WorldWideScience

Sample records for steam turbines

  1. Steam turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzumi, Naoaki.

    1994-01-01

    In a steam turbine cycle, steams exhausted from the turbine are extracted, and they are connected to a steam sucking pipe of a steam injector, and a discharge pipe of the steam injector is connected to an inlet of a water turbine. High pressure discharge water is obtained from low pressure steams by utilizing a pressurizing performance of the steam injector and the water turbine is rotated by the high pressure water to generate electric power. This recover and reutilize discharged heat of the steam turbine effectively, thereby enabling to improve heat efficiency of the steam turbine cycle. (T.M.)

  2. Steam turbine installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the arrangement described is to enable raising steam for driving steam turbines in a way suited to operating with liquid metals, such as Na, as heat transfer medium. A preheated water feed, in heat transfer relationship with the liquid metals, is passed through evaporator and superheater stages, and the superheated steam is supplied to the highest pressure stage of the steam turbine arrangement. Steam extracted intermediate the evaporator and superheater stages is employed to provide reheat for the lower pressure stage of the steam turbine. Only a major portion of the preheated water feed may be evaporated and this portion separated and supplied to the superheater stage. The feature of 'steam to steam' reheat avoids a second liquid metal heat transfer and hence represents a simplification. It also reduces the hazard associated with possible steam-liquid metal contact. (U.K.)

  3. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make?), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries)

  4. Steam turbines for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trassl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the electrical energy produced in the world is generated in power plants with steam turbines (fossil and nuclear). Although gas turbines are increasingly applied in combined cycle power plants, not much will change in this matter in the future. As far as the steam parameters and the maximum unit output are concerned, a certain consolidation was noted during the past decades. The standard of development and mathematical penetration of the various steam turbine components is very high today and is applied in the entire field: For saturated steam turbines in nuclear power plants and for steam turbines without reheat, with reheat and with double reheat in fossil-fired power plants and for steam turbines with and without reheat in combined cycle power plants. (orig.) [de

  5. Technical diagnostics of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlckova, B.; Drahy, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with practical experience in application of technical diagnostics methods to steam turbines, in particular using pedestal and shaft vibration measurements as well as estimation of bearing metal temperature and ultrasound emission signals. An estimation of effectiveness of the diagnostics methods used is given on the basis of experimental investigations made on a 30-MW turbine. (author)

  6. Steam turbines for PWR stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscroft, J.

    1989-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle requirements and mechanical design features applying to modern GEC 3000 rev/min steam turbines for pressurised water reactor power stations are reviewed. The most recent developments include machines of 630 MW and 985 MW output which are currently under construction. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet steam turbines associated with a variety of types of water cooled reactor and its relevance to the design of modern 3000 rev/min turbines for pressurised water reactor applications is emphasised. (author)

  7. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the peculiarities of the design and operation of steam turbines, condensers and supplementary equipment of steam turbines for nuclear power plants; described are the processes of steam flow in humid-steam turbines, calculation and selection principles of main parameters of heat lines. Designs of the turbines installed at the Charkov turbine plant are described in detail as well as of those developed by leading foreign turbobuilding firms

  8. Optimal design of marine steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengyang; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    The marine steam turbine is one of the key equipment in marine power plant, and it tends to using high power steam turbine, which makes the steam turbine to be heavier and larger, it causes difficulties to the design and arrangement of the steam turbine, and the marine maneuverability is seriously influenced. Therefore, it is necessary to apply optimization techniques to the design of the steam turbine in order to achieve the minimum weight or volume by means of finding the optimum combination of design parameters. The math model of the marine steam turbine design calculation was established. The sensitivities of condenser pressure, power ratio of HP turbine with LP turbine, and the ratio of diameter with height at the end stage of LP turbine, which influence the weight of the marine steam turbine, were analyzed. The optimal design of the marine steam turbine, aiming at the weight minimization while satisfying the structure and performance constraints, was carried out with the hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results show that, steam turbine weight is reduced by 3.13% with the optimization scheme. Finally, the optimization results were analyzed, and the steam turbine optimization design direction was indicated. (authors)

  9. Large nuclear steam turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushidani, Haruo; Moriya, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Kunio; Fujita, Isao; Ebata, Sakae; Nagai, Yoji.

    1986-01-01

    The technical development of the large capacity steam turbines for ABWR plants was partially completed, and that in progress is expected to be completed soon. In this report, the outline of those new technologies is described. As the technologies for increasing the capacity and heightening the efficiency, 52 in long blades and moisture separating heaters are explained. Besides, in the large bore butterfly valves developed for making the layout compact, the effect of thermal efficiency rise due to the reduction of pressure loss can be expected. As the new technology on the system side, the simplification of the turbine system and the effect of heightening the thermal efficiency by high pressure and low pressure drain pumping-up method based on the recent improvement of feed water quality are discussed. As for nuclear steam turbines, the actual records of performance of 1100 MW class, the largest output at present, have been obtained, and as a next large capacity machine, the development of a steam turbine of 1300 MWe class for an ABWR plant is in progress. It can be expected that by the introduction of those new technologies, the plants having high economical efficiency are realized. (Kako, I.)

  10. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  11. Endoscopic inspection of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliniemi, H.; Muukka, E.

    1990-01-01

    For over ten years, Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed, complementary inspection methods for steam turbine condition monitoring, which can be applied both during operation and shutdown. One important method used periodically during outages is endoscopic inspection. The inspection is based on the method where the internal parts of the turbine is inspected through access borings with endoscope and where the magnified figures of the internal parts is seen on video screen. To improve inspection assurance, an image-processing based pattern recognition method for cracks has been developed for the endoscopic inspection of turbine blades. It is based on the deduction conditions derived from the crack shape. The computer gives an alarm of a crack detection and prints a simulated image of the crack, which is then checked manually

  12. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  13. Control device for steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Hiroyuki.

    1993-01-01

    A power load imbalance detection circuit detects a power load imbalance when a load variation coefficient is large and output-load deviation is great. Then, it self-holds and causes a timer to start counting up and releases the self-holding after the elapse of a certain period of time. Upon load separation caused by system accidents, the power load imbalance detection circuit operates along with the increase of turbine rpm, to operate the control valve abrupt closing circuit and a bypassing value abrupt opening circuit. Then, self-holding of the power load imbalance detection circuit is released and, subsequently, a steam control value and a bypass valve are controlled by a control valve flow rate demand signal and a bypass flow rate demand signal determined by an entire main steam flow rate signal and a speed/load control signal. Accordingly, the turbine rpm is settled to about a rated rpm. This enables to avoid reactor shutdown upon occurrence of load interruption. (I.N.)

  14. Wet steam turbines for CANDU-Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmacott, C.H.L.

    1977-01-01

    The technical characteristics of 4 wet steam turbine aggregates used in the Pickering nuclear power station are reported on along with operational experience. So far, the general experience was positive. Furthermore, plans are mentioned to use this type of turbines in other CANDU reactors. (UA) [de

  15. Structural integrity analysis of a steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagarcia, Maria P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a power utility is the rotor of the steam turbine. Catastrophic failures of the last decades have promoted the development of life assessment procedures for rotors. The present study requires the knowledge of operating conditions, component geometry, the properties of materials, history of the component, size, location and nature of the existing flaws. The aim of the present work is the obtention of a structural integrity analysis procedure for a steam turbine rotor, taking into account the above-mentioned parameters. In this procedure, a stress thermal analysis by finite elements is performed initially, in order to obtain the temperature and stress distribution for a subsequent analysis by fracture mechanics. The risk of a fast fracture due to flaws in the central zone of the rotor is analyzed. The procedure is applied to an operating turbine: the main steam turbine of the Atucha I nuclear power utility. (author)

  16. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averkina, N. V.; Zheleznyak, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Shishkin, V. I.

    2011-01-01

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  17. Steam turbine of WWER-1000 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The manufacture was started by Skoda of a saturated steam, 1,000 MW, 3,000 rpm turbine designed for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The turbine provides steam for heating water for district heating, this either with an output of 893 MW for a three-stage water heating at 150/60 degC, or of 570 MW for a two-stage water heating at 120/60 degC. The turbine features one high-pressure and three identical low-pressure stages. The pressure gradient between the high-pressure and the low-pressure parts was optimized with respect to the thermal efficiency of the cycle and to the thermodynamic efficiency of the low-pressure part. A value of 0.79 MPa was selected corresponding to the maximum through-flow of steam entering the turbine. This makes 5,495 t/h, the admission steam parameters are 273.3 degC and 5.8 MPa. The feed water temperature is 220.9 degC. 300 cold starts, 1,000 starts after shutdowns for 55 to 88 hours and 600 starts after shutdown for 8 hours are envisaged for the entire turbine service life. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  18. Future development of large steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevance, A.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to forecast the future of the large steam turbines till 1985. Three parameters affect the development of large turbines: 1) unit output; and a 2000 to 2500MW output may be scheduled; 2) steam quality: and two steam qualities may be considered: medium pressure saturated or slightly overheated steam (light water, heavy water); light enthalpie drop, high pressure steam, high temperature; high enthalpic drop; and 3) the quality of cooling supply. The largest range to be considered might be: open system cooling for sea-sites; humid tower cooling and dry tower cooling. Bi-fluid cooling cycles should be also mentioned. From the study of these influencing factors, it appears that the constructor, for an output of about 2500MW should have at his disposal the followings: two construction technologies for inlet parts and for high and intermediate pressure parts corresponding to both steam qualities; exhaust sections suitable for the different qualities of cooling supply. The two construction technologies with the two steam qualities already exist and involve no major developments. But, the exhaust section sets the question of rotational speed [fr

  19. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastny, M.

    1983-01-01

    A three-cylinder 220 MW saturated steam turbine was developed for WWER reactors by the Skoda concern. Twenty four of these turbines are currently in operation, in production or have been ordered. A 1000 MW four-cylinder turbine is being developed. The disign of the turbines has had to overcome difficulties connected with the unfavourable effects of wet steam at extreme power values. Great attention had to be devoted to the aerodynamics of control valves and to the prevention of flow separation areas. The problem of corrosion-erosion in guide wheels and the high pressure section was resolved by the use of ferritic stainless steels. For the low pressure section it was necessary to separate the moisture and to reheat the steam in the separator-reheater. Difficulties caused by the generation of wet steam in the low pressure section by spontaneous condensation were removed. Also limited was the erosion caused by droplets resulting from the disintegration of water films on the trailing edges. (A.K.)

  20. Super titanium blades for advanced steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    In 1986, the Alsthom Steam Turbines Department launched the manufacture of large titanium alloy blades: airfoil length of 1360 mm and overall length of 1520 mm. These blades are designed for the last-stage low pressure blading of advanced steam turbines operating at full speed (3000 rpm) and rating between 300 and 800 MW. Using titanium alloys for steam turbine exhaust stages as substitutes for chrome steels, due to their high strength/density ratio and their almost complete resistance to corrosion, makes it possible to increase the length of blades significantly and correspondingly that steam passage section (by up to 50%) with a still conservative stresses level in the rotor. Alsthom relies on 8 years of experience in the field of titanium, since as early as 1979 large titanium blades (airfoil length of 1240 mm, overall length of 1430 mm) were erected for experimental purposes on the last stage of a 900 MW unit of the Dampierre-sur-Loire power plant and now totals 45,000 operating hours without problems. The paper summarizes the main properties (chemical, mechanical and structural) recorded on very large blades and is based in particular on numerous fatigue corrosion test results to justify the use of the Ti 6 Al 4 V alloy in a specific context of micrographic structure

  1. Steam Turbine Flow Path Seals (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuimin, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Various types of shroud, diaphragm, and end seals preventing idle leak of working steam are installed in the flow paths of steam turbine cylinders for improving their efficiency. Widely known labyrinth seals are most extensively used in the Russian turbine construction industry. The category of labyrinth seals also includes seals with honeycomb inserts. The developers of seals with honeycomb inserts state that the use of such seals makes it possible to achieve certain gain due to smaller leaks of working fluid and more reliable operation of the system under the conditions in which the rotor rotating parts may rub against the stator elements. However, a positive effect can only be achieved if the optimal design parameters of the honeycomb structure are fulfilled with due regard to the specific features of its manufacturing technology and provided that this structure is applied in a goal-seeking manner in the seals of steam and gas turbines and compressors without degrading their vibration stability. Calculated and preliminary assessments made by experts testify that the replacement of conventional labyrinth seals by seals with honeycomb inserts alone, due to which the radial gaps in the shroud seal can be decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 mm, allows the turbine cylinder efficiency to be increased at the initial stage by approximately 1% with the corresponding gain in the turbine set power output. The use of rectangular-cellular seals may result, according to estimates made by their developers, in a further improvement of turbine efficiency by 0.5-1.0%. The labor input required to fabricate such seals is six to eight times smaller than that to fabricate labyrinth seals with honeycomb inserts. Recent years have seen the turbine construction companies of the United States and Germany advertising the use of abradable (sealing) coatings (borrowed from the gas turbine construction technology) in the turbine designs instead of labyrinth seals. The most efficient performance of

  2. Technology of turbine plant operating with wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The technology of turbine plant operating with wet steam is a subject of continuing interest and importance, notably in view of the widespread use of wet steam cycles in nuclear power plants and the recent developments of advanced low pressure blading for both conventional and wet steam turbines. The nature of water formation in expanding steam has an important influence on the efficiency of turbine blading and on the integrity and safe operating life of blading and associated turbine and plant components. The subjects covered in this book include research, flow analysis and measurement, development and design of turbines and ancillary plant, selection of materials of construction, manufacturing methods and operating experience. (author)

  3. Specific features of steam turbine design at LMZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichugin, I.I.; Tsvetkov, A.M.; Simkin, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    General structural layouts of the condensation steam turbines produced by the Leningrad metalworks (LM) are considered. Currently LM produced 50 types and modifications of steam turbines with the capacity from 30 up to 1200 MW. Problems of turbine efficiency and ways of the flow section improvement are discussed

  4. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Saha, Deepak [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Thangirala, Mani [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Booras, George [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Powers, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Riley, Colin [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Hendrix, Howard [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  5. Unsteady coupling effects of wet steam in steam turbines flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    In addition to conventional turbomachinery problems, both the behavior and performances of steam turbines are highly dependent on the vapour thermodynamic state and the presence of a liquid phase. EDF, the main French electricity producer, is interested in further developing its' modelling capabilities and expertise in this area to allow for operational studies and long-term planning. This PhD thesis explores the modelling of wetness formation and growth in a steam turbine and an analysis of the coupling between the liquid phase and the main flow unsteadiness. To this end, the work in this thesis took the following approach. Wetness was accounted for using a homogeneous model coupled with transport equations to take into account the effects of non-equilibrium phenomena, such as the growth of the liquid phase and nucleation. The real gas attributes of the problem demanded adapted numerical methods. Before their implementation in the 3D elsA solver, the accuracy of the chosen models was tested using a developed one-dimensional nozzle code. In this manner, various condensation models were considered, including both poly-dispersed and monodispersed behaviours of the steam. Finally, unsteady coupling effects were observed from several perspectives (1D, 1D - 3D, 3D), demonstrating the ability of the method of moments to sustain unsteady phenomena which were not apparent in a simple monodispersed model. (author)

  6. Thermoelastic steam turbine rotor control based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzadkowski, Romuald; Dominiczak, Krzysztof; Radulski, Wojciech; Szczepanik, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considered here are Nonlinear Auto-Regressive neural networks with eXogenous inputs (NARX) as a mathematical model of a steam turbine rotor for controlling steam turbine stress on-line. In order to obtain neural networks that locate critical stress and temperature points in the steam turbine during transient states, an FE rotor model was built. This model was used to train the neural networks on the basis of steam turbine transient operating data. The training included nonlinearity related to steam turbine expansion, heat exchange and rotor material properties during transients. Simultaneous neural networks are algorithms which can be implemented on PLC controllers. This allows for the application neural networks to control steam turbine stress in industrial power plants.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected advanced gas turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Devendra; Bade, Mukund H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle. To analyse the thermodynamic performance of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycles, a methodology based on pinch analysis is proposed. This graphical methodology is a systematic approach proposed for a selection of gas turbine with steam injection. The developed graphs are useful for selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) for optimal operation of it and helps designer to take appropriate decision. The selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle can be done either at minimum steam ratio (ratio of mass flow rate of steam to air) with maximum efficiency or at maximum steam ratio with maximum net work conditions based on the objective of plants designer. Operating the steam injection based advanced gas turbine plant at minimum steam ratio improves efficiency, resulting in reduction of pollution caused by the emission of flue gases. On the other hand, operating plant at maximum steam ratio can result in maximum work output and hence higher available power.

  8. Remote inspection of steam turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    During the past five years Reinhart and Associates, Inc. has been involved in remote examination of L-0 and L-1 steam turbine blade rows of in-place LP turbines using visual and eddy current techniques. These tests have concentrated on the trailing edge and blade-to-rotor attachment (Christmas tree) areas. These remote nondestructive examinations were performed through hand access ports of the inner shell. Since the remote scanning system was in a prototype configuration, the inspection was highly operator-dependent. Refinement of the scanning equipment would considerably improve the efficiency of the test; however, the feasibility of remote in-place inspection of turbine blades was established. To further improve this technology, and to provide for remote inspection of other areas of the blade and additional turbine designs, EPRI is funding a one-year project with Reinhart and Associates, Inc. This project will develop a new system that employs state-of-the-art multifrequency eddy current techniques, a miniature charged coupled device (CCD) television camera, and remote positioning equipment. Project results from the first six months are presented

  9. Repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, A.K.; Gill, T.P.S.; Albert, S.K.; Shanmugam, K.; Iyer, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The procedure for repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades made of martensitic stainless steels has been developed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Weld repair procedures were developed using both ER316L austenitic stainless steel filler wire and ER410 martensitic stainless steel filler wire. The repair welding procedure with austenitic filler wire was developed to avoid preheating of the blade as also hydrogen induced cold cracking, and involved evaluation of three different austenitic filler wires, viz. ER309L, ER316L and ERNiCr-3. The overall development of the repair welding procedure included selection of welding consumables (for austenitic filler metal), optimisation of post weld heat treatment parameters, selection of suitable method for local pre-heating and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the blades, determination of mechanical properties of weldments in as-welded and PWHT conditions, and microstructural examination. After various trials using different procedures, the procedure of local PWHT using electrical resistance heating on the top surface of the weldment and monitoring the temperature by placing a thermocouple at the bottom of the weld, was found to give the most satisfactory results. A similar procedure was used for preheating while using ER410 filler metal. Mechanical testing of weldments before and after PWHT involved tensile tests at room temperature, face and root bend tests, and microhardness measurements across the fusion line and heat affected zone. During procedure qualification, mock-ups and actual repair welding, dye penetrant testing was used at different stages and where ever possible radiography was carried out. These procedures were developed for repair welding of cracked blades in the low-pressure (LP) steam turbines of Indian nuclear power plants. The procedure with ER316 L filler wire has so far been applied for repair welding of 2 cracked blades (made of AISI 410 SS) of LP steam turbines, while the procedure

  10. Performance Modelling of Steam Turbine Performance using Fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance Modelling of Steam Turbine Performance using Fuzzy Logic ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... A Fuzzy Inference System for predicting the performance of steam turbine

  11. Liquid-phase problems in steam turbine LP stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc-Feraud, P.

    1978-01-01

    Wet steam formation owing to incipient condensation in final steam turbine pressure stages results in a loss of efficiency and possible rotor blading erosion. The effects of erosion are now clearly understood and quite easily counteracted, but loss of thermodynamics, mechanical and aerodynamic efficiency is still a problem. Only the final LP stages of conventional power station plant operate with wet steam, whereas nuclear plant turbines use it to produce most of their total output [fr

  12. A condenser for very high power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardey, Robert.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a condenser for very high power steam turbines under the masonry-block supporting the low-pressure stages of the turbine, that condenser comprises two horizontal aligned water-tube bundles passing through the steam-exhaust sleeves of the low-pressure stages, on both sides of a common inlet water box. The invention can be applied in particular to the 1000-2000 MW turbines of light water nuclear power stations [fr

  13. Steam turbines of large output. Vol. 1, 2, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings contain 52 papers of which 14 have been inputted in INIS. They concern the development of high output turbines for power plants, the designing and testing of moisture separators, aerodynamics and vibrations of revolving parts of turbines, turbines suitable for heat extraction, the calculations and testing of steam flow characteristics, the mathematical model of thermodynamic cycles in wet steam, reliability, corrosion, and the questions of economics. (M.D.)

  14. Steam Turbine Control Valve Stiction Effect on Power System Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in power system dynamic stability is low frequency oscillations. This kind of oscillation has significant effects on the stability and security of the power system. In some previous papers, a fact was introduced that a steam pressure continuous fluctuation in turbine steam inlet pipeline may lead to a kind of low frequency oscillation of power systems. Generally, in a power generation plant, steam turbine system composes of some main components, i.e. a boiler or steam generator, stop valves, control valves and turbines that are connected by piping. In the conventional system, the turbine system is composed with a lot of stop and control valves. The steam is provided by a boiler or steam generator. In an abnormal case, the stop valve shuts of the steal flow to the turbine. The steam flow to the turbine is regulated by controlling the control valves. The control valves are provided to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine for starting, increasing or decreasing the power, and also maintaining speed control with the turbine governor system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherent static friction (stiction) nonlinearity characteristics. Industrial surveys indicated that about 20-30% of all control loops oscillate due to valve problem caused by this nonlinear characteristic. In this paper, steam turbine control valve stiction effect on power system oscillation is presented. To analyze the stiction characteristic effect, firstly a model of control valve and its stiction characteristic are derived by using Newton's laws. A complete tandem steam prime mover, including a speed governing system, a four-stage steam turbine, and a shaft with up to for masses is adopted to analyze the performance of the steam turbine. The governor system consists of some important parts, i.e. a proportional controller, speed relay, control valve with its stiction characteristic, and stem lift position of control valve controller. The steam turbine has

  15. ORTURB, HTGR Steam Turbine Dynamic for FSV Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ORTURB was written specifically to calculate the dynamic behavior of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) steam turbines. The program is divided into three main parts: the driver subroutine; turbine subroutines to calculate the pressure-flow balance of the high-, intermediate-, and low-pressure turbines; and feedwater heater subroutines. 2 - Method of solution: The program uses a relationship derived for ideal gas flow in an iterative fashion that minimizes computational time to determine the pressure and flow in the FSV steam turbines as a function of plant transient operating conditions. An important computer modeling characteristic, unique to FSV, is that the high-pressure turbine exhaust steam is used to drive the reactor core coolant circulators prior to entering the reheater. A feedwater heater dynamic simulation model utilizing seven state variables for each of the five heaters is included in the ORTURB computer simulation of the regenerative Rankine cycle steam turbines. The seven temperature differential equations are solved at each time- step using a matrix exponential method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The turbine shaft is assumed to rotate at a constant (rated) speed of 3600 rpm. Energy and mass storage of steam in the high-, intermediate-, and low-pressure turbines is assumed to be negligible. These limitations exclude the use of ORTURB during a turbine transient such as startup from zero power or very low turbine flows

  16. Nuclear turbine efficiency improvement by wet steam study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Morson, A.; Markytan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the turbine used at the nuclear power plant are operated at environment of wet steam, which composes of a big factor of its inner loss in comparison with those of the thermal power plant. If an analytical method predictable on behavior of the wet steam is established, it could be upgraded efficiency of the turbine and also reliability against corrosion formed by moisture. This study, therefore, aims at understanding of physical property of the wet steam flow scarcely known at present, development of an optimum turbine cascade design tool reflected by the property, development of a turbine cascade design reducible of steam loss due to wet steam by using the tool, and development on a method of removing moisture in the turbine to its outer portion. For the tool, a new three dimensional flow numerical analysis is necessary to be developed, to aim at accurately and numerically understanding of the behavior of wet steam. As this study is in advancing now, by using a turbine cascade optimized on the wet steam flow and a developed moisture removing apparatus, about 0.6 % of upgrading in turbine efficiency can be predicted in comparison with that of the advanced aero-cascade of the GE Corporation. (G.K.)

  17. Flow characteristics in nuclear steam turbine blade passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, H.J.; Yoon, W.H.; Kwon, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid expansion of condensable gas such as moist air or steam gives rise to nonequilibrium condensation. As a result of irreversibility of condensation process in the nuclear steam turbine blade passage, the entropy of the flow increases, and the efficiency of the turbine decreases. In the present study, in order to investigate the flow characteristics of moist air in two-dimensional turbine blade passage which is made from the configuration of the last stage tip section of the actual nuclear steam turbine moving blade, the static pressures along both pressure and suction sides of blade are measured by static pressure taps and the distribution of Mach number on both sides of the blade are obtained by using the measured static pressure. Also, the flow field is visualized by a Schlieren system. From the experimental results, the effects of the stagnation temperature and specific humidity on the flow properties in the two dimensional steam turbine blade passage are clearly identified

  18. How to compute the power of a steam turbine with condensation, knowing the steam quality of saturated steam in the turbine discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Albarran, Manuel Jaime; Krever, Marcos Paulo Souza [Braskem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    To compute the power and the thermodynamic performance in a steam turbine with condensation, it is necessary to know the quality of the steam in the turbine discharge and, information of process variables that permit to identifying with high precision the enthalpy of saturated steam. This paper proposes to install an operational device that will expand the steam from high pressure point on the shell turbine to atmosphere, both points with measures of pressure and temperature. Arranging these values on the Mollier chart, it can be know the steam quality value and with this data one can compute the enthalpy value of saturated steam. With the support of this small instrument and using the ASME correlations to determine the equilibrium temperature and knowing the discharge pressure in the inlet of surface condenser, the absolute enthalpy of the steam discharge can be computed with high precision and used to determine the power and thermodynamic efficiency of the turbine. (author)

  19. 1000 MW steam turbine for Temelin nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1992-01-01

    Before the end 1991 the delivery was completed of the main parts (3 low-pressure sections and 1 high-pressure section, all of double-flow design) of the first full-speed (3000 r.p.m.) 1000 MW steam turbine for saturated admission steam for the Temelin nuclear power plant. Description of the turbine design and of new technologies and tools used in the manufacture are given. Basic technical parameters of the steam turbine are as follows: maximum output of steam generators 6060 th -1 ; maximum steam flow into turbine 5494.7 th -1 ; output of turbo-set 1024 MW; steam conditions before the turbine inlet: pressure 5.8 MPa, temperature 273.3 degC, steam wetness 0.5%; nominal temperature of cooling water 21 degC; temperature of feed water 220.8 degC; maximum consumption of heat from turbine for heating at 3-stage heating of heating water 60/150 degC. (Z.S.) 7 figs., 2 refs

  20. Gas--steam turbine combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this technology evaluation is to provide performance and cost characteristics of the combined gas and steam turbine, cycle system applied to an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). To date, most of the applications of combined cycles have been for electric power generation only. The basic gas--steam turbine combined cycle consists of: (1) a gas turbine-generator set, (2) a waste-heat recovery boiler in the gas turbine exhaust stream designed to produce steam, and (3) a steam turbine acting as a bottoming cycle. Because modification of the standard steam portion of the combined cycle would be necessary to recover waste heat at a useful temperature (> 212/sup 0/F), some sacrifice in the potential conversion efficiency is necessary at this temperature. The total energy efficiency ((electric power + recovered waste heat) divided by input fuel energy) varies from about 65 to 73% at full load to 34 to 49% at 20% rated electric power output. Two major factors that must be considered when installing a gas--steam turbine combines cycle are: the realiability of the gas turbine portion of the cycle, and the availability of liquid and gas fuels or the feasibility of hooking up with a coal gasification/liquefaction process.

  1. Steam turbine generators for Sizewell 'B' nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, J.A.; Muscroft, J.

    1990-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle of the modern 3000 r/min steam turbine as applied at Sizewell 'B' is presented. Review is made of the factors affecting thermal efficiency including the special nature of the wet steam cycle and the use of moisture separation and steam reheating. Consideration is given to the optimization of the machine and cycle parameters, including particular attention to reheating and to the provision of feedheating, in order to achieve a high overall level of performance. A modular design approach has made available a family of machines suitable for the output range 600-1300 MW. The constructional features of the 630 MW Sizewell 'B' turbine generators from this range are described in detail. The importance of service experience with wet steam turbines and its influence on the design of modern turbines for pressurized water reactor (PWR) applications is discussed. (author)

  2. A detection of the coarse water droplets in steam turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoš Ondřej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel method for the detection of coarse water droplets in a low pressure part of steam turbines. The photogrammetry method has been applied for the measurement of coarse droplets in the low-pressure part of a steam turbine. A new probe based on this measurement technique was developed and tested in the laboratory and in a steam turbine in the Počerady power-plant. The probe was equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. The paper contains results from laboratory tests and the first preliminary measurements in a steam turbine. Possible applications of this method have been examined.

  3. Repairing methods of steam turbine blades using welding procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Z.; Cristalinas, V.; Kubiak, J.

    1995-01-01

    The steam turbine blades are subjected to the natural permanent wear or damage, which may be of mechanical or metallurgical origin. The typical damage occurring during the lifetime of turbine blading may be erosion, corrosion, foreign objects damage, rubbing and cracking caused by high cycle fatigue and creep crack growth. The nozzle and diaphragm vanes (stationary blades) of the steam turbine are elements whose damage is commonly occurring and they require special repair processes. The damage of the blade trailing edge of nozzle and diaphragm vanes, due to the former causes, may be refurbished by welding deposits or stainless steel inserts welded to the blades. Both repair methods of the stationary steam turbine blades are presented. The results of the blades refurbishment are an increase of the turbine availability, reliability and efficiency, and a decrease of the risk that failure will occur. Also, the repair cost versus the spare blades cost represent significant reduction of expenditure. 7 refs

  4. Design of large steam turbines for PWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.; Muscroft, J.

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle requirements for use with pressurized water reactors are reviewed and the manner in which thermal efficiency is maximised is outlined. The special nature of the wet steam cycle associated with turbines for this type of reactor is discussed. Machine and cycle parameters are optimised to achieve high thermal efficiency, particular attention being given to arrangements for water separation and steam reheating and to provisions for feedwater heating. Principles and details of mechanical design are considered for a range of both full-speed turbines running at 3000 rpm on 50 Hz systems and half-speed turbines running at 1800 rpm on 60 Hz systems. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet steam turbines and its relevance to the design of modern turbines for pressurized water reactor applications is discussed. (author)

  5. Large steam turbines for nuclear power stations. Output growth prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riollet, G.; Widmer, M.; Tessier, J.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid growth of the output of nuclear reactors, even if temporary settlement occurs, leads the manufacturer to evaluate, at a given time, technological limitations encountered. The problems dealing with the main components of turbines: steam path, rotors and stators steam valves, controle devices, shafts and bearings, are reviewed [fr

  6. Nuclear steam turbines for power production in combination with heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frilund, B.; Knudsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    The general operating conditions for nuclear steam turbines in district heating system are briefly outlined. The turbine plant can consist of essentially the same types of machines as in conventional district heating systems. Some possible arrangements of back-pressure turbines, back-pressure turbines with condensing tails, or condensing turbines with heat extraction are considered for nuclear power and heat stations. Principles of control for hot water temperature and electrical output are described. Optimization of the plant, considering parallel variations during the year between heat load, cooling water temperature, and required outgoing temperature is discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Thermal performance test for steam turbine of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Yubing; Xu Zongfu; Wang Shiyong

    2014-01-01

    Through study of steam turbine thermal performance test of CPR1000 nuclear power plant, we solve the enthalpy calculation problems of the steam turbine in wet steam zone using heat balance method which can help to figure out the real overall heat balance diagram for the first time, and we develop a useful software for thermal heat balance calculation. Ling'ao phase II as an example, this paper includes test instrument layout, system isolation, risk control, data acquisition, wetness measurement, heat balance calculation, etc. (authors)

  8. Corrosion cracking of rotor steels of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melekhov, R.K.; Litvintseva, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    Results of investigation of stress corrosion cracking of steam turbine materials in nuclear, fossil and geothermal power plants have been analysed. The role of factors that cause damage to rotor discs, mono block and welding rotors of steam turbines has been shown. These are yield stress and steel composition, stress intensity coefficient and crack growth rate, composition and temperature of the condensed steam and water, electrochemical conditions. The conclusion has been made about the state of stress corrosion cracking of the rotors materials, and main investigation trends which are necessary to solve this problem have been listed

  9. Dynamic computer simulation of the Fort St. Vrain steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is described for the dynamic response of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear reactor regenerative intermediate- and low-pressure steam turbines. The fundamental computer-modeling assumptions for the turbines and feedwater heaters are developed. A turbine heat balance specifying steam and feedwater conditions at a given generator load and the volumes of the feedwater heaters are all that are necessary as descriptive input parameters. Actual plant data for a generator load reduction from 100 to 50% power (which occurred as part of a plant transient on November 9, 1981) are compared with computer-generated predictions, with reasonably good agreement

  10. Analysis of flow instability in steam turbine control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluviose, M.

    1981-01-01

    With the sponsorship of Electricite de France and the French steam turbine manufacturers, the Gas Turbine Laboratory of CETIM has started a research about the unsteady phenomena of flow in control valves of steam turbines. The existence of unsteady embossment in the valve cone at rise has been as certained, and a conventional computing procedure has been applied to locate the shock waves in the valve. These shock waves may suddenly arise at some valve lifts and give way to fluttering. Valve geometries attenuating instability of flow and increasing therefore the reliability of such equipment are proposed [fr

  11. Main trends of upgrading the 1000 MW steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1990-01-01

    Parameters are compared for the 1000 MW steam turbine manufactured by the Skoda Works, Czechoslovakia, and turbines in the same power range by other manufacturers, viz. ABB, Siemens/KWU, GEC and LMZ. The Skoda turbine compares well with the other turbines with respect to all design parameters, and moreover, enables the most extensive heat extraction for district heating purposes. The main trends in upgrading this turbine are outlined; in particular, they include an additional increase in the heat extraction, which is made possible by a new design of the low-pressure section or by using a ''satellite'' turbine. The studies performed also indicate that the output of the full-speed saturated steam turbine can be increased to 1300 MW. An experimental turbine representing one flow of the high-pressure part of the 1000 MW turbine is being built on the 1:1 scale. It will serve to verify the methods of calculation of the wet steam flow and to experimentally test the high-pressure part over a wide span of the parameters. (Z.M.). 1 tab., 3 figs., 7 refs

  12. Recent technology for nuclear steam turbine-generator units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shin-ichi; Kuwashima, Hidesumi; Ueno, Takeshi; Ooi, Masao

    1988-01-01

    As the next nuclear power plants subsequent to the present 1,100 MWe plants, the technical development of ABWRs was completed, and the plan for constructing the actual plants is advanced. As for the steam turbine and generator facilities of 1,350 MWe output applied to these plants, the TC6F-52 type steam turbines using 52 in long blades, moisture separation heaters, butterfly type intermediate valves, feed heater drain pumping-up system and other new technologies for increasing the capacity and improving the thermal efficiency were adopted. In this paper, the outline of the main technologies of those and the state of examination when those are applied to the actual plants are described. As to the technical fields of the steam turbine system for ABWRs, the improvement of the total technologies of the plants was promoted, aiming at the good economical efficiency, reliability and thermal efficiency of the whole facilities, not only the main turbines. The basic specification of the steam turbine facilities for 50 Hz ABWR plants and the main new technologies applied to the turbines are shown. The development of 52 in long last stage blades, the development of the analysis program for the coupled vibration of the large rotor system, the development of moisture separation heaters, the turbine control system, condensate and feed water system, and the generators are described. (Kako, I.)

  13. Steam turbines of large output especially for nuclear power stations. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahny, J.; Stasny, M.

    1986-01-01

    At the international conference, 53 papers were presented in 3 sessions dealing with the design of large output steam turbines, with problems of flow in steam turbines, and with the reliability and service life of steam turbines. Part 1 of the conference proceedings contains two introductory papers, one reviewing the 100 years history of steam turbines (not included in INIS), the other giving an overview of the development of steam turbines in the eighties; and the 13 papers heard in the session on steam turbine design, all inputted in INIS. (A.K.)

  14. Genetic optimization of steam multi-turbines system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Optimization analysis of partially loaded cogeneration, multiple-stages steam turbines system was numerically investigated by using own-developed code (C++). The system can be controlled by following variables: fresh steam temperature, pressure, and flow rates through all stages in steam turbines. Five various strategies, four thermodynamics and one economical, which quantify system operation, were defined and discussed as an optimization functions. Mathematical model of steam turbines calculates steam properties according to the formulation proposed by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. Genetic algorithm GENOCOP was implemented as a solving engine for non–linear problem with handling constrains. Using formulated methodology, example solution for partially loaded system, composed of five steam turbines (30 input variables) with different characteristics, was obtained for five strategies. The genetic algorithm found multiple solutions (various input parameters sets) giving similar overall results. In real application it allows for appropriate scheduling of machine operation that would affect equable time load of every system compounds. Also based on these results three strategies where chosen as the most complex: the first thermodynamic law energy and exergy efficiency maximization and total equivalent energy minimization. These strategies can be successfully used in optimization of real cogeneration applications. - Highlights: • Genetic optimization model for a set of five various steam turbines was presented. • Four various thermodynamic optimization strategies were proposed and discussed. • Operational parameters (steam pressure, temperature, flow) influence was examined. • Genetic algorithm generated optimal solutions giving the best estimators values. • It has been found that similar energy effect can be obtained for various inputs

  15. Saturated steam turbines for power reactors of WWER-type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czwiertnia, K.

    1978-01-01

    The publication deals with design problems of large turbines for saturated steam and with problem of output limitations of single shaft normal speed units. The possibility of unification of conventional and nuclear turbines, which creates the economic basis for production of both types of turbines by one manufacturer based on standarized elements and assemblies is underlined. As separate problems the distribution of nuclear district heating power systems are considered. The choice of heat diagram for district heating saturated steam turbines, the advantages of different diagrams and evaluaton for further development are presented. On this basis a program of unified turbines both condensing and district heating type suitable for Soviet reactors of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 type for planned development of nuclear power in Poland is proposed. (author)

  16. Design of large steam turbines for PWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors review the thermodynamic cycle requirements for use with pressurized-water reactors, outline the way thermal efficiency is maximized, and discuss the special nature of the wet-steam cycle associated with turbines for this type of reactor. Machine and cycle parameters are optimized to achieve high thermal efficiency, particular attention being given to arrangements for water separation and steam reheating and to provisions for feedwater heating. Principles and details of mechanical design are considered for a range both of full-speed turbines running at 3000 rev/min on 50 Hz systems and of half-speed turbines running at 1800 rev/min on 60 Hz systems. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet-stream turbines, and its relevance to the design of modern turbines for PWR applications, is discussed. (author)

  17. 1000 MW steam turbine for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1987-01-01

    Skoda Works started the manufacture of the 1000 MW steam turbine for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The turbine will use saturated steam at 3,000 r.p.m. It will allow steam supply to heat water for district heating, this of an output of 893 MW for a three-stage water heating at a temperature of 150/60 degC or of 570 MW for a two-stage heating at a temperature of 120/60 degC. The turbine features one high-pressure and three identical low-pressure stages. The pressure gradient between the high-pressure and the low-pressure parts was optimized as concerns the thermal efficiency of the cycle and the thermodynamic efficiency of the low-pressure part. A value of 0.79 MPa was selected corresponding to the maximum flow rate of the steam entering the turbine. This is 5,495 t/h, the admission steam parameters are 273.3 degC and 5.8 MPa. The feed water temperature is 220.9 degC. It is expected that throughout the life of the turbine, there will be 300 cold starts, 1,000 starts following shutdown for 55 to 88 hours, and 600 starts following shutdown for 8 hours. (Z.M.). 8 figs., 1 ref

  18. Steam turbine chemistry in light water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, Robert; Haertel, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Steam turbines in boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants of various manufacturers have been affected by corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Steam chemistry has not been a prime focus for related research because the water in nuclear steam generating systems is considered to be of high purity. Steam turbine chemistry however addresses more the problems encountered in fossil fired power plants on all volatile treatment, where corrosive environments can be formed in zones where wet steam is re-evaporated and dries out, or in the phase transition zone, where superheated steam starts to condense in the low-pressure (LP) turbine. In BWR plants the situation is aggravated by the fact that no alkalizing agents are used in the cycle, thus making any anionic impurity immediately acidic. This is illustrated by case studies of pitting corrosion of a 12 % Cr steel gland seal and of flow-oriented corrosion attack on LP turbine blades in the phase transition zone. In PWR plants, volatile alkalizing agents are used that provide some buffering of acidic impurities, but they also produce anionic decomposition products. (orig.)

  19. Repair of steam turbines by welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnstedt, H.J.; Loebert, P.

    1987-01-01

    In some cases, turbine parts can be repaired by welding, even rotating parts such as the shaft or the blades. Practical examples of successful repair work are explained, as for instance: welding of the last web of the turbine wheel of two MD-rotors, repair of erosion damage on turbine blades, of solid-matter erosion on a medium-pressure blading, or welding repair of a high-pressure turbine casing. (DG) [de

  20. Steam temperature variation behind a turbine steam separator-superheater during NPP start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejzerovich, A.Sh.; Melamed, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    To determine necessary parameters of the steam temperature automatic regulator behind the steam separator-rheater supe (SSS) of an NPP turbine the static and dynamic characteristics of the temperature change behind the SSS were studied experimentally. The measurements were carried out at the K-220-44 turbine of the Kolskaja NPP in the case of both varying turbine loads and the flow rate of the heating vapor. Disturbances caused by the opening of the regulating valve at the inlet of the heating vapor are investigated as well. It is found that due to a relatively high inertiality of the SSS a rather simple structure of the start-up steam temperature regulators behind the SSS in composition with automatated driving systems of the turbine start-up without regard for the change of the dynamic characteristics can be used

  1. Development of 52 inch last stage blade for steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoya, Yoshiki; Harada, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Eiichiro

    1985-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed the last stage blades with 1320 mm length for a 1800 rpm LP turbine, and the verification by rotating vibration test using actual blades was finished, thus the blades were completed. In a nuclear power plant with an A-PWR of 3800 MW thermal output, the 1350 MW steam turbine has one HP turbine and three LP turbines coupled in tandem, and the optimum last stage blades for the LP turbines became the 1320 mm blades. The completion of these blades largely contributes to the improvement of thermal efficiency and the increase of generator output in large nuclear power plants, and has the possibility to decrease three LP turbines to two in 900 MW plants, which reduces the construction cost. The velocity energy of steam coming out of last stage blades is abandoned as exhaust loss in a condenser, which is the largest loss in a turbine. The increase of exhaust area using long blades reduces this loss. The economy of the 1320 mm blades, the features of the 1320 mm blades, the aerodynamic design and its verification, the prevention of the erosion of the 1320 mm blades due to wet steam, the strength design, the anti-vibration design and its verification, and the CAD/CAM system are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. The fracture mechanics of steam turbine electron beam welded rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Increased steam turbine unit ratings presupposes that steelmakers are capable of manufacturing larger and larger rotor components. However, there are few steelmakers in the world capable of manufacturing monobloc rotors for high rated turbines, which limits the choice of supplier. Most nuclear turbine rotors have a composite arrangement and are made either by shrinking discs on a shaft or using elements welded together. Those in favour of welding have applied a classical socalled ''submerged'' method using a filler metal. However welding can also be performed by using an Electron Beam in a vacuum room without a filler metal. This technique has many advantages: mechanical characteristics of the joint are identical to those of the base material after tempering without heat affected zones. Moreover, parts are only very slightly deformed during welding. Two steam turbine rotors have been produced in this way. This paper described the destructive tests carried out in the four Electron Beam (EB) welds (two on each rotor)

  3. Investigation of brush seals for application in steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Brush seals have high potential for efficiency increase compared to conventional labyrinth seals in steam turbines. Due to less experience in operation today there is a lot of scepticism with customers of steam turbine manufacturers. Therefore this thesis is investigating characteristics of this type of seal. Experiments and numerical models will be presented, which lead to better knowledge about leakages and influence of flow through seal onto dynamics of rotor in comparison to labyrinth seals. This thesis is increasing area of experience and one more positive reference.

  4. Concept of turbines for ultrasupercritical, supercritical, and subcritical steam conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Pichugin, I. I.; Kovalev, I. A.; Bozhko, V. V.; Vladimirskii, O. A.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article describes the design features of condensing turbines for ultrasupercritical initial steam conditions (USSC) and large-capacity cogeneration turbines for super- and subcritical steam conditions having increased steam extractions for district heating purposes. For improving the efficiency and reliability indicators of USSC turbines, it is proposed to use forced cooling of the head high-temperature thermally stressed parts of the high- and intermediate-pressure rotors, reaction-type blades of the high-pressure cylinder (HPC) and at least the first stages of the intermediate-pressure cylinder (IPC), the double-wall HPC casing with narrow flanges of its horizontal joints, a rigid HPC rotor, an extended system of regenerative steam extractions without using extractions from the HPC flow path, and the low-pressure cylinder's inner casing moving in accordance with the IPC thermal expansions. For cogeneration turbines, it is proposed to shift the upper district heating extraction (or its significant part) to the feedwater pump turbine, which will make it possible to improve the turbine plant efficiency and arrange both district heating extractions in the IPC. In addition, in the case of using a disengaging coupling or precision conical bolts in the coupling, this solution will make it possible to disconnect the LPC in shifting the turbine to operate in the cogeneration mode. The article points out the need to intensify turbine development efforts with the use of modern methods for improving their efficiency and reliability involving, in particular, the use of relatively short 3D blades, last stages fitted with longer rotor blades, evaporation techniques for removing moisture in the last-stage diaphragm, and LPC rotor blades with radial grooves on their leading edges.

  5. The development of control systems for high power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, M.

    1983-01-01

    The functional and technological aspects of developments in the field of control systems for steam turbines over the last twenty years are analyzed. These developments have now culminated in very sophisticated systems which closely link electronics to high pressure hydraulic technology. A detailed description of these systeme high-lighting the high technical level of the control methods and the flexibility and reliability in service of turbines controlled in this way is given [fr

  6. Wet steam turbines for nuclear generating stations -design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.

    1977-01-01

    Lecture to the Institution of Nuclear Engineers, 11 Jan. 1977. The object of this lecture was to give an account of some design features of large wet steam turbines and to show by describing some recent operational experience how their design concepts were fulfilled. Headings are as follows: effects of wet steam cycle on turbine layout and operation (H.P. turbine, L.P. turbine); turbine control and operation; water separators; and steam reheaters. (U.K.)

  7. Recent technology on steam turbine performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirada, M.; Watanabe, E.; Tashiro, H.

    1991-01-01

    Continuous efforts have been made to improve turbine efficiency by applying the latest aerodynamic technologies to meet the energy saving requirement. In recent years, there has been considerable improvement in the field of computational fluid dynamics and these new technologies have been applied to the new blade design for HP, IP and LP turbines. Experimental verification for the new blade in turbine tests has established the overall turbine performance improvement and the excellent correspondence of flow pattern to the predicted value. This paper introduces the latest design technologies for the newly developed high efficiency blade and the verification test results

  8. Steam as turbine blade coolant: Experimental data generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsen, B.; Engeda, A.; Lloyd, J.R. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Steam as a coolant is a possible option to cool blades in high temperature gas turbines. However, to quantify steam as a coolant, there exists practically no experimental data. This work deals with an attempt to generate such data and with the design of an experimental setup used for the purpose. Initially, in order to guide the direction of experiments, a preliminary theoretical and empirical prediction of the expected experimental data is performed and is presented here. This initial analysis also compares the coolant properties of steam and air.

  9. Method for operating a steam turbine of the nuclear type with electronic reheat control of a cycle steam reheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    An electronic system is provided for operating a nuclear electric power plant with electronic steam reheating control applied to the nuclear turbine system in response to low pressure turbine temperatures, and the control is adapted to operate in a plurality of different automatic control modes to control reheating steam flow and other steam conditions. Each of the modes of control permit turbine temperature variations within predetermined constraints and according to predetermined functions of time. (Official Gazette)

  10. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Carlos; Rey, Guillermo D.; Sánchez, Ángel; Cancela, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled "Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines." This is one of the topics covered in the course "Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer," which is offered in the second year of Mechanical…

  11. Integrating a SOFC Plant with a Steam Turbine Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is integrated with a Steam Turbine (ST) cycle. Different hybrid configurations are studied. The fuel for the plants is assumed to be natural gas (NG). Since the NG cannot be sent to the anode side of the SOFC directly, a desulfurization reactor is used to remove...

  12. Avoiding failures of steam turbine discs by automated ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, J.; Bird, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, stress corrosion cracking can cause catastrophic failure of steam turbine discs. Nuclear Electric has developed a range of inspection techniques for disc keyways, bores, buttons and blade attachments and has accumulated substantial experience on their use on plant. This paper gives examples of the techniques used and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the techniques applied

  13. Turbine steam path replacement at the Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weschenfelder, K.D.; Oeynhausen, H.; Bergmann, D.; Hosbein, P.; Termuehlen, H.

    1994-01-01

    In the last few years, replacement of old vintage steam turbine flow path components has been well established as a valid approach to improve thermal performance of aged turbines. In nuclear power plants, performance improvement is generally achieved only by design improvements since performance deterioration of old units is minor or nonexistent. With fossil units operating over decades loss in performance is an additional factor which can be taken into account. Such loss of performance can be caused by deposits, solid particle erosion, loss of shaft and inter-stage seal strips, etc. Improvement of performance is typically guaranteed as output increases for operation at full load. This value can be evaluated as a direct gain in unit capacity without fuel or steam supply increase. Since fuel intake does not change, the relative improvement of the net plant heat rate or efficiency is equal to the relative increase in output. The heat rate improvement is achieved not only at full load but for the entire load range. Such heat rate improvement not only moves a plant up on the load dispatch list increasing its capacity factor, but also extensive fuel savings can pay off for the investment cost of new steam path components. Another important factor is that quite often older turbine designs show a deterioration of their reliability and need costly repairs. With new flow path components an aged steam turbine starts a new useful life

  14. Avoiding failures of steam turbine discs by automated ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, C.R.; Morton, J.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, stress corrosion cracking can cause catastrophic failure of steam turbine discs. Nuclear Electric has developed a range of inspection techniques for disc keyways, bores, buttons and blade attachments and has accumulated substantial experience on their use on plant. This paper gives examples of the techniques used and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the techniques applied. (Author)

  15. Erosion-corrosion of structural materials of wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomarov, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    A model of erosion-corrosion wear of elements of a wet steam zone and a condensate-feeding path of turbines is considered. It is shown that diffusion of impurities and corrosion products in pores of an oxide layer is the control mechanism under conditions of laminar flow of a media. Processes of mass transfer are controlling factors in turbulent flow

  16. Multi-layer casing of a steam turbine for high steam pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remberg, A.

