracy of the model was confirmed via offline HPLC analysis. The screw design was determined as the main influential factor on content uniformity (CU). Additionally the influence of multiple feeders had a significant impact on CU. The results demonstrate that in-line NIR measurements is a powerful tool for process development (e.g., mixing characterization), monitoring and further control strategies. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Targeting tumor highly-expressed LAT1 transporter with amino acid-modified nanoparticles: Toward a novel active targeting strategy in breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Di, Xingsheng; Wu, Mingrui; Sun, Zhisu; Zhong, Lu; Wang, Yongjun; Fu, Qiang; Kan, Qiming; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui

    2017-04-01

    Designing active targeting nanocarriers with increased cellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic agents is a promising strategy in cancer therapy. Herein, we report a novel active targeting strategy based on the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Glutamate was conjugated to polyoxyethylene stearate as a targeting ligand to achieve LAT1-targeting PLGA nanoparticles. The targeting efficiency of nanoparticles was investigated in HeLa and MCF-7 cells. Significant increase in cellular uptake and cytotoxicity was observed in LAT1-targeting nanoparticles compared to the unmodified ones. More interestingly, the internalized LAT1 together with targeting nanoparticles could recycle back to the cell membrane within 3 h, guaranteeing sufficient transporters on cell membrane for continuous cellular uptake. The LAT1 targeting nanoparticles exhibited better tumor accumulation and antitumor effects. These results suggested that the overexpressed LAT1 on cancer cells holds a great potential to be a high-efficiency target for the rational design of active-targeting nanosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microwave assisted esterification of free fatty acid over a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Ping; Liu, Xiguang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Hou; Liu, Chunping; Qu, Rongjun; Xu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave assisted esterification of stearic acid with ethanol was catalyzed by D418. • D418 exhibited remarkable catalytic performance for ethyl stearate formation. • It proved possible to prepare biodiesel rapidly and with good conversions by microwave heating. • The relative catalytic kinetics study has been conducted and modeled. - Abstract: Biodiesel fuel is gaining significant attention in recent years because of its environmental benefits and the growing interest in finding new resources and alternatives for conventional fuels. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil with high free fatty acids usually requires esterification step to produce fatty acid methyl/ethyl ester. In the present work, the heterogeneous catalyst aminophosphonic acid resin D418 has been successfully utilized in the energy-efficient microwave-assisted esterification reaction of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) from free fatty acid (FFA) stearic acid with short-chain alcohol ethanol. Under the reaction conditions of 9 wt% D418 and 11: 1 M ratio of ethanol to stearic acid at 353 K and atmospheric pressure, more than 90% conversion of the esterification was achieved in 7 h by microwave heating, while it took about 12 h by conventional heating. Moreover, the kinetics of this esterification reaction has been studied, and the relevant values of activation energy and pre-exponential factor were obtained

  20. Investigation on the effect of lubrication and forming parameters to the green compact generated from iron powder through warm forming route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Nor, S.S.M.; Rahman, H.Y.

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate green compacts of iron ASC 100.29 powder at above ambient temperature and below its recrystallization temperature, a warm compaction rig is designed and fabricated which can be operated at various temperature and load. The aim of this paper is to present the outcomes of an investigation on the effect of lubrication and forming parameters, i.e., load and temperature to the green compacts generated through warm compaction route. The feedstock was prepared by mechanically mixing the main powder constituent, i.e., iron ASC 100.29 powder with different weight percent of zinc stearate at different mixing time. Compaction load was varied from 105 kN to 125 kN using simultaneous compaction mechanism. The microstructures of the green compacts were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and the mechanical properties are measured through density measurement, hardness test and electrical conductivity test. The study found that increase in compaction load as well as forming temperature give improved microstructure and mechanical properties. It is also found that effects of lubrication to the mechanical properties of green compacts are strongly dependant on the lubricant content as well as mixing time of iron powder with the lubricant.

  1. Comparative Solid-State Stability of Perindopril Active Substance vs. Pharmaceutical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Buda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained after studying the thermal stability and decomposition kinetics of perindopril erbumine as a pure active pharmaceutical ingredient as well as a solid pharmaceutical formulation containing the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. Since no data were found in the literature regarding the spectroscopic description, thermal behavior, or decomposition kinetics of perindopril, our goal was the evaluation of the compatibility of this antihypertensive agent with the excipients in the tablet under ambient conditions and to study the effect of thermal treatment on the stability of perindopril erbumine. ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis (thermogravimetric mass curve (TG—thermogravimetry, derivative thermogravimetric mass curve (DTG, and heat flow (HF and model-free kinetics were chosen as investigational tools. Since thermal behavior is a simplistic approach in evaluating the thermal stability of pharmaceuticals, in-depth kinetic studies were carried out by classical kinetic methods (Kissinger and ASTM E698 and later with the isoconversional methods of Friedman, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa. It was shown that the main thermal degradation step of perindopril erbumine is characterized by activation energy between 59 and 69 kJ/mol (depending on the method used, while for the tablet, the values were around 170 kJ/mol. The used excipients (anhydrous colloidal silica, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and magnesium stearate should be used in newly-developed generic solid pharmaceutical formulations, since they contribute to an increased thermal stability of perindopril erbumine.

  2. Separation behavior of octadecadienoic acid isomers and identification of cis- and trans-isomers using gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibamoto, Shigeaki; Gooley, Andrew; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    2015-01-01

    Using a strongly polar cyanopropyl capillary column we have investigated the gas chromatography (GC) separation behaviors of 24 octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (18:2ME) isomers compared against saturated methyl stearate (18:0ME) and arachidic acid methyl ester (20:0ME), and the dependency on the GC column temperature. The 24 isomers were obtained by performing cis-to trans-isomerization of six regioisomers: five of the 18:2ME isomers were prepared by the partial reduction of methyl α-linolenate and methyl γ-linolenate C18 trienoic acids with different double bond positions, whereas the sixth isomer, 18:2ME (c5, c9), was obtained from a raw constituent fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) sample extracted from Japanese yew seeds. There are no reference standards commercially available for 18:2ME isomers, and in elucidating the elution order of these isomers this study should help the future identification of cis- and trans-type of 18:2ME. We also report the identification method of cis- and trans-type of FAME using equivalent chain lengths and attempt the identification of cis- and trans-type of 18:2ME isomers from partially hydrogenated canola oil.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of tetraphosphonates labelled with 212Bi, 212Pb and 165Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassfjell, S.P.

    1997-08-01

    The main goal of this work has been to achieve a synthesis of radiolabelled phosphonates for the improvement of diagnostic and therapy of osteoblastic osteosarcoma and sclerotic bone metastases. 212 Bi-DOTMP is shown to be an in vivo stable bone seeking radiopharmaceutical with a potential for a α-particle therapy of the above mentioned diseases. It has biodistribution characteristics similar to 153 Sm-EDTMP, which is now formally approved in several countries, most recently in the US. 212 Pb-DOTMP is also a promising candidate having the advantage of increasing the effective half life of the α-emitter, although loss of some of the in vivo generated 212 Bi may be a problem. A generator has been developed for the production of the α-emitting radionuclide 212 Bi and its parent nuclide 212 Pb. The generator is based on the emanation of 220 Rn from ( 228 Th)barium stearate. The decay product of 220 Rn, 212 Pb deposits on the walls of a polyethylene bottle, and can be wasted off with distilled water. The generator shows no leakage of any long-lived parent nuclides, is easy to operate and has a high degree of radiation safety

  4. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  5. Lipid nanoparticles based on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vitro UVA blocking effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculae, G; Lacatusu, I; Badea, N; Meghea, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain efficient lipid nanoparticles loaded with butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in order to develop cosmetic formulations with enhanced UVA blocking effect. For this purpose, two adequate liquid lipids (medium chain triglycerides and squalene) have been used in combination with two solid lipids (cetyl palmitate and glyceryl stearate) in order to create appropriate nanostructured carriers with a disordered lipid network able to accommodate up to 1.5% BMDBM. The lipid nanoparticles (LNs) were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro UVA blocking effect. The efficiency of lipid nanoparticles in developing some cosmetic formulations has been evaluated by determining the in vitro erythemal UVA protection factor. In order to quantify the photoprotective effect, some selected cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs and a conventional emulsion were exposed to photochemical UV irradiation at a low energy to simulate the solar energy during the midday. The results obtained demonstrated the high ability of cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs to absorb more than 96% of UVA radiation. Moreover, the developed cosmetic formulations manifest an enhanced UVA blocking effect, the erythemal UVA protection factor being four times higher than those specific to conventional emulsions. (paper)

  6. Lipid nanoparticles based on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vitro UVA blocking effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculae, G.; Lacatusu, I.; Badea, N.; Meghea, A.

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain efficient lipid nanoparticles loaded with butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in order to develop cosmetic formulations with enhanced UVA blocking effect. For this purpose, two adequate liquid lipids (medium chain triglycerides and squalene) have been used in combination with two solid lipids (cetyl palmitate and glyceryl stearate) in order to create appropriate nanostructured carriers with a disordered lipid network able to accommodate up to 1.5% BMDBM. The lipid nanoparticles (LNs) were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro UVA blocking effect. The efficiency of lipid nanoparticles in developing some cosmetic formulations has been evaluated by determining the in vitro erythemal UVA protection factor. In order to quantify the photoprotective effect, some selected cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs and a conventional emulsion were exposed to photochemical UV irradiation at a low energy to simulate the solar energy during the midday. The results obtained demonstrated the high ability of cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs to absorb more than 96% of UVA radiation. Moreover, the developed cosmetic formulations manifest an enhanced UVA blocking effect, the erythemal UVA protection factor being four times higher than those specific to conventional emulsions.

  7. Preparation and evaluation of novel mixed micelles as nanocarriers for intravenous delivery of propofol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinru; Zhang, Yanhui; Fan, Yating; Zhou, Yanxia; Wang, Xiaoning; Fan, Chao; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-12-01

    Novel mixed polymeric micelles formed from biocompatible polymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) and polyoxyethylene-660-12-hydroxy stearate (Solutol HS15), were fabricated and used as a nanocarrier for solubilizing poorly soluble anesthetic drug propofol. The solubilization of propofol by the mixed micelles was more efficient than those made of mPEG-PLA alone. Micelles with the optimized composition of mPEG-PLA/Solutol HS15/propofol = 10/1/5 by weight had particle size of about 101 nm with narrow distribution (polydispersity index of about 0.12). Stability analysis of the mixed micelles in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution indicated that the diblock copolymer mPEG efficiently protected the BSA adsorption on the mixed micelles because the hydrophobic groups of the copolymer were efficiently screened by mPEG, and propofol-loaded mixed micelles were stable upon storage for at least 6 months. The content of free propofol in the aqueous phase for mixed micelles was lower by 74% than that for the commercial lipid emulsion. No significant differences in times to unconsciousness and recovery of righting reflex were observed between mixed micelles and commercial lipid formulation. The pharmacological effect may serve as pharmaceutical nanocarriers with improved solubilization capacity for poorly soluble drugs.

  8. Predictive evaluation of pharmaceutical properties of direct compression tablets containing theophylline anhydrate during storage at high humidity by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuta; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Hideji; Otsuka, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Theophylline anhydrate (TA) in tablet formulation is transformed into monohydrate (TH) at high humidity and the phase transformation affected dissolution behavior. Near-infrared spectroscopic (NIR) method is applied to predict the change of pharmaceutical properties of TA tablets during storage at high humidity. The tablet formulation containing TA, lactose, crystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate was compressed at 4.8 kN. Pharmaceutical properties of TA tables were measured by NIR, X-ray diffraction analysis, dissolution test and tablet hardness. TA tablet was almost 100% transformed into TH after 24 hours at RH 96%. The pharmaceutical properties of TA tablets, such as tablet hardness, 20 min dissolution amount (D20) and increase of tablet weight (TW), changed with the degree of hydration. Calibration models for TW, tablet hardness and D20 to predict the pharmaceutical properties at high-humidity conditions were developed on the basis of the NIR spectra by partial least squares regression analysis. The relationships between predicted and actual measured values for TW, tablet hardness and D20 had straight lines, respectively. From the results of NIR-chemometrics, it was confirmed that these predicted models had high accuracy to monitor the tablet properties during storage at high humidity.

  9. Intermediate release formulations of diclofenac potassium tablets for IVIVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Huma; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Zafar, Farya; Bushra, Rabia; Yasmin, Riffat; Siddiqui, Shehla; Alam, Zafar M

    2016-07-01

    In recent days response surface methodology (RSM) has widely been applied for development and optimization of cost effective formulations with required quality. Study comprised of three steps including micromeritic comparison of different powder blends of placebo and diclofenac potassium (DP), formulation designing with CCRD (Design Expert, version 7.0.0), and stability testing of selected formulations by using R Gui. Ten formulations (F11-F20) were developed using microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-102) (X1) (13-72%), methocel K15M (X2) (6.59-23.4%) and magnesium stearate (X3) (1.32-4.68%), while responses were % friability and % drug release. Blending rate constant was determined at 3, 6, 9 and 12 minutes. The results of physicochemical parameters were found within acceptable limits. After in vitro testing at pH 1.2, pH 4.5 and pH 6.8, mechanism of drug release, kinetic analysis and statistical evaluation were carried out by model - independent, model-dependent and one-way ANOVA methods. Most formulations followed zero order kinetics at higher pH. Fickian release (0.326 ≤ n ≤0.449) was observed with β greater than 0.5 and less than 1. ANOVA indicated no significant variation within and between formulations as p-values were found to be > 0.05.

  10. Bioavailability and stability of erythromycin delayed release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwal, S; Xide, T U

    2001-12-01

    Erythromycin is available as the free base, ethylsuccinate, estolate, stearate, gluceptate, and lactobionate derivatives. When given orally erythromycin and its derivatives except the estolate are inactivated to some extent by the gastric acid and poor absorption may result. To establish whether delayed release erythromycin tablets meet the bioequivalent requirement for the market. Sectrophotometric analysis was used to determine the dissolution percentage of the tablets in vitro. High performance liquid chromatography and IBM/XT microcomputer was used to determine the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters in vivo. Dissolution percentage in thirty minutes reached 28.9% and in sixty minutes erythromycin was completely released. The parameters of the delayed release tablets were Tlag 2.3 hr, Tmax.4.5 hr, and Cmax 2.123 g/ml Ka 0.38048 hr(-1) T (1/2) 1.8 hr, V*C/F 49.721 AUC 12.9155. The relative bioavailability of erythromycin delayed release tablet to erythromycin capsules was 105.31% The content, appearance, and dissolution bioavailability of delayed release erythromycin tablets conforms to the United States pharmacopoeia standards. The tablets should be stored in a cool and dry place in airtight containers and the shelf life is temporarily assigned two years.

  11. Using the Slug Mucosal Irritation Assay to Investigate the Tolerability of Tablet Excipients on Human Skin in the Context of the Use of a Nipple Shield Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Richard; Lenoir, Joke; Gerrard, Stephen; Scheuerle, Rebekah L; Slater, Nigel K H; Tuleu, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Neonates are particularly challenging to treat. A novel patented drug delivery device containing a rapidly disintegrating tablet held within a modified nipple shield (NSDS) was designed to deliver medication to infants during breastfeeding. However concerns exist around dermatological nipple tolerability with no pharmaceutical safety assessment guidance to study local tissue tolerance of the nipple and the areola. This is the first Slug Mucosal Irritation (SMI) study to evaluate irritancy potential of GRAS excipients commonly used to manufacture rapidly disintegrating immediate release solid oral dosage form METHODS: Zinc sulphate selected as the antidiarrheal model drug that reduces infant mortality, was blended with functional excipients at traditional levels [microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate]. Slugs were exposed to blends slurried in human breast milk to assess their stinging, itching or burning potential, using objective values such as mucus production to categorize irritation potency RESULTS: Presently an in vivo assay, previously validated for prediction of ocular and nasal irritation, was used as an alternative to vertebrate models to anticipate the potential maternal dermatological tolerability issues to NSDS tablet components. The excipients did not elicit irritancy. However, mild irritancy was observed when zinc sulphate was present in blends. These promising good tolerability results support the continued investigation of these excipients within NSDS rapidly disintegrating tablet formulations. Topical local tolerance effects being almost entirely limited to irritation, the slug assay potentially adds to the existing preformulation toolbox, and may sit in between the in vitro and existing in vivo assays.

  12. Radiolysis of fatty acid esters in n-hexane solution in an atmosphere of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kazuo; Shirai, Kazuo

    1975-01-01

    There have been several problems in food preservation by irradiation. Deterioration of food components by irradiation is one of the most substantial subjects. This investigation was undertaken as a basic experiment to discuss the radiolysis of lipids in food irradiation. In the previous paper, radiolytic examination on six of methyl esters of fatty acids in n-hexane solution in the presence of air was reported. In the present work the same samples-methyl stearate (C sub(18:0)), methyl oleate (C sub(18:1)), methyl linoleate (C sub(18:2)), methyl linolenate (C sub(18:3)), methyl arachidate (C sub(20:0)) and methyl arachidonate (C sub(20:4)) were examined in an atmosphere of nitrogen. Samples in n-hexane solution were sealed in glass ampules after substituted with nitrogen. Preparations were treated with 60 Co-gamma-radiation at dose from 1.8 x 10 6 to 7.1 x 10 6 rads. These preparations were analyzed by gas chromatography, infrared spectrophotometry and iodine value determination. The results were as follows: 1. Generally speaking saturated acids were stable and unsaturated were unstable. 2. In unsaturated series, the high unsaturated fatty acids were more labile to gamma-irradiation and the more increased doses induced the more drastic decompositions. 3. It was observed by infrared spectra that some isomerization from cis to trans configuration occured at double bond systems in unsaturated fatty acids. (auth.)

  13. Optimization of formulation and processing of Moringa oleifera and spirulina complex tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhu, Fan; Lin, Dan; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Yichao; Mark, Bohn

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To prepare a more comprehensive nutrition, more balanced proportion of natural nutritional supplement tablets with Moringa oleifera leaves and spirulina the two nutrients which have complementary natural food ingredients. Method: On the basis of research M. oleifera leaves with spirulina nutrient composition was determined on M. oleifera leaves and spirulina ratio of raw materials, and the choice of microcrystalline cellulose, sodium salt of caboxy methyl cellulose(CMC),magnesium stearate excipient, through single factor and orthogonal experiment, selecting the best formula tablets prepared by powder direct compression technology, for preparation of M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets. Results: The best ratio of raw material for the M. oleifera leaves powder: spirulina powder was 7:3, the best raw materials for the tablet formulation was 88.5%, 8.0% microcrystalline cellulose, CMC 2.0%, stearin magnesium 1.5%, the optimum parameters for the raw material crushing 200-300 mesh particle size, moisture content of 7%, tableting pressure 40 kN. Conclusion: Through formulation and process optimization, we can prepare more comprehensive and balanced nutrition M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets, its sheet-shaped appearance, piece weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration and other indicators have reached the appropriate quality requirements.

  14. Aging Studies of VCE Dismantlement Returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letant, S; Alviso, C; Pearson, M; Albo, R; Small, W; Wilson, T; Chinn, S; Maxwell, R

    2011-10-17

    VCE is an ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol terpolymer binder for filled elastomers which is designed to accept high filler loadings. Filled elastomer parts consist of the binder (VCE), a curing agent (Hylene MP, diphenol-4-4{prime}-methylenebis(phenylcarbamate)), a processing aid (LS, lithium stearate), and filler particles (typically 70% fraction by weight). The curing of the filled elastomer parts occurs from the heat-activated reaction between the hydroxyl groups of VCE with the Hylene MP curing agent, resulting in a cross-linked network. The final vinyl acetate content is typically between 34.9 and 37.9%, while the vinyl alcohol content is typically between 1.27 and 1.78%. Surveillance data for this material is both scarce and scattered, complicating the assessment of any aging trends in systems. In addition, most of the initial surveillance efforts focused on mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength, and chemical information is therefore lacking. Material characterization and aging studies had been performed on previous formulations of the VCE material but the Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) starting copolymer is no longer commercially available. New formulations with replacement EVA materials are currently being established and will require characterization as well as updated aging models.

  15. Good, Bad, or Ugly: the Biological Roles of Bone Marrow Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshman; Tyagi, Sonia; Myers, Damian; Duque, Gustavo

    2018-04-01

    Bone marrow fat expresses mixed characteristics, which could correspond to white, brown, and beige types of fat. Marrow fat could act as either energy storing and adipokine secreting white fat or as a source of energy for hematopoiesis and bone metabolism, thus acting as brown fat. However, there is also a negative interaction between marrow fat and other elements of the bone marrow milieu, which is known as lipotoxicity. In this review, we will describe the good and bad roles of marrow fat in the bone, while focusing on the specific components of the negative effect of marrow fat on bone metabolism. Lipotoxicity in the bone is exerted by bone marrow fat through the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids (FFA) (predominantly palmitate). High levels of FFA found in the bone marrow of aged and osteoporotic bone are associated with decreased osteoblastogenesis and bone formation, decreased hematopoiesis, and increased osteoclastogenesis. In addition, FFA such as palmitate and stearate induce apoptosis and dysfunctional autophagy in the osteoblasts, thus affecting their differentiation and function. Regulation of marrow fat could become a therapeutic target for osteoporosis. Inhibition of the synthesis of FFA by marrow fat could facilitate osteoblastogenesis and bone formation while affecting osteoclastogenesis. However, further studies testing this hypothesis are still required.

  16. Computational optimization of biodiesel combustion using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Prabhakara Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on optimization of biodiesel combustion phenomena through parametric approach using response surface methodology. Physical properties of biodiesel play a vital role for accurate simulations of the fuel spray, atomization, combustion, and emission formation processes. Typically methyl based biodiesel consists of five main types of esters: methyl palmitate, methyl oleate, methyl stearate, methyl linoleate, and methyl linolenate in its composition. Based on the amount of methyl esters present the properties of pongamia bio-diesel and its blends were estimated. CONVERGETM computational fluid dynamics software was used to simulate the fuel spray, turbulence and combustion phenomena. The simulation responses such as indicated specific fuel consumption, NOx, and soot were analyzed using design of experiments. Regression equations were developed for each of these responses. The optimum parameters were found out to be compression ratio – 16.75, start of injection – 21.9° before top dead center, and exhaust gas re-circulation – 10.94%. Results have been compared with baseline case.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of tetraphosphonates labelled with {sup 212}Bi, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 165}Er

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassfjell, S.P

    1997-08-01

    The main goal of this work has been to achieve a synthesis of radiolabelled phosphonates for the improvement of diagnostic and therapy of osteoblastic osteosarcoma and sclerotic bone metastases. {sup 212}Bi-DOTMP is shown to be an in vivo stable bone seeking radiopharmaceutical with a potential for a {alpha}-particle therapy of the above mentioned diseases. It has biodistribution characteristics similar to {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, which is now formally approved in several countries, most recently in the US. {sup 212}Pb-DOTMP is also a promising candidate having the advantage of increasing the effective half life of the {alpha}-emitter, although loss of some of the in vivo generated {sup 212}Bi may be a problem. A generator has been developed for the production of the {alpha}-emitting radionuclide {sup 212}Bi and its parent nuclide {sup 212}Pb. The generator is based on the emanation of {sup 220}Rn from ({sup 228}Th)barium stearate. The decay product of {sup 220}Rn, {sup 212}Pb deposits on the walls of a polyethylene bottle, and can be wasted off with distilled water. The generator shows no leakage of any long-lived parent nuclides, is easy to operate and has a high degree of radiation safety.

  18. Development of polymer film dosage forms of lidocaine for buccal administration: II. Comparison of preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hirokazu; Nakamori, Takahiko; Arakawa, Yotaro; Iida, Kotaro; Danjo, Kazumi

    2002-11-01

    In previous studies, we prepared film dosage forms of lidocaine (LC) with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as a film base using the solvent evaporation (SE) method. However, from the viewpoint of environmental issues, a reduction in organic solvent use in pharmaceutical and other industries is required. In this study, we prepared the LC films by direct compression of the physical mixture (DCPM method) and direct compression of the spray dried powder (DCSD method). Magnesium stearate, which was required as a lubricant for direct compression, showed no effect on the LC release rate. The LC release rate (%/h) was independent of the compression pressure, but a higher pressure was preferable to easily remove the film from the punches. An increase in the film weight decreased the LC release rate expressed in %/h, whereas no significant effect of film weight was observed on the LC release rate from unit surface area expressed in mg/h/cm(2). The LC release rate (%/h) was independent of the LC content, suggesting that the LC release rate (mg/h) can be quantitatively controlled by changing the LC content in the formulation. The LC release rate and penetration rate were affected by the preparation method; that is, DCPM method dosage form. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 91:2424-2432, 2002

  19. On catalysis of the initial period of methylcyclohexane oxidation by salts of nontransition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, P.A.; Syroezhko, A.M.; Potekhin, V.M.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of salts formed by alkali and alkaline-earth metals with aliphatic acids on chain initiation during the initial period of methylcyclohexane oxidation by air. The oxidation was carried out in an autoclave under 10 kg/cm 2 pressure in the temperature range 120-150 0 C, at catalyst concentrations in the range 0.0-2.36.10 -2 M. The inhibitor concentration was varied in the range 0.0-9.5.10 -4 M. Sodium, cesium, barium lithium and calcium stearates and sodium pelargonate (Pe) were used as catalysts. It was found that salts formed by nontransition metals with aliphatic acids having acid radicals with 9-16 carbon atoms are active catalysts of chain initiation. The catalytic activity of the salts increases with the ionic radius of the cation in the series LiSt 2 2 < CsSt. Radical formation is a first-order process with respect to the catalyst and is due to the polar group of the salt

  20. Increased sinusoidal volume and solute extraction during retrograde liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, N.M.; Manning, J.A.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Retrograde isolated liver perfusion has been used to probe acinar functional heterogeneity, but the hemodynamic effects of backward flow have not been characterized. In this study, extraction of a long-chain fatty acid derivative, 12-N-methyl-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-amino stearate (12-NBDS), was greater during retrograde than during anterograde perfusion of isolated rat liver. To determine whether hemodynamic differences between anterograde and retrograde perfused livers could account for this finding, the hepatic extracellular space was measured for both directions of flow by means of [ 14 C]sucrose washout during perfusion as well as by direct measurement of [ 14 C]sucrose entrapped during perfusion. A three- to fourfold enlargement of the total hepatic extracellular space was found during retrograde perfusion by both approaches. Examination of perfusion-fixed livers by light microscopy and morphometry revealed that marked distension of the sinusoids occurred during retrograde perfusion and that this accounts for the observed increase in the [ 14 C]sucrose space. These findings support the hypothesis that maximum resistance to perfusate flow in the isolated perfused rat liver is located at the presinusoidal level. In addition, increased transit time of perfusate through the liver and greater sinusoidal surface area resulting from sinusoidal distension may account for the higher extraction of 12-NBDS and possibly other compounds by retrograde perfused liver

  1. The investigation of influence of adhesion promoters on adhesion bond between vulcanisate and zinc coated steel cord in products based on mixtures of natural and 1,4-cis-polybutadiene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojić Mirko T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixtures of elastomer compounds based on natural and 1,4-cispolybutadiene rubber of 80:20 ratio, were used for the investigation of adhesion promoters influence on adhesion of vulcanisate to steel cord. Ni-stearate and resorsynol-formaldehyde resin combined with hexamethylenetetramine in various mass ratios were included as adhesion promoters. Elastomer mixtures were prepared using a laboratory double mill, and the rheological and vulcanization characteristics were examined on a vulcameter provided with an oscillating disc, a higher temperature of 145 °C. The crosslinking of the mixture was carried out by press, at a temperature of 145 °C and specific pressure of 40 bar, in period of 45 minutes. A wide number of standardized methods for physical mechanical characterization of vulcanization prior and after accelerated aging were used. The adhesion of vulcanizate bond with zinc coated steel cord was determined according to the so called H-test, by measuring the pulling-out force of the cord from the vulcanized block, and the degree of coverage of cord with vulcanizate after separation. The results of examinations show significant dependence of physico-mechanical characteristics and adhesion forces on the type and amount of used adhesion promoters in experimental elastomer mixtures.

  2. Mechanochemical effect on swelling and drug release of natural polymer matrix tablets by X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Takaku, Tomomi; Otsuka, Makoto

    2018-03-25

    The relationships between the physicochemical properties of milled starch and drug release from tablets were investigated quantitatively using a drug release kinetic method and X-ray computed tomography (XCT). The samples were prepared from raw β-starch by milling in a planetary ball mill. The tablets, containing 5% theophylline (TH), 94% milled starch, and 1% magnesium stearate, were compressed at 6 kN. The drug-release and gel-forming processes were measured simultaneously using an original dissolution tester with an XCT instrument. Drug release from the tablet was delayed with increasing milling time, because the TH tablet formed a typical gel-layer on the outside of the tablet. The relationship between the crystallinity of milled starch and mean drug release time (MDT) for the TH tablets showed almost a straight inverse proportional relationship. The plots of MDT against area under the curve of the swelling ratio profiles of the TH tablets had a good straight line. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Final report on the safety assessment of Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    manicuring preparations" product category. This ingredient, with an oral LD50 in rats of 32.77 g/kg, has low acute toxicity. Rats given up to 50,000 ppm PEG-4 in drinking water for 5 days showed no permanent signs of toxicity. Rats given daily oral doses up to 2 g/kg/day of PEG-4 for 33 days showed no signs of toxicity. Undiluted PEG-4 produced only minimal injury to the rabbit eye. PEG-4 was not mutagenic in Ames-type assays, did not induce chromosome aberration in an in vivo bone marrow assay, and was negative for genotoxicity in a dominant lethal assay using rats. Other PEG compounds, which have previously been reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, e.g., PEG-6, are mixtures that likely include Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4, so these data were also considered. PEG-6 and PEG-8 were not dermal irritants in several rabbit studies. PEG-2 Stearate had a potential for slight irritation in rabbits but was not a sensitizer in guinea pigs. PEG-2 Cocamine was a moderate irritant in rabbits, producing severe erythema. In one dermal study, PEG-2 Cocamine was determined to be corrosive to rabbit skin, causing eschar and necrosis. PEG-6 and PEG-8 caused little to no ocular irritation. PEG-8 was not mutagenic or genotoxic in a Chinese hamster ovary assay, a sister-chromatid exchange assay, and in an unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. In clinical studies on normal skin, PEG-6 and PEG-8 caused mild cases of immediate hypersensitivity; PEG-8 was not a sensitizer; PEG-2 Stearate was not an irritant, a sensitizer, or a photosensitizer; and PEG-6 Stearate was not an irritant or sensitizer. In damaged skin, cases of systemic toxicity and contact dermatitis in burn patients were attributed to a PEG-based topical ointment. The CIR Expert Panel acknowledged the lack of dermal sensitization data for Triethylene Glycol and dermal irritation and sensitization data for PEG-4. That PEG-6, PEG-8, and PEG-2 Stearate were not irritants or sensitizers suggested that Triethylene Glycol

  4. Preparation and evaluation of novel mixed micelles as nanocarriers for intravenous delivery of propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinru; Zhang, Yanhui; Fan, Yating; Zhou, Yanxia; Wang, Xiaoning; Fan, Chao; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-03-31

    Novel mixed polymeric micelles formed from biocompatible polymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) and polyoxyethylene-660-12-hydroxy stearate (Solutol HS15), were fabricated and used as a nanocarrier for solubilizing poorly soluble anesthetic drug propofol. The solubilization of propofol by the mixed micelles was more efficient than those made of mPEG-PLA alone. Micelles with the optimized composition of mPEG-PLA/Solutol HS15/propofol = 10/1/5 by weight had particle size of about 101 nm with narrow distribution (polydispersity index of about 0.12). Stability analysis of the mixed micelles in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution indicated that the diblock copolymer mPEG efficiently protected the BSA adsorption on the mixed micelles because the hydrophobic groups of the copolymer were efficiently screened by mPEG, and propofol-loaded mixed micelles were stable upon storage for at least 6 months. The content of free propofol in the aqueous phase for mixed micelles was lower by 74% than that for the commercial lipid emulsion. No significant differences in times to unconsciousness and recovery of righting reflex were observed between mixed micelles and commercial lipid formulation. The pharmacological effect may serve as pharmaceutical nanocarriers with improved solubilization capacity for poorly soluble drugs.

  5. Kinetic Study of the Aroxyl-Radical-Scavenging Activity of Five Fatty Acid Esters and Six Carotenoids in Toluene Solution: Structure-Activity Relationship for the Hydrogen Abstraction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Kazuo; Yoshimoto, Maya; Ishikura, Masaharu; Nagaoka, Shin-Ichi

    2017-08-17

    A kinetic study of the reaction between an aroxyl radical (ArO • ) and fatty acid esters (LHs 1-5, ethyl stearate 1, ethyl oleate 2, ethyl linoleate 3, ethyl linolenate 4, and ethyl arachidonate 5) has been undertaken. The second-order rate constants (k s ) for the reaction of ArO • with LHs 1-5 in toluene at 25.0 °C have been determined spectrophotometrically. The k s values obtained increased in the order of LH 1 LHs 1-5. The k s value for LH 5 was 2.93 × 10 -3 M -1 s -1 . From the result, it has been clarified that the reaction of ArO • with LHs 1-5 was explained by an allylic hydrogen abstraction reaction. A similar kinetic study was performed for the reaction of ArO • with six carotenoids (Car-Hs 1-6, astaxanthin 1, β-carotene 2, lycopene 3, capsanthin 4, zeaxanthin 5, and lutein 6). The k s values obtained increased in the order of Car-H 1 LHs 1-5. The results of detailed analyses of the k s values for the above reaction indicated that the reaction was also explained by an allylic hydrogen abstraction reaction. Furthermore, the structure-activity relationship for the reaction was discussed by taking the result of density functional theory calculation reported by Martinez and Barbosa into account.

  6. Effects of process variables on micromeritic properties and drug release of non-degradable microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Jelvehgari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate microencapsulated controlled release preparation of theophylline using Eudragit RS 100 as the retardant material with high entrapment efficiency. Methods: Microspheres were prepared by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. A mixed solvent system consisting of methanol and acetone and light liquid paraffin as oily phase were chosen. Sucrose stearate was used as the surfactant to stabilize the emulsification process. The prepared microspheres were characterized by drug loading, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning colorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The in vitro release studies were performed at pH 1.2 and 7.4 aqueous medium. Results: Increasing the concentration of emulsifier, sucrose fatty acid ester F-70, decreased the particle size which contributed to increased drug release rate. The drug loading microparticle Eudragit RS100 (1:6 showed 60-75% of entrapment and mean particle size 205.93-352.76 µm. The results showed that, an increase in the ratio of polymer: drug (F5, 6: 1 resulted in a reduction in the release rate of the drug which may be attributed to the hydrophobic nature of the polymer. Conclusion: The release of theophylline is influenced by the drug to polymer ratio and particle size. Drug release is controlled by diffusion and the best-fit release kinetic is Higuchi model.

  7. Effects of process variables on micromeritic properties and drug release of non-degradable microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvehgari, Mitra; Barar, Jaleh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Shadrou, Sanam; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate microencapsulated controlled release preparation of theophylline using Eudragit RS 100 as the retardant material with high entrapment efficiency. Microspheres were prepared by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. A mixed solvent system consisting of methanol and acetone and light liquid paraffin as oily phase were chosen. Sucrose stearate was used as the surfactant to stabilize the emulsification process. The prepared microspheres were characterized by drug loading, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vitro release studies were performed at pH 1.2 and 7.4 aqueous medium. Increasing the concentration of emulsifier, sucrose fatty acid ester F-70, decreased the particle size which contributed to increased drug release rate. The drug loading microparticle Eudragit RS100(1:6) showed 60-75% of entrapment and mean particle size 205.93-352.76 μm.The results showed that, an increase in the ratio of polymer: drug (F5, 6: 1) resulted in a reduction in the release rate of the drug which may be attributed to the hydrophobic nature of the polymer. The release of theophylline is influenced by the drug to polymer ratio and particle size. Drug release is controlled by diffusion and the best-fit release kinetic is Higuchi model.

  8. Comparative In Vitro Controlled Release Studies on the Chronobiotic Hormone Melatonin from Cyclodextrins-Containing Matrices and Cyclodextrin: Melatonin Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Marilena; Papamichael, Marianna; Siamidi, Angeliki; Fragouli, Irene; Afroudakis, Pandelis A; Kompogennitaki, Rodanthi; Dotsikas, Yannis

    2017-07-28

    A series of hydrophilic matrix tablets was prepared and tested with respect to their ability to release the hormone melatonin in a controlled manner, in order to alleviate sleep onset and sleep maintenance dysfunctions. Besides the active ingredient, the tablets were comprised of combinations of the following: HPMC K 15M, low viscosity sodium alginate, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102), magnesium stearate, and the cyclodextrins, α-CD, β-CD, γ-CD, HP-β-CD, sulfated β-CD, HP-α-CD and HP-γ-CD, and MLT (guest):CD (host) complexes of the above cyclodextrins, in 1:1 ratio. The controlled release studies were conducted in two aqueous dissolution media at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The stoichiometry of the formed complexes was examined by applying the continuous variation method (Job plot), while the stability constants were calculated by monitoring the spectrophotometric properties of free and CD-encapsulated melatonin (UV-Vis). Host-guest interactions were studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The dissolution data suggest that melatonin is released faster from the MLT:CD complexes than from the rest matrix systems. This enhancement in the dissolution rate and the % release of melatonin from the complexes is due to the increased solubility of the MLT:CD complexes.

  9. Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Josiane Souza Pereira; Veronez, Isabela Pianna; Rodrigues, Larissa Lopes [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Trevisan, Marcello G. [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); National Institute of Bioanalytics Science and Technology – INCTBio, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, 13084-653, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Jerusa Simone, E-mail: jerusa.garcia@unifal-mg.edu.br [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline.

  10. The energy-dispersive reflectometer at BESSY II: a challenge for thin film analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pietsch, U; Geue, T; Neissendorfer, F; Brezsesinski, G; Symietz, C; Moehwald, H; Gudat, W

    2001-01-01

    Installed in 1999 the energy-dispersive reflectometer at the 13.2 bending magnet employs the exponentially decaying white X-ray emission spectrum of the 1.7 GeV storage ring of BESSY II outside the vacuum. Using an energy-dispersive detector specular and longitudinal-diffuse reflectivity spectra of thin films can be recorded simultaneously between 0.2 A sup - sup 1 stearate films at room temperature and its change during annealing. At T=70 deg. C we observe an instantaneous decay of specular Bragg peaks accompanied with an increase of the diffuse scattering. This indicates the onset of the melting of 2D-ordered acid domains. The vertical diffusion coefficient is estimated to be about 2x10 sup - sup 2 sup 4 m sup 2 /s.

  11. Quantitation of biological retinoids by high-pressure liquid chromatography: primary internal standardization using tritiated retinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullum, M.E.; Zile, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    A single method is described for quantitation of 14 retinoids found in biological material. The method consists of reversed-phase HPLC, internal standardization, and carrier extraction procedures with three synthetic retinoids. Primary standardization of HPLC uv detector is achieved using tritiated all-trans-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl palmitate, and all-trans-retinyl acetate. Extraction methods are standardized by correlating the uv absorbance of retinoids at 340 nm with radioactivity of tritiated retinoids of known specific activity. Quantitation of 10 pg of tritiated or 5 ng of nonradioactive retinoid per 0.1 g sample in a polarity range from 4-oxo-retinoic acid to retinyl stearate can be achieved in a single, 50-min chromatographic run. A single HPLC pump, a C 18 reversed-phased analytical column, a multistep three-solvent gradient, and inexpensive solvents based on methanol, water, and chloroform comprise this cost-effective chromatographic system. Our primary standardization method allows investigators employing different procedures to compare results between laboratories by standardizing the HPLC uv detector with commercially available tritiated retinoids. With this method we were able to quantitate nanomolar amounts of endogenous retinoic acids and retinyl esters, that HPLC uv only conditions usually would not detect in the circulation and liver of rats under physiological conditions

  12. Thermal Analysis and Flame-Retarded Mechanism of Composites Composed of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate and Layered Double Hydroxides Containing Transition Metals (Mn, Co, Cu, Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of transition metals on the hydrophobicity of nano–structured layered double hydroxides (LDHs and the compatibility of LDHs/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA composites have seldom been reported. NiMgAl–LDHs slightly surface–modified with stearate and doped with transition metal cations (Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ are investigated. Compared to the pure EVA, not only were the maximal degradation–rate temperatures (Tmax of the ethylene–based chains enhanced, but also the smoke production rate (SPR and the production rate of CO (COP were sharply decreased for all the composites. Most importantly, a new flame retardant mechanism was found, namely the peak heat release rate (pk-HRR time, which directly depends on the peak production rate of CO2 (pk-CO2 time for EVA and all composites by cone calorimeter test. Moreover, the Mn–doped LDH S–NiMgAl–Mn shows more uniform dispersion and better interfacial compatibility in the EVA matrix. The cone calorimetric residue of S–NiMgAl–Mn/EVA has the intumescent char layer and the compact metal oxide layer. Therefore, S–NiMgAl–Mn/EVA shows the lowest pk-HRR and the longest pk-HRR time among all the composites.

  13. A 4-week study of four 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol diesters on lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Zhenning; Ren, Mengrou; Feng, Guangxin; Ye, Beining; Wang, Yi; Fang, Baochen; Deng, Xuming; Guan, Shuang

    2015-09-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters have been detected in many foods, which have become a new safety issue worldwide. In the study, we investigated the effect of four 3-MCPD diesters (palmitate diester: CDP; stearate diester: CDS; oleate diester: CDO; linoleate diester: CDL) on lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. The results showed that CDP, CDS, CDO and CDL significantly increased the serum TC, LDL-C levels and liver TG, TC levels at dose of 16.5μmol/kg/day. These results indicated that 3-MCPD diesters could potentially cause hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, oil red O staining confirmed fat accumulation in liver induced by 3-MCPD diesters. Our work will provide more information for safety evaluation of 3-MCPD diesters. However, whether free 3-MCPD or free fatty acids or combined action compensates for the hyperlipidemia effects should be elucidated in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy Efficiency for Biodiesel Production by Combining Two Orifices in Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlinda Mahlinda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of energy efficiency for biodiesel production process by combining two orifices on  hydrodynamic cavitation reactor had been carried out. The aim of this reseach was to studied effect of the number of orifices toward increasing temperature without using external energy source to produce biodiesel that generated by cavitation effects on orifices. The results of preliminary research showed by combining two orifices arranged in series can produce the highest thermal energy reached 48oC. Result of biodiesel production showed that yield of the highest biodiesel was 96.34% using molar ratio a methanol:oil with comparison 6:1, KOH as catalyst (1% for 50 minutes processing time. For biodiesel quality testing showed all selected parameter met the requirements of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI 04-7182:2006. Identification of biodiesel compound using GCMS showed the biodiesel compounds consisted of methyl oleate, methyl palmitate, acid linoleid, methyl stearate, palmitic acid and oleic acid with the total contents 98.39%.

  15. Simple and Green Fabrication of a Superhydrophobic Surface by One-Step Immersion for Continuous Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingfang; Liu, Bin; Li, Longyang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Wang, Gang; Guan, Xiaoyan

    2016-07-21

    In this paper, stainless steel meshes with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surfaces were fabricated by rapid and simple one-step immersion in a solution containing hydrochloric acid and stearic acid. The apparent contact angles were tested by a video contact angle measurement system (CA). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were conducted to characterize the surface topographies and chemical compositions. The SEM results showed that mesh surfaces were covered by ferric stearate (Fe[CH3(CH2)16COO]2) with low surface energy. The CA test results showed that the mesh had a maximum apparent contact angle of 160 ± 1.0° and a sliding angle of less than 5.0° for the water droplet, whereas the apparent contact angle for the oil droplet was zero. Ultrasound oscillation and exposure tests at atmospheric conditions and immersion tests in 3.5 wt % NaCl aqueous solution were conducted to confirm the mesh with excellent superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties. On the basis of the superhydrophobic mesh, a miniature separation device pump was designed to collect pure oil from the oil/water mixture. It showed that the device was easier and convenient. The techniques and materials presented in this work are promising for application to wastewater and oil spill treatment.

  16. Lupeol and its esters: NMR, powder XRD data and in vitro evaluation of cancer cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Teixeira Maciel e Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The triterpene lupeol (1 and some of its esters are secondary metabolites produced by species of Celastraceae family, which have being associated with cytotoxic activity. We report herein the isolation of 1, the semi-synthesis of eight lupeol esters and the evaluation of their in vitro activity against nine strains of cancer cells. The reaction of carboxylic acids with 1 and DIC/DMAP was used to obtain lupeol stearate (2, lupeol palmitate (3 lupeol miristate (4, and the new esters lupeol laurate (5, lupeol caprate (6, lupeol caprilate (7, lupeol caproate (8 and lupeol 3’,4’-dimethoxybenzoate (9, with high yields. Compounds 1-9 were identified using FT-IR, 1H, 13C-NMR, CHN analysis and XRD data and were tested in vitro for proliferation of human cancer cell activity. In these assays, lupeol was inactive (GI50> 250µg/mL while lupeol esters 2 -4 and 7 - 9 showed a cytostatic effect. The XRD method was a suitable tool to determine the structure of lupeol and its esters in solid state. Compound 3 showed a selective growth inhibition effect on erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K-562 cells in a concentration-dependent way. Lupeol esters 4 and 9 showed a selective cytostatic effect with low GI50 values representing promising prototypes for the development of new anticancer drugs.

  17. Influence of Excipients and Spray Drying on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Nutraceutical Capsules Containing Phytochemicals from Black Bean Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Rempel, Curtis; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-12-03

    Black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a rich source of flavonoids and saponins with proven health benefits. Spray dried black bean extract powders were used in different formulations for the production of nutraceutical capsules with reduced batch-to-batch weight variability. Factorial designs were used to find an adequate maltodextrin-extract ratio for the spray-drying process to produce black bean extract powders. Several flowability properties were used to determine composite flow index of produced powders. Powder containing 6% maltodextrin had the highest yield (78.6%) and the best recovery of flavonoids and saponins (>56% and >73%, respectively). The new complexes formed by the interaction of black bean powder with maltodextrin, microcrystalline cellulose 50 and starch exhibited not only bigger particles, but also a rougher structure than using only maltodextrin and starch as excipients. A drying process prior to capsule production improved powder flowability, increasing capsule weight and reducing variability. The formulation containing 25.0% of maltodextrin, 24.1% of microcrystalline cellulose 50, 50% of starch and 0.9% of magnesium stearate produced capsules with less than 2.5% weight variability. The spray drying technique is a feasible technique to produce good flow extract powders containing valuable phytochemicals and low cost excipients to reduce the end-product variability.

  18. Production of natural antioxidants from vegetable oil deodorizer distillates: effect of catalytic hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, María Ayelén; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-02-01

    Natural tocopherols are one of the main types of antioxidants found in living creatures, but they also have other critical biological functions. The biopotency of natural (+)-alpha-tocopherol (RRR) is 36% higher than that of the synthetic racemic mixture and 300% higher than the SRR stereoisomer. Vegetable oil deodorizer distillates (DD) are an excellent source of natural tocopherols. Catalytic hydrogenation of DD preconcentrates has been suggested as a feasible route for recovery of tocopherols in high yield. However, it is important to know whether the hydrogenation operation, as applied to these tocopherol-rich mixtures, is capable of preserving the chiral (RRR) character, which is critical to its biopotency. Fortified (i.e., (+)-alpha-tocopherol enriched) sunflower oil and methyl stearate, as well as sunflower oil DD, were fully hydrogenated using commercial Ni and Pd catalysts (120-180 degrees C; 20-60 psig). Products were analyzed by chiral HPLC. Results show that the desired chiral configuration (RRR) is fully retained. Thus, the hydrogenation route can be safely considered as a valid alternative for increasing the efficiency of tocopherol recovery processes from DDs while preserving their natural characteristics.

  19. Dispersibility of lactose fines as compared to API in dry powders for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalberg, Kyrre; Åslund, Simon; Skogevall, Marcus; Andersson, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    This work investigates the dispersion performance of fine lactose particles as function of processing time, and compares it to the API, using Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) as model API. The total load of fine particles is kept constant in the formulations while the proportions of API and lactose fines are varied. Fine particle assessment demonstrates that the lactose fines have higher dispersibility than the API. For standard formulations, processing time has a limited effect on the Fine Particle Fraction (FPF). For formulations containing magnesium stearate (MgSt), FPF of BDP is heavily influenced by processing time, with an initial increase, followed by a decrease at longer mixing times. An equation modeling the observed behavior is presented. Surprisingly, the dispersibility of the lactose fines present in the same formulation remains unaffected by mixing time. Magnesium analysis demonstrates that MgSt is transferred to the fine particles during the mixing process, thus lubrication both BDP and lactose fines, which leads to an increased FPF. Dry particle sizing of the formulations reveals a loss of fine particles at longer mixing times. Incorporation of fine particles into the carrier surfaces is believed to be behind this, and is hence a mechanism of importance as regards the dispersion performance of dry powders for inhalation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced Silver Nanoparticle Chemiluminescence Method for the Determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate using Sequential Injection Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarfaj, N.A.; Aly, F.A.; Tamimi, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) with chemiluminescence detection has been proposed for the determination of the antibiotic gemifloxacin mesylate (GFX). The developed method is based on the enhancement effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the chemiluminescence (CL) signal of luminol-potassium ferricyanide reaction in alkaline medium. The introduction of gemifloxacin in this system produced a significant decrease in the CL intensity in presence of (Ag NPs). The optimum conditions for CL emission were investigated. Linear relationship between the decrease in CL intensity and concentration was obtained in the range 0.01-1000 ng mL-1, (r = 0.9997) with detection limit of 2.0 pg mL-1 and quantification limit of 0.01 pg mL-1. The relative standard deviation was 1.3 %. The proposed method was employed for the determination of gemifloxacin in bulk drug, in its pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological fluids such as human serum and urine. The interference of some common additive compounds such as glucose, lactose, starch, talc and magnesium stearate was investigated, and no interference was found from these excipients. The obtained SIA results were statistically compared with those obtained from a reported method and did not show any significant difference at confidence level 95%. (author)

  1. Studies of drag on the nanocomposite superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Jean-Denis; Sarkar, D. K.; Perron, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The nanocomposite thin films of stearic acid (SA)-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles incorporated in epoxy polymer matrix have been achieved. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show the formation of zinc stearate on ZnO nanoparticles as the confirmation of SA-functionalization of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin films. Morphological analyses reveal the presence of micro-holes with the presence of irregular nanoparticles. The measured root mean square (rms) roughness of the thin film is found to be 12 ± 1 μm with the adhesion of 5B on both glass and aluminum substrates. The wetting property shows that the surface of the film is superhydrophobic with the contact angle of water of 156 ± 4° having contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 4 ± 2°. The average terminal velocity in the water of the as-received glass spheres and superhydrophobic spheres were found to be 0.66 ± 0.01 m/s and 0.72 ± 0.01 m/s respectively. Consequently, the calculated average coefficients of the surface drag of the as-received glass sphere and superhydrophobic glass sphere were 2.30 ± 0.01 and 1.93 ± 0.03, respectively. Hence, the drag reduction on the surface of superhydrophobic glass sphere is found to be approximately 16% lower than as-received glass sphere.

  2. Controlled Growth of ZnSe Nanocrystals by Tuning Reactivity and Amount of Zinc Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-Jun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc selenide (ZnSe nanocrystals were synthesized via a phosphine-free route using the highly reactive alkylamine-H2Se complex as selenium precursor and zinc precursors with different reactivity. The reactivity of zinc precursor was tuned by using three kinds of zinc carboxylates with different alkyl chain lengths, including zinc acetate, zinc nonanoate, and zinc stearate. The effect of the reactivity and the amount of zinc precursor on nucleation and growth of ZnSe nanocrystals were investigated by ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectra. Result indicates that the growth and optical property of the resulting ZnSe nanocrystals are strongly dependent on the alkyl chain length and the amount of the zinc carboxylates and both shorter alkyl chain length, and more amount of zinc carboxylate will lead to faster growth of ZnSe nanocrystals. This allows that the controlled growth and excellent optical property of high-quality ZnSe nanocrystals can be achieved by combining the different reactivity and the used amount of zinc precursor, such as by using stoichiometric and reactive Zn precursor and Se precursor or by using larger amount of more unreactive Zn precursor relative to the highly reactive alkylamine-H2Se complex precursor.

  3. Hydrophobic Calcium Carbonate for Cement Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi B. Atla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a novel way to generate a highly effective hydrophobic cement surface via a carbonation route using sodium stearate. Carbonation reaction was carried out at different temperatures to investigate the hydrophobicity and morphology of the calcium carbonate formed with this process. With increasing temperatures, the particles changed from irregular shapes to more uniform rod-like structures and then aggregated to form a plate-like formation. The contact angle against water was found to increase with increasing temperature; after 90 °C there was no further increase. The maximum contact angle of 129° was obtained at the temperature of 60 °C. It was also found that carbonation increased the micro hardness of the cement material. The micro hardness was found to be dependent on the morphology of the CaCO3 particles. The rod like structures which caused increased mineral filler produced a material with enhanced strength. The 13C cross polarization magic-angle spinning NMR spectra gave plausible explanation of the interaction of organic-inorganic moieties.

  4. Foaming behaviour of polymer-surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes-MartInez, Alfredo; Maldonado, Amir

    2007-01-01

    We study the effect of a non-ionic amphiphilic polymer (PEG-100 stearate also called Myrj 59) on the foaming behaviour of aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate or SDS). The SDS concentration was kept fixed while the Myrj 59 concentration was varied. Measurements of foamability, surface tension and electrical conductivity were carried out. The results show two opposite effects depending on the polymer concentration: foamability is higher when the Myrj 59 concentration is low; however, it decreases considerably when the polymer concentration is increased. This behaviour is due to the polymer adsorption at the air/liquid interface at lower polymer concentrations, and to the formation of a polymer-surfactant complex in the bulk at higher concentrations. The results are confirmed by surface tension and electrical conductivity measurements, which are interpreted in terms of the microstructure of the polymer-surfactant solutions. The observed behaviour is due to the amphiphilic nature of the studied polymer. The increased hydrophobicity of Myrj 59, compared to that of water-soluble polymers like PEG or PEO, increases its 'reactivity' towards SDS, i.e. the strength of its interaction with this anionic surfactant. Our results show that hydrophobically modified polymers have potential applications as additives in order to control the foaming properties of surfactant solutions

  5. In-line Raman spectroscopic monitoring and feedback control of a continuous twin-screw pharmaceutical powder blending and tableting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Brigitta; Farkas, Attila; Gyürkés, Martin; Komaromy-Hiller, Szofia; Démuth, Balázs; Szabó, Bence; Nusser, Dávid; Borbás, Enikő; Marosi, György; Nagy, Zsombor Kristóf

    2017-09-15

    The integration of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative into the continuous production of pharmaceuticals is indispensable for reliable production. The present paper reports the implementation of in-line Raman spectroscopy in a continuous blending and tableting process of a three-component model pharmaceutical system, containing caffeine as model active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), glucose as model excipient and magnesium stearate as lubricant. The real-time analysis of API content, blend homogeneity, and tablet content uniformity was performed using a Partial Least Squares (PLS) quantitative method. The in-line Raman spectroscopic monitoring showed that the continuous blender was capable of producing blends with high homogeneity, and technological malfunctions can be detected by the proposed PAT method. The Raman spectroscopy-based feedback control of the API feeder was also established, creating a 'Process Analytically Controlled Technology' (PACT), which guarantees the required API content in the produced blend. This is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first ever application of Raman-spectroscopy in continuous blending and the first Raman-based feedback control in the formulation technology of solid pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a novel LC/MS method to quantitate cellular stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, Roslyn; Greig, Michael J.; Bhat, B. Ganesh

    2008-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in de novo synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids-mainly oleate and palmitoleate from stearoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-Co A, respectively. These products are the most abundant monounsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol esters. Reports on mice with a targeted disruption of SCD1 gene (SCD1-/-) exhibit improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared to wild-type suggesting SCD1 could be a therapeutic target for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Measurement of SCD1 activity is technically challenging and traditional cell-based SCD1 assay procedure is labor intensive with low throughput. We describe here a novel medium-throughput LC/MS cell-based assay for determining cellular SCD1 activity, facilitating screening of potential SCD1 inhibitor compounds. Confluent HepG2 cells were grown in 24-well plates and incubated with vehicle or an inhibitor followed by incubation with deuterium labeled saturated fatty acid substrates. Total cell lipids were extracted and the conversion of stearate to oleate was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sterculate, a known inhibitor of SCD1, inhibited the enzyme activity in a dose dependent manner in this assay with a calculated EC 50 of 247 nM. The medium-throughput method described here is an important step towards identifying an inhibitor of SCD1 to treat diabetes and related metabolic diseases

  7. KAJIAN TEKNOLOFI EDIBLE COATING DARI PATI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PENGEMAS PRIMER LEMPOK DURIAN [Technological Assessment of Starch Edible Coating and Its Application on Primary Packaging of Durian Sweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to determine the shelf life of edible coating packaged of durian lempok. The experimental method used in this study was Factorial Randomized Block Design consisting of three factors. These factors were tapioca starch, stearate acid, and CMC. The edible coating solution was applied in to durian lempok by using dip method. The result showed that edible coating packaged of durian lempok could increase the durian lempok shelf life by 67 percent than durian lempok without edible coating. The edible coating was capable of decreasing the durian lempok weight loss by magnitude of 36.38% during storage, decreasing the peroxide number by magnitude of 33.33%, decreasing the water content by magnitude of 7.54%, and suppressing the microbial growth by the amount of 31.20%, respectively. Visual change of non-coating lempok had occurred on the day of 19th, which was indicated by greyish-white colour change due to certain type of mold on lempok surface, while the similar change happened at day of 31th (T2A3C3 treatment.