    1978-01-01

    In previous turbine casings there is no sealing provided between the inner layer and the outer layer, so that the steam pressure acts fully on the casing top and on the shaft seal housing situated there. To reduce the displacement which occurs there due to pressure differences in the various steam spaces, the normal inner casing is made with the shaft sealing housing in an inner layer, which cannot be divided in the axial direction. The inner layer can be inserted from the high pressure side into the unit outer casing. A horizontal section through the turbine in the attached drawing makes the construction and operation of the invention clear. (GL) [de

  17. Development of 52 inches last stage blade for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shinichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last stage blades of steam turbines are the important component controlling the power output and performance of plants. In order to realize a unit of large capacity and high efficiency, the proper exhaust area and the last stage blades having good performance are indispensable. Toshiba Corp. has completed the development of the 52 inch last stage blades for 1500 and 1800 rpm steam turbines. The 52 inch last stage blades are the longest in the world, which have the annular exhaust area nearly 1.5 times as much as that of 41 inch blades used for 1100 MW, 1500 rpm turbines in nuclear power stations. By adopting these 52 inch blades, the large capacity nuclear power plants up to 1800 MW can be economically constructed, the rate of heat consumption of 1350 MW plants is improved by 3 ∼ 4 % as compared with 41 inch blades, and in the plants up to 1100 MW, LP turbines can be reduced from three sets to two. The features of 52 inch blades, the flow pattern and blade form design, the structural strength analysis and the erosion withstanding property, and the verification by the rotation test of the actual blades, the performance test using a test turbine, the vibration analysis of the actually loaded blades and the analysis of wet steam behavior are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Analysis of experimental characteristics of multistage steam-jet electors of steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Murmanskii, I. B.

    2017-02-01

    A series of questions for specification of physical gas dynamics model in flow range of steam-jet unit and ejector computation methodology, as well as functioning peculiarities of intercoolers, was formulated based on analysis of experimental characteristics of multistage team-jet steam turbines. It was established that coefficient defining position of critical cross-section of injected flow depends on characteristics of the "sound tube" zone. Speed of injected flow within this tube may exceed that of sound, and pressure jumps in work-steam decrease at the same time. Characteristics of the "sound tube" define optimal axial sizes of the ejector. According to measurement results, the part of steam condensing in the first-stage coolant constitutes 70-80% of steam amount supplied into coolant and is almost independent of air content in steam. Coolant efficiency depends on steam pressure defined by operation of steam-jet unit of ejector of the next stage after coolant of steam-jet stage, temperature, and condensing water flow. As a rule, steam entering content of steam-air mixture supplied to coolant is overheated with respect to saturation temperature of steam in the mixture. This should be taken into account during coolant computation. Long-term operation causes changes in roughness of walls of the ejector's mixing chamber. The influence of change of wall roughness on ejector characteristic is similar to the influence of reverse pressure of the steam-jet stage. Until some roughness value, injection coefficient of the ejector stage operating in superlimiting regime hardly changed. After reaching critical roughness, the ejector switches to prelimiting operating regime.

  19. Operating results of 220 MW SKODA saturated steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the steam turbines produced by the SKODA Works, the 220 MW steam turbine for saturated admission steam of a speed of 3000 r.p.m. is described; it is used in nuclear power plants with 400 MW PWR type reactors. 16 units of 8 turbines each have been in operation in the Jaslovske Bohunice and Dukovany power plants with the total period of operation of all machines exceeding 750,000 hours. The 220 MW steam turbine consists of a two-flow high-pressure section and of two identical two-flow low-pressure sections. The pressure of saturated steam at the inlet of the high-pressure section is 4.32 MPa (the corresponding temperature of the saturation limit being 255 degC) and during the expansion in the high-pressure section it drops to 0.6 MPa; steam moisture reaches 12%. In a separator and two-stage reheater using blend steam, the steam is freed of the moisture and is reheated to a temperature of 217 degC. Some operational problems are discussed, as are the loss of the material of the stator parts of the high-pressure section due to corrosion-erosion wear and corrosion-erosion wear of the guide wheels of the high-pressure section, and measures are presented carried out for the reduction of the corrosion-erosion effects of wet steam. One of the serious problems were the fatigue fractures of the blades of the 4th high-pressure stage, which appeared after 20 000 to 24 000 hours of operation in the dented tee-root. The guide wheels of the 4th stage were substituted by new guide wheels with uniform pitch of the channels and with increased number of guide blades. Also discussed are the dynamic behavior of the low-pressure section of the bridge structure, the operating reliability and the heat off-take for water heating of long-distance heating systems. (Z.S.) 9 figs

  20. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk,

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  1. Moisture separators and reheaters for wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbins, J.

    1979-01-01

    Moisture separator reheater (M.S.R.) units are now a well established feature of the wet steam cycle as associated with the various types of water cooled reactor. This paper describes the development of M.S.Rs. as supplied by GEC for turbine generators of up to 1200 MW ratings covering the design procedures used and the features required to ensure efficient and reliable operation. In addition to details of the M.S.R. design, the desirable features of the steam supply, venting and drain control systems are also discussed. The recent developments, as provided on current projects, are described. (author)

  2. Recent technology for BWR nuclear steam turbine unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shin-ichi; Masuda, Toyohiko; Kashiwabara, Katsuto; Oshima, Yoshikuni

    1990-01-01

    As to the ABWR plants which is the third improvement standard boiling water reactor type plants, already the construction of a plant of 1356 MWe class for 50 Hz is planned. Hitachi Ltd. has accumulated the technology for the home manufacture of a whole ABWR plant including a turbine. As the results, the application of a butterfly type combination intermediate valve to No.5 plant in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., which began the commercial operation recently and later plants, the application of a moisture separating heater to No.4 plant in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., which is manufactured at present and later plants and so on were carried out. As to the steam turbine facilities for nuclear power generation manufactured by Hitachi Ltd., three turbines of 1100 MWe class for 50 Hz and one turbine for 60 Hz are in operation. As the new technologies for the steam turbines, the development of 52 in long last stage blades, the new design techniques for the rotor system, the moisture separating heater, the butterfly type combination intermediate valve, cross-around pipes and condensate and feedwater system are reported. (K.I.)

  3. The 52-inch last-stage blades for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last-stage blades (LSB) of steam turbines are one of the most important components determining the plant's maximum capacity and efficiency. The development of LSBs necessitates high-technology including advanced methods of analyses and verifications as well as ample accumulation of technical data. The 52-inch LSB recently developed by Toshiba has raised nuclear power plant's capacity up to 1,300 ∼ 1,800 MW, has effected compact design of turbine units, and has improved thermal efficiency, keeping high reliability. (author)

  4. Korean experience with steam turbine blade inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Kyu; Park, D.Y.; Park, Hyung Jin; Chung, Min Hwa

    1990-01-01

    Several turbine blade accidents in Korea have emphasized the importance of their adequate periodic inspection. As a typical example, a broken blade was found in the Low Pressure (LP) turbine at the 950 MWe KORI unit 3 during the 1986 overhaul after one year commercial operation. Since then the Manufacturer and the Utility company (KEPCO) have been concerned about the need of blade root inspection. The ultrasonic testing was applied to detect cracks in the blade roots without removing the blades from rotor. Due to the complex geometry of the roots, the test results could not be evaluated easily. We feel that the currently applied UT technique seems to be less reliable and more effective method of inspection must be developed in the near future. This paper describes the following items: The causes and analysis of blade damage The inspection techniques and results The remedial action to be taken (Repair and Replacement) The future plan

  5. Steam feeding redundancy for turbine-drives of feed pumps at WWER-1000 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, Yu.V.; Shmukler, B.I.

    1987-01-01

    The system of steam supply for feed pump driving turbines (T) at the South Ukrainian Unit 1 according to the centralized redundancy principle is described. T is feeded through the collector of water auxiliary sytem (CWAS) to which steam from the third steam extraction line of turbine is supplied under thenormal regime. Under the reduction of turbine load, live steam from the steam generator is supplied to CWAS through the pressure regulator, possesing 10 s speed of responce. In this case the level reduction in the steam generator makes up 170 mm

  6. Efficiency calculation on 10 MW experimental steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoznedl Michal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with defining flow path efficiency of an experimental steam turbine by using measurement of flow, torque, pressures and temperatures. The configuration of the steam turbine flow path is briefly described. Measuring points and devices are defined. The paper indicates the advantages as well as disadvantages of flow path efficiency measurement using enthalpy and torque on the shaft. The efficiency evaluation by the help pressure and temperature measurement is influenced by flow parameter distribution and can provide different values of flow path efficiency. The efficiency determination by using of torque and mass flow measurement is more accurate and it is recommended for using. The disadvantage is relatively very complicated and expensive measuring system.

  7. Cogeneration steam turbine plant for district heating of Berovo (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin

    2000-01-01

    A plant for combined heat and electric power production, for central heating of the town Berovo (Macedonia) is proposed. The common reason to use a co-generation unit is the energy efficiency and a significant reduction of environmental pollution. A coal dust fraction from B rik' - Berovo coal mine is the main energy resource for cogeneration steam turbine plant. The heat consumption of town Berovo is analyzed and determined. Based on the energy consumption of a whole power plant, e. i. the plant for combined and simultaneous production of power is proposed. All necessary facilities of cogeneration plant is examined and determined. For proposed cogeneration steam turbine power plant for combined heat and electric production it is determined: heat and electric capacity of the plant, annually heat and electrical quantity production and annually coal consumption, the total investment of the plant, the price of both heat and electric energy as well as the pay back period. (Authors)

  8. Enhanced efficiency steam turbine blading - for cleaner coal plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, A.; Bell, D.; Cao, C.; Fowler, R.; Oliver, P.; Greenough, C.; Timmis, P. [ALSTOM Power, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this project was to increase the efficiency of the short height stages typically found in high pressure steam turbine cylinders. For coal fired power plant, this will directly lead to a reduction in the amount of fuel required to produce electrical power, resulting in lower power station emissions. The continual drive towards higher cycle efficiencies demands increased inlet steam temperatures and pressures, which necessarily leads to shorter blade heights. Further advances in blading for short height stages are required in order to maximise the benefit. To achieve this, an optimisation of existing 3 dimensional designs was carried out and a new 3 dimensional fixed blade for use in the early stages of the high pressure turbine was developed. 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Generalised pole-placement control of steam turbine speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del-Busto, R. [ITESM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias; Munoz, J. [ITESM, Xochimilco (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias

    1996-12-31

    An application of a pole-placement self-tuning predictive control algorithm is developed to regulate speed of a power plant steam turbine model. Two types of system representation (CARMA and CARIMA) are used to test the control algorithm. Simulation results show that when using a CARMA model better results are produced. Two further comparisons are made when using a PI controller and a generalised predictive controller. (author)

  10. Moving blade for steam turbines with axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raschke, K.; Wehle, G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the improvement of the production of moving blades for steam turbines with axial flow, especially of multi-blades produced by welding of the top plates. It is proposed to weld the top plates before the moving blades are fitted into the rotor. Welding is this made much easier and can be carried out under protective gas and with better results. (UWI) [de

  11. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Gas turbines had been traditionally used for peak load plants and remote locations as they offer advantage of low installation costs and quick start up time. Their use as a base load generator had not been feasible owing to their poor efficiency. However, with the advent of gas turbines based combined cycle plants (CCPs), continued advances in efficiency are being made. Coupled with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions, coal compatibility and higher unit output, gas turbines are now competing with conventional power plants for base load power generation. Currently, the turbines are designed with TIT of 2300{degrees}F and metal temperatures are maintained around 1700{degrees}F by using air cooling. New higher efficiency ATS turbines will have TIT as high as 2700{degrees}F. To withstand this high temperature improved materials, coatings, and advances in cooling system and design are warranted. Development of advanced materials with better capabilities specifically for land base applications are time consuming and may not be available by ATS time frame or may prove costly for the first generation ATS gas turbines. Therefore improvement in the cooling system of hot components, which can take place in a relatively shorter time frame, is important. One way to improve cooling efficiency is to use better cooling agent. Steam as an alternate cooling agent offers attractive advantages because of its higher specific heat (almost twice that of air) and lower viscosity.

  12. Power-generation method using combined gas and steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C; Radtke, K; Keller, H J

    1997-03-20

    The invention concerns a method of power generation using a so-called COGAS (combined gas and steam) turbine installation, the aim being to improve the method with regard to the initial costs and energy consumption so that power can be generated as cheaply as possible. This is achieved by virtue of the fact that air taken from the surrounding atmosphere is splint into an essentially oxygen-containing stream and an essentially nitrogen-containing stream and the two streams fed further at approximately atmospheric pressure. The essentially nitrogen-containing stream is mixed with an air stream to form a mixed nitrogen/air stream and the mixed-gas stream thus produced is brought to combustion chamber pressure in the compressor of the gas turbine, the combustion of the combustion gases in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine being carried out with the greater part of this compressed mixed-gas stream. (author) figs.

  13. Multi-objective PID Optimization for Speed Control of an Isolated Steam Turbine using Gentic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kr. Singh; D. Boolchandani; S.G. Modani; Nitish Katal

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on multi-objective optimization of the PID controllers for optimal speed control for an isolated steam turbine. In complex operations, optimal tuning plays an imperative role in maintaining the product quality and process safety. This study focuses on the comparison of the optimal PID tuning using Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) against normal genetic algorithm and Ziegler Nichols methods for the speed control of an isolated steam turbine. Isolated steam turbine...

  14. Risk-based and maintenance systems for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, K.; Nagai, S.; Akikuni, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Furuya, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takagi, K.; Kawabata, T.

    2003-01-01

    The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the form of unreliability functions of operation hours or start-up cycles through the cumulative hazard function method. The posterior unreliability is derived from the field data analysis according to the inspection information. Quick inspection can be conducted using air-cooled borescope and heat resistant ultrasonic sensors even if the turbine is not cooled down sufficiently. Another inspection information comes from degradation and damage measurement. The probabilistic life assessment using structural analysis and statistical material properties, the latter is estimated from hardness measurement, replica observation and embrittlement measurement. The risk function is calculated as the sum product of unreliability functions and expected monetary loss as the consequence of failure along event trees. The optimum maintenance plan is determined among simulated scenarios described through component breakdown trees, life cycle event trees and risk functions. Those methods are effective for total condition assessment and economical maintenance for operating plants. (orig.)

  15. Risk-based inspection and maintenance systems for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, Kazunari; Nagai, Satoshi; Akikuni, Yasunari; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Furuya, Kenichiro; Matsumoto, Shigeru; Takagi, Kentaro; Kawabata, Taro

    2004-01-01

    The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the form of unreliability functions of operation hours or start-up cycles through the cumulative hazard function method. The posterior unreliability is derived from the field data analysis according to the inspection information. Quick inspection can be conducted using air-cooled borescope and heat resistant ultrasonic sensors even if the turbine is not cooled down sufficiently. Another inspection information comes from degradation and damage measurement. The probabilistic life assessment using structural analysis and statistical material properties, the latter is estimated from hardness measurement, replica observation and embrittlement measurement. The risk function is calculated as the sum product of unreliability functions and expected monetary loss as the consequence of failure along event trees. The optimum maintenance plan is determined among simulated scenarios described through component breakdown trees, life cycle event trees and risk functions. Those methods are effective for total condition assessment and economical maintenance for operating plants

  16. Optimization of Design of Steam Turbine Exhaust Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Goldin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving effectiveness turbine was and remains a key issue for today. In order to improve the efficiency of the turbine is necessary to reduce losses in the steam turbine exhaust conduit.This paper presents the design optimization exhaust conduit steam turbine K-27-2.9 produced by JSC «KTW» at the design stage. The aims of optimizing the design were: decreasing hydraulic resistance of the conduit, reduction of non-uniformity of the flow at the outlet of the conduit, equalizing steam flow ahead of the condenser tube bundle.The conduit models were made and flows in it were simulated in environment of the Solid Works and its application COSMOS Flo Works.As the initial conduit model was selected exhaust conduit of turbine PT-25/34-3.4 produced by JSC «KTW». Was obtained by the calculated velocity field at the outlet of the conduit. The analysis of the calculation results revealed the necessity of changes to the initial design of the conduit. The changes were accompanied by calculating currents flow in the conduit, and assessed the impact of design changes on the nature of the course. Further transformation of the construction of the conduit was held on the results of these calculations. Construction changes are not touched by the outer geometry of the conduit, and were introduced to meet technological.According to calculation results, conclusions were drawn and selected three versions of the conduit.Given are the research results for the initial conduit model and modified design versions. In order to evaluate the flow degree of irregularity the momentum factor (Bussinesku factor for outlet crosssection of the selected conduit design version. Analysis of the research results made it possible to determine optimum design of the exhaust conduit.Introducing the suggested alterations in the conduit design will result in improvement of heat exchange in the condenser, an increase in reliability of the tube bundle operation, a decrease in noise and

  17. Research on simulation of supercritical steam turbine system in large thermal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongyang

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the stability and safety of supercritical steam turbine system operation in large thermal power station, the body of the steam turbine is modeled in this paper. And in accordance with the hierarchical modeling idea, the steam turbine body model, condensing system model, deaeration system model and regenerative system model are combined to build a simulation model of steam turbine system according to the connection relationship of each subsystem of steam turbine. Finally, the correctness of the model is verified by design and operation data of the 600MW supercritical unit. The results show that the maximum simulation error of the model is 2.15%, which meets the requirements of the engineering. This research provides a platform for the research on the variable operating conditions of the turbine system, and lays a foundation for the construction of the whole plant model of the thermal power plant.

  18. Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit No.1 at the implementation and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yuhua; Xiao Bo; He Liu; Huang Min

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.l purpose, range of experience, experiment preparation, implementation, feedback and response. Turn of nuclear steam turbo-generator set flush, using the main reactor coolant pump and regulator of the heat generated by the electric heating element and the total heat capacity in secondary circuit of reactor coolant system (steam generator secondary side) of saturated steam turbine rushed to 1500 RPM, Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.1 implementation of the performance of the inspection of steam turbine and its auxiliary system, through the test problems found in the clean up in time, the nuclear steam sweep turn smooth realization has accumulated experience. At the same time, Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.1 at turn is half speed steam turbine generator non-nuclear turn at the first, with its smooth realization of other nuclear power steam turbine generator set in the field of non-nuclear turn play a reference role. (authors)

  19. The market for steam turbine generators around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandement, O.; Anglaret, P.; Ledermann, P.

    2012-01-01

    As a discrete market (in the mathematical meaning of the word) with irregular sales from one year to the next, the market for steam turbine generators in nuclear plants requires working out a strategy adapted to each project. The diversity of the reactors proposed (technology, thermal power, the thermodynamic characteristics of the steam supplied), the variety of the cold sources to be used (ranging from the Baltic Sea to the Indian Ocean) and the different frequencies of electricity grids (50 or 60 Hz) necessitate developing platforms of solutions. Furthermore, the requirement that local businesses have a share in contracts often entails partnerships. After pointing out the diversity of this market, the effort is made to point out its principal characteristics. (authors)

  20. Design, development and operating experience with wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The paper first describes the special characteristics of wet steam units. It then goes on to discuss the principal features of the units manufactured by the author's company, the considerations on which the designs were based, and the development work carried out to validate them. Some of the design features such as the separator/reheater units and the arrangements for water extraction in the high pressure turbine are unconventional. An important characteristic of all nuclear plant is the combination of high capital cost and low fuel cost, and the consequent emphasis placed on high availability. The paper describes some service problems experienced with wet steam plant and how these were overcome with minimum loss of generation. The paper also describes a number of the developments for future wet steam plant which have evolved from these experiences, and from research and development programmes aimed at increasing the efficiency and reliability of both conventional and wet steam units. Blading, rotor construction and separator/reheater units are considered. (author)

  1. Method for repairing a steam turbine or generator rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.; Amos, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for repairing low alloy steel steam turbine or generator rotors, the method comprising: a. machining mating attachments on a replacement end and a remaining portion of the original rotor; b. mating the replacement end and the original rotor; c. welding the replacement end to the original rotor by narrow-gap gas metal arc or submerged arc welding up to a depth of 1/2-2 inches from the rotor surface; d. gas tungsten arc welding the remaining 1/2-2 inches; e. boring out the mating attachment and at least the inside 1/4 inch of the welding; and f. inspecting the bore

  2. Aerodynamic instabilities in governing valves of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, J.M.; Pluviose, M.

    1991-01-01

    The capacity of a.c. turbogenerators in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is regulated by means of governing valves located at the inlet of the high-pressure turbine. The conditions created in these valves (due to the throttling of the steam) involve the generation of a jet structure, possibly supersonic. Aerodynamic instabilities could potentially excite the mechanical structure. These aerodynamic phenomena are studied in this paper by means of a two-dimensional numerical model. Viscous effects are taken into account with heuristic criteria on separation and reattachment. Detailed experimental analysis of the flow behaviour is compared with the numerical prediction of stability limits. (Author)

  3. Mechanical problems in turbomachines, steam and gas turbines. Large steam turbine manufacturing requirements to fulfill customer needs for electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazzini, R.

    1975-01-01

    The needs of the customers in large steam turbines for electric power are examined. The choices and decisions made by the utility about the equipments are dealt with after considering the evolution of power demand on the French network. These decisions and choices mainly result from a technical and economic optimization of production equipments: choice of field-proven solutions, trend to lower steam characteristics, trend to higher output of the units (i.e. size effect), spreading out standardization of machines and components (policy of technical as well as technological levels, i.e. mass production effect). Standardization of external characteristics of units of same level of output and even standardization of some main components. The requirements turbine manufacturers have to meet may fall in two categories: on one side: gaining experience and know-how, capability of making high quality experiments, out put capacity, will to hold a high efficiency level; on the other side: meeting the technical requirements related to the contracts. Among these requirements, one can differentiate those dealing with the service expected from the turbine and that resulting in the responsibility limits of the manufacturer and those tending to gain interchangeability, to improve availability of the equipment, to increase safety, and to make operation and maintenance easier [fr

  4. Arabelle: The most powerful steam turbine in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarque, F.; Deloroix, V.

    1998-01-01

    On the 30th of August 1996 at the CHOOZ power station in the Ardennes, the first 1,500 MW turbine was started up under nuclear steam and connected to the grid. It will reach full power in the spring of 1997, followed shortly afterwards by a second identical machine. This turbine, known as ARABELLE, is currently the most powerful in the world, with a single line rotating at 1,500 rpm. It has been entirely designed, manufactured and installed by the teams of GEC ALSTHOM, within the framework of the Electricite de France N4 PWR program. It represents a new type of nuclear turbine, the fruit of much research and development work which started in the 1980s. It benefits from GEC ALSTHOM's considerable experience in the field of nuclear turbines: 143 machines with a total power output of 100,000 MW and more than ten million hours of operation. It should be remembered that the first 1,000 MW unit for a PWR plant was connected at Fessenheim in 1977, and since then the different EDF plants have been equipped with 58 GEC ALSTHOM turbines, ranging from 1,000 MW to 1,350 MW, this providing the company with a vast amount of information. The process which led to a new design for ARABELLE was based on: Feedback of service experience from previous machines; this provides precious learning material with a view to improving the performance of operating equipment. Research and development work resulting in significant technical advances which could then be integrated into the design of a new generation of turbines. Taking account of the major concerns of the customer-user: Electricite de France (EDF): Improved reliability and operating availability, increased efficiency, reduced investment and maintenance costs

  5. Boresonic inspection of steam turbine and generator spindles with the Tomoscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, N.; Bertholotti, D.; Yates, D.

    1990-01-01

    Steam turbine rotors in power utility plants can generate cracks and ultimately fail after long period of use. The inspection of rotors is done on a regular basis and particular attention is paid to areas near bore holes. An automated ultrasound system has been developed to control and ensure the quality of rotor bore holes of steam turbine rotors

  6. Improved algorithm based on equivalent enthalpy drop method of pressurized water reactor nuclear steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hu; Qi Guangcai; Li Shaohua; Li Changjian

    2011-01-01

    Because it is difficulty to accurately determine the extraction steam turbine enthalpy and the exhaust enthalpy, the calculated result from the conventional equivalent enthalpy drop method of PWR nuclear steam turbine is not accurate. This paper presents the improved algorithm on the equivalent enthalpy drop method of PWR nuclear steam turbine to solve this problem and takes the secondary circuit thermal system calculation of 1000 MW PWR as an example. The results show that, comparing with the design value, the error of actual thermal efficiency of the steam turbine cycle obtained by the improved algorithm is within the allowable range. Since the improved method is based on the isentropic expansion process, the extraction steam turbine enthalpy and the exhaust enthalpy can be determined accurately, which is more reasonable and accurate compared to the traditional equivalent enthalpy drop method. (authors)

  7. Study on the behavior of moisture droplets in low pressure steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Y.; Kuramoto, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Etsu, M.

    1978-01-01

    Low pressure stages of fossil turbines and almost all stages of nuclear and geothermal turbines operate on wet steam. Turbine operating on wet steam have the following two disadvantages: decrease of efficiency and erosion of blades. Decrease of efficiency results from an increase in profile loss caused by water films on the blade surface; loss of steam energy in breaking up the films and accelerating moisture droplets; undercooling and condensation shocks associated with it; velocity difference between water and steam phases and consequent decelerating action of moisture droplets in the rotating blades, etc. Impingement of moisture droplets on the rotating blades also causes quick erosion of the blades. In this paper, the behavior of moisture droplets in wet steam flow is described and the correlation between their behavior and the abovementioned two disadvantages of turbines operating on wet steam is clarified. (author)

  8. Next Generation Engineered Materials for Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Arrell

    2006-05-31

    To reduce the effect of global warming on our climate, the levels of CO{sub 2} emissions should be reduced. One way to do this is to increase the efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels. This will in turn reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions for a given power output. Using US practice for efficiency calculations, then a move from a typical US plant running at 37% efficiency to a 760 C /38.5 MPa (1400 F/5580 psi) plant running at 48% efficiency would reduce CO2 emissions by 170kg/MW.hr or 25%. This report presents a literature review and roadmap for the materials development required to produce a 760 C (1400 F) / 38.5MPa (5580 psi) steam turbine without use of cooling steam to reduce the material temperature. The report reviews the materials solutions available for operation in components exposed to temperatures in the range of 600 to 760 C, i.e. above the current range of operating conditions for today's turbines. A roadmap of the timescale and approximate cost for carrying out the required development is also included. The nano-structured austenitic alloy CF8C+ was investigated during the program, and the mechanical behavior of this alloy is presented and discussed as an illustration of the potential benefits available from nano-control of the material structure.

  9. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today's high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors

  10. Time program using in automatization of steam turbines start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejzerovich, A.Sh.; Melamed, A.D.

    Examples and arguments for developing time programs of changing basic parameters of automated start-up of TPP and NPP high-power steam turbines are considered. Basic parameters subject to controlled changing at automatization of turbine start-up are rotation frequency, loading and temperature of steam supplied to the turbine. Principle facility schemes of program regulation of steam temperature at the start-up are presented. The facility scheme of loading the NPP wet steam turbine is given. The principles of developing time programs, of changing basic parameters of automated start-up enable realizing transient processes close to theoretically optimum processes at arbitrary prestart-up state of the turbine by means of rather simple autatic facilities. In particular, for automated temperature increase of steam supplied to the turbine of TES power units and AES turbine loading, it is advisable to use programs in the form of linear dependence of velocity of changing the controlled parameter on the given value, the initial level, from which the parameter increase with a regulated velocity is realized, is given in the form of analogue dependence on the turbine prestart-up state. The programs described and the schemes of their realization have been approved at the automatization of 300 MW power unit starts up with the K-300-240 turbine and K-220-44 turbine as well as used when creating control system for turbines of 500 MW and higher for designed TPP and NPP power units

  11. Aerodynamic Optimization Design of a Multistage Centrifugal Steam Turbine and Its Off-Design Performance Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li; Dian-Gui Huang

    2017-01-01

    Centrifugal turbine which has less land occupation, simple structure, and high aerodynamic efficiency is suitable to be used as small to medium size steam turbines or waste heat recovery plant. In this paper, one-dimensional design of a multistage centrifugal steam turbine was performed by using in-house one-dimensional aerodynamic design program. In addition, three-dimensional numerical simulation was also performed in order to analyze design and off-design aerodynamic performance of the pro...

  12. Steam turbine controls and their integration into power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kure-Jensen, J.; Hanisch, R.

    1989-01-01

    The main functions of a modern steam turbine control system are: speed and acceleration control during start-up; initialization of generator excitation; synchronization and application of load; pressure control of various forms: inlet, extraction backpressure, etc.; unloading and securing of the turbine; sequencing of the above functions under constraint of thermal stress overspeed protection during load rejection and emergencies; protection against serious hazards, e.g., loss of oil pressure, high bearing vibration; and testing of valves and vitally important protection functions. It is characteristic of the first group of functions that they must be performed with high control bandwidth, or very high reliability, or both, to ensure long-term satisfactory service of the turbine. It is for these reasons that GE has, from the very beginning of the technology, designed and provided the controls and protection for its units, starting with mechanical and hydraulic devices and progressing to analog electrohydraulic systems introduced in the 1960s, and now continuing with all-digital electrohydraulic systems

  13. Studies and solutions of steam turbines for nuclear heating power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibilities of combined generation of heat and electric power and special features of the corresponding equipment for WWER type reactors are considered. Condensing steam turbines with bled steam points and the constructional solution of bled points are presented for heating the network water to 110 0 C, 120 0 C, and 160 0 C, respectively. The dimensions of the low pressure final stage of the turbine are given. Problems concerning condensing and bleeding turbines and combination types of back-pressure and condensing turbines as well as solutions to the design of 250 MW and 500 MW turbines are discussed

  14. Microfabricated rankine cycle steam turbine for power generation and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, Luc (Inventor); Muller, Norbert (Inventor); Lee, Changgu (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, an integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip has been provided. The integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip of the present invention comprises a miniature electric power generation system fabricated using silicon microfabrication technology and lithographic patterning. The present invention converts heat to electricity by implementing a thermodynamic power cycle on a chip. The steam turbine power plant on-a-chip generally comprises a turbine, a pump, an electric generator, an evaporator, and a condenser. The turbine is formed by a rotatable, disk-shaped rotor having a plurality of rotor blades disposed thereon and a plurality of stator blades. The plurality of stator blades are interdigitated with the plurality of rotor blades to form the turbine. The generator is driven by the turbine and converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  15. Dual turbine power plant and a reheat steam bypass flow control system for use therein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power plant having dual turbine-generators connected to a steam source that includes a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is described. Each turbine comprises a high pressure portion operated by superheat steam and an intermediate-low pressure portion operated by reheat steam; a bypass line is connected across each turbine portion to permit a desired minimum flow of steam from the source at times when the combined flow of steam through the turbine is less than the minimum. Coolant gas is propelled through the reactor by a circulator which is driven by an auxiliary turbine which uses steam exhausted from the high pressure portions and their bypass lines. The pressure of the reheat steam is controlled by a single proportional-plus-integral controller which governs the steam flow through the bypass lines associated with the intermediate-low pressure portions. At times when the controller is not in use its output signal is limited to a value that permits an unbiased response when pressure control is resumed, as in event of a turbine trip. 25 claims, 2 figures

  16. Methods of increasing thermal efficiency of steam and gas turbine plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasserman, A. A.; Shutenko, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    Three new methods of increasing efficiency of turbine power plants are described. Increasing average temperature of heat supply in steam turbine plant by mixing steam after overheaters with products of combustion of natural gas in the oxygen. Development of this idea consists in maintaining steam temperature on the major part of expansion in the turbine at level, close to initial temperature. Increasing efficiency of gas turbine plant by way of regenerative heating of the air by gas after its expansion in high pressure turbine and before expansion in the low pressure turbine. Due to this temperature of air, entering combustion chamber, is increased and average temperature of heat supply is consequently increased. At the same time average temperature of heat removal is decreased. Increasing efficiency of combined cycle power plant by avoiding of heat transfer from gas to wet steam and transferring heat from gas to water and superheated steam only. Steam will be generated by multi stage throttling of the water from supercritical pressure and temperature close to critical, to the pressure slightly higher than condensation pressure. Throttling of the water and separation of the wet steam on saturated water and steam does not require complicated technical devices.

  17. Crack of a first stage blade in a steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nurbanasari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The failure of the first stage blade in a steam turbine of 55 MW was investigated. The blade was made of 17-4 PH stainless steel and has been used for 12 years before failure. The current work aims to find out the main cause of the first stage blade failure. The methods for investigation were metallurgical analysis, chemical composition test, and hardness measurement. The result showed that there was no evidence the blade failure was due to material. The damage found on the blade namely crack on the blade root. Two locations of the crack observed at the blade root, which was at the tang and the fillet, with different failure modes. In general, the damage of the blade was started by the corrosion occurred on the blade root. The crack at the blade root tang was due to corrosion fatigue and the crack occurred at the blade root fillet owing to stress corrosion cracking.

  18. ORCENT-2, Full Load Steam Turbine Cycle Thermodynamics for LWR Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ORCENT-2 performs heat and mass balance calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam, characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. The program handles both condensing and back-pressure turbine exhaust arrangements. Turbine performance calculations are based on the General Electric Company method for 1800-rpm large steam turbine- generators operating with light-water-cooled nuclear reactors. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. 2 - Method of solution: The turbine performance calculations follow the procedures outlined in General Electric report GET-6020. ORCENT-2 utilizes the 1967 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) formulations and procedures for calculating the properties of steam, adapted for ORNL use by D.W. Altom. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 12 feed-water heaters, 5 moisture removal stages in the low-pressure turbine section. ORCENT-2 is limited to 1800-rpm tandem-compound turbine-generators with single- or double-flow high pressure sections and one, two, or three double-flow low-pressure turbine sections. Steam supply for LWR cycles should be between 900 and 1100 psia and slightly wet to 100 degrees F of initial superheat. Generator rating should be greater than 100 MVA

  19. Study of steam, helium and supercritical CO2 turbine power generations in prototype fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro; Muto, Yasushi; Kato, Yasuyoshi; Nishio, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Nomoto, Yasunobu

    2008-01-01

    Power generation systems such as steam turbine cycle, helium turbine cycle and supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) turbine cycle are examined for the prototype nuclear fusion reactor. Their achievable cycle thermal efficiencies are revealed to be 40%, 34% and 42% levels for the heat source outlet coolant temperature of 480degC, respectively, if no other restriction is imposed. In the current technology, however, low temperature divertor heat source is included. In this actual case, the steam turbine system and the S-CO 2 turbine system were compared in the light of cycle efficiency and plant cost. The values of cycle efficiency were 37.7% and 36.4% for the steam cycle and S-CO 2 cycle, respectively. The construction cost was estimated by means of component volume. The volume became 16,590 m 3 and 7240 m 3 for the steam turbine system and S-CO 2 turbine system, respectively. In addition, separation of permeated tritium from the coolant is much easier in S-CO 2 than in H 2 O. Therefore, the S-CO 2 turbine system is recommended to the fusion reactor system than the steam turbine system. (author)

  20. Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

  1. Calculations of the nozzle coefficient of discharge of wet steam turbine stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinling, Z.; Yinian, C.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the coefficient of discharge of wet steam turbine nozzles. The theoretical formulation of the problem is rigorously in accordance with the theory of two-phase wet steam expansion flow through steam turbine nozzles. The computational values are plotted as sets of curves in accordance with orthogonality test principles. They agree satisfactorily both with historical empirical data and the most recent experimental data obtained in the wet steam two-phase flow laboratory of Xian Jiaotong University. (author)

  2. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ulloa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled “Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines.” This is one of the topics covered in the course “Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer,” which is offered in the second year of Mechanical Engineering at the Defense University Center at the Naval Academy in Vigo, Spain. While participating in the activity, students will be divided into groups of no more than 10 for seminars. The groups will create PowerPoint presentations that include all of the analyzed aspects. The topics to be discussed during the workshop on power plant turbines are the: (1 principles of operation; (2 processes involved; (3 advantages and disadvantages; (4 efficiency; (5 combined cycle; and (6 transversal competences, such as teamwork, oral and written presentations, and analysis and synthesis of information. This paper presents the use of Google Sites as a guide to the WebQuest so that students can access all information online, including instructions, summaries, resources, and information on qualifications.

  3. Computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K.H.; Weber, M.; Weiss, M. [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    As the output and economic value of power plants increase, the detection and sizing of the type of flaws liable to occur in the rotors of turbines using ultrasonic methods assumes increasing importance. An ultrasonic inspection carried out at considerable expense is expected to bring to light all safety-relevant flaws and to enable their size to be determined so as to permit a fracture-mechanics analysis to assess the reliability of the rotor under all possible stresses arising in operation with a high degree of accuracy. The advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors have improved reliability, accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasonic inspection. Further, there has been an improvement in the resolution of resolvable group indications by applying reconstruction and imagine methods. In general, it is also true for the advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection methods that, in the case of flaw-affected forgings, automated data acquisition provides a substantial rationalization and a significant documentation of the results for the fracture mechanics assessment compared to manual inspection. (orig.) 8 refs.

  4. Computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K H; Weber, M; Weiss, M [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    As the output and economic value of power plants increase, the detection and sizing of the type of flaws liable to occur in the rotors of turbines using ultrasonic methods assumes increasing importance. An ultrasonic inspection carried out at considerable expense is expected to bring to light all safety-relevant flaws and to enable their size to be determined so as to permit a fracture-mechanics analysis to assess the reliability of the rotor under all possible stresses arising in operation with a high degree of accuracy. The advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors have improved reliability, accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasonic inspection. Further, there has been an improvement in the resolution of resolvable group indications by applying reconstruction and imagine methods. In general, it is also true for the advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection methods that, in the case of flaw-affected forgings, automated data acquisition provides a substantial rationalization and a significant documentation of the results for the fracture mechanics assessment compared to manual inspection. (orig.) 8 refs.

  5. STYLE, Steam Cycle Heat Balance for Turbine Blade Design in Marine Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, J.B.; Dines, W.R.

    1970-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The programme carries out iterative steam cycle heat balance calculations for a wide variety of steam cycles including single reheat, live steam reheat and multistage moisture separation. Facilities are also available for including the steam-consuming auxiliaries associated with a marine installation. Though no attempt is made to carry out a detailed turbine blading design the programme is capable of automatically varying the blading efficiency from stage to stage according to local steam volume flow rate, dryness fraction and shaft speed. 2 - Method of solution: 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Steam pressures to lie within range 0.2 to 5,000 lb/square inch abs steam temperatures to lie within range 50 to 1600 degrees F. Not more than 40 points per turbine expansion line; Not more than 10 expansion lines; Not more than 15 feed heaters. UNIVAC 1108 version received from FIAT Energia Nucleare, Torino, Italy

  6. PORST: a computer code to analyze the performance of retrofitted steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Hwang, I.T.

    1980-09-01

    The computer code PORST was developed to analyze the performance of a retrofitted steam turbine that is converted from a single generating to a cogenerating unit for purposes of district heating. Two retrofit schemes are considered: one converts a condensing turbine to a backpressure unit; the other allows the crossover extraction of steam between turbine cylinders. The code can analyze the performance of a turbine operating at: (1) valve-wide-open condition before retrofit, (2) partial load before retrofit, (3) valve-wide-open after retrofit, and (4) partial load after retrofit.

  7. Estimation of Temperature Influence on Creep Rate of High-Temperature Elements in Steam Turbines and Steam Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gerasimova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a high temperature influence on strength characteristics of steam pipelines and steam turbine parts of high and medium pressure. The charts showing a decisive temperature importance in diffuse creep have been presented in the paper. The paper contains a calculation of steel self-diffusion coefficient. Dependence Dsd = f(t for more accurate assessment of  resource characteristics of the applied steel has been proposed in the paper.

  8. Critical review of use of high pressure saturated steam turbine economizers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, J.

    1981-01-01

    In the high-pressure part of the turbine drops of moisture condensate, which causes erosion and has negative impact on the service-life of the turbine and on its thermodynamic efficiency. Various designs have been put forward to eliminate moisture. A good combination is moisture separation combined with the offtake of steam for the regeneration of feed water or for the steam re-heater. As concerns the high-pressure component of the turbine it is best to offtake steam for the feed water heater and for heating the steam between the high- and low-pressure components of the turbine. The connections of the heater and re-heater in diagrams of various manufacturers are evaluated and compared. It appears to be uneconomical to use the heater in cases where feed water would be heated to temperature considerably below its optimal value. (M.D.)

  9. Operational Measurement of Stationary Characteristics and Positions of Shrouded Steam Turbine Blades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Pavel; Vaněk, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2016), s. 1079-1086 ISSN 0018-9456 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : displacement measurement * turbomachine blades * steam turbines Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.456, year: 2016

  10. Dual turbine power plant and method of operating such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    A power plant including dual steam turbine-generators connected to pass superheat and reheat steam from a steam generator which derives heat from the coolant gas of a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor is described. Associated with each turbine is a bypass line to conduct superheat steam in parallel with a high pressure turbine portion, and a bypass line to conduct superheat steam in parallel with a lower pressure turbine portion. Auxiliary steam turbines pass a portion of the steam flow to the reheater of the steam generator and drive gas blowers which circulate the coolant gas through the reactor and the steam source. Apparatus and method are disclosed for loading or unloading a turbine-generator while the other produces a steady power output. During such loading or unloading, the steam flows through the turbine portions are coordinated with the steam flows through the bypass lines for protection of the steam generator, and the pressure of reheated steam is regulated for improved performance of the gas blowers. 33 claims, 5 figures

  11. Method for extending the unrestricted operating range of condensing steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaba, G.; Bannerth, Cs.

    2009-01-01

    The allowed condenser temperature of the condensing steam turbines is determined by the design parameters of the steam turbine (casing geometry, exhaust area, blade length, blade angle, blade profile etc.). The fluctuations of condenser temperature may lead to reduced power output of the condensing steam turbine. Solutions where the low pressure turbine casings have the same exhaust area can be kept in operation at narrow condenser temperature range without restrictions. Exceeding the mentioned temperature range the exhaust hood temperature restriction, undergoing the temperature range choking point restriction appears causing increased operation cost. The aim of the paper is to present a condensing steam turbine - direct-contact condenser system that can extend the unrestricted operating range. The examined system consists of more parallelly connected low pressure turbine casings so-called diabolo that having at least two exhausts separated at the steam side. The exhausts, utilizing varying input-temperature coolant, are connected to the condensers that are separated at the steam side and serially connected at the coolant side. The casings have the same inlet areas while the exhausts have different areas resulting different volume flows and temperature operating range. The economic advantage of this solution approaches the savings between the serially connected direct-contact condensers and condensers in parallel of a dry cooling system. It can be proven by a simple calculation using the ambient air temperature duration diagram that is presented in the paper. (author)

  12. Methods for calculating the speed-up characteristics of steam-water turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovach, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The methods of approximate and specified calculations of speed- up characteristics of steam-water turbines are considered. The specified non-linear method takes into account change of thermal efficiency, heat drop and losses in the turbine as well as vacuum break-up the condenser. Speed-up characteristics of the K-1000-60-1500 turbine are presented. The calculational results obtained by the non-linear method are compared with the calculations conducted by the approximate linearized method. Differences in the frequency speed up of the turbine rotor rotation calculated by the two methods constitute only 0.5-2.0%. That is why it is necessary to take into account in the specified calculations first of all the most important factors following the rotor speed- up in the following consequence: valve shift of the high pressure cylinder (HPC); steam volume in front of the HPC; shift of the valves behind the separator-steam superheater (SSS); steam volumes and moisture boiling in the SSS; steam consumption for regenerating heating of feed water, steam volumes at the intermediate elements of the turbine, losses in the turbine, heat drop and thermal efficiency [ru

  13. Imitative modeling automatic system Control of steam pressure in the main steam collector with the influence on the main Servomotor steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriushin, A. V.; Zverkov, V. P.; Kuzishchin, V. F.; Ryzhkov, O. S.; Sabanin, V. R.

    2017-11-01

    The research and setting results of steam pressure in the main steam collector “Do itself” automatic control system (ACS) with high-speed feedback on steam pressure in the turbine regulating stage are presented. The ACS setup is performed on the simulation model of the controlled object developed for this purpose with load-dependent static and dynamic characteristics and a non-linear control algorithm with pulse control of the turbine main servomotor. A method for tuning nonlinear ACS with a numerical algorithm for multiparametric optimization and a procedure for separate dynamic adjustment of control devices in a two-loop ACS are proposed and implemented. It is shown that the nonlinear ACS adjusted with the proposed method with the regulators constant parameters ensures reliable and high-quality operation without the occurrence of oscillations in the transient processes the operating range of the turbine loads.

  14. Check of condition of steam generators, volume compensators and turbine condensers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J.; Holy, F.; Sobotka, J.

    1989-01-01

    A negative pressure leak detector is described designed for leak testing of tubes in steam generators and steam turbine condensers. The principle, operation and use are described of inflatable bags and an inflatable platform. The bags are designed for insulating and sealing spaces in nuclear reactor components while the inflatable platform is used in pressurizer inspections and repairs. Their properties, and other facilities for detecting leaks in steam generator tubes are briefly described. (M.D.). 3 figs

  15. Acceptance test guideline for steam turbine control systems. Anahmerichtlinie fuer Regel- und Steuereinrichtungen von Dampfturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The acceptances to be obtained during the first operational run, refer to measures proving the functional integrity of the turbine control system and assuring the compliance with the maximum allowable overspeed in case of lead changes or perturbations. The Guideline concerns essentially speed, power, and pressure controllers coupled to generators. It may be appropriately extended to steam turbines serving other purposes.

  16. Laser shock peening of steam turbine blade for enhanced service life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Fretting-fatigue is an important factor influencing service life of turbine blades. The present paper describes laser shock peening of potential crack nucleation site in the root region of steam turbine blade for its enhanced service life. The experimental study, performed with an in-house developed 2.5 J/7 ns ...

  17. Energetic and exergetic analysis of a steam turbine power plant in an existing phosphoric acid factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafdhi, Fathia; Khir, Tahar; Ben Yahyia, Ali; Ben Brahim, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The operating mode of the factory and the power supply streams are presented. • Energetic Analysis of steam turbine power plant of an existing phosphoric acid factory. • Exergetic Analysis of each component of steam turbine power plant and the different heat recovery system. • Energy, exergy efficiency and irreversibility rates for the main components are determined. • The effect of the operating parameters on the plant performance are analyzed. - Abstract: An energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory. The heat recovery systems used in the different parts of the plant are also considered in the study. Mass, energy and exergy balances are established on the main compounds of the plant. A numerical code is established using EES software to perform the calculations required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis considering real variation ranges of the main operating parameters such as pressure, temperature and mass flow rate. The effects of theses parameters on the system performances are investigated. The main sources of irreversibility are the melters, followed by the heat exchangers, the steam turbine generator and the pumps. The maximum energy efficiency is obtained for the blower followed by the heat exchangers, the deaerator and the steam turbine generator. The exergy efficiency obtained for the heat exchanger, the steam turbine generator, the deaerator and the blower are 88%, 74%, 72% and 66% respectively. The effects of High Pressure steam temperature and pressure on the steam turbine generator energy and exergy efficiencies are investigated.

  18. The T-100-12.8 family of cogeneration steam turbines: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    The T-100-12.8 turbine and its versions, a type of cogeneration steam turbines that is among best known, unique, and most widely used ones in Russia and abroad, are considered. A list of turbine design versions and quantities in which they were produced, their technical and economic indicators, design features, schematic solutions used in different design versions, and a list of solutions available in a comprehensive portfolio offered for modernizing type T-100-12.8 turbines are presented. Information about amounts in which turbines of the last version are supplied currently and supposed to be supplied soon is given.

  19. Elimination of feedwater heaters in steam turbines: Prospects for substantial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzoni, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper re-proposes the theory that thermal regeneration (RT) in steam turbine plants decreases thermodynamic efficiency. This theory is supported by the criterion of maximization of variation of exergy in the steam generator (CMVEG) and by an mathematical argumentation based on the first law of thermodynamics. Consequences of great importance are deduced: plant operating costs reductions and a new possibility for cogeneration, that indicates exceptional advantages for the whole power industry, since steam turbine plants are responsible for the greater part of global electric power production

  20. Monitoring of large steam turbines, as seen by the constructor and the operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, J.M.; Bourcier, P.B.; Malherbe, C.

    1986-01-01

    The electricity in France is produced by large steam turbines in the range of 125 000 kW to 1 300 000 kW in nuclear power plants. Some operation problems are encountered on these large machines. The aim of this study is to justify and to describe the monitoring process implemented on the large steam turbines. This short study is divided into three parts: the monitoring justification during the start-up period, one example of a monitoring system, the turbine monitoring during the operation period [fr

  1. Application of Computer Simulation to Identify Erosion Resistance of Materials of Wet-steam Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostelyov, D. A.; Dergachyov, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    A problem of identifying the efficiency of using materials, coatings, linings and solderings of wet-steam turbine rotor blades by means of computer simulation is considered. Numerical experiments to define erosion resistance of materials of wet-steam turbine blades are described. Kinetic curves for erosion area and weight of the worn rotor blade material of turbines K-300-240 LMP and atomic icebreaker “Lenin” have been defined. The conclusion about the effectiveness of using different erosion-resistant materials and protection configuration of rotor blades is also made.

  2. Thermal expansion measurement of turbine and main steam piping by using strain gages in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sang Soo; Chung, Jae Won; Bong, Suk Kun; Jun, Dong Ki; Kim, Yun Suk

    2000-01-01

    One of the domestic co-generation plants have undergone excessive vibration problems of turbine attributed to external force for years. The root cause of turbine vibration may be shaft alignment problem which sometimes is changed by thermal expansion and external force, even if turbine technicians perfectly performed it. To evaluate the alignment condition from plant start-up to full load, a strain measurement of turbine and main steam piping subjected to thermal loading is monitored by using strain gages. The strain gages are bonded on both bearing housing adjusting bolts and pipe stoppers which installed in the x-direction of left-side main steam piping near the turbine inlet in order to monitor closely the effect of turbine under thermal deformation of turbine casing and main steam piping during plant full load. Also in situ load of constant support hangers in main steam piping system is measured by strain gages and its results are used to rebalance the hanger rod load. Consequently, the experimental stress analysis by using strain gages turns out to be very useful tool to diagnose the trouble and failures of not only to stationary components but to rotating machinery in power plants

  3. Aerodynamic Optimization Design of a Multistage Centrifugal Steam Turbine and Its Off-Design Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal turbine which has less land occupation, simple structure, and high aerodynamic efficiency is suitable to be used as small to medium size steam turbines or waste heat recovery plant. In this paper, one-dimensional design of a multistage centrifugal steam turbine was performed by using in-house one-dimensional aerodynamic design program. In addition, three-dimensional numerical simulation was also performed in order to analyze design and off-design aerodynamic performance of the proposed centrifugal steam turbine. The results exhibit reasonable flow field and smooth streamline; the aerodynamic performance of the designed turbine meets our initial expectations. These results indicate that the one-dimensional aerodynamic design program is reliable and effective. The off-design aerodynamic performance of centrifugal steam turbine was analyzed, and the results show that the mass flow increases with the decrease of the pressure ratio at a constant speed, until the critical mass flow is reached. The efficiency curve with the pressure ratio has an optimum efficiency point. And the pressure ratio of the optimum efficiency agrees well with that of the one-dimensional design. The shaft power decreases as the pressure ratio increases at a constant speed. Overall, the centrifugal turbine has a wide range and good off-design aerodynamic performance.