  8. Fabricating Superhydrophobic Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jonah; Grinstaff, Mark

    2015-08-28

    Superhydrophobic materials, with surfaces possessing permanent or metastable non-wetted states, are of interest for a number of biomedical and industrial applications. Here we describe how electrospinning or electrospraying a polymer mixture containing a biodegradable, biocompatible aliphatic polyester (e.g., polycaprolactone and poly(lactide-co-glycolide)), as the major component, doped with a hydrophobic copolymer composed of the polyester and a stearate-modified poly(glycerol carbonate) affords a superhydrophobic biomaterial. The fabrication techniques of electrospinning or electrospraying provide the enhanced surface roughness and porosity on and within the fibers or the particles, respectively. The use of a low surface energy copolymer dopant that blends with the polyester and can be stably electrospun or electrosprayed affords these superhydrophobic materials. Important parameters such as fiber size, copolymer dopant composition and/or concentration, and their effects on wettability are discussed. This combination of polymer chemistry and process engineering affords a versatile approach to develop application-specific materials using scalable techniques, which are likely generalizable to a wider class of polymers for a variety of applications.

  9. Aprovechamiento de desechos orgánicos: 1. Extracción y caracterización del aceite de semillas de naranja colectadas en expendios ambulantes de jugos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Escalante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Soxhlet extraction, using n-hexane as solvent, of the orange seed oil from waste residues obtained in street sales of fruit juices of Merida, Venezuela, was studied. Yields of 5.1% oil (w/w and 42.7% (w/w relative to the initial mass of the residue and dry seeds, respectively, were obtained. The oil was subjected to a transesterification process with methanol and the main components of the mixture of methyl esters achieved were quantified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS, which turned out to be: linoleate (311%, oleate (311%, palmitate (303% and magnesium stearate (7.10.5%. The mixture of methyl esters was subjected to the hydrolysis reaction in aqueous alkaline medium yielding the respective acid mixture which, after a precipitation process in HCl aqueous solution and its re-crystallization in n-hexane, generated an acid mixture with a higher content of unsaturated acids.

  10. Efficient water removal in lipase-catalyzed esterifications using a low-boiling-point azeotrope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Youchun; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Schmid, Rolf D

    2002-04-05

    High conversions in lipase-catalyzed syntheses of esters from free acyl donors and an alcohol requires efficient removal of water preferentially at temperatures compatible to enzyme activity. Using a lipase B from Candida antarctica (CAL-B)-mediated synthesis of sugar fatty-acid esters, we show that a mixture of ethyl methylketone (EMK) and hexane (best ratio: 4:1, vo/vo) allows efficient removal of water generated during esterification. Azeotropic distillation of the solvent mixture (composition: 26% EMK, 55% hexane, 19% water) takes place at 59 degrees C, which closely matches the optimum temperature reported for CAL-B. Water is then removed from the azeotrope by membrane vapor permeation. In case of glucose stearate, 93% yield was achieved after 48 h using an equimolar ratio of glucose and stearic acid. CAL-B could be reused for seven reaction cycles, with 86% residual activity after 14 d total reaction time at 59 degrees C. A decrease in fatty-acid chain length as well as increasing temperatures (75 degrees C) resulted in lower conversions. In addition, immobilization of CAL-B on a magnetic polypropylene carrier (EP 100) facilitated separation of the biocatalyst. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 78: 31--34, 2002; DOI 10.1002/bit.10084

  11. Chlorella sp : Extraction of fatty acid by using avocado oil as solvent and its application as an anti-aging cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, T. W.; Raya, I.; Natsir, H.; Mayasari, E.

    2018-03-01

    The study aimed to analyze the fatty acid content of Chlorella sp crude extract by using avocado oil solvent and determining the effectiveness of fatty acids Chlorella sp as the anti-aging cream The extraction of fatty acids from Chlorella sp using avocado oil as a solvent with three ratios were 1:10, 1:20 and 1:25 w/V. The highest lipid content was obtained at 1:20 w/V (gram microalgae: mL avocado oil) yielding 52.73%. Crude extracted were analysis by GC-MS and FTIR, and skin condition was determined by skin analyzer. The effectiveness test of Chlorella sp cream was applicated on the face of the panelists aged 20-60 years. From 10 panelists, the applied of Chlorella sp cream was 90% increased on the facial skin yielded moisture and oil content, 70% repair the skin structure. The composition of fatty acids Chlorella sp extract was palmitic acid, linoleic, oleic and stearate. Fatty acids crude extract of Chlorella sp can improve the effectiveness of anti-aging cream. The cream from Chlorella sp was more effective than the cream without containing microalgae. This is very promising because it is alternative to organic solvents i.e. green chemistry.

  12. To Study Capping or Lamination Tendency of Tablets Through Evaluation of Powder Rheological Properties and Tablet Mechanical Properties of Directly Compressible Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhat, Siddhi M; Kettler, Charles N; Dave, Rutesh H

    2017-05-01

    Air entrapment efficiency of the powders is one of the main factors leading to occurrence of capping or lamination tendency of tablets manufactured from the directly compressible powder blends. The purpose of the current research was to study this underlying cause leading to occurrence of capping or lamination of tablets through evaluation of powder rheological properties. Powder blends were prepared by addition of 0% w/w to 100% w/w of individual active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) [two model API: acetaminophen (APAP) and ibuprofen (IBU)] with microcrystalline cellulose without and with 0.5% w/w Magnesium Stearate as lubricant. Powder rheological properties were analyzed using FT4 Powder Rheometer for dynamic, bulk, and shear properties. Tablet mechanical properties of the respective blends were studied by determining the ability of the material to form tablet of specific strength under applied compaction pressure through tabletability profile. The results showed that powder rheometer distinguished the powder blends based on their ability to relieve entrapped air along with the distinctive flow characteristics. Powder blend prepared with increasing addition of APAP displayed low powder permeability as compared to IBU blends with better powder permeability, compressibility and flow characteristics. Also, lubrication of the APAP blends did not ease their ability to relieve air. Tabletability profiles revealed the potential occurrence of capping or lamination in tablets prepared from the powder blends with high APAP content. This study can help scientist to understand tableting performance at the early-developmental stages and can avoid occurrence capping and lamination of tablets.

  13. NRC Information No. 88-43: Solenoid valve problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    On October 29, 1987, at Perry Unit 1, during performance of stroke time testing, three of eight MSIVs failed to fast close as designed. The stroke time testing was being performed in accordance with a startup test procedure. Two of the three affected valves were inboard and outboard MSIVs in the same main steam line, which would be a significant safety problem in the event of a failure of that main steam line. Subsequently, on November 3, 1987, at Perry Unit 1, during performance of stroke time testing, two out of eight MSIVs again failed to fast close as designed. The failure mechanism could not be positively identified, but the most likely cause was determined to be degradation of the Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) elastomer seats due to exposure to a high temperature environment. As a result of the failure at Perry on November 3, 1987, the licensee began a detailed physical and chemical testing program in an attempt to pinpoint the failure mechanism. Results of the physical and chemical testing substantiated the previous conclusion of heat degradation as the root cause of the failures and eliminated hydrocarbon degradation of the EPDM as a possible cause. In addition, the chemical analyses revealed the presence of stearate compounds on the surface of the EPDM material

  14. Optimization of poorly compactable drug tablets manufactured by direct compression using the mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, Tiago; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Taqueda, Maria Elena Santos; Consiglieri, Vladi O

    2006-09-28

    The poor flowability and bad compressibility characteristics of paracetamol are well known. As a result, the production of paracetamol tablets is almost exclusively by wet granulation, a disadvantageous method when compared to direct compression. The development of a new tablet formulation is still based on a large number of experiments and often relies merely on the experience of the analyst. The purpose of this study was to apply experimental design methodology (DOE) to the development and optimization of tablet formulations containing high amounts of paracetamol (more than 70%) and manufactured by direct compression. Nineteen formulations, screened by DOE methodology, were produced with different proportions of Microcel 102, Kollydon VA 64, Flowlac, Kollydon CL 30, PEG 4000, Aerosil, and magnesium stearate. Tablet properties, except friability, were in accordance with the USP 28th ed. requirements. These results were used to generate plots for optimization, mainly for friability. The physical-chemical data found from the optimized formulation were very close to those from the regression analysis, demonstrating that the mixture project is a great tool for the research and development of new formulations.

  15. Time-oriented experimental design method to optimize hydrophilic matrix formulations with gelation kinetics and drug release profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangmun; Choi, Du Hyung; Truong, Nguyen Khoa Viet; Kim, Nam Ah; Chu, Kyung Rok; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2011-04-04

    A new experimental design methodology was developed by integrating the response surface methodology and the time series modeling. The major purposes were to identify significant factors in determining swelling and release rate from matrix tablets and their relative factor levels for optimizing the experimental responses. Properties of tablet swelling and drug release were assessed with ten factors and two default factors, a hydrophilic model drug (terazosin) and magnesium stearate, and compared with target values. The selected input control factors were arranged in a mixture simplex lattice design with 21 experimental runs. The obtained optimal settings for gelation were PEO, LH-11, Syloid, and Pharmacoat with weight ratios of 215.33 (88.50%), 5.68 (2.33%), 19.27 (7.92%), and 3.04 (1.25%), respectively. The optimal settings for drug release were PEO and citric acid with weight ratios of 191.99 (78.91%) and 51.32 (21.09%), respectively. Based on the results of matrix swelling and drug release, the optimal solutions, target values, and validation experiment results over time were similar and showed consistent patterns with very small biases. The experimental design methodology could be a very promising experimental design method to obtain maximum information with limited time and resources. It could also be very useful in formulation studies by providing a systematic and reliable screening method to characterize significant factors in the sustained release matrix tablet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biocompatible Nanoemulsions for Improved Aceclofenac Skin Delivery: Formulation Approach Using Combined Mixture-Process Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isailović, Tanja; Ðorđević, Sanela; Marković, Bojan; Ranđelović, Danijela; Cekić, Nebojša; Lukić, Milica; Pantelić, Ivana; Daniels, Rolf; Savić, Snežana

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to develop lecithin-based nanoemulsions intended for effective aceclofenac (ACF) skin delivery utilizing sucrose esters [sucrose palmitate (SP) and sucrose stearate (SS)] as additional stabilizers and penetration enhancers. To find the suitable surfactant mixtures and levels of process variables (homogenization pressure and number of cycles - high pressure homogenization manufacturing method) that result in drug-loaded nanoemulsions with minimal droplet size and narrow size distribution, a combined mixture-process experimental design was employed. Based on optimization data, selected nanoemulsions were evaluated regarding morphology, surface charge, drug-excipient interactions, physical stability, and in vivo skin performances (skin penetration and irritation potential). The predicted physicochemical properties and storage stability were proved satisfying for ACF-loaded nanoemulsions containing 2% of SP in the blend with 0%-1% of SS and 1%-2% of egg lecithin (produced at 50°C/20 cycles/800 bar). Additionally, the in vivo tape stripping demonstrated superior ACF skin absorption from these nanoemulsions, particularly from those containing 2% of SP, 0.5% of SS, and 1.5% of egg lecithin, when comparing with the sample costabilized by conventional surfactant - polysorbate 80. In summary, the combined mixture-process experimental design was shown as a feasible tool for formulation development of multisurfactant-based nanosized delivery systems with potentially improved overall product performances.

  17. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Sven; Auwärter, Volker; Pragst, Fritz

    2003-01-28

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration was 0.003% in a hair wax. From experiments with separated hair samples of alcoholics as well as from the evaluation of the FAEE concentrations and the data about hair care of 75 volunteers (alcoholics, social drinkers and teetotalers) follows that usual shampooing, permanent wave, dyeing, bleaching or shading are of minor importance as compared to the drinking amount and other individual features. However, false positive results were found after daily treatment with a hair lotion containing 62.5% ethanol, with a deodorant and with a hair spray. As an explanation, it is assumed that FAEE are formed in the sebum glands also after regular topical application of products with a higher ethanol content.

  18. Rapid classification of pharmaceutical ingredients with Raman spectroscopy using compressive detection strategy with PLS-DA multivariate filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci Maltaş, Derya; Kwok, Kaho; Wang, Ping; Taylor, Lynne S; Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2013-06-01

    Identifying pharmaceutical ingredients is a routine procedure required during industrial manufacturing. Here we show that a recently developed Raman compressive detection strategy can be employed to classify various widely used pharmaceutical materials using a hybrid supervised/unsupervised strategy in which only two ingredients are used for training and yet six other ingredients can also be distinguished. More specifically, our liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) based compressive detection instrument is trained using only the active ingredient, tadalafil, and the excipient, lactose, but is tested using these and various other excipients; microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, titanium (IV) oxide, talc, sodium lauryl sulfate and hydroxypropyl cellulose. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is used to generate the compressive detection filters necessary for fast chemical classification. Although the filters used in this study are trained on only lactose and tadalafil, we show that all the pharmaceutical ingredients mentioned above can be differentiated and classified using PLS-DA compressive detection filters with an accumulation time of 10ms per filter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and analytical characterization of a new antiparasitic fenbendazole compound tablet and pharmacokinetic investigations after its oral administration to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cunchun; Qu, Shaoqi; Zhang, Ruili; Zhao, Li; Li, Yuwen; Zhu, Jiajia; Wang, Chunmei; Guo, Hui; Hao, Zhihui

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare a new compound fenbendazole tablet containing 29.7 % fenbendazole, 1.50 % praziquantel and 0.059 % ivermectin for oral administration. The tablets were successfully prepared using mannitol as filler agent, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone as disintegrant, 5 % povidone (PVAK30) as a binder agent and magnesium stearate as lubricant. The appearance, hardness, fragility, time limit of disintegration and fenbendazole dissolution at 45 min all met the technical standards of the Ministry of Agriculture for the People's Republic of China. We used high performance liquid chromatography and electrospray-mass spectrometry for drug detection. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg fenbendazole, 5 mg/kg praziquantel and 0.2 mg/kg ivermectin using a non-compartmental model defined peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of 495, 826, 73 ng/mL, and 218 ng/mL for the metabolite oxfendazole, respectively. The area under the curve (AUClast) values for these drugs were 4653, 1045, 1971 and 5525 h×ng/mL, respectively. This study enriches the pharmacokinetic data of compound fenbendazole tablets using dogs as a model system. The new tablet formulation was assimilated quickly and systemically and this study will be beneficial for the clinical application of parasite treatments in dogs.

  20. A drop penetration method to measure powder blend wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Zhanjie; Muzzio, Fernando; Drazer, German; Callegari, Gerardo

    2018-03-01

    Water wettability of pharmaceutical blends affects important quality attributes of final products. We investigate the wetting properties of a pharmaceutical blend lubricated with Magnesium Stearate (MgSt) as a function of the mechanical shear strain applied to the blend. We measure the penetration dynamics of sessile drops deposited on slightly compressed powder beds. We consider a blend composed of 9% Acetaminophen 90% Lactose and 1% MgSt by weight. Comparing the penetration time of water and a reference liquid Polydimethylsiloxane (silicon oil) we obtain an effective cosine of the contact angle with water, based on a recently developed drop penetration method. We repeat the experiments for blends exposed to increasing levels of shear strain and demonstrate a significant decrease in water wettability (decrease in the cosine of the contact angle). The results are consistent with the development of a hydrophobic film coating the powder particles as a result of the increased shear strain. Finally, we show that, as expected dissolution times increase with the level of shear strain. Therefore, the proposed drop penetration method could be used to directly assess the state of lubrication of a pharmaceutical blend and act as a quality control on powder blend attributes before the blend is tableted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microfluidics-based microbubbles in methylene blue solution for photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman; Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Yang, Chun; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Contrast agents which can be used for more than one bio-imaging technique has gained a lot of attention from researchers in recent years. In this work, a microfluidic device employing a flow-focusing junction, is used for the continuous generation of monodisperse nitrogen microbubbles in methylene blue, an optically absorbing organic dye, for dual-modal photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. Using an external phase of polyoxyethylene glycol 40 stearate (PEG 40), a non-ionic surfactant, and 50% glycerol solution at a flow rate of 1 ml/hr and gas pressure at 1.75 bar, monodisperse nitrogen microbubbles of diameter 7 microns were obtained. The external phase also contained methylene blue hydrate at a concentration of 1 gm/litre. The monodisperse microbubbles produced a strong ultrasound signal as expected. It was observed that the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the photoacoustic signal for the methylene blue solution in the presence of the monodisperse microbubbles was 68.6% lower than that of methylene blue solution in the absence of microbubbles. This work is of significance because using microfluidics, we can precisely control the bubbles' production rate and bubble size which increases ultrasound imaging efficiency. A uniform size distribution of the bubbles will have narrower resonance frequency bandwidth which will respond well to specific ultrasound frequencies.

  2. FAST GC-FID METHOD FOR MONITORING ACIDIC AND BASIC CATALYTIC TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTIONS IN VEGETABLE OILS TO METHYL ESTER BIODIESEL PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Takabayashi Sato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A fast gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID method for the simultaneous analysis of methyl palmitate (C16:0, stearate (C18:0, oleate (C18:1, linoleate (C18:2 and linolenate (C18:3 in biodiesel samples was proposed. The analysis was conducted in a customised ionic-liquid stationary-phase capillary, SLB-IL 111, with a length of 14 m, an internal diameter of 0.10 mm, a film thickness of 0.08 µm and operated isothermally at 160 °C using hydrogen as the carrier gas at a rate of 50 cm s-1 in run time about 3 min. Once methyl myristate (C14:0 is present lower than 0.5% m/m in real samples it was used as an internal standard. The method was successful applied to monitoring basic and acidic catalysis transesterification reactions of vegetable oils such as soybean, canola, corn, sunflower and those used in frying process.

  3. Diatomite-supported Pd-M (M=Cu, Co, Ni) bimetal nanocatalysts for selective hydrogenation of long-chain aliphatic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changliang; Zhang, Hongye; Zhao, Yanfei; Chen, Sha; Liu, Zhimin

    2012-11-15

    Diatomite supported Pd-M (M=Cu, Co, Ni) bimetal nanocatalysts with various metal compositions were prepared and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that the metal nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on the support, and their size was centered around 8 nm with a relatively narrow size distribution. The catalysts were used to catalyze hydrogenation of long-chain aliphatic esters, including methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, and methyl laurate. It was indicated that the all diatomite-supported Pd-based bimetal catalysts were active to the selective hydrogenation of long-chain esters to corresponding alcohols at 270°C, originated from the synergistic effect between the metal particles and the diatomite support. For the selective hydrogenation of methyl palmitate, Pd-Cu/diatomite with metal loading of 1% and Pd/Cu=3 displayed the highest performance, giving a 1-hexadecanol yield of 82.9% at the substrate conversion of 98.8%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recognition of malignant processes with neural nets from ESR spectra of serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, P.; Gurachevsky, A.; Muravsky, V.; Schnurr, K.; Seibt, G.; Matthes, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cancer diseases are the focus of intense research due to their frequent occurrence. It is known from the literature that serum proteins are changed in the case of malignant processes. Changes of albumin conformation, transport efficiency, and binding characteristics can be determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The present study analysed the binding/dissociation function of albumin with an ESR method using 16-doxyl stearate spin probe as reporter molecule and ethanol as modifier of hydrophobic interactions. Native and frozen plasma of healthy donors (608 samples), patients with malignant diseases (423 samples), and patients with benign conditions (221 samples) were analysed. The global specificity was 91% and the sensitivity 96%. In look-back samples of 27 donors, a malignant process could be detected up to 30 months before clinical diagnosis. To recognise different entities of malignant diseases from the ESR spectra, Artificial neural networks were implemented. For 48 female donors with breast cancer, the recognition specificity was 85%. Other carcinoma entities (22 colon, 18 prostate, 12 stomach) were recognised with specificities between 75% and 84%. Should these specificity values be reproduced in larger studies, the described method could be used as a new specific tumour marker for the early detection of malignant processes. Since transmission of cancer via blood transfusion cannot be excluded as yet, the described ESR method could also be used as a quality test for plasma products. (orig.)

  5. In vitro release kinetics of Tolmetin from tabletted Eudragit microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, R; Consoli, P; Puglisi, G

    2000-01-01

    In a previous paper the preparation has been described, by three different techniques, of microparticles made of Eudragit RS 100 and RL 100 containing a NSAI agent, Tolmetin. Freely flowing microparticles failed to affect significantly the in vitro drug release, which displayed a similar dissolution profile after micro-encapsulation to the free drug powder. Microparticles were then converted into tablets and the effect of compression on drug delivery, as well as that of the presence of co-additives, was studied in the present work. Furthermore, microparticles were also prepared by adding MgO to the polymer matrix, to reduce the sensitivity of the drug to pH changes during its dissolution. Similarly, magnesium stearate was also used for microparticle formation as a droplet stabilizer, in order to reduce particle size and hinder rapid drug release. A mathematical evaluation, by using two semi-empirical equations, was applied to evaluate the influence of dissolution and diffusion phenomena upon drug release from microparticle tablets.

  6. Preparation and investigation of mefenamic acid – polyethylene glycol – sucrose ester solid dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fülöp Ibolya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mefenamic acid (MA is a widely used non-steroidal antiinflammatory (NSAID drug. The adverse effects typical of NSAIDs are also present in the case of MA, partly due to its low water solubility. The aim of this study was to increase the water solubility of MA in order to influence its absorption and bioavailability. Solid dispersions of MA were prepared by the melting method using polyethylene glycol 6000 and different types (laurate, D-1216; palmitate, P-1670; stearate, S-1670 and amounts of sucrose esters as carriers. The X-ray diffraction results show that MA crystals were not present in the products. Dissolution tests carried out in artificial intestinal juice showed that the product containing 10 % D-1216 increased water solubility about 3 times. The apparent permeability coefficient of MA across human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell layers was high and, despite the difference in solubility, there was no further increase in drug penetration in the presence of the applied additives.

  7. Influence of load and sliding velocity on wear resistance of solid-lubricant composites of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Buslovich, D. G.; Alexenko, V. O.; Ivanova, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    To determine the limits of the operation loading intervals appropriate for the use of solid lubricant UHMWPE composites in tribounits for mechanical engineering and medicine, the tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE blends with the optimum solid lubricant filler content (polytetrafluoroethylene, calcium stearate, molybdenum disulfide, colloidal graphite, boron nitride) are studied under dry sliding friction at different velocities (V = 0.3 and 0.5 m/s) and loads (P = 60 and 140 N). It is shown that the wear resistance of solid lubricant UHMWPE composites at moderate sliding velocities (V = 0.3 m/s) and loads (P = 60 N) increases 2-3 times in comparison with pure UHMWPE, while at high load P = 140 N wear resistance of both neat UHMWPE and its composites is reduced almost twice. At high sliding velocities and loads (up to P = 140 N), multiple increasing of the wear of pure UHMWPE and its composites takes place (by the factor of 5 to 10). The operational conditions of UHMWPE composites in tribounits in engineering and medicine are discussed.

  8. Manganese and Gd-DTPA stearyl liposomes as reticuloendothelial-system-specific MR imaging contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuthrich, R.; Schwendener, R.; Duewell, S.; VonSchulthess, G.K.; Fuchs, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Liposomes can be used to target metal ions as MR contrast agents to liver and spleen. It was the aim of this work to examine unilamellar liposomes containing manganese and gadolinium ions with respect to their targetting ability, contrast enhancement, and in vivo kinetics in rats and dogs. Unilamellar liposomes containing DTPA stearate were complexed with Mn/sup 2+/ and Gd/sup 3+/ resulting in vesicles of 30-40 nm. Injected into rats, approximately 35% of manganese liposomes were present in the liver after 30-60 minutes, and after 24 hours more than 80% had been eliminated. The pharmacokinetics of gadolinium were more protracted. In MR imaging, a reduction in the T1 of the liver parenchyma from 450 to 170 and 280 msec was observed for manganese and gadolinium liposomes (0.03 mmol/kg body weight), respectively, with the liver appearing as bright as fat. Manganese (and Gd-DTPA) stearyl liposomes are potential organ-selective contrast agents for liver and spleen and are eliminated through a hepatobiliary route

  9. Production and application of a thermostable lipase from Serratia marcescens in detergent formulation and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Silvera, Edgar Edurman; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Bertrand, Brandt; Morales-Guzmán, Daniel; Rosas-Galván, Nashbly Sarela; León-Rodríguez, Renato; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2018-03-01

    In this study, extracellular lipase was produced by Serratia marcescens wild type and three mutant strains. The maximum lipase activity (80 U/mL) was obtained with the SMRG4 mutant strain using soybean oil. Using a 2 2 factorial design, the lipase production increased 1.55-fold (124 U/mL) with 4% and 0.05% of soybean oil and Triton X-100, respectively. The optimum conditions for maximum lipase activity were 50 °C and pH 8. However, the enzyme was active in a broad range of pH (6-10) and temperatures (5-55 °C). This lipase was stable in organic solvents and in the presence of oxidizing agents. The enzyme also proved to be efficient for the removal of triacylglycerol from olive oil in cotton cloth. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the interactions between total lipase activity, buffer pH, and wash temperatures on oil removal. The model obtained suggested that all selected factors had a significant impact on oil removal, with optimum conditions of 550 U lipase, 45 °C, pH 9.5, with 79.45% removal. Biotransformation of waste frying oil using the enzyme and in presence of methanol resulted in the synthesis of methyl esters such as methyl oleate, methyl palmitate, and methyl stearate. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Low-Temperature Processed Ga-Doped ZnO Coatings from Colloidal Inks

    KAUST Repository

    Della Gaspera, Enrico

    2013-03-06

    We present a new colloidal synthesis of gallium-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals that are transparent in the visible and absorb in the near-infrared. Thermal decomposition of zinc stearate and gallium nitrate after hot injection of the precursors in a mixture of organic amines leads to nanocrystals with tunable properties according to gallium amount. Substitutional Ga3+ ions trigger a plasmonic resonance in the infrared region resulting from an increase in the free electrons concentration. These nanocrystals can be deposited by spin coating, drop casting, and spray coating resulting in homogeneous and high-quality thin films. The optical transmission of the Ga-ZnO nanoparticle assemblies in the visible is greater than 90%, and at the same time, the near-infrared absorption of the nanocrystals is maintained in the films as well. Several strategies to improve the films electrical and optical properties have been presented, such as UV treatments to remove the organic compounds responsible for the observed interparticle resistance and reducing atmosphere treatments on both colloidal solutions and thin films to increase the free carriers concentration, enhancing electrical conductivity and infrared absorption. The electrical resistance of the nanoparticle assemblies is about 30 kΩ/sq for the as-deposited, UV-exposed films, and it drops down to 300 Ω/sq after annealing in forming gas at 450 °C, comparable with state of the art tin-doped indium oxide coatings deposited from nanocrystal inks. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Long-term stability investigation of o/w cosmetic creams stabilized by mixed emulsifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đekić Ljiljana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate (PMD, TEGO® Care 450, Evonik, Germanyis natural (vegetable, non-ionic, PEG-free emulsifier, suitable for the formulation of oil-in-water (o/w cosmetic creams and lotions. The oil phase components can be selected from mineral oils, vegetable oils and synthetic esters, which enable different variety of application profile of these emulsions. It is possible to prepare stable emulsions using low-level concentration of the PMD (2-3% if lotions contain 10-25%, and creams 20-40 % of oil phase. PMD forms liquid crystal structure in the presence of stearic acid, glyceryl stearate, fatty alcohols, or their combinations. The o/w type creams, stabilized by these mixed emulsifiers are complex, multiphase systems. The aim of this work was to formulate, prepare and investigate long-term stability of the o/w creams stabilized by mixed emulsifier polyglyceryl-3 methylglucose distearate/glyceryl stearate/stearyl alcohol, depending on concentration levels of PMD (2% or 3% and oil:water phase ratio (20:80 and 30:70. The samples were prepared using hot/hot procedure. Organoleptic inspection, centrifugation test, rheological measurements, electric conductivity and pH value measurements were performed 72 h, 1, 3, 12 and 30 months after preparation. The prepared samples were apparently white and homogenous creams. The consistency and homogeneity were preserved after centrifugation of the creams after 72 h, 1, 3, 12 and 30 months storage, and no phase separation could be detected. The pH values obtained are suitable for skin application. Conductivity values (25.2-63.7 μS cm1, 72 h after preparation were attributed to the multiple phase o/w emulsions with high percentages of fixed water. Results of the rheological measurements have shown that the investigated creams exhibited non-Newtonian thyxotropic behavior. The concentration of emulsifier PMD and oil phase content had an influence on the rheological parameters of investigated

  12. Multi-analytical approach for profiling some essential medical drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abubakar, M.

    2015-07-01

    Counterfeit and substandard pharmaceutical drugs are chiefly rampant in developing countries due to inadequate analytical facilities and lack of regulatory oversight. The production of counterfeit or substandard drugs is broadly problematic. Underestimating it therefore leads to morbidity, mortality, drug resistance, introduction of toxic substances into the body and loss of confidence in health care systems. Medical drugs that are often counterfeited range from antimalarial drugs to antiretroviral drugs with antibiotics being counterfeited the most. This research work, therefore, aims at contributing towards the establishment of measures/processes for distinguishing between fake and genuine amoxicillin drugs. This was achieved by the identification and quantification of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and the excipients in the drug formulation. The major analytical techniques employed for this research work were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro Dissolution Test. The amoxicillin samples analyzed were the foreign generic amoxicillin purchased from Ernest Chemists pharmacy at East Legon, Accra, the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) amoxicillin purchased at Fair Mile pharmacy at West Legon, Accra and the Suspected Fake amoxicillin purchased at Okaishi market. For the establishment of fingerprint for identification of substandard amoxicillin, INAA was used to qualitatively determine the short lived radionuclides (excipients) which then facilitated the correct identification of the API and the excipient phases in each of the amoxicillin groups. The phases identified were Amoxicillin Trihydrate as the excipient, Magnesium Stearate (hydrated) and Magnesium Stearate (anhydrous) as the excipients. For Quality control purposes, High Performance Liquid Chromatography approach and also, the in vitro Dissolution test were conducted on each of the groups of

  13. Improving the Cold Temperature Properties of Tallow-Based Methyl Ester Mixtures Using Fractionation, Blending, and Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Caleb

    Beef tallow is a less common feedstock source for biodiesel than soy or canola oil, but it can have economic benefits in comparison to these traditional feedstocks. However, tallow methyl ester (TME) has the major disadvantage of poor cold temperature properties. Cloud point (CP) is an standard industry metric for evaluating the cold temperature performance of biodiesel and is directly related to the thermodynamic properties of the fuel's constituents. TME has a CP of 14.5°C compared with 2.3°C for soy methyl ester (SME) and -8.3°C for canola methyl ester (CME). In this study, three methods were evaluated to reduce the CP of TME: fractionation, blending with SME and CME, and using polymer additives. TME fractionation (i.e. removal of specific methyl ester constituents) was simulated by creating FAME mixtures to match the FAME profiles of fractionated TME. The fractionation yield was found to be highest at the eutectic point of methyl palmitate (MP) and methyl stearate (MS), which was empirically determined to be at a MP/(MP+MS) ratio of approximately 82%. Since unmodified TME has a MP/(MP+MS) ratio of 59%, initially only MS should be removed to produce a ratio closer to the eutectic point to reduce CP and maximize yield. Graphs relating yield (with 4:1 methyl stearate to methyl oleate carryover) to CP were produced to determine the economic viability of this approach. To evaluate the effect of blending TME with other methyl esters, SME and CME were blended with TME at blend ratios of 0 to 100%. Both the SME/TME and CME/TME blends exhibited decreased CPs with increasing levels of SME and CME. Although the CP of the SME/TME blends varied linearly with SME content, the CP of the CME/TME blends varied quadratically with CME content. To evaluate the potential of fuel additives to reduce the CP of TME, 11 different polymer additives were tested. Although all of these additives were specifically marketed to enhance the cold temperature properties of petroleum diesel or

  14. 99mTc-labeled chondroitin sulfate-uptake by chondrocytes and cartilage. Potential agent for osteoarthritis imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobal, G.; Sinzinger, H.; Menzel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is an endogenous component of cartilage proteoglycan which could monitor osteoarthritic cartilage degradation after radiolabeling. This substance is used in the treatment of human osteoarthritis as a slow acting symptomatic drug (CONDROSULF; Sanova Pharma, Vienna; Ibsa, Switzerland). Material and Methods: Radiolabeling of CS was performed using 99m TcO 4 -/stannous chloride in 0.50 M sodium acetate buffer at pH 5.0. The quality control of the tracer was performed using ITLC-SG chromatography and 0.2 M saline in 10% ethanol as solvent to detect colloid content. Aluminium oxide IB-F TLC-sheets and ethanol as solvent were used to estimate free pertechnetate. For uptake studies cultured human chondrocytes and age-matched cartilage were used. Uptake of the tracer in chondrocytes was studied in monolayer and in suspension cultures at 37 0 C. Uptake was monitored for a total of 120-180 minutes, samples being drawn every 10 minutes. Because the commercially available drug Condrosulf contains calcium stearate as additive to improve the resorption of the drug, we investigated also the uptake with and without additive. Results: The tracer was stable over 6h period after labeling (95% of the radiochemical purity). In plasma the stability was lower amounting to 75%. Viability of chondrocytes after incubation with either CS-preparation was found by trypan blue exclusion to be above 95 %. Uptake of the tracer performed in monolayer ± additives was low and amounted to 0.5%±0.05%, n=6. The cells were saturated already after an incubation interval of 10 minutes. In suspension cultures a maximal uptake of 1.0%±0.1%, n=6 and 5.9%±0.65%, n=6 was found, without and with additives, respectively, the saturation was achieved after 100 min. Thus, not only the resorption of the drug is enhanced by Ca-stearate, but also uptake increases in presence of this additive. Using human rib cartilage the uptake of the tracer was much higher amounting to 4.9%±2.3%, n

  15. Speciation of Selenium in Selenium-Enriched Sunflower Oil by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry/Electrospray-Orbitrap Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierla, Katarzyna; Flis-Borsuk, Anna; Suchocki, Piotr; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2016-06-22

    The reaction of sunflower oil with selenite produces a complex mixture of selenitriglycerides with antioxidant and anticancer properties. To obtain insight into the identity and characteristics of the species formed, an analytical approach based on the combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with (78)Se-specific selenium detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and high-resolution (100 000), high mass accuracy (HPLC-ICP MS for the separation of a complex mixture of selenospecies and a mathematical correction of the background signal was developed. The identical chromatographic conditions served for the sample introduction into electrospray MS. Two types of samples were analyzed: sunflower oil dissolved in isopropanol and methanol extract of the oil containing 65% selenium. HPLC-ICP MS showed 14 peaks, 11 of which could also be detected in the methanol extract. Isotopic patterns corresponding to molecules with one or two selenium atoms could be attributed by Orbitrap MS at the retention times corresponding to the HPLC-ICP MS peak apexes. Structural data for these species were acquired by MS(2) and MS(3) fragmentation of protonated or sodiated ions using high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD). A total of 11 selenium-containing triglycerol derivatives resulting from the oxidation of one or two double bonds of linoleic acid and analogous derivatives of glycerol-mixed linoleate(s)/oleinate(s) have been identified for the first time. The presence of these species was confirmed by the targeted analysis in the total oil isopropanol solution. Their identification corroborated the predicted elution order in reversed-phase chromatography: LLL (glycerol trilinoleate), LLO (glycerol dilinoleate-oleinate), LOO (glycerol linoleate-dioleinate), OOO (glycerol trioleinate), of which the extrapolation allowed for the prediction of the identity [glycerol dioleinate-stearate (OOS) and glycerol oleinate-distearate (OSS)] of the

  16. Application of a novel automatic disintegration apparatus for the development and evaluation of a direct compression rapidly disintegrating tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Huijeong Ashley; Augsburger, Larry L

    2012-07-01

    An automatic disintegration tester was developed and used to explore disintegration mechanism and times of rapidly disintegrating tablets. DT50, the time required for a tablet to decrease in its thickness by half, allowed an unbiased determination of disintegration time. Calcium silicate concentration, Explotab® concentration, DiPac®/Xylitab® ratio as fillers, and compression pressure were evaluated using a central composite model design analysis for their DT50, tensile strength, and friability. Tablets that could reasonably be handled (friability disintegrating tablets, originally measured by Caramella et al. using force kinetics, could be determined from axial displacement data measured directly without the need to assume that disintegration force generation was indicative of changes in tablet volume. The n values of tablets containing calcium silicate, Ditab® and/or Xylitab®, magnesium stearate, and Explotab® suggested that the amount of Explotab® was not a significant factor in determining the disintegration mechanism; however, the type of disintegrant used did alter the n value. Primojel® and Explotab®, which are in the same class of disintegrants, exhibited similar DT50, n, and k. Polyplasdone® XL exhibited a much higher n, while yielding faster DT50, suggesting that its performance is more dependent on facilitating the interfacial separation of particles. AcDiSol® showed no apparent moisture sensitivity in regards to disintegration efficiency. The use of the novel apparatus proved to be useful in measuring disintegration efficiency of rapidly disintegrating tablets and in providing valuable information on the disintegration phenomena.

  17. Spray dried amikacin powder for inhalation in cystic fibrosis patients: a quality by design approach for product construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotti, Silvia; Rossi, Alessandra; Colombo, Paolo; Bettini, Ruggero; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Politis, Stavros; Colombo, Gaia; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Buttini, Francesca

    2014-08-25

    An amikacin product for convenient and compliant inhalation in cystic fibrosis patients was constructed by spray-drying in order to produce powders of pure drug having high respirability and flowability. An experimental design was applied as a statistical tool for the characterization of amikacin spray drying process, through the establishment of mathematical relationships between six Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) of the finished product and five Critical Process Parameters (CPPs). The surface-active excipient, PEG-32 stearate, studied for particle engineering, in general did not benefit the CQAs of the spray dried powders for inhalation. The spray drying feed solution required the inclusion of 10% (v/v) ethanol in order to reach the desired aerodynamic performance of powders. All desirable function solutions indicated that the favourable concentration of amikacin in the feed solution had to be kept at 1% w/v level. It was found that when the feed rate of the sprayed solution was raised, an increase in the drying temperature to the maximum value (160 °C) was required to maintain good powder respirability. Finally, the increase in drying temperature always led to an evident increase in emitted dose (ED) without affecting the desirable fine particle dose (FPD) values. The application of the experimental design enabled us to obtain amikacin powders with both ED and FPD, well above the regulatory and scientific references. The finished product contained only the active ingredient, which keeps low the mass to inhale for dose requirement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemoinformetrical evaluation of dissolution property of indomethacin tablets by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Tanabe, Hideaki; Osaki, Kazuo; Otsuka, Kuniko; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared spectrometry (NIR) with chemoinformetrics to predict the change of dissolution properties in indomethacin (IMC) tablets during the manufacturing process. A comparative evaluation of the dissolution properties of the tablets was performed by the diffused reflectance (DRNIR) and transmittance (TNIR) NIR spectroscopic methods. Various kinds of IMC tablets (200 mg) were obtained from a powder (20 mg of IMC, 18 mg of microcrystalline cellulose, 160 mg of lactose, and 2 mg of magnesium stearate) under various compression pressures (60-398 MPa). Dissolution tests were performed in phosphate buffer, and the time required for 75% dissolution (T75) and mean dissolution time (MDT) were calculated. DRNIR and TNIR spectra were recorded, and the both NIR spectra used to establish a calibration model for predicting the dissolution properties by principal component regression analysis (PCR). The T75 and MDT increased as the compression pressure increased, since tablet porosity decreased with increasing pressure. Intensity of the DRNIR spectra of the compressed tablets decreased as the compression pressure increased. However, the intensity of TNIR spectra increased along with the pressure. The calibration models used to evaluate the dissolution properties of tablets were established by using PCR based on both DRNIR and TNIR spectra of the tablets. The multiple correlation coefficients of the relationship between the actual and predictive T75 by the DRNIR and TNIR methods were 0.831 and 0.962, respectively. It is possible to predict the dissolution properties of pharmaceutical preparations using both DRNIR and TNIR chemoinformetric methods. The TNIR method was more accurate for predictions of the dissolution behavior of tablets than the DRNIR method. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. High-resolution Kendrick Mass Defect Analysis of Poly(ethylene oxide)-based Non-ionic Surfactants and Their Degradation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Shimada, Haruo; Maeno, Katsuyuki; Ito, Kanako; Ozeki, Yuka; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-09-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and the recently introduced high-resolution Kendrick mass defect (HRKMD) analysis are combined to thoroughly characterize non-ionic surfactants made of a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) core capped by esters of fatty acids. A PEO monostearate surfactant is first analyzed as a proof of principle of the HRKMD analysis conducted with a fraction of EO as the base unit (EO/X with X being an integer) in lieu of EO for a regular KMD analysis. Data visualization is greatly enhanced and the distributions detected in the MALDI mass spectrum are assigned to a pristine (H, OH)-PEO as well as mono- and di-esterified PEO chains with palmitate and stearate end-groups in HRKMD plots computed with EO/45. The MALDI-HRMS/HRKMD analysis is then successfully applied to the more complex case of ethoxylated hydrogenated castor oil (EHCO) found to contain a large number of hydrogenated ricinoleate moieties (up to 14) in its HRKMD plot computed with EO/43, departing from the expected triglyceride structure. The exhaustiveness of the MALDI-HRMS/HRKMD strategy is validated by comparing the so-obtained fingerprints with results from alternative techniques (electrospray ionization MS, size exclusion and liquid adsorption chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry). Finally, aged non-ionic surfactants formed upon hydrolytic degradation are analyzed by MALDI-HRMS/HRKMD to easily assign the degradation products and infer the associated degradation routes. In addition to the hydrolysis of the ester groups observed for EHCO, chain scissions and new polar end-groups are observed in the HRKMD plot of PEO monostearate arising from a competitive oxidative ageing.

  20. Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnO thin films on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca; Chen, X-Grant

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of superhydrophobic ZnO thin films surfaces by electrophoretic deposition process on aluminum substrates. • Effect of bath temperature on the physical and superhydrophobic properties of thin films. • The water contact angle of 155° ± 3 with roll off property has been observed on the film that was grown at bath temperatures of 50 °C. • The activation energy for electrophoretic deposition of SA-functionalized ZnO nanoparticle is calculated to be 0.50 eV. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic thin films have been fabricated on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using stearic acid (SA) functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles suspension in alcohols at varying bath temperatures. The deposited thin films have been characterized using both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy and it is found that the films contain low surface energy zinc stearate and ZnO nanoparticles. It is also observed that the atomic percentage of Zn and O, roughness and water contact angle of the thin films increase with the increase of the deposited bath temperature. Furthermore, the thin film deposited at 50 °C, having a roughness of 4.54 ± 0.23 μm, shows superhydrophobic properties providing a water contact angle of 155 ± 3° with rolling off properties. Also, the activation energy of electrophoretic deposition of stearic-acid-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles is calculated to be 0.5 eV.

  1. Numerical studies of spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuels using reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole

    2014-04-01

    Spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel (PO) and conventional diesel fuels were simulated using the CONVERGE CFD code. Thermochemical and reaction kinetic data (115 species and 460 reactions) by Luo et al. (2012) and Lu et al. (2009) (68 species and 283 reactions) were implemented in the CONVERGE CFD to simulate the spray and combustion processes of the two fuels. Tetradecane (C14H30) and n- heptane (C7H 16) were used as surrogates for diesel. For the palm biodiesel, the mixture of methyl decanoate (C11H20O2), methyl-9-decenoate (C11H19O2) and n-heptane was used as surrogate. The palm biodiesel surrogates were combined in proportions based on the previous GC-MS results for the five major biodiesel components namely methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate. The Favre-Averaged Navier Stokes based simulation using the renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulent model was implemented in the numerical calculations of the spray formation processes while the SAGE chemical kinetic solver is used for the detailed kinetic modeling. The SAGE chemical kinetic solver is directly coupled with the gas phase calculations by renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulent model using a well-stirred reactor model. Validations of the spray liquid length, ignition delay and flame lift-off length data were performed against previous experimental results. The simulated liquid length, ignition delay and flame lift-off length were validated at an ambient density of 15kg/m3, and injection pressure conditions of 100, 200 and 300 MPa were utilized. The predicted liquid length, ignition delay and flame lift-off length agree with the trends obtained in the experimental data at all injection conditions. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  2. Effects of Aroclor 1242 and different fish-based diets on vitamins A(retinol) and A2 (3,4-didehydroretinol), and their fatty acyl esters in mink plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaekelae, Anne; Kaekelae, Reijo; Hyvaerinen Heikki; Nieminen, Petteri

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a 21-week exposure to Aroclor 1242 (1 mg per day in feed on plasma concentrations of vitamins A 1 (retinol) and A(3,4-didehydroretinol) and their principal fatty acyl esters (A 1 -16:0 A 2 -16:0 (palmitates), A 1 -18:1n-9; A 2 -18:1n-9 (oleates), and A 1 -18:0 A 2 -18:0 (stearates)) were studied in young female mink (Mustela vison) fed a diet based on freshwater smelt. These vitamin levels were also examined in mink fed diets containing Baltic herring or fatty marine fish. In the Aroclor-exposed smelt-fed mink, the plasma concentrations of A 1 and Aesters were significantly lower than the levels in controls fed the uncontaminated smelt diet. In addition, the A 2 esters reacted mor sensitively to the polychlorinated biphenyls than did A 1 esters. I contrast, in the plasma of the exposed mink the level of alcoholic A 1 was normal, and transport of thyroxine (T 4 ) and nonspecific lipoprotei transport of major lipids were not impaired. Despite the large dietary supply of vitamin A 2 and high levels of plasma A 2 esters, the mink fed freshwate smelt had only trace amounts of alcoholic vitamin A 2 in their plasma. The concentrations of A 1 and A 2 esters in the plasma of all the mink studied correlated with the hepatic total concentrations of the vitamins. Thus, in carnivores that have nonspecific lipoprotein transport of vitamin A esters determination of plasma levels of the esterified vitamins may be a useful nondestructive way to estimate stores of the vitamin A analogs in the body and to assess the organochlorine-induced decrease in the vitamin stores

  3. Chilling-related cell damage of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit cortical tissue impacts antioxidant, lipid and phenolic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisso, Rachel S; Buchanan, David A; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James P; Sater, Chris; Hanrahan, Ines; Watkins, Christopher B; Gapper, Nigel; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2015-02-01

    'Soggy breakdown' (SB) is an internal flesh disorder of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit that occurs during low temperature storage. The disorder is a chilling injury (CI) in which visible symptoms typically appear after several weeks of storage, but information about the underlying metabolism associated with its induction and development is lacking. The metabolic profile of flesh tissue from wholly healthy fruit and brown and healthy tissues from fruit with SB was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and correlation networks revealed correlation among ester volatile compounds by composition and differences in phytosterol, phenolic and putative triacylglycerides (TAGs) metabolism among the tissues. anova-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) was used to test the significance of metabolic changes linked with tissue health status. ASCA-significant components included antioxidant compounds, TAGs, and phytosterol conjugates. Relative to entirely healthy tissues, elevated metabolite levels in symptomatic tissue included γ-amino butyric acid, glycerol, sitosteryl (6'-O-palmitoyl) β-d-glucoside and sitosteryl (6'-O-stearate) β-d-glucoside, and TAGs containing combinations of 16:0, 18:3, 18:2 and 18:1 fatty acids. Reduced metabolite levels in SB tissue included 5-caffeoyl quinate, β-carotene, catechin, epicatechin, α-tocopherol, violaxanthin and sitosteryl β-d glucoside. Pathway analysis indicated aspects of primary metabolism differed according to tissue condition, although differences in metabolites involved were more subtle than those of some secondary metabolites. The results implicate oxidative stress and membrane disruption processes in SB development and constitute a diagnostic metabolic profile for the disorder. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Lubricant based determination of design space for continuously manufactured high dose paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale-Kovalainen, Krista; Karttunen, Anssi-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Korhonen, Ossi

    2018-03-30

    The objective of this study was to devise robust and stable continuous manufacturing process settings, by exploring the design space after an investigation of the lubrication-based parameters influencing the continuous direct compression tableting of high dose paracetamol tablets. Experimental design was used to generate a structured study plan which involved 19 runs. The formulation variables studied were the type of lubricant (magnesium stearate or stearic acid) and its concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). Process variables were total production feed rate (5, 10.5 and 16kg/h), mixer speed rpm (500, 850 and 1200rpm), and mixer inlet port for lubricant (A or B). The continuous direct compression tableting line consisted of loss-in-weight feeders, a continuous mixer and a tablet press. The Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP) was defined for the final product, as the flowability of powder blends (2.5s), tablet strength (147N), dissolution in 2.5min (90%) and ejection force (425N). A design space was identified which fulfilled all the requirements of QTPP. The type and concentration of lubricant exerted the greatest influence on the design space. For example, stearic acid increased the tablet strength. Interestingly, the studied process parameters had only a very minor effect on the quality of the final product and the design space. It is concluded that the continuous direct compression tableting process itself is insensitive and can cope with changes in lubrication, whereas formulation parameters exert a major influence on the end product quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alternatif Pembuatan Biodiesel Melalui Transesterifikasi Minyak Castor (Ricinus communis Menggunakan Katalis Campuran Cangkang Telur Ayam dan Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni - Setiadji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of castor oil (Ricinus communis using a catalyst of CaO and kaolin (CaO / kaolin had been performed. CaO was obtained from the calcination of eggshell. Castor oil is selected as biodiesel feedstock because it belongs to non-food oil and easy to cultivate. In general, the research method aims to comprise the CaO / Kaolin catalysts with a ratio of 15 mmol CaO per 1 gram of kaolin activated using impregnation method and biodiesel produced through transesterification of castor oil using the catalyst at 65 ºC for 8 hours with ratio of castor oil: methanol: catalyst (1: 15: 5% w / w. The reaction is carried out on the reflux system. The XRD analysis show the presence of silica and potassium aluminum silicate hydroxide in the catalyst. The EDS results show the catalyst-forming components CaO and silica. The FTIR analysis results show the absorption peak in the functional group forming the methyl ester compound. Based on the characterization of GC-MS, the largest methyl ester components contained in biodiesel are methyl risinoleate, methyl elaidat, methyl stearate, methyl linoleate, and methyl palmitate. The overall conversion of castor oil to methyl ester using CaO / kaolin catalyst is 97.36%. The largest component in castor oil is risinoleic acid, has been successfully converted to methyl risinoleate by 74.75%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.4778

  6. Use of alpha-tocopherol esters for topical vitamin E treatment: evaluation of their skin permeation and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shabat, Shimon; Kazdan, Yolia; Beit-Yannai, Elie; Sintov, Amnon C

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate new pro-vitamins based on α-tocopherol (α-Toc) and fatty acids, and to compare their properties with those of α-tocopherol acetate (α-TAc). Skin levels of α-Toc-fatty acid ester conjugates, total α-Toc and endogenous α-Toc were measured in skin samples taken from separate groups of treated and untreated rats. Multiple and extensive treatment with α-Toc oleate and α-TAc was also carried out to assess the skin accumulation and safety of these esters. The in-vivo studies revealed that α-Toc-fatty acid conjugates penetrated into the skin quantitatively while being comparable with the permeation of α-TAc. Differences were found between the levels of total α-Toc and endogenous α-Toc after application of α-TAc, α-Toc oleate, α-Toc linoleate, α-Toc-α linolenate and α-Toc palmitate, indicating that α-Toc conjugates of these fatty acids, but not α-Toc γ-linolenate or α-Toc stearate, were hydrolysed to free α-Toc. In long-term and extensive treatment, α-TAc was found to be lethal to rats treated with 1.15 mg/kg of this agent, which had been spread over 16 cm(2) of skin. Similar treatment with α-Toc oleate did not produce any side effects. This study suggests that α-Toc conjugates with unsaturated fatty acids may be a good alternative as stable vitamin E derivatives, rather than the α-TAc ester. © 2013 The Authors. JPP © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Pengaruh Penambahan Kitosan dalam Pembuatan Biodegradable Foam Berbahan Baku Pati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Hendrawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable foam is an alternative packaging to replace the expanded polystyrene foam packaging currently in use.   Starch has been used to produce foam because of  its low cost, low density, low toxicity, and  biodegradability. Chitosan has been added to improve mechanical properties of product . The   effect of  variation on chitosan amount  and  starch types  was investigated in this study.  The amount of  chitosan  was varied as 0; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; and  30 % w/w and starch types were used in this research were cassava, Corn and sago starch. Biodegradable  foam was produced by using baking process method, all of material (Starch, Chitosan solution,  Magnesium Stearate, Carrageenan, Glyserol, Protein Isolates  dan polyvinil alcohol (PVOH  were mixed with kitchen aid mixer. The mixture was poured  into mold and heated in an oven at 125 oC for 1 hour. Then, foam was tested for its mechanical properties, water absorption  and biodegradability and  morphology (SEM.  The results show that  foam made from sago starch had lower water absortion than those made from cassava and corn starch.   While, foam made from cassava starch  was more biodegradable than the other foam.  Biodegradable foam based sago starch and 30 % w/w of Chitosan adition  gave the  best performence in tensile stress that  is 20 Mpa

  8. [Efficient Pharmaceutical Formulation Designs and Their Development Using Mathematical and Statistical Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwao, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of directly predicting the functionality and mechanism of pharmaceutical excipients, we investigated an analysis method based on available surface area (S(t)), which is the surface area of a drug in direct contact with the external solvent during dissolution. First, to study the effect of lubricant concentration on the dissolution rate of acetaminophen (APAP), the dissolution behaviors as well as the change over time in S(t) of APAP tablets were examined. In the dissolution tests, a retarded dissolution of APAP was not observed with new lubricant triglycerin full behenate (TR-FB), whereas magnesium stearate (Mg-St) retarded the dissolution. The S(t) profiles for APAP with Mg-St at>0.5% showed downward curvature indicating a gradual decrease in surface area over time. Conversely, with TR-FB, even when its concentration was increased, the S(t) profile for APAP had a maximum value. The differences between Mg-St and TR-FB could be explained by the differences in extensibility deriving from their morphology. Next, we evaluated the effect of disintegtant concentration using five disintegrants. When disintegrant was added to ethenzamide tablet formulation, an increase in the dissolution rate and S(t) dependent on disintegrant concentration was observed, according to the type of disintegrant. It was found that the water absorption ability of disintegrants had strong correlations with the parameters of S(t). Taken together, this study demonstrates that analysis of S(t) can directly provide useful information, especially about the functionality of pharmaceutical excipients.

  9. Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a mystery ? An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidu K Akhilender

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascorbic acid is one of the important water soluble vitamins. It is essential for collagen, carnitine and neurotransmitters biosynthesis. Most plants and animals synthesize ascorbic acid for their own requirement. However, apes and humans can not synthesize ascorbic acid due to lack of an enzyme gulonolactone oxidase. Hence, ascorbic acid has to be supplemented mainly through fruits, vegetables and tablets. The current US recommended daily allowance (RDA for ascorbic acid ranges between 100–120 mg/per day for adults. Many health benefits have been attributed to ascorbic acid such as antioxidant, anti-atherogenic, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulator and prevents cold etc. However, lately the health benefits of ascorbic acid has been the subject of debate and controversies viz., Danger of mega doses of ascorbic acid? Does ascorbic acid act as a antioxidant or pro-oxidant ? Does ascorbic acid cause cancer or may interfere with cancer therapy? However, the Panel on dietary antioxidants and related compounds stated that the in vivo data do not clearly show a relationship between excess ascorbic acid intake and kidney stone formation, pro-oxidant effects, excess iron absorption. A number of clinical and epidemiological studies on anti-carcinogenic effects of ascorbic acid in humans did not show any conclusive beneficial effects on various types of cancer except gastric cancer. Recently, a few derivatives of ascorbic acid were tested on cancer cells, among them ascorbic acid esters showed promising anticancer activity compared to ascorbic acid. Ascorbyl stearate was found to inhibit proliferation of human cancer cells by interfering with cell cycle progression, induced apoptosis by modulation of signal transduction pathways. However, more mechanistic and human in vivo studies are needed to understand and elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-carcinogenic property of ascorbic acid. Thus, though ascorbic acid was discovered in

  10. Preformulación de vitamina A en tabletas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Castiñeiras Díaz

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron estudios acerca de la posible influencia de algunos excipientes en la degradación de vitamina A acetato. Se escogieron excipientes que pudieran hacer posible el futuro diseño de formulaciones de este producto para su producción por compresión directa, dentro de ellas se encuentran: celulosa microcristalina ph 101, manitol, sacarosa, lactosa, almidón de maíz, fosfato de calcio dihidratado, talco, estearato de magnesio y dióxido de silicio. Se comprobó que algunos excipientes como lactosa y talco aceleran la degradación de la vitamina A al coexistir en la formulación de las tabletas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos se diseñaron 4 formulaciones que cumplieron con todos los parámetros tecnológicos, y se lograron formulaciones que mantenían su valoración entre el 90 y el 110 % que es el rango establecido por la USP XXII, después de un año de elaboradas, lo que coincidió con elSeveral studies were carried out about the possible influence of some components in the degradation of vitamin A acetate. There was a selection of components that could make possible the future design of this product formulations for its production by direct compression; among them there are microcristalline cellulose ph 101, mannitol, sucrose, lactose, cornstarch, dehydrated calcium phosphate, talc, magnesium stearate, and silica. Some components, as lactose and talc, were confirmed as accelerators for vitamin A degradation when coexisting in the tablets formulation. According to the results achieved, 4 formulations designed fulfilled all the technological parameters, and there were formulations obtained that kept their valuation between 90 and 110 % (this is the USP XXII established range after a year from its manufacturing, which was coincident with the period of life issued by the manufacturer.