  4. Steam turbines for nuclear power stations in Czechoslovakia and their use for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The first generation of nuclear power stations in Czechoslavakia is equipped with 440 MW e pressurized water reactors. Each reactor supplies two 220 MW, 3000 rpm condensing type turbosets operating with saturated steam. After the completion of heating water piping systems, all of the 24 units of 220 MW in Czechoslovak nuclear power stations will be operated as dual purpose units, delivering both electricity and heat. At the present time, second-generation nuclear power stations, with 1000 MW e PWRs, are being built. Each such plant is equipped with one 1000 MW full-speed saturated steam turbine. The turbine is so designed as to permit the extraction of steam corresponding to the following quantities of heat: 893 MJ/s with three-stage water heating (150/60 0 C); and 570 MJ/s with two-stage water heating (120/60 0 C). The steam is taken from uncontrolled steam extraction points. (author)

  5. Combined heat and power plants with parallel tandem steam turbines; Smaaskalig kraftvaerme med parallellkopplade tandemturbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwall, Pontus; Norstroem, Urban; Pettersson, Camilla; Oesterlin, Erik

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the technical and economical conditions for a concept with parallel coupled tandem turbines in small scale combined heat and power plants fired with bio-fuel and waste. Performance and heat production costs at varying electricity prices for the concept with two smaller tandem coupled steam turbines has been compared to the traditional concept with one single multi-staged turbine. Three different types of plants have been investigated: - Bio fuelled CHP plant with thermal capacity of 15 MW{sub th}; - Waste fired CHP plant with thermal capacity of 20 MW{sub th}; - Bio fuelled CHP plant with thermal capacity of 25 MW{sub th}. The simple steam turbines (Curtis turbines) used in the tandem arrangement has an isentropic efficiency of about 49 to 53% compared to the multi-staged steam turbines with isentropic efficiency in the range of 59% to 81%. The lower isentropic efficiency for the single staged turbines is to some extent compensated at partial load when one of the two turbines can be shut down leading to better operational conditions for the one still in operation. For concepts with saturated steam at partial load below 50% the tandem arrangements presents higher electricity efficiency than the conventional single turbine alternative. The difference in annual production of electricity is therefore less than the difference in isentropic efficiency for the two concepts. Production of electricity is between 2% and 42% lower for the tandem arrangements in this study. Investment costs for the turbine island has been calculated for the two turbine concepts and when the costs for turbines, generator, power transmission, condensing system, piping system, buildings, assembling, commissioning and engineering has been added the sum is about the same for the two concepts. For the bio-fuelled plant with thermal capacity of 15 MW{sub th} the turbine island amount to about 10-12 MSEK and about 13-15 MSEK for the waste fired plant with a thermal capacity of 20 MW

  6. Welding repair of the steam and gas turbines rotors made of Cr-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Z.; Kubiak, J.; Hernandez, A.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of typical steam turbine and gas turbine rotor failures is carried out. On the base of the rotors different failure causes and their mode of occurring, an evaluation of the weldability of the Cr-Mo-V steels and the classification of the common turbine rotors repair possibilities is presented. The developing of specific in-situ welding repair process of the damaged 20.65 MW gas turbine rotor is described. After repair, the rotor was put back into service. (Author) 15 refs

  7. Postfact phenomena of the wet-steam flow electrization in turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarelin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Physical processes occurring in a turbine with natural electrization of a humidity-steam flow and their effect on efficiency and reliability of the turbine operation has been considered. Causes of the electrical potential occurrence on a rotor shaft are analyzed. The wet steam's electrization exposure on the electrical potential that is one of the major factors of bearings' electroerosion has been demonstrated on the full-scale installation. Hydrogen formation in wheelspace of the turbine as a result of electrochemical processes and electric field exposure of the space charge has been considered. Hydrogen concentration dependence on a volume charge density in the steam flow has been determined. It is stated that the processes occurring behind the final stage of wet-steam turbines are similar to the ones in elaerosol ectrostatic generators. It has been demonstrated that this phenomenon causes the flow's temporal inhibition and starts pulsations. These factors' impact on power loss of the turbine has been evaluated and recommendations for their elimination have been offered. It has been determined that motions of charged drops can cause self-maintained discharges inside of the flow and between the flow and grounded surfaces that are accompanied by electromagnetic radiation of the wide spectrum. The integrated studies have shown that physical phenomena occurring due to natural electrization negatively affect efficiency and reliability of the turbine operation. Practical recommendations allowing one to minimize the negative effects of the flow natural electrization process have been offered.

  8. An expert system for diagnostics and estimation of steam turbine components condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes an expert system of probability type for diagnostics and state estimation of steam turbine technological subsystems components. The expert system is based on Bayes’ theorem and permits to troubleshoot the equipment components, using expert experience, when there is a lack of baseline information on the indicators of turbine operation. Within a unified approach the expert system solves the problems of diagnosing the flow steam path of the turbine, bearings, thermal expansion system, regulatory system, condensing unit, the systems of regenerative feed-water and hot water heating. The knowledge base of the expert system for turbine unit rotors and bearings contains a description of 34 defects and of 104 related diagnostic features that cause a change in its vibration state. The knowledge base for the condensing unit contains 12 hypotheses and 15 evidence (indications); the procedures are also designated for 20 state parameters estimation. Similar knowledge base containing the diagnostic features and faults hypotheses are formulated for other technological subsystems of turbine unit. With the necessary initial information available a number of problems can be solved within the expert system for various technological subsystems of steam turbine unit: for steam flow path it is the correlation and regression analysis of multifactor relationship between the vibration parameters variations and the regime parameters; for system of thermal expansions it is the evaluation of force acting on the longitudinal keys depending on the temperature state of the turbine cylinder; for condensing unit it is the evaluation of separate effect of the heat exchange surface contamination and of the presence of air in condenser steam space on condenser thermal efficiency performance, as well as the evaluation of term for condenser cleaning and for tube system replacement and so forth. With a lack of initial information the expert system enables to formulate a diagnosis

  9. Problems of steam turbine diagnostics and the 'Simens' diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tserner, V.; Andrea, K.

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostics system, allowing one to detect changes in the state on single turbine elements at an early stage is described. Besides this system allows one to utilize the turbine plant optimally and efficiency from the viewpoint of the equipment durability. Specially oriented monitoring of the turbine plant and equipment element state saves resources necessary to keep up the working order of the equipment

  10. Power plant and system for accelerating a cross compound turbine in such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegtnes, K.O.; Braytenbah, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power plant having a cross compound steam turbine and a steam source that includes a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor is described. The steam turbine includes high and intermediate-pressure portions which drive a first generating means, and a low-pressure portion which drives a second generating means. The steam source supplies superheat steam to the high-pressure turbine portion, and an associated bypass permits the superheat steam to flow from the source to the exhaust of the high-pressure portion. The intermediate and low-pressure portions use reheat steam; an associated bypass permits reheat steam to flow from the source to the low-pressure exhaust. An auxiliary turbine driven by steam exhausted from the high-pressure portion and its bypass drives a gas blower to propel the coolant gas through the reactor. While the bypass flow of reheat steam is varied to maintain an elevated pressure of reheat steam upon its discharge from the source, both the first and second generating means and their associated turbines are accelerated initially by admitting steam to the intermediate and low-pressure portions. The electrical speed of the second generating means is equalized with that of the first generating means, whereupon the generating means are connected and acceleration proceeds under control of the flow through the high-pressure portion. 29 claims, 2 figures

  11. Development of High-Powered Steam Turbines by OAO NPO Central Research and Design Institute for Boilers and Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Kovalev, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the developments by OAO NPO TsKTI aimed at improvement of components and assemblies of new-generation turbine plants for ultra-supercritical steam parameters to be installed at the power-generating facilities in service. The list of the assemblies under development includes cylinder shells, the cylinder's flow paths and rotors, seals, bearings, and rotor cooling systems. The authors consider variants of the shafting-cylinder configurations for which advanced high-pressure and intermediate-pressure cylinders with reactive blading and low-pressure cylinders of conventional design and with counter-current steam flows are proposed and high-pressure rotors, which can increase the economic efficiency and reduce the overall turbine plant dimensions. Materials intended for the equipment components that operate at high temperatures and a steam cooling technique that allows the use of cheaper steel grades owing to the reduction in the metal's working temperature are proposed. A new promising material for the bearing surfaces is described that enables the operation at higher unit pressures. The material was tested on a full-scale test bench at OAO NPO TsKTI and a turbine in operation. Ways of controlling the erosion of the blades in the moisture-steam turbine compartments by the steam heating of the hollow guide blades are considered. To ensure the dynamic stability of the shafting, shroud and diaphragm seals that prevent the development of the destabilizing circulatory forces of the steam flow were devised and trialed. Advanced instrumentation and software are proposed to monitor the condition of the blading and thermal stresses under transient conditions, to diagnose the vibration processes, and to archive the obtained data. Attention is paid to the normalization of the electromagnetic state of the plant in order to prevent the electrolytic erosion of the plant components. The instrumentation intended for monitoring the relevant electric

  12. Development of 1800 rpm, 43in. blade for large steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Michio; Yamazaki, Yoshiaki; Namura, Kiyoshi; Taki, Takamitsu; Ninomiya, Satoshi.

    1978-01-01

    In the turbines for nuclear power generation, the inlet conditions of steam is low pressure and low temperature as compared with the turbines for thermal power generation, therefore generally the required steam flow rate is much more. It is the main problem to cope with this steam of large flow rate effectively with long final stage blades and to make a turbine compact. This newly developed blade aims at the turbines from 1100 to 1300 MW class for nuclear power generation and those of 1000 MW class for thermal power generation, and it is the first low revolution, long blade in Japan used for large capacity machines of 60 Hz. Hereinafter, the outline of various examinations carried out at the time of the tests on this blade and the features of this blade are described. There is large margin in the exhaust area with this blade, therefore the turbines with large power output and good performance can be produced. The loss of exhaust energy at turbine exit can be reduced, and thermal efficiency can be raised. Large capacity machines from 1100 to 1300 MW class can be manufactured with six-flow exhaust, tandem compound turbines. In order to confirm the reliability, the vibration characteristics of the blade were investigated in the test of this time, and also the overspeed test and endurance test were carried out. (Kako, I.)

  13. Biomass-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine cogeneration for the cane sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Williams, R.H.; Ogden, J.M.; Hylton, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Steam injection for power and efficiency augmentation in aeroderivative gas turbines has been commercially established for natural gas-fired cogeneration since 1980. Steam-injected gas turbines fired with coal and biomass are being developed. A performance and economic assessment of biomass integrated-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine (BIG/STIG) cogeneration systems is carried out here. A detailed economic case study is presented for the second largest sugar factory in Jamaica, with cane residues as the fuel. BIG/STIG cogeneration units would be attractive investments for sugar producers, who could sell large quantities of excess electricity to the utility, or for the utility, as a low-cost generating option. Worldwide, the cane sugar industry could support some 50,000 MW of BIG/STIG electric generation capacity. The relatively modest development effort required to commercialize the BIG/STIG technology is discussed in a companion paper prepared for this conference

  14. Why extraction lines and heaters in the turbine-condenser steam space should be lagged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, J.M.; Haynes, C.J.

    1998-07-01

    Deregulated utilities face conditions today that necessitate their nuclear and fossil steam plants have the best possible heat rates. The low pressure turbine exhaust and condenser areas are known to be particularly sensitive to betterment. One relatively modest but cost effective heat rate improvement and one whose function and design is often misunderstood is the insulation of the extraction lines and heaters that are located within the turbine-condenser steam space. This paper discusses the dynamic environment of that turbine exhaust region and quantifies the application and benefit of stainless steel lagging to the extraction lines and heater shells within. The paper first focuses on the high energy, non-uniform steam flows of the turbine exhaust and how that impacts the heat losses, mechanical design and support of any components located inside that space. It then examines and quantifies the varieties of heat transfer from the heaters and extraction lines to the passing lower temperature, moist, high velocity turbine exhaust steam as it travels to the condenser. A new relationship is developed that defines the predominantly evaporative heat transfer mechanism on the exterior surfaces in contact with the exhaust steam. For a typical 630 MW fossil plant with three heater of different temperature levels in the steam space as exemplified by the US Generation fossil fired Brayton Point 3, the paper determined the additional condenser heat load and extra extraction steam. The paper lastly concluded that in this case, lagging the larger diameter lines of the lowest pressure heater and the heater itself is likely not cost-effective.

  15. The use of tracer techniques to measure water flow rates in steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, O.J.; Blaylock, G.; Gale, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive and chemical tracers offer some unique advantages in detailed flow measurement on steam turbine plant. A series of experiments on a nuclear power station are reported where tracers successfully measured water flow rates and the initial steam moisture with an accuracy suitable for performance and commissioning tests. Both radioactive and chemical tracer methods produced identical results. Straightforward practical procedures were evolved that ensured repeatable accuracy and in addition a quantitative method of detecting heater leaks on load was established. (author)

  16. Design of large reheat steam turbines for U.K. and overseas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Two prototype designs of large reheat steam turbines are described, together with the technical, economic and plant design aspects that have influenced their main features. Relevant service experience is outlined and details are given of the solutions adopted to overcome the relatively few problems that were encountered. The evolution of these designs to form the current range of adaptable, pre-engineered modular designs is presented and the main features of current machines are described. A brief account is given of likely future developments in large steam turbines. (author)

  17. The main features of control and operation of steam turbines at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czinkoczky, B.

    1981-01-01

    The output and speed control of steam turbines at nuclear power plants as well as the combination of both controls are reviewed and evaluated. At the same time the tasks of unit control at nuclear power plants, the control of steady main steam pressure and medium pressure of primary circuit, further the connection of reactor and turbine controls and the self-controlling properties of pressurized water reactor are dealt with. Hydraulic and electro-hydraulic speed control, the connection of cach-up dampers and speed control and the application of electro-hydraulic signal converters are discussed. The accomplishment of protection is also described. (author)

  18. Optimized Application of MSR and Steam Turbine Retrofits in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, Robert; McCoach, John [ALSTOM Power, Willans Works, Newbold Road, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 2NH (United Kingdom); Gagelin, Jean-Philippe [ALSTOM Power Heat Exchange, 19-21 avenue Morane-Saulnier, BP 65, 78143 Velizy Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    The benefit to a nuclear power plant from a steam turbine retrofit has often been clearly demonstrated in recent years but, for light water nuclear plants, the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) are also of prime importance. This paper describes how refurbishment of these crucial components can only provide full potential performance benefit when made in conjunction with a steam turbine retrofit (although in practice these activities are frequently separated). Examples are given to show how combined application is best handled within a single organization to ensure optimized integration into the thermal cycle. (authors)

  19. Optimized Application of MSR and Steam Turbine Retrofits in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, Robert; McCoach, John; Gagelin, Jean-Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The benefit to a nuclear power plant from a steam turbine retrofit has often been clearly demonstrated in recent years but, for light water nuclear plants, the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) are also of prime importance. This paper describes how refurbishment of these crucial components can only provide full potential performance benefit when made in conjunction with a steam turbine retrofit (although in practice these activities are frequently separated). Examples are given to show how combined application is best handled within a single organization to ensure optimized integration into the thermal cycle. (authors)

  20. For effective thermodynamic calculation of turbines flow-through by gas and steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S; Hultsch, M

    1982-03-01

    A programme system for the medium and multiple section calculation of axial-flow turbines is explained. It allows calculations of turbine flow-through by gas and steam at designing and partial load states. The algorithms are independent upon the formulation of thermodynamic function, so that the programmes can be used for any means of production. The highest accuracy and efficiency can be guaranteed by the use of formulations of thermodynamic functions of water.

  1. Modeling and optimization of a utility system containing multiple extractions steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xianglong; Zhang, Bingjian; Chen, Ying; Mo, Songping

    2011-01-01

    Complex turbines with multiple controlled and/or uncontrolled extractions are popularly used in the processing industry and cogeneration plants to provide steam of different levels, electric power, and driving power. To characterize thermodynamic behavior under varying conditions, nonlinear mathematical models are developed based on energy balance, thermodynamic principles, and semi-empirical equations. First, the complex turbine is decomposed into several simple turbines from the controlled extraction stages and modeled in series. THM (The turbine hardware model) developing concept is applied to predict the isentropic efficiency of the decomposed simple turbines. Stodola's formulation is also used to simulate the uncontrolled extraction steam parameters. The thermodynamic properties of steam and water are regressed through linearization or piece-wise linearization. Second, comparison between the simulated results using the proposed model and the data in the working condition diagram provided by the manufacturer is conducted over a wide range of operations. The simulation results yield small deviation from the data in the working condition diagram where the maximum modeling error is 0.87% among the compared seven operation conditions. Last, the optimization model of a utility system containing multiple extraction turbines is established and a detailed case is analyzed. Compared with the conventional operation strategy, a maximum of 5.47% of the total operation cost is saved using the proposed optimization model. -- Highlights: → We develop a complete simulation model for steam turbine with multiple extractions. → We test the simulation model using the performance data of commercial turbines. → The simulation error of electric power generation is no more than 0.87%. → We establish a utility system operational optimization model. → The optimal industrial operation scheme featured with 5.47% of cost saving.

  2. 900 MW CP1 nuclear steam turbine retrofit thermal effects on low pressure diaphragms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buguin, A.; Gruau, P.; Lamarque, F.; Huggett, J.

    2015-01-01

    The steam turbines of the Koeberg units 1 and 2 operated by ESKOM in South Africa have been retrofitted in order to mitigate the generic problems of stress corrosion cracking of the original shrunk-on disk rotor design. As already done in Belgium and France, the implementation of welded rotors improves the turbine reliability and availability. Moreover, the new technology implemented associated with a new steam path allows a significant performance improvement. With a wealth of experience in CP1 retrofit, ALSTOM has put in place new technical features in the steam path in order to further improve the heat rate. Among them, steam balance holes drilled in the rotor disks have exacerbated the thermal sensitivity of the LP diaphragms. During the commissioning of the Unit 1 LP turbines following the retrofit, the load increase led to unacceptable vibrations. An investigation program was launched to determine the root causes of the problem. This paper presents the findings following the turbine inspection, as well as the recommendations and modifications to allow a smooth return to service of the unit. In addition, the results of the root cause analysis of the vibration incident are explained. Based on finite element calculations and site measurements, ALSTOM has established that the diaphragm thermal behavior, intensified by the steam balance holes, has led to radial rubbing. It was also established that the phenomena had no effect on the diaphragms mechanical integrity. Design changes have been proposed to ensure a safe and reliable long term operation of the units. These modifications have been successfully implemented onto the Koeberg Unit 2 Nuclear Steam Turbine commissioned in November 2012. (authors)

  3. Integration of steam injection and inlet air cooling for a gas turbine generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.J.; Chiou, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The temperature of exhaust gases from simple cycle gas turbine generation sets (GENSETs) is usually very high (around 500 deg. C), and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is often used to recover the energy from the exhaust gases and generate steam. The generated steams can be either used for many useful processes (heating, drying, separation etc.) or used back in the power generation system for enhancing power generation capacity and efficiency. Two well-proven techniques, namely steam injection gas turbine (STIG) and inlet air cooling (IAC) are very effective features that can use the generated steam to improve the power generation capacity and efficiency. Since the energy level of the generated steam needed for steam injection is different from that needed by an absorption chiller to cool the inlet air, a proper arrangement is required to implement both the STIG and the IAC features into the simple cycle GENSET. In this study, a computer code was developed to simulate a Tai power's Frame 7B simple cycle GENSET. Under the condition of local summer weather, the benefits obtained from the system implementing both STIG and IAC features are more than a 70% boost in power and 20.4% improvement in heat rate

  4. Design and field operation of 1175 MW steam turbine for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yoshio; Nakagami, Yasuo; Fujii, Hisashi; Shibanai, Hirooki.

    1980-01-01

    Two 1175 MW steam turbine and generator units have been successfully in commercial operation since March 1979 and December 1979 respectively at Ohi Nuclear Power Station of the Kansai Electric Power Company. Those units, the largest in their respective outputs in Japan, have also such remarkable design features as two-stage reheat, nozzle governing turbine, water cooled generator stator and turbine-driven feedwater pumps. This paper covers design features and some topics of various pre-operational tests of the above-mentioned units. (author)

  5. Design and field operation of 1175 MW steam turbine for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Y.; Nakagami, Y.; Fujii, H.; Shibanai, H.

    1980-01-01

    Two 1,175 MW steam turbine and generator units have been successfully in commercial operation since March 1979 and December 1979 respectively at Ohi Nuclear Power Station of the Kansai Electric Power Company. Those units, the largest in their respective outputs in Japan, have also such remarkable design features as two-stage reheat, nozzle governing turbine, water cooled generator stator and turbine-driven feedwater pumps. This paper covers design features and some topics of various pre-operational tests of the above-mentioned units. (author)

  6. Thermoeconomic Modeling and Parametric Study of Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell â Gas Turbine â Steam Turbine Power Plants Ranging from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe

    OpenAIRE

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    2007-01-01

    Detailed thermodynamic, kinetic, geometric, and cost models are developed, implemented, and validated for the synthesis/design and operational analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) â gas turbine (GT) â steam turbine (ST) systems ranging in size from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe. The fuel cell model used in this thesis is based on a tubular Siemens-Westinghouse-type SOFC, which is integrated with a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) integrated in turn with a steam turbi...

  7. Experimental verification of blade elongation and axial rotor shift in steam turbines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2016), s. 190-192 ISSN 2149-8024 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : blade elongation * axial rotor shift * steam turbines * magnetoresistive sensors Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.challengejournal.com/index.php/cjsmec/article/download/74/62

  8. Improvement of Steam Turbine Operational Performance and Reliability with using Modern Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu M.; Kultishev, A. Yu

    2017-11-01

    The report presents improvement methods review in the fields of the steam turbine units design and operation based on modern information technologies application. In accordance with the life cycle methodology support, a conceptual model of the information support system during life cycle main stages (LC) of steam turbine unit is suggested. A classifying system, which ensures the creation of sustainable information links between the engineer team (manufacture’s plant) and customer organizations (power plants), is proposed. Within report, the principle of parameterization expansion beyond the geometric constructions at the design and improvement process of steam turbine unit equipment is proposed, studied and justified. The report presents the steam turbine unit equipment design methodology based on the brand new oil-cooler design system that have been developed and implemented by authors. This design system combines the construction subsystem, which is characterized by extensive usage of family tables and templates, and computation subsystem, which includes a methodology for the thermal-hydraulic zone-by-zone oil coolers design calculations. The report presents data about the developed software for operational monitoring, assessment of equipment parameters features as well as its implementation on five power plants.

  9. Two different modelling methods of the saturated steam turbine load rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negreanu, Gabriel-Paul; Oprea, Ion

    1999-01-01

    One of the most difficult operation regimes of a steam turbine is the load rejection. It happens usually when the main switchgear of the unit closes unexpectedly due to some external or internal causes. In this moment, the rotor balance collapses: the motor momentum is positive, the resistant momentum is zero and the rotation velocity increases rapidly. When this process occurs, the over-speed protection should activate the emergency stop valves and the control and intercept valves in order to stop the steam admission into the turbine. The paper presents two differential approaches of the fluid dynamic processes from the flow sections of the saturated steam turbine of the NPP, where the laws of mass and energy conservation are applied. In this manner, the 'power and speed versus time' diagrams can be drawn. The main parameters of such technical problem are the closure low of the valves, the large volume of internal cavities, the huge inertial momentum of the rotor and especially the moisture of the steam that evaporates when the pressure decreases and generates an extra power in the turbine. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of material integrity on electricity power steam generator cycles (turbine casing) component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histori; Benedicta; Farokhi; S A, Soedardjo; Triyadi, Ari; Natsir, M

    1999-01-01

    The evaluation of material integrity on power steam generator cycles component was done. The test was carried out on casing turbine which is made from Inconel 617. The tested material was taken from t anjung Priok plant . The evaluation was done by metallography analysis using microscope with magnification of 400. From the result, it is shown that the material grains are equiaxed

  11. Modification of the algorithm for steam turbine control under loading drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Yu.V.; Mirnyj, V.A.; Gritsenko, V.N.; Nesterov, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    Problem related to powerful steam turbine control in case of emergency loading drop is considered. Two laws of control creating conditions for qualitative operation of control system under conditions considered are compared. The system of turbine control comprises the turbine major actuating mechanisms (electrohydraulic transducer, high-pressure servomotor, cut-off slide valve) actuating mechanisms of pulse discharge channel (low-pressure servomotor cut-off slide valve, low-pressure servomotor) and regulator. The frequency of the turbine rotor rotation is the parameter to be controlled in the mode of loading drop. The algorithms considered are based on linear variant of the optimal control theory. One of them is realized in electrohydraulic system of the K-750-65/3000 turbine control at the Ignalinsk NPP

  12. Application of new designed butterfly type intermediate valve for nuclear steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Kawamata, Susumu; Fujita, Isao; Taketomo, Seiki.

    1991-01-01

    To cope with a large capacity nuclear steam turbine, a butterfly type intermediate valve has been developed. Compared to the conventional valve, or globe valve, the butterfly valve has the following design features: a) Higher thermal efficiency due to lower pressure loss, b) Easier maintenance due to simplified construction, and c) Lower station cost due to the smaller size of the valve assembly. An experiment with a scaled-down test valve was carried out using compressed air. Subsequently a full-scale valve was tested using steam under actual steam conditions. As a result, these tests gave us no problems. The first nuclear turbine (1100MW) equipped with a butterfly valve is operating satisfactorily with good performance as expected. (author)

  13. Dynamic performances of wet turbine and steam-separator-superheater and their mathematical simulation as objects of temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovach, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical model of a turbine and steam-separator-superheater (SSS) as applied to solution of the tasks of steam temperature regulaton after SSS has been developed. SSS as objects of steam temperature control are considerably less inertial, than intermediate superheaters (IS) of power units in thermal power plants, since for typical SSS and IS considered the duration of transition process according to steam temperature after SSS is 5-10 times loweA than for IS

  14. Control of internal packing seal clearances considering for shaft behavior during steam turbine operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Min Sik; Lee, Si Yeon; Choi, Sung Choul; Lee, Jae Geun [Korea Plant Service and Engineering Co., Ltd., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Bo Suk [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of internal clearances for the interstage of blades and shaft gland seals on the steam turbine which are installed in tandem compound. Internal clearances was changed when the rotor turned in the cylindrical sleeve bearing due to the generation of oil film wedge. This presented concern is very useful to prevent the rubbing damage of seal edge between the fixed and moving parts in steam turbine due to the misalignment at the rotating and stationary parts. This method is applied for the unbalanced clearances distribution to the left and right sides in the turbine casing. A considerable amount of unbalanced clearances distribution trend is determined according to the rotating speed of rotor, size and type of journal bearing, oil viscosity, surface roughness of bearing and shaft, oil temperature, oil pressure and bearing load.

  15. Issues to improve the safety of 18K370 steam turbine operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bzymek Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of improving the safety and reliability of operation the 18K370 steam turbines Opole Power Plant since the first failure in 2010 [1], up to install the on-line monitoring system [2]. It shows how the units work and how to analyse the contol stage as a critical node in designing the turbine. Selected results of the analysis of the strength of CSD (Computational Solid Dynamic and the nature of the flow in different operating regimes - thanks to CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis have been included. We have also briefly discussed the way of lifecycle management of individual elements [2,3]. The presented actions could be considered satisfactory, and improve the safety of operating steam turbines of type 18K370.

  16. Performance analysis of a small regenerative gas turbine system adopting steam injection and side-wall in finned tube evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Soo Young; Lee, Jong Jun; Kim, Tong Seop

    2009-01-01

    Small gas turbines in power range of several MWs are quite suitable for application in distributed generation as well as Community Energy Systems (CES). Humidification is an effective way to improve gas turbine performance, and steam injection is the most general and practically feasible method. This study intended to examine the effect of steam injection on the performance of several MW class gas turbines. A primary concern is given to the regenerative cycle gas turbine. The steam injection effect on the performance of a system without the regenerator (i.e. a simple cycle) is also examined. In addition, the influence of bypass of some of the exhaust gas on the performance of the gas turbine, especially the regenerative cycle gas turbine, is evaluated.

  17. Water separator for a steam turbine for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.; Hubble, W.S.; Woods, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a water separator for the condensation of humidity from steam of the inertia type, which has an improved flow distribution and can therefore be built for large dimensions. This is achieved by variation of the dimensions of the components of the liquid separator, particularly by the configuration of the drain trough, and by the fixing of suitable impact sheets, which produce turbulence and distribute the wet steam evenly over the separator elements. There is a detailed representation with drawings. (UW) [de

  18. The Effect of Condensing Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Body Geometry on Exhaust Performance Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribin, V. G.; Paramonov, A. N.; Mitrokhova, O. M.

    2018-06-01

    The article presents data from combined numerical and experimental investigations of the effect that the overall dimensions of the exhaust hood of a steam turbine with an underslung condenser has on the aerodynamic losses in the hood. Owing to the properly selected minimum permissible overall dimensions of the exhaust hood, more efficient operation of this turbine component is achieved, better vibration stability of the turbine set shaft line is obtained, and lower costs are required for arranging the steam turbine plant in the turbine building. Experiments have shown that the main overall dimensions of the hood body have a determining effect on the exhaust hood flow path profile and on its aerodynamic performance. Owing to properly selected ratios between the exhaust hood body main sizes without a diffuser, a total loss coefficient equal to approximately unity has been obtained. By using an axial-radial diffuser, the energy loss can be decreased by 30-40% depending on the geometrical parameters and level of velocities in the inlet section of a hood having the optimal overall dimensions. By using the obtained results, it becomes possible to evaluate the overall dimensions necessary for achieving the maximal aerodynamic hood efficiency and, as a consequence, to obtain better technical and economic indicators of the turbine plant as a whole already at the initial stage of its designing. If a need arises to select overall dimensions smaller than their optimal values, the increase of energy loss can be estimated using the presented dependences. The cycle of investigations was carried out on the experimental setups available in the fundamental research laboratory of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National University's Department of Steam and Gas Turbines with due regard to the operating parameters and similarity criteria.

  19. Using the artificial neural network to control the steam turbine heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Grzegorz; Rusin, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Inverse Artificial Neural Network has a potential to control the start-up process of a steam turbine. • Two serial neural networks made it possible to model the rotor stress based of steam parameters. • An ANN with feedback enables transient stress modelling with good accuracy. - Abstract: Due to the significant share of renewable energy sources (RES) – wind farms in particular – in the power sector of many countries, power generation systems become sensitive to variable weather conditions. Under unfavourable changes in weather, ensuring required energy supplies involves hasty start-ups of conventional steam power units whose operation should be characterized by higher and higher flexibility. Controlling the process of power engineering machinery operation requires fast predictive models that will make it possible to analyse many parallel scenarios and select the most favourable one. This approach is employed by the algorithm for the inverse neural network control presented in this paper. Based on the current thermal state of the turbine casing, the algorithm controls the steam temperature at the turbine inlet to keep both the start-up rate and the safety of the machine at the allowable level. The method used herein is based on two artificial neural networks (ANN) working in series.

  20. Performance and environment as objectives in multi-criterion optimization of steam injected gas turbine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayadelen, Hasan Kayhan; Ust, Yasin

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly growing demand for gas turbines promotes research on their performance improvement and reducing their exhaust pollutants. Even small increments in net power or thermal efficiency and small changes in pollutant emissions have become significant concerns for both new designs and cycle modifications. To fulfill these requirements an accurate performance evaluation method which enables to see the effects on the exhaust gas composition is an important necessity. To fill this gap, a thermo-ecologic performance evaluation approach for gas turbine cycles with chemical equilibrium approximation which enables performance and environmental aspects to be considered simultaneously, is presented in this work. Steam injection is an effective modification to boost power and limit NO x emissions for gas turbine systems. Steam injection also increases thermal efficiency so less fuel is burnt to maintain the same power output. Because of its performance related and environmental advantages, presented approach is applied on the steam injected gas turbine cycle and a precise multi-criterion optimization is carried out for varying steam injection, as well as equivalence and pressure ratios. Irreversibilities and pressure losses are also considered. Effects of each parameter on the net work and thermal efficiency as well as non-equilibrium NO x and CO emissions are demonstrated. Precision improvement of the presented thermo-ecological model is shown and two main concerns; constant turbine inlet condition for higher net work output and constant net work output condition for lower fuel consumption are compared. - Highlights: • A thermodynamically precise performance estimation tool for GT cycles is presented. • STIG application is provided to show its flexibility for any GT cycle and diluents. • Constant TIT and net work output conditions have been compared and discussed. • The model provides results to evaluate economic and environmental aspects together. • It provides a

  1. Analysis of the Instability Phenomena Caused by Steam in High-Pressure Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pennacchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Instability phenomena in steam turbines may happen as a consequence of certain characteristics of the steam flow as well as of the mechanical and geometrical properties of the seals. This phenomenon can be modeled and the raise of the steam flow and pressure causes the increase of the cross coupled coefficients used to model the seal stiffness. As a consequence, the eigenvalues and eigenmodes of the mathematical model of the machine change. The real part of the eigenvalue associated with the first flexural normal mode of the turbine shaft may become positive causing the conditions for unstable vibrations. The original contribution of the paper is the application of a model-based analysis of the dynamic behavior of a large power unit, affected by steam-whirl instability phenomena. The model proposed by the authors allows studying successfully the experimental case. The threshold level of the steam flow that causes instability conditions is analyzed and used to define the stability margin of the power unit.

  2. Power plant and system for accelerating a cross compound turbine in such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegtnes, K.O.; Braytenbah, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, a power plant includes a steam source to generate superheat and reheat steam which flows through a turbine-generator and an associated bypass system. A high-pressure and an intermediate-pressure turbine portion drive a first electrical generating means, and a low-pressure turbine portion drives a second electrical generating means. A first flow of superheat steam flows through the high-pressure portion, while a second flow of reheat steam flows through the intermediate and low-pressure portions in succession. Provision is made for bypassing steam around the turbine portions; in particular, one bypass means permits a flow of superheat steam from the steam source to the exhaust of the high-pressure portion, and another bypass means allows reheated steam to pass from the source to the exhaust of the low-pressure portion. The first and second steam flows are governed independently. While one of such flows is varied for purposes of controlling the rotational speed of the first generating means according to a desired speed, the other flow is varied to regulate a power plant variable at its desired level. (author)

  3. CFD-based shape optimization of steam turbine blade cascade in transonic two phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noori Rahim Abadi, S.M.A.; Ahmadpour, A.; Abadi, S.M.N.R.; Meyer, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CFD-based shape optimization of a nozzle and a turbine blade regarding nucleating steam flow is performed. • Nucleation rate and droplet radius are the best suited objective functions for the optimization process. • Maximum 34% reduction in entropy generation rate is reported for turbine cascade. • A maximum 10% reduction in Baumann factor and a maximum 2.1% increase in efficiency is achieved for a turbine cascade. - Abstract: In this study CFD-based shape optimization of a 3D nozzle and a 2D turbine blade cascade is undertaken in the presence of non-equilibrium condensation within the considered flow channels. A two-fluid formulation is used for the simulation of unsteady, turbulent, supersonic and compressible flow of wet steam accounting for relevant phase interaction between nucleated liquid droplets and continuous vapor phase. An in-house CFD code is developed to solve the governing equations of the two phase flow and was validated against available experimental data. Optimization is carried out in respect to various objective functions. It is shown that nucleation rate and maximum droplet radius are the best suited target functions for reducing thermodynamic and aerodynamic losses caused by the spontaneous nucleation. The maximum increase of 2.1% in turbine blade efficiency is achieved through shape optimization process.

  4. Improvement of testing techniques for inspecting steam turbine rotor in power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yeong Shuenn; Wei, Chieng Neng; Wu, Chien Wen; Wu, Yung How

    1997-01-01

    Steam turbine rotor is important to the Utility industry, it degrades over time due to fatigue and corrosion under high temperature and high pressure environment. Periodic inspection is required in the wake of plant annual overhaul to ensure the integrity of turbine rotor. Non-Destructive Testing of turbine rotor is usually performed using magnetic particle testing with wet fluorescent magnetic particle. However, it is very difficult to ensure the reliability of inspection due to the limitation of using one NDT method only. The crack-susceptible areas, such as turbine blade, and blade root have high incidence of stress corrosion cracking, The blade root section is difficult to locate cracks because of the complex geometry which may cause inadequate magnetic field and poor accessibility. Improved inspection practices was developed by our Department, together with remaining life analysis, in maintaining the high availability of steam turbine rotor. The newly-developed inspection system based on the practical study of magnetic field strength distribution, quality of magnetic particle bath and a combination of different NDT methods with Eddy Current Testing using absolute pen-type coil and Visual Testing using reflective mirror to examine the key areas concerned are described. TPC' experience with the well-trained technicians together with the adequate inspection procedure in detecting blade-root flaws are also discussed in the paper. Many of these inspection improvement have been applied in the fields for several times and the inspection reliability has been enhanced substantially. Results are quite encouraging and satisfactory.

  5. A theoretical analysis of flow through the nucleating stage in a low pressure steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skillings, S.A.; Walters, P.T.; Jackson, R.

    1989-01-01

    In order to improve steam turbine efficiency and reliability, the phenomena associated with the formation and growth of water droplets must be understood. This report describes a theoretical investigation into flow behaviour in the nucleating stage, where the predictions of a one-dimensional theory are compared with measured turbine data. Results indicate that droplet sizes predicted by homogeneous condensation theory cannot be reconciled with measurements unless fluctuating shock waves arise. Heterogeneous effects and flow turbulence are also discussed along with their implications for the condensation process. (author)

  6. Energy Analysis of Cascade Heating with High Back-Pressure Large-Scale Steam Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the exergy loss that is caused by the high-grade extraction steam of traditional heating mode of combined heat and power (CHP generating unit, a high back-pressure cascade heating technology for two jointly constructed large-scale steam turbine power generating units is proposed. The Unit 1 makes full use of the exhaust steam heat from high back-pressure turbine, and the Unit 2 uses the original heating mode of extracting steam condensation, which significantly reduces the flow rate of high-grade extraction steam. The typical 2 × 350 MW supercritical CHP units in northern China were selected as object. The boundary conditions for heating were determined based on the actual climatic conditions and heating demands. A model to analyze the performance of the high back-pressure cascade heating supply units for off-design operating conditions was developed. The load distributions between high back-pressure exhaust steam direct supply and extraction steam heating supply were described under various conditions, based on which, the heating efficiency of the CHP units with the high back-pressure cascade heating system was analyzed. The design heating load and maximum heating supply load were determined as well. The results indicate that the average coal consumption rate during the heating season is 205.46 g/kWh for the design heating load after the retrofit, which is about 51.99 g/kWh lower than that of the traditional heating mode. The coal consumption rate of 199.07 g/kWh can be achieved for the maximum heating load. Significant energy saving and CO2 emission reduction are obtained.

  7. Experience with instrumentational monitoring of steam turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, H.; Hagemann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Many factors can lead to the deformation of foundations and consequently to variations in the state of alignment of a turbine shaft line. Various measurement programmes, measurement procedures and instrumentation have been developed and proven in power plant practice. Experience accumulated hitherto with automatic measurement systems shows that these procedures are superior to conventional methods in respect of accuracy, availability and information content. (orig.) [de

  8. Influence of steam leakage through vane, gland, and shaft seals on rotordynamics of high-pressure rotor of a 1,000 MW ultra-supercritical steam turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, P.N. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Turbine Company, Department of R and D, Shanghai (China); Wang, W.Z.; Liu, Y.Z. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China); Meng, G. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China)

    2012-02-15

    A comparative analysis of the influence of steam leakage through vane, gland, and shaft seals on the rotordynamics of the high-pressure rotor of a 1,000 MW ultra-supercritical steam turbine was performed using numerical calculations. The rotordynamic coefficients associated with steam leakage through the three labyrinth seals were calculated using the control-volume method and perturbation analysis. A stability analysis of the rotor system subject to the steam forcing induced by the leakage flow was performed using the finite element method. An analysis of the influence of the labyrinth seal forcing on the rotordynamics was carried out by varying the geometrical parameters pertaining to the tooth number, seal clearance, and inner diameter of the labyrinth seals, along with the thermal parameters with respect to pressures and temperatures. The results demonstrated that the steam forcing with an increase in the length of the blade for the vane seal significantly influences the rotordynamic coefficients. Furthermore, the contribution of steam forcing to the instability of the rotor is decreased and increased with increases in the seal clearance and tooth number, respectively. The comparison of the rotordynamic coefficients associated with steam leakage through the vane seal, gland seal, and shaft seal convincingly disclosed that, although the steam forcing attenuates the stability of the rotor system, the steam turbine is still operating under safe conditions. (orig.)

  9. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sobczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power system, newly connected large thermal units and delaying of building new transmission lines. The principle of fast-valving and advantages of applying this technique in large steam turbine units was presented in the paper. Effectiveness of fast-valving in enhancing the stability of the Polish Power Grid was analyzed. The feasibility study of fast-valving application in the 560 MW unit in Kozienice Power Station (EW SA was discussed.

  10. The taking into consideration of reliability in the design of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazzini, Robert; Chaboseau, J.; Mathey, J.

    1976-01-01

    Improvement of the quality of steam turbines is the object of continuous effort undertaken a long time ago. The turbines used in nuclear power stations, do not constitute a technical novation as compared to those which equip the 'conventional' type of power station. The specific conditions of the nuclear have nevertheless revealed anxieties which were not so acute in the case of conventional applications (intrinsic safety versus runaway risks, the operating surveillance of safety components, protection against corrosion by wet steam) and which reliability studies have been led to take into account. An example is given of the work carried out in this sense by describing the reliability studies devoted to the protection system of turbogenerator sets against overspeeds [fr

  11. Experience with and techniques of diagnosing power plant steam turbines without dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drapal, A.; Kopecek, K.

    1987-01-01

    Within the framework of vibration diagnostics of steam turbines at the Dukovany nuclear power plant the following factors were monitored: the summation signal of vibrations (usually the path of vibration movement), the time course of the vibration and the phase angle. In non-steady states also run-in and run-out curves, the absolute vibration of bearing stands and the relative vibration of the rotor are monitored. The method has so far not allowed to diagnose failures of antifriction bearings, loose parts, some gear box defects, the development of cracks in vanes, radial cracks in the disk, etc. Briefly characterized is the portable equipment which is available at the Dukovany nuclear power plant for vibration diagnostics of steam turbines. Suggestions are made for completing the system for monitoring service life, operation economics, the diagnosis of control circuits, etc. (Z.M.)

  12. Ecotaxes and their impact in the cost of steam and electric energy generated by a steam turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Gisela

    2006-01-01

    Ecotaxes allow the internalization of costs that are considered externalities associated with polluting industrial process emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, ecotaxes internalize polluting emissions negative impacts that are added to electricity and steam generated costs of a steam turbine and heat recovery systems from a utilities refinery plant. Steam costs were calculated by means of an exergy analysis tool and Aspen Plus simulation models. Ecotaxes were calculated for specific substances emitted in the refinery flue gases, based on a toxicity and pollution scale. Ecotaxes were generated from a model that includes damages produced to biotic and abiotic resources and considers the relative position of those substances in a toxicity and pollution scale. These ecotaxes were internalized by an exergoeconomic analysis resulting in an increase in the cost per kWh produced. This kind of ecotax is not applied in Mexico. The values of ecotaxes used in the cost determination are referred to the values currently applied by some European countries to nitrogen oxides emissions. (author)

  13. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Sobczak; Robert Rink; Rafał Kuczyński; Robert Trębski

    2014-01-01

    Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power syst...

  14. Ways of TPP and NPP powerful steam turbine blade erosion decreasing in low flow rate regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrabrov, P.V.; Khaimov, V.A.; Matveenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    A systematized approach to the problem of efficient cooling of flow passage and exhaust parts of TPP and NPP steam turbines and prevention of erosion wear of inlet and outlet edges of operating blades is presented. Methods for LP casing cooling and sources of erosion-hazard moisture as well as the main technological and design measures to decrease the erosion of blades are determined

  15. Optimization of Root Section for Ultra-long Steam Turbine Rotor Blade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hála, Jindřich; Luxa, Martin; Šimurda, David; Bobčík, M.; Novák, O.; Rudas, B.; Synáč, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2018), s. 95-102 ISSN 1003-2169 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA03020277; GA TA ČR TH02020057 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : steam turbine * blade cascade * root section Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 0.678, year: 2016

  16. Effects of surface roughness on deviation angle and performance losses in wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri Esfe, H.; Kermani, M.J.; Saffar Avval, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, effects of turbine blade roughness and steam condensation on deviation angle and performance losses of the wet stages are investigated. The steam is assumed to obey non-equilibrium thermodynamic model, in which abrupt formation of liquid droplets produces condensation shocks. An AUSM-van Leer hybrid scheme is used to solve two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow around turbine rotor tip sections. The dominant solver of the computational domain is taken to be the AUSM scheme (1993) that in regions with large gradients smoothly switches to van Leer scheme (1979). This guarantees a robust hybrid scheme throughout the domain. It is observed that as a result of condensation, the aerothermodymics of the flow field changes. For example for a supersonic wet case with exit isentropic Mach number M e,is  = 1.45, the deviation angle and total pressure loss coefficient change by 65% and 200%, respectively, when compared with dry case. It is also observed that losses due to surface roughness in subsonic regions are much larger than those in supersonic regions. Hence, as a practical guideline for maintenance sequences, cleaning of subsonic parts of steam turbines should be considered first. - Highlights: • Two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow is numerically studied in this paper. • As a result of condensation, aerothermodynamics of the flow field changes. • Surface roughness has almost negligible effect on deviation angle. • Surface roughness plays an important role in performance losses. • Contribution of different loss mechanisms for smooth and rough blades are computed.

  17. An opportunity for capacity up-rating of 1000 MW steam turbine plant in Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.

    2005-01-01

    In connection with earlier and forced decommissioning of the Kozloduy NPP units 1 - 4, an alternative has to be found in order to substitute these capacities. As a reasonable options, capacity up-rating of 1000 MW steam turbine plants without nuclear reactor thermal capacity increase, is investigated in the present study. The cooling water for these units is delivered by Danube river. The cooling water temperatures substantially decrease during the winter months. These changes create an opportunity for steam back end pressure reduction. It was found that when the cooling water temperature decreases from 15 0 C to 3 0 C, the steam back end pressure is on the decrease of from 3.92 kPa to 2.3 kPa. As a result capacity of the plant could be raised up to 50 MW without any substantial equipment and systems change

  18. Use of a microvideo probe to measure the size and velocity of water droplets in EDF steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, J.J.; Heurtebise, F.; Kleitz, A.

    1992-09-01

    Owing to the necessity to protect equipment associated with power plant turbines using saturated steam and following verification of the turbine design codes, EDF has developed a probe specifically designed for velocimetric and particle size grading measurements in this 2-phase environment. This method is also suitable for the measurement of cold or incandescent solid particles entrained in gas. (authors). 8 figs., 3 refs

  19. Possibility of revitalization of control system of steam turbine 210 MW LMZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racki, Branko

    2004-01-01

    It is a one-shaft, three casing condensing turbine, type K-210-130. A rigid coupling connects it directly to the electric energy generator. There is one intermediate superheat of steam and seven non regulated blending for regenerative condensate heating. A considerate number of such turbines have been used on the territory of the Eastern Europe. There are two blocks installed in TP Sisak, Croatia. There is a survey of the existing control system of turbine, power 210 MW. It points out and describes problems appearing during exploitation. Technical solutions according to complexity of realization have been described. It gives an overview of minimum range of modification with utilization of the existing oil system and maximum range by adding separate high pressure oil system with new solutions for performing segments. (Author)

  20. Using the CAE technologies of engineering analysis for designing steam turbines at ZAO Ural Turbine Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloshumova, V. N.; Kortenko, V. V.; Pokhoriler, V. L.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Ivanovskii, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    We describe the experience ZAO Ural Turbine Works specialists gained from mastering the series of CAD/CAE/CAM/PDM technologies, which are modern software tools of computer-aided engineering. We also present the results obtained from mathematical simulation of the process through which high-and intermediate-pressure rotors are heated for revealing the most thermally stressed zones, as well as the results from mathematical simulation of a new design of turbine cylinder shells for improving the maneuverability of these turbines.