  11. Latent structure analysis in the pharmaceutical process of tablets prepared by wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Naoto; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Mochida, Hiroshi; Otoguro, Saori; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Granule characteristics are some of the important intermediate qualities that determine tablet properties. However, the relationships between granule and tablet characteristics are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among formulation factors, granule characteristics, and tablet properties using a non-linear response surface method (RSM) incorporating a thin-plate spline interpolation (RSM-S) and a Bayesian network (BN). Tablets containing lactose (Lac), cornstarch (CS), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were prepared by wet granulation. Ten formulations were prepared by an extreme vertices design. The angle of repose (Y 1 ), compressibility (Y 2 ), cohesion force (Y 3 ), internal friction angle (Y 4 ), and mean particle size (Y 5 ) were measured as granule characteristics. Tensile strength (TS) and disintegration time (DT) were measured as tablet properties. RSM-S results showed that TS increased with increasing amounts of MCC and Lac. DT decreased with increasing amounts of MCC and CS. The optimal BN models were predicted using four evaluation indices -Y 3 was shown to be the most important factor for TS, whereas Y 2 , Y 3 , and Y 4 were relatively important for predicting DT. Moreover, tablets with excellent tablet properties (i.e. high TS and low DT) were produced by relatively high Y 1 , low Y 2 , high Y 3 , high Y 4 , and middle Y 5 values, and resulted from the middle of MCC, middle-to-low CS, low Lac, and middle-to-low magnesium stearate (Mg-St) amounts. The RSM-S and BN techniques are useful for revealing complex relationships among formulation factors, granule characteristics, and tablet properties.

  12. Maternal obesity programs mitochondrial and lipid metabolism gene expression in infant umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, S M R; Isganaitis, E; Matthews, T J; Hughes, K; Daher, G; Dreyfuss, J M; da Silva, G A P; Patti, M-E

    2016-11-01

    Maternal obesity increases risk for childhood obesity, but molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that primary umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from infants of overweight and obese mothers would harbor transcriptional patterns reflecting offspring obesity risk. In this observational cohort study, we recruited 13 lean (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) obese ('ov-ob', BMI⩾25.0 kg m -2 ) women. We isolated primary HUVEC, and analyzed both gene expression (Primeview, Affymetrix) and cord blood levels of hormones and adipokines. A total of 142 transcripts were differentially expressed in HUVEC from infants of overweight-obese mothers (false discovery rate, FDRmaternal BMI (FDRmaternal obesity, we analyzed the cord blood lipidome and noted significant increases in the levels of total free fatty acids (lean: 95.5±37.1 μg ml -1 , ov-ob: 124.1±46.0 μg ml -1 , P=0.049), palmitate (lean: 34.5±12.7 μg ml -1 , ov-ob: 46.3±18.4 μg ml -1 , P=0.03) and stearate (lean: 20.8±8.2 μg ml -1 , ov-ob: 29.7±17.2 μg ml -1 , P=0.04), in infants of overweight-obese mothers. Prenatal exposure to maternal obesity alters HUVEC expression of genes involved in mitochondrial and lipid metabolism, potentially reflecting developmentally programmed differences in oxidative and lipid metabolism.

  13. Quality-by-design (QbD): effects of testing parameters and formulation variables on the segregation tendency of pharmaceutical powder measured by the ASTM D 6940-04 segregation tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lin; Wu, Huiquan; Shen, Meiyu; Augsburger, Larry L; Lyon, Robbe C; Khan, Mansoor A; Hussain, Ajaz S; Hoag, Stephen W

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of testing parameters and formulation variables on the segregation tendency of pharmaceutical powders measured by the ASTM D 6940-04 segregation tester using design of experiments (DOE) approaches. The test blends consisted of 4% aspirin (ASP) and 96% microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with and without magnesium stearate (MgS). The segregation tendency of a blend was determined by measuring the last/first (L/F) ratio, the ratio of aspirin concentrations between the first and last samples discharged from the tester. A 2(2) factorial design was used to determine the effects of measurement parameters [amount of material loaded (W), number of segregation cycles] with number of replicates 6. ANOVA showed that W was a critical parameter for segregation testing. The L/F value deviated further from 1 (greater segregation tendency) with increasing W. A 2(3) full factorial design was used to assess the effects of formulation variables: grade of ASP (unmilled, milled), grade of MCC, and amount of lubricant, MgS. MLR and ANOVA showed that the grade of ASP was the main effect contributing to segregation tendency. Principal Component Regression Analysis established a correlation between L/F and the physical properties of the blend related to ASP and MCC, the ASP/MCC particle size ratio (PSR) and powder cohesion. The physical properties of the blend related to density and flow were not influenced by the grade of ASP and were not related to the segregation tendency of the blend. The direct relationship between L/F and PSR was determined by univariate analysis. Segregation tendency increased as the ASP to MCC particle size increased. This study highlighted critical test parameters for segregation testing and identified critical physical properties of the blends that influence segregation tendency. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  14. Study on accumulation mechanism of Cu and Pb in moss, Scopelophila cataractae, by micro-XRF imaging and XAFS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Nakai, Izumi; Hokura, Akiko; Abe, Tomoko; Itouga, Misao; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Terada, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    Scopelophila cataractae is known as a 'copper moss'. It is known as a peculiar moss which can accumulate high level of metals (Cu, Pb, etc.) in its plant body. This moss is expected as a material to collect metals from water. In this study, gametophyte's leaf of the moss was examined by μ-XRF imaging, and Cu K-edge and Pb L 1 -, L 3 -edge XAFS analyses to reveal the accumulation behavior of Cu and Pb. μ-XRF imaging was carried out utilizing X-ray microbeam at BL37XU, SPring-8 from the undulator source, and at BL-4A, Photon Factory KEK from the bending magnet. The results have revealed that Cu and Pb were accumulated on the cell wall of the leaf, and especially at the stereid cells of midrib. It was found that Cu-XANES spectra of the leaf were similar to that of copper(II) acetate, a reference substance. On the other hand, Pb XANES spectra of the leaf were similar to that of a reference, lead(II) stearate. These results suggested that these metals were bound to oxygen of carboxyl group in the plant. Consequently, it is assumed that Cu and Pb could be bound to acidic sugar which is a component of its cell wall such as pectic acid, polygalacturonic acid and others. Furthermore, to compare with other heavy-metal accumulating moss (Scopelophila ligulata and Sphagnum palustre), their gametophyte's leaves were also examined by μ-XRF imaging. S. ligulata accumulated Pb in its stereid cells of midlib, while S. palustre accumulated Pb in its hyaline cells. (author)

  15. Fabrication and characterization of NiO based metal-insulator-metal diode using Langmuir-Blodgett method for high frequency rectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Ibrahim; Ram, Manoj K.; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias

    2018-04-01

    Thin film metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes have attracted significant attention for use in infrared energy harvesting and detection applications. As demonstrated over the past decades, MIM or metal-insulator-insulator-metal (MIIM) diodes can operate at the THz frequencies range by quantum tunneling of electrons. The aim of this work is to synthesize required ultra-thin insulating layers and fabricate MIM diodes using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The nickel stearate (NiSt) LB precursor film was deposited on glass, silicon (Si), ITO glass and gold coated silicon substrates. The photodesorption (UV exposure) and the thermodesorption (annealing at 100 °C and 350 °C) methods were used to remove organic components from the NiSt LB film and to achieve a uniform homogenous nickel oxide (NiO) film. These ultrathin NiO films were characterized by EDS, AFM, FTIR and cyclic voltammetry methods, respectively. The MIM diode was fabricated by depositing nickel (Ni) on the NiO film, all on a gold (Au) plated silicon (Si) substrate. The current (I)-voltage (V) characteristics of the fabricated diode were studied to understand the conduction mechanism assumed to be tunneling of electron through the ultra-thin insulating layer. The sensitivity of the diode was measured to be as high as 35 V-1. The diode resistance was ˜100 ohms (at a bias voltage of 0.60 V), and the rectification ratio was about 22 (for a signal voltage of ±200 mV). At the bias point, the diode response demonstrated significant non-linearity and high asymmetry, which are very desirable characteristics for applications in infrared detection and harvesting.

  16. Study on the Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance and Degradation Mechanism of Diclofenac Sodium under the System of Hetero-Structural CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 with H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 with different heterojunction structures were prepared based on the combination of hydrothermal and in-situ precipitation methods with surfactant additives (sodium citrate and sodium stearate, and their characteristics were systematically resolved by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM/ High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, UV-vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS and Photoluminescence (PL. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic properties of the catalysts were determined for diclofenac sodium (DS degradation and the photocatalytic mechanism was also explored. The results indicate that both of the two kinds of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 exhibit higher photocatalytic efficiency, mineralization rate, and stability than that of pure CuBi2O4 or Ag3PO4. Moreover, the catalytic activity of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 can be further enhanced by adding H2O2. The free radical capture experiments show that in the pure CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 photocatalytic system, the OH• and O2•− are the main species participating in DS degradation; however, in the CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 photocatalytic system with H2O2, all OH•, h+, and O2•− take part in the DS degradation, and the contribution order is OH• > h+ > O2•−. Accordingly, the photocatalytic mechanism of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 could be explained by the Z-Scheme theory, while the catalysis of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 with H2O2 follows the heterojunction energy band theory.

  17. Engineering and characterisation of the interface in flax/polypropylene composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafeiropoulos, Nikolaos Evangelos

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the present PhD project were to study the interface in flax/iPP composites, to develop and optimise an appropriate surface treatment for improving the interface in flax/iPP composites, and to assess the effect of the applied surface treatments on the properties of flax fibres (both physical and chemical). Two surface treatments, acetylation and stearation, were developed and optimised in the present study. The effect of these two surface treatments upon the structure of flax fibres was studied using XRD, SEM, ATR-FTIR, ToF-SIMS, XPS, IGC, DVS and single fibre tensile testing. It was found that the treatments did not significantly change the fibre strength, but they altered the fibre surface characteristics (chemical and physical). The water absorption was also significantly reduced after treatment, especially for green (as-received) flax, as was shown using DVS. In all cases the fibre surfaces were found to be very heterogeneous (from a chemistry point of view). The effect of the treatments and the processing conditions on the interfacial bond was studied using the single fibre fragmentation test, and it was shown that both treatments resulted in a stronger interface. The development of transcrystallinity was also found to produce a stronger interface, along with the use of slower cooling rates. However, an examination of the tensile properties of short flax fibre composites revealed that acetylation did not significantly change the tensile strength, in comparison with the untreated fibres, probably due to the manufacturing route followed in the present study that resulted in fibre lengths lower than the critical length. SEM post-mortem examination of the composites' fractured surfaces revealed that acetylation improved adhesion with iPP. (author)

  18. Development and Validation of a Liquid Medium (M7H9C) for Routine Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis To Replace Modified Bactec 12B Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C.; Plain, Karren M.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

  19. Inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis prevents adipocyte lipotoxicity on human osteoblasts in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Alexandre; Wu, Xiying; Rivas, Daniel; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Duque, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Although increased bone marrow fat in age-related bone loss has been associated with lower trabecular mass, the underlying mechanism responsible remains unknown. We hypothesized that marrow adipocytes exert a lipotoxic effect on osteoblast function and survival through the reversible biosynthesis of fatty acids (FA) into the bone marrow microenvironment. We have used a two-chamber system to co-culture normal human osteoblasts (NHOst) with differentiating pre-adipocytes in the absence or presence of an inhibitor of FA synthase (cerulenin) and separated by an insert that allowed unidirectional trafficking of soluble factors only and prevented direct cell–cell contact. Supernatants were assayed for the presence of FA using mass spectophotometry. After 3 weeks in co-culture, NHOst showed significantly lower levels of differentiation and function based on lower mineralization and expression of alkaline phosphatase, osterix, osteocalcin and Runx2. In addition, NHOst survival was affected by the presence of adipocytes as determined by MTS-formazan and TUNEL assays as well as higher activation of caspases 3/7. These toxic effects were inhibited by addition of cerulenin. Furthermore, culture of NHOst with either adipocyte-conditioned media alone in the absence of adipocytes themselves or with the addition of the most predominant FA (stearate or palmitate) produced similar toxic results. Finally, Runx2 nuclear binding was affected by addition of either adipocyte conditioned media or FA into the osteogenic media. We conclude that the presence of FA within the marrow milieu can contribute to the age-related changes in bone mass and can be prevented by the inhibition of FA synthase. PMID:19382912

  20. Pressless process in route of obtaining sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, A.G, E-mail: apopov@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, UB of the RAS, 18, S. Kovalevskoy, Street, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Golovnia, O.A. [Institute of Metal Physics, UB of the RAS, 18, S. Kovalevskoy, Street, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Bykov, V.A. [Institute of Metallurgy, UB of the RAS, 101, Amundsena, Street, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    A short review on the pressless process (PLP) involved in the manufacture of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnet is given. Two approaches to increasing the degree of powder alignment with a high filling density ρ{sub f} in PLP-containers are proposed. (1) An increase in the pulse duration of applied magnetic field from 3.6 to 6.5 ms enhances the magnetic alignment of magnets prepared from the powder with ρ{sub f}=2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and ρ{sub f}=3 g/cm{sup 3} by 3% and 11%, respectively. (2) Addition of internal lubricants such as zinc stearate or esters reduces friction forces between the powder particles and, when the concentration of lubricants is bellow a critical concentration C{sub cr}, increases B{sub r} and (BH){sub max} by 5–7%. Simulation of the magnetic alignment of uniaxial particles demonstrates that a decrease in the coefficient of friction between the powder particles from 0.9 to 0.6 caused by the lubricant addition enhances the alignment degree. Contact dilatometry was used to study the anisotropy of densification of PLP-powders upon sintering. It has been shown that the anisotropy of the powder shrinkage is formed at the first stage of sintering at the temperature about 800 °C and is caused by the capillary action in the Nd-rich liquid. - Highlights: • A review of the pressless process for NdFeB magnets in the world and Russia is given. • Enhancement of the alignment degree by application of pulsed magnetic field is studied. • Reduction of the friction forces via addition of internal lubricants is proposed. • The simulation of the magnetic alignment of Nd–Fe–B uniaxial particles is presented. • A reason of anisotropic shrinkage of the powder at sintering is suggested.

  1. Thermo-physical stability of fatty acid eutectic mixtures subjected to accelerated aging for thermal energy storage (TES) application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, Hadi; Metselaar, Hendrik S.C.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Silakhori, Mahyar

    2014-01-01

    The thermo-physical stability of fatty acids eutectic mixtures subjected to accelerated number of melting/solidification processes has been identified using thermal cycling test in this study. Myristic acid/palmitic acid (MA/PA) (70/30, wt.%) and myristic acid/palmitic acid/sodium stearate (MA/PA/SS) (70/30/5, wt.%) were selected as eutectic phase change materials (PCMs) to evaluate their stability of phase transition temperature, latent heat of fusion, chemical structure, and volume changes after 200, 500, 1000, and 1500 thermal cycles. The thermal properties of each eutectic PCMs measured by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) indicated the phase transition temperature and latent heat of fusion values of MA/PA/SS has a smallest changes after 1500 thermal cycles than MA/PA eutectic mixture. MA/PA/SS also has a better chemical structure stability and smaller volume change which is 1.2%, compared to MA/PA with a volume change of 1.6% after 1500 cycles. Therefore, it is concluded that the MA/PA/SS eutectic mixture is suitable for use as a phase change material in thermal energy storage (TES) such as solar water heating and solar space heating applications. - Highlights: •The prepared MA/PA and MA/PA/SS were used as eutectic phase change materials (PCM). •Thermo-physical reliability of eutectic PCMs evaluated using a thermal cycling test. •MA/PA/SS has a great thermo-physical stability than MA/PA after 1500 thermal cycles

  2. Spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the charge transfer complex of bovine serum albumin with quinone in aqueous medium and its influence on the ligand binding property of the protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheshkumar, Angupillai; Elango, Kuppanagounder P.

    2014-09-01

    The spectral techniques such as UV-Vis, 1H NMR and fluorescence and electrochemical experiments have been employed to investigate the interaction between 2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (MQ; a water soluble quinone) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous medium. The fluorescence of BSA was quenched by MQ via formation of a 1:1 BSA-MQ charge transfer adduct with a formation constant of 3.3 × 108 L mol-1. Based on the Forster’s theory the binding distance between them is calculated as 2.65 nm indicating high probability of binding. For the first time, influence of quinone on the binding property of various types of ligands such as aspirin, ascorbic acid, nicotinimide and sodium stearate has also been investigated. The results indicated that the strong and spontaneous binding existing between BSA and MQ, decreased the intensity of binding of these ligands with BSA. Since Tryptophan (Trp) is the basic residue present in BSA, a comparison between binding property of Trp-MQ adduct with that of BSA-MQ with these ligands has also been attempted. 1H NMR titration study indicated that the Trp forms a charge transfer complex with MQ, which reduces the interaction of Trp with the ligands. Molecular docking study supported the fact that the quinone interacts with the Trp212 unit of the BSA and the free energy change of binding (ΔG) for the BSA-MQ complex was found to be -46 kJ mol-1, which is comparable to our experimental free energy of binding (-49 kJ mol-1) obtained from fluorescence study.

  3. Radiolabelling of potential colonic delivery systems by neutron activation. An evaluation based on physiochemical properties of excipients and formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrabi, Sayeh

    1999-01-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the physicochemical properties of some potential release-controlling excipients for oral delivery to colon (based on microbially degradable polysaccharide or a combination of pH- and time-dependent mechanisms) were initially investigated. The aim was to choose the most irradiation-resistant ones for the development of a colonic delivery system to be radiolabelled by the neutron activation procedure. However, no correlation between the extent of irradiation-induced changes of the release-controlling polymers and the in vitro properties of the final formulation was observed. Incorporation of samarium oxide (Sm 2 O 3 ) resulted in retardation of the drug release through the diffusion layer. The influence of neutron activation factors on the properties of some suppository combinations was also studied. The effect of the admixture of Sm 2 O 3 on the dissolution and disintegration of the suppositories was more profound than the effect of neutron irradiation. In hydrophilic suppositories, the effect of Sm 2 O 3 was dependent on the type, amount and the physicochemical characteristics of the incorporated drug. In lipophilic suppositories, the release-controlling effect of Sm 2 O 3 was hypothesised to be due to its insoluble micronised particles blocking the drug diffusion layer. The neutron activation procedure could be utilised for radiolabelling potential oral and rectal colonic drug delivery systems. However, to avoid alteration in the crucial in vitro characteristics of the formulations, the amount, the particle size and the aggregated particle characteristics of the lanthanide salt (e.g. Sm 2 O 3 or samarium stearate) together with the neutron irradiation dose should be controlled precisely for each dosage system. For the systems investigated in this work the release-controlling mechanism of the dosage form seems to be a key parameter to predict the extent of the influence of neutron activation factors on the in vitro properties

  4. Lipid nanocapsules containing the non-ionic surfactant Solutol HS15 inhibit the transport of calcium through hyperforin-activated channels in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Sylvain; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah; Bouron, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    Hyperforin is described as a natural antidepressant inhibiting the reuptake of neurotransmitters and also activating cation channels. However the blood-brain barrier limits the access to the brain of this biomolecule. To circumvent this problem it was envisaged to encapsulate hyperforin into biomimetic lipid nano-carriers like lipid nanocapsules (LNCs). When testing the safety of 25 nm LNCs it appeared that they strongly blocked hyperforin-activated Ca2+ channels of cultured cortical neurons. This inhibition was due to one of their main component: solutol HS15 (polyoxyethylene-660-12-hydroxy stearate), a non-ionic soluble surfactant. Solutol HS15 rapidly depresses in a concentration-dependent manner the entry of Ca2+ through hyperforin-activated channels without influencing store-operated channels. This effect is mimicked by Brij58 but not by PEG600, indicating that the lipid chain of Solutol HS15 is important in determining its effects on the channels. The inhibition of the Ca2+ fluxes depends on the cellular cholesterol content; it is stronger after depleting cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin and is nearly absent on cells cultured in a cholesterol-rich medium. When chronically applied for 24 h, Solutol HS15 slightly up-regulates the entry of Ca2+ through hyperforin-activated channels. Similar observations were made when testing 25 nm lipid nanocapsules containing the surfactant Solutol HS15. Altogether, this study shows that Solutol HS15 perturbs in a cholesterol-dependent manner the activity of some neuronal channels. This is the first demonstration that LNCs containing this surfactant can influence cellular calcium signaling in the brain, a finding that can have important clinical implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physicochemical and functional properties, microstructure, and storage stability of whey protein/polyvinylpyrrolidone based glue sticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorong Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A glue stick is comprised of solidified adhesive mounted in a lipstick-like push-up tube. Whey is a byproduct of cheese making. Direct disposal of whey can cause environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to use whey protein isolate (WPI as a natural polymer along with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP to develop safe glue sticks. Pre-dissolved WPI solution, PVP, sucrose, 1,2-propanediol (PG, sodium stearate, defoamer, and preservative were mixed and dissolved in water at 90 oC and then molded in push-up tubes. Chemical composition, functional properties (bonding strength, glue setting time, gel hardness, extension/retraction, and spreading properties, microstructure, and storage stability of the prototypes were evaluated in comparison with a commercial control. Results showed that all WPI/PVP prototypes had desirable bonding strength and exhibited faster setting than PVP prototypes and control. WPI could reduce gel hardness and form less compact and rougher structures than that of PVP, but there was no difference in bonding strength. PVP and sucrose could increase the hygroscopicity of glue sticks, thus increasing storage stability. Finally, the optimized prototype GS3 (major components: WPI 8.0%, PVP 12.0%, 1,2-propanediol 10.0%, sucrose 10.0%, and stearic sodium 7.0% had a comparable functionality to the commercial control. Results indicated that whey protein could be used as an adhesive polymer for glue stick formulations, which could be used to bond fiber or cellulose derived substrates such as paper.

  6. Enhanced intracellular delivery of a model drug using microbubbles produced by a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Adam J; Dhanaliwala, Ali H; Chen, Johnny L; Hossack, John A

    2013-07-01

    Focal drug delivery to a vessel wall facilitated by intravascular ultrasound and microbubbles holds promise as a potential therapy for atherosclerosis. Conventional methods of microbubble administration result in rapid clearance from the bloodstream and significant drug loss. To address these limitations, we evaluated whether drug delivery could be achieved with transiently stable microbubbles produced in real time and in close proximity to the therapeutic site. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells were placed in a flow chamber designed to simulate physiological flow conditions. A flow-focusing microfluidic device produced 8 μm diameter monodisperse microbubbles within the flow chamber, and ultrasound was applied to enhance uptake of a surrogate drug (calcein). Acoustic pressures up to 300 kPa and flow rates up to 18 mL/s were investigated. Microbubbles generated by the flow-focusing microfluidic device were stabilized with a polyethylene glycol-40 stearate shell and had either a perfluorobutane (PFB) or nitrogen gas core. The gas core composition affected stability, with PFB and nitrogen microbubbles exhibiting half-lives of 40.7 and 18.2 s, respectively. Calcein uptake was observed at lower acoustic pressures with nitrogen microbubbles (100 kPa) than with PFB microbubbles (200 kPa) (p 3). In addition, delivery was observed at all flow rates, with maximal delivery (>70% of cells) occurring at a flow rate of 9 mL/s. These results demonstrate the potential of transiently stable microbubbles produced in real time and in close proximity to the intended therapeutic site for enhancing localized drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola

    2016-11-10

    Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter ingredient (EBI) with a core of bitter Gentiana lutea root extract and a coating of ethylcellulose-stearate was developed and included in a vanilla microencapsulated bitter ingredient-enriched pudding (EBIP). The coating masked bitterness in the mouth, allowing the release of bitter secoiridoids in the gastrointestinal tract. A cross-over randomised study was performed: twenty healthy subjects consumed at breakfast EBIP (providing 100 mg of secoiridoids) or the control pudding (CP) on two different occasions. Blood samples, glycaemia and appetite ratings were collected at baseline and 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after breakfast. Gastrointestinal peptides, endocannabinoids (EC) and N-acylethanolamines (NAE) were measured in plasma samples. Energy intakes were measured at an ad libitum lunch 3 h after breakfast and over the rest of the day (post lunch) through food diaries. No significant difference in postprandial plasma responses of gastrointestinal hormones, glucose, EC and NAE and of appetite between EBIP and CP was found. However, a trend for a higher response of glucagon-like peptide-1 after EBIP than after CP was observed. EBIP determined a significant 30 % lower energy intake over the post-lunch period compared with CP. These findings were consistent with the tailored release of bitter-tasting compounds from EBIP along the gastrointestinal tract. This study demonstrated that microencapsulated bitter secoiridoids were effective in reducing daily energy intake in humans.

  8. Limitations of high dose carrier based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Stewart; Traini, Daniela; Tweedie, Alan; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Young, Paul M

    2018-06-10

    This study was performed to investigate how increasing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content within a formulation affects the dispersion of particles and the aerosol performance efficiency of a carrier based dry powder inhalable (DPI) formulation, using a custom dry powder inhaler (DPI) development rig. Five formulations with varying concentrations of API beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) between 1% and 30% (w/w) were formulated as a multi-component carrier system containing coarse lactose and fine lactose with magnesium stearate. The morphology of the formulation and each component were investigated using scanning electron micrographs while the particle size was measured by laser diffraction. The aerosol performance, in terms of aerodynamic diameter, was assessed using the British pharmacopeia Apparatus E cascade impactor (Next generation impactor). Chemical analysis of the API was observed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Increasing the concentration of BDP in the blend resulted in increasing numbers and size of individual agglomerates and densely packed BDP multi-layers on the surface of the lactose carrier. BDP present within the multi-layer did not disperse as individual primary particles but as dense agglomerates, which led to a decrease in aerosol performance and increased percentage of BDP deposition within the Apparatus E induction port and pre-separator. As the BDP concentration in the blends increases, aerosol performance of the formulation decreases, in an inversely proportional manner. Concurrently, the percentage of API deposition in the induction port and pre-separator could also be linked to the amount of micronized particles (BDP and Micronized composite carrier) present in the formulation. The effect of such dose increase on the behaviour of aerosol dispersion was investigated to gain greater insight in the development and optimisation of higher dosed carrier-based formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Langmuir-Blodgett and X-ray diffraction studies of isolated photosystem II reaction centers in monolayers and multilayers: physical dimensions of the complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphaus, R A; Fang, J Y; Picorel, R; Chumanov, G; Wang, J Y; Cotton, T M; Seibert, M

    1997-04-01

    The photosystem II (PSII) reaction center (RC) is a hydrophobic intrinsic protein complex that drives the water-oxidation process of photosynthesis. Unlike the bacterial RC complex, an X-ray crystal structure of the PSII RC is not available. In order to determine the physical dimensions of the isolated PSII RC complex, we applied Langmuir techniques to determine the cross-sectional area of an isolated RC in a condensed monolayer film. Low-angle X-ray diffraction results obtained by examining Langmuir-Blodgett multilayer films of alternating PSII RC/Cd stearate monolayers were used to determine the length (or height; z-direction, perpendicular to the plane of the original membrane) of the complex. The values obtained for a PSII RC monomer were 26 nm2 and 4.8 nm, respectively, and the structural integrity of the RC in the multilayer film was confirmed by several approaches. Assuming a cylindrical-type RC structure, the above dimensions lead to a predicted volume of about 125 nm3. This value is very close to the expected volume of 118 nm3, calculated from the known molecular weight and partial specific volume of the PSII RC proteins. This same type of comparison was also made with the Rhodobacter sphaeroides RC based on published data, and we conclude that the PSII RC is much shorter in length and has a more regular solid geometric structure than the bacterial RC. Furthermore, the above dimensions of the PSII RC and those of PSII core (RC plus proximal antenna) proteins protruding outside the plane of the PSII membrane into the lumenal space as imaged by scanning tunneling microscopy (Seibert, Aust. J. Pl. Physiol. 22, 161-166, 1995) fit easily into the known dimensions of the PSII core complex visualized by others as electron-density projection maps. From this we conclude that the in situ PSII core complex is a dimeric structure containing two copies of the PSII RC.

  10. Compatibility of chewing gum excipients with the amino acid L-cysteine and stability of the active substance in directly compressed chewing gum formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Alma; Björkqvist, Mikko; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Juppo, Anne Mari; Marvola, Martti; Sivén, Mia

    2008-09-01

    Using L-cysteine chewing gum to eliminate carcinogenic acetaldehyde in the mouth during smoking has recently been introduced. Besides its efficacy, optimal properties of the gum include stability of the formulation. However, only a limited number of studies exist on the compatibility of chewing gum excipients and stability of gum formulations. In this study we used the solid-state stability method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and isothermal microcalorimetry to investigate the interactions between L-cysteine (as a free base or as a salt) and excipients commonly used in gum. These excipients include xylitol, sorbitol, magnesium stearate, Pharmagum S, Every T Toco and Smily 2 Toco. The influence of temperature and relative humidity during a three-month storage period on gum formulation was also studied. Cysteine alone was stable at 25 degrees C/60% RH and 45 degrees C/75% RH whether stored in open or closed glass ambers. As a component of binary mixtures, cysteine base remained stable at lower temperature and humidity but the salt form was incompatible with all the studied excipients. The results obtained with the different methods corresponded with each other. At high temperature and humidity, excipient incompatibility with both forms of cysteine was obvious. Such sensitivity to heat and humidity during storage was also seen in studies on gum formulations. It was also found that cysteine is sensitive to high pressure and increase in temperature induced by compression. The results suggest that the final product should be well protected from temperature and humidity and, for example, cooling process before compression should be considered.

  11. Efficiency and protective effect of encapsulation of milk immunoglobulin G in multiple emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Tu, Y Y; Chang, H M

    1999-02-01

    Milk immunoglobulin G (IgG), separated with protein G affinity chromatography, and IgG in colostral whey were encapsulated by 0.5% (w/v) of Tween 80, sucrose stearate, or soy protein, which were used as secondary emulsifiers in the water in oil in water type multiple emulsion. The residual contents of separated IgG and IgG in colostral whey, ranging from 58.7 to 49.7% and from 13.2 to 21.3%, respectively, in the inner water phase (water phase surrounded by oil phase) with emulsifiers were determined by ELISA. However, the emulsion stability decreased after 24 h, and the residual IgG content in the inner water phase was lowered. Encapsulation of IgG in the multiple emulsion increased the stability of separated IgG against acid (pH 2.0) and alkali (pH 12.0) by 21-56% and 33-62%, respectively, depending on the emulsifier used. Moreover, multiple emulsion also provided a remarkable protective effect on separated IgG stability against proteases. The residual contents of separated IgG in multiple emulsion, using Tween 80 as secondary emulsifier, incubated for 2 h with pepsin (pH 2.0) and trypsin and chymotrypsin (pH 7.6) (enzyme/substrate = 1/20) were 35.4, 72.5, and 82.3%, whereas those of separated IgG in enzyme solution were only 7.2, 33. 1, and 35.2%, respectively. However, the separated IgG loss during the preparation of multiple emulsion was almost 41-50%.

  12. The ecotoxicity of zinc and zinc-containing substances in soil with consideration of metal-moiety approaches and organometal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Ellyn; Boyd, Patrick; Lawson-Halasz, Annamaria; Hawari, Jalal; Saucier, Stacey; Scroggins, Richard; Princz, Juliska

    2017-12-01

    Within Canada, screening-level assessments for chemical substances are required to determine whether the substances pose a risk to human health and/or the environment, and as appropriate, risk management strategies. In response to the volume of metal and metal-containing substances, process efficiencies were introduced using a metal-moiety approach, whereby substances that contain a common metal moiety are assessed simultaneously as a group, with the moiety of concern consisting of the metal ion. However, for certain subgroups, such as organometals or organic metal salts, the organic moiety or parent substance may be of concern, rather than simply the metal ion. To further investigate the need for such additional consideration, certain substances were evaluated: zinc (Zn)-containing inorganic (Zn chloride [ZnCl2] and Zn oxide) and organic (organometal: Zn diethyldithiocarbamate [Zn(DDC) 2 ] and organic metal salts (Zn stearate [ZnSt] and 4-chloro-2-nitrobenzenediazonium tetrachlorozincate [BCNZ]). The toxicity of the substances were assessed using plant (Trifolium pratense and Elymus lanceolatus) and soil invertebrate (Folsomia candida and Eisenia andrei) tests in a sandy soil. Effect measures were determined based on total metal and total parent analyses (for organic substances). In general, the inorganic Zn substances were less toxic than the organometals and organic metal salts, with 50% effective concentrations ranging from 11 to >5194 mg Zn kg -1 dry soil. The data demonstrate the necessity for alternate approaches in the assessment of organo-metal complexes, with the organic moieties or parent substances warranting consideration rather than the metal ion alone. In this instance, the organometals and organic metal salts were significantly more toxic than other test substances despite their low total Zn content. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3324-3332. © 2017 Crown in the Right of Canada. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 Crown

  13. The Purification and Characterization of Lipases from Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and Their Immobilization and Use for Biodiesel Production from Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa-Dekker, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2017-12-18

    The coconut kernel-associated fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae VBE1, was grown on coconut cake with added coconut oil as lipase inducer under solid-state fermentation conditions. The extracellular-produced lipases were purified and resulted in two enzymes: lipase A (68,000 Da)-purified 25.41-fold, recovery of 47.1%-and lipase B (32,000 Da)-purified 18.47-fold, recovery of 8.2%. Both lipases showed optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 35 °C, were activated by Ca 2+ , exhibited highest specificity towards coconut oil and p-nitrophenyl palmitate, and were stable in iso-octane and hexane. Ethanol supported higher lipase activity than methanol, and n-butanol inactivated both lipases. Crude lipase immobilized by entrapment within 4% (w/v) calcium alginate beads was more stable than the crude-free lipase preparation within the range pH 2.5-10.0 and 20-80 °C. The immobilized lipase preparation was used to catalyze the transesterification/methanolysis of coconut oil to biodiesel (fatty acyl methyl esters (FAMEs)) and was quantified by gas chromatography. The principal FAMEs were laurate (46.1%), myristate (22.3%), palmitate (9.9%), and oleate (7.2%), with minor amounts of caprylate, caprate, and stearate also present. The FAME profile was comparatively similar to NaOH-mediated transesterified biodiesel from coconut oil, but distinctly different to petroleum-derived diesel. This study concluded that Lasiodiplodia theobromae VBE1 lipases have potential for biodiesel production from coconut oil.

  14. Polymer Percolation Threshold in Multi-Component HPMC Matrices Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The percolation theory studies the critical points or percolation thresholds of the system, where onecomponent of the system undergoes a geometrical phase transition, starting to connect the whole system. The application of this theory to study the release rate of hydrophilic matrices allows toexplain the changes in release kinetics of swellable matrix type system and results in a clear improvement of the design of controlled release dosage forms. Methods: In this study, the percolation theory has been applied to multi-component hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC hydrophilic matrices. Matrix tablets have been prepared using phenobarbital as drug,magnesium stearate as a lubricant employing different amount of lactose and HPMC K4M as a fillerandmatrix forming material, respectively. Ethylcelullose (EC as a polymeric excipient was also examined. Dissolution studies were carried out using the paddle method. In order to estimate the percolation threshold, the behaviour of the kinetic parameters with respect to the volumetric fraction of HPMC at time zero, was studied. Results: In both HPMC/lactose and HPMC/EC/lactose matrices, from the point of view of the percolation theory, the optimum concentration for HPMC, to obtain a hydrophilic matrix system for the controlled release of phenobarbital is higher than 18.1% (v/v HPMC. Above 18.1% (v/v HPMC, an infinite cluster of HPMC would be formed maintaining integrity of the system and controlling the drug release from the matrices. According to results, EC had no significant influence on the HPMC percolation threshold. Conclusion: This may be related to broad functionality of the swelling hydrophilic matrices.

  15. Synthesis of a metabolically stable modified long-chain fatty acid salt and its photolabile derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, G.H.; Voges, R.; Gerok, W.; Kurz, G. (Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Universitaet Freiburg (Germany))

    1991-05-01

    An analogue of the long-chain fatty acid salt, sodium stearate, was synthesized in which the hydrogen atoms at carbons 2, 3, and 18 were replaced by fluorine. The key step in the synthesis was the addition of 3-iodo-2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanoic acid amide to 15,15,15-trifluoro-1-pentadecene. Radioactivity was introduced by catalytic reduction of 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid amide with carrier-free tritium gas yielding a product with the specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. The resulting 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid has a pKa of about 0.5 and is completely dissociated under normal physiological conditions. The fluorinated fatty acid salt analogue is readily taken up into hepatocytes and proved to be metabolically inert. In an approach to the identification of proteins involved in long-chain fatty acid salt transport across membranes and intracellular compartments, the photolabile derivative 11,11-azo-2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro(G-3H)octadecanoic acid sodium salt was synthesized with a specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. Photolysis of the photolabile derivative, using a light source with a maximum emission at 350 nm, occurred with a half-life of 1.5 min. The generated carbene reacted with 14C-labeled methanol and acetonitrile with covalent bond formation of 6-13%. Its efficacy for photoaffinity labeling was demonstrated by incorporation into serum albumin, the extracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein, as well as into the intracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein (FABP) of rat liver with the molecular weight of 14,000.

  16. Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, D.; Glaser, L.

    1986-01-01

    A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC 3 H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage

  17. Organ-Specific Alterations in Fatty Acid De Novo Synthesis and Desaturation in a Rat Model of Programmed Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Mina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small for gestational age (SGA leads to increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic syndrome. Offspring exposed to 50% maternal food restriction in utero are born smaller than Controls (FR, catch-up in growth by the end of the nursing period, and become obese adults. The objective of the study was to determine stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (SCD1 and rates of de novo fatty acid synthesis in young FR and Control offspring tissues at the end of the nursing period, as possible contributors to catch-up growth. Methods From gestational day 10 to term, dams fed ad libitum (Control or were 50% food-restricted to produce small FR pups. Control dams nursed all pups. At postnatal day 1 (p1 and p21, offspring body tissues were analyzed by GC/MS, and desaturation indices of palmitoleate/palmitate and oleate/stearate were calculated. SCD1 gene expression was determined by real-time PCR on adipose and liver. Offspring were enriched with deuterium that was given to dams in drinking water during lactation and de novo synthesis of offspring body tissues was determined at p21. Primary adipocyte cell cultures were established at p21 and exposed to U13C-glucose. Results FR offspring exhibited higher desaturation index in p1 and p21 adipose tissue, but decreased desaturation index in liver at p21. SCD1 gene expression at p21 was correspondingly increased in adipose and decreased in liver. FR subcutaneous fat demonstrated increased de novo synthesis at p21. Primary cell cultures exhibited increased de novo synthesis in FR. Conclusions Adipose tissue is the first site to exhibit increased de novo synthesis and desaturase activity in FR. Therefore, abnormal lipogenesis is already present prior to onset of obesity during the period of catch-up growth. These abnormalities may contribute to future obesity development.

  18. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Potentiated virucidal activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE and punicalagin against Herpes simplex virus (HSV when co-administered with zinc (II ions, and antiviral activity of PRE against HSV and aciclovir-resistant HSV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M J Houston

    Full Text Available There is a clinical need for new therapeutic products against Herpes simplex virus (HSV. The pomegranate, fruit of the tree Punica granatum L, has since ancient times been linked to activity against infection. This work probed the activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE and co-administered zinc (II ions.PRE was used in conjunction with zinc (II salts to challenge HSV-1 and aciclovir-resistant HSV in terms of virucidal plaque assay reduction and antiviral activities in epithelial Vero host cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by the MTS assay using a commercial kit.Zinc sulphate, zinc citrate, zinc stearate and zinc gluconate demonstrated similar potentiated virucidal activity with PRE against HSV-1 by up to 4-fold. A generally parabolic relationship was observed when HSV-1 was challenged with PRE and varying concentrations of ZnSO4, with a maximum potentiation factor of 5.5. Punicalagin had 8-fold greater virucidal activity than an equivalent mass of PRE. However, antiviral data showed that punicalagin had significantly lower antiviral activity compared to the activity of PRE (EC50 = 0.56 μg mL-1 a value comparable to aciclovir (EC50 = 0.18 μg mL-1; however, PRE also demonstrated potency against aciclovir-resistant HSV (EC50 = 0.02 μg mL-1, whereas aciclovir showed no activity. Antiviral action of PRE was not influenced by ZnSO4. No cytotoxicity was detected with any test solution.The potentiated virucidal activity of PRE by coadministered zinc (II has potential as a multi-action novel topical therapeutic agent against HSV infections, such as coldsores.

  20. Thermal and mechanical properties of fatty acid starch esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H; Vorwerg, W; Rihm, R

    2014-02-15

    The current study examined thermal and mechanical properties of fatty acid starch esters (FASEs). All highly soluble esters were obtained by the sustainable, homogeneous transesterification of fatty acid vinyl esters in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Casted films of products with a degree of substitution (DS) of 1.40-1.73 were compared with highly substituted ones (DS 2.20-2.63). All films were free of any plasticizer additives. Hydrophobic surfaces were characterized by contact angle measurements. Dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) revealed thermal transitions (T(g), T(m)) which were influenced by the internal plasticizing effect of the ester groups. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements showed the increased thermal stability toward native starch. Tensile tests revealed the decreasing strength and stiffness of the products with increasing ester-group chain length while the elongation increased up to the ester group laurate and after that decreased. Esters of the longest fatty acids, palmitate and stearate turned out to be brittle materials due to super molecular structures of the ester chains such as confirmed by X-ray. Summarized products with a DS 1.40-1.73 featured more "starch-like" properties with tensile strength up to outstanding 43 MPa, while products with a DS >2 behaved more "oil-like". Both classes of esters should be tested as a serious alternative to commercial starch blends and petrol-based plastics. The term Cnumber is attributed to the number of total C-Atoms of the fatty acid (e.g. C6=Hexanoate). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of NiO based metal−insulator−metal diode using Langmuir-Blodgett method for high frequency rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Azad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin film metal–insulator–metal (MIM diodes have attracted significant attention for use in infrared energy harvesting and detection applications. As demonstrated over the past decades, MIM or metal-insulator-insulator-metal (MIIM diodes can operate at the THz frequencies range by quantum tunneling of electrons. The aim of this work is to synthesize required ultra-thin insulating layers and fabricate MIM diodes using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB technique. The nickel stearate (NiSt LB precursor film was deposited on glass, silicon (Si, ITO glass and gold coated silicon substrates. The photodesorption (UV exposure and the thermodesorption (annealing at 100 °C and 350 °C methods were used to remove organic components from the NiSt LB film and to achieve a uniform homogenous nickel oxide (NiO film. These ultrathin NiO films were characterized by EDS, AFM, FTIR and cyclic voltammetry methods, respectively. The MIM diode was fabricated by depositing nickel (Ni on the NiO film, all on a gold (Au plated silicon (Si substrate. The current (I-voltage (V characteristics of the fabricated diode were studied to understand the conduction mechanism assumed to be tunneling of electron through the ultra-thin insulating layer. The sensitivity of the diode was measured to be as high as 35 V-1. The diode resistance was ∼100 ohms (at a bias voltage of 0.60 V, and the rectification ratio was about 22 (for a signal voltage of ±200 mV. At the bias point, the diode response demonstrated significant non-linearity and high asymmetry, which are very desirable characteristics for applications in infrared detection and harvesting.

  2. Investigation of the Sensitivity of Transmission Raman Spectroscopy for Polymorph Detection in Pharmaceutical Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hanzhou; Bondi, Robert W; Anderson, Carl A; Drennen, James K; Igne, Benoît

    2017-08-01

    Polymorph detection is critical for ensuring pharmaceutical product quality in drug substances exhibiting polymorphism. Conventional analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance are utilized primarily for characterizing the presence and identity of specific polymorphs in a sample. These techniques have encountered challenges in analyzing the constitution of polymorphs in the presence of other components commonly found in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Laborious sample preparation procedures are usually required to achieve satisfactory data interpretability. There is a need for alternative techniques capable of probing pharmaceutical dosage forms rapidly and nondestructively, which is dictated by the practical requirements of applications such as quality monitoring on production lines or when quantifying product shelf lifetime. The sensitivity of transmission Raman spectroscopy for detecting polymorphs in final tablet cores was investigated in this work. Carbamazepine was chosen as a model drug, polymorph form III is the commercial form, whereas form I is an undesired polymorph that requires effective detection. The concentration of form I in a direct compression tablet formulation containing 20% w/w of carbamazepine, 74.00% w/w of fillers (mannitol and microcrystalline cellulose), and 6% w/w of croscarmellose sodium, silicon dioxide, and magnesium stearate was estimated using transmission Raman spectroscopy. Quantitative models were generated and optimized using multivariate regression and data preprocessing. Prediction uncertainty was estimated for each validation sample by accounting for all the main variables contributing to the prediction. Multivariate detection limits were calculated based on statistical hypothesis testing. The transmission Raman spectroscopic model had an absolute prediction error of 0.241% w/w for the independent validation set. The method detection limit was estimated at 1.31% w/w. The

  3. Chemical surface modification of calcium carbonate particles with stearic acid using different treating methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhi [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland); Daly, Michael [Mergon International, Castlepollard, Westmeath (Ireland); Clémence, Lopez [Polytech Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Geever, Luke M.; Major, Ian; Higginbotham, Clement L. [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland); Devine, Declan M., E-mail: ddevine@ait.ie [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland)

    2016-08-15

    strength than the composites containing untreated and “dry” treated CaCO{sub 3}. This is mainly because the “wet” and “complex” treatment processes have increased adsorption density of stearate, which enhances the interfacial interaction between matrix and filler. These results confirm that the chemical adsorption of the surfactant ions at the solid-liquid interface is higher than at other interface. From this study, it was concluded that the utilization of the “complex” method minimised the negative effects of void coalescence provides key information for the improvement of existing processes.

  4. Studies of drag on the nanocomposite superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brassard, Jean-Denis [Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l‘Université, Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada); Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l’Aluminium (CURAL), Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l‘Université, Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada); Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l’Aluminium (CURAL), Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l‘Université, Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada); Perron, Jean [Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l‘Université, Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanocomposite thin films of stearic acid (SA)-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles incorporated in epoxy polymer matrix have been achieved. • SA-functionalization of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin films was confirmed by XRD and FTIR. • The measured rms roughness of the thin film is found to be 12 ± 1 μm with the adhesion of 5B on glass. • The wetting property shows that the surface of the film is superhydrophobic with the CA of 156 ± 4° and CAH of 4 ± 2°. • The drag reduction on the surface of superhydrophobic glass sphere is 16% lower than as-received glass sphere. - Abstract: The nanocomposite thin films of stearic acid (SA)-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles incorporated in epoxy polymer matrix have been achieved. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show the formation of zinc stearate on ZnO nanoparticles as the confirmation of SA-functionalization of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin films. Morphological analyses reveal the presence of micro-holes with the presence of irregular nanoparticles. The measured root mean square (rms) roughness of the thin film is found to be 12 ± 1 μm with the adhesion of 5B on both glass and aluminum substrates. The wetting property shows that the surface of the film is superhydrophobic with the contact angle of water of 156 ± 4° having contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 4 ± 2°. The average terminal velocity in the water of the as-received glass spheres and superhydrophobic spheres were found to be 0.66 ± 0.01 m/s and 0.72 ± 0.01 m/s respectively. Consequently, the calculated average coefficients of the surface drag of the as-received glass sphere and superhydrophobic glass sphere were 2.30 ± 0.01 and 1.93 ± 0.03, respectively. Hence, the drag reduction on the surface of superhydrophobic glass sphere is found to be approximately 16% lower than as-received glass sphere.

  5. Difference in the Dissolution Behaviors of Tablets Containing Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) Depending on Pharmaceutical Formulation After Storage Under High Temperature and Humid Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekuma, Yoh; Ishizaka, Haruka; Sumi, Masato; Sato, Yuki; Sugawara, Mitsuru

    Storage under high temperature and humid conditions has been reported to decrease the dissolution rate for some kinds of tablets containing polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as a disintegrant. The aim of this study was to elucidate the properties of pharmaceutical formulations with PVPP that cause a decrease in the dissolution rate after storage under high temperature and humid conditions by using model tablets with a simple composition. Model tablets, which consisted of rosuvastatin calcium or 5 simple structure compounds, salicylic acid, 2-aminodiphenylmethane, 2-aminobiphenyl, 2-(p-tolyl)benzoic acid or 4.4'-biphenol as principal agents, cellulose, lactose hydrate, PVPP and magnesium stearate as additives, were made by direct compression. The model tables were wrapped in paraffin papers and stored for 2 weeks at 40°C/75% relative humidity (RH). Dissolution tests were carried out by the paddle method in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 16th edition. Model tablets with a simple composition were able to reproduce a decreased dissolution rate after storage at 40°C/75% RH. These tablets showed significantly decreased water absorption activities after storage. In the case of tablets without lactose hydrate by replacing with cellulose, a decreased dissolution rate was not observed. Carboxyl and amino groups in the structure of the principal agent were not directly involved in the decreased dissolution. 2-Benzylaniline tablets showed a remarkably decreased dissolution rate and 2-aminobiphenyl and 2-(p-tolyl)benzoic acid tablets showed slightly decreased dissolution rates, though 4,4'-biphenol tablets did not show a decrease dissolution rate. We demonstrated that additives and structure of the principal agent were involved in the decreased in dissolution rate for tablets with PVPP. The results suggested that one of the reasons for a decreased dissolution rate was the inclusion of lactose hydrate in tablets. The results also indicated that compounds as principal agents with low

  6. An efficient PEGylated liposomal nanocarrier containing cell-penetrating peptide and pH-sensitive hydrazone bond for enhancing tumor-targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Y

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Ding,1,* Dan Sun,1,* Gui-Ling Wang,1 Hong-Ge Yang,1 Hai-Feng Xu,1 Jian-Hua Chen,2 Ying Xie,1,3 Zhi-Qiang Wang4 1Beijing Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmaceutics and New Drug Delivery Systems, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 2School of Medicine, Jianghan University, Wuhan, 3State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kent State University Geauga, Burton, OH, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs as small molecular transporters with abilities of cell penetrating, internalization, and endosomal escape have potential prospect in drug delivery systems. However, a bottleneck hampering their application is the poor specificity for cells. By utilizing the function of hydration shell of polyethylene glycol (PEG and acid sensitivity of hydrazone bond, we constructed a kind of CPP-modified pH-sensitive PEGylated liposomes (CPPL to improve the selectivity of these peptides for tumor targeting. In CPPL, CPP was directly attached to liposome surfaces via coupling with stearate (STR to avoid the hindrance of PEG as a linker on the penetrating efficiency of CPP. A PEG derivative by conjugating PEG with STR via acid-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG2000-Hz-STR, PHS was synthesized. High-performance liquid chromatography and flow cytometry demonstrated that PHS was stable at normal neutral conditions and PEG could be completely cleaved from liposome surface to expose CPP under acidic environments in tumor. An optimal CPP density on liposomes was screened to guaranty a maximum targeting efficiency on tumor cells as well as not being captured by normal cells that consequently lead to a long circulation in blood. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated, in 4 mol% CPP of lipid modified system, that CPP exerted higher efficiency on internalizing the liposomes into

  7. Critical aggregates concentration of fatty esters present in biodiesel determined by turbidity and fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehner, Sandro; Sánez, Juan; Dombroski, Luiz Fernando; Gracioto, Maria Paula

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel for combustible engine is available as mixture of fossil diesel and fatty esters obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils. The use of biodiesel reduces the amount of SO x , mainly. However, it was already observed that biodiesel has a different behavior in environment in cases of accidental spill and groundwater contamination. It was noticed that the biodegradation of hydrocarbons (cyclic and aliphatic) in the presence of biodiesel are speeded, although the mechanism is still unclear. Considering the chemical structure of fatty esters, it was investigated the formation of aggregates in water solution by fatty esters present in commercial biodiesel. In Brazil, biodiesel is composed by 95% of fossil diesel and 5% of fatty esters mixture. In this work, fatty esters were treated as neutral surfactant, i.e., it was treated as a molecule with polar and non-polar part. Turbidity and fluorescence were used to determine the critical aggregates concentration (CAC). Water solutions containing fatty esters were examined exploiting changes in turbidity and fluorescence intensity of pyrene. Abrupt changes were attributed to aggregates formation, following the same behavior of traditional amphiphilic compounds. It was determined the CAC for ethyl palmitate, ethyl stearate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl linoleate. The values of CAC for fatty esters varied from 1.91 to 4.27 μmol/L, while CAC for the mixture of esters (biodiesel) was 2.01 for methyl esters and 1.19 for ethyl esters, both prepared using soybean oil. The aggregates formation was also determined by fluorescence measurements considering the changes in intensity of peaks I and III of pyrene. Pyrene senses the changes in environment polarity. The values found of CAC by fluorescence for individual ethyl esters varied from 1.85 to 3.21 μmol/L, while mixtures of ethyl esters was 2.23 and 2.07 μmol/L for mixture of methyl esters. The results clearly showed that fatty esters form aggregates and might be

  8. Enzymatic modification of natural and synthetic polymers using lipases and proteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Soma

    Enzymatic modification of natural/synthetic polymers [starch nanoparticles, poly (n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(vinyl formamide)] was studied. Enzymes used for catalysis were lipases and proteases. Starch nanoparticles (40nm diameter) were incorporated into AOT-coated reverse micelles. Reactions performed with the acylating agents vinyl stearate, epsilon-caprolactone and maleic anhydride in toluene in presence of Novozyme-435 at 40°C for 36h gave products with degrees of substitution of 0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 respectively. DEPT-135 NMR spectra revealed that the modification occurred regioselectively at the C-6 position of the glucose units. Infrared microspectroscopy showed that the surfactant coated starch nanoparticles diffuse into pores of Novozyme-435 beads, coming in close proximity with CALB to promote modification. The modified products retained nanoscale dimensions. Catalysis of amide bond formation between a low molar mass amine and ester side groups of poly(n-alkyl acrylates)[poly(ethyl acrylate), poly(methyl acrylate) and poly(butyl acrylate)] was also examined. The nucleophiles were mono and diamines. Among the poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and the lipases studied, poly(ethyl acrylate) was the preferred substrate and Novozyme-435 the most active lipase. Poly(ethyl acrylate) in 80% by-volume toluene was reacted with 1 equivalent per repeat unit of hexyl amine at 70°C in presence of Novozyme-435. The product contained 10.6 mol% amide groups. Attempts to increase the amidation beyond 10--11 mol% by increasing the reaction time or use of fresh enzyme were unsuccessful, showing that poly(ethylacrylate-co-10mol%hexylacrylamide) is a poor substrate for further acylation. When chiral amines ([R,S]-alpha-methyl benzylamine, [R,S]-beta-methyl phenyl amine) were used as nucleophiles, Novozyme-435 enantioselectively catalyzed amidation of poly(ethyl acrylate). Poly(vinyl formamide), P(VfAm) by acid or base-catalyzed hydrolysis leads to poly(vinylamine), P(VAm), and