  1. Gas-steam turbine plant for cogenerative process at 'Toplifikacija' - Skopje (Joint-Stock Co. for district heating - Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovski, Andrijan

    2003-01-01

    The gas-steam power plant for combined heat and electric power production at A.D. 'Toplifikacija' Skopje - TO 'Zapad' is analyzed and determined. The analyzed plant is consisted of gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and condensate steam turbine with controlled steam extraction. It operates on natural gas as a main fuel source. The heating of the water for the district heating is dine in the heat exchanger, with // heat of controlled extraction from condensate turbine. The advantages of the both binary plant and centralized co generative production compared with the individual are analyzed. The natural gas consumption of for both specific heating and electrical capacity in join production as well as fuel savings compared to the separate production of the same quantity of energy is also analyzed. (Original)

  2. Process for resuperheating steam coming from the high-pressure stage of a turbine and device to bring into use this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacault, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    A process is described for resuperheating steam coming from the high pressure stage of a turbine fed by a steam generator, itself heated from a base thermal source. The resuperheating is done by desuperheating at least a part of the steam coming from the generator, taken from the inflow of the turbine high pressure stage, the desuperheated steam being condensed, partially at least, in a condensation exchanger forming a preliminary resuperheater [fr

  3. Heat balance calculation and feasibility analysis for initial startup of Fuqing nuclear turbine unit with non-nuclear steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Liu; Xiao Bo; Song Yumeng

    2014-01-01

    Non-nuclear steam run up compared with nuclear steam run up, can verify the design, manufacture, installation quality of the unit, at the same time shorten the follow-up duration of the entire group ready to start debugging time. In this paper, starting from the first law of thermodynamics, Analyzed Heat balance Calculation and Feasibility analysis for Initial startup of Fuqing nuclear Turbine unit with Non-nuclear steam, By the above calculation, to the system requirements and device status on the basis of technical specifications, confirmed the feasibility of Non-nuclear steam running up in theory. After the implementation of the Non-nuclear turn of Fuqing unit, confirmed the results fit with the actual process. In summary, the Initial startup of Fuqing turbine unit with Non-nuclear steam is feasible. (authors)

  4. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE THEORY OF VENTILLATION PROCESSES IN THE STEAM TURBINES TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Neuimin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article proposes the theoretical framework of ventilation processes emerging and going on in the stages of TPP steam turbines during the operating regimes with small-quantity volumetric flow rates in the low-pressure cylinder. The basic theory includes new physicomathematical models for estimating the ventilating capacity losses and ventilation heatings-up of the steam and the air-gas channel of the turbine; search and investigation of the factors causing the increased momental loads on the blade wheels of the finale stages which are likely to lead to destruction of the rotating blades. The paper renders the practical results of utilizing the theoretical framework of ventilation processes.The author obtains a new mathematical relation for high-accuracy assessment of the ventilating capacity losses accounting for all the diversification of parameters defining the level of these losses (it is established that the Coriolis force contributes twice as much to the ventilating capacity losses as the centrifugal force. Seven ordinary formulae obtained on its basis provide a separate stage ventilation-losses immediate evaluation (with rotation blades of the finale stage not unwinding from the turning, with rotation blades of the finale and intermediate stages unwinding from the turning, in the turbine altogether-vapor-evacuated including by readings of the regular instruments located at the connecters of the exhaust part of the lowpressure cylinder.As the cornerstone of the new ventilation heating-up evaluation system the author lays two experimentally established facts: the ventilating capacity losses are practically constant at working steam negligible volumetric flow rates; symmetrical ventilating flows in the blade channel mingle entirely to the moment of their split up at the periphery. This renders possible estimating the complete enthalpy increment of the steam being discharged from a stage in relation to the enthalpy of the steam being

  5. Investigation for vertical, two-phase steam-water flow of three turbine models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, S.; Goodrich, L.D.

    1977-01-01

    One of the basic quantities of interest during a loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE) is the primary system mass flow rate. Presently, there are no transducers commercially available which continuously measure this parameter. Therefore, a transducer was designed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. which combines a drag-disc and turbine into a single unit. The basis for the design was that the drag-disc would measure momentum flux (rhoV 2 ), the turbine would measure velocity and the mass flow rate could then be calculated from the two quantities by assuming a flow profile. For two-phase flow, the outputs are approximately proportional to the desired parameter, but rather large errors can be expected under those assumptions. Preliminary evaluation of the experimental two- and single-phase calibration data has resulted in uncertainty estimates of +-8% of range for the turbine and +-20% of range for the drag-disc. In an effort to reduce the errors, further investigations were made to determine what the drag-disc and turbine really measure. In the present paper, three turbine models for vertical, two-phase, steam/water flow are investigated; the Aya Model, the Rouhani Model, and a volumetric flow model. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data for vertical, two-phase steam/water flow. For the purposes of the mass flow calculation, velocity profiles were assumed to be flat for the free-field condition. It is appreciated that this may not be true for all cases investigated, but for an initial inspection, flat profiles were assumed

  6. Vibration Spectrum Analysis for Indicating Damage on Turbine and Steam Generator Amurang Unit 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beny Cahyono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance on machines is a mandatory asset management activity to maintain asset reliability in order to reduce losses due to failure. 89% of defects have random failure mode, the proper maintenance method is predictive maintenance. Predictive maintenance object in this research is Steam Generator Amurang Unit 1, which is predictive maintenance is done through condition monitoring in the form of vibration analysis. The conducting vibration analysis on Amurang Unit 1 Steam Generator is because vibration analysis is very effective on rotating objects. Vibration analysis is predicting the damage based on the vibration spectrum, where the vibration spectrum is the result of separating time-based vibrations and simplifying them into vibrations based on their frequency domain. The transformation of time-domain-wave into frequency-domain-wave is using the application of FFT, namely AMS Machinery. The measurement of vibration value is done on turbine bearings and steam generator of Unit 1 Amurang using Turbine Supervisory Instrument and CSI 2600 instrument. The result of this research indicates that vibration spectrum from Unit 1 Amurang Power Plant indicating that there is rotating looseness, even though the vibration value does not require the Unit 1 Amurang Power Plant to stop operating (shut down. This rotating looseness, at some point, can produce some indications that similar with the unbalance. In order to avoid more severe vibrations, it is necessary to do inspection on the bearings in the Amurang Unit 1 Power Plant.

  7. Through-flow analysis of steam turbines operating under partial admission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delabriere, H.; Werthe, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    In order to produce electric energy with improved efficiency, Electricite de France has to check the performances of equipment proposed by manufacturers. In the specific field of steam turbines, one of the main tools of analysis is the quasi 3D through flow computer code CAPTUR, which enables the calculation of all the aerothermodynamic parameters in a steam turbine. The last development that has been performed on CAPTUR is the extension to a calculation of a flow within a turbine operating under partial admission. For such turbines, it is now possible to calculate an internal flow field, and determine the efficiency, in a much more accurate way than with previous methods, which consist in an arbitrary efficiency correction on an averaged 1D flow calculation. From the aerodynamic point of view, partial admission involves specific losses in the first stage, then expansion and turbulent mixing just downstream of the first stage. Losses in the first stage are of very different types: windage, pumping and expansion at the ends of an admission sector. Their values have been estimated, with help of experimental results, and then expressed as a slow down coefficient applied to the relative velocity at the blade outlet. As for the flow downstream the first stage, a computational analysis has been made with specific 2D and 3D codes. It has led to define the numerical treatment established in the CAPTUR code. Some problems had to be solved to make compatible a quasi 3D formulation, making an average in the azimutal direction and using a streamline curvature method, with an absolute 3D phenomenon. Certain limitations of the working conditions were first adopted, but a generalization is on hand. The calculation of a nuclear HP steam turbine operating under partial admission has been performed. Calculation results are in good accordance with tests results, especially as regards the expansion line along the stages. The code CAPTUR will be particularly useful for the calculation

  8. Processing of Advanced Cast Alloys for A-USC Steam Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffery A.; Cowen, Christopher J.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2012-02-01

    The high-temperature components within conventional supercritical coal-fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. To reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased to as high a temperature and pressure as feasible. The proposed steam temperature in the DOE/NETL Advanced Ultra Supercritical power plant is high enough (760°C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work for the majority of high-temperature components in the turbine or for pipes and tubes in the boiler due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Thus, Ni-based superalloys are being considered for many of these components. Off-the-shelf forged nickel alloys have shown good promise at these temperatures, but further improvements can be made through experimentation within the nominal chemistry range as well as through thermomechanical processing and subsequent heat treatment. However, cast nickel-based superalloys, which possess high strength, creep resistance, and weldability, are typically not available, particularly those with good ductility and toughness that are weldable in thick sections. To address those issues related to thick casting for turbine casings, for example, cast analogs of selected wrought nickel-based superalloys such as alloy 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105 have been produced. Alloy design criteria, melt processing experiences, and heat treatment are discussed with respect to the as-processed and heat-treated microstructures and selected mechanical properties. The discussion concludes with the prospects for full-scale development of a thick section casting for a steam turbine valve chest or rotor casing.

  9. Processing of Advanced Alloys for A-USC Steam Turbine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, P. D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Hawk, Jeffrey A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Cowen, Christopher J. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The high-temperature components within conventional supercritical coal-fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. To reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased to as high a temperature and pressure as feasible. The proposed steam temperature in the DOE/NETL Advanced Ultra Supercritical power plant is high enough (760 C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work for the majority of high-temperature components in the turbine or for pipes and tubes in the boiler due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Thus, Ni-based superalloys are being considered for many of these components. Off-the-shelf forged nickel alloys have shown good promise at these temperatures, but further improvements can be made through experimentation within the nominal chemistry range as well as through thermomechanical processing and subsequent heat treatment. However, cast nickel-based superalloys, which possess high strength, creep resistance, and weldability, are typically not available, particularly those with good ductility and toughness that are weldable in thick sections. To address those issues related to thick casting for turbine casings, for example, cast analogs of selected wrought nickel-based superalloys such as alloy 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105 have been produced. Alloy design criteria, melt processing experiences, and heat treatment are discussed with respect to the as-processed and heat-treated microstructures and selected mechanical properties. The discussion concludes with the prospects for full-scale development of a thick section casting for a steam turbine valve chest or rotor casing.

  10. The Analysis of process optimization during the loading distribution test for steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangwei; Cao Yuhua; Li Dawei

    2014-01-01

    The loading distribution of steam turbine needs six times to complete in total, the first time is completed when the turbine cylinder buckles, the rest must be completed orderly in the process of installing GVP pipe. To complete 5 tests of loading distribution and installation of GVP pipe, it usually takes around 90 days for most nuclear plants while the unit l of Fuqing Nuclear Power Station compress it into about 45 days by optimizing the installation process. this article describes the successful experience of how the Unit l of Fuqing Nuclear Power Station finished 5 tests of loading distribution and installation of GVP pipe in 45 days by optimizing the process, Meanwhile they analysis the advantages and disadvantages through comparing it with the process provide by suppliers, which brings up some rationalization proposals for installation work to the follow-up units of our plant. (authors)

  11. Flow simulation of a partial-admission steam turbine; Stroemungssimulation einer teilbeaufschlagten Dampfturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkkuhl, Tobias J.

    2014-11-21

    This thesis discusses the CFD simulation of the flow in an industrial steam turbine, equipped with a control stage. Due to partial admission, the rotor blades suffer from high cyclic blade loading. Specific losses occur. The circumferential asymmetry of the flow involves high gradients of the flow variables in circumferential direction. At the boundaries, between the admitted and the non-admitted sectors, high velocities appear. The specific flow patterns produce high flow unsteadiness of the rotor resulting in cyclic blade loading. Due to the pressure fluctuations the aerodynamic forces, acting on the rotor blades, are many times higher than the average forces in the admitted sector. The thesis describes the high cyclic blade loading, together with the unsteady and three-dimensional flow patterns inside the control stage and the attenuation in the adjacent turbine stages. Modifications to the geometry within the control stage show severe influence on the dynamics.

  12. Fatigue and creep cracking of nickel alloys for 700 C steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Granacher, J.; Thoma, A.; Roesler, J.; Del Genovese, D.

    2001-01-01

    Four materials of the types Inconel 706 (two heat treatment states), Inconel 617, and Waspaloy were tested as shaft materials for 700 to 720 C steam turbines. At an extrapolation time ratio of 10, Waspaloy was expected to have the highest creep strength (about 270 MPa at 700 C), with values of about 140 MPa at 700 C for Inconel 617. A preliminary evaluation of the 700 C creep rupture tests showed the highest creep rupture resistance for Inconel 617, followed by Waspaloy and Inconel 706 [de

  13. Service-cycle component-feature specimen TMF testing of steam turbine rotor steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radosavljevic, M.; Holdsworth, S.R. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Mazza, E. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland); Grossmann, P.; Ripamonti, L. [ALSTOM Power (Switzerland) Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the methodology adopted in a Swiss Research Collaboration to devise a component-feature representative specimen geometry and the TMF cycle parameters necessary to closely simulate arduous steam turbine operating duty. Implementation of these service-like experimental conditions provides a practical indication of the effectiveness of deformation and crack initiation endurance predictions. Comprehensive post test inspection provides evidence to demonstrate the physical realism of the laboratory simulations in terms of the creep-fatigue damage generated during the benchmark tests. Mechanical response results and physical damage observations are presented and their practical implications discussed for the example of a 2%CrMoNiWV rotor service cycle. (orig.)

  14. Ni-base wrought alloy development for USC steam turbine rotor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkalla, H.-J.; Schubert, F.

    2004-01-01

    For the development of a new generation of steam turbines for use in advanced power plants with prospective operating temperatures of about 700 o C the ferritic steels for rotor applications must be replaced by advanced wrought Ni-base superalloys as the most qualified candidate materials for this purpose. In this paper three different potential candidates are discussed under the aspects of fabricability, sufficient microstructural and mechanical stability. As a result of theoretical and experimental investigation suitable strategies for the development two modified alloys are proposed to improve the fabricability and microstructural stability. (author)

  15. Effect of internal elements of the steam turbine exhaust hood on losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajč Ladislav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The document deals with the flow in the exhaust hood of a single flow steam turbine. The effect of the shape of the external case of the hood and the position and dimensions of the internal reinforcements on the energy loss coefficient is evaluated. Using this coefficient, it is possible to determine the gained or lost output in the diffuser and the entire exhaust hood at a known flow and efficiency of the last stage. Flow research in the exhaust hood was performed especially using numeric simulations; some variants were verified experimentally in the aerodynamic wind tunnel.

  16. EPRI research program NDE techniques for crack initiation of steam turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Kimura, J.; Kawamoto, K.; Kadoya, Y.; Viswanathan, R.

    1990-01-01

    EPRI RP 2481-8 aims at the development of nondestructive methods for the life assessment of steam turbine rotor for its crack initiation caused by creep and/or fatigue. As a part of the research project, the demonstration of the state of the art NDE techniques was conducted during June to August of 1988 at EPRI NDE Center, Charlotte, N.C. by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. using four rotors retired after long term service (16-22x10 4 hr). This paper introduces the results of the demonstration

  17. Energy and exergy analysis of the turbo-generators and steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive on LNG carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrzljak, Vedran; Poljak, Igor; Mrakovčić, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two low-power steam turbines in the LNG carrier propulsion plant were investigated. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of both steam turbines vary between 46% and 62%. • The ambient temperature has a low impact on exergy efficiency of analyzed turbines. • The maximum efficiencies area of both turbines was investigated. • A method for increasing the turbo-generator efficiencies by 1–3% is presented. - Abstract: Nowadays, marine propulsion systems are mainly based on internal combustion diesel engines. Despite this fact, a number of LNG carriers have steam propulsion plants. In such plants, steam turbines are used not only for ship propulsion, but also for electrical power generation and main feed water pump drive. Marine turbo-generators and steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive were investigated on the analyzed LNG carrier with steam propulsion plant. The measurements of various operating parameters were performed and obtained data were used for energy and exergy analysis. All the measurements and calculations were performed during the ship acceleration. The analysis shows that the energy and exergy efficiencies of both analyzed low-power turbines vary between 46% and 62% what is significantly lower in comparison with the high-power steam turbines. The ambient temperature has a low impact on exergy efficiency of analyzed turbines (change in ambient temperature for 10 °C causes less than 1% change in exergy efficiency). The highest exergy efficiencies were achieved at the lowest observed ambient temperature. Also, the highest efficiencies were achieved at 71.5% of maximum developed turbo-generator power while the highest efficiencies of steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive were achieved at maximum turbine developed power. Replacing the existing steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive with an electric motor would increase the turbo-generator energy and exergy efficiencies for at least 1–3% in all analyzed

  18. Influence of prolonged service of steam turbines on the properties of materials of rotor and vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anfimov, V.M.; Artamonov, V.V.; Chizhik, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of steam turbine elements of 25Kh1MF, 25Kh1M1FA (rotors), 15Kh1M1FL (vessel components) steels have been investigated both in initial state and after 200 000 h operation. The structure stability and phase composition of rotor steels providing conservation of heat resistance at a required level was established. Examination of vessel components showed a decrease in the yield strength by 15-20% and durability - by 10% as compared to initial ones. The conclusion on a possible prolongation of the steam turbine service life to 200 000 h is drawn. The nominal service life equals 100 000 h

  19. An investigation of nucleating flows of steam in a cascade of turbine blading: Effect of overall pressure ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtar, F.; Savage, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the course of expansion of steam in turbines the state path crosses the saturation line and the fluid becomes a two-phase mixture. To reproduce turbine nucleating and wet conditions realistically requires a supply of supercooled steam which can be obtained under blow down conditions. An experimental short duration cascade tunnel working on this principle has been constructed. The blade profile studied is that of a typical nozzle The paper is one of a set and describes the surface pressure measurements carried out to investigate the effect of the overall pressure ratio on the performance of the blade

  20. Repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades using austenitic and martensitic stainless-steel consumables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, A.K.; Gill, T.P.S.; Albert, S.K.; Shanmugam, K.; Iyer, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    The procedure for repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades made of martensitic stainless steels has been developed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Weld repair procedures were developed using both ER 316L austenitic and ER 410 martensitic stainless-steel filler wire. The overall development of the repair welding procedure included selection of welding consumables (for austenitic filler metal), optimisation of post-weld heat treatment parameters, selection of suitable method for local pre-heating and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the blades, determination of mechanical properties of weldments in as-welded and PWHT conditions, and microsturctural examination. After various trials using different procedures, the procedure of local PWHT (and preheating when using martensitic stainless-steel filler wire) using electrical resistance heating on the top surface of the weldment and monitoring the temperature by placing a thermocouple at the bottom of the weld was found to give the most satisfactory results. These procedures have been developed and/or applied for repair welding of cracked blades in steam turbines

  1. Influence of upstream stator on rotor flutter stability in a low pressure steam turbine stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.; He, L. [University of Durham (United Kingdom). School of Engineering; Bell, D. [ALSTOM Power Ltd., Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Conventional blade flutter prediction is normally based on an isolated blade row model, however, little is known about the influence of adjacent blade rows. In this article, an investigation is presented into the influence of the upstream stator row on the aero-elastic stability of rotor blades in the last stage of a low pressure (LP) steam turbine. The influence of the upstream blade row is computed directly by a time-marching, unsteady, Navier-Stokes flow solver in a stator-rotor coupled computational domain. The three-dimensional flutter solution is obtained, with adequate mesh resolution, in a single passage domain through application of the Fourier-Transform based Shape-Correction method. The capability of this single-passage method is examined through comparison with predictions obtained from a complete annulus model, and the results demonstrate a good level of accuracy, while achieving a speed up factor of 25. The present work shows that the upstream stator blade row can significantly change the aero-elastic behaviour of an LP steam turbine rotor. Caution is, therefore, advised when using an isolated blade row model for blade flutter prediction. The results presented also indicated that the intra-row interaction is of a strong three-dimensional nature. (author)

  2. Numerical study of aero-excitation of steam-turbine rotor blade self-oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaev, S. A.; Makhnov, V. Yu.; Ris, V. V.; Smirnov, E. M.

    2018-05-01

    Blade aero-excitation increment is evaluated by numerical solution of the full 3D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations governing wet steam flow in a powerful steam-turbine last stage. The equilibrium wet steam model was adopted. Blade surfaces oscillations are defined by eigen-modes of a row of blades bounded by a shroud. Grid dependency study was performed with a reduced model being a set of blades multiple an eigen-mode nodal diameter. All other computations were carried out for the entire blade row. Two cases are considered, with an original-blade row and with a row of modified (reinforced) blades. Influence of eigen-mode nodal diameter and blade reinforcing on aero-excitation increment is analyzed. It has been established, in particular, that maximum value of the aero-excitation increment for the reinforced-blade row is two times less as compared with the original-blade row. Generally, results of the study point definitely to less probability of occurrence of blade self-oscillations in case of the reinforced blade-row.

  3. A study on reliability of electro-hydraulic governor control system for large steam turbine in power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Gu Hwa; Lee, Tae Hoon; Moon, Seung Jae; Lee, Jae Heon; Yoo, Ho Seon

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the right management procedure for hydraulic power oil will be discussed and suggested. A thermal power plant turbine should respond to the change of load status. However, to satisfy the frequency of alternating current, the revolution per minute should be kept constant. Therefore, by controlling the flow rate of the steam to the turbine, the governor satisfies the load variation without alternating the revolution per minutes of the turbine. To protect the governor, the hydraulic power unit should be managed carefully by controlling the quality and the flow rate of the oil

  4. Co-generation on steam industrial systems with disks turbines; Co-geracao em sistemas industriais de vapor com turbinas de discos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezsovits, Ferenc [Universidad de Tecnologia y Economia de Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-03-15

    The disk turbine, also called Tesla turbine, being of simple construction and low cost, can be used as steam pressure reduction on industrial systems, generating simultaneously electric power, becoming the co-generation even at lower levels. Can be used for various operational parameters and mass flux ratios.This paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the turbines under various operation conditions.

  5. Thermo-economic comparative analysis of gas turbine GT10 integrated with air and steam bottoming cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Daniel; Chmielnak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    A thermodynamic and economic analysis of a GT10 gas turbine integrated with the air bottoming cycle is presented. The results are compared to commercially available combined cycle power plants based on the same gas turbine. The systems under analysis have a better chance of competing with steam bottoming cycle configurations in a small range of the power output capacity. The aim of the calculations is to determine the final cost of electricity generated by the gas turbine air bottoming cycle based on a 25 MW GT10 gas turbine with the exhaust gas mass flow rate of about 80 kg/s. The article shows the results of thermodynamic optimization of the selection of the technological structure of gas turbine air bottoming cycle and of a comparative economic analysis. Quantities are determined that have a decisive impact on the considered units profitability and competitiveness compared to the popular technology based on the steam bottoming cycle. The ultimate quantity that can be compared in the calculations is the cost of 1 MWh of electricity. It should be noted that the systems analyzed herein are power plants where electricity is the only generated product. The performed calculations do not take account of any other (potential) revenues from the sale of energy origin certificates. Keywords: Gas turbine air bottoming cycle, Air bottoming cycle, Gas turbine, GT10

  6. Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 4: Cast Superalloy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangirala, Mani

    2015-09-30

    The Steam Turbine critical stationary structural components are high integrity Large Shell and Valve Casing heavy section Castings, containing high temperature steam under high pressures. Hence to support the development of advanced materials technology for use in an AUSC steam turbine capable of operating with steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F) and 35 Mpa (5000 psia), Casting alloy selection and evaluation of mechanical, metallurgical properties and castability with robust manufacturing methods are mandated. Alloy down select from Phase 1 based on producability criteria and creep rupture properties tested by NETL-Albany and ORNL directed the consortium to investigate cast properties of Haynes 282 and Haynes 263. The goals of Task 4 in Phase 2 are to understand a broader range of mechanical properties, the impact of manufacturing variables on those properties. Scale up the size of heats to production levels to facilitate the understanding of the impact of heat and component weight, on metallurgical and mechanical behavior. GE Power & Water Materials and Processes Engineering for the Phase 2, Task 4.0 Castings work, systematically designed and executed casting material property evaluation, multiple test programs. Starting from 15 lbs. cylinder castings to world’s first 17,000 lbs. poured weight, heavy section large steam turbine partial valve Haynes 282 super alloy casting. This has demonstrated scalability of the material for steam Turbine applications. Activities under Task 4.0, Investigated and characterized various mechanical properties of Cast Haynes 282 and Cast Nimonic 263. The development stages involved were: 1) Small Cast Evaluation: 4 inch diam. Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 Cylinders. This provided effects of liquidus super heat range and first baseline mechanical data on cast versions of conventional vacuum re-melted and forged Ni based super alloys. 2) Step block castings of 300 lbs. and 600 lbs. Haynes 282 from 2 foundry heats were evaluated which

  7. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  8. The elastic plastic behaviour of a 1/2% Cr Mo V steam turbine steel during high strain thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.C.; Batte, A.D.; Stringer, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    High strain fatigue problem in steam turbine. Cyclic stress strain hysteresis loops and stress relaxation behaviour in 16 h dwell period tests. Variation of stress and strain during tests under nominally strain controlled conditions. Definition of test conditions and of criteria for crack initiation and failure. Comparison of reverse bend and push pull failure data. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  9. Characterisation and modelling of the microstructural and mechanical evolution of a steam turbine rotor steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, T.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the effective mechanical analysis of steam turbine parts which is not only required for the reliable and safe use of newly built steam turbines, but also for the remaining life assessment of components that have been exposed to service duty over long periods of time. This Thesis aims to develop a physically motivated evolutionary constitutive model for a low-alloy bainitic 2CrMoNiWV (23CrMoNiWV8-8) steam turbine rotor steels. A comprehensive experimental characterisation is performed concerning the mechanical and microstructural evolution of 2CrMoNiWV as subjected to low cycle fatigue (LCF) deformation at elevated temperatures, at different strain rates and for various strain amplitudes. This cyclic plastic deformation causes the rearrangement of dislocations in the microstructure of the steels used for such rotor applications. Symmetric, strain controlled LCF experiments have been carried out in the Laboratory of the High Temperature Integrity Group at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology EMPA. These include mechanical tests in the temperature range between 20 °C to 600 °C at strain rates of 0.001%/s to 1.0%/s and strain amplitudes of ±0.25% to ±1.0%. The LCF experiments reported on comprehensively characterise the temperature, strain rate and strain amplitude dependent cyclic elastic-plastic behaviour of 2CrMoNiWV. Both complete single-specimen endurance tests and interrupted multi-specimen tests have been performed. On the basis of this experimental evidence, an evolutionary formulation of the model is further developed that excellently reproduces the strain amplitude dependent mechanical evolution of 2CrMoNiWV when subjected to LCF loading at different constant strain amplitudes but equal temperature and strain rate. The simulation of benchmark experiments introducing increasing or decreasing strain amplitude steps into the LCF deformation history provide promising results. A further important

  10. Characterisation and modelling of the microstructural and mechanical evolution of a steam turbine rotor steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T.

    2012-07-01

    This dissertation deals with the effective mechanical analysis of steam turbine parts which is not only required for the reliable and safe use of newly built steam turbines, but also for the remaining life assessment of components that have been exposed to service duty over long periods of time. This Thesis aims to develop a physically motivated evolutionary constitutive model for a low-alloy bainitic 2CrMoNiWV (23CrMoNiWV8-8) steam turbine rotor steels. A comprehensive experimental characterisation is performed concerning the mechanical and microstructural evolution of 2CrMoNiWV as subjected to low cycle fatigue (LCF) deformation at elevated temperatures, at different strain rates and for various strain amplitudes. This cyclic plastic deformation causes the rearrangement of dislocations in the microstructure of the steels used for such rotor applications. Symmetric, strain controlled LCF experiments have been carried out in the Laboratory of the High Temperature Integrity Group at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology EMPA. These include mechanical tests in the temperature range between 20 °C to 600 °C at strain rates of 0.001%/s to 1.0%/s and strain amplitudes of ±0.25% to ±1.0%. The LCF experiments reported on comprehensively characterise the temperature, strain rate and strain amplitude dependent cyclic elastic-plastic behaviour of 2CrMoNiWV. Both complete single-specimen endurance tests and interrupted multi-specimen tests have been performed. On the basis of this experimental evidence, an evolutionary formulation of the model is further developed that excellently reproduces the strain amplitude dependent mechanical evolution of 2CrMoNiWV when subjected to LCF loading at different constant strain amplitudes but equal temperature and strain rate. The simulation of benchmark experiments introducing increasing or decreasing strain amplitude steps into the LCF deformation history provide promising results. A further important

  11. An optical technique for characterizing the liquid phase of steam at the exhaust of an LP turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kercel, S.W.; Simpson, M.L.; Azar, M.; Young, M.

    1993-01-01

    Optical observation of velocity and size of water droplets in powerplant steam has several applications. These include the determination of steam wetness fraction, mass flow rate, and predicting erosion of turbine blades and pipe elbows. The major advantages of optical techniques are that they do not interfere with the flow or perturb the observation. This paper describes the measurement of the size and velocity of particles based on the observation and analysis of visibility patterns created by backscattered circularly polarized light. The size of latex particles in a dry nitrogen stream was measured in the laboratory. Visibility patterns of water droplets were observed in the low pressure turbine of Unit 6 of Alabama Power's Gorgas Steam Plant

  12. A CFD Analysis of Steam Flow in the Two-Stage Experimental Impulse Turbine with the Drum Rotor Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Kukchol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the CFD analysis of the steam flow in the two-stage turbine with a drum rotor and balancing slots. The balancing slot is a part of every rotor blade and it can be used in the same way as balancing holes on the classical rotor disc. The main attention is focused on the explanation of the experimental knowledge about the impact of the slot covering and uncovering on the efficiency of the individual stages and the entire turbine. The pressure and temperature fields and the mass steam flows through the shaft seals, slots and blade cascades are calculated. The impact of the balancing slots covering or uncovering on the reaction and velocity conditions in the stages is evaluated according to the pressure and temperature fields. We have also concentrated on the analysis of the seal steam flow through the balancing slots. The optimized design of the balancing slots has been suggested.

  13. The influence of selected design and operating parameters on the dynamics of the steam micro-turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żywica, Grzegorz; Kiciński, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The topic of the article is the analysis of the influence of selected design parameters and operating conditions on the radial steam micro-turbine, which was adapted to operate with low-boiling agent in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). In the following parts of this article the results of the thermal load analysis, the residual unbalance and the stiffness of bearing supports are discussed. Advanced computational methods and numerical models have been used. Computational analysis showed that the steam micro-turbine is characterized by very good dynamic properties and is resistant to extreme operating conditions. The prototype of micro-turbine has passed a series of test calculations. It has been found that it can be subjected to experimental research in the micro combined heat and power system.

  14. Analisis Bahaya dengan Metode Hazop dan Manajemen Risiko pada Steam Turbine PLTU di Unit 5 Pembangkitan Listrik Paiton (PT. YTL Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Zulfiana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Steam turbine beroperasi pada temperatur dan tekanan uap yang tinggi sehingga keamanan proses harus dijaga agar tidak terjadi bahaya yang menimbulkan risiko. Untuk analisis dan identifikasi bahaya digunakan metode HAZOP yang selanjutnya melakukan manajemen resiko berupa emergency respon plan berdasarkan bahaya yang mungkin terjadi pada PLTU. Identifikasi bahaya dengan metode HAZOP dilakukan dengan penentuan 4 node pada steam turbine yaitu HP Turbine, IP Turbine, LP Turbine 1 dan LP Turbine 2, penentuan guideword dan deviasi berdasarkan control chart data proses transmitter di setiap node, dan untuk estimasi likelihood berdasarkan nilai MTTF tiap transmitter. ERP pada steam turbine dibuat untuk kejadian kebakaran karena berisiko tinggi dan kemungkinan besar terjadi serta dapat menyebabkan bahaya lain seperti ledakan dsb. Dari penelitian ini diketahui kondisi yang paling berbahaya pada steam turbine adalah kondisi high pressure yang diketahui dari risk matrix pressure trasnmitter pada 4 node yang bernilai high dan ekstrim yang dapat menyebabkan turbin mengalami overspeed. Rekomendasi untuk menanggulangi bahaya tersebut antara lain pemasangan pressure alarm, simulasi automatic turbine test, pemeriksaan turbine overspeed protection serta kalibrasi maupun pengecekan pada pressure trasnmitter tersebut.

  15. LCA-LCCA of oil fired steam turbine power plant in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Tso, C.P.; Osman, Ramli; Ho, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the non-renewable energy use and global warming potential in electricity generation from a typical oil fired steam turbine plant in Singapore. As the conventional LCA does not include any cost analysis, which is a major criterion in decision making, the cost of power generation is estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. It is estimated that the hidden processes consumed about 9% additional energy on top of the fuel embedded energy, while the hidden GHG emission is about 12%. A correlation is established to estimate the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions directly from the power plant net efficiency. The study methodology, results and the empirical relations are presented, together with a brief overview of the Singapore power sector. It also highlights the need for consideration of the reserves availability in the pricing mechanism and how such cost indices could be developed based on the LCA-LCCA

  16. LCA-LCCA of oil fired steam turbine power plant in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Tso, C.P.; Osman, Ramli; Ho, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the non-renewable energy use and global warming potential in electricity generation from a typical oil fired steam turbine plant in Singapore. As the conventional LCA does not include any cost analysis, which is a major criterion in decision making, the cost of power generation is estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. It is estimated that the hidden processes consumed about 9% additional energy on top of the fuel embedded energy, while the hidden GHG emission is about 12%. A correlation is established to estimate the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions directly from the power plant net efficiency. The study methodology, results and the empirical relations are presented, together with a brief overview of the Singapore power sector. It also highlights the need for consideration of the reserves availability in the pricing mechanism and how such cost indices could be developed based on the LCA-LCCA. (Author)

  17. Energy analysis and design of mixed CO{sub 2}/steam gas turbine cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bram, S; De Ruyck, J [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Mechanics

    1995-06-01

    The capturing and disposal of CO{sub 2} from power plant exhaust gases is a possible route for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The present paper investigates the full recirculation of exhaust gases in a gas turbine cycle, combined with the injection of steam or water. Such recirculation leads to an exhaust gas with very high CO{sub 2} concentration (95% or more). Different regenerative cycle layouts are proposed and analyzed for efficiency, exergy destruction and technical feasibility. Pinch Technology methods are next applied to find the best configuration for heat regeneration and injection of water. From this analysis, dual pressure evaporation with water injection in the intercooler emerges as an interesting option. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Dynamic analysis of multi layer foundation of steam turbines in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseni, D.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the coupled Rotor-pedestal-foundation motion is modeled and formulated. Transfer matrix method is implemented in the modeling. The model is adequate for multi layer foundation systems of steam turbines in nuclear power plants. The rotor modeled used is distributed mass model. Bearings are modeled with eight stiffness and damping coefficients and pedestals by mass, stiffness and damping property. Foundation is modeled with distributed mass and stiffness properties in which properties in vertical and horizontal direction may be different. The model is examined using analytical results and good agreement is achieved. Results of the coupled modeling indicate less error in comparison with previous separate modeling and lumped-mass methods

  19. Thermo-mechanical lifetime assessment of components for 700 °C steam turbine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, F.

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase thermal efficiency, steam turbine technology has been oriented to cover steam inlet temperatures above 700 °C and steam pressures exceeding 350 bar. These temperature levels require the use of nickel and cobalt based alloys. Nickel-based alloys were identified as being suitable for forgeable high-pressure steam turbine rotor materials, including welding procedures for joints between nickel-based alloys and alloyed ferritic steels. Expensive nickel-based alloys should be replaced with conventional heat-resistant steels in applications operating below ∼500-550°C. Since a welded rotor design is favoured, dissimilar metal weldments are required. The research work presented is aimed at the development of thermo-mechanical lifetime assessment methodologies for 700°C steam turbine components. The first main objective was the development of advanced creep-fatigue (CF) lifetime assessment methodologies for the evaluation of Alloy 617 steam turbine rotor features at maximum application temperatures. For the characterisation of the material behaviour under static loading conditions, creep rupture experiments for both medium temperatures and target application temperature have been conducted in order to investigate the influence of ageing treatment on Alloy 617. A creep deformation equation was developed on the basis of a modified Graham-Walles law. Continuous Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) experiments have been performed. A plasticity model of Chaboche type has been developed. Cyclic/hold experiments have been conducted on Alloy 617. A modification on the creep law was introduced for the description of the material’s decreased creep resistance under combined CF loading. A very promising approach considering plastic and creep-dissipated energy was developed. The effectiveness of this energy exhaustion method was verified with the calculation of endurance curves for continuous cycling LCF and cyclic/hold conditions over a broad range of temperatures, strain

  20. Thermo-mechanical lifetime assessment of components for 700 °C steam turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt, F.

    2014-07-01

    In order to increase thermal efficiency, steam turbine technology has been oriented to cover steam inlet temperatures above 700 °C and steam pressures exceeding 350 bar. These temperature levels require the use of nickel and cobalt based alloys. Nickel-based alloys were identified as being suitable for forgeable high-pressure steam turbine rotor materials, including welding procedures for joints between nickel-based alloys and alloyed ferritic steels. Expensive nickel-based alloys should be replaced with conventional heat-resistant steels in applications operating below ∼500-550°C. Since a welded rotor design is favoured, dissimilar metal weldments are required. The research work presented is aimed at the development of thermo-mechanical lifetime assessment methodologies for 700°C steam turbine components. The first main objective was the development of advanced creep-fatigue (CF) lifetime assessment methodologies for the evaluation of Alloy 617 steam turbine rotor features at maximum application temperatures. For the characterisation of the material behaviour under static loading conditions, creep rupture experiments for both medium temperatures and target application temperature have been conducted in order to investigate the influence of ageing treatment on Alloy 617. A creep deformation equation was developed on the basis of a modified Graham-Walles law. Continuous Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) experiments have been performed. A plasticity model of Chaboche type has been developed. Cyclic/hold experiments have been conducted on Alloy 617. A modification on the creep law was introduced for the description of the material’s decreased creep resistance under combined CF loading. A very promising approach considering plastic and creep-dissipated energy was developed. The effectiveness of this energy exhaustion method was verified with the calculation of endurance curves for continuous cycling LCF and cyclic/hold conditions over a broad range of temperatures, strain

  1. The deterministic prediction of failure of low pressure steam turbine disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chun; Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Localized corrosion phenomena, including pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue, are the principal causes of corrosion-induced damage in electric power generating facilities and typically result in more than 50% of the unscheduled outages. Prediction of damage, so that repairs and inspections can be made during scheduled outages, could have an enormous impact on the economics of electric power generation. To date, prediction of corrosion damage has been made on the basis of empirical/statistical methods that have proven to be insufficiently robust and accurate to form the basis for the desired inspection/repair protocol. In this paper, we describe a deterministic method for predicting localized corrosion damage. We have used the method to illustrate how pitting corrosion initiates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low pressure steam turbine disks downstream of the Wilson line, where a thin condensed liquid layer exists on the steel disk surfaces. Our calculations show that the SCC initiation and propagation are sensitive to the oxygen content of the steam, the environment in the thin liquid condensed layer, and the stresses that the disk experiences in service

  2. Design of a H∞ Robust Controller with μ-Analysis for Steam Turbine Power Generation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Iannino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Solar Power plants are complex systems subjected to quite sensitive variations of the steam production profile and external disturbances, thus advanced control techniques that ensure system stability and suitable performance criteria are required. In this work, a multi-objective H∞ robust controller is designed and applied to the power control of a Concentered Solar Power plant composed by two turbines, a gear and a generator. In order to provide robust performance and stability in presence of disturbances, not modeled plant dynamics and plant-parameter variations, the advanced features of the μ-analysis are exploited. A high order controller is obtained from the process of synthesis that makes the implementation of the controller difficult and computational more demanding for a Programmable Logic Controller. Therefore, the controller order is reduced through the Balanced Truncation method and then discretized. The obtained robust control is compared to the current Proportional Integral Derivative-based governing system in order to evaluate its performance, considering unperturbed as well as perturbed scenarios, taking into account variations of steam conditions, sensor measurement delays and power losses. The simulations results show that the proposed controller achieves better robustness and performance compared to the existing Proportional Integral Derivative controller.

  3. Steam turbine power plant having improved testing method and system for turbine inlet valves associated with downstream inlet valves preferably having feedforward position managed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardi, F.; Ronnen, U.G.

    1981-01-01

    A throttle valve test system for a large steam turbine functions in a turbine control system to provide throttle and governor valve test operations. The control system operates with a valve management capability to provide for pre-test governor valve mode transfer when desired, and it automatically generates feedforward valve position demand signals during and after valve tests to satisfy test and load control requirements and to provide smooth transition from valve test status to normal single or sequential governor valve operation. A digital computer is included in the control system to provide control and test functions in the generation of the valve position demand signals

  4. Low cycle fatigue analysis of a last stage steam turbine blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Měšťánek P.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the low cycle fatigue analysis of the low pressure (LP steam turbine blade. The blade is cyclically loaded by the centrifugal force because of the repeated startups of the turbine. The goal of the research is to develop a technique to assess fatigue life of the blade and to determine the number of startups to the crack initiation. Two approaches were employed. First approach is based on the elastic finite element analysis. Fictive 'elastic' results are recalculated using Neuber's rule and the equivalent energy method. Triaxial state of stress is reduced using von Mises theory. Strain amplitude is calculated employing the cyclic deformation curve. Second approach is based on elastic-plastic FE analysis. Strain amplitude is determined directly from the FE analysis by reducing the triaxial state of strain. Fatigue life was assessed using uniaxial damage parameters. Both approaches are compared and their applicability is discussed. Factors that can influence the fatigue life are introduced. Experimental low cycle fatigue testing is shortly described.

  5. Control of the thermostressed state of low-pressure cylinder rotors for power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejzerovich, A.Sh.

    1980-01-01

    The principle arrangement of an analog device for operation control of the low pressure cylinder (LPC) heating at large steam turbine start-up has been developed. Different forms of representation of the thermal conductivity equation used for realization by means of analog models are analized. Presented are the results of calculating the heating indices for the welded rotor of LPC during the turbine start-up from a cold state and the curves of temperature distribution in the disc of the first sections of welded LPC rotor at start-up from a cold state and in a steady-state regime. The results obtained show that in the process of start-up the error of the temperature difference DELTAt determination according to the suggested scheme does not exceed 10 deg C. After achieving the maximum of DELTAt in the process of the rotor temperature field flattening, this error increases and constitutes 32 deg C in steady-state regime, mainly, due to the error of temperature determination on the rotation axis in controlled cross section. As far as the control for the LPC rotor heating is necessary only during start-up and the requirements for its accuracy are not equivalent, therefore, for all regimes, representativity and accuracy of control provided by the accepted calculation scheme is quite satisfactory

  6. Nonlinear Synergetic Governor Controllers for Steam Turbine Generators to Enhance Power System Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbao Ju

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a decentralized nonlinear synergetic governor controller (NSGC for turbine generators to enhance power system stability by using synergetic control theory and the feedback linearization technique. The precise feedback linearization model of a turbine-generator with a steam valve control is obtained, at first, by using a feedback linearization technique. Then based on this model, a manifold is defined as a linear combination of the deviation of the rotor angle, speed deviation, and speed derivative. The control law of the proposed NSGC is deduced and the stability condition of the whole closed-loop system is subsequently analyzed. According to the requirement of the primary frequency regulation, an additional proportional integral (PI controller is designed to dynamically track the steady-state value of the rotor angle. Case studies are undertaken based on a single-machine infinite-bus system and the New England system, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed NSGC can suppress the power oscillations and improve transient stability more effectively in comparison with the conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID governor controller. Moreover, the proposed NSGC is robust to the variations of the system operating conditions.

  7. Data Reconciliation in the Steam-Turbine Cycle of a Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunde, Svein; Berg, Oivind; Dahlberg, Lennart; Fridqvist, Nils-Olof

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model for a boiling water reactor steam-turbine cycle was assembled by means of a configurable, steady-state modeling tool TEMPO. The model was connected to live plant data and intermittently fitted to these by minimization of a weighted least-squares object function. The improvement in precision achieved by this reconciliation was assessed from quantities calculated from the model equations linearized around the minimum and from Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the inclusion of the flow-passing characteristics of the turbines in the model equations significantly improved the precision as compared to simple mass and energy balances, whereas heat transfer calculations in feedwater heaters did not. Under the assumption of linear model equations, the quality of the fit can also be expressed as a goodness-of-fit Q. Typical values for Q were in the order of 0.9. For a validated model Q may be used as a fault detection indicator, and Q dropped to very low values in known cases of disagreement between the model and the plant state. The sensitivity of Q toward measurement faults is discussed in relation to redundancy. The results of the linearized theory and Monte Carlo simulations differed somewhat, and if a more accurate analysis is required, this is better based on the latter. In practical application of the presently employed techniques, however, assessment of uncertainties in raw data is an important prerequisite

  8. Molten salt fueled nuclear facility with steam-and gas turbine cycles of heat transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananich, P.I.; Bunin, E.N.; Kazazyan, V.T.; Nemtsev, V.A.; Sikorin, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    The molten salt fueled nuclear facilities with fuel circulating in the primary circuit have a series of the potential advantages in comparison with the traditional thermal and fast reactors with solid fuel elements. These advantages are ensured by the possibility to receive effective neutron balance in the core, minimum margin reactivity, more deep fuel burnup, unbroken correctness of the fuel physical and chemical properties and by low prices of the fuel cycle. The neutron and thermal-physical calculations of the various variants of the MSFNF with steam-water and gas turbine power circuits and their technical and economical comparison are carried out in this article. Calculations of molten salt nuclear power plant with gas turbine power circuit have been carried out using chemically reacting working body ''nitrin'' (N304 + 1%NO). The molten salt fueled reactors with the thermal power near of 2300 MW with two fuel compositions have been considered. The base variant has been taken the design of NPP with VVER NP-1000 when comparing the results of the calculations. Its economical performances are presented in prices of 1990. The results of the calculations show that it is difficult to determine the advantages of any one of the variants considered in a unique fashion. But NPP with MSR possesses large reserves in the process of optimization of cycle and energy equipment parameters that can improve its technical and economical performances sufficiently. (author)

  9. EPRI steam turbine and generator NDE, life assessment, and maintenance workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottingham, L.D.; Sabourin, P.F.

    1992-10-01

    On July 16--19, 1991, the EPRI NDE Center hosted the second EPRI Steam Turbine and Generator NDE, Life Assessment and Maintenance Workshop. This workshop was co-sponsored by the Nuclear Power and the Generation and Storage Divisions of EPRI. Attendees represented all sectors of the industry including utilities, equipment manufacturers, forging suppliers, service organizations, government organizations, insurancecarriers, and consultants from the United States and abroad. Domestic utility presence was again strong, with 105 representatives from 44 utilities in attendance. Australia, Canada, England, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland were represented in the international contingent. A key and integral part of the workshop was a vendor equipment fair, in which some 23 organizations displayed and demonstrated equipment and services that they offer. Formal presentation of 53 technical papers made up the technical portion of the agenda, which also included two breakout discussion sessions on topical subjects. To provide optimum opportunity for participants to hear all presentations on closely related topics, the sessions were set such that a NDE session ran parallel to the life assessment session. The first NDE session included turbine related topics while the first life assessment session addressed generator issues. The last sessions of the workshop were just reversed with turbine topics being addressed in the life assessment session while generator issues were presented in the NDE session. Presentations on maintenance topics and on monitoring and diagnostics topics were also presented in parallel sessions. These proceedings contain the texts of the papers presented at the workshop. Individual papers in indexed separately

  10. The impact research of control modes in steam turbine control system (digital electric hydraulic to the low-frequency oscillation of grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanghai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the control theory for steam turbine, the transfer function of the steam turbine control modes in the parallel operation was obtained. The frequency domain analysis indicated that different control modes of turbine control system have different influence on the damping characteristics of the power system. The comparative analysis shows the direction and the degree of the influence under the different oscillation frequency range. This can provide the theory for the suppression of the low-frequency oscillation from turbine side and has a guiding significance for the stability of power system. The results of simulation tests are consistent with the theoretic analysis.

  11. Accurate calibration of steam turbine speed control system and its influence on primary regulation at electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrazabal Bohorquez, Washington Orlando; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy], E-mail: barbosa@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    In an interconnected electric system there are two very important parameters: the field voltage and the frequency system. The frequency system is very important for the primary regulation of the electric grid. Each turbomachine actuating as generator interconnected to the grid has an automatic speed regulator to keep the rotational speed and mechanical power of the prime machine operating at the set conditions and stable frequency. The electric grid is a dynamical system and in every moment the power units are exposed to several types of disturbances, which cause unbalance of the mechanical power developed by prime machine and the consumed electric power at the grid. The steam turbine speed control system controls the turbine speed to support the electric grid primary frequency at the same time it controls the frequency of the prime machine. Using a mathematical model for the speed control system, the transfer functions were calculated, as well as the proportionality constants of each element of the steam turbine automatic speed regulator. Among other parameters, the droop characteristic of steam turbine and the dynamic characteristics of the automatic speed regulator elements were calculated. Another important result was the determination of the behavior of the speed control when disturbances occur with the improvement of the calibration precision of the control system. (author)

  12. The Influence of Inlet Asymmetry on Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Zoe; Hogg, Simon; Ingram, Grant L

    2014-04-01

    It has been widely recognized for some decades that it is essential to accurately represent the strong coupling between the last stage blades (LSB) and the diffuser inlet, in order to correctly capture the flow through the exhaust hoods of steam turbine low pressure cylinders. This applies to any form of simulation of the flow, i.e., numerical or experimental. The exhaust hood flow structure is highly three-dimensional and appropriate coupling will enable the important influence of this asymmetry to be transferred to the rotor. This, however, presents challenges as the calculation size grows rapidly when the full annulus is calculated. The size of the simulation means researchers are constantly searching for methods to reduce the computational effort without compromising solution accuracy. However, this can result in excessive computational demands in numerical simulations. Unsteady full-annulus CFD calculation will remain infeasible for routine design calculations for the foreseeable future. More computationally efficient methods for coupling the unsteady rotor flow to the hood flow are required that bring computational expense within realizable limits while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for meaningful design calculations. Research activity in this area is focused on developing new methods and techniques to improve accuracy and reduce computational expense. A novel approach for coupling the turbine last stage to the exhaust hood employing the nonlinear harmonic (NLH) method is presented in this paper. The generic, IP free, exhaust hood and last stage blade geometries from Burton et al. (2012. "A Generic Low Pressure Exhaust Diffuser for Steam Turbine Research,"Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper No. GT2012-68485) that are representative of modern designs, are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. This is achieved by comparing results obtained with the NLH to those obtained with a more conventional mixing

  13. An innovative modular device and wireless control system enabling thermal and pressure sensors using FPGA on real-time fault diagnostics of steam turbine functional deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, S.; Saravanan, M.

    2018-03-01

    It is necessary that the condition of the steam turbines is continuously monitored on a scheduled basis for the safe operation of the steam turbines. The review showed that steam turbine fault detection and operation maintenance system (STFDOMS) is gaining importance recently. In this paper, novel hardware architecture is proposed for STFDOMS that can be communicated through the GSM network. Arduino is interfaced with the FPGA so as to transfer the message. The design has been simulated using the Verilog programming language and implemented in hardware using FPGA. The proposed system is shown to be a simple, cost effective and flexible and thereby making it suitable for the maintenance of steam turbines. This system forewarns the experts to access to data messages and take necessary action in a short period with great accuracy. The hardware developed is promised as a real-time test bench, specifically for investigations of long haul effects with different parameter settings.

  14. Research and development of improved efficiency small steam turbines (IESST). Technical progress report, Phase I, 16 April-31 December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choate, D.M.; Tuttle, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Product Statistical Bulletins of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and Turbodyne's shipment records over a 10-y period were researched to determine quantities installed and to define general parameters of design. Engineering studies were conducted to determine the optimum turbine design to meet the defined design parameters. Two conceptual designs plus an added variation of one design were completed together with designs of gearing required to provide speeds compatible with driven equipment speeds. The calculated performance of the recommended design and currently available small steam turbines were compared and a life cycle cost analysis was conducted to determine the economic competitiveness of the new design.