  9. Thermal Oxidation of Polyolefins by Mild Pro-Oxidant Additives Based on Iron Carboxylates and Lipophilic Amines: Degradability in the Absence of Light and Effect on the Adhesion to Paperboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Anh Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine and inland pollution by non-degradable plastic bags and other plastic articles is a topic of great concern. Natural degradation processes based on oxidation of plastic pollutants could possibly contribute to limit the extent of pollution. Thermal degradation of polyolefins in the absence of light by non-polluting pro-oxidants has not been presented before. In this study, we show that two amines, stearyl amine and [(3-(11-aminoundecanoyl amino propane-1-] silsesquioxane (amino-POSS in combination with ferric stearate (FeSt3 tremendously accelerate the thermal oxidation of polyolefins compared with reference samples. Both amines and FeSt3 are to a large extent based on renewable resources. Polyethylene and polypropylene samples containing less than 100 ppm of iron and 1% of amine were extremely brittle after 10 days in a circulation oven in the absence of light. No significant degradation could be seen with samples containing iron but no amine. In a different application, the initial oxidation of polyethylene can be used in order to increase its adhesion to cardboard. Excellent adhesion between polyethylene and cardboard is important for liquid packaging based on renewable resources. Amino-POSS has been chosen for food packaging applications due to its expected lower leakage from polyethylene (PE compared with stearyl amine. Film samples of PE/amino-POSS/FeSt3 blends were partly oxidized in a circulation oven. The oxidation was documented by increased carbonyl index (CI and melt flow index (MFI. The limited extent of oxidation has been proved by unchanged tensile strength and only moderate changes in elongation at break when compared to reference polyethylene films containing no FeSt3 or amino-POSS. The PE/amino-POSS/FeSt3 blends were compression moulded to paperboard. The adhesion of non-aged blends to paperboard decreased with increasing amino-POSS content which is in good compliance with an earlier reported lubricant effect of high

  10. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair: a promising way for retrospective detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, Fritz; Yegles, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The retrospective detection of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is an important part of the diagnosis of the fetal alcohol syndrome. A promising way to solve this problem can be the determination of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) or/and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair of the mothers. In this article, the present state in analytical determination and interpretation of FAEE and EtG concentrations in hair are reviewed. Both FAEE and EtG are minor metabolites of ethanol and as direct alcohol markers very specific for alcohol. They are durably deposited in hair, which enables taking advantage of the long diagnostic time window of this sample material. In the last years, specific and sensitive methods for determination of both alcohol markers in hair were developed. Headspace solid phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy after hair extraction with an n-heptane/dimethylsulfoxide mixture proved to be a favorable technique for determination of four characteristic FAEE (ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate). EtG is extracted from hair by water and analyzed either by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with negative chemical ionization after cleanup with solid phase extraction and derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride or by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-mass spectroscopy. The detection limits of the single FAEE as well as of EtG are in the range of 1 to 10 pg/mg. FAEE as well as EtG were determined in a larger number of hair samples of teetotalers, social drinkers, patients in alcohol withdrawal treatment, and death cases with previous known heavy drinking. From the results, the following criteria were derived: strict abstinence is excluded or improbable at C FAEE >0.2 ng/mg or C EtG >7 pg/mg. Moderate social drinkers should have C FAEE alcohol abuse is probable. Until now, there has been no evaluation in context of FAS diagnosis; however, a successful application for this purpose

  11. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKOKIMIA DAN ANTIBAKTERI HASIL PURIFIKASI MINYAK BIJI NYAMPLUNG (Calophyllum inophyllum L. Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Degummed Calophyllum inophyllum L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawarni Hasibuan

    2013-11-01

    minyak biji nyamplung untuk aplikasi sabun kesehatan. Rancangan yang digunakan pada proses purifikasi nyamplung adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial dengan tiga faktor yaitu konsentrasi asam fosfat 20%, suhu, dan lama pemanasan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, perlakuan terbaik purifikasi diperoleh pada penggunaan H3PO4 20% sebanyak 0,2% pada suhu 80 oC selama 15 menit. Komponen asam lemak utama pada minyak nyamplung hasil purifikasi adalah asam palmitat, asam stearat, asam oleat dan asam linoleat dengan total asam lemak mencapai 98,19 persen dari total asam lemak penyusun minyak nyamplung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minyak nyamplung mengandung komponen steroid, flavonoid, saponin, dan triterpenoid serta memiliki efek antibakteri terhadap Staphylococcus aureus namun sebaliknya bagi Escheria coli. Kata kunci: Calophyllum inophyllum, purifikasi, fraksi padat, antibakteri, antioksidan

  12. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)-loaded Trojan microparticles for targeted aerosol delivery to the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewes, Frederic; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Healy, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Targeted aerosol delivery to specific regions of the lung may improve therapeutic efficiency and minimise unwanted side effects. Targeted delivery could potentially be achieved with porous microparticles loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)-in combination with a target-directed magnetic gradient field. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the aerodynamic properties of SPIONs-loaded Trojan microparticles after delivery from a dry powder inhaler. Microparticles made of SPIONs, PEG and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) were formulated by spray drying and characterised by various physicochemical methods. Aerodynamic properties were evaluated using a next generation cascade impactor (NGI), with or without a magnet positioned at stage 2. Mixing appropriate proportions of SPIONs, PEG and HPβCD allowed Trojan microparticle to be formulated. These particles had a median geometric diameter of 2.8±0.3μm and were shown to be sensitive to the magnetic field induced by a magnet having a maximum energy product of 413.8kJ/m(3). However, these particles, characterised by a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 10.2±2.0μm, were considered to be not inhalable. The poor aerodynamic properties resulted from aggregation of the particles. The addition of (NH4)2CO3 and magnesium stearate (MgST) to the formulation improved the aerodynamic properties of the Trojan particles and resulted in a MMAD of 2.2±0.8μm. In the presence of a magnetic field on stage 2 of the NGI, the amount of particles deposited at this stage increased 4-fold from 4.8±0.7% to 19.5±3.3%. These Trojan particles appeared highly sensitive to the magnetic field and their deposition on most of the stages of the NGI was changed in the presence compared to the absence of the magnet. If loaded with a pharmaceutical active ingredient, these particles may be useful for treating localised lung disease such as cancer nodules or bacterial infectious foci. Copyright

  13. Raman spectroscopy as a PAT for pharmaceutical blending: Advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riolo, Daniela; Piazza, Alessandro; Cottini, Ciro; Serafini, Margherita; Lutero, Emilio; Cuoghi, Erika; Gasparini, Lorena; Botturi, Debora; Marino, Iari Gabriel; Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Lottici, Pier Paolo

    2018-02-05

    Raman spectroscopy has been positively evaluated as a tool for the in-line and real-time monitoring of powder blending processes and it has been proved to be effective in the determination of the endpoint of the mixing, showing its potential role as process analytical technology (PAT). The aim of this study is to show advantages and disadvantages of Raman spectroscopy with respect to the most traditional HPLC analysis. The spectroscopic results, obtained directly on raw powders, sampled from a two-axis blender in real case conditions, were compared with the chromatographic data obtained on the same samples. The formulation blend used for the experiment consists of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, concentrations 6.0% and 0.5%), lactose and magnesium stearate (as excipients). The first step of the monitoring process was selecting the appropriate wavenumber region where the Raman signal of API is maximal and interference from the spectral features of excipients is minimal. Blend profiles were created by plotting the area ratios of the Raman peak of API (A API ) at 1598cm -1 and the Raman bands of excipients (A EXC ), in the spectral range between 1560 and 1630cm -1 , as a function of mixing time: the API content can be considered homogeneous when the time-dependent dispersion of the area ratio is minimized. In order to achieve a representative sampling with Raman spectroscopy, each sample was mapped in a motorized XY stage by a defocused laser beam of a micro-Raman apparatus. Good correlation between the two techniques has been found only for the composition at 6.0% (w/w). However, standard deviation analysis, applied to both HPLC and Raman data, showed that Raman results are more substantial than HPLC ones, since Raman spectroscopy enables generating data rich blend profiles. In addition, the relative standard deviation calculated from a single map (30 points) turned out to be representative of the degree of homogeneity for that blend time. Copyright © 2017

  14. Instrumented roll technology for the design space development of roller compaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesarikar, Vishwas V; Vatsaraj, Nipa; Patel, Chandrakant; Early, William; Pandey, Preetanshu; Sprockel, Omar; Gao, Zhihui; Jerzewski, Robert; Miller, Ronald; Levin, Michael

    2012-04-15

    Instrumented roll technology on Alexanderwerk WP120 roller compactor was developed and utilized successfully for the measurement of normal stress on ribbon during the process. The effects of process parameters such as roll speed (4-12 rpm), feed screw speed (19-53 rpm), and hydraulic roll pressure (40-70 bar) on normal stress and ribbon density were studied using placebo and active pre-blends. The placebo blend consisted of 1:1 ratio of microcrystalline cellulose PH102 and anhydrous lactose with sodium croscarmellose, colloidal silicon dioxide, and magnesium stearate. The active pre-blends were prepared using various combinations of one active ingredient (3-17%, w/w) and lubricant (0.1-0.9%, w/w) levels with remaining excipients same as placebo. Three force transducers (load cells) were installed linearly along the width of the roll, equidistant from each other with one transducer located in the center. Normal stress values recorded by side sensors and were lower than normal stress values recorded by middle sensor and showed greater variability than middle sensor. Normal stress was found to be directly proportional to hydraulic pressure and inversely to screw to roll speed ratio. For active pre-blends, normal stress was also a function of compressibility. For placebo pre-blends, ribbon density increased as normal stress increased. For active pre-blends, in addition to normal stress, ribbon density was also a function of gap. Models developed using placebo were found to predict ribbon densities of active blends with good accuracy and the prediction error decreased as the drug concentration of active blend decreased. Effective angle of internal friction and compressibility properties of active pre blend may be used as key indicators for predicting ribbon densities of active blend using placebo ribbon density model. Feasibility of on-line prediction of ribbon density during roller compaction was demonstrated using porosity-pressure data of pre-blend and normal stress

  15. Studies of drag on the nanocomposite superhydrophobic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassard, Jean-Denis; Sarkar, D.K.; Perron, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanocomposite thin films of stearic acid (SA)-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles incorporated in epoxy polymer matrix have been achieved. • SA-functionalization of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin films was confirmed by XRD and FTIR. • The measured rms roughness of the thin film is found to be 12 ± 1 μm with the adhesion of 5B on glass. • The wetting property shows that the surface of the film is superhydrophobic with the CA of 156 ± 4° and CAH of 4 ± 2°. • The drag reduction on the surface of superhydrophobic glass sphere is 16% lower than as-received glass sphere. - Abstract: The nanocomposite thin films of stearic acid (SA)-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles incorporated in epoxy polymer matrix have been achieved. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show the formation of zinc stearate on ZnO nanoparticles as the confirmation of SA-functionalization of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin films. Morphological analyses reveal the presence of micro-holes with the presence of irregular nanoparticles. The measured root mean square (rms) roughness of the thin film is found to be 12 ± 1 μm with the adhesion of 5B on both glass and aluminum substrates. The wetting property shows that the surface of the film is superhydrophobic with the contact angle of water of 156 ± 4° having contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 4 ± 2°. The average terminal velocity in the water of the as-received glass spheres and superhydrophobic spheres were found to be 0.66 ± 0.01 m/s and 0.72 ± 0.01 m/s respectively. Consequently, the calculated average coefficients of the surface drag of the as-received glass sphere and superhydrophobic glass sphere were 2.30 ± 0.01 and 1.93 ± 0.03, respectively. Hence, the drag reduction on the surface of superhydrophobic glass sphere is found to be approximately 16% lower than as-received glass sphere

  16. KANDUNGAN ASAM LEMAK DAN KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA MINYAK IKAN LELE DAN MINYAK IKAN LELE TERFERMENTASI (FATTY ACID CONTENTS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CATFISH OIL AND FERMENTED CATFISH OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskari Ngadiarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Catfish oil and fermented catfish oil have not been developed and commercially produced as catfish derived products. Various processing of catfish oil will change both the composition and physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to identify the composition of fatty acids and physico-chemical characteristics of both catfish oil (MIL and fermented catfish oil (MILT. Results showed that fatty acid composition of catfish oil was MUFA (36.12%> PUFA> (32.43%> SFA (31.45%, while the composition of fermented catfish oil was MUFA (42.96%> SFA (42.32%> PUFA (15.39%. The fermentation process with lactic acid bacteria increased the content of stearic acid but decreased the content of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Physical and chemical characteristics of MIL and MILT were almost similar, they indicated oxidation process, based on melting point, viscosity, and thiobarbituric acid values. Therefore, in the production of catfish oil or fermented cat fish oil, it is necessary to add spices and/or nutrient as antioxidants sources. Keywords: catfish oil, PUFA, MUFA, SFA and CLA  ABSTRAK Minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT sebagai produk turunan dari ikan lele masih belum banyak dikembangkan dan diproduksi secara komersial. Berbagai proses pengolahan minyak dapat mengubah komposisi dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia minyak ikan lele. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi komposisi asam lemak dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia dari minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT. Komposisi asam lemak pada MIL secara berurutan adalah MUFA (36,12% > PUFA (32,43% > SFA (31,45%, sedangkan setelah difermentasi menjadi MILT terjadi perubahan yaitu MUFA (42,96% > SFA (42,32% > PUFA (15,39%. Jenis asam lemak jenuh yang mengalami peningkatan  pada MILT adalah asam lemak stearat, sedangkan asam lemak tidak jenuh ganda yang mengalami penurunan adalah asam linoleat dan linolenat yang

  17. Use of a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system during formulation development and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Peeters, E; Fonteyne, M; Cappuyns, P; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2015-01-01

    Since small scale is key for successful introduction of continuous techniques in the pharmaceutical industry to allow its use during formulation development and process optimization, it is essential to determine whether the product quality is similar when small quantities of materials are processed compared to the continuous processing of larger quantities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether material processed in a single cell of the six-segmented fluid bed dryer of the ConsiGma™-25 system (a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system introduced by GEA Pharma Systems, Collette™, Wommelgem, Belgium) is predictive of granule and tablet quality during full-scale manufacturing when all drying cells are filled. Furthermore, the performance of the ConsiGma™-1 system (a mobile laboratory unit) was evaluated and compared to the ConsiGma™-25 system. A premix of two active ingredients, powdered cellulose, maize starch, pregelatinized starch and sodium starch glycolate was granulated with distilled water. After drying and milling (1000 μm, 800 rpm), granules were blended with magnesium stearate and compressed using a Modul™ P tablet press (tablet weight: 430 mg, main compression force: 12 kN). Single cell experiments using the ConsiGma™-25 system and ConsiGma™-1 system were performed in triplicate. Additionally, a 1h continuous run using the ConsiGma™-25 system was executed. Process outcomes (torque, barrel wall temperature, product temperature during drying) and granule (residual moisture content, particle size distribution, bulk and tapped density, hausner ratio, friability) as well as tablet (hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution) quality attributes were evaluated. By performing a 1h continuous run, it was detected that a stabilization period was needed for torque and barrel wall temperature due to initial layering of the screws and the screw chamber walls with material. Consequently, slightly deviating

  18. The technology development for the complex Api-phyto product “Apised” in the form of capsules with the restorative and sedative action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Shpychak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to substantiate and experimentally develop the technology for the complex api-phyto product “Apised” (which is used to treat nervous disorders and the psycho-emotional stress in extreme conditions, in particular in sports medicine in the form of gelatin capsules in pharmacy conditions and in conditions of industrial production based on the pharmaceutical-technological and physical-chemical studies. Materials and methods. As the research objects the experimental samples of “Apised” capsules, as well as their mixtures of masses for encapsulation were used. These mixtures contain such active pharmaceutical ingredients (API as a standardized substance of powdered honey (PH, medicinal plant raw material (Melissa herb, hop cones, true lavender flowers and the following excipients (antifriction substances: aerosil (anhydrous colloidal silicon dioxide or the mixture of aerosil and calcium stearate (3:1 in the amount of 2 %, as well as a wetting agent – 5 % solution of Plasdone K29/32. Results. The obtained results of the experimental studies were used when developing the flowcharts of the manufacturing process for “Apised” capsules in pharmacy conditions and in conditions of the standard operating procedure for the drug. Taking into account the physical-chemical properties of API included in the composition of the drug the flowchart of the manufacturing process for the complex api-phyto product in conditions of industrial production and the project of the specification were developed, the technological parameters of its manufacturing were substantiated, the optimal amount of excipients and a wetting agent required for performing the proper technological process was calculated, as well as the control over the sequence of mixing of active substances and excipients, moisturizing and obtaining of wet granules, drying and sizing of granules, obtaining of the encapsulated mass and other control parameters affecting the

  19. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, cholesterol, and fatty acids modulate the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A (ANO1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Pérez, José J; Cruz-Rangel, Silvia; Espino-Saldaña, Ángeles E; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Qu, Zhiqiang; Hartzell, H Criss; Corral-Fernandez, Nancy E; Pérez-Cornejo, Patricia; Arreola, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    The TMEM16A-mediated Ca 2+ -activated Cl - current drives several important physiological functions. Membrane lipids regulate ion channels and transporters but their influence on members of the TMEM16 family is poorly understood. Here we have studied the regulation of TMEM16A by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), cholesterol, and fatty acids using patch clamp, biochemistry and fluorescence microscopy. We found that depletion of membrane PI(4,5)P2 causes a decline in TMEM16A current that is independent of cytoskeleton, but is partially prevented by removing intracellular Ca 2+ . On the other hand, supplying PI(4,5)P2 to inside-out patches attenuated channel rundown and/or partially rescued activity after channel rundown. Also, depletion (with methyl-β-cyclodextrin M-βCD) or restoration (with M-βCD+cholesterol) of membrane cholesterol slows down the current decay observed after reduction of PI(4,5)P2. Neither depletion nor restoration of cholesterol change PI(4,5)P2 content. However, M-βCD alone transiently increases TMEM16A activity and dampens rundown whereas M-βCD+cholesterol increases channel rundown. Thus, PI(4,5)P2 is required for TMEM16A function while cholesterol directly and indirectly via a PI(4,5)P2-independent mechanism regulate channel function. Stearic, arachidonic, oleic, docosahexaenoic, and eicosapentaenoic fatty acids as well as methyl stearate inhibit TMEM16A in a dose- and voltage-dependent manner. Phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid whose hydrocarbon tails contain stearic and oleic acids also inhibits TMEM16A. Finally, we show that TMEM16A remains in the plasma membrane after treatment with M-βCD, M-βCD+cholesterol, oleic, or docosahexaenoic acids. Thus, we propose that lipids and fatty acids regulate TMEM16A channels through a membrane-delimited protein-lipid interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiolabelling of potential colonic delivery systems by neutron activation. An evaluation based on physiochemical properties of excipients and formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrabi, Sayeh

    1999-07-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the physicochemical properties of some potential release-controlling excipients for oral delivery to colon (based on microbially degradable polysaccharide or a combination of pH- and time-dependent mechanisms) were initially investigated. The aim was to choose the most irradiation-resistant ones for the development of a colonic delivery system to be radiolabelled by the neutron activation procedure. However, no correlation between the extent of irradiation-induced changes of the release-controlling polymers and the in vitro properties of the final formulation was observed. Incorporation of samarium oxide (Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) resulted in retardation of the drug release through the diffusion layer. The influence of neutron activation factors on the properties of some suppository combinations was also studied. The effect of the admixture of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the dissolution and disintegration of the suppositories was more profound than the effect of neutron irradiation. In hydrophilic suppositories, the effect of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} was dependent on the type, amount and the physicochemical characteristics of the incorporated drug. In lipophilic suppositories, the release-controlling effect of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} was hypothesised to be due to its insoluble micronised particles blocking the drug diffusion layer. The neutron activation procedure could be utilised for radiolabelling potential oral and rectal colonic drug delivery systems. However, to avoid alteration in the crucial in vitro characteristics of the formulations, the amount, the particle size and the aggregated particle characteristics of the lanthanide salt (e.g. Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} or samarium stearate) together with the neutron irradiation dose should be controlled precisely for each dosage system. For the systems investigated in this work the release-controlling mechanism of the dosage form seems to be a key parameter to predict the extent of the influence of neutron

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Glycerol Modified Polyurea Microencapsulated Phase Change Material%丙三醇改性聚脲微胶囊相变材料的研制与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐易达; 马志鹏; 陆少锋

    2012-01-01

    以硬脂酸丁酯为芯材,苯乙烯马来酸酐共聚物(SMA)为乳化分散剂,以单体2,4-甲苯二异氰酸酯(TDI)和二亚乙基三胺(EDTA)反应并采用丙三醇进行改性形成的聚脲树脂为壳体,采用界面聚合制备微胶囊相变材料。采用差示扫描量热仪(DSC)、扫描电镜(SEM)、光学显微镜等分别对微胶囊的热性能、表面形态进行研究和分析。所制备微胶囊表面光滑致密,相变温度24.2℃,相变热90 J/g。对微胶囊的致密性和稳定性研究结果表明,所制备丙三醇改性微胶囊的致密性和稳定性,如耐乙醇洗涤稳定性和耐热稳定性均比传统的未改性微胶囊有很大程度的提高。%Glycerol modified polyurea microcapsules containing butyl stearate as phase change material (PCM) was successfully synthesized by interracial polycondensation of toluene-2,4-diimcyanate (TDI) and diethylene triarnine (DETA). Styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA) was used as emulsifier. The thermal properties, surface morphologies of microcapsules were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope, respectively. The results indicate that the surface of the prepared microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) is smooth and compact and have an phase change temperature of 24.2 ℃ and phase change heat of 90 J/g. The compactness and stabilities of microcapsules were aim investigated, the results indicate that the compactness and stabilities of the glycerol modified microcapsule, such as anti-ethanol wash and anti-heat properties are obiously improved than that of non modified microcapsule.

  2. 界面聚合聚脲/聚氨酯双层微胶囊相变材料的研制与性能%Characterization of Polyurea/Polyurethane Double-Shell MicroPCMs Prepared by Interfacial Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆少锋; 邢建伟; 吴钦; 贺江平; 任燕

    2011-01-01

    以硬脂酸丁酯为芯材,苯乙烯马来酸酐共聚物(SMA)为乳化分散剂,采用界面聚合制备双层微胶囊相变材料,其外壳体为甲苯-2,4-二异氰酸酯(TDI)和二乙烯三胺(DETA)反应形成的聚脲壳层,内壳体为TDI与聚丙二醇2000(PPG2000)反应形成的聚氨酯壳层.采用差示扫描量热仪(DSC)、热重分析仪(TGA)、扫描电镜(SEM)、光学显微镜等分别对微胶囊的热性能、表面形态做了研究和分析.结果表明,所制备的双层微胶囊表面光滑致密,相变温度24.1℃,相变热85 J/g.所制备双层微胶囊的致密性和耐热稳定性均比单层微胶囊有很大程度的提高.%Double-shell microcapsules containing butyl stearate were prepared by interracial polymerization. The outer shell is polyurea formed by polymerization of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and diethylene triamine (DETA),the inner shell is polyurethane formed by polymerization of TDI and polypropylene glycol 2000 (PPG2000). Styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA) was used as emulsifier. The thermal properties, surface morphologies of microcapsules were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope, respectively. The results indicate that the surface of the prepared double-shell microPCMs is smooth and compact, and the microPCMs have an phase change temperature of 24.1 ℃ and phase change heat of 85 J/g. The compactness and stabilities of the double-shell microcapsule are obviously improved compared with that of single-shell microcapsule.

  3. Effects of gamma-irradiation of plastics on migration of constituents into test foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figge, K.; Freytag, W.

    1977-01-01

    Test films prepared from polyethylene (LD- and HD-PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (St- and HI-PS) and polyvinylchloride (rigid PVC) compositions under addition of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl[ 14 C]-phenol(I), 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl -4-hydroxyphenyl)- stearyl-propionate[3- 14 C] (II), n-butyl-stearate[1- 14 C] (III) di-n-octyl[1- 14 C]-tin-2 -ethyl-hexyl-di-thioglycolate inclusive of the corresponding mono-n-octyl[1- 14 C]-tin compound (IV-Oc), di-n-octyl-tin-2-ethylhexyl -di-thioglycolate[2- 14 C] inclusive of the corresponding 2-ethylhexyl-tri -thioglycolate[2- 14 C] (IV-S) or of stearyl alcohol [1- 14 C] (V) respectively, were sterilized in a 60 Co irradiation unit with a radiation dosage of 2,5 Mrad. Then, the irradiated films as well as non-treated reference films were kept in one-sided contact with the test foodstuffs 'dist. Water' and HB 307 (test fat) for 10 days at 40 0 C. Under these conditions the additives I and II migrated from the PP, HD-PE and LD-PE test films into the test fat HB 307 in amounts of 10 to 50%. Migration into distilled water was only 0.05 to 4.6%. The migration of the additives I and II from the irradiated polyolefin test films into the test fat HB 307 was by 8 to 38% lower than that from the corresponding non-irradiated films. In contrast to this, both additives migrated distinctly more strongly from the irradiated polyolefin test films into distilled water, i.e. 1.9 to 8.7 times stronger than from the non-irradiated films. The migration of the additives I to V from the HI-PS St-PS and rigid PVC test films into the two test foodstuffs was very low, in most cases below 0.1%. Generally lower amounts of additive migrated from the irradiated films than from the non-irradiated samples. (orig.) [de

  4. Pengaruh Kecepatan Homegenisasi Terhadap Sifat Fisika dan Kimia Krim Nanopartikel dengan Metode High Speed Homogenization (HSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galuh Suprobo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle cream is the development of nanotechnology in cosmetics fields for improving the function of cream. High speed homogenization (HSH is one of the methods for creating nanoparticle cream. In this research, the use of natural materials based palm oil derivative  such as stearic acid, cetil alcohol, cetil stearil alcohol was chosen in nanoparticle cream producing by using HSH methods.The speed variable of  homogenization of 1000 rpm, 1500 rpm, 2,000 rpm and 2,500 rpm  intended to find out the influence of speed toward the  properties of cream product. The observation result showed the influence on physical display in term of texture but not in homogeneity , stability and cream color. The pH of the product during two months storage for all variables were still stable. The particle size was increased in the homogeneity of speed at 2000 rpm and 2500 rpm. In this research has produced the cream in particle size from 239.86 to 358.10 nm which enter in nanoparticle category 50 nm to 1000 nm. The stability of nanoparticle cream product in the range of 97,20 to 98%.ABSTRAKKrim nanopartikel merupakan pengembangan nanoteknologi di bidang kosmetik untuk meningkatkan fungsi krim tersebut. High speed homogenization (HSH merupakan salah satu metoda dalam pembuatan krim nanopartikel. Pada penelitian ini, krim nanopartikel dibuat menggunakan bahan baku alami turunan kelapa sawit yaitu asam stearat, setil alkohol, setil stearil alkohol dengan metoda HSH. Variabel kecepatan homogenisasi pada 1000 rpm, 1500 rpm, 2000 rpm dan 2500 rpm dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kecepatan terhadap sifat-sifat krim. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa perubahan kecepatan homogenisasi dalam reaktor berpengaruh terhadap tampilan fisik dari segi tekstur, akan tetapi tidak mempengaruhi terhadap kehomogenan, stabilitas dan warna krim. Dari pengamatan selama 2 bulan penyimpanan diketahui tidak terjadi perubahan pH selama penyimpanan untuk keempat variabel. Ukuran partikel

  5. Safety assessment on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and their derivatives as used in cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruijtier-Poelloth, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    This assessment focusses on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and on anionic or nonionic PEG derivatives, which are currently used in cosmetics in Europe. These compounds are used in a great variety of cosmetic applications because of their solubility and viscosity properties, and because of their low toxicity. The PEGs, their ethers, and their fatty acid esters produce little or no ocular or dermal irritation and have extremely low acute and chronic toxicities. They do not readily penetrate intact skin, and in view of the wide use of preparations containing PEG and PEG derivatives, only few case reports on sensitisation reactions have been published, mainly involving patients with exposure to PEGs in medicines or following exposure to injured or chronically inflamed skin. On healthy skin, the sensitising potential of these compounds appears to be negligible. For some representative substances of this class, information was available on reproductive and developmental toxicity, on genotoxicty and carcinogenic properties. Taking into consideration all available information from related compounds, as well as the mode and mechanism of action, no safety concern with regard to these endpoints could be identified. Based on the available data it is therefore concluded that PEGs of a wide molecular weight range (200 to over 10,000), their ethers (laureths. ceteths, ceteareths, steareths, and oleths), and fatty acid esters (laurates, dilaurates, stearates, distearates) are safe for use in cosmetics. Limited data were available for PEG sorbitan/sorbitol fatty acid esters, PEG sorbitan beeswax and PEG soy sterols. Taking into account all the information available for closely related compounds, it can be assumed that these compounds as presently used in cosmetic preparations will not present a risk for human health. PEG castor oils and PEG hydrogenated castor oils have caused anaphylactic reactions when used in intravenous medicinal products. Their topical use in cosmetics is

  6. Structure and property relations of macromolecular self-assemblies at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihao

    Hydrophilic polymer chains, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), are attached to glass surfaces by silylation of the silanol groups on glass surfaces with the omega-(methoxyl terminated PEG) trimethoxysilanes. These tethered polymer chains resemble the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of PEG, which exhibit excellent biocompatibility and provide a model system for studying the interactions of proteins with polymer surfaces. The low molecular weight PEGs tend to extend, forming a brush-like monolayer, whereas the longer polymer chains tend to interpenetrate each other, forming a mushroom-like PEG monolayer at the interface. Interactions between a plasma protein, bovine serum albumin, and the PEG-SAMs are investigated in terms of protein adsorption and diffusion on the surfaces by the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The diffusion and aggregation behaviors of the protein on the two monolayers are found to be quite different despite the similarities in adsorption and desorption behaviors. The results are analyzed with a hypothesis of the hydrated surface dynamics. A method of covalently bonding phospholipid molecules to silica substrates followed by loading with free phospholipids is demonstrated to form well organized and stable phospholipid self-assembled monolayers. Surfaces of such SAMs structurally mimic the aqueous sides of phospholipid bilayer membranes. The dynamics of phospholipids and an adsorbed protein, lipase, in the SAMs are probed with FRAP, in terms of lateral diffusion of both phospholipids and protein molecules. The esterase activity of lipase on the SAM surfaces is confirmed by the hydrolysis reaction of a substrate, umbelliferone stearate, showing such lipid SAMs posess biomembrane functionality in terms of interfacial activation of the membranous enzymes. Dynamics of polyethylene oxide and polypropylene oxide tri-block copolymers, PEO-PPO-PEO and PPO-PEO-PPO, at the air/water interface upon thermal stimulation is studied by

  7. Uptake studies with chondrotropic 99mTc-chondroitin sulfate in articular cartilage. Implications for imaging osteoarthritis in the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobal, Grazyna; Dorotka, Ronald; Menzel, Johannes; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is an endogenous component of extracellular matrix in the cartilage and can be valuable for imaging of cartilage degeneration after radiolabeling. Data monitoring the uptake of 99m TcCS by human cartilage are rare. Radiolabeling was performed by 99m TcO 4 − /tin method at pH 5.0 in 0.5 M sodium acetate. For uptake studies human articular cartilage (n = 4, 65–79a) derived from individuals undergoing knee replacement (pieces of 3–5 mg wet weight), or frozen tissue sections (5 μ) for autoradiography (10 μCi) were used. The uptake was monitored from 10 min up to 96 h to achieve saturation. As the commercially available drug Condrosulf (IBSA, Lugano) contains Mg-stearate (0.25%) as additive (to improve its gastrointestinal resorption), we investigated the uptake ± additive. The washout of the tracer was examined by tissue incubation after uptake experiments (3 h and 24 h) with PBS-buffer for 10 min to 3 h. Using human articular cartilage the maximal uptake of 99m TcCS (specific activity of 4.1–6.1 Ci/mmol) was continuously increasing with time amounting to a maximum of 53.2% ± 3.2% with additive, versus 39.4% ± 2.3%, without additive, at saturation. Additive increased the resorption of the drug and consecutively its uptake. The washout of the tracer from cartilage after 3 h uptake amounted to 1.5% ± 0.2% with additive, versus 2.6% ± 0.5%, without. After 24 h washout was lower amounting to 1.1% ± 0.1% versus 1.75% ± 0.15%, respectively. Autoradiography revealed also a continuous increase in uptake of 99m TcCS with time. After 10 min of incubation the uptake increase was proportional to the incubation time, reaching the maximum at 48–72 h. Enhanced uptake at the surface (superficial zone) as compared to the subchondral part (deep zone) of slices, was observed. The non-specific uptake in the presence of 50-fold excess of cold CS was time-dependent up to a maximum of 15% (tissue) and 10% (autoradiography), at saturation. The

  8. Estudios organolépticos, fisicoquímicos, microbiológicos e interacción con excipientes farmacéuticos de un extracto purificado de cera de Apis mellifera Organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological studies and its interaction with pharmaceutical excipients of a purified extract from Apis mellifera wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Luis González Canavaciolo

    2010-09-01

    lack of interactions with lactose, starch, sodium croscarmelosa, polyvinylpyrrolidone, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate allowing the use of these excipients in tablets formula.