  15. Operating Point Optimization of a Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Steam Turbine (SOFC-ST Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjo Ugartemendia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hydrogen powered hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-steam turbine (SOFC-ST system and studies its optimal operating conditions. This type of installation can be very appropriate to complement the intermittent generation of renewable energies, such as wind generation. A dynamic model of an alternative hybrid SOFC-ST configuration that is especially suited to work with hydrogen is developed. The proposed system recuperates the waste heat of the high temperature fuel cell, to feed a bottoming cycle (BC based on a steam turbine (ST. In order to optimize the behavior and performance of the system, a two-level control structure is proposed. Two controllers have been implemented for the stack temperature and fuel utilization factor. An upper supervisor generates optimal set-points in order to reach a maximal hydrogen efficiency. The simulation results obtained show that the proposed system allows one to reach high efficiencies at rated power levels.

  16. Influence of the Operational Wear of the Stator Parts of Shroud Seals on the Economic Efficiency of the Steam Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Dmitriev, S. S.; Petrunin, B. N.; Gusev, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    During the operation of steam turbines under transient conditions, due to different thermal expansion of the stator and rotor parts in the radial and axial directions, the clearances fixed in the course of assembling the seals of the flow path change, which causes rubbing in the seals and the wear of the latter. This inevitably increases the leakages through the seals. A particularly large difference in the relative axial and radial displacements of the rotor and stator parts is observed during the turbine start-ups when the difference in their temperature expansion is maximal. Upon the turbine stops, the turbine shafting runs down freely, as a rule, passing through all critical speeds at which the amplitude of the shafting oscillations reach their peak values, which also leads to seizures in the seals and their wear and tear. The seizures in the seals may also be a consequence of the eccentricity between the rotor and stator caused by the thermal strain of the stator, incorrect choice of the clearances, floating-up of the rotor in the bearing, and many other factors. Recently, standard shroud labyrinth seals are being replaced in the steam turbines by seals with honeycomb stator inserts, the design of which allows the ridges to cut into the honeycomb surface without damaging the former, which allows fixing a radial clearance in the seals of 0.5 mm. On the honeycomb surface where the ridges touch it, grooves are cut through. The wear of the shroud seals reduces the efficiency of the steam turbines during the operation to the greatest degree. However, by the present there have been no exact quantitative data available on the change in the leakage through the worn-out honeycomb seals. The paper presents the results of comparative experimental studies on the flow and power characteristics of seal models with smooth and honeycomb stator parts for various degrees of their wear. The studies showed that the leakages through the worn-out stator parts of the honeycomb seals

  17. Upgrading the SPP-500-1 moisture separators-steam reheaters used in the Leningrad NPP turbine units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legkostupova, V. V.; Sudakov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The specific features of existing designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters (MSRs) and experience gained with using them at nuclear power plants are considered. Main factors causing damage to and failures of MSRs are described: nonuniform distribution of wet steam flow among the separation modules, breakthrough of moisture through the separator (and sometimes also through the steam reheater), which may lead to the occurrence of additional thermal stresses and, hence, to thermal-fatigue damage to or stress corrosion cracking of metal. MSR failure results in a less efficient operation of the turbine unit as a whole and have an adverse effect on the reliability of the low-pressure cylinder's last-stage blades. By the time the design service life of the SPP-500-1 MSRs had been exhausted in power units equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors, the number of damages inflicted to both the separation part and to the pipework and heating surface tubes was so large, that a considerable drop of MSR effectiveness and turbine unit efficiency as a whole occurred. The design of the upgraded separation part used in the SPP-500-1 MSR at the Leningrad NPP is described and its effectiveness is shown, which was confirmed by tests. First, efforts taken to achieve more uniform distribution of moisture content over the perimeter and height of steam space downstream of the separation modules and to bring it to values close to the design ones were met with success. Second, no noticeable effect of the individual specific features of separation modules on the moisture content was revealed. Recommendations on elaborating advanced designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters are given: an MSR arrangement in which the separator is placed under or on the side from the steam reheater; axial admission of wet steam for ensuring its uniform distribution among the separation modules; inlet chambers with an extended preliminary separation system and devices for uniformly distributing steam flows in the

  18. Experimental modal analysis of the steam inlet pipe to the Chooz B1 high pressure turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guihot, O.; Anne, J.P.; Chartain, G.; Le Pironnec, D.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of the modal analysis carried out on one of the steam inlet pipe of the high pressure turbine of the Chooz B1 power plant. This experimental analysis is made within the frame of the research and development project ''dynamical, acoustical and aerodynamical behaviour of the turbogenerator N4''. This research program provides amongst others, numerical studies with the software CIRCUS and ASTER, in order to verify the dynamical behaviour of the designed inlet pipe. The numerical models will be updated from results of the experimental modal analysis to improve the numerical representation of this pipe. All the identified modes in the frequency band [5.2000] Hz are presented in the report. The modal characteristics of the main modes are detailed. Further analysis have been made, in order ease the updating of the numerical models. They consisted in an analysis of the evolution of the dynamical behaviour due to a change of the boundary conditions of the inlet valve frame on one hand and resulting from the presence of an additional mass on the pipe, at the level of the middle flange, on the other hand. The analysis made in low frequency range shows that the pipe is thoroughly embedded in the frame of the high pressure turbine. On the other hand, the boundary conditions on the inlet valve frame are more difficult to determine, because the dynamical behaviour of the valve frame and the upper pipe can not be uncoupled from the considered pipe. The main shell modes of ranks 2, 3 and 4 have been very accurately identified. The most relevant modes to update the numerical models are given. (authors). 48 figs., 18 tabs., 4 refs

  19. Annual energy and environment analysis of solarized steam injection gas turbine (STIG) cycle for Indian regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwynraj, A. Immanuel; Iniyan, S.; Suganthi, L.; Livshits, Maya; Polonsky, Guy; Kribus, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Study on the influence of local climatic conditions on solar STIG cycle is presented. • The annual solar to electricity efficiency ranges between 11.2 and 17.1% and the solar fraction ranges 9.3–41.7%. • The range of annual specific CO_2 emission is 312–408 kg/MWh and incremental CO_2 avoidance is 4.2–104 kg/MWh. • The levelized tariff (LT) is 0.2–0.23 $/kWh, and the solar levelized tariff (SLT) ranges from 0.11 to 0.27 $/kWh. - Abstract: The solarized steam injection gas turbine (STIG) cycle uses both the fuel and solar heat simultaneously for power generation. The annual thermodynamic performances of the cycle for sites in India with local climatic conditions such as ambient temperature, relative humidity and availability of direct normal irradiance (DNI) to the solar concentrators under two modes of constant and variable power are presented in this paper. The results reveal that the solar to electricity efficiency of solar hybrid STIG plant with a simple parabolic trough collector (PTC) is similar to existing solar thermal technologies, and also higher solar share is obtained. The study also reveals that the annual CO_2 emission is similar to combined cycle plants and lower than gas turbine technologies. The incremental CO_2 avoidance is also computed due to solar participation. The annual values of exergetic solar fraction and exergetic efficiency at Indore are higher than Jaipur. Results of an improved economic assessment show that the levelized tariff (LT) of solar hybrid STIG plant is 0.2–0.23 $/kWh and the levelized tariff (solar only) or solar levelized tariff (SLT) of solar STIG plant ranges from 0.11 to 0.27 $/kWh for both constant and variable power scenarios.

  20. Heat treatment of large-sized welded rotors of steam turbines for atomic power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutasov, R F; Mukhina, M P; Tustanovskii, A S

    1977-01-01

    The heat treatment of a welded rotor of grade 25Kh2NMFA steel for steam turbines of nuclear power plants was considered. A following heat treatment schedule was suggested: charging the rotor in to a furnace at 100-150 deg C, heating to 200-250 deg C and holding for 12 hrs; slow heating (10 deg C/h) to 400-450 deg C and holding for 12 hrs; slow heating to 630-640 deg C and holding for 50 hrs, cooling at a rate of 5 deg C/h down to 100 deg C, holding for 20 hrs and cooling with the furnace open. The proposed heat treatment schedule of a duration of 356 hrs ensures a temperature gradient throughout the cross section and the length of the rotor of not more than +-5 deg C, least deviations of geometric dimensions and makes possible machining finish to within 0-0.02 mm. Described are the particularities of the design of a roll-out hearth electric chamber furnace, measuring 13000x5500x5000 mm and built for the purpose of carrying out said heat treatment. The power rating of the furnace is 2850 kW.

  1. Influences of mach number and flow incidence on aerodynamic losses of steam turbine blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seok Jae; Ng, Wing Fai

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the aerodynamic losses of high pressure steam turbine nozzle (526A) subjected to a large range of incident angles (-34 .deg. to 26 .deg. ) and exit Mach numbers (0.6 and 1.15). Measurements included downstream pitot probe traverses, upstream total pressure, and endwall static pressures. Flow visualization techniques such as shadowgraph and color oil flow visualization were performed to complement the measured data. When the exit Mach number for nozzles increased from 0.9 to 1.1 the total pressure loss coefficient increased by a factor of 7 as compared to the total pressure losses measured at subsonic conditions (M 2 <0.9). For the range of incidence tested, the effect of flow incidence on the total pressure losses is less pronounced. Based on the shadowgraphs taken during the experiment, it's believed that the large increase in losses at transonic conditions is due to strong shock/ boundary layer interaction that may lead to flow separation on the blade suction surface

  2. User's instructions for ORCENT II: a digital computer program for the analysis of steam turbine cycles supplied by light-water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, L.C.

    1979-02-01

    The ORCENT-II digital computer program will perform calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. Turbine performance calculations are based on a method published by the General Electric Company. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. The program is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM System 360 digital computers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  3. User's instructions for ORCENT II: a digital computer program for the analysis of steam turbine cycles supplied by light-water-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, L.C.

    1979-02-01

    The ORCENT-II digital computer program will perform calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. Turbine performance calculations are based on a method published by the General Electric Company. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. The program is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM System 360 digital computers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  4. To the choice of the regeneration system of the K-1000-68/1500 turbine plant for the NPP with a vertical-type steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N.M.; Piskarev, A.A.; Grinman, M.I.; Kruglikov, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Several variants of the heat regeneration system for the NPP with WWER-1000 type reactors using vertical steam generator (SG) generating saturated steam at 7.2 MPa pressure and 200 deg C feed water temperature at the SG inlet are considered. The results of comparison of variants in water and steam circuits of turbine plants are greatly influenced by integral economy account, i.e. efficiency indexes account under variable conditions of power unit operation. From variants of water and steam circuits of the K-1000-68/1500 turbine plant considered preference is given to the variant with four low pressure heaters with increased up to 1.25 MPa pressure in a deacrator without high pressure heater with pumping intermediate steam superheater condensate into feedwater circuit

  5. Corrosion fatigue in LP steam turbine blading - experiences, causes and appropriate measures; Korrosionsutmattning i aangturbinskovlar - Erfarenheter, inverkande faktorer och moejliga aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavast, J [ABB STAL AB, Finspaang (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Corrosion fatigue in LP steam turbine blading was reviewed together with result of tests performed in order to find blade materials with improved resistance against this. According to international experience, corrosion fatigue of 12Cr steam turbine blades in the transition zone between dry and wet steam, is one of the major causes, if not the major cause, for unavailability of steam turbines. Corrosion fatigue in LP blading is a frequent problem also in Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants, especially in turbines of type D54 in BWR-plants. Corrosion fatigue has also been discovered in at least one type of nuclear turbine. Initiation times have been very long and the varying experiences in different types of turbines may simply reflect differing initiation times. Corrosion fatigue may therefore become more frequent in other types of turbines in the future. The type of water treatment (BWR/PWR) and possibly temperature after reheating seem to influence the risk for corrosion fatigue. Influence of inleakage of cooling water is less clear for these nuclear plants. The long initiation times together with the fact that very few of the cracked blades have actually failed, indicate that the cracks initiate and/or propagate during transients. Extensive laboratory tests show that there are alternative blade materials available with improved resistance against corrosion fatigue, with the most promising being 15/5 PH and A905, together with Ti6Al4V. The Ti alloy shows the best resistance against corrosion fatigue in most environments and is already used in some turbines. Disadvantage is a higher cost and possible need for redesign of the blades. The alternative materials are recommended for use for blades in the transition zone between dry and wet steam in LP turbines. The main disadvantage is a lack of references, even if 15%5 PH has been used to a very limited extent. 40 refs, 24 figs, 12 tabs, 9 appendices

  6. Engineering nonlinearity characteristic compensation for commercial steam turbine control valve using linked MARS code and Matlab Simulink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A nonlinearity characteristic compensation is proposed of the steam turbine control valve. ► A steady state and transient analyzer is developed of Ulchin Units 3 and 4 OPR1000 nuclear plants. ► MARS code and Matlab Simulink are used to verify the compensation concept. ► The results show the concept can compensate for the nonlinearity characteristic very well. - Abstract: Steam turbine control valves play a pivotal role in regulating the output power of the turbine in a commercial power plant. They thus have to be operated linearly to be run by an automatic control system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherently nonlinearity characteristics. The flow increases more significantly near the closed end than near the open end of the stem travel given the valve position signal. The steam flow should nonetheless be proportional to the final desired quantity, output power, of the turbine to obtain a linear operation. This paper presents the valve engineering linked analysis (VELA) for nonlinearity characteristic compensation of the steam turbine control valve by using a linked two existing commercial software. The Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS) code and Matlab Simulink have been selected for VELA to develop a steady state and transient analyzer of Ulchin Units 3 and 4 powered by the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MWe (OPR1000). MARS is capable of modeling a wide range of systems from single pipes to full nuclear power plants. As one of standard nuclear power plant thermal hydraulic analysis software tools, MARS simulates the primary and secondary sides of the nuclear power plant. To simulate the electric power flow part, Matlab Simulink is chosen as the standard analysis software. Matlab Simulink having an interactive environment to model analyzes and simulates a wide variety of engineering dynamic systems including multimachine power systems. Based on the MARS code result, Matlab Simulink analyzes the power flow of the

  7. Analysis of steam turbine boresonic NDE data using a field portable computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon-Salamanca, T.; Reinhart, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the high combined stress caused by thermal and rotational loading, the highest stress in the hollow rotor forging of typical nuclear power steam turbine and generator units is in the region at or near the bore. Material discontinuities aligned along the axis of the rotor centerline, with depth in the radial plane of the rotor, have the highest probability of becoming flaws of concern to the integrity of the rotor. Due to the nature of the casting/forging process a great number of material discontinuities can be found near the rotor bore. During the ultrasonic examination of rotors with a large number of discontinuities, the engineer must determine if these discontinuities are ultrasonic reflectors caused by fabrication anomalies, reflectors that are probably fabrication discontinuities but in such close proximity that they may link up and form a defect of concern to future operation, or reflectors that have significant size and are real growing flaws, but may appear as separated indications. Until recently, plotting of ultrasonic data to determine the significance of closely spaced indications was time consuming and required special 3-D analysis methods to determine if indications were isolated or linked to form larger discontinuities. To overcome this problem, a software program, compatible with portable personal computers, was written to define a parameter necessary for determining if a group of indications detected from nondestructive ultrasonic testing of turbine and generator rotors could combine to form larger ones. The approach involved using a computer algorithm to model each indication as a three dimensional sphere with a diameter equal to the ultrasonic signal amplitude from an equivalent flat bottom hole reflector and setting a minimum gap distance between spheres necessary for a link up. The program was implemented following a commonly used data format accepted by industry recognized computer codes. The gap distance and link up parameters were

  8. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines into an exi......Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines...... into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)) could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO2 emissions....... Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less complex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity costs. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbines. This is also the target...

  9. Redesign of steam turbine rotor blades and rotor packages – Environmental analysis within systematic eco-design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic approach to eco-design of steam turbine rotor blades was applied. • Eco-innovative solutions are based on structural and technological change. • At the stage of detailed design the variants were analyzed using LCA. • Main achieved benefits: energy and material savings, lower environmental impact. • Benefits related to the possible scale of the solution practical application. - Abstract: Eco-design of steam turbine blades could be one of the possibilities of decreasing the environmental impact of energy systems based on turbines. The paper investigates the eco-design approach to elaboration of the rotor blades and packages. The purpose is to present the course of eco-design of the rotor blades and the rotor packages taking account of eco-design assumptions, solutions and the concept itself. The following eco-design variants of the rotor blades and the rotor packages are considered: elements of the rotor blades made separately (baseline variant of the rotor blades); elements of the rotor blades made of one piece of material; blades in packages made separately and welded (baseline variant of the rotor packages); packages milled as integral elements. At the stage of detailed design, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed in relation to a functional unit – the rotor blades and packages ready for installation in a steam turbine, which is the stage of the turbine. The obtained results indicate that eco-innovative solutions for the turbine blades and packages could be achieved through structural and technological changes. Applying new solutions of the rotor blades may produce the following main benefits: 3.3% lower use of materials, 29.4% decrease in energy consumption at the manufacturing stage, 7.7% decrease in the environmental impact in the life cycle. In relation to the rotor packages, the following main benefits may be achieved: 20.5% lower use of materials, 25.0% decrease in energy consumption at the production stage, 16

  10. 3-D analysis of fatigue crack behaviour in a shot peened steam turbine blade material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, B.Y., E-mail: Binyan.he@soton.ac.uk [Engineering Materials, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Katsamenis, O.L. [muVIS X-ray Imaging Centre, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Mellor, B.G.; Reed, P.A.S. [Engineering Materials, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-26

    Serial mechanical sectioning and high resolution X-ray tomography have been used to study the three-dimensional morphology of small fatigue cracks growing in a 12 Cr tempered martensitic steam turbine blade material. A range of surface conditions has been studied, namely polished and shot peened (with varying levels of intensity). In the polished (unpeened) condition, inclusions (alumina and manganese sulphide) played an important role in initiating and controlling early fatigue crack behaviour. When fatigue cracks initiated from an alumina stringer, the crack morphology was normally dominated by single stringers, which were always in the centre of the fatigue crack, indicating its primary role in initiation. Manganese sulphide inclusion groups however seemed to dominate and affect the crack path along both the surface and depth crack growth directions. The more intensely shot peened condition did not however evidence inclusion or stringer affected fatigue crack initiation or growth behaviour; sub-surface crack coalescence being clearly observed by both serial sectioning and computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques at a depth of about 150–180 μm. These sub-surface crack coalescences can be linked to both the extent of the compressive residual stress as well as the depth of the plastic deformation arising from the intense shot peening process. Shot peening appears to provide a different defect population that initiates fatigue cracks and competes with the underlying metallurgical defect populations. The most beneficial shot peening process would in this case appear to “deactivate” the original metallurgical defect population and substitute a known defect distribution from the shot peening process from which fatigue cracks grow rather slowly in the strain hardened surface layer which also contains compressive residual stresses. A benefit to fatigue life in bending, even under Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) conditions, has been observed in these tests if a

  11. Reliability of steam-turbine rotors. Task 1. Lifetime prediction analysis system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.K.; Pennick, H.G.; Peters, J.E.; Wells, C.H.

    1982-12-01

    Task 1 of RP 502, Reliability of Steam Turbine Rotors, resulted in the development of a computerized lifetime prediction analysis system (STRAP) for the automatic evaluation of rotor integrity based upon the results of a boresonic examination of near-bore defects. Concurrently an advanced boresonic examination system (TREES), designed to acquire data automatically for lifetime analysis, was developed and delivered to the maintenance shop of a major utility. This system and a semi-automated, state-of-the-art system (BUCS) were evaluated on two retired rotors as part of the Task 2 effort. A modified nonproprietary version of STRAP, called SAFER, is now available for rotor lifetime prediction analysis. STRAP and SAFER share a common fracture analysis postprocessor for rapid evaluation of either conventional boresonic amplitude data or TREES cell data. The final version of this postprocessor contains general stress intensity correlations for elliptical cracks in a radial stress gradient and provision for elastic-plastic instability of the ligament between an imbedded crack and the bore surface. Both linear elastic and ligament rupture models were developed for rapid analysis of linkup within three-dimensional clusters of defects. Bore stress-rupture criteria are included, but a creep-fatigue crack growth data base is not available. Physical and mechanical properties of air-melt 1CrMoV forgings are built into the program; however, only bounding values of fracture toughness versus temperature are available. Owing to the lack of data regarding the probability of flaw detection for the boresonic systems and of quantitative verification of the flaw linkup analysis, automatic evlauation of boresonic results is not recommended, and the lifetime prediction system is currently restricted to conservative, deterministic analysis of specified flaw geometries

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  13. Numerical Investigation of Methane Combustion under Mixed Air-Steam Turbine Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevis, G.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Goussis, D.A.; Mastorakos, E.; Derksen, M.A.F.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Lowering emissions from power generating gas turbines, while retaining efficiency and power output, constitutes a formidable task, both at fundamental and technical levels. Combined gas turbine cycles involving air humidification are particularly attractive, since they provide additional power with

  14. SCC life estimation based on cracks initiated from the corrosion pits of bolting material SCM435 used in steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hitomi; Ochi, Mayumi; Fujiwara, Isao; Momoo, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Life estimation was performed for the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that occurs in deaerated and wet hot pure steam at the bottoms of the threads of bolts made of SCM435 (equivalent to AISI 4137) used in steam turbine. SCC is believed to occur when corrosion pits are formed and grow to critical size, after which SCC is initiated and cracks propagate until the critical fracture toughness value is reached. Calculations were performed using laboratory and field data. The results showed that, for a 40mm diameter bolt with 0.2% offset strength of 820MPa, the critical crack depth for straight-front cracks was 5.4mm. The SCC life depends on the lubricant used; the SCC life estimated from this value is approximately 70,000 hours when graphite is used as a lubricant. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the useful life of steam turbine rotors; Evaluacion de vida util de rotores de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnero Parra, Antonio; Garcia Illescas, Rafael; Kubiak Szyszka, Janusz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This article presents the methodology applied by the Management of Turbomachinery of the Institute of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the evaluation of the remaining useful life of steam turbine rotors in the phase of initiation of fissures. The evaluation of the remaining useful life of turbines, will reveal the real state of health of the rotor and will serve as a base for the future decision making that guarantees their structural integrity. [Spanish] El presentes articulo presenta la metodologia aplicada por la Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para la evaluacion de la vida util remanente de rotores de turbinas de vapor en la fase de iniciacion de fisuras. La evaluacion de la vida util de turbinas, revelar el estado real de salud del rotor y servira de base para la toma de decisiones futuras que garanticen su integridad estructural.

  16. Fracture of an industrial steam turbine horizontal joint nut upon tightening; Bruch der Mutter einer Horizontalteilfugenverschraubung einer Industriedampfturbine beim Anziehen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Boromir; Giller, Madeleine; Neidel, Andreas; Riesenbeck, Susanne [Siemens AG - Gasturbinenwerk Berlin (Germany). Energy Sector Werkstoffprueflabor

    2017-11-01

    The nut of a horizontal joint fastener cracked upon tightening during assembly in an industrial steam turbine factory. It was previously used in an over-pressure test, but was otherwise not yet used in service. Nut and bolt were made of the nickel-based superalloy Nimonic 80A, a precipitation-hardenable wrought high-strength alloy with excellent creep and corrosion properties. Such alloys usually get a complex heat treatment after hot-rolling, comprising homogenizing and multiple ageing cycles. The subject nut failed due to an extreme case of mixed grain size which detrimentally affected mechanical properties and was attributed to an insufficient degree of deformation during hot rolling.

  17. Parametric simulation on enhancement of the Regenerative Gas Turbine performance by effect of Inlet Air Cooling system and Steam Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadel Abdulrazzaq Alkumait

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq being one of the developing countries of the world considers energy efficiency and the impact of its generation on the environment an imperative process in improvement of its power generation policies. Iraq bearing high temperatures all year long results in reduction of air density, therefore, Inlet air Cooling and Steam Injection Gas Turbines are a striking addition to the regenerative gas turbines. Regenerating Gas turbines tend to have a high back work ratio and a high exhaust temperature, thus, it leads to a low efficiency in power generation in hotter climate. Moreover, STIG and IAC through fog cooling have known to be the best retrofitting methods available in the industry which improve the efficiency of generation from 30.5 to 43% and increase the power output from 22MW to 33.5MW as the outcomes of computer simulations reveal. Additionally, this happens without bringing about much extensive change to original features of the power generation cycle. Furthermore, STIG and spray coolers have also resulted in power boosting and exceeding generation efficiency of gas turbine power plant.

  18. Parametric Simulation on Enhancement of the Regenerative Gas Turbine Performance by Effect of Inlet Air Cooling System and Steam Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadel A. Alkumait

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aadel Abdulrazzaq Alkumait/Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences 22(1 (201538-44Iraq being one of the developing countries of the world considers energy efficiency and the impact of its generation on the environment an imperative process in improvement of its power generation policies. Iraq bearing high temperatures all year long results in reduction of air density, therefore, Inlet air Cooling and Steam Injection Gas Turbines are a striking addition to the regenerative gas turbines. Regenerating Gas turbines tend to have a high back work ratio and a high exhaust temperature, thus, it leads to a low efficiency in power generation in hotter climate. Moreover, STIG and IAC through fog cooling have known to be the best retrofitting methods available in the industry which improve the efficiency of generation from 30.5 to 43% and increase the power output from 22MW to 33.5MW as the outcomes of computer simulations reveal. Additionally, this happens without bringing about much extensive change to original features of the power generation cycle. Furthermore, STIG and spray coolers have also resulted in power boosting and exceeding generation efficiency of gas turbine power plant.

  19. Operating experience feedback report: Reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps. Commercial power reactors, Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of failure initiators, causes and design features for steam turbine assemblies (turbines with their related components, such as governors and valves) which are used as drivers for standby pumps in the auxiliary feedwater systems of US commercial pressurized water reactor plants, and in the high pressure coolant injection and reactor core isolation cooling systems of US commercial boiling water reactor plants. These standby pumps provide a redundant source of water to remove reactor core heat as specified in individual plant safety analysis reports. The period of review for this report was from January 1974 through December 1990 for licensee event reports (LERS) and January 1985 through December 1990 for Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) failure data. This study confirmed the continuing validity of conclusions of earlier studies by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by the US nuclear industry that the most significant factors in failures of turbine-driven standby pumps have been the failures of the turbine-drivers and their controls. Inadequate maintenance and the use of inappropriate vendor technical information were identified as significant factors which caused recurring failures

  20. Research and engineering application of coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator on nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    The coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator (TG) usually is very significant and complicated for a new construction of nuclear power plant, because it carries the safety, economy and availability of nuclear power plant. Based on successful practice of a nuclear power plant, the experience on interface design and hardware architecture of coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator was abstracted and researched. In this paper, the key points and engineering experience were introduced to give the helpful instructions for the new project. (author)

  1. The online diagnosis of steam turbines; El diagnostico en linea de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. Antonio; Rivera G, Juan J; Cristalinas N, Victor M; Marino L, Carlos A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    To maintain the efficiency values, power and unit thermal consumption of the electrical generation units near the design levels, has been always one of the objectives of the operation and maintenance personnel of the power plants of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). A way to obtain this objective is through the systematic analysis of the equipment operating conditions and of the diagnosis of the deviations causes of the normal operation way. The Gerencia de Operacion de Maquinaria (Management of Turbo-Machinery) through projects contracted with the Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo (Unit of Investigation and Development) of the CFE has made the thermal evaluation of different generation units. These evaluations have allowed to identify which internal components are causing the deviations and to improve the planning of the maintenance activities required to bring back the unit to its best working conditions. In this article the methodology for the online thermal evaluation of the steam turbines and its heat transfer auxiliary equipment is described -water condenser and heaters- and some of the obtained results are also presented. [Spanish] Mantener cercanos a los niveles de diseno los valores de eficiencia, potencia y consumo termico unitario de las unidades de generacion electrica ha sido siempre uno de los objetivos del personal de operacion y mantenimiento de las plantas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Una manera de lograr este objetivo es a traves del analisis sistematico de las condiciones de operacion de los equipos y del diagnostico de las causas de las desviaciones del modo normal de operacion. La Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria a traves de proyectos contratados con la Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la CFE ha realizado la evaluacion termica de diferentes unidades de generacion. Estas evaluaciones han permitido identificar cuales componentes internos estan provocando las desviaciones y mejorar la planeacion de las actividades

  2. Energy analysis of a combined solid oxide fuel cell with a steam turbine power plant for marine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Mosleh, M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2013-12-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SO x , NO x ) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. The analyzed variant of the combined cycle includes a SOFC operated with natural gas fuel and a steam turbine with a single-pressure waste heat boiler. The calculations were performed for two types of tubular and planar SOFCs, each with an output power of 18 MW. This paper includes a detailed energy analysis of the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effects of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance are investigated. It has been found that a high overall efficiency approaching 60% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using the SOFC system. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  3. Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical (A-USC) Steam Turbines – A-USC Component Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Phillips, Jeffrey [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Hendrix, Howard [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Tanzosh, James [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The work by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE)/Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) Steam Boiler and Turbine Materials Consortia from 2001 through September 2015 was primarily focused on lab scale and pilot scale materials testing. This testing included air- or steam-cooled “loops” that were inserted into existing utility boilers to gain exposure of these materials to realistic conditions of high temperature and corrosion due to the constituents in the coal. Successful research and development resulted in metallic alloy materials and fabrication processes suited for power generation applications with metal temperatures up to approximately 1472°F (800°C). These materials or alloys have shown, in extensive laboratory tests and shop fabrication studies, to have excellent applicability for high-efficiency low CO2 transformational power generation technologies previously mentioned. However, as valuable as these material loops have been for obtaining information, their scale is significantly below that required to minimize the risk associated with a power company building a multi-billion dollar A-USC power plant. To decrease the identified risk barriers to full-scale implementation of these advanced materials, the U.S. DOE/OCDO A-USC Steam Boiler and Turbine Materials Consortia identified the key areas of the technology that need to be tested at a larger scale. Based upon the recommendations and outcome of a Consortia-sponsored workshop with the U.S.’s leading utilities, a Component Test (ComTest) Program for A-USC was proposed. The A-USC ComTest program would define materials performance requirements, plan for overall advanced system integration, design critical component tests, fabricate components for testing from advanced materials, and carry out the tests. The AUSC Component Test was premised on the program occurring at multiple facilities, with the operating temperatures, pressure and/or size of

  4. A Novel Hybrid Approach for Numerical Modeling of the Nucleating Flow in Laval Nozzle and Transonic Steam Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Yousefi Rad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, considering the importance of desirable steam turbine design, improvement of numerical modeling of steam two-phase flows in convergent and divergent channels and the blades of transonic steam turbines has been targeted. The first novelty of this research is the innovative use of combined Convective Upstream Pressure Splitting (CUSP and scalar methods to update the flow properties at each calculation point. In other words, each property (density, temperature, pressure and velocity at each calculation point can be computed from either the CUSP or scalar method, depending on the least deviation criterion. For this reason this innovative method is named “hybrid method”. The next novelty of this research is the use of an inverse method alongside the proposed hybrid method to find the amount of the important parameter z in the CUSP method, which is herein referred to as “CUSP’s convergence parameter”. Using a relatively simple computational grid, firstly, five cases with similar conditions to those of the main cases under study in this research with available experimental data were used to obtain the value of z by the Levenberg-Marquardt inverse method. With this innovation, first, an optimum value of z = 2.667 was obtained using the inverse method and then directly used for the main cases considered in the research. Given that the aim is to investigate the two-dimensional, steady state, inviscid and adiabatic modeling of steam nucleating flows in three different nozzle and turbine blade geometries, flow simulation was performed using a relatively simple mesh and the innovative proposed hybrid method (scalar + CUSP, with the desired value of z = 2.667 . A comparison between the results of the hybrid modeling of the three main cases with experimental data showed a very good agreement, even within shock zones, including the condensation shock region, revealing the efficiency of this numerical modeling method innovation

  5. Reduction of Erosion Wear of Mean Pressure Cylinder of Steam Turbines Operating Beyond Critical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kascheev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems leading to erosion wear of flowing part of a mean pressure turbine cylinder operating beyond critical parameters. Explanation of erosion wear of flowing part of a mean pressure turbine cylinder which is proved in practice and recommendations for wear reduction are given in the paper

  6. Nitrided steel with increased reliability for steam turbine blades of low pressure cylinders; Vysokoazotistaya stal` s povishennoj nadezhdnostni dlya lopatok ha tsilindrov niskogo davleniya parnikh turbin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, Ch; Lengarski, P [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Metaloznanie i Tekhnologiya na Metalite

    1996-12-31

    A new type of steel has been developed, containing 0.11-0.20% N and less than 0.05% C, the sum of both components being within the range 0.16-0.26%. The metal has an austenite-martensite structure with 10-30% austenite content. Samples obtained by counter-pressure casting have been investigated with respect to the influence of the thermal treatment on mechanical properties. The best properties are obtained when applying hardening by heating at 1050{sup o} C and cooling at 550{sup o} C: fluidity limit R{sub 0}.2>=850 MPa, relative elongation A>=15%, relative shortening Z>=50%, impact viscosity KCU >= 588 kJ/m{sup 2} at critical temperature of brittleness <-40{sup o} C. These properties are combined with high corrosion and wear resistance and make the steel suitable for steam turbine blades. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Strategies for steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennagir, T.

    1996-01-01

    This article is a review of worldwide developments in the steam turbine and heat recovery steam generator markets. The Far East is driving the market in HRSGs, while China is driving the market in orders placed for steam turbine prime movers. The efforts of several major suppliers are discussed, with brief technical details being provided for several projects

  8. Evaluation of Steam Generator Level behavior for Determination of Turbine Runback rate on COPs trip for Yonggwang 1 and 2 Power Uprating Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Jin; Hwang, Su Hyun; Yoo, Tae Geun; Chung, Soon Il; An, Byung Chang; Park, Jung Gu

    2010-01-01

    4.5% power uprate project has been progressing for the first time in Yonggwang 1 and 2(YGN1 and 2). Reviews for design change due to the power uprate were accomplished. Steam generator level behavior was one of the most important parameters because it could be cause of reactor trip or turbine trip. As the results of the reviews, YGN1 and 2 had to reassess it for change of turbine runback rate when turbine runback occurs due to the condensate operating pumps (COP) trip. This study has been carried out for evaluating the steam generator level behavior for determination of turbine runback rate on COPs trip for Yonggwang 1 and 2 Power Uprating Units. The steam generator water level evaluation program for YGN1 and 2 (SLEP-Y1) has been developed for it. The program includes models for the steam generator water level response. SLEP-Y1 is programmed with advanced continuous system simulation language (ACSL). The language has been used to simulate physical systems as a commercial tool used to evaluate system designs

  9. Estimation of the Influence of Operational Factors on the Oxygen Content of the Turbine Condensate at the Outlet from the Condenser of Steam Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shempelev A. G.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the influence of different factors on the oxygen content in the condensate using the example of the condenser of the steam turbine unit T-110/120-130. For the first time, the authors of the article analyze in details how the basic parameters of the condenser's operation (the condenser heat load, the flow and temperature of the cooling water, the air inflow in the condenser, the condition of the heat exchange surface influence the oxygen content of the condensate. The authors come to the conclusion that with standard air inflow in the vacuum system, the equilibrium oxygen content, which corresponds to the norms in the condensate at the condenser outlet, is only possible in its operation modes when the steam flow to the condenser is more than 50% of the nominal flow and cooling water temperatures are equal to or greater than calculated for this type of condenser. The conclusions are confirmed by the experimental material. The results of the research are the basis for the development of measures aimed to increase the deaerating capacity of condensers depending on specific operating conditions.

  10. Applications of field portable computers to NDE of nuclear power plant steam turbine/generator rotors, discs, and retaining rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, E.R.; Leon-Salamanca, T.

    2004-01-01

    The new generation of compact, powerful portable computers have been incorporated into a number of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems used to inspect critical areas of the steam turbine and generator units of nuclear power plants. Due to the complex geometry of turbine rotors, generator rotors, retaining rings, and shrunk-on turbine discs, the computers are needed to rapidly calculate the optimum position of an ultrasonic transducer or eddy current probe in order to detect defects at several critical areas. Examples where computers have been used to overcome problems in nondestructive evaluation include; analysis of large numbers of closely spaced near-bore ultrasonic reflectors to determine their potential for link-up in turbine and generator rotor bores, distinguishing ultrasonic crack signals from other reflectors such as the shrink-fit form reflector detected during ultrasonic scanning of shrunk-on generator retaining rings, and detection and recording of eddy current and ultrasonic signals from defects that could be missed by data acquisition systems with inadequate response. The computers are also used to control scanners to insure total inspection coverage. To facilitate the use of data from detected discontinuities in conjunction with stress and fracture mechanics analysis programs, the computers provide presentations of flaws in color and in three dimensions. The field computers have been instrumental in allowing the inspectors to develop on-site reports that enable the owner/operator to rapidly make run/repair/replace decisions. Examples of recent experiences using field portable computers in NDE systems will be presented along with anticipated future developments. (author)

  11. Physical-chemistry aspects of water in steam turbines associated with material stress and electrochemical assessment of the AISI 403 to simulate real condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, D S; Franco, C V; Godinho, J F; Frech, W A; Sonai, G G [Univ. Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); Torres, L A.M.; Ellwanger, A R.F. [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This study described a methodology developed to prevent the occurrence of corrosion failure in steam turbines. The methodology was developed after the failure of a turbine blade at a plant in Brazil. Deposits were collected from various locations along the turbine blade path and analyzed. A turbine deposit collector and simulator was installed to determine the concentrations of steam impurities. Samples were collected from the low pressure turbine at the crossover point and from the polishing station and analyzed using inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in order to determine if sodium levels exceeded 3 ppb. Filters were weighed in order to determine the accumulation of impurities. A 3-electrode system was used to determine the influence of chloride ions. The design of the system's condensate polisher beds was modified in order to improve condensate effluent conductivity. The condensate treatment procedure lowered the concentrations of salt impurities and established a monitoring methodology for water and steam used at the plant. It was concluded that the methodology can be used to to reduce inspection intervals and increase system reliability. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  12. Effect of technological deviation on aerodynamic efficiency of reaction blades of steam and gas turbines at high Mach nos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Z.

    1991-01-01

    During manufacture and assembly of steam and gas turbine blades there are always some technological deviation and is meant local increase or decrease in dimension at certain sections of the profile improper stagger angle of long blades during assembly etc. In this paper the effect of oversize in dimensions at certain important places along a reaction profile has been studied. The technological deviation has been made by sticking thin aluminium foils of 0.3 mm thickness and 15 mm width at inlet and exit tips of reactive profiles and its effect on aerodynamic efficiency at mach. nos ranging from 0.7 to 1.1. The object of performing these tests was to obtain comprehensive data based on which information suitable tolerances could be recommended during manufacture of these blades

  13. Vibration crack corrosion behavior and failure mechanisms of highly alloyed duplex steels in steam turbine rotor blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, R.

    1991-01-01

    The aim was to test the new duplex steel X3CrMnNiMoN 25 6 4 (A905) for its suitability as a steam turbine rotor blade material. Due to the increased proportion of manganese and nitrogen, compared to A903, in this duplex steel in the solution annealed state, an elastic limit of about 600 N/mm 2 acceptable for steam turbine rotor blades was reached. A micro-duplex structure (recrystallized secondary structure) consisting of 50% each of ferrite and Austenite proved to be the optimum structure composition. To measure the SwRK behaviour, Woehler curves were produced in media containing corrosive NaCl. The mean stress was 250 N/mm 2 , partly 350 N/mm 2 . The maximum duration of the test was given as 3 x 10 7 load cycles at a frequency of 50 Hz. The experimental time was partly extended to 5 x 10 7 load cycles. In order to guarantee as realistic a test as possible, the Sw RK tests took place in aqueous NaCl solution saturated with air. To correspond to envorinmental conditions in actual operation, the electrolyte temperature was varied between 80deg and 150deg C, the Na Cl concentration of the solution was varied between very dilute (0.01 M) and nearly saturated (22%) and the pH value was varied between pH 8 and pH 3. Accompanying passive oxide layer investigations should give information on the thickness and morphology of the layers formed. (orig./MM) [de

  14. Thermo-economic optimization of heat recovery steam generator for a range of gas turbine exhaust temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadir, Mahmoud; Ghenaiet, Adel; Carcasci, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-economic optimization of HRSG configurations. • The maximum value of the net present value was targeted for the economic optimization. • Three level HRSG is the best option in respect of power output and high priced medium. • Two level HRSG is the best for net benefit in low and intermediate priced mediums. - Abstract: This paper illustrates the effect of selling price on the optimum design parameters of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and the selection of its ideal configuration for an outlet temperature range of 350–650 °C. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method was used, considering the steam cycle specific work as an objective to be maximized, the net present value as another objective to be maximized for the economic optimization and a combination of both. Three configurations of heat recovery steam generators are considered with one, two and three pressure levels and a reheat. The results show that, the three pressure level system is the best configuration from a thermodynamic point of view, but with respect to the economical aspect the two pressure levels is the best configuration for the low and medium selling prices (0.04 $/kW h, 0.08 $/kW h and 0.2 $/kW h), whereas the three pressure level configuration would only be interesting for a high selling price of 0.3 $/kW h and a temperature range 450–600 °C. For a temperature of 650 °C, the high cost of the three level system leads to a decrease in the net present value. As the selling price increases the optimized design parameters of the three pressure level HRSG based on economic or thermodynamic optimization are similar. The obtained results are used to elaborate a new correlation relating the net present value with the gas turbine outlet temperature, gas mass flow rate, number of levels of HRSG and selling price.

  15. Hybrid dry cooling. Enhanced energy efficiency in steam turbines. Hybride Trockenkuehlung. Bessere Energienutzung bei Dampfturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucki, R. (Colenco Power Consulting AG, Baden (Switzerland)); Mueller, W. (Jaeggi AG, Bern (Switzerland)); Haltiner, E.W.

    1992-09-11

    Condensation turbo groups facilitate the utilization of thermal energy from vapor production plants, for example from garbage incineration. Through an optimum design of the cooling system, the profitable electric energy can be increased through the maximum spreading of the condensation temperature and the live steam temperature. The hybrid dry cooling guarantees unsurpassable operating conditions. (orig.).

  16. Steam drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1978-01-01

    Steam drums are described that are suitable for use in steam generating heavy water reactor power stations. They receive a steam/water mixture via riser headers from the reactor core and provide by means of separators and driers steam with typically 0.5% moisture content for driving turbines. The drums are constructed as prestressed concrete pressure vessels in which the failure of one or a few of the prestressing elements does not significantly affect the overall strength of the structure. The concrete also acts as a radiation shield. (U.K.)

  17. Energy efficiency analysis of steam ejector and electric vacuum pump for a turbine condenser air extraction system based on supervised machine learning modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strušnik, Dušan; Marčič, Milan; Golob, Marjan; Hribernik, Aleš; Živić, Marija; Avsec, Jurij

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam ejector pump and electric liquid ring vacuum pump are analysed and modelled. • A supervised machine learning models by using real process data are applied. • The equation of ejector pumped mass flow from steam turbine condenser was solved. • The loss of specific energy capable of work in a SEPS or LRVP component was analysed. • The economic efficiency analysis per different coal heating values was made. - Abstract: This paper compares the vapour ejector and electric vacuum pump power consumptions with machine learning algorithms by using real process data and presents some novelty guideline for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pump system of a steam turbine power plant. The machine learning algorithms are made by using the supervised machine learning methods such as artificial neural network model and local linear neuro-fuzzy models. The proposed non-linear models are designed by using a wide range of real process operation data sets from the CHP system in the thermal power plant. The novelty guideline for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pumps system is expressed in the comparative analysis of the energy consumption and use of specific energy capable of work. Furthermore, the novelty is expressed in the economic efficiency analysis of the investment taking into consideration the operating costs of the vacuum pump systems and may serve as basic guidelines for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pump system of a steam turbine.

  18. Development, implementation and operational experience with 900 mm R1T pocket-type bearings at Oskarshamn unit 3 nuclear steam turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, P.; Roos, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Oskarshamn unit 3 nuclear steam turbine generator in Sweden is operated by OKG and, following the extensive PULS upgrade project, delivers an increased rated output of 1450 MW making it the most powerful BWR unit worldwide. Several turbine bearing incidents occurred in 2009 and 2010, which initiated a detailed root cause analysis to determine the reasons and propose appropriate mitigation measures to ensure reliable unit operation. Together with OKG, ALSTOM Power implemented a short-term solution to operate the unit over the winter period of 2010-11. Subsequently, during the annual outage in June 2011, a permanent solution involving a R1T pocket-type bearing design was installed at three shaft-line positions. Since the 1980's, R1T bearings with diameters from 250 to 670 mm have been operating in numerous full-speed (3000/3600 rpm) steam turbine generators. However, this was the first application of a R1T bearing developed at a diameter of 900 mm and for half-speed operation. This paper presents an overview of the bearing development and details the successful operational feedback gathered to date on the three installed bearings. In comparison with the three tilting pad bearing design, which has typically been used on large half-speed ALSTOM Power steam turbine generators to date, it confirms the R1T bearing design as a viable alternative. (authors)

  19. Shaft seals with an easily removable cylinder holder for low-pressure steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A. E.; Rodionov, D. A.; Pimenov, E. V.; Sobolev, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems that occur at the operation of LPC shaft seals (SS) of turbines, particularly, their bearings. The problems arising from the deterioration of oil-protecting rings of SS and bearings and also the consequences in which they can result are considered. The existing SS housing construction types are considered. Their operational features are specified. A new SS construction type with an easily removable holder is presented. The construction of its main elements is described. The sequence of operations of the repair personnel at the restoration of the new SS type spacings is proposed. The comparative analysis of the new and the existing SS construction types is carried out. The assessment results of the efficiency, the operational convenience, and the economic effect after the installation of the new type seals are given. The conclusions about the offered construction prospects are made by results of the comparative analysis and the carried-out assessment. The main advantage of this design is the possibility of spacings restoration both in SS and in oil-protecting rings during a short-term stop of a turbine, even without its cooling. This construction was successfully tested on the working K-300-23.5 LMP turbine. However, its adaptation for other turbines is quite possible.

  20. Service experience and stress corrosion of Inconel 600 bellows expansion joints in turbine steam environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, L.D.; Michael, S.T.; Pement, F.W.

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the service history of Inconel 600 expansion bellows, to illustrate a typical case of failure, propose S.C.C. mechanisms, and to rationalize the most probable mechanism. Inconel 600 is fully resistant to high-purity power plant steam (720 deg F maximum) for on-going service lifetimes which greatly exceed the incubation periods which are reported or postulated in the literature for delayed stress corrosion cracking in high-purity water tests (630-660 deg F). The only observed stress corrosion environments which are sufficiently rapidly deleterious to be consistent with failure lifetimes are molten NaOH in superheated steam or a very concentrated aqueous caustic solution containing silica contamination. (author)

  1. Numerical simulation of transonic flow of wet steam in nozzles and turbines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halama, Jan; Fořt, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2013), s. 303-318 ISSN 0010-485X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/1593 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : finite volume method * nucleation * wet steam * droplet size distribution Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.055, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00607-013-0292-6

  2. Study of PWR reactor efficiency as a function of turbine steam extractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Janine Gandolpho da; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques; Martinez, Aquilino Senra

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to optimize the extractions of the low-pressure turbine of a PWR nuclear reactor, in order to obtain the best thermodynamic cycle efficiency. We have analyzed typical data of a 1300 MW PWR reactor, operating at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% capacities, respectively. The first stage of this study consists of generating a mathematical model capable of describing the reactor behavior and efficiency at any power level. The second stage of this study consists of to combine the generated mathematical model in an optimization computer program that optimize the extractions flow of the low-pressure turbine until it finds the optimal system efficiency. This work does not alter the nuclear facility project in any way. (author)

  3. New low pressure exhaust modules for the MAN steam turbine product line. High performance bladings for highest efficiency levels; Neue Niederdruck-Module fuer die MAN-Dampfturbinenproduktlinie. Hochentwickelte Beschaufelungen fuer hoechste Leistungsdichten und Wirkungsgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, M.A.; Behnke, K.; Klemm, H. [MAN TURBO AG, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Currently it can be observed that in the case of generator drives as well as 'mechanical drives' smaller units are demanded with a steam turbine capacity of up to 150 MW and clearly higher efficiencies. MAN TURBO is meeting the challenge through realisation of a comprehensive development project aiming at the extension of the application range of the current steam turbine series.

  4. Close toleranoe forging of chromium steel blades for powerful steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastin, Eh.G.; Kositskij, Yu.N.; Lyubchits, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Work on simulating technological process on die-forging hammer was performed in order to reduce the preparation period bringing technology of close tolerance forging of turbine blades to a commercial level. A special attention was paid to development of accurate forming of forgings of 20Kh13Sh, 12Kh13 and 15Kh11MFSh steels on screw presses with nominal effort equal to 80 and 144 MN

  5. Integrated gasification combined cycle and steam injection gas turbine powered by biomass joint-venture evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzinger, G.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report analyzes the economic and environmental potential of biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine technology including its market applications. The mature technology promises to produce electricity at $55--60/MWh and to be competitive for market applications conservatively estimated at 2000 MW. The report reviews the competitiveness of the technology of a stand-alone, mature basis and finds it to be substantial and recognized by DOE, EPRI, and the World Bank Global Environmental Facility

  6. Use of NDE and FM for the assessment of remaining life of steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alley, T [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States); Stone, R [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States). Nondestructive Evaluation Center

    1988-12-31

    Catastrophic failures of rotating turbine components, such as the Gallatin rotor burst in 1974 and the shrunk-on disk rupture at Hinkley Point in 1969, alerted the utility industry to the failure potential of these components. Such failures can cause severe financial loss; endanger personnel; and, in nuclear plants, damage safety related equipment. To adequately predict the remaining life of a turbine rotor requires accurate information about component flaws, material properties, future operating loads, relevant failure mechanisms, and an approach to combine this information to make an assessment of remaining life. EPRI has supported the development of improved ultrasonic test equipment for use from the rotor bore (bore-sonic examination) and a fracture mechanics based life assessment code called SAFER (Stress and Fracture Evaluation of Rotors). The EPRI NDE Center has supported the transfer of this technology to industry. This presentation deals with the NDE Center`s transfer of the NDE and life assessment technology to industry and discusses a particular application by Duke Power Company at their Allen Plant, Unit 1 to extend the operating life of an IP/LP turbine. (author).

  7. Use of NDE and FM for the assessment of remaining life of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, T.; Stone, R.