  9. Estudo termoanalítico de comprimidos revestidos contendo captopril através de termogravimetria (TG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC Thermal analysis study of captopril coated tablets by thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Carolina Bazzo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram desenvolvidos comprimidos de captopril revestidos com hidroxipropilmetilcelulose (HPMC, Opadry®, polivinilpirrolidona (PVP, Eudragit® E e goma laca. Foi realizado estudo termoanalítico do fármaco e das formulações através de termogravimetria (TG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC. Através da análise das curvas DSC verificou-se que não houve a ocorrência de interação entre o fármaco e os excipientes lactose, celulose microcristalina, croscarmelose sódica, Aerosil® e talco, utilizados na formulação do comprimido. Através desta técnica detectou-se a possibilidade de interação entre captopril e estearato de magnésio. De acordo com os resultados obtidos através de DSC não foram observadas alterações na cristalinidade do fármaco decorrentes dos processos de compressão e revestimento. A termogravimetria foi utilizada para o estudo da cinética de degradação do captopril e dos comprimidos. Os parâmetros cinéticos foram determinados através do método de Ozawa. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve alteração da estabilidade térmica do captopril na forma de comprimido. A formulação revestida com HPMC foi a que apresentou maior estabilidade térmica, quando comparada às demais formulações de revestimento.In the present study, captopril coated tablets with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC, Opadry®, polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP, Eudragit® and shellac were produced. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetry (TG were used to evaluate the thermal properties of the drug and the formulations. On the basis of DSC results, captopril was found to be compatible with lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium croscarmellose, Aerosil® and talc. Some possibility of interaction between drug-excipient was observed with magnesium stearate. However, additional techniques to confirm the results obtained are needed. There was no influence of mechanical treatment (tableting

  10. Cytotoxic effect of Alpinia scabra (Blume) Náves extracts on human breast and ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Annushuya Subba; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Ibrahim, Halijah; Sim, Kae Shin

    2013-11-12

    SKOV-3 cells after treatment with the cytotoxic extracts and fractions which were indicative of cell apoptosis. Methyl palmitate and methyl stearate were identified in the hexane leaf extract by GC-MS analysis. The data obtained from the current study demonstrated that the cell death induced by cytotoxic extracts and fractions of A. scabra may be due to apoptosis induction which was characterized by apoptotic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The active ingredients in the leaf sub-fraction VLC9 and rhizome fraction RC5 may lead to valuable compounds that have the ability to kill cancer cells but not normal cells.

  11. Strategies to improve the adhesion of rubbers to adhesives by means of plasma surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martínez, J. M.; Romero-Sánchez, M. D.

    2006-05-01

    The surface modifications produced by treatment of a synthetic sulfur vulcanized styrene-butadiene rubber with oxidizing (oxygen, air, carbon dioxide) and non oxidizing (nitrogen, argon) RF low pressure plasmas, and by treatment with atmospheric plasma torch have been assessed by ATR-IR and XPS spectroscopy, SEM, and contact angle measurements. The effectiveness of the low pressure plasma treatment depended on the gas atmosphere used to generate the plasma. A lack of relationship between surface polarity and wettability, and peel strength values was obtained, likely due to the cohesive failure in the rubber obtained in the adhesive joints. In general, acceptable adhesion values of plasma treated rubber were obtained for all plasmas, except for nitrogen plasma treatment during 15 minutes due to the creation of low molecular weight moieties on the outermost rubber layer. A toluene wiping of the N{2 } plasma treated rubber surface for 15 min removed those moieties and increased adhesion was obtained. On the other hand, the treatment of the rubber with atmospheric pressure by means of a plasma torch was proposed. The wettability of the rubber was improved by decreasing the rubber-plasma torch distance and by increasing the duration because a partial removal of paraffin wax from the rubber surface was produced. The rubber surface was oxidized by the plasma torch treatment, and the longer the duration of the plasma torch treatment, the higher the degree of surface oxidation (mainly creation of C O moieties). However, although the rubber surface was effectively modified by the plasma torch treatment, the adhesion was not greatly improved, due to the migration of paraffin wax to the treated rubber-polyurethane adhesive interface once the adhesive joint was produced. On the other hand, the extended treatment with plasma torch facilitated the migration of zinc stearate to the rubber-adhesive interface, also contributing to deteriorate the adhesion in greater extent. Finally

  12. Argan Oil-Mediated Attenuation of Organelle Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress and Cell Death Induced by 7-Ketocholesterol in Murine Oligodendrocytes 158N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Badreddine

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Argan oil is widely used in Morocco in traditional medicine. Its ability to treat cardiovascular diseases is well-established. However, nothing is known about its effects on neurodegenerative diseases, which are often associated with increased oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation and the formation of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC resulting from cholesterol auto-oxidation. As 7KC induces oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death, it is important to identify compounds able to impair its harmful effects. These compounds may be either natural or synthetic molecules or mixtures of molecules such as oils. In this context: (i the lipid profiles of dietary argan oils from Berkane and Agadir (Morocco in fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols and polyphenols were determined by different chromatographic techniques; and (ii their anti-oxidant and cytoprotective effects in 158N murine oligodendrocytes cultured with 7KC (25–50 µM; 24 h without and with argan oil (0.1% v/v or α-tocopherol (400 µM, positive control were evaluated with complementary techniques of cellular and molecular biology. Among the unsaturated fatty acids present in argan oils, oleate (C18:1 n-9 and linoleate (C18:1 n-6 were the most abundant; the highest quantities of saturated fatty acids were palmitate (C16:0 and stearate (C18:0. Several phytosterols were found, mainly schottenol and spinasterol (specific to argan oil, cycloartenol, β-amyrin and citrostadienol. α- and γ-tocopherols were also present. Tyrosol and protocatechic acid were the only polyphenols detected. Argan and extra virgin olive oils have many compounds in common, principally oleate and linoleate, and tocopherols. Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP tests showed that argan and extra virgin olive oils have anti-oxidant properties. Argan oils were able to attenuate the cytotoxic effects of 7KC on 158N cells: loss of cell adhesion, cell growth inhibition, increased plasma

  13. Optimization of composition and technology for tablets containing aspen bark extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Onуshkiv

    2015-04-01

    of excipients on the basic parameters of tablet quality. The aim of investigation.In the previous stages of the experiment, we studied the effect of quantitative factors on pharmaco-technological parameters of tablets. To further study were selected Prosolv 90, Ludiflash and Polyplasdone XL 10.The aim of investigation was to set and study the proportion of excipients selected for developing optimal formula of tablets containing aspen bark extract. Materials and methods.The tablets based on aspen bark extract, obtained by direct compression method, have beenselected as research object. In the development of technology and tablet form,dry aspen bark extract, obtained by the Department of Pharmacognosyof the National University of Pharmacy,has been used [7]. The dry aspen bark extract is hygroscopic fine powder with particles of anizodiametric shape.Namely, from the group of samples of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC – Prosolv 90 (Silicified MCC, manufactured by JRS Pharma GMBH & Co KG., Germany, from the group structure-based substances sugars – Ludiflash (combination of mannitolCrospovidone, Povidone and polyvinyl acetate, manufactured by BASF Corp., USA and from the group of disintegrants – Polyplasdone XL 10 (homopolymer of vinyl pyrrolidone, manufactured by manufactured by Ashland Inc., USA. At establishment of optimal composition of the tablets based on aspen bark extract three excipientsinfluence, and also their correlation in composition of tabletshas been studied [8]. Results and discussion.The optimal formula of selected excipients has been set and their proportions in tablet dosage form at the shorter intervals have beendetermined. The study of each researched factor has been carried out according to 5 levels. As a result of studies we found the optimal number of excipients for tablet formula: Prosolv 90 – 0,054 g, Ludiflash – 0,03 g, Polyplasdone XL 10 – 0,025 g, MCC 102 – 0,0835 g, magnesium stearate – 0,0025 g in one unit of dose medication

  14. A Three-Pulse Release Tablet for Amoxicillin: Preparation, Pharmacokinetic Study and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Chai, Hongyu; Li, Yang; Chai, Xuyu; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfan; Tao, Tao; Xiang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin is a commonly used antibiotic which has a short half-life in human. The frequent administration of amoxicillin is often required to keep the plasma drug level in an effective range. The short dosing interval of amoxicillin could also cause some side effects and drug resistance, and impair its therapeutic efficacy and patients' compliance. Therefore, a three-pulse release tablet of amoxicillin is desired to generate sustained release in vivo, and thus to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. The pulsatile release tablet consists of three pulsatile components: one immediate-release granule and two delayed release pellets, all containing amoxicillin. The preparation of a pulsatile release tablet of amoxicillin mainly includes wet granulation craft, extrusion/spheronization craft, pellet coating craft, mixing craft, tablet compression craft and film coating craft. Box-Behnken design, Scanning Electron Microscope and in vitro drug release test were used to help the optimization of formulations. A crossover pharmacokinetic study was performed to compare the pharmacokinetic profile of our in-house pulsatile tablet with that of commercial immediate release tablet. The pharmacokinetic profile of this pulse formulation was simulated by physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model with the help of Simcyp®. Single factor experiments identify four important factors of the formulation, namely, coating weight of Eudragit L30 D-55 (X1), coating weight of AQOAT AS-HF (X2), the extrusion screen aperture (X3) and compression forces (X4). The interrelations of the four factors were uncovered by a Box-Behnken design to help to determine the optimal formulation. The immediate-release granule, two delayed release pellets, together with other excipients, namely, Avicel PH 102, colloidal silicon dioxide, polyplasdone and magnesium stearate were mixed, and compressed into tablets, which was subsequently coated with Opadry® film to produce pulsatile tablet of

  15. Catalytic production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilgaard Madsen, A.

    2011-07-01

    real catalyst. The ISPS-packed-bed catalysed conversion of rapeseed oil revealed low activity but advantageous flow properties. A number of functionalised, organic bases have been tested for their activity in transesterification of trioctanoate with methanol, especially guanidines. The activity for trioctanoate conversion was promising, however, hygroscopic catalysts be may lead to saponification of the triglyceride. Hydrodeoxygenation is treated in chapter 3. The reaction routes and activity in batch hydrodeoxygenation are strongly dependent on the supported noble metal catalyst and temperature used for the conversion to alkanes. Generally, Pt and Pd were the most active metals and have highest selectivity for decarboxylation reaction. Stearic or oleic acid were converted much faster than tripalmitin. The deoxygenation was performed in a continuous trickle-bed reactor over 2 wt% Pd/Sibunit at 300 deg. C. 10 wt% stearic acid yielded almost complete and selective conversion to heptadecane in 5% H{sub 2}/Ar at 20 bar, however pure Ar gas led to deactivation. A deactivation profile by coking builds up as a function of the distance from the reactor inlet. A constant conversion of 12% was obtained with neat stearic acid in 7 days time-on-stream of the spent catalyst. The activity for deoxygenation in continuous mode decreased as stearic acid > ethyl stearate > tristearin under 5 % H{sub 2} in Ar, while lack of H{sub 2} in the feed quickly led to complete deactivation of the catalysts in all feeds. The work is concluded with a summary and an outlook in chapter 4. (Author)

  16. Migration measurement and modelling from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) into soft drinks and fruit juices in comparison with food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R; Welle, F

    2008-08-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are widely used for beverages. Knowledge about the migration of organic compounds from the PET bottle wall into contact media is of interest especially when post-consumer recyclates are introduced into new PET bottles. Using migration theory, the migration of a compound can be calculated if the concentration in the bottle wall is known. On the other hand, for any given specific migration limit or maximum target concentration for organic chemical compounds in the bottled foodstuffs, the maximum allowable concentrations in the polymer CP,0 can be calculated. Since a food simulant cannot exactly simulate the real migration into the foodstuff or beverages, a worse-case simulation behaviour is the intention. However, if the migration calculation should not be too overestimative, the polymer-specific kinetic parameter for migration modelling, the so-called AP value, should be established appropriately. One objective of the study was the kinetic determination of the specific migration behaviour of low molecular weight compounds such as solvents with relatively high diffusion rates and, therefore, with high migration potential from the PET bottle wall into food simulants in comparison with real beverages. For this purpose, model contaminants were introduced into the bottle wall during pre-form production. The volatile compounds toluene and chlorobenzene were established at concentrations from about 20-30 mg kg(-1) to 300-350 mg kg(-1). Phenyl cyclohexane was present at concentrations of 35, 262 and 782 mg kg(-1), respectively. The low volatile compounds benzophenone and methyl stearate have bottle wall concentrations of about 100 mg kg(-1) in the low spiking level up to about 1000 mg kg(-1) in the highly spiked test bottle. From these experimental data, the polymer specific parameters (AP values) from mathematical migration modelling were derived. The experimental determined diffusing coefficients were determined, calculated and

  17. Compatibilidad química del piracetam determinada por calorimetría diferencial de barrido Chemical compatibility of piracetam determined by differential scanning calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Octavio Martínez Álvarez

    2013-03-01

    study of the pharmacologically active ingredient and of the preselected excipients by using differential scanning calorimentry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TG, in order to confirm the chemical interaction between them. Methods: this study used the thermal analysis equipment TA 3000 Mettler, coupled with the DSC 20 cell and the TG50 oven. The pharmacologically active ingredient was Piracetam and the excipients were Aerosil Kollidon VA64, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, Polyethylene glycol 20 000. The differential scanning calorimetry characterized the excipients and the pharmacologically active ingredient as well, whose physical fusion transition was determined. Some binary physical mixtures with a concentration ratio of 1:1 were prepared to study compatibility. Results: figure 1 showed the pharmacologically active ingredient´s fusion point detection. Two endothermal transitions were determined as well as the fusion transition by the TG equipment. Figure 2 showed the thermograms of mixtures between pharmacologically active ingredient and excipients. Conclusions: the occurrence of new peaks was bit detected, so it was inferred from this study that there was no chemical incompatibility between the studied substances, and the excipients are recommended for the development of the final pharmaceutical formulation.

  18. Design of Chronomodulated Drug Delivery System of Valsartan: In Vitro Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokar, M; Hanafy, A; Elkamel, A; El-Gamal, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate a chronomodulated time-clock pulsatile tablets of valsartan to release it after a certain lag time, independent of the gastrointestinal pH, in its absorption window to cope with the circadian rhythm of human body for blood pressure elevation. Core tablets were prepared by direct compression of a homogenous mixture of valsartan, Avicel PH101, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and Aerosil. The core tablets were then sprayed coated with a sealing layer formed of ethyl cellulose that was subsequently coated with a release-controlling layer. Three different aqueous dispersions namely; carnauba wax or beeswax or a mixture in a ratio of 2.5:1, respectively, were used to form five time-clock tablet formulations having the release controlling layer with different thickness {B5, B10, B20, BW5 and CW5}. Quality control testing were carried out to the core tablets. Differential scanning calorimetry was also performed to detect the possible drug excipient interaction in the core tablet formulation. The release was carried out, for the prepared time-clock tablet formulations, in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for the first 2 h, followed by phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) for 4.5 h. The effect of pH on valsartan release was studied through a release study in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for 6.5 h. Two phase dissolution study was performed to the selected time-clock tablet formulation to predict the drug permeation through the gastrointestinal tract. Stability study of the selected formula was performed at 25°/60% RH and at 40°/75% RH for 3 months. Results showed that a release-controlling layer composed of a mixture of carnauba wax and beeswax in a ratio of 2.5:1 showed a reasonable release lag time. The release lag time of the tablets increased with the increase of the coat thickness, thus B20>B10>B5 with corresponding lag time values of 4.5, 3 and 2.5 h, respectively. Selected B5 tablet formula exhibited a reasonable lag time

  19. KARAKTERISTIK MINYAK CAMPURAN RED PALM OIL DENGAN PALM KERNEL OLEIN (Characteristics of Oil Blends from Red Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2016-10-01

    /kg, asam lemak bebas 0,09 %, angka penyabunan 202,60, melting point 24,15 oC dan cloud point 7,15 oC, serta komposisi asam lemak (kaprat 1,24 %, laurat 29,00 %, miristat 10,09 %, palmitat 23,10 %, linoleat 5,84 %, oleat 27,30 % dan stearat 3,43 %. Kata kunci: Red palm oil, palm kernel olein, minyak campuran, sifat kimia, sifat fisika

  20. Zinc Finger Takes on a Whole New Meaning: Reducing and Monitoring Zinc Blanks in the Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, E. B.; Wasylenki, L. E.; Anbar, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    In terms of avoiding contamination, zinc is one of the most difficult elements to study isotopically. The reason for this is that zinc stearate is a very common mold release agent in the production of plastics, including those most often used in isotope geochemistry clean labs. While polyethylene bottles, polypropylene centrifuge tubes, pipette tips, and Kimwipes are all potential sources of contaminant zinc, by far the largest amount of zinc is introduced to the laboratory by gloves. Most items can be effectively rid of zinc by soaking in dilute hydrochloric acid, but gloves cannot be cleaned easily, and use of gloves can quickly lead to contamination on many surfaces throughout the lab. We recently conducted several experiments in which dissolved zinc was partly adsorbed onto synthetic Mn oxyhydroxide particles. The dissolved and adsorbed pools were separated by filtration, purified with ion exchange chemistry, and analyzed for isotope composition by MC-ICP-MS. We used a commercially purchased ICP standard solution both as our standard (delta66/64Zn = 0) and as the source of the zinc in the experiments. Whenever gloves were worn during purification, process blanks contained as much as 150 ng Zn, and both the dissolved and adsorbed pools of zinc came out enriched in heavy isotopes relative to the starting pool, contrary to our expectation of mass balance. When gloves were not worn, blanks were brands of vinyl gloves, including one brand recommended to us for being “low” in zinc, measured +10‰ relative to our standard. We therefore concluded that glove zinc contaminated most of our experimental samples. We were only able to see such clear evidence of contamination because (1) we were doing an experiment in which we expected one light and one heavy pool of zinc compared to our standard, and (2) we happened to use an ICP standard solution for delta = 0 that is strongly enriched in light isotopes relative to both brands of gloves. We caution others who measure

  1. Autoignition Studies of Diesel Alternative Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijing

    The autoignition of biofuel compounds that offer potential as diesel fuel alternatives was studied under high-pressure engine-like conditions using the shock tube technique. Ignition delay times were determined in reflected shock experiments using measured pressure and electronically-excited OH emission. Measurements were made at conditions ranging from 650 to 1350 K, pressures from 6 to 50 atm, and for fuel/air/diluent mixtures at equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2. The wide range of temperatures examined provides observation of autoignition in three reactivity regimes, including the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) regime which is characteristic of fuels containing alkyl functionalities. Compounds studied include biodiesel-related compounds and real biodiesel fuels, dimethyl ether, and 3-methylheptane which is representative of compounds found in synthetic diesel fuels produced using the Fischer-Tropsch and hydrotreatment processes. Biodiesel compounds studied include biodiesel surrogates, methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, and methyl-9-decenoate; compounds found in large quantities in biodiesels, methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, and methyl linoleate; and soy-based and animal fat based methyl ester biodiesels. Comparison of biodiesel compounds illustrates the influence of molecular structure (e.g., chain length, double bonds, and ester functionality) on reactivity. For methyl decanoate, the effect of high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions relevant to internal combustion engines was also determined. Results showed that the first-order influence of EGR by displacing fuel and O2 to decrease radical branching. Measurements were compared to kinetic modeling results from models available in the literature providing varying degrees of model validation. Reaction flux analyses were also carried out to further examine the kinetic differences in different temperature regimes for fuel compounds. For example, reaction flux analyses

  2. Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, S.H.; Hart, K.J.; Vass, A.A.; Wise, M.B.; Wolf, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets[I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas[2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study[3] has been

  3. Anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Whittaker, Maxine A

    2017-06-20

    mainly male (98.2%, 106/108) with a mean age of 58.4 (standard deviation 10.4) years in the oxandrolone group and were all male (100%, 104/104) with a mean age of 57.3 (standard deviation 11.6) years in the placebo group. This trial compared oxandrolone (20 mg/day, administered orally) with a dose of placebo (an inactive substance consisting of 98% starch and 2% magnesium stearate) and reported data on complete healing of ulcers and adverse events. There was very low-certainty evidence on the relative effect of oxandrolone on complete ulcer healing at the end of a 24-week treatment period (risk ratio RR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 1.26) (downgraded twice for imprecision due to an extremely wide 95% CI, which spanned both benefit and harm, and once for indirectness, as the participants were mostly male spinal cord injury patients). Thus, we are uncertain whether oxandrolone improves or reduces the complete healing of pressure ulcers, as we assessed the certainty of the evidence as very low.There was low-certainty evidence on the risk of non-serious adverse events reported in participants treated with oxandrolone compared with placebo (RR 3.85, 95% CI 1.12 to 13.26) (downgraded once for imprecision and once for indirectness, as the participants were mostly male spinal cord injury patients). Thus, the treatment with oxandrolone may increase the risk of non-serious adverse events reported in participants.There was very low-certainty evidence on the risk of serious adverse events reported in participants treated with oxandrolone compared with placebo (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.17) (downgraded twice for imprecision due to an extremely wide 95% CI, which spanned both benefit and harm, and once for indirectness, as the participants were mostly male spinal cord injury patients). Of the five serious adverse events reported in the oxandrolone-treated group, none were classed by the trial teams as being related to treatment. We are uncertain whether oxandrolone

  4. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in vivo Nanotechnology in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-04-01

    of nanoparticles in the tumour vasculature. However, previous reports on techniques to generate nanobubbles have either been slow or problematic due to the resulting development of cardiac dimension reduction, hypotension and tachycardia. Xing and colleagues have now demonstrated the use of polyoxyethylene 40 stearate, which is known to be biocompatible, degradable and non-toxic, as an alternative surfactant for generating nanobubbles. In the early 1980s scanning probe micrographs of nanosized features unleashed the power of imaging to push forward the science of structures and mechanisms at the nanoscale. The continued development of new and increasingly sophisticated nanoparticles and systems looks set to empower medicine in the same way, providing further means to exploit the mechanistic nature of biological organisms for better health and longevity. References [1] Leon R, Petroff P M, Leonard D and Fafard S 1995 Science 267 1966-8 [2] Nie Q, Tan W B and Zhang Y 2006 Nanotechnology 17 140-4 [3] Li L, Chen D, Zhang Y, Deng Z, Ren X, Meng X, Tang F, Ren J and Zhang L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 405102 [4] Fujioka K et al 2008 Nanotechnology 19 415102 [5] Shinoda K, Yangisawa S, Sato K amd Hirakuri K 2006 J. Cryst. Growth 288 84-6 [6] Manzoor K, Johny S, Thomas D, Setua S, Menon D and Nair S 2009 Nanotechnology 20 065102 [7] Hu R, Yong K-T, Roy I, Ding H, Law W-C, Cai H, Zhang X, Vathy L A, Bergey E J and Prasad P N 2010 Nanotechnology 21 145105 [8] Xing, Z, Ke H, Wang J, Zhao B, Yue X, Dai Z and Liu J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 145607

  5. Effect of sucrose polyesters on crystallization rate of vegetable ghee: solid fat content study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nasir, Mohammad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization rate of partial hydrogenated blend of soybean oil and cottonseed oil used for making vegetable ghee (vanaspati was investigated, by solid fat content (SFC using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR. The effects of adding sucrose fatty acid esters or sucrose polyesters (SPE on the crystallization rate of the blend fat were studied. Sucrose tetrastearate DK ester F-10 (stearate 70% - palmitate 30% was added to the fat at different concentration, namely 0.5% and 1.0%. Blank sample and sample containing 0.5% and 1.0% DK ester F-10 / (DK F-10 were chosen to measure the change in SFC at constant temperature of 15ºC for a period of 25 hr. Five determinations of SFC were taken to the fat samples during the 25 hr i.e. 2,5,9,13 and 25th hr. SFC vs. time of crystallization of the three samples showed continuous increasing in SFC in all samples during the 25 hr, with sharp increasing at the first two hours. Samples containing 0.0% and 0.5% DK F-10, showed no significant difference in SFC during the first thirteen hours, while sample containing 1.0% DK F-10, showed higher SFC than the other two samples, through out the period. The amount of SFC for 1.0% DK F-10 sample at the 13th hour is equal to the SFC of the blank (0.0% sample at the 25th hour. Melting point of the same samples increased with the increasing DK F-10 concentration in the fat samples. The results of SFC make it sure that the addition of 1.0% DK F- 10 will shorten the time required for the crystallization of vegetable ghee while the addition of 0.5% will not have significant effect.Se ha investigado, mediante el contenido en grasa sólida (SFC por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (p-NMR, la velocidad de cristalización de mezcla de aceite de la soja y aceite de semilla del algodón parcialmente hidrogenada utilizada en la elaboración de ghee vegetal (vanaspati. Se han estudiado los efectos de añadir ésteres de sacarosa de ácidos grasos o poliésteres de

  6. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate acted as a nitrosation inhibitor in several food and cosmetic product studies. No compound-related clinical signs or gross or