    1988-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of rotating turbine components, such as the Gallatin rotor burst in 1974 and the shrunk-on disk rupture at Hinkley Point in 1969, alerted the utility industry to the failure potential of these components. Such failures can cause severe financial loss; endanger personnel; and, in nuclear plants, damage safety related equipment. To adequately predict the remaining life of a turbine rotor requires accurate information about component flaws, material properties, future operating loads, relevant failure mechanisms, and an approach to combine this information to make an assessment of remaining life. EPRI has supported the development of improved ultrasonic test equipment for use from the rotor bore (bore-sonic examination) and a fracture mechanics based life assessment code called SAFER (Stress and Fracture Evaluation of Rotors). The EPRI NDE Center has supported the transfer of this technology to industry. This presentation deals with the NDE Center's transfer of the NDE and life assessment technology to industry and discusses a particular application by Duke Power Company at their Allen Plant, Unit 1 to extend the operating life of an IP/LP turbine. (author)

  8. Fault detection and diagnosis of an industrial steam turbine using fusion of SVM (support vector machine) and ANFIS (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahshoor, Karim [Department of Instrumentation and Automation, Petroleum University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kordestani, Mojtaba; Khoshro, Majid S. [Department of Control Engineering, Islamic Azad University South Tehran branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The subject of FDD (fault detection and diagnosis) has gained widespread industrial interest in machine condition monitoring applications. This is mainly due to the potential advantage to be achieved from reduced maintenance costs, improved productivity and increased machine availability. This paper presents a new FDD scheme for condition machinery of an industrial steam turbine using a data fusion methodology. Fusion of a SVM (support vector machine) classifier with an ANFIS (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) classifier, integrated into a common framework, is utilized to enhance the fault detection and diagnostic tasks. For this purpose, a multi-attribute data is fused into aggregated values of a single attribute by OWA (ordered weighted averaging) operators. The simulation studies indicate that the resulting fusion-based scheme outperforms the individual SVM and ANFIS systems to detect and diagnose incipient steam turbine faults. (author)

  9. An investigation of two-dimensional, two-phase flow of steam in a cascade of turbine blading by the time-marching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teymourtash, A. R.; Mahpeykar, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    During the course of expansion in turbines, the steam at first super cools and then nucleated to become a two-phase mixture. This is an area where greater understanding can lead to improved design. This paper describes a numerical method for the solution of two-dimensional two-phase flow of steam in a cascade of turbine blading; the unsteady euler equations governing the overall behaviour of the fluid are combined with equations describing droplet behaviour and treated by Jasmine fourth order runge Kutta time marching scheme which modified to allow for two-phase effects. The theoretical surface pressure distributions, droplet radii and contours of constant wetness fraction are presented and results are discussed in the light of knowledge of actual surface pressure distributions

  10. Troubleshooting vacuum systems steam turbine surface condensers and refinery vacuum towers

    CERN Document Server

    Lieberman, Norman P

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum systems are in wide spread use in the petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries and power generation plants. The existing texts on this subject are theoretical in nature and only deal with how the equipment functions when in good mechanical conditions, from the viewpoint of the equipment vendor.  In this much-anticipated volume, one of the most well-respected and prolific process engineers in the world takes on troubleshooting vacuum systems, and especially steam ejectors, an extremely complex and difficult subject that greatly effects the profitability of the majority of the world'

  11. Thermodynamic effects when utilizing waste heat from condensation in cases of a reduced vacuum in steam turbine plants of thermal power stations, to provide heat at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiljevic, N.; Savic, B.; Stojakovic, M.

    1986-01-01

    There is an interesting variant of cogeneration in the steam turbine system of a thermal power plant, i.e. the utilisation of the waste heat of condensation with a reduced vacuum without reconstruction of the thermal power plant. The thermodynamic effect in cogeneration was calculated in consideration of the dynamics of heat consumption. This cogeneration process has the advantage of saving primary energy without reconstruction of the thermal power plant.

  12. Useful life extension of steam turbine rotors; Alargamiento de la vida en rotores de turbina de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Arelle, Carlos [Turbomaquinas S. A. de C.V., La Piedad, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    The continuous use of steam turbines, the chemistry of the steam itself and the variations of operation velocities, cause the gradual deterioration by erosion, oxidation and/or corrosion of the rotors and blades. When this happens most of the original manufacturers recommend to rectify the areas, diminishing the surfaces, or to compare with a new rotor. TURBOMAQUINARIAS S.A. de C.V. has developed the most reliable and safe methods to return the rotor to its original dimensions and in case of recurrent problems such as erosion, oxidation and/or wear, it offers the alternative of attaching coatings metallurgically compatible with which these problems are eliminated or diminished that might show up on the rotor surface as well as in the body of the discs or of the blades. These restoring methods are recommended by the international standards such as API 687. [Spanish] El uso continuo de las turbinas de vapor, la quimica del mismo vapor y la variacion de las velocidades de operacion, ocasionan el deterioro gradual por erosion, oxidacion y/o corrosion de los rotores y de los alabes. Al ocurrir esto la mayoria de los fabricantes originales recomiendan rectificar las areas, disminuyendo las superficies, o bien comparar un rotor nuevo. TURBOMAQUINARIAS S.A. de C.V. ha desarrollado los metodos mas confiables y seguros para devolver a su rotor las dimensiones originales y en caso de problemas recurrentes tales como erosion, oxidacion y/o desgaste, ofrece la alternativa de agregar recubrimientos metalurgicamente compatibles con los cuales se eliminan o se disminuyen estos problemas que pueden presentarse tanto en la superficie del rotor como del cuerpo de los discos o bien de los alabes. Estos metodos de restauracion son recomendados por las normas internacionales tales como la API 687.

  13. Castability of Traditionally Wrought Ni-Based Superalloys for USC Steam Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, P D; Cowen, C J; Hawk, J A; Evens, N; Maziasz, P

    2011-02-27

    The high temperature components within conventional coal fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased. The proposed steam temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) power plant is high enough (760°C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work due to temperature limitations of this class of materials; thus Ni-based superalloys are being considered. The full size castings are quite substantial: ~4in thick, several feet in diameter and weigh 5-10,000lb each half. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled in order to produce relevant microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed in order to better deploy the alloy constituents. The castability of two traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys to which minor alloy adjustments have been made in order to improve foundry performance is further explored.

  14. Multifrequency eddy-current system for inspection of steam generator turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objectives of this program were to: determine the maximum advantage of the multifrequency eddy current method for nuclear steam generator tubing inspection; simplify system operating procedures and enhance presentation of mutifrequency data; and evaluate multifrequency methods for inspecting recently encountered types of anomalies such as circumferential cracks, inside diameter flaws, and flaws in dented regions. New test methods developed under the program have resulted in a dramatic improvement over earlier multifrequency work. The methods rely on judicious selection of test frequencies and the simultaneous use of differential and absolute multiparameter inspection. Flaws may be sized and profiled with increased accuracy over that of the single-frequency method, and improved rejection of indications from unwanted parameters such as support plates and probe wobble has been obtained. The ability to detect and size support cracks in both corroded and non-corroded supports has been demonstrated on a laboratory basis. A field-usable test system employing four test frequencies was developed under the program and has been evaluated in the EPRI steam generator mockup. Some of the new technology used in this system has been commercialized into the new Zetec MIZ-12 multifrequency system

  15. Reduction in the specific consumption of heat by the thermal circuit, achieved by rationalization of the steam turbine condensation at nuclear power plants of the WWER-440 type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacek, A.

    1992-01-01

    Specific consumption of heat needed for the production of a net electricity unit is a criterion for assessing the efficiency of conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy in the steam turbine. Based on theoretical calculations and analyses, a way of evaluating the specific heat consumption is demonstrated for the thermal circuit of the steam-engine equipment with one turbogenerator. The dependence of the specific heat consumption on the steam condensation temperature and on the amount of cooling water flowing through the condenser is calculated, as is the dependence of the limiting pressure on the relative loss of vacuum of the condenser and on the cooling water temperature. Such dependences can be used to upgrade the thermal circuit condensation regime. (M.D.). 2 figs., 12 refs

  16. Study on waste heat recovery from exhaust gas spark ignition (S.I. engine using steam turbine mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Kamarulhelmy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of global warming has pushed the effort of researchers not only to find alternative renewable energy, but also to improve the machine’s energy efficiency. This includes the utilization of waste energy into ‘useful energy’. For a vehicle using internal combustion engine (ICE, the waste energy produce by exhaust gas can be utilize to ‘useful energy’ up to 34%. The energy from the automotive exhaust can be harness by implementing heat pipe heat exchanger in the automotive system. In order to maximize the amount of waste energy that can be turned to ‘useful energy’, the used of appropriate fluid in the heat exchanger is important. In this study, the fluid used is water, thus converting the fluid into steam and thus drive the turbine that coupling with generator. The paper will explore the performance of a naturally aspirated spark ignition (S.I. engine equipped with waste heat recovery mechanism (WHRM that used water as the heat absorption medium. The experimental and simulation test suggest that the concept is thermodynamically feasible and could significantly enhance the system performance depending on the load applied to the engine.

  17. Liquid impact erosion mechanism and theoretical impact stress analysis in TiN-coated steam turbine blade materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.K.; Kim, W.W.; Rhee, C.K.; Lee, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Coating of TiN film was done by reactive magnetron sputter ion plating to improve the liquid impact erosion resistance of steam turbine blade materials, 12Cr steel and Stellite 6B, for nuclear power plant application. TiN-coated blade materials were initially deformed with depressions due to plastic deformation of the ductile substrate. The increase in the curvature in the depressions induced stress concentration with increasing number of impacts, followed by circumferential fracture of the TiN coating due to the circular propagation of cracks. The liquid impact erosion resistance of the blade materials was greatly improved by TiN coating done with the optimum ion plating condition. Damage decreased with increasing TiN coating thickness. According to the theoretical analysis of stresses generated by liquid impact, TiN coating alleviated the impact stress of 12Cr steel and Stellite 6B due to stress attenuation and stress wave reactions such as reflection and transmission at the coating-substrate interface

  18. Recovery of exhaust waste heat for a hybrid car using steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababatin, Yasser

    A number of car engines operate with an efficiency rate of approximately 22% to 25% [1]. The remainder of the energy these engines generate is wasted through heat escape out of the exhaust pipe. There is now an increasing desire to reuse this heat energy, which would improve the overall efficiency of car engines by reducing their consumption of fuel. Another benefit is that such reuse would minimize harmful greenhouse gases that are emitted into the environment. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to examine how the wasted heat energy can be reused and/or recovered by use of a heat recovery system that would store this energy in a hybrid car battery. Green turbines will be analyzed as a possible solution to recycle the lost energy in a way that will also improve the overall automotive energy efficiency.

  19. Cracking of low-pressure steam turbine rotor discs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMinn, A.; Burghard, H.C. Jr.; Lyle, F.F. Jr.; Leverant, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the results of several metallurgical analyses of retired low pressure (LP) turbine discs that had suffered in-service cracking. Cracks were found in four locations; keyways, bores, web faces and rim attachment areas. In every case, the metallurgical analyses identified intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) as the operative mechanism. The cracks normally have been filled with iron oxides; but chlorides, sulphates, carbonates, copper and copper oxide have been found in, or near cracks. In some cases deposits have been strongly alkaline. However, no specific corrodent has been identified as being uniquely responsible for the cracking in any of the discs. In every case, the disc materials met all mechanical-properties and chemical-composition requirements, and had normal microstructures

  20. Modelling and simulation of the steam line, the high and low pressure turbines and the pressure regulator for the SUN-RAH nucleo electric university simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the following article the development of a simulator that allows to represent the dynamics of the following systems: steam line, nozzle, vapor separator, reheater, high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, power generator and the pressure regulator of a nucleo electric power station. We start from the supposition that this plant will be modeled from a nuclear reactor type BWR (Boiling Water Reactor), using models of reduced order that represent the more important dynamic variables of the physical processes that happen along the steam line until the one generator. To be able to carry out the simulation in real time the Mat lab mathematical modeling software is used, as well as the specific simulation tool Simulink. It is necessary to point out that the platform on which the one is executed the simulator is the Windows operating system, to allow the intuitive use that only this operating system offers. The above-mentioned obeys to that the objective of the simulator it is to help the user to understand some of the dynamic phenomena that are present in the systems of a nuclear plant, and to provide a tool of analysis and measurement of variables to predict the desirable behavior of the same ones. The model of a pressure controller for the steam lines, the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine is also presented that it will be the one in charge of regulating the demand of the system according to the characteristics and critic restrictions of safety and control, assigned according to those wanted parameters of performance of this system inside the nucleo electric plant. This simulator is totally well defined and it is part of the University student nucleo electric simulator with Boiling Water Reactor (SUN-RAH), an integral project and of greater capacity. (Author)

  1. Thermionic combustor application to combined gas and steam turbine power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskolczy, G.; Wang, C.C.; Lieb, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    A design for the insertion of thermionic converters into the wall of a conventional combustor to produce electricity in a topping cycle is described, and a study for applications in gas and steam generators of 70 and 30 MW is evaluated for engineering and economic feasibility. Waste heat from the thermionic elements is used to preheat the combustor air, the heat absorbed by the elements plus further quenching of the exhaust gases with ammonia is projected to reduce NO(x) emissions to acceptable levels. Schematics, flow diagrams, and components of a computer model for cost projections are provided. It was found that temperatures around the emitters must be maintained above 1,600 K, with maximum efficiency and allowable temperature at 1,800 K, while collectors generate maximally at 950 K, with a corresponding work function of 1.5 eV. Cost sensitive studies indicate an installed price of $475/kW for the topping cycle, with improvements in thermionic converter characteristics bringing the cost to $375/kW at a busbar figure of 500 mills/kWh

  2. Thermionic combustor application to combined gas and steam turbine power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskolczy, G.; Wang, C. C.; Lieb, D. P.; Margulies, A. E.; Fusegni, L. J.; Lovell, B. J.

    A design for the insertion of thermionic converters into the wall of a conventional combustor to produce electricity in a topping cycle is described, and a study for applications in gas and steam generators of 70 and 30 MW is evaluated for engineering and economic feasibility. Waste heat from the thermionic elements is used to preheat the combustor air; the heat absorbed by the elements plus further quenching of the exhaust gases with ammonia is projected to reduce NO(x) emissions to acceptable levels. Schematics, flow diagrams, and components of a computer model for cost projections are provided. It was found that temperatures around the emitters must be maintained above 1,600 K, with maximum efficiency and allowable temperature at 1,800 K, while collectors generate maximally at 950 K, with a corresponding work function of 1.5 eV. Cost sensitive studies indicate an installed price of $475/kW for the topping cycle, with improvements in thermionic converter characteristics bringing the cost to $375/kW at a busbar figure of 500 mills/kWh.

  3. Variable electricity and steam from salt, helium and sodium cooled base-load reactors with gas turbines and heat storage - 15115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.; McDaniel, P.; Zohuri, B.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in utility natural-gas-fired air-Brayton combed cycle technology is creating the option of coupling salt-, helium-, and sodium-cooled nuclear reactors to Nuclear air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC) power systems. NACC may enable a zero-carbon electricity grid and improve nuclear power economics by enabling variable electricity output with base-load nuclear reactor operations. Variable electricity output enables selling more electricity at times of high prices that increases plant revenue. Peak power is achieved using stored heat or auxiliary fuel (natural gas, bio-fuels, hydrogen). A typical NACC cycle includes air compression, heating compressed air using nuclear heat and a heat exchanger, sending air through a turbine to produce electricity, reheating compressed air, sending air through a second turbine, and exhausting to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). In the HRSG, warm air produces steam that is used to produce added electricity. For peak power production, auxiliary heat (natural gas, stored heat) is added before the air enters the second turbine to raise air temperatures and power output. Like all combined cycle plants, water cooling requirements are dramatically reduced relative to other power cycles because much of the heat rejection is in the form of hot air. (authors)

  4. Status on the Component Models Developed in the Modelica Framework: High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis Plant & Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk Kim, Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report has been prepared as part of an effort to design and build a modeling and simulation (M&S) framework to assess the economic viability of a nuclear-renewable hybrid energy system (N-R HES). In order to facilitate dynamic M&S of such an integrated system, research groups in multiple national laboratories have been developing various subsystems as dynamic physics-based components using the Modelica programming language. In fiscal year (FY) 2015, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed a dynamic analysis of two region-specific N-R HES configurations, including the gas-to-liquid (natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuel) and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination plants as industrial processes. In FY 2016, INL has developed two additional subsystems in the Modelica framework: a high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) plant and a gas turbine power plant (GTPP). HTSE has been proposed as a high priority industrial process to be integrated with a light water reactor (LWR) in an N-R HES. This integrated energy system would be capable of dynamically apportioning thermal and electrical energy (1) to provide responsive generation to the power grid and (2) to produce alternative industrial products (i.e., hydrogen and oxygen) without generating any greenhouse gases. A dynamic performance analysis of the LWR/HTSE integration case was carried out to evaluate the technical feasibility (load-following capability) and safety of such a system operating under highly variable conditions requiring flexible output. To support the dynamic analysis, the detailed dynamic model and control design of the HTSE process, which employs solid oxide electrolysis cells, have been developed to predict the process behavior over a large range of operating conditions. As first-generation N-R HES technology will be based on LWRs, which provide thermal energy at a relatively low temperature, complementary temperature-boosting technology was suggested for integration with the

  5. Effect of non-condensable gas on heat transfer in steam turbine condenser and modelling of ejector pump system by controlling the gas extraction rate through extraction tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strušnik, Dušan; Golob, Marjan; Avsec, Jurij

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Control of the amount of the pumped gases through extraction tubes. The connecting locations interconnect the extraction tubes for STC gas pumping. The extraction tubes are fitted with 3 control valves to control the amount of the pumped gas depending on the temperature of the pumped gas. The amount of the pumped gas increases through the extraction tubes, where the pumped gases are cooler and decreases, at the same time, through the extraction tubes, where the pumped gases are warmer. As a result, pumping of a larger amount of NCG is ensured and of a smaller amount of CG, given that the NCG concentration is the highest on the colder places. This way, the total amount of the pumped gases from the STC can be reduced, the SEPS operates more efficiently and consumes less energy for its operation. - Highlights: • Impact of non-condensable gas on heat transfer in a steam turbine condenser. • The ejector system is optimised by selecting a Laval nozzle diameter. • Simulation model of the control of the amount of pumped gases through extraction tubes. • Neural network and fuzzy logic systems used to control gas extraction rate. • Simulation model was designed by using real process data from the thermal power plant. - Abstract: The paper describes the impact of non-condensable gas (NCG) on heat transfer in a steam turbine condenser (STC) and modelling of the steam ejector pump system (SEPS) by controlling the gas extraction rate through extraction tubes. The ideal connection points for the NCG extraction from the STC are identified by analysing the impact of the NCG on the heat transfer and measuring the existing system at a thermal power plant in Slovenia. A simulation model is designed using the Matlab software and Simulink, Neural Net Work, Fuzzy Logic and Curve Fitting Toolboxes, to control gas extraction rate through extraction tubes of the gas pumped from the STC, thus optimising the operation of the steam ejector pump system (SEPS). The

  6. Determination of forces induced by steam flow in turbines; Determinacion de fuerzas inducidas por flujo de vapor en turbinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Castrejon, Juan Carlos

    2008-09-15

    The steam flow induced vibrations in turbines is a common problem during the operation of 300 MW turbines and it is one of the problems that requires solution to develop 1 GW steam turbines. The flow induced vibration is caused because there is an interaction between blades and the flow field. Blades are subjected to the forces caused by the flow field, but also the flow field is affected by the blades and its movement. The nozzle wakes cause uneven pressure field downstream and produces alternating forces on blades which lead to blade vibrations. Some of the vibrations originated in this way may damage the blades and affect the turbine performance. The forces acting on blades (and causing forced vibrations) as a result of the variations in the flow field in the axial rotor-stator clearance are studied in this project. These forces were determined applying computer fluid dynamics (CFD) in two turbine stages. The CFD analysis was carried out in the Curtis stage and in the last stage, using 2D and 3D models. An important part of the analysis is focused on discussing the pressure field variation, because this variation caused the forces acting on blades. The flow field was resolved using CFD and the computed pressure field was integrated around the blades to get the forces acting on blades. These computed dynamical forces were analyzed using a FFT analysis and the results were used in the blade useful life estimation and in the investigation of the failure causes of these blades. In every turbine stage the RNG - turbulence model and the sliding mesh method was used to deal with the blade motion. The 3D models were resolved using parallel computation in a cluster of 6 AMD 64 Opteron processors of 2412.36 MHz and 8 Gb of RAM. The results of the simulation in both stages get the pressure field behavior in the axial rotor-stator clearance and determine the force acting on the blades. These results showed that both, the pressure field and the force magnitude acting on

  7. Digital implementation, simulation and tests in MATLAB of the models of Steam line, the turbines, the pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this phase of the project they were carried out exhaustive tests to the models of the steam lines, turbines and pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric central for to verify that their tendencies and behaviors are it more real possible. For it, it was necessary to also analyze the transfer functions of the different components along the steam line until the power generator. Such models define alone the dominant poles of the system, what is not limitation to reproduce a wide range of anticipated transitoriness of a power station operation. In the same manner, it was integrated and proved the integrated model form with the models of feeding water of the SUN-RAH, simulating the nuclear reactor starting from predetermined entrances of the prospective values of the vessel. Also it was coupled with the graphic interface developed with the libraries DirectX implementing a specific monitoring panel for this system. (Author)

  8. Condensation of steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisyazhniuk, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    An equation for nucleation kinetics in steam condensation has been derived, the equation taking into account the concurrent and independent functioning of two nucleation mechanisms: the homogeneous one and the heterogeneous one. The equation is a most general-purpose one and includes all the previously known condensation models as special cases. It is shown how the equation can be used in analyzing the process of steam condensation in the condenser of an industrial steam-turbine plant, and in working out new ways of raising the efficiency of the condenser, as well as of the steam-turbine plant as a whole. (orig.)

  9. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  10. Crack repair welding by CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire for long-term used steam turbine cases of Cr-Mo-V cast steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoi, Kota, E-mail: kadoi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Murakami, Aoi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Matsumura, Hideo [Chugoku Electric Power Co., 3-9-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    Surface melting by gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding and overlaying by cold metal transfer (CMT) brazing using low melting point filler wire were investigated to develop a repair process for cracks in worn cast steel of steam turbine cases. Cr-Mo-V cast steel, operated for 188,500 h at 566 °C, was used as the base material. Silver and gold brazing filler wires were used as overlaying materials to decrease the heat input into the base metal and the peak temperature during the welding thermal cycle. Microstructural analysis revealed that the worn cast steel test samples contained ferrite phases with intragranular precipitates of Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}, Mo{sub 2}C, and CrSi{sub 2} and grain boundary precipitates of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Mo{sub 2}C. CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire was found to decrease the heat input and peak temperature during the thermal cycle of the process compared with those during GTA surface melting. Thus, the process helped to inhibit the formation of hardened phases such as intermetallics and martensite in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Additionally, in the case of CMT brazing using BAg-8, the change in the hardness of the HAZ was negligible even though other processes such as GTA surface melting cause significant changes. The creep-fatigue properties of weldments produced by CMT brazing with BAg-8 were the highest, and nearly the same as those of the base metal owing to the prevention of hardened phase formation. The number of fracture cycles using GTA surface melting and CMT brazing with BAu-4 was also quite small. Therefore, CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire such as BAg-8 is a promising candidate method for repairing steam turbine cases. However, it is necessary to take alloy segregation during turbine operation into account to design a suitable filler wire for practical use.

  11. An analytical formulation of thermodynamic properties of dry and metastable steam suitable for computational fluid dynamics modelling of steam turbine flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubý, Jan; Pátek, Jaroslav; Duška, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 228, č. 2 (2014), s. 120-128 ISSN 0957-6509 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/1593; GA MŠk LG13056 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : metastable steam * thermodynamic properties * computational fluid dynamics Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2014 http://pia.sagepub.com/content/228/2.toc

  12. Behaviour of steam turbine power control of large power plant units in case of network short-circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindermann, W.; Fork, K.

    1978-01-01

    In order to investigate the behaviour of the turbine control system during strong pendulum motions, an analysis is carried out using a digital computer program by which the reactor, the turbine, the generator and, in a simplified way, the network can be simulated to the necessary degree. Plotter pictures can show the main physical quantities. In all cases, the turbine control system should be able to distinguish between strong pendulum amplitude with acceleration of the rotational angles and sudden release criteria. This demand can be satisfied by a simple adjustment in the Kraftwerk Union turbine control system. Only a few seconds after shut-off of a severe network failure, the turbines are back to their rated power, thus contributing to reliability of supply in this critical network situation. (orig.) [de

  13. Heat transfer performance comparison of steam and air in gas turbine cooling channels with different rib angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaojun; Gao, Jianmin; Xu, Liang; Li, Fajin

    2013-11-01

    Using steam as working fluid to replace compressed air is a promising cooling technology for internal cooling passages of blades and vanes. The local heat transfer characteristics and the thermal performance of steam flow in wide aspect ratio channels ( W/ H = 2) with different angled ribs on two opposite walls have been experimentally investigated in this paper. The averaged Nusselt number ratios and the friction factor ratios of steam and air in four ribbed channels were also measured under the same test conditions for comparison. The Reynolds number range is 6,000-70,000. The rib angles are 90°, 60°, 45°, and 30°, respectively. The rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio is 0.047. The pitch-to-rib height ratio is 10. The results show that the Nusselt number ratios of steam are 1.19-1.32 times greater than those of air over the range of Reynolds numbers studied. For wide aspect ratio channels using steam as the coolant, the 60° angled ribs has the best heat transfer performance and is recommended for cooling design.

  14. Some perspective decisions for the regeneration system equipment of the thermal and nuclear power plants decreasing the probability of water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Yesin, S. B.; Nikolayenkova, E. K.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigorieva, E. B.

    2016-03-01

    The regeneration system heaters are one of the sources of possible ingress of the water into the turbine. The water penetrates into the turbine either at the heaters overflow or with the return flow of steam generated when the water being in the heater boils up in the dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit. The return flow of steam and water is dangerous to the turbine blades and can result in the rotor acceleration. The known protective devices used to prevent the overflow of the low-pressure and high-pressure heaters (LPH and HPH), of the horizontal and vertical heaters of heating-system water (HWH and VWH), as well as of the deaerators and low-pressure mixing heaters (LPMH) were considered. The main protective methods of the steam and water return flows supplied by the heaters in dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit are described. Previous operating experience shows that the available protections do not fully prevent water ingress into the turbine and the rotor acceleration and, therefore, the development of measures to decrease the possibility of ingress of the water into the turbine is an actual problem. The measures allowing eliminating or reducing the water mass in the heaters are expounded; some of them were designed by the specialists of OAO Polzunov Scientific and Development Association on Research and Design of Power Equipment (NPO CKTI) and are efficiently introduced at heat power plants and nuclear power plants. The suggested technical solutions allow reducing the possibility of the water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow in the dynamic operation modes or in the case of power generating unit deenergization. Some of these solutions have been tested in experimental-industrial exploitation and can be used in industry.

  15. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  16. A review on the use of gas and steam turbine combined cycles as prime movers for large ships. Part I: Background and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the prospects of using combined cycles as prime movers for large ships, like, container ships, tankers and bulk carriers. The paper is divided into three parts of which this paper constitutes Part I. Here, the environmental and human health concerns of international shipping are outlined. The regulatory framework relevant for shipping and the design of combined cycles are discussed. In Part II, previous work and experience are reviewed, and an overview of the implications of introducing combined cycles as prime movers is included. In Part III, marine fuels are discussed and the pollutant emissions of gas turbines are compared with those of two-stroke, slow-speed diesel engines. Environmental effects of shipping include contributions to the formation of ground-level ozone, acidification, eutrophication and climate impact. Tightening environmental regulations limit the fuel sulphur content and pollutant emissions. For moderate live steam pressures, a vertical HRSG of drum-type mounted directly over the gas turbine, is suggested to be a viable configuration that minimizes ground floor and space requirements

  17. Influencia de los parámetros de proceso, en el comportamiento del parámetro vibración absoluta en turbinas de vapor. // Influence of process parameters of the behaviour of absolute vibration parameters in steam turbine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado en turbinas de vapor de pequeña capacidad de generación de las centralestermoeléctricas cubanas, relacionadas con la influencia estadística entre parámetros de proceso de la turbina, respecto alparámetro vibración absoluta, medidos en las chumaceras de la turbina. Se utilizan las bases de datos de los sistemas demonitoreado on-line de la turbina. Se exponen las relaciones existentes entre los principales parámetros seleccionados paraeste estudio.Palabras claves: Monitorado on-line, Monitorado de la condición, Parámetros de proceso, Vibraciónabsoluta, Turbinas de vapor.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work show the estudy in small steam turbine capacity of generation in cubans thermoelectric power station to relative withstatistical influence between steam process parameters regarding absolute vibration parameter, in the steam housing measurements.Themselves use database as steam on-line monitoring systems. Expose the existing relation between the principal selection parametersfor this study.Key Words: On.line monitoring, Condition monitoring, Process parameters, Absolute vibration, SteamTurbine.

  18. THE DETECTION OF THE NECESSARY CONDITIONS OF EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF THE BALL CLEANING SYSTEM OF THE TUBES OF STEAM TURBINE CONDENSERS. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gerasimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of an increase of the power of turbine by improving heat transfer in condensers of steam turbines is considered in the article as a topical one. The analysis of contamination of the internal surfaces of cooling tubes and of the influence of pollution on the process of heat transfer in turbine condensers has been fulfilled. The existing method of cleaning of condenser tubes with the use of porous elastic balls of sponge rubber that is implemented on a number of large thermal power plants and state region power plants of the Republic of Belarus is examined. In the operation of the ball cleaning system a significant drawback has been revealed, viz. a low efficiency of this method due to the failure to comply with preparation the system of circulating water for operation. Also, a certain imperfection of ball cleaning system technology has been determined. One of the prerequisites for the effective functioning of the ball cleaning system is a certain degree of purity of the pipe system of the condenser, characterized by the coefficient of purity. To determine the effectiveness of ball cleaning system a series of experiments on the launching of porous rubber balls in the pipe system of the main and the embedded bunches of the T-250/300-240 UTMZ turbine has been produced. Immediately before the experiments hydraulic cleaning of the tubes of the condenser by a high-pressure installation were carried out. During the experiments, records of the number of downloaded porous rubber balls, of the number of rubber balls captured in a loading chamber, and of the number of rubber balls that remained in a calibration device were kept. A large proportion of default of the balls caused by the presence of residues of the carbonate sediments, that obstruct the movement of porous rubber balls in the tubes of the condenser, was determined. The presence of carbonate deposits in the tubes of the condenser indicates a lack of effectiveness of antiscale treatment

  19. Analysis and control of erosion by solid particles in the elements of the flow system of steam turbines; Analisis y control de erosion por particulas solidas en los elementos del sistema de flujo de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw; Campos Amezcua, Alfonso; Campos Amezcua, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of erosion by solid particles is presented of different elements of the flow channel of the steam turbines that operate in Mexico: nozzles, stop valves, blade bosses, labyrinth seals and rotor disc; using tools of of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In these main elements of turbines a strong problem of erosion was registered that threatens the reliable operation of the turbines, its availability and its optimal yield. With base on the results of the numerical analyses, the design modifications of the different elements were developed from the flow channel of the steam turbines, in order to reduce the erosion and thus diminishing the energy losses and increasing the steam turbine efficiency. This work presents the main benefits that the Thermoelectric Power Plants obtain with the reduction of the erosion by solid particles that affect the critical components of steam turbines: extension of the period between maintenance, replacement of components, reduction of operation and maintenance costs of the turbines, and extension of the useful life of the main components. [Spanish] Se presenta el analisis de erosion por particulas solidas de diferentes elementos del canal de flujo de las turbinas de vapor que operan en Mexico: toberas, valvula de paro, tetones de los alabes, sellos de laberinto y disco del rotor; utilizando herramientas de Dinamica de Fluidos Computacional (DFC). En estos elementos principales de turbinas se registro un fuerte problema de erosion que amenaza la operacion confiable de las turbinas, su disponibilidad y su rendimiento optimo. Con base en los resultados de los analisis numericos, se desarrollaron las modificaciones de diseno de los diferentes elementos del canal de flujo de las turbinas de vapor, con el proposito de reducir la erosion y asi, disminuir las perdidas de energia e incrementar el rendimiento de las turbinas de vapor. Este trabajo presenta los principales beneficios que obtienen las Centrales Termoelectricas con la

  20. Emergency makeup of nuclear steam generators in blackout conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, A.V.; Derevyanko, O.V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes an original solution for using steam energy to organize makeup of NPP steam generators in blackout conditions. The proposed solution combines a disk friction turbine and an axial turbine in a single housing to provide a high overall technical effect enabling the replenishment of nuclear steam generators with steam using the pump turbine drive assembly. The application of the design is analyzed and its efficiency and feasibility are shown

  1. Technical and economical feasibility of the Rankine compression gas turbine (RCG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, H.; Lange, de H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Rankine compression gas turbine (RCG) is a new type of combined cycle, i.e. combined steam and gas turbine installation, that returns all shaft power on one free power turbine. The novelty of the RCG is that the steam turbine drives the compressor of the gas turbine cycle. This way, the turbine

  2. New low pressure (LP) turbines for NE Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemcic, K.; Novsak, M.

    2004-01-01

    During the evaluation of possible future maintenance strategies on steam turbine in very short period of time, engineering decision was made by NE Krsko in agreement with Owners to replace the existing two Low Pressure (LP) Turbines with new upgrading LP Turbines. This decision is presented with review of the various steam turbine problems as: SCC on turbine discs; blades cracking; erosion-corrosion with comparison of various maintenance options and efforts undertaken by the NE Krsko to improve performance of the original low pressure turbines. This paper presents the NEK approach to solve the possible future problems with steam turbine operation in NE Krsko as pro-active engineering and maintenance activities on the steam turbine. This paper also presents improvements involving retrofits, confined to the main steam turbine path, with major differences between original and new LP Turbines as beneficial replacement because of turbine MWe upgrading and return capital expenditures.(author)

  3. Change in working characteristics of the steam turbine metal with operating time of more than 330000 hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladshteyn, V. I.; Troitskiy, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Research of a metal of the stop valve case (SVC) of the K-300-23.5 LMZ turbine (steel grade 15Kh1M1FL), destroyed after operation for 331000 hours, is performed. It's chemical composition and properties are determined as follows: a short-term mechanical tensile stress at 20°C and at elevated temperature, critical temperature, fragility, critical crack opening at elevated temperature, and long-term strength. Furthermore, nature of the microstructure, packing density of carbide particles and their size, and chemical composition of carbide sediment are estimated. A manifestation of metal properties for the main case components by comparison with a forecast of the respective characteristics made for the operating time of 331000 hours is tested. Property-time relationships are built for the forecast using statistical treatment of the test results for the samples cut out from more than 300 parts. Representativeness of the research results is proved: the statistical treatment of their differences are within the range of ±5%. It has been found that, after 150000 hours of operation, only the tensile strength insignificantly depends on the operating time at 20°C, whereas indicators of strength at elevated temperature significantly reduce, depending on the operating time. A brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (BDTT) raises, a critical notch opening changes in a complicated way, a long-term strength reduces. It has been found empirically that the limit of a long-term strength of the SVC metal at 540°C and the operating time of 105 hours is almost 1.6 times less than the required value in the as-delivered state. It is possible to evaluate a service life of the operating valves with the operating time of more than 330000 hours with respect to the long-term strength of the metal taking into account the actual temperature and stress. Guidelines for the control of similar parts are provided.

  4. Fluid- and structural mechanical study of the inflow of a steam turbine; Stroemungs- und strukturmechanische Untersuchung der Einstroemung einer Dampfturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, Simon

    2011-06-22

    This work presents design guidelines for two categorically different concepts of a power plant turbine inlet duct; a ring-type inlet chamber and an inlet scroll. Subjects of the analysis are aerodynamic considerations of the flow field in the ducts as well as the impact of the chamber topology on the radial clearances influencing casing deformations in stationary and transient load cases. To show the reliability of the CFD-program used, calculated results are compared with measured data. The numerical method catches the main physical effects observed in the reference cases with high accuracy. The flow field in the ring-type inlet chamber strongly depends on the Reynolds number Re; according to Re a symmetrical or swirling flow field can be observed. The calculations indicate that measured values in test stands of inlet ducts with a Reynolds number that is not comparable to the full-size model should be examined carefully. The optimization of the ring-type inlet chamber leads to a geometry with minimum losses from an aerodynamic and mechanical point of view. The greatest benefit can be realized by an optimized flow into the downstream following stator blades. The analysis of the inlet scroll unveils a negative influence of eccentrically arranged pipe ends on the leakage losses. For the casings investigated a very compact design leads to minimum total losses. When choosing the scroll topology, the leakage losses should be minded, as the link between scroll size and casing deformation is not negligible. A comparison of both optimized inlet chambers shows that they have the same loss level. The selection of one concept should take into account stress distributions and the offsets of casing flanges including their consequences.

  5. Steam plant for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the research and development organisations and users to highlight those aspects of the steam turbine and associated plant which are particularly related to the PWR system. The contents include: Characteristics of the steam system (including feed train, dump system and safety aspects); overall design aspects of high and half speed turbines; design aspects of the steam generator and seismic considerations; moisture separators and reheaters; feed pumps and their drives; water treatment; safety related valves; operational experience; availability and performance

  6. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 15.1-15.5 Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with turbines. addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: types and components of steam turbines, steam turbine auxiliaries, operation and maintenance of steam turbines, and gas…

  7. Steaming ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    An example of the development of geothermal power in Indonesia is described. Wells are being drilled into the Salak volcano on Java, about 60km south of Jakarta. These let out high pressure hot water trapped 1 to 3km below the surface which can be flashed into steam for driving turbines. The hot water field has already produced 110MW of power since 1994 and is currently being expanded to 330MW. Some details of the drilling and civil engineering are given. Since Indonesia sits on the edge of giant tectonic boundary known as the ''Pacific ring of fire'', the potential for further development is enormous. Ultimately volcanic activity could release an estimated 27,000MW capacity. More realistically, 2,000MW of crustal power by 2020 is spoken of. (UK)

  8. Combined cycle simulator with gas turbine and steam turbine with one vaporization stage; Simulador de ciclo combinado con turbina de gas y de vapor con un nivel de vaporizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valle Cardenas, B.; Lugo Leyte, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Depto de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Toledo Velazquez, Miguel; Tolentino Eslava, G. [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Laboratorio de Ingenieria Termica e Hidraulica Aplicada, ESIME-IPN-COFFA, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper shows the thermal analysis of a combined cycle with gas and steam turbines with one vaporization stage. The analysis is performed through a computer program, which allows the simulation of cycles with different operational conditions, obtaining this way a series of results that permits to know the way these cycles behave in effecting temperature and pressure changes; besides of being an excellent tool in thermodynamics for the user. The simulators were performed in Borland C++ and Builder C++ Versions 4.5 and 2.0 respectively, creating in this way a friendly ambient for the user. This tool offers the opportunity to all its users the ability to simulate combined cycles in a fast and easy way in order to obtain a wider understanding of its thermodynamic behavior. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestra el analisis termico de un ciclo combinado con turbinas de gas y de vapor con un nivel de vaporizacion. El analisis se realiza a traves de un programa de computo, el cual permite simular los ciclos con diferentes condiciones de operacion, obteniendo con esto una serie de resultados que permiten conocer la forma en que trabajan estos ciclos al realizar cambios en temperaturas y presiones; ademas de que es una excelente herramienta para el usuario en termodinamica. Los simuladores fueron realizados en Borland C++ y Builder C++ Versiones 4.5 y 2.0 respectivamente, creandose asi un ambiente amigable para el usuario. Esta herramienta brinda la oportunidad a todos los usuarios de poder simular ciclos combinados de una manera rapida y sencilla con el fin de obtener una comprension mas amplia de su comportamiento termodinamico.

  9. Combined cycle simulator with gas turbine and steam turbine with one vaporization stage; Simulador de ciclo combinado con turbina de gas y de vapor con un nivel de vaporizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valle Cardenas, B; Lugo Leyte, R [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Depto de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Toledo Velazquez, Miguel; Tolentino Eslava, G [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Laboratorio de Ingenieria Termica e Hidraulica Aplicada, ESIME-IPN-COFFA, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    This paper shows the thermal analysis of a combined cycle with gas and steam turbines with one vaporization stage. The analysis is performed through a computer program, which allows the simulation of cycles with different operational conditions, obtaining this way a series of results that permits to know the way these cycles behave in effecting temperature and pressure changes; besides of being an excellent tool in thermodynamics for the user. The simulators were performed in Borland C++ and Builder C++ Versions 4.5 and 2.0 respectively, creating in this way a friendly ambient for the user. This tool offers the opportunity to all its users the ability to simulate combined cycles in a fast and easy way in order to obtain a wider understanding of its thermodynamic behavior. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestra el analisis termico de un ciclo combinado con turbinas de gas y de vapor con un nivel de vaporizacion. El analisis se realiza a traves de un programa de computo, el cual permite simular los ciclos con diferentes condiciones de operacion, obteniendo con esto una serie de resultados que permiten conocer la forma en que trabajan estos ciclos al realizar cambios en temperaturas y presiones; ademas de que es una excelente herramienta para el usuario en termodinamica. Los simuladores fueron realizados en Borland C++ y Builder C++ Versiones 4.5 y 2.0 respectivamente, creandose asi un ambiente amigable para el usuario. Esta herramienta brinda la oportunidad a todos los usuarios de poder simular ciclos combinados de una manera rapida y sencilla con el fin de obtener una comprension mas amplia de su comportamiento termodinamico.

  10. Effect of composition, heat treatment and processing technologies on the microstructure and properties of HP and IP rotors of large steam turbines from 1CrMoV steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchizhik, A.A. [The Polzunov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, Department the Fatigue Life of Materials for Power Plant Equipment, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    In the presentation the evolution of the technology manufacturing of the large forging from the 1CrMoV steels and the results complex of the long time investigations rotors on virgin state and after different operation times is analyzed. Among the information there are the criterion of the optimization of the composition steel service properties, especially super long - term creep resistance, creep fracture and long time cracks resistance. Two safety coefficients: stress (SSC) and time safety coefficient (TSC) must be used for calculations of the possibility prolongation service life of HP and IP rotors for large steam turbines. (orig.) 11 refs.

  11. Effect of composition, heat treatment and processing technologies on the microstructure and properties of HP and IP rotors of large steam turbines from 1CrMoV steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchizhik, A A [The Polzunov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, Department the Fatigue Life of Materials for Power Plant Equipment, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1999-12-31

    In the presentation the evolution of the technology manufacturing of the large forging from the 1CrMoV steels and the results complex of the long time investigations rotors on virgin state and after different operation times is analyzed. Among the information there are the criterion of the optimization of the composition steel service properties, especially super long - term creep resistance, creep fracture and long time cracks resistance. Two safety coefficients: stress (SSC) and time safety coefficient (TSC) must be used for calculations of the possibility prolongation service life of HP and IP rotors for large steam turbines. (orig.) 11 refs.

  12. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  13. Effect of the blades and seals system wear on steam turbine efficiency and power; Efecto del desgaste del sistema de alabes y sellos sobre la eficiencia y potencia de las turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Amezcua, Alfonso; Kubiak Szyszka, Janusz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The implementation of a method for steam turbine evaluation through the measured geometry in the flow channel and its operating conditions, is presented. This method, previously developed, allows the identification and quantification of the power and efficiency loss due to the wear of its elements (worn or bent blades, worn seals, deposits, etc.); the benefit that is obtained is a more precise knowledge on the turbine behavior and a basis is acquired to give priority to the maintenance work, from the stand point of energy utilization. In this paper, the power and efficiency loss of a 300 MW steam turbine is located and evaluated, a sensibility analysis is presented for the typical elements that cause the deterioration of the efficiency in this type of turbines. [Espanol] Se presenta la implementacion de un metodo de evaluacion de turbinas de vapor a partir de la geometria medida del canal de flujo y sus condiciones de operacion. Este metodo, previamente desarrollado, permite identificar y cuantificar las perdidas de potencia y eficiencia debido al desgaste de sus elementos (alabes desgastados o doblados, sellos desgastados, depositos, etcetera); el beneficio que se obtiene es un conocimiento mas preciso del comportamiento de la turbina y que se tiene una base para dar prioridad a los trabajos de mantenimiento desde el punto de vista de aprovechamiento de la energia. En este articulo se localizan y evaluan las perdidas de potencia y eficiencia de una turbina de vapor de 300 MW, ademas, se presenta un analisis de sensibilidad para los elementos tipicos que originan el deterioro de la eficiencia en este tipo de turbinas.

  14. Effect of the blades and seals system wear on steam turbine efficiency and power; Efecto del desgaste del sistema de alabes y sellos sobre la eficiencia y potencia de las turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Amezcua, Alfonso; Kubiak Szyszka, Janusz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The implementation of a method for steam turbine evaluation through the measured geometry in the flow channel and its operating conditions, is presented. This method, previously developed, allows the identification and quantification of the power and efficiency loss due to the wear of its elements (worn or bent blades, worn seals, deposits, etc.); the benefit that is obtained is a more precise knowledge on the turbine behavior and a basis is acquired to give priority to the maintenance work, from the stand point of energy utilization. In this paper, the power and efficiency loss of a 300 MW steam turbine is located and evaluated, a sensibility analysis is presented for the typical elements that cause the deterioration of the efficiency in this type of turbines. [Espanol] Se presenta la implementacion de un metodo de evaluacion de turbinas de vapor a partir de la geometria medida del canal de flujo y sus condiciones de operacion. Este metodo, previamente desarrollado, permite identificar y cuantificar las perdidas de potencia y eficiencia debido al desgaste de sus elementos (alabes desgastados o doblados, sellos desgastados, depositos, etcetera); el beneficio que se obtiene es un conocimiento mas preciso del comportamiento de la turbina y que se tiene una base para dar prioridad a los trabajos de mantenimiento desde el punto de vista de aprovechamiento de la energia. En este articulo se localizan y evaluan las perdidas de potencia y eficiencia de una turbina de vapor de 300 MW, ademas, se presenta un analisis de sensibilidad para los elementos tipicos que originan el deterioro de la eficiencia en este tipo de turbinas.

  15. Técnica de monitorado continuo (on – line para la evaluación del estado técnico de los turbogrupos de 64 y 100 MW. // Technique of continuous monitored (on - line for the evaluation of the technical state in steam turbine units of 64 and 100 MW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre. Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el resultado del estudio de factibilidad realizado a los turbogrupos de 64 y 100 MW de dosCentrales Termoeléctricas, sobre el empleo de técnicas de monitorado continuo “on line” para la evaluación del estadotécnico de estos turbogrupos.Palabras claves: Turbinas de vapor,vibraciones, monitorado continuo “on line”, diagnóstico.______________________________________________________________________Abstract:In this work an study of feasibility is presented. This study is carried out in steam turbine units of 64 and 100 MW, and show the use ofcontinuous monitored technique (on line for the evaluation of the technical state of these turbine units.Key Words: Steam turbines, vibrations, continuous monitoring on line, turbines supervision, Diagnosis,technical state evaluation.

  16. Steam purity in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkinson, J.

    1982-01-01

    Impurities enter the secondary loop of the PWR through both makeup water from lake or well and cooling-water leaks in the condenser. These impurities can be carried to the steam generator, where they cause corrosion deposits to form. Corrosion products in steam are swept further through the system and become concentrated at the point in the low-pressure turbine where steam begins to condense. Several plants have effectively reduced impurities, and therefore corrosion, by installing a demineralizer for the makeup water, a resin-bed system to clean condensed steam from the condenser, and a deaerator to remove oxygen from the water and so lower the risk of system metal oxidation. 5 references, 1 figure

  17. HTGR power plant hot reheat steam pressure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1975-01-01

    A control system for a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) power plant is disclosed wherein such plant includes a plurality of steam generators. Dual turbine-generators are connected to the common steam headers, a high pressure element of each turbine receiving steam from the main steam header, and an intermediate-low pressure element of each turbine receiving steam from the hot reheat header. Associated with each high pressure element is a bypass line connected between the main steam header and a cold reheat header, which is commonly connected to the high pressure element exhausts. A control system governs the flow of steam through the first and second bypass lines to provide for a desired minimum steam flow through the steam generator reheater sections at times when the total steam flow through the turbines is less than such minimum, and to regulate the hot reheat header steam pressure to improve control of the auxiliary steam turbines and thereby improve control of the reactor coolant gas flow, particularly following a turbine trip. (U.S.)

  18. Fatigue life and damage evolution of martensitic steels for low-pressure steam turbine blades in the VHCF regime; Lebensdauer und Schaedigungsentwicklung martensitischer Staehle fuer Niederdruck-Dampfturbinenschaufeln bei Ermuedungsbeanspruchung im VHCF-Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Stephan

    2014-07-01

    Low-pressure steam turbine blades are usually made of martensitic steels with Cr contents between 9 and 12%, which combine good corrosion resistance, high mechanical strength and sufficient ductility. The inhomogeneous flow field behind the vanes generates high-frequency oscillations above 1 kHz. In addition, the blades with lengths up to 1.5 m are operated at rotational speeds up to 3000 rpm, resulting in large centrifugal forces leading to the superposition of extremely high mean stresses. Also resonance oscillations during start-up and shutdown cannot be completely excluded. Currently, the components are designed using high safety factors against S-N curves with an assumed asymptotic fatigue limit above 107 load cycles. Nevertheless, fatigue cracks are observed even at high number of cycles, starting from the blade root without pre-damage by erosion or steam droplet impingement. While fatigue failure usually occurs at the surface, fatigue cracks at very high number of cycles (> 108) initiate at oxides or intermetallic inclusions below the surface. This transition between both failure mechanisms in the Very High-Cycle Fatigue (VHCF) regime is in the focus of numerous current research activities, because numbers of cycles above 108 can be attained in a viable period of time using the recently developed high-frequency testing techniques operated at 20 kHz. Also for wind turbines, gas turbines, bearings, springs, etc. VHCF issues become increasingly important. Within this work, the fatigue life and damage behavior of a martensitic Cr-steel during fatigue loading with and without high mean stresses at number of cycles to failure above 108 was analyzed. On the one hand, the studies gave insights into the relation between fatigue life and fatigue damage evolution of the investigated group of high-strength steels in the very high cycle fatigue regime (up to 2·109). In particular, the influence of high mean stresses on the VHCF behavior (fracture origin, crack growth

  19. Robust velocity and load control of a steam turbine in a combined cycle thermoelectric power station; Control robusto de velocidad y carga de una turbina de vapor en una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Archundia, Enrique

    1998-12-31

    This research work is oriented to design, develop and validate an algorithm of modern control, that allows obtaining better performances in the control of speed of a steam turbine pertaining to a combined cycle thermoelectric power station, in all the operation interval, as well as obtaining better performances in the control of the amount of generated megawatts by the same when it is connected to an electric power generator, comparing the performance with the one obtained by means of the existing conventional controller. The changes in the speed reference or load are at the request of the operator and they always occur in incline form, indicating the rapidity with which it is desired to carry out the change of value in the reference. This is the reason for why the main objective of the control to design is to make a good follow up to references of the incline type. In the subsystem of the existing steam turbine the disadvantage is that the valves that regulate the steam flow to the turbine present a connection with the bypass valve that allows to derive the steam flow towards the main condenser without going through the turbine. It is for this reason that a multi-variable control that contemplates the interaction that occurs among the valves just mentioned, departing from a single variable design. The robust control H{infinity} has the following characteristics that allow it to be applied to the steam turbine process: the design can be made to have two poles in the origin, with which a good follow up to references of incline type is obtained; it allows the uncertainty handling, with which good results in everything are expected an entire operation interval; and it allows the design of multi-variable controllers, with which the existing interaction between the valves of control and bypass is considered. It is very difficult to be able to make tests with the real process, due to the cost and risks that it implies, nevertheless, the developments achieved in the areas

  20. Repair by weld of steam and gas turbine rotors made of Cr-Mo-V steel; Reparacion por soldadura de rotores de turbinas de vapor y de gas fabricados con aceros al Cr-Mo-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur C, Zdzislaw; Hernandez R, Alejando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Orozco S, Julian; Banuelos P, Jose E. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this article an analysis is presented of the typical damages in steam and gas turbine rotors made of Cr-Mo-V low alloy steels. An analysis of the weldability of the Cr-Mo-V steel is carried out and a classification of the possible types of repairs of the turbine rotors is presented, starting off from the causes and ways of presentation of the faults/deterioration of the rotor materials during the operation of the turbine. With base on the damages detected in the rotor of a gas turbine of 20.65 MW, the development of the repairing technology carried out by weld in site is presented. After the repair process, the rotor was put again in operation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un analisis de los danos tipicos en rotores de turbinas de vapor y de gas fabricados con aceros de baja aleacion al Cr-Mo-V. Se lleva a cabo un analisis de la soldabilidad de los aceros al Cr-Mo-V y se presenta una clasificacion de los posibles tipos de reparaciones de los rotores de turbinas, partiendo de las causas y modos de presentacion de las fallas/deterioro del material de los rotores durante la operacion de la turbina. Con base en los danos detectados en el rotor de una turbina de gas de 20.65 MW, se presenta el desarrollo de la tecnologia de reparacion por soldadura llevada a cabo en sitio. Despues del proceso de reparacion, el rotor fue puesto nuevamente en servicio.

  1. Advanced LP turbine blade design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, M.; Pfeiffer, R.; Termuehlen, H.

    1990-01-01

    In the 1960's and early 1970's, the development of steam turbines for the utility industry was mainly influenced by the demand for increasing unit sizes. Nuclear plants in particular, required the design of LP turbines with large annulus areas for substantial mass and volumetric steam flows. Since then the development of more efficient LP turbines became an ongoing challenge. Extensive R and D work was performed in order to build efficient and reliable LP turbines often exposed to severe corrosion, erosion and dynamic excitation conditions. This task led to the introduction of an advanced disk-type rotor design for 1800 rpm LP turbines and the application of a more efficient, reaction-type blading for all steam turbine sections including the first stages of LP turbines. The most recent developments have resulted in an advanced design of large LP turbine blading, typically used in the last three stages of each LP turbine flow section. Development of such blading required detailed knowledge of the three dimensional, largely transonic, flow conditions of saturated steam. Also the precise assessment of blade stressing from dynamic conditions, such as speed and torsional resonance, as well as stochastic and aerodynamic excitation is of extreme importance

  2. Cycle improvement for nuclear steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A pressure-increasig ejector element is disposed in an extraction line intermediate to a high pressure turbine element and a feedwater heater. The ejector utilizes high pressure fluid from a reheater drain as the motive fluid to increase the pressure at which the extraction steam is introduced into the feedwater heater. The increase in pressure of the extraction steam entering the feedwater heater due to the steam passage through the ejector increases the heat exchange capability of the extraction steam thus increasing the overall steam power plant efficiency

  3. Steam purity in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkinson, J.; Passell, T.

    1982-01-01

    Reports that 2 EPRI studies of PWRs prove that impure steam triggers decay of turbine metals. Reveals that EPRI is attempting to improve steam monitoring and analysis, which are key steps on the way to deciding the most cost-effective degree of steam purity, and to upgrade demineralizing systems, which can then reliably maintain that degree of purity. Points out that 90% of all cracks in turbine disks have occurred at the dry-to-wet transition zone, dubbed the Wilson line. Explains that because even very clean water contains traces of chemical impurities with concentrations in the parts-per-billion range, Crystal River-3's secondary loop was designed with even more purification capability; a deaerator to remove oxygen and prevent oxidation of system metals, and full-flow resin beds to demineralize 100% of the secondary-loop water from the condenser. Concludes that focusing attention on steam and water chemistry can ward off cracking and sludge problems caused by corrosion

  4. Through wall degradation problem of the turbine extraction steam drain piping due to liquid drop impingement and measures taken for this problem at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Takeyuki; Kobayashi, Teruaki; Shimada, Shigeru; Inoue, Ryousuke; Usuba, Satoshi; Kimura, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Through wall degradation was found on the extraction steam drain piping of Unit 6 of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company after replacement of the turbine rotors with those of higher thermal efficiency. The mechanism of this degradation was loss of material due to liquid drop impingement. Since the estimated life time of the piping based on wall thickness measurements before the replacement was at least 9 years, the rapid wall thinning occurred after the replacement. This paper describes a summary of the phenomenon, its degradation mechanism and root cause, a temporary measurement taken for an immediate action and permanent measures taken during the next refueling outage. (author)

  5. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 8.1-8.5 Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains five modules covering turbines. The modules provide information on the following topics: types, components, and auxiliaries of steam turbines; operation and maintenance of steam turbines; and gas turbines. Each module consists…

  6. What is geothermal steam worth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhallsson, S.; Ragnarsson, A.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal steam is obtained from high-temperature boreholes, either directly from the reservoir or by flashing. The value of geothermal steam is similar to that of steam produced in boilers and lies in its ability to do work in heat engines such as turbines and to supply heat for a wide range of uses. In isolated cases the steam can be used as a source of chemicals, for example the production of carbon dioxide. Once the saturated steam has been separated from the water, it can be transported without further treatment to the end user. There are several constraints on its use set by the temperature of the reservoir and the chemical composition of the reservoir fluid. These constraints are described (temperature of steam, scaling in water phase, gas content of steam, well output) as are the methods that have been adopted to utilize this source of energy successfully. Steam can only be transported over relatively short distances (a few km) and thus has to be used close to the source. Examples are given of the pressure drop and sizing of steam mains for pipelines. The path of the steam from the reservoir to the end user is traced and typical cost figures given for each part of the system. The production cost of geothermal steam is estimated and its sensitivity to site-specific conditions discussed. Optimum energy recovery and efficiency is important as is optimizing costs. The paper will treat the steam supply system as a whole, from the reservoir to the end user, and give examples of how the site-specific conditions and system design have an influence on what geothermal steam is worth from the technical and economic points of view

  7. Cleaning device for steam units in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamuro, Takemi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent radioactive contamination upon dismantling and inspection of steam units such as a turbine to a building containing such units and the peripheral area. Constitution: A steam generator indirectly heated by steam supplied from steam generating source in a separate system containing no radioactivity is provided to produce cleaning steam. A cleaning steam pipe is connected by way of a stop valve between separation valve of a nuclear power plant steam pipe and a high pressure turbine. Upon cleaning, the separation valve is closed, and steam supplied from the cleaning steam pipe is flown into a condenser. The water thus condensated is returned by way of a feed water heater and a condenser to a water storage tank. (Nakamura, S.)

  8. High speed drying of saturated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.; Peyrelongue, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the drying process for the saturated steam used in the PWR nuclear plant turbines in order to prevent negative effects of water on turbine efficiency, maintenance costs and equipment lifetime. The high speed drying concept is based on rotating the incoming saturated steam in order to separate water which is more denser than the steam; the water film is then extracted through an annular slot. A multicellular modular equipment has been tested. Applications on high and low pressure extraction of various PWR plants are described (Bugey, Loviisa)

  9. Criteria for the provision and assembly of the rotor blades of a 300 MW low pressure steam turbine for electrical generation; Criterios para el suministro y ensambles de la alabes de rotor de turbina de vapor de 300 MW baja presion para generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Galo; Felix, Jorge A; Quijano, Octavio [Especialistas en Turbopartes, S.A. de C.V., Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents some of the main criteria to consider from the inspection, disassembling and assembly of blades with different root types of a turbine rotor of steam turbines for power generation, having as an aim to count on a reliable rotor, fulfilling with the equipment original design and norms and international standards. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta algunos de los criterios principales a considerar desde la inspeccion, desmontaje y montaje de alabes de diferentes tipos de raiz de un rotor de turbinas de vapor de generacion electrica, teniendo como finalidad contar con un rotor confiable, cumpliendo con el diseno original del equipo y con normas y estandares internacionales.

  10. Electricity from geothermal steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheatcroft, E L.E.

    1959-01-01

    The development of the power station at Wairakei geothermal field is described. Wairakei is located at the center of New Zealand's volcanic belt, which lies within a major graben which is still undergoing some degree of downfaulting. A considerable number of wells, some exceeding 610 m, have been drilled. Steam and hot water are produced from both deep and shallow wells, which produce at gauge pressures of 1.5 MPa and 0.6 MPa, respectively. The turbines are fed by low, intermediate, and high pressure mains. The intermediate pressure turbine bank was installed as a replacement for a heavy water production facility which had originally been planned for the development. Stage 1 includes a 69 MW plant, and stage 2 will bring the capacity to 150 MW. A third stage, which would bring the output up to 250 MW had been proposed. The second stage involves the installation of more high pressure steam turbines, while the third stage would be powered primarily by hot water flashing. Generation is at 11 kV fed to a two-section 500 MVA board. Each section of the board feeds through a 40 MVA transformer to a pair of 220 V transmission lines which splice into the North Island grid. Other transformers feed 400 V auxiliaries and provide local supply.

  11. Study of PWR reactor efficiency as a function of turbine steam extractions; Estudo da otimizacao da eficiencia de reator PWR em funcao das extracoes de vapor da turbina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Janine Gandolpho da; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques; Martinez, Aquilino Senra [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this work is to optimize the extractions of the low-pressure turbine of a PWR nuclear reactor, in order to obtain the best thermodynamic cycle efficiency. We have analyzed typical data of a 1300 MW PWR reactor, operating at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% capacities, respectively. The first stage of this study consists of generating a mathematical model capable of describing the reactor behavior and efficiency at any power level. The second stage of this study consists of to combine the generated mathematical model in an optimization computer program that optimize the extractions flow of the low-pressure turbine until it finds the optimal system efficiency. This work does not alter the nuclear facility project in any way. (author)

  12. A drier unit for steam separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrelongue, J.-P.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a drier unit adapted to equip a water separator mounted in a unit for treating a wet steam fed from a high pressure enclosure, so as to dry and contingently superheat said steam prior to injecting same into a turbine low pressure stage. This drier unit is constituted by at least a stack of separating sheets maintained in parallel relationship and at a slight angle with respect to the horizontal so as to allow the water provided by wet steam to flow toward a channel communicating with a manifold, and by means for guiding the steam between the sheets and evenly distributing it. This can be applied to steam turbines in nuclear power stations [fr

  13. Turbines for nuclear power plants. 2.ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanovskij, B.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the second edition of the book considered are practically all the main problems of calculation and operation of turbines and turbine installations of nuclear power plants. As compared to the first edition, essentially addes is the reproduction of the problem on combined generation of heat and electric energy. Also represented is detailed material on methods of preliminary evaluation of turbine effectiveness. Considered are peculiarities of turbine operation on wet steam and the basis of their thermal calculation. Much attention is payed to the problem of wet stream current in the turbine elements and wetness effect on their characteristics. Problems of wetness separation and moving blade erosion as well as other turbine elements are extracted in a special section. Given are structural schemes of different methods of innerchannel and periphery wet removal as well as experimental materials on their effectiveness. Given are descriptions and critical analysis of a great number of typical constructions of nuclear power plant steam turbines, produced by native plants as well as by the main foreign firms. Considered also are constructions of outside separators and steam superheaters. Separately given is the problem of rotation frequency choise of nuclear power plant wet steam turbines. Represented are materials on turbine installation tests, considered are the problems of turbine starting and manoeuvrability, analyzed are their typical jailures and damages. One of the sections of the book is devoted to gas turbine installations of nuclear power plants. Different material on this theme scattered before in various sources is summarized in the book

  14. Comparison of technical and economical factors of 1000-MW steam turbines at 3000 and 1500 r.p.m. for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, N.M.; Safonov, L.P.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of unification of the low-pressure cilinders (LPC) for turbo-generator units of nuclear power plants with power of 1000 MW on base of the WWER and RBMK type reactors is discussed. The results of the comparison of the K-1000-60/1500 and K-1000-60/3000 turbines in the thermal efficiency of flow passages and arrangements masses and dimensions, static and dynamic strength manoeurrability and reliability are given. To cerry out the correct comparison methods adoped as branch standards thermal calculations, calculation of low-potential part and thermal arrangements, calculations of temperature fields and of low cycle fatigue calculation of the erosion failure accumulation of blades calculation of the blades for the last steps have been used. A conclusion is made that in the nearest future it is necessary to produce the K-1000-60/1500 and K-1000-60/3000 turbines simultaneously. The low-speed lurbines with three LPC are preferable for the nuclear power plants with average annual temperatures of water up to 20 deg C and the high-speed turbines and the K-1000-60/1500 units with two LPC are expedient for nuclear power plants with temperatures higher than 20 deg C. Introduction of the turboplants with reduced number of LPC in the nuclear power engineering provides the increase of reliability, maintenance fitness and the decrease of building costs and transport expenses

  15. Integrated turbine bypass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Dickenson, R.J.; Parry, W.T.; Retzlaff, K.M.

    1982-07-01

    Turbine steam-flow bypasses have been used for years in various sizes and applications. Because of differing system requirements, their use has been more predominant in Europe than in the United States. Recently, some utilities and consulting engineers have been re-evaluating their need for various types of bypass operation in fossil-fuelled power plants.

  16. Investigations of the microstructural stability of wrought Ni-(Fe)-based syperalloys for steam turbine rotor application beyond 700 C; Untersuchungen der Strukturstabilitaet von Ni-(Fe)-Basislegierungen fuer Rotorwellen in Dampfturbinen mit Arbeitstemperaturen ueber 700 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliga, T.

    2005-07-01

    There is a continuous trend to improve the efficiency of modern power plants with steam turbine require operating steam temperature from 700 to 720 C. For substantial parts like turbine rotors and discs this means increased requirements on the high temperature resistance, which can not longer be fulfilled by the presently used steel. As new materials for the components, which are thermo-mechanically loaded, only Ni-based superalloys are suitable for their fabrication, structure stability and thermo-mechanical characteristics. With view on creep and creep crack growth resistance as suitable candidates in the context a DFG research project wrought Ni-based superalloy Waspaloy and Ni-Fe-based alloy Inconel 706 were selected, which exhibited different hardening mechanisms. Waspaloy is a {gamma}'-hardened material with small portion of carbides on the grain boundaries. Inconel 706 is a particle hardened alloy with a very complex microstructure, it consists of {gamma}', {gamma}{sup ''}-particle, {eta}-phase und carbides. Concerning to their castability, forgeability, creep and creep crack growth and microstructural stability these candidate materials have been investigated and modelled. The knowledge about their long time stability of the microstructure, castability, forgeability and mechanical properties leads to the two new modification (Waspaloy{yields}DT750 and Inconel 706{yields}DT706). The modification of the Waspaloy to DT 750 served better castability (elimination of the Freckle formation). An improvement of the long-term stability of the microstructure was not necessary, by a changed heat treatment was reached a homogeneous, monomodale {gamma}'-particle distribution. The modification of Inconel 706 to DT 706 served to stabilize the {gamma}'-phase and to reduce of the {gamma}{sup ''} phase without suppressing the cellular {eta}-phase colonies on the grain boundaries. This work presents the test results for the structural

  17. Design and construction of a height caliper of labyrinths seals of high power steam turbines; Diseno y construccion de un calibrador de alturas para sellos laberintos de turbinas de vapor de alta potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinonez Osuna, Jose R. [Instituto Tecnologico de Mazatlan, Mazatlan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw [instituto de Investigaciones Electicas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Valdez Valdez, Omar [Instituto Tecnologico de Mazatlan, Mazatlan, Sinaloa (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This article presents the development of a new instrument that allows calibrating with exactness the labyrinths seals height of the radial type, normally used in steam turbines and many other turbo-machines. The calibration process derived from the application of the designed instrument is distinguished from the existing one in the fact of considering a perpendicularity reference that allows high exactness in the measurement of height differences (0,008 mm), which is performed at the moment of adjusting the steam seals each time that its sheets are substituted for new ones. Such characteristic, allows therefore, higher efficiency conditions, stability and trustworthiness in the unit operation, once maintenance of this kind has been applied to it. The lack of monitoring and periodic maintenance of the gaps between seals and rotor constitutes the main cause of efficiency loss in power plant turbines installed in Mexico, generating wastes of up to 4% of its capacity, which represents 15 MW in high power units. [Spanish] El articulo representa el desarrollo de un nuevo instrumento que permite calibrar con exactitud las alturas de los sellos laberinticos de tipo radial, ordinariamente empleados en turbinas de vapor y en muchas otras turbo-maquinas. El proceso de calibracion derivado de la aplicacion del instrumento disenado se distingue del existente, en el hecho de considerar una referencia de perpendicularidad que permite alta precision en la medicion de diferencias de altura (0.008 mm.), lo cual es realizado en el momento de ajustar los sellos de vapor cada vez que sus laminas son sustituidas por nuevas. Dicha caracteristica, procura por ende condiciones mayores de eficiencia, estabilidad y confiabilidad en la operacion de la unidad, una vez que le ha sido brindado un mantenimiento de esta naturaleza. La falta de monitoreo y mantenimiento periodico de los claros entre sellos y rotor, constituye la principal causa de perdida de eficiencia en las turbinas de las

  18. The new equation of steam quality and the evaluation of nonradioactive tracer method in PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki Bang, Sung; Young Jin, Chang

    2001-01-01

    The performance of steam turbines is tested as ANSI/ASME-PTC 6. This code provides rules for the accurate testing of steam turbines for the purpose of obtaining the level of performance with a minimum uncertainty. Only the relevant portion of this code needs to process any individual case, In some case the procedure is simple. However, in complex turbines or complex operation modes, more procedures are required to test the involved provisions. Anyway, to measure the steam quality in the Wolsong PHWR with 4 SGs in Korea by the methods in the section ''Measure of steam quality methods'' of ANSI/ASME PTC 6, the result was not good though the steam generators are efficient. So, the new testing method was developed and the sophisticated equation of steam quality was introduced and uses the nonradioactive chemical tracer, Lithium hydroxide(LiOH) instead of the radioactive tracer, Na-24. (author)

  19. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  20. Steam 80 steam generator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, W.H.; Harris, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes two special instrumentation packages in an integral economizer (preheater) steam generator of one of the first System 80 plants scheduled to go into commercial operation. The purpose of the instrumentation is to obtain accurate operating information from regions of the secondary side of the steam generator inaccessible to normal plant instrumentation. In addition to verification of the System 80 steam generator design predictions, the data obtained will assist in verification of steam generator thermal/hydraulic computer codes developed for generic use in the industry

  1. Selling steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, M.J.; Goodwin, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of steam sales contract is in financing cogeneration facilities. The topics of the article include the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act provisions and how they affect the marketing of steam from qualifying facilities, the independent power producers market shift, and qualifying facility's benefits

  2. Steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenet, J.-C.

    1980-01-01

    Steam generator particularly intended for use in the coolant system of a pressurized water reactor for vaporizing a secondary liquid, generally water, by the primary cooling liquid of the reactor and comprising special arrangements for drying the steam before it leaves the generator [fr

  3. Steam condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Fujio

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safe steam condensation by providing steam condensation blades at the end of a pipe. Constitution: When high temperature high pressure steam flows into a vent pipe having an opening under water in a pool or an exhaust pipe or the like for a main steam eacape safety valve, non-condensable gas filled beforehand in the steam exhaust pipe is compressed, and discharged into the water in the pool. The non-condensable gas thus discharged from the steam exhaust pipe is introduced into the interior of the hollow steam condensing blades, is then suitably expanded, and thereafter exhausted from a number of exhaust holes into the water in the pool. In this manner, the non-condensable gas thus discharged is not directly introduced into the water in the pool, but is suitable expanded in the space of the steam condensing blades to suppress extreme over-compression and over-expansion of the gas so as to prevent unstable pressure vibration. (Yoshihara, H.)

  4. Demonstration of EIC's copper sulfate process for removal of hydrogen sulfide and other trace contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine inlet temperatures and pressures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The results obtained during the operation of an integrated, one-tenth commercial scale pilot plant using EIC's copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine upstream conditions are discussed. The tests took place over a six month period at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Unit No. 7 at The Geysers Power Plant. These tests were the final phase of a development effort which included the laboratory research and engineering design work which led to the design of the pilot plant. Broadly, the objectives of operating the pilot plant were to confirm the preliminary design criteria which had been developed, and provide data for their revisions, if appropriate, in a plant which contained all the elements of a commercial process using equipment of a size sufficient to provide valid scale-up data. The test campaign was carried out in four phases: water testing; open circuit, i.e., non integrated scrubbing, liquid-solid separation and regeneration testing; closed circuit short term; and closed circuit long term testing.

  5. Control of PWR reactor energy supplied to a stream turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petetrot, J.F.; Parent, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    This patent presents a process for regulating the power provided by a pressurized water nuclear reactor to a steam turbine, by moving the control rods absorbing the neutrons in the reactor core and by diverting a fraction of the steam produced by the reactor, outside the turbine circuit, by opening by-pass valves [fr

  6. A system to control low pressure turbine temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An improved system to control low pressure turbine cycle steam and metal temperatures by governing the heat transfer operation in a moisture separator-reheater is described. The use of the present invention in a pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor steam turbine system is demonstrated. (UK)

  7. Exergy Steam Drying and Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Prem; Muenter, Claes (Exergy Engineering and Consulting, SE-417 55 Goeteborg (Sweden)). e-mail: verma@exergyse.com

    2008-10-15

    Exergy Steam Drying technology has existed for past 28 years and many new applications have been developed during this period. But during past few years the real benefits have been exploited in connection with bio-fuel production and energy integration. The steam dryer consists of a closed loop system, where the product is conveyed by superheated and pressurised carrier steam. The carrier steam is generated by the water vapours from the product being dried, and is indirectly superheated by another higher temperature energy source such as steam, flue gas, thermal oil etc. Besides the superior heat transfer advantages of using pressurised steam as a drying medium, the energy recovery is efficient and simple as the recovered energy (80-90%) is available in the form of steam. In some applications the product quality is significantly improved. Examples presented in this paper: Bio-Combine for pellets production: Through integration of the Exergy Steam Dryer for wood with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, together with HP steam turbine, the excess carrier steam can be utilised for district heating and/or electrical power production in a condensing turbine. Bio-ethanol production: Both for first and second generation of ethanol can the Exergy process be integrated for treatment of raw material and by-products. Exergy Steam Dryer can dry the distillers dark grains and solubles (DDGS), wood, bagasse and lignin. Bio-diesel production: Oil containing seeds and fruits can be treated in order to improve both the quality of oil and animal feed protein, thus minimizing further oil processing costs and increasing the sales revenues. Sewage sludge as bio-mass: Municipal sewage sludge can be considered as a renewable bio-fuel. By drying and incineration, the combustion heat value of the sludge is sufficient for the drying process, generation of electrical energy and production of district heat. Keywords; Exergy, bio-fuel, bio-mass, pellets, bio-ethanol, biodiesel, bio

  8. Modelling and simulation of the steam line, the high and low pressure turbines and the pressure regulator for the SUN-RAH nucleo electric university simulator; Modelado y simulacion de la linea de vapor, las turbinas de alta y de baja presion y el regulador de presion para el simulador universitario de nucleo electricas SUN RAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, A. [DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos, UNAM (Mexico)]. e-mail: andyskamx@yahoo.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    In the following article the development of a simulator that allows to represent the dynamics of the following systems: steam line, nozzle, vapor separator, reheater, high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, power generator and the pressure regulator of a nucleo electric power station. We start from the supposition that this plant will be modeled from a nuclear reactor type BWR (Boiling Water Reactor), using models of reduced order that represent the more important dynamic variables of the physical processes that happen along the steam line until the one generator. To be able to carry out the simulation in real time the Mat lab mathematical modeling software is used, as well as the specific simulation tool Simulink. It is necessary to point out that the platform on which the one is executed the simulator is the Windows operating system, to allow the intuitive use that only this operating system offers. The above-mentioned obeys to that the objective of the simulator it is to help the user to understand some of the dynamic phenomena that are present in the systems of a nuclear plant, and to provide a tool of analysis and measurement of variables to predict the desirable behavior of the same ones. The model of a pressure controller for the steam lines, the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine is also presented that it will be the one in charge of regulating the demand of the system according to the characteristics and critic restrictions of safety and control, assigned according to those wanted parameters of performance of this system inside the nucleo electric plant. This simulator is totally well defined and it is part of the University student nucleo electric simulator with Boiling Water Reactor (SUN-RAH), an integral project and of greater capacity. (Author)

  9. Simulation of main steam and feedwater system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoyu

    1996-01-01

    The simulation of main steam and feedwater system is the most important and maximal part in secondary circuit model, including all of main steam and feedwater's thermal-hydraulic properties, except heat-exchange of secondary side of steam generator. It simulates main steam header, steam power in each stage of turbine, moisture separator-reheater, deaerator, condenser, high pressure and low pressure heater, auxiliary feedwater and main steam bypass in full scope

  10. Combined gas and steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D T; Davis, J P

    1977-06-02

    The invention concerns a combination of internal combustion engine and steam turbine, where not only the heat of the hot exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine, but also the heat in the coolant of the internal combustion engine is used for power generation. The working fluid of the steam turbine is an organic fluid of low boiling point. A mixture of 85 mol% of tri-fluoro ethanol and 15 mol% of water is the most suitable fluid. The combustion engine (a Diesel engine is the most suitable), drives a working machine, e.g. a generator. The hot combustion exhaust gases produce evaporation of the working fluid in an HP evaporator. The superheated steam gives up its energy in the HP turbine stage, flows through the feed preheater of the fluid, and is condensed in the condenser. A pump pumps the fluid via control valve to heat the feed preheater of the fluid, from which it returns to the HP evaporator. At the same time evaporated coolant flows into an LP evaporator in counter-flow to the working fluid, condenses, and is returned to the cooling circuit of the combustion engine. The working fluid in the LP evaporator is heated to its boiling point, gives up its energy in the LP stage of the steam turbine is condensed, pumped to the preheater and returns to the LP evaporator. The two rotors of the turbine stages (HP and LP stages) are mounted on the same shaft, which drives a working machine or a generator.

  11. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  12. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to... monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine...

  13. Possibilities for gas turbine and waste incinerator integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.; Jellema, P.; Hirs, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    The aggressive nature of the flue gases in municipal waste incinerators does not allow the temperature of steam in the boiler to rise above 400°C. An increase in steam temperature can be achieved by external superheating in a heat recovery steam generator positioned behind a gas turbine, so that

  14. Comparison of performances of full-speed turbine and half-speed turbine for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hu; Zhang Weihong; Zhang Qiang; Li Shaohua

    2010-01-01

    The steam turbines of nuclear power plants can be divided into the full-speed turbine and half-speed turbine. Different speed leads to differences in many aspects. Therefore, the rational speed is the key point in the selection of steam turbines. This paper contrasts the economy between the half-speed turbine and full-speed turbine, by calculating the relative internal efficiency of half-speed and full-speed steam turbines with the typical level of 1000 megawatt. At the same time, this paper also calculate the relative speed of high speed water drops in the last stage blade of half-speed turbine and full-speed turbine, to contrast the water erosion between the half-speed turbine and full-speed turbine. The results show that the relative internal efficiency of half-speed turbine is higher than that of the full-speed turbine, and that the security especially the ability of preventing water erosion of half-speed turbine is better than that of the full-speed turbine. (authors)

  15. Business venture-analysis case study relating to the manufacture of gas turbines for the generation of utility electric power. Volume II. Private sector and public sector venture studies. Final report. [Use of coal gasifier with combined gas and steam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, W.R.

    1978-05-05

    Increasing national attention is being directed toward the search for clean, efficient, and reliable energy-conversion systems, capable of using abundant indigenous fuels such as coal, for generation of utility electric power. A prime candidate in this area is the combined gas and steam (COGAS) system employing a high-temperature gas turbine with a steam-turbine bottoming cycle, fed by a coal gasifier. This program demonstrates the use of a logical and consistent venture-analysis methodology which could also be applied to investigate other high-technology, energy-conversion systems that have yet to reach a state of commercialization but which are of significant interest to the U.S. Government. The venture analysis was performed by using a computer to model the development, production, sales, and in-service development phases of programs necessary to introduce new gas turbines in COGAS systems. The simulations were produced in terms of estimated cash flows, rates of returns, and risks which a manufacturer would experience. Similar simulations were used to estimate public-sector benefits resulting from the lower cost of power and improved environment gained from the use of COGAS systems rather than conventional systems. The study shows that substantial social benefits could be realized and private investment would be made by the gas-turbine manufacturers if an infusion of external funds were made during key portions of the gas-turbine development program. It is shown that there is substantial precedent for such public assistance to make possible economic and environmental benefits that otherwise would not be possible. 42 references.

  16. Borosonic inspection and remaining useful operational life estimation of steam turbine rotors; Inspeccion borosonica y estimacion de vida remanente de rotores de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnero P, Jose A; Dorantes G, Oscar; Munoz Q, Rodolfo; Serrano R, Luis E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The turbo-generators used in the electric power generation frequently go through transitory operations (start ups, shut downs or power changes). Such actions cause that certain critical components of the turbines, such as rotors and casings, are put under cycles of repetitive stresses, which consume its useful life. The frequency whereupon these transitory thermal cycles happen result in the presence of high thermo-mechanical stresses that produce fatigue (damage) in the rotor material. With time, at the increase of the material fatigue, fissures form that can inclusively lead to severe, catastrophic faults. The borosonic inspection consists in introducing and positioning an automatic probe in the central drill of the rotor, this allows the non-destructive inspection with longitudinal ultrasonic beam, ultrasonic cross-sectional and ultrasonic superficial. This way, it is possible to detect and locate geometric discontinuities (superficial and volumetric), in at least 100 mm of depth from the drill surface in its entire periphery and throughout the rotor length. [Spanish] Los turbogeneradores empleados en la generacion de energia electrica con frecuencia realizan operaciones transitorias (arranques, paros o cambios de potencia). Acciones tales, provocan que ciertos componentes criticos de las turbinas, como los rotores y carcasas, sean sometidos a ciclos de esfuerzos repetitivos, lo que consume su vida util. La frecuencia con que ocurren estos ciclos termicos transitorios da como resultado la presencia de altos esfuerzos termomecanicos que producen una fatiga (dano) en el material del rotor. Con el tiempo, al incrementarse la fatiga del material, se forman fisuras que pueden conducir a fallas severas, catastroficas inclusive. La inspeccion borosonica consiste en introducir y posicionar una sonda automatica en el barreno central del rotor, ello permite la inspeccion no destructiva con haz ultrasonico longitudinal, haz ultrasonico transversal y haz ultrasonico

  17. Feed water pre-heater with two steam spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tratz, H.; Kelp, F.; Netsch, E.

    1976-01-01

    A feed water pre-heater for the two stage heating of feed water by condensing steam, having a low installed height is described, which can be installed in the steam ducts of turbines of large output, as in LWRs in nuclear power stations. The inner steam space is closed on one side by the water vessel, while the tubes of the inner steam space go straight from the water vessel, and the tubes of the outer steam space are bent into a U shape and open out into the water vessel. The two-stage preheater is thus surrounded by feedwater in two ways. (UWI) [de

  18. Maintenance and adjustment of control systems of central heating turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasyuk, V.A.; Balashov, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Principles of operation and design of systems of automatic control of steam turbines with controlled heating stem extraction are described. Specific features of maintenance and adjustment of the most common domestic turbines are considered. Recommendations on testing state of turbine control systems and improving reliability of their operation are given. 22 refs., 51 refs

  19. Method of determining the enthalpy and moisture content of wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear powered multi-stage steam turbine system wherein steam at higher than atmospheric pressure is introduced into the turbine system at a high pressure turbine element and thereafter flows through a series of turbine elements at successively decreasing pressures, wherein portions of the steam are extracted from the turbine elements at a plurality of lower pressure points and the steam is finally exhausted at a lowest pressure point, the method of determining moisture content and enthalpy of steam at a selected pressure point. It comprises sampling a small quantity of steam at the selected pressure point; super heating the steam sample to a single-phase state by reducing its pressure and bottling it in a closed measuring chamber whereby the flow energy of the sample is converted into internal energy; measuring the pressure of the steam sample within the chamber; determining the sonic velocity of the steam sample by passing a sound wave through the sample from a transmitter to a receiver located at a known distance from the transmitter and measuring the time required for the sound wave to travel from transmitter to receiver; and utilizing the measured pressure and sonic velocity of the steam sample to calculate the moisture content and enthalpy of the steam at the selected pressure point

  20. Steam generating system in LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Katsutoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the thermal shock loads to the structures of reactor system and secondary coolant system, for instance, upon plant trip accompanying turbine trip in the steam generation system of LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: Additional feedwater heater is disposed to the pipeway at the inlet of a steam generator in a steam generation system equipped with a closed loop extended from a steam generator by way of a gas-liquid separator, a turbine and a condensator to the steam generator. The separated water at high temperature and high pressure from a gas-liquid separator is heat exchanged with coolants flowing through the closed loop of the steam generation system in non-contact manner and, thereafter, introduced to a water reservoir tank. This can avoid the water to be fed at low temperature as it is to the steam generator, whereby the thermal shock loads to the structures of the reactor system and the secondary coolant system can be suppressed. (Moriyama, K.)

  1. Cheaper power generation from surplus steam generating capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.

    1996-01-01

    Prior to independence most industries had their own captive power generation. Steam was generated in own medium/low pressure boilers and passed through extraction condensing turbines for power generation. Extraction steam was used for process. With cheaper power made available in Nehru era by undertaking large hydro power schemes, captive power generation in industries was almost abandoned except in sugar and large paper factories, which were high consumers of steam. (author)

  2. Model for transient simulation in a PWR steam circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, L.A. de.

    1982-11-01

    A computer code (SURF) was developed and used to simulate pressure losses along the tubes of the main steam circuit of a PWR nuclear power plant, and the steam flow through relief and safety valves when pressure reactors its thresholds values. A thermodynamic model of turbines (high and low pressure), and its associated components are simulated too. The SURF computer code was coupled to the GEVAP computer code, complementing the simulation of a PWR nuclear power plant main steam circuit. (Author) [pt

  3. Digital implementation, simulation and tests in MATLAB of the models of Steam line, the turbines, the pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric power plant; Implementacion digital, simulacion y pruebas en MATLAB de los modelos de la linea de vapor, las turbinas y el regulador de presion de una central Nucleoelectrica tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, A [UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this phase of the project they were carried out exhaustive tests to the models of the steam lines, turbines and pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric central for to verify that their tendencies and behaviors are it more real possible. For it, it was necessary to also analyze the transfer functions of the different components along the steam line until the power generator. Such models define alone the dominant poles of the system, what is not limitation to reproduce a wide range of anticipated transitoriness of a power station operation. In the same manner, it was integrated and proved the integrated model form with the models of feeding water of the SUN-RAH, simulating the nuclear reactor starting from predetermined entrances of the prospective values of the vessel. Also it was coupled with the graphic interface developed with the libraries DirectX implementing a specific monitoring panel for this system. (Author)

  4. Turbine flow diagram of Paks-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancso, Tamas

    1983-01-01

    Computer calculations and programs are presented which inform the operators on the effect projected on the turbine and thermal efficiency of the modification in the flow diagram and in the starting parameters of the power cycle. In the program the expansion line of steam turbine type K-220-44 and the thermo-technical parameters of the elements of the feed-water heater system are determined. Detailed degree calculations for turbine unit of high pressure can be made. (author)

  5. Influence of quality coal combustion and domestic stoves outbreaks steam generators and the environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Petrilean, Dan Codrut

    2008-01-01

    It was drawn balance a steam generator. We determined the pollutant emissions from coal combustion in the furnace Jiu Valley steam generator with an output of 150 MW. As an example of the steam generator was considered the type BabkoK Hitachi with turbine Turbao + Atom, in cogeneration.

  6. Steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, R.L.J.

    1979-01-01

    Steam generators for nuclear reactors are designed so that deposition of solids on the surface of the inlet side of the tubesheet or the inlet header with the consequent danger of corrosion and eventual tube failure is obviated or substantially reduced. (U.K.)

  7. The effect of steam separataor efficiency on transient following a steam line break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Ohn, M.Y.; Lee, N.H.; Hwang, S.T.; Lee, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed thermalhydraulic simulations for CANDU 6 steam line break inside containment are performed to predict the response of the primary and secondary circuits. The analysis is performed using the thermalhydraulic computer code, CATHENA, with a coupled primary and secondary circuit model. A two-loop representation of the primary and secondary circuits is modelled. The secondary circuit model includes the feedwater line from the deaerator storage tank, multi-node steam generators and the steam line up to the turbine. Two cases were carried out using different assumptions for the efficiency of the steam separators. Case 1 assumes the efficiency of the steam separators becomes zero when the water level in the steam drum increases to the elevation of primary cyclones, or the outlet flow from the steam generator becomes higher than 150 % of normal flow. Case 2 assumes the efficiency becomes zero only when the water level in the steam drum reaches the elevation of primary cyclones. The simulation results show that system responses are sensitive to the assumption for the efficiency of the steam separators and case 1 gives higher discharge energy. Fuel cooling is assured, since primary circuit is cooled down sufficiently by the steam generators for both cases. (author)

  8. Signal analysis of steam line acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C. Samuel

    2003-01-01

    The vibration of nuclear steam piping is usually associated with pressure fluctuations emanating from flow disturbances such as steam generator nozzles, bends, or other pipe fittings. Flow separation at pipe tees and within steam chest manifolds or headers generate pressure fluctuations that propagate both upstream to steam generators as well as downstream to the steam turbine. Steady-state acoustic oscillations at various frequencies occur within the piping, possibly exciting structural vibrations. This paper focuses on the assessment of the origin of the disturbances using signal analyses of two dynamic pressure recordings from pressure transducers located along straight runs in the steam piping. The technique involves performing the cross spectrum to two dynamic pressure signals in piping between (1) the steam generator and steam chest header, and (2) between the header and steam turbine outlet. If, at a specified frequency, no causality occurs between the two signals then the cross spectra magnitude will be negligible. Of interest here is the value of the phase between the two signals for frequencies for which the magnitude of the cross spectrum is not negligible. It is shown in the paper that the direction of the dominant waves at all frequencies can be related to the phase angle from the cross spectrum. It has to be realized that pressure waves emanating from one source such as a steam generator will propagate along uniform steam pipes with little transformation or attenuation, but will be reflected at fittings and at inlets and outlets. Hence, the eventual steady-state time record at a given location in the piping is a result of not only the disturbance, but also reflections of earlier pulsations. Cross-spectral analyses has been employed to determine the direction of the dominant acoustic waves in the piping for various frequencies for which there are signals. To prove the technique, synthetic spectra are generated comprised of harmonic waves moving both

  9. Turbinate surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery; Nasal obstruction - turbinate surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or ... This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  10. High-power condensation turbine application to district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virchenko, M.A.; Arkad'ev, B.A.; Ioffe, V.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    In general outline the role of condensation turbines in NPP district heating is considered. The expediency of expansion of central heating loading of turbines of operating as well as newly designed condensation power plants on the basis of the WWER-1000-type reactors is shown. The principle heat flowsheet of the 1000 MW power turbine is given. An advantage in using turbines with uncontrolled steam bleeding is pointed out [ru

  11. Theorical and experimental study of the induced forces by the mixed, divergent, convergent and straight labyrinth of seal systems on the steam turbines, gas turbines and compressor rotors; Estudio teorico-experimental de las fuerzas inducidas por los sistemas de sellos de laberinto rectos, convergentes, divergentes y mixtos sobre los rotores de turbinas de vapor, turbinas de gas y compresores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar San Andres, Octavio Ramon

    1991-12-31

    A theoretical and experimental research is conducted in order to determine the labyrinth seal forces, as well as the stiffness and damping coefficients for straight, convergent, divergent, and combined shapes on turbine and compressor rotors. The mathematical model is deduced on the basis of the single volume method and its solution is obtained by the perturbation procedure. The validation is achieved with published results. Experimental work carried out on a test bench is described in the text. This involved labyrinth seals with straight, convergent, and divergent profiles, as the published information relating to mixed type is sufficient to perform the evaluation. The conclusions demonstrate that the model is able to predict and determine the performance of labyrinth seals based on forces and rotordynamic coefficients for static and dynamic motions. Finally, tests on real steam turbines of 300 MW are recommended. In this case the high pressures and use of wheels with strips on the periphery and supported by the upper part of blades, increase the susceptibility of self excited subsynchronous vibrations. [Espanol] Se presenta una investigacion teorica-experimental relacionada con la obtencion y validacion de un modelo matematico capaz de predecir las fuerzas y los coeficientes de rigidez y amortiguamiento de los sellos de laberinto de tipo recto, convergente, divergente y mixto que se emplean en turbinas y compresores tanto terrestres como aereos. El modelo matematico propuesto se deduce a partir del metodo de un solo volumen y su solucion se obtiene a traves de metodos perturbatorios. La validacion del mismo se consigue al comparar con resultados experimentales publicados en revistas especializadas y con los datos medidos en un banco de pruebas cuya descripcion se incluye en el trabajo, cualculado para sellos rectos, convergentes y divergentes, ya que la informacion publicada respecto al tipo mixto o combinado es suficiente. Las conclusiones de la investigacion

  12. Steam separator-superheater with drawing of a fraction of the dried steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessouat, Roger; Marjollet, Jacques.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a vertical separator-superheater of the steam from a high pressure expansion turbine before it is admitted to an expansion turbine at a lower pressure, by heat exchange with steam under a greater pressure, and drawing of a fraction of the dried steam before it is superheated. Such drawing off is necessary in the heat exchange systems of light water nuclear reactors. Its purpose is to provide a separator-superheater that provides an even flow of non superheated steam and a regular distribution of the steam to be superheated to the various superheating bundles, with a significantly uniform temperature of the casing, thereby preventing thermal stresses and ensuring a minimal pressure drop. The vertical separator-superheater of the invention is divided into several vertical sections comprising as from the central area, a separation area of the steam entrained water and a superheater area and at least one other vertical section with only a separation area of the steam entrained water [fr

  13. Creep of Hi-Nicalon S Fiber Tows at Elevated Temperature in Air and in Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    with steam port and alumina steam feeding tube with slot to divert steam away from directly impacting the fiber tow specimen . . . . 25 4.7 Hi-Nicalon...The activation energy for the creep of Hi-Nicalon fibers was determined to be 360 kJ/mol and the predominant creep mechanism was identified as...engines, gas turbines for electrical power/steam cogeneration , as well as nuclear power plant components. It is recognized that the structural

  14. Parametric Optimization of Biomass Steam-and-Gas Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a parametric analysis of the simplest scheme of a steam-and gas plant for the conditions required for biomass burning. It has been shown that application of gas-turbine and steam-and-gas plants can significantly exceed an efficiency of steam-power supply units which are used at the present moment. Optimum thermo-dynamical conditions for application of steam-and gas plants with the purpose to burn biomass require new technological solutions in the field of heat-exchange equipment designs.

  15. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  16. Shiraz solar power plant operation with steam engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghoubi, M.; Azizian, K.

    2004-01-01

    The present industrial developments and daily growing need of energy, as well as economical and environmental problem caused by fossil fuels consumption, resulted certain constraint for the future demand of energy. During the past two decades great attention has been made to use renewable energy for different sectors. In this regard for the first time in Iran, design and construction of a 250 K W Solar power plant in Shiraz, Iran is being carried out and it will go to operation within next year. The important elements of this power plant is an oil cycle and a steam cycle, and several studies have been done about design and operation of this power plant, both for steady state and transient conditions. For the steam cycle, initially a steam turbine was chosen and due to certain limitation it has been replaced by a steam engine. The steam engine is able to produce electricity with hot or saturated vapor at different pressures and temperatures. In this article, the effects of installing a steam engine and changing its vapor inlet pressure and also the effects of sending hot or saturated vapor to generate electricity are studied. Various cycle performance and daily electricity production are determined. The effects of oil cycle temperature on the collector field efficiency, and daily, monthly and annual amount of electricity production is calculated. Results are compared with the steam cycle output when it contains a steam turbine. It is found that with a steam engine it is possible to produce more annual electricity for certain conditions

  17. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  18. Nuclear steam power plant cycle performance calculations supported by power plant monitoring and results computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettes, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the real time performance calculations for the turbine cycle and reactor and steam generators of a nuclear power plant. Program accepts plant measurements and calculates performance and efficiency of each part of the cycle: reactor and steam generators, turbines, feedwater heaters, condenser, circulating water system, feed pump turbines, cooling towers. Presently, the calculations involve: 500 inputs, 2400 separate calculations, 500 steam properties subroutine calls, 200 support function accesses, 1500 output valves. The program operates in a real time system at regular intervals

  19. Alternatives to electrical cogeneration: The direct application of steam engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Although small to medium sized industrial facilities are aware of electrical cogeneration, often they are too small for it to be economically justifiable. The direct application of steam turbine power to equipment formerly powered by electric motors, can allow them to use steam capacity to reduce electrical demand and consumption, bypassing cogeneration. Cogeneration converts the heat energy of steam into circular mechanical motion and then converts the circular mechanical motion into electricity. Each conversion entails a loss of energy due to friction and other conversion losses. A substantial amount of the generated electricity is then converted back into circular motion with electric motors, again incurring energy losses. Directly applying the mechanical motion of turbines eliminates both the motion-to-electricity (generator) and the electricity-to-motion (motor) conversion losses. Excess steam capacity during the summer is not unusual for facilities that use steam to provide winter heating. Similarly, most of these facilities experience a large electrical demand peak during the cooling season due to the electricity needed to operate centrifugal chillers. Steam capacity via a turbine to power the chillers can allow the boilers to operate at a higher loading while reducing electrical consumption and demand precisely those periods when demand reduction is most needed. In facilities where the steam generating capacity is sufficient, air compressors provide an appropriate year-round application for turbine power. This paper is the result of an on-going project by the Energy Division, State of North Carolina, Department of Economic and Community Development, in conjunction with the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The objective of this project is to educate the operating engineers and managers of small to medium sized manufacturing facilities on the technical application and economic justification of steam turbine power

  20. A system for regulating the pressure of resuperheated steam in high temperature gas-cooled reactor power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegines, K.O.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to a system for regulating steam-pressure in the re-superheating portion of a steam-boiler receiving heat from a gas-cooled high temperature nuclear reactor, provided with gas distributing pumps driven by steam-turbines. The system comprises means for generating a pressure signal of desired magnitude for the re-superheating portion, and means for providing a real pressure in the re-superheating portion, means (including a by-passing device) for generating steam-flow rate signal of desired magnitude, a turbine by-pass device comprising a by-pass tapping means for regulating the steam-flow-rate in said turbine according to the desired steam-flow rate signal and means for controlling said by-pass tapping means according to said desired steam-flow-rate signal [fr

  1. Evaluation of turbine systems for compressed air energy storage plants. Final report for FY 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartsounes, G.T.

    1976-10-01

    Compressed air energy storage plants for electric utility peak-shaving applications comprise four subsystems: a turbine system, compressor system, an underground air storage reservoir, and a motor/generator. Proposed plant designs use turbines that are derived from available gas and steam turbines with proven reliability. The study examines proposed turbine systems and presents an evaluation of possible systems that may reduce capital cost and/or improve performance. Six new turbine systems are identified for further economic evaluation.

  2. Modernization of turbines in fossil and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, T.; Oeynhausen, H.

    2004-01-01

    Steam turbine power plants have a big share in power generation world-wide. In view of their age structure, they offer the biggest potential for increasing power plant performance, availability and environmental protection. Modernisation and replacement of key components by improved components will reduce fuel consumption and improve power plant performance by higher capacity, higher power, shorter start-up and shutdown times, and reduced standstill times. Modern steam turbine bladings will result in further improvements without additional fuel consumption. (orig.)

  3. AFB/open cycle gas turbine conceptual design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, T. W.; Tashjian, R.

    1983-09-01

    Applications of coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed gas turbine systems in industrial cogeneration are identified. Based on site-specific conceptual designs, the potential benefits of the AFB/gas turbine system were compared with an atmospheric fluidized design steam boiler/steam turbine system. The application of these cogeneration systems at four industrial plant sites is reviewed. A performance and benefit analysis was made along with a study of the representativeness of the sites both in regard to their own industry and compared to industry as a whole. A site was selected for the conceptual design, which included detailed site definition, AFB/gas turbine and AFB/steam turbine cogeneration system designs, detailed cost estimates, and comparative performance and benefit analysis. Market and benefit analyses identified the potential market penetration for the cogeneration technologies and quantified the potential benefits.

  4. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  5. Determination of moisture content in steams and variation in moisture content with operating boiler level by analyzing sodium content in steam generator water and steam condensate of a nuclear power plant using ion chromatographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Dry steam with moisture content less than <1% is the stringent requirements in a steam generator for good health of the turbine. In order to confirm the same, determination of sodium is done in steam generator water and steam condensate using Flame photometer in ppm level and ion chromatograph in ppb level. Depending on the carry over of sodium in steam along with the water droplet (moisture), the moisture content in steam was calculated and was found to be < 1% which is requirements of the system. The paper described the salient features of a PHWR, principle of Ion Chromatography, chemistry parameters of Steam Generators and calculation of moisture content in steam on the basis of sodium analysis. (author)

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of heat recovery steam generator in combined cycle power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Naradasu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined cycle power plants play an important role in the present energy sector. The main challenge in designing a combined cycle power plant is proper utilization of gas turbine exhaust heat in the steam cycle in order to achieve optimum steam turbine output. Most of the combined cycle developers focused on the gas turbine output and neglected the role of the heat recovery steam generator which strongly affects the overall performance of the combined cycle power plant. The present paper is aimed at optimal utilization of the flue gas recovery heat with different heat recovery steam generator configurations of single pressure and dual pressure. The combined cycle efficiency with different heat recovery steam generator configurations have been analyzed parametrically by using first law and second law of thermodynamics. It is observed that in the dual cycle high pressure steam turbine pressure must be high and low pressure steam turbine pressure must be low for better heat recovery from heat recovery steam generator.

  7. Effects of phosphate environments on turbine materials: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.C.; Shalvoy, R.S.; Gould, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a serious hazard to large steam turbines. In many cases, this cracking is thought caused by concentrated deposits of caustics or chlorides, formed from the steam by concentrating mechanisms. To minimize the likelihood of forming these corrosive deposits, turbine manufacturers recommend that the levels of contaminants in the steam be maintained at low levels. The steam purity needed to prevent the formation of corrosive deposits is at present uncertain. As an aid in judging the steam purity needed to avoid corrosive deposits, the General Electric Company surveyed the utility industry to determine current feedwater practices, the levels of steam purity attained, and the nature of the corrosion problems encountered. One hypothesis to explain the lower corrosivity of steam from drum boilers concerns the sodium phosphate to compounds commonly added to drum boiler water for pH control. To test this hypothesis, the present program was undertaken to study the effect of sodium phosphate on the corrosivity of the two most common corrosive turbine deposits, sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide. Four turbine materials - a rotor steel, a disc steel, and two turbine blade steels - were chosen for this study. The results from the first half of a two-year project are described. So far the corrosivity of the deposits without phosphate has been determined. Work to determine the corrosivity of deposits with phosphate is presently under way and only the electrochemical test results are discussed

  8. Numerical Research of Steam and Gas Plant Efficiency of Triple Cycle for Extreme North Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galashov Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows that temperature decrease of heat rejection in a cycle is necessary for energy efficiency of steam turbine plants. Minimum temperature of heat rejection at steam turbine plant work on water steam is 15°C. Steam turbine plant of triple cycle where lower cycle of steam turbine plant is organic Rankine cycle on low-boiling substance with heat rejection in air condenser, which safely allows rejecting heat at condensation temperatures below 0°C, has been offered. Mathematical model of steam and gas plant of triple cycle, which allows conducting complex researches with change of working body appearance and parameters defining thermodynamic efficiency of cycles, has been developed. On the basis of the model a program of parameters and index cycles design of steam and gas plants has been developed in a package of electron tables Excel. Numerical studies of models showed that energy efficiency of steam turbine plants of triple cycle strongly depend on low-boiling substance type in a lower cycle. Energy efficiency of steam and gas plants net 60% higher can be received for steam and gas plants on the basis of gas turbine plant NK-36ST on pentane and its condensation temperature below 0°C. It was stated that energy efficiency of steam and gas plants net linearly depends on condensation temperature of low-boiling substance type and temperature of gases leaving reco very boiler. Energy efficiency increases by 1% at 10% decrease of condensation temperature of pentane, and it increases by 0.88% at 15°C temperature decrease of gases leaving recovery boiler.

  9. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part...... of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better part......-load performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft configuration. As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the gas turbine part...

  10. Application of the Combined Cycle LWR-Gas Turbine to PWR for NPP Life Extension Safety Upgrade and Improving Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. N.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, some of the most important problem for the nuclear industry are life extension, advance competitiveness and safety of aging LWR NPPs. Based on results of studies performed in the USA (Battelle Memorial Institute) and in Russia (NIKIET), a new power technology, using a combined cycle gas-turbine facility CCGT - LWR, so called TD-Cycle, can significantly help in resolution of some problems of nuclear power industry. The nuclear steam and gas topping cycle is used for re-powering a light water pressurized reactor of PWR or VVER type. An existing NPP is topped with a gas turbine facility with a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) generating steam from waste heat. The superheated steam of high pressure (P=90-165 bar, T=500-550 C) generated in the HRSG, is expanded in a high pressure (HP) turbine for producing electricity. The HP turbine can work on one shaft with the the gas turbine or at one shaft with intermediate (IP) or low (LP) pressure parts of the main nuclear steam turbine, or with a separate electric generator. The exhausted steam from the HP turbine is injected into the steam mixer where it is mixed with the saturated steam from the NPP steam generator (SG). The mixer is intended to superheat the main nuclear steam and should be characterized by minimum losses during mixing superheated and saturated steam. Steam from the mixer superheated by 20-60 C directs to the existing IP turbine, and then, through a separator-reheater flows into the LP turbine. Feed water re-heaters of LP and HP are actually unchanged in this case. Feed water extraction to the HRSG is supplied after one of LP water heaters. This proposal is intended to re-power existing LWR NPPs. To minimize cost, the IP and LP turbines and electric generator would remain the same. The reactor thermal power and fast neutron flux to the reactor vessel would decrease by 30-50 percent of nominal values. The external peripheral row of fuel elements can be replaced with metal absorber rods to

  11. Rotary turbine for reduced flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G.; Scornaienchi, N.M. (Calabria Univ., Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    1988-06-01

    The principal characteristics of the steam turbine are its simple design (and therefore low fabrication cost) and capability of handling very small rates in the order grams/s. Another important characteristic is that the deflector channel receives fluid without incidence for any value of relative velocity. This allows for a wider field of application as compared with bladed turbines. Taking into account losses due to the fact that the fluid works at relatively high velocities for long sections and to fluid leakage, efficiencies have been estimated at about 40%.

  12. Study on Creep Damage Model of 1Cr1Mo1/4V Steel for Turbine Rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Sung; Song, Gee Wook; Kim, Bum Shin; Chang, Sung Ho; Fleury, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the dominant damage mechanisms in high-temperature steam turbine facilities such as rotor and casing are creep and fatigue damages. Even though coupling of creep and fatigue should be considered while predicting the life of turbine facilities, the remaining life of large steam turbine facilities is generally determined on the basis of creep damage because the turbines must generate stable base-load power and because they are operated at a high temperature and pressure for a long time. Almost every large steam turbine in Korea has been operated for more than 20 years and is made of steel containing various amounts of principal alloying elements nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and vanadium. In this study, creep damage model of 1Cr1Mo1/4V steel for turbine rotor is proposed and that can assess the high temperature creep life of large steam turbine facilities is proposed

  13. An MHD energy storage system comprising a heavy-water producing electrolysis plant and a H2/O2/CsOH MHD generator/steam turbine combination to provide a means of transferring nuclear reactor energy from the base-load regime into the intermediate-load and peaking regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, S.J.; Koziak, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    The concept is presented of the MHD Energy Storage System, comprising a heavy-water producing electrolysis plant for electricity absorption, hydrogen/oxygen storage and a high-efficiency MHD generator/steam turbine unit for electricity production on demand from the grid. The overall efficiency at 56 to 60 percent is comparable to pumped storage hydro, but at only one-half to two-thirds the capital cost and at considerably greater freedom of location. The MHD Energy Storage System combined with the CANDU nuclear reactor in Canadian use can supply all-nuclear energy to the grid at a unit energy cost lower than when oil or coal fired plants are used in the same grid

  14. Low speed turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugol'nikov, V.V.; Kosyak, Yu.F.; Virchenko, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Work of the Kharkov turbine plant on planning and manufacture for nuclear power plants of low-speed (1500 rpm) turbines with a power of 500-1000 MW is described. The selection of a construction diagram for the turbine assembly, determined basically by the presence or absence of parts of average pressure, is considered. Special construction features of the condenser and turbine are described. Turbine K-500, with a rate of 1500 rpm, was calculated for operation in a two-loop nuclear power plant with saturated steam with intermediate separation and two-stage steam regeneration. On the base of this turbine, three models of 1000-MW turbines were developed. The first model has a cylinder of average pressure (TsSD) and a lateral condenser. The second has no TsSD but a low location of the condensers. The third has no TsSD and the condensers are located laterally. Calculations of the heat efficiency of the three types of turbines showed that several advantages are offered by the model with a TsSD. Better aerodynamic properties of the exhaust nozzles and condensers with lateral location allows decreasing the specific heat consumption to 0.5-1% or, at the same power, a 10-20% decrease in cooling water consumption

  15. Design and construction of a steam generator with feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Camila C.; Placco, Guilherme M.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.

    2013-01-01

    The EARTH project aims to develop technologies to design and build systems that generate electricity in space, using microreactors. One of the activities within the TERRA project aims to build a closed thermal cycle Rankine type in order to test a Tesla turbine type. The objective of this work is to design and build a steam generator with feedback, which should ensure a satisfactory range of steam supply, security system, feedback system and heating system

  16. Steam generators in indirect-cycle water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajeau, M.

    1976-01-01

    In the indirect cycle water-cooled nuclear reactors, the steam generators are placed between the primary circuit and the turbine. They act both as an energy transmitter and as a leaktigh barrier against fission or corrosion products. Their study is thus very important from a performance and reliability point of view. Two main types are presented here: the U-tube and the once-through steam generators [fr

  17. Steam Digest 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-11-01

    Steam Digest 2002 is a collection of articles published in the last year on steam system efficiency. DOE directly or indirectly facilitated the publication of the articles through it's BestPractices Steam effort. Steam Digest 2002 provides a variety of operational, design, marketing, and program and program assessment observations. Plant managers, engineers, and other plant operations personnel can refer to the information to improve industrial steam system management, efficiency, and performance.

  18. Power engineering and turbine manufacture in Japan. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanovskij, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Vapour turbines designs of thermal power plants, including those with increased steam parameters, nuclear power plants, vapour-gas facilities are considered. Data on efficiency of turbofacilities, turbinesmaterials, maneuverability characteristics, releases from gas-turbine facilities are presented. 21 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  19. Dismantling of the 50 MW steam generator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Onojima, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Isozaki, T.; Gunji, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have been dismantling the 50MW Steam Generator Test Facility (50MWSGTF). The objectives of the dismantling are reuse of sodium components to a planned large scale thermal hydraulics sodium test facility and the material examination of component that have been operated for long time in sodium. The facility consisted of primary sodium loop with sodium heater by gas burner as heat source instead of reactor, secondary sodium loop with auxiliary cooling system (ACS) and water/steam system with steam temperature and pressure reducer instead of turbine. It simulated the 1 loop of the Monju cooling system. The rated power of the facility was 50MWt and it was about 1/5 of the Monju power plant. Several sodium removal methods are applied. As for the components to be dismantled such as piping, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), air cooled heat exchangers (AC), sodium is removed by steam with nitrogen gas in the air or sodium is burned in the air. As for steam generators which material tests are planned, sodium is removed by steam injection with nitrogen gas to the steam generator. The steam generator vessel is filled with nitrogen and no air in the steam generator during sodium removal. As for sodium pumps, pump internal structure is pulled out from the casing and installed into the tank. After the installation, sodium is removed by the same method of steam generator. As for relatively small reuse components such as sodium valves, electromagnet flow meters (EMFs) etc., sodium is removed by alcohol process. (author)

  20. Steam condensation process in a power production cycle and heat exchanger for it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, Gerard; Andro, Jean; Marjollet, Jacques; Pouderoux, Pierre.

    1982-01-01

    Steam condensation process in a power production cycle by expansion in turbines, characterized by the fact that this condensation is performed by the vaporization of a coolant with a vaporization temperature at atmospheric pressure lower than that of water, and that the vaporized coolant fluid is expanded in a turbine and then condensed by heat exchange with cold water being heated, while the liquefied coolant is recompressed and used for heat exchange with the steam to be condensed [fr

  1. Simulation of steam-water and binary geothermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    2004-01-01

    The generalized scheme of the geothermal power plant (GeoPP), assuming the possibility of the electric power production in the steam-water turbine or in the turbine on the low-boiling working body, is considered. The GeoPP mathematical model, making it possible to carry out the comparison of the power indices of various GeoPP schemes and analysis of the calculational indices sensitivity of these schemes to the mode parameters change, is presented [ru

  2. A steam separator-superheater apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androw, Jean; Bessouat, Roger; Peyrelongue, J.-P.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a separator-superheater apparatus comprising an outer enclosure containing a separating-unit and a steam superheating unit according to the main patent. The present addition relates to an improvement in that apparatus, characterized in that the separating unit and the superheating unit, mounted in two distinct portions of the outer enclosure, are divided into the same number of sub-units of each unit being identical and operating in parallel, and in that to each separator sub-unit is associated a superheater sub-unit, said sub-units being mounted in series and located in one in the other of the enclosure two portions, respectively. This can be applied to the treatment of the exhaust steam of a turbine high pressure body, prior to re-injecting said steam into the low pressure body [fr

  3. Full scale turbine-missile casing exit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Schamaun, J.T.; Sliter, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Two full-scale tests have simulated the impact of a fragment from a failed turbine disk upon the steel casing of a low-pressure steam turbine with the objective of providing data for making more realistic assessments of turbine missile effects for nuclear power plant designers. Data were obtained on both the energy-absorbing mechanisms of the impact process and the post-impact trajectory of the fragment. (orig.)

  4. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  5. A fast response miniature probe for wet steam flow field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosdas, Ilias; Mansour, Michel; Abhari, Reza S; Kalfas, Anestis I

    2016-01-01

    Modern steam turbines require operational flexibility due to renewable energies’ increasing share of the electrical grid. Additionally, the continuous increase in energy demand necessitates efficient design of the steam turbines as well as power output augmentation. The long turbine rotor blades at the machines’ last stages are prone to mechanical vibrations and as a consequence time-resolved experimental data under wet steam conditions are essential for the development of large-scale low-pressure steam turbines. This paper presents a novel fast response miniature heated probe for unsteady wet steam flow field measurements. The probe has a tip diameter of 2.5 mm, and a miniature heater cartridge ensures uncontaminated pressure taps from condensed water. The probe is capable of providing the unsteady flow angles, total and static pressure as well as the flow Mach number. The operating principle and calibration procedure are described in the current work and a detailed uncertainty analysis demonstrates the capability of the new probe to perform accurate flow field measurements under wet steam conditions. In order to exclude any data possibly corrupted by droplets’ impact or evaporation from the heating process, a filtering algorithm was developed and implemented in the post-processing phase of the measured data. In the last part of this paper the probe is used in an experimental steam turbine test facility and measurements are conducted at the inlet and exit of the last stage with an average wetness mass fraction of 8.0%. (paper)

  6. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  7. Thermodynamics of the silica-steam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krikorian, Oscar H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    In most nuclear cratering and cavity formation applications, the working fluid in the expanding cavity consists primarily of vaporized silica and steam. The chemical reaction products of silica and steam under these conditions are not known, although it is known that silica is very volatile in the presence of high-pressure steam under certain geologic conditions and in steam turbines. A review is made of work on the silica-steam system in an attempt to determine the vapor species that exist, and to establish the associated thermo-dynamic data. The review indicates that at 600-900 deg K and 1-100 atm steam pressure, Si(OH){sub 4} is the most likely silicon-containing gaseous species. At 600-900 deg. K and 100-1000 atm steam, Si{sub 2}O(OH){sub 6} is believed to predominate, whereas at 1350 deg K and 2000-9000 atm, a mixture of Si(OH){sub 4} and Si{sub 2}O(OH){sub 6} is consistent with the observed volatilities. In work at 1760 deg. K in which silica was reacted either with steam at 0.5 and 1 atm, or with gaseous mixtures of H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O at 1 atm total pressure, only part of the volatility could be accounted for by Si(OH){sub 4}. Hydrogen was found to greatly enhance the volatility of silica, and oxygen to suppress it. The species most likely to explain this behavior is believed to be SiO(OH). A number of other species may also be significant under these conditions. Thermodynamic data have been estimated for all species considered. The Si-OH bond dissociation energy is found to be {approx}117 kcal/mole in both Si(OH){sub 4} and Si{sub 2}O(OH){sub 6}. (author)

  8. Engineering analysis of mass flow rate for turbine system control and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A computer code is written to predict the steam mass flow rate through valves. → A test device is built to study the steam flow characteristics in the control valve. → Mass flow based methodology eases the programming and experimental procedures. → The methodology helps express the characteristics of each device of a turbine system. → The results can commercially be used for design and operation of the turbine system. - Abstract: The mass flow rate is determined in the steam turbine system by the area formed between the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. For precise control the steam mass flow rate should be known given the stem lift. However, since the thermal hydraulic characteristics of steam coming from the generator or boiler are changed going through each device, it is hard to accurately predict the steam mass flow rate. Thus, to precisely determine the steam mass flow rate, a methodology and theory are developed in designing the turbine system manufactured for the nuclear and fossil power plants. From the steam generator or boiler to the first bunch of turbine blades, the steam passes by a stop valve, a control valve and the first nozzle, each of which is connected with piping. The corresponding steam mass flow rate can ultimately be computed if the thermal and hydraulic conditions are defined at the stop valve, control valve and pipes. The steam properties at the inlet of each device are changed at its outlet due to geometry. The Compressed Adiabatic Massflow Analysis (CAMA) computer code is written to predict the steam mass flow rate through valves. The Valve Engineered Layout Operation (VELO) test device is built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve with the CAMA input data. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected as reference. CAMA is expected to be commercially utilized to accurately design and operate the turbine system for fossil as well as nuclear power

  9. Repowering options for steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, H.; Gopalarathinam, R.

    1992-01-01

    Repowering an existing steam power plant with a gas turbine offers an attractive alternative to a new plant or life extension, especially for unit sizes smaller than 300 MWe. Gas turbine repowering improves thermal efficiency and substantially increases the plant output. Based on recent repowering studies and projects, this paper examines gas turbine repowering options for 100 MWe, 200 MWe and 300 MWe units originally designed for coal firing and currently firing either coal or natural gas. Also discussed is the option for a phased future conversion of the repowered unit to fire coal-derived gas, should there be a fluctuation in the price or availability of natural gas. A modular coal gasification plant designed to shorten the conversion time is presented. Repowering options, performance, costs, and availability impacts are discussed for selected cases

  10. Análise termodinâmica de um ciclo de potência com célula a combustível sofc e turbina a vapor = Thermodynamic analysis of a power cycle such as SOFC fuel cell and steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sordi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi realizar a análise termodinâmica de um sistema híbrido, SOFC / ST (célula a combustível tipo SOFC e turbina a vapor ST. O combustível considerado para a análise foi o gás metano (biogás produzido por meio da digestão anaeróbica de resíduos orgânicos. A metodologia utilizada foi o balanço de energia dosistema SOFC / ST, considerando a reforma interna do metano na célula a combustível, de forma a obter a sua eficiência elétrica. O resultado foi comparado a um ciclo combinado convencional de turbina a gás e turbina a vapor (GT / ST para potências entre 10 MW e 30MW. A eficiência do sistema híbrido SOFC / ST variou de 61% a 66% em relação ao poder calorífico do metano; e a eficiência do ciclo combinado GT / ST variou de 41% a 55% para o mesmo intervalo de potência. Para geração distribuída a célula a combustível SOFC é atecnologia mais eficiente.The objective of this article was to analyze the thermodynamic of ahybrid system, SOFC / ST (SOFC fuel cell and ST steam turbine. The fuel for the analysis was the gas methane (biogas produced through the anaerobic digestion of the organic residues. The utilized methodology was the energy balance of the system SOFC / ST,considering the internal reforming of methane in the fuel cell, in a way to obtain its electric effectiveness. The result was compared to a conventional combined cycle of gas turbine and steam turbine (GT / ST for powers between 10 MW and 30 MW. The efficiency of the hybrid system SOFC / ST varied from 61 to 66% in relation to the lower heating value of methane; and the efficiency of the combined cycle GT / ST varied from 41 to 55% within the same power interval. For distributed generation, the SOFC fuel cell is the most efficienttechnology.

  11. Rehabilitation and extension of the useful operating life of a high pressure casing of the 75 MW steam turbine of the thermoelectric power plant President Juarez in Rosarito, B.C.; Rehabilitacion y extension de vida util de una carcasa de alta presion de la turbina de vapor de 75 MW de la central termoelectrica Presidente Juarez en Rosarito, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur C, Zdzislaw; Hernandez R, Alejandro; Luna R, Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Fernandez, Rafael; Nieblas, Enrique [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Rosarito, Baja California (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The effective operation of the steam turbines is important to the world industries, but as all machinery, it is necessary to constantly examine and give maintenance to this equipment with the purpose of producing better results. Yet, many steam turbines arrive at an operation period of 30 or 40 years, over their original design capacity. A factor like this, only augments the probabilities of future problems with the casings, such as: thermal fatigue fissures, deformation of the horizontal union and erosion problems in the low pressure housings. The deformation of the casing can affect its capacity to maintain aligned the stationary parts of the turbine, as a consequence, damages can appear in the fixed and rotary components by interference or friction. Also, the water induction can deform the casing to such a degree that, the alignment of the stationary parts is altered until it causes contact and friction between stationary and rotary parts. However, depending on the type and degree of the casing deformation, different methods of rehabilitation can be applied. The core goal is to recover the planarity of the union of the flanges, re-machining the plane of the flange of the upper and lower casing or, alternatively, to carry out a scraping by hand. [Spanish] El funcionamiento eficaz de las turbinas de vapor es importante para las industrias del mundo, pero como toda maquinaria, es necesario examinar y dar mantenimiento constantemente a este equipo con la finalidad de producir mejores resultados. Con todo, muchas turbinas de vapor llegan a un periodo de operacion de 30 o 40 anos, por encima de su capacidad de diseno original. Un factor como este, solo eleva las probabilidades de futuros problemas con las carcasas, tales como: fisuras por fatiga termica, deformacion de la union horizontal y problemas de erosion en las carcasas de baja presion. La deformacion de la carcasa puede afectar su capacidad para mantener alineadas las partes estacionarias de la turbina, como

  12. Optimal Operations and Resilient Investments in Steam Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bungener, Stéphane L., E-mail: stephane.bungener@a3.epfl.ch [Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Van Eetvelde, Greet [Environmental and Spatial Management, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maréchal, François [Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-01-20

    Steam is a key energy vector for industrial sites, most commonly used for process heating and cooling, cogeneration of heat and mechanical power as a motive fluid or for stripping. Steam networks are used to carry steam from producers to consumers and between pressure levels through letdowns and steam turbines. The steam producers (boilers, heat and power cogeneration units, heat exchangers, chemical reactors) should be sized to supply the consumers at nominal operating conditions as well as peak demand. First, this paper proposes an Mixed Integer Linear Programing formulation to optimize the operations of steam networks in normal operating conditions and exceptional demand (when operating reserves fall to zero), through the introduction of load shedding. Optimization of investments based on operational and investment costs are included in the formulation. Though rare, boiler failures can have a heavy impact on steam network operations and costs, leading to undercapacity and unit shutdowns. A method is therefore proposed to simulate steam network operations when facing boiler failures. Key performance indicators are introduced to quantify the network’s resilience. The proposed methods are applied and demonstrated in an industrial case study using industrial data. The results indicate the importance of oversizing key steam producing equipments and the value of industrial symbiosis to increase industrial site resilience.

  13. Optimal Operations and Resilient Investments in Steam Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bungener, Stéphane L.; Van Eetvelde, Greet; Maréchal, François

    2016-01-01

    Steam is a key energy vector for industrial sites, most commonly used for process heating and cooling, cogeneration of heat and mechanical power as a motive fluid or for stripping. Steam networks are used to carry steam from producers to consumers and between pressure levels through letdowns and steam turbines. The steam producers (boilers, heat and power cogeneration units, heat exchangers, chemical reactors) should be sized to supply the consumers at nominal operating conditions as well as peak demand. First, this paper proposes an Mixed Integer Linear Programing formulation to optimize the operations of steam networks in normal operating conditions and exceptional demand (when operating reserves fall to zero), through the introduction of load shedding. Optimization of investments based on operational and investment costs are included in the formulation. Though rare, boiler failures can have a heavy impact on steam network operations and costs, leading to undercapacity and unit shutdowns. A method is therefore proposed to simulate steam network operations when facing boiler failures. Key performance indicators are introduced to quantify the network’s resilience. The proposed methods are applied and demonstrated in an industrial case study using industrial data. The results indicate the importance of oversizing key steam producing equipments and the value of industrial symbiosis to increase industrial site resilience.

  14. Turbine Energy Evaluation by internal dimensional control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediavilla, F.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain the optimum thermal performance in a high level throughout the life of the turbines requires a good testing program, proper analysis of the test data, and a steam path audit during turbine overhauls. If from operating data analysis collected during the performance test before the outage shows that the efficiency of the turbine is coming down, the steam path audit, that is an internal inspection and a dimensional control of the internals, identity and quantity causes of performance degradation like, seal leakages, excessive clearances, solid particle erosion damages, blades deposits and other losses. The steam path audit assigns the heat rate penalties associated with each of these individual losses to the total degradation. This are used to make cost-effective maintenance decisions during the course of the overhaul. After repairs, a closing steam path audit is conducted during the re assembly of the turbine in order to predict return to service condition of the machine and to provide a quality control check on outage repairs. (Author)

  15. Steam generator with perfected dryers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenet, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This steam generator has vertically superposed array of steam dryers. These dryers return the steam flow of 180 0 . The return of the water is made by draining channels to the steam production zone [fr

  16. HTGR steam generator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetzenduebel, W.G.; Hunt, P.S.; Weber, M.

    1976-01-01

    More than 40 gas-cooled reactor plants have produced in excess of 400 reactor years of operating experience which have proved a reasonably high rate of gas-cooled reactor steam generator availability. The steam generators used in these reactors include single U-tube and straight-tube steam generators as well as meander type and helically wound or involute tube steam generators. It appears that modern reactors are being equipped with helically wound steam generators of the once-through type as the end product of steam generator evolution in gas-cooled reactor plants. This paper provides a general overview of gas-cooled reactor steam generator evolution and operating experience and shows how design criteria and constraints, research and development, and experience data are factored into the design/development of modern helically wound tube steam generators for the present generation of gas-cooled reactors

  17. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  18. Steam generator tube extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, H.

    1985-05-01

    To enable tube examination on steam generators in service, Framatome has now developed a process for removing sections of steam generator tubes. Tube sections can be removed without being damaged for treating the tube section expanded in the tube sheet

  19. Steam sterilization does not require saturated steam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doornmalen Gomez Hoyos, J. P.C.M.; Paunovic, A.; Kopinga, K.

    2017-01-01

    The most commonly applied method to sterilize re-usable medical devices in hospitals is steam sterilization. The essential conditions for steam sterilization are derived from sterilization in water. Microbiological experiments in aqueous solutions have been used to calculate various time–temperature

  20. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} caused by the consumption of hydrocarbon fuel is one of the main gases which affect the global climate. In order to reduce the formation of CO{sub 2}, it is necessary to conserve energy as effectively as possible. Therefore the heat energy provided by the fuel should be utilized in multi-cascades. The energy at the high temperature should be used for the generation of electric power and the energy at low temperature could be used for making the steam and the hot water. The gas turbine is preferable for this purpose. The heat energy of exhaust gas can be reused more easily. The two systems are proposed by using the gas turbine as the high temperature stage. One is the cogeneration system and the other is the combined cycle. The former generates electric power by the gas turbine and make steam or hot water in the exhaust gas. The latter employs the gas turbine as the high temperature cycle and the steam turbine as the low temperature cycle.

  1. The Invisibility of Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature…

  2. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  3. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  4. Chemical impurity monitoring in the turbine environment at ANO-1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, D.P.

    1982-05-01

    An overview is presented here of three independent measurement campaigns for trace impurities in the secondary side water/steam of ANO-1, a PWR containing a once-through steam generator. The measurements took place in 1978-1979 between two turbine disc cracking incidents near the point of first condensation in the low pressure turbines. Turbine disc cracking occurred despite maintenance of conditions near the turbine manufacturers recommended limits. Measurements focused on sodium, chloride, and sulfate. The primary source of contamination was found to be the condensate polishing plant. Major improvements were seen to result from changes in regeneration procedures. Turbine damage may be the result of acid conditions at the Wilson Line since chloride and sulfate were enriched relative to sodium in the LP turbine inlet steam

  5. A small capacity co generative gas-turbine plant in factory AD 'Komuna' - Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin; Armenski, Slave; Tashevski, Done

    2000-01-01

    The factory AD 'Komuna' -Skopje (Macedonia), has two steam block boilers, type ST 800 for steam production for process and space heating. The factory satisfies the electricity needs from the national grid. By the use of natural gas like fuel it is possible to produce electrical energy in its own co generative gas turbine plant. In this article, a co generative plant with small-scale gas turbine for electricity production is analyzed . The gas from gas turbine have been introduce in the steam block boiler. Also, a natural gas consumption, the electricity production, total investment and payback period of investment are determined. (Authors)

  6. Evaluation of steam as a potential coolant for nonbreeding blanket designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, H.C.; Misra, B.; Youngdahl, C.K.

    1978-01-01

    A steam-cooled nonbreeding blanket design has been developed as an evolution of the Argonne Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) studies. This blanket concept complete with maintenance considerations is to function at temperatures up to 650 0 C utilizing nickel-based alloys such as Inconel 625. Thermo-mechanical analyses were carried out in conjunction with thermal hydraulic analysis to determine coolant chennel arrangements that permit delivery of superheated steam at 500 0 C directly to a modern fossil plant-type turbine. A dual-cycle system combining a pressurized water circuit coupled with a superheated steam circuit can produce turbine plant conversion efficiencies approaching 41.5%

  7. Environmentally Friendly Replacement of Mature 200 MW Coal-Fired Power Blocks with 2 Boilers Working on One 500 MW Class Steam Turbine Generator (2on1 Unit Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeszczak, Jan; Grela, Łukasz; Achter, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The paper covers problems of the owners of a fleet of long-operated conventional power plants that are going to be decommissioned soon in result of failing to achieve new admissible emissions levels or exceeding pressure elements design lifetime. Energoprojekt-Katowice SA, Siemens AG and Rafako SA presents their joint concept of the solution which is a 2on1 concept - replacing two unit by two ultra-supercritical boilers feeding one turbine. Polish market has been taken as an example.

  8. Device for starting a steam generator by heating sodium in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hisao.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To enhance cooperation between ventilation and steam conditions of turbine and ventilation condition relative to a superheater at the time of starting a plant using a fast breeder, and to enhance safety with respect to failure of heat transmission tubes at the time of start. Structure: In a device in which steam generated in an evaporator is fed to a high pressure turbine through a super-heater and an outlet steam of high pressure turbine is reheated by means of a re-heater and fed into a turbine on the side of low pressure to drive the turbine for power generation, opening and closing valves are mounted on outlet and inlet pipes, respectively, of the heat transmission pipe in the super heater, said outlet and inlet pipes being connected by a bypass pipe. Upstream side of the opening and closing valve on the inlet pipe and the downstream side of the opening and closing valve on the outlet pipe and connected by a bypass pipe in the re-heater and said bypass pipe in the re-heater is provided with a steam heat exchanger to be heated by steam in the outlet of the superheater, and a steam line in an auxiliary boiler is connected to the side of re-heater from the opening and closing valve on the heat transmission pipe in the re-heater. (Hanada, M.)

  9. Theory of the spontaneous condensation of steam during expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleitz, Alain

    1978-01-01

    When steam expands in a nozzle or turbine, it cools and, at a certain pressure level, the saturation limit is exceeded. The appearance of moisture does not comply with the simple laws of thermodynamic balance. The liquid phase appears only as from a certain sub-cooling of the steam, at which stage it forms suddenly as a finely dispersed mist. On the basis of the kinetic theory of gases and the critical radius concept, Oswatitch produced a theory on spontaneous condensation which was checked by tests in nozzles. On the other hand, this theory does not fully explain that which is observed in turbines or manifolds fed with fluids other than steam. Modifications have been made to the conventional theory in an endeavour to corroborate the experimental results [fr

  10. A steam superheater exchanger provided with two coaxial casings and an horizontal axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjollet, Jacques; Palacio, Gerard; Tondeur, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns the general lay-out of an horizontal axis separator-superheater for supplying steam to a high power turbine, particularly for a nuclear power station. The invention significantly reduces the length of the pipework connecting the superheated steam outlet and its inlet to the turbine. For this, the outer casing is provided with a coaxial internal annular sleeve in which are housed, one above the other, the separator and the bundle of superheater tubes through which circulates the water emulsion to be separated and steam to be superheated. At the end of its treatment, the superheated steam spreads out in the space between the sleeve and the outer casing from whence it can be drawn off at any point of its periphery, thus making it possible to choose an extraction point as near as possible to the inlet of the turbine to be fed [fr

  11. High Materials Performance in Supercritical CO2 in Comparison with Atmospheric Pressure CO2 and Supercritical Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Tylczak, Joseph [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Carney, Casey [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Dogan, Omer N. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2017-02-26

    This presentation covers environments (including advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) steam boiler/turbine and sCO2 indirect power cycle), effects of pressure, exposure tests, oxidation results, and mechanical behavior after exposure.

  12. Temperature conditions in an LMFBR power plant from primary sodium to steam circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, M.; Chaumont, J.M.; Mougniot, J.C.; Recolin, J.; Acket.

    1977-01-01

    The optimization analysis which is presented is based on an evaluation of the tender prior to contracting Super Phenix. Process constraints are reviewed: fuel limitations, turbine, steam generators; parameter selection involves major temperatures (primary ΔT 0 , steam generator water inlet temperature, turbine steam inlet temperature) or minor temperature (secondary sodium); countervailing mechanisms include upward and downward tendencies. The optimum values obtained by the method represent a coherent balanced set of parameters. So, the most significant tendency revealed by an optimization of investment costs involves the advantages of a hot system with a steam temperature above 515 0 C, but the hot temperature range is very limited (3 0 C between the hot primary sodium temperature and the steam temperature) while the cold temperatures cover a much wide range. The tolerance range within which each critical temperature may be selected without exceeding a certain cost margin per KWh is given

  13. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  14. Highly purified water production technology. The influence of water purity on steam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, J.

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental question related to high-pressure steam generation, intended for powering steam turbines, concerns steam production conditions based on constant quality standards. The characteristics of water (salinity, silica concentration) are indicated for a given steam quality as a function of the pressure. Two processes for the purification of feedwater for high pressure boilers are described: a treatment using precoated cellulose or resin filters and a treatment using mixed-bed ion exchangers. When ultrapure water is required, the demineralized water is filtred using microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes [fr

  15. Thermal circuit and supercritical steam generator of the BGR-300 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, B.P.; Godik, I.B.; Komarov, N.F.; Kurochnkin, Yu.P.

    1979-01-01

    Secondary coolant circuit and a steam generator for supercritical steam parameters of the BGR-300 reactor plant are described. The BGR-300 plant with a 300 MW(e) high-temperature gas-cooled fast reactor is developed as a pilot commercial plant. It is shown that the use of a supercritical pressure steam increases the thermal efficiency of the plant and descreases thermal releases to the environment, permits to use home-made commercial turbine plants of large unit power. The proposed supercritical pressure steam generator has considerable advantages from the viewpoint of heat transfer and hydrodynamical processes

  16. Integration of a thermal stresses supervisory system and useful life of steam turbine rotors; Integracion de un sistema supervisorio de esfuerzos termicos y vida util de rotores de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnero, Antonio; Serrano, Luis E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Nebradt, G. Jesus; Leyva, M. Luis [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    The turbine wheels undergo high thermal and mechanical stresses caused by the requirements of their operation. This causes a mechanical damage (fatigue) that is accumulated according to the frequency whereupon the different operation ways (cold starts, lukewarm or hot) happen. On the other hand, the greater efficiency of power stations of combined cycle with respect to conventional power stations is reflected in a greater production cost of the electrical energy, which has forced to that conventional generation units designed to operate on base load, now are used as variable load units to satisfy the demand during the peak hours. The former, rebounds in a greater frequency of operations of shut downs and hot starts of turbines, reason why the fatigue damage will be increased when changing its operating range. In Mexico turbines there are turbines that have been 15 or 20 years in operation and that do not have a thermal stresses supervisor, reason why when changing their load operation from base load to variable load it is essential to install a rotor supervisor of thermal efforts, with the purpose of limiting or reducing the thermal stresses and in this way reduce the fatigue damage to extend their useful life. The article deals over the integration of a supervisory system of thermal stresses, that from the operation parameters of the turbine, determines the temperature gradient in the labyrinth seals zone between the control passage and the first passage of the high pressure section of the rotor, the thermal and mechanical stresses and the fatigue are calculated, determining the consumption of the useful life for each operation cycle (shutdown and starting). [Spanish] Los rotores de turbina experimentan altas esfuerzos termicos y mecanicos causados por los requerimientos de su operacion. Esto causa un dano mecanico (fatiga) que se acumula de acuerdo a la frecuencia con que los diferentes modos de operacion (arranques en frio, tibio o caliente) suceden. Por otro

  17. Performance analysis of a potassium-steam two stage vapour cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitachi, Kohshi; Saito, Takeshi

    1983-01-01

    It is an important subject to raise the thermal efficiency in thermal power plants. In present thermal power plants which use steam cycle, the plant thermal efficiency has already reached 41 to 42 %, steam temperature being 839 K, and steam pressure being 24.2 MPa. That is, the thermal efficiency in a steam cycle is facing a limit. In this study, analysis was made on the performance of metal vapour/steam two-stage Rankine cycle obtained by combining a metal vapour cycle with a present steam cycle. Three different combinations using high temperature potassium regenerative cycle and low temperature steam regenerative cycle, potassium regenerative cycle and steam reheat and regenerative cycle, and potassium bleed cycle and steam reheat and regenerative cycle were systematically analyzed for the overall thermal efficiency, the output ratio and the flow rate ratio, when the inlet temperature of a potassium turbine, the temperature of a potassium condenser, and others were varied. Though the overall thermal efficiency was improved by lowering the condensing temperature of potassium vapour, it is limited by the construction because the specific volume of potassium in low pressure section increases greatly. In the combinatipn of potassium vapour regenerative cycle with steam regenerative cycle, the overall thermal efficiency can be 58.5 %, and also 60.2 % if steam reheat and regenerative cycle is employed. If a cycle to heat steam with the bled vapor out of a potassium vapour cycle is adopted, the overall thermal efficiency of 63.3 % is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Improvements in steam cycle electric power generating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a steam cycle electric energy generating plants of the type comprising a fossil or nuclear fuel boiler for generating steam and a turbo alternator group, the turbine of which is fed by the boiler steam. The improvement is characterized in that use is made of a second energy generating group in which a fluid (e.g. ammoniac) undergoes a condensation cycle the heat source of said cycle being obtained through a direct or indirect heat exchange with a portion of the boiler generated steam whereby it is possible without overloading the turbo-alternator group, to accomodate any increase of the boiler power resulting from the use of another fuel while maintaining a maximum energy output. This can be applied to electric power stations [fr

  19. Composite electric generator equipped with steam generator for heating reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Masaharu; Soman, Yoshindo; Kawanishi, Kohei; Ota, Masato.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a composite electric generator having coolants, as a heating source, of a PWR type reactor or a thermonuclear reactor. An electric generator driving gas turbine is disposed, and a superheater using a high temperature exhaust gas of the gas turbine as a heating source is disposed, and main steams are superheated by the superheater to elevate the temperature at the inlet of the turbine. This can increase the electric generation capacity as well as increase the electric generation efficiency. In addition, since the humidity in the vicinity of the exit of the steam turbine is reduced, occurrence of loss and erosion can be suppressed. When cooling water of the thermonuclear reactor is used, the electric power generated by the electric generator driven by the gas turbine can be used upon start of the thermonuclear reactor, and it is not necessary to dispose a large scaled special power source in the vicinity, which is efficient. (N.H.)

  20. Pelton turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengji

    2016-01-01

    This book concerns the theoretical foundations of hydromechanics of Pelton turbines from the engineering viewpoint. For reference purposes, all relevant flow processes and hydraulic aspects in a Pelton turbine have been analyzed completely and systematically. The analyses especially include the quantification of all possible losses existing in the Pelton turbine and the indication of most available potential for further enhancing the system efficiency. As a guideline the book therefore supports further developments of Pelton turbines with regard to their hydraulic designs and optimizations. It is thus suitable for the development and design engineers as well as those working in the field of turbo machinery. Many laws described in the book can also be directly used to simplify aspects of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or to develop new computational methods. The well-executed examples help better understand the related flow mechanics.

  1. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  2. EPRI steam generator programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, L.J.; Passell, T.O.; Bryant, P.E.C.; Rentler, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the current overall EPRI steam generator program plan and some of the ongoing projects. Because of the recent occurrence of a corrosion phenomenon called ''denting,'' which has affected a number of operating utilities, an expanded program plan is being developed which addresses the broad and urgent needs required to achieve improved steam generator reliability. The goal of improved steam generator reliability will require advances in various technologies and also a management philosophy that encourages conscientious efforts to apply the improved technologies to the design, procurement, and operation of plant systems and components that affect the full life reliability of steam generators

  3. Detection of the high vibration origin in the body of an electrical generator driven by steam turbine applying diagnostic techniques; Deteccion del origen de alta vibracion en el cuerpo de un generador electrico accionado por turbinas de vapor aplicando tecnicas de diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Bravo, Fernando (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    One of the problems that electric generators present is the high vibration due to causes that can go from simple mechanical unbalance, misalignment, mechanical relaxation, resonance or some other interaction that can influence in the system. In this document is presented the vibration analysis of an electric generator with a capacity of 350 MW, driven by a steam turbine composed of three stages (high pressure, intermediate pressure and low pressure) connected to the electric generator through a rigid connection. [Spanish] Uno de los problemas que se presentan en los generadores electricos es la alta vibracion debida a causas que pueden ir desde un simple desbalance mecanico, desalineamiento, aflojamiento mecanico, resonancia o alguna otra interaccion que pueda influir en el sistema. Se presenta en este documento el analisis de vibracion de un generador electrico con una capacidad de 350 MW, impulsado por una turbina de vapor compuesta de tres etapas (alta presion, presion intermedia y baja presion) acopladas al generador electrico a traves de un acoplamiento rigido.

  4. HTR plus modern turbine technology for higher efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Kugeler, K.

    1996-01-01

    The recent efficiency race for natural gas fired power plants with gas-plus steam-turbine-cycle, is shortly reviewed. The question 'can the HTR compete with high efficiencies?' is answered: Yes, it can - in principle. The gas-plus steam-turbine cycle, also called combi-cycle, is proposed to be taken into consideration here. A comparative study on the efficiency potential is made; it yields 54.5% at 1,050 deg. C gas turbine-inlet temperature. The mechanisms of release versus temperature in the HTR are summarized from the safety report of the HTR MODUL. A short reference is made to the experiences from the HTR-Helium Turbine Project HHT, which was performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1968 to 1981. (author). 8 figs,. 1 tab

  5. HTR plus modern turbine technology for higher efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert, H; Kugeler, K [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1996-08-01

    The recent efficiency race for natural gas fired power plants with gas-plus steam-turbine-cycle, is shortly reviewed. The question `can the HTR compete with high efficiencies?` is answered: Yes, it can - in principle. The gas-plus steam-turbine cycle, also called combi-cycle, is proposed to be taken into consideration here. A comparative study on the efficiency potential is made; it yields 54.5% at 1,050 deg. C gas turbine-inlet temperature. The mechanisms of release versus temperature in the HTR are summarized from the safety report of the HTR MODUL. A short reference is made to the experiences from the HTR-Helium Turbine Project HHT, which was performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1968 to 1981. (author). 8 figs,. 1 tab.

  6. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  7. STEAM by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Linda; Keane, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We live in a designed world. STEAM by Design presents a transdisciplinary approach to learning that challenges young minds with the task of making a better world. Learning today, like life, is dynamic, connected and engaging. STEAM (Science, Technology, Environment, Engineering, Art, and Math) teaching and learning integrates information in…

  8. Steampunk: Full Steam Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Steam-powered machines, anachronistic technology, clockwork automatons, gas-filled airships, tentacled monsters, fob watches, and top hats--these are all elements of steampunk. Steampunk is both speculative fiction that imagines technology evolved from steam-powered cogs and gears--instead of from electricity and computers--and a movement that…

  9. Safety Picks up "STEAM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This column shares safety information for the classroom. STEAM subjects--science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics--are essential for fostering students' 21st-century skills. STEAM promotes critical-thinking skills, including analysis, assessment, categorization, classification, interpretation, justification, and prediction, and are…

  10. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A two-stage steam-water separating device is introduced, where the second stage is made as a cyclone separator. The water separated here is collected in the first stage of the inner tube and is returned to the steam raising unit. (TK) [de

  11. Steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to power plant forced flow boilers operating with water letdown. The letdown water is arranged to deliver heat to partly expanded steam passing through a steam reheater connected between two stages of the prime mover. (U.K.)

  12. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  13. Evolution of design of steam generator for sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.; Vaidyanathan

    1997-01-01

    The first sodium cooled reactor was the experimental breeder reactor (EBR-I) in usa which was commissioned in 1951 and was incidentally the first nuclear reactor to generate electrical energy. This was followed by fast breeder reactors in USSR, UK, france, USA, japan, germany and India. The use of sodium as a coolant is due to its low moderation which helps in breeding fissile fuel from fertile materials and also its high heat transfer coefficient at comparatively low velocities. The good heat transfer properties introduce thermal stresses when there are rapid changes in the sodium temperatures. Also sodium has a chemical affinity with air and water. The steam generators for sodium cooled reactors have to allow for these novel conditions and in addition, unlike other components. Choices have to be made whether it is a recirculation type as in most fossil plants or an once through unit, the power rating, shape of the tube (straight, helical, U-tube), materials (Ferritic or austenitic), with free level of sodium or not, sodium on tube side or shell side and so on. With higher pressures and steam temperatures reheating steam after partial expansion in the turbine becomes essential as in conventional turbines. For this purpose the choice of reheating fluid viz sodium or live main steam has to be made. This paper traces the evolution of steam generator designs in the different sodium cooled reactors (chronologically) and the operation experience. 16 figs., 1 tab

  14. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  15. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  16. Steam supply and power cogeneration at Yanshan Petrochemical Co., Ltd.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a project was studied for the improvement of cogeneration facilities with steam supply of 600t/h and electric output of 55MW at Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Co., China. In Plan A, fuel is changed from heavy oil to natural gas, and two heavy oil boilers are replaced with two gas turbines and two exhaust heat recovery steam generators for steam supply of 241t/h per unit and electric output of 136.9MW per unit. In Plan B, the boilers are replaced with three gas turbines and three exhaust heat recovery steam generators for steam supply of 210t/h per unit and electric output of 79.5MW per unit. The initial investment is 700 million yuan {+-} 100 million yuan in Plan A, and 500 million yuan {+-} 100 million yuan in Plan B. The generating cost is 0.403 yuan/kWh in Plan A, and 0.455 yuan/kWh in Plan B. It was concluded that without Plan A, the project will not be economically successful. In Plan A, the energy conservation will be 887,847 toe/y heavy oil equivalent, which increases productivity. Further, the amount of greenhouse effect gas emissions will be 2,747,187 t-CO2/y. (NEDO)

  17. 40 CFR 60.4305 - Does this subpart apply to my stationary combustion turbine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... turbine. Any additional heat input to associated heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) or duct burners... subpart are exempt from the requirements of subpart GG of this part. Heat recovery steam generators and duct burners regulated under this subpart are exempted from the requirements of subparts Da, Db, and Dc...

  18. Turbines. NO{sub x} processing on Solar gas turbines; Turbines. Traitement des NO{sub x} sur les turbines a gaz solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chausse, X. [Spie-Trindel, 95 - Cergy (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the SoLoNOx process developed by the Solar Turbines Incorporated company for the prevention of NO{sub x} production in his gas turbines. The formation of combustion products, by-products and NO{sub x} are recalled first and then the different existing processes for the reduction of pollutants are reviewed: water or steam injection, and purification of exhaust gases. The SoLoNOx process uses a dry, weak and pre-mixed mixture and allows better NO{sub x} and CO reductions than the water injection process. (J.S.)

  19. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  20. DESAIN AWAL TURBIN UAP TIPE AKSIAL UNTUK KONSEP RGTT30 BERPENDINGIN HELIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK DESAIN AWAL TURBIN UAP TIPE AKSIAL UNTUK KONSEP RGTT30 BERPENDINGIN HELIUM. Konsep reaktor daya nuklir yang dikembangkan merupakan jenis reaktor berpendingin gas dengan temperatur tinggi (RGTT. Gas yang digunakan untuk mendinginkan teras RGTT adalah helium. Konsep RGTT ini dapat menghasilkan daya termal 30 MWth sehingga dinamakan RGTT30. Temperatur helium mampu mencapai 700 °C ketika keluar dari teras RGTT30 dan digunakan untuk memanaskan air di dalam steam generator hingga mencapai temperatur 435 °C. Steam generator dihubungkan dengan turbin uap yang dikopel dengan generator listrik untuk membangkitkan daya 7,27 MWe. Uap yang keluar dari turbin dilewatkan kondensor untuk mencairkan uap menjadi air. Rangkaian komponen dari steam generator, turbin, dan kondensor dinamakan sistem turbin uap. Turbin terdiri dari sudu-sudu yang dimaksudkan untuk mengubah tenaga uap kedalam tenaga mekanis berupa putaran. Efisiensi turbin merupakan parameter yang harus diperhatikan dalam sistem turbin uap ini. Tujuan dari makalah ini adalah untuk mengusulkan sudu tipe aksial dan untuk menganalisa perbaikan efisiensi turbin. Metode yang digunakan yaitu aplikasi prinsip termodinamika yang berhubungan dengan konservasi energi dan massa. Perangkat lunak Cycle-Tempo dipakai untuk mendapatkan parameter termodinamika dan untuk mensimulasikan sistem turbin uap berbasis RGTT30. Pertama, dibuat skenario dalam simulasi sistem turbin uap untuk mengetahui efisiensi dan laju aliran massa uap yang diperoleh nilai optimal 87,52 % dan 8,759 kg/s pada putaran 3000 rpm. Kemudian, turbin uap diberi sudu tipe aksial dengan diameter tip 1580 mm dan panjang 150 mm. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah nilai efisiensi turbin uap naik menjadi 88,3 % pada putaran konstan (3000 rpm. Penambahan nilai efisiensi turbin sebesar 0,78 % menunjukkan peningkatan kinerja RGTT30 secara keseluruhan. Kata kunci: Tipe aksial, turbin uap, RGTT30   ABSTRACT PRELIMINARY DESIGN ON STEAM TURBINE OF AXIAL TYPE