WorldWideScience

Sample records for steam turbine components

  1. An expert system for diagnostics and estimation of steam turbine components condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes an expert system of probability type for diagnostics and state estimation of steam turbine technological subsystems components. The expert system is based on Bayes’ theorem and permits to troubleshoot the equipment components, using expert experience, when there is a lack of baseline information on the indicators of turbine operation. Within a unified approach the expert system solves the problems of diagnosing the flow steam path of the turbine, bearings, thermal expansion system, regulatory system, condensing unit, the systems of regenerative feed-water and hot water heating. The knowledge base of the expert system for turbine unit rotors and bearings contains a description of 34 defects and of 104 related diagnostic features that cause a change in its vibration state. The knowledge base for the condensing unit contains 12 hypotheses and 15 evidence (indications); the procedures are also designated for 20 state parameters estimation. Similar knowledge base containing the diagnostic features and faults hypotheses are formulated for other technological subsystems of turbine unit. With the necessary initial information available a number of problems can be solved within the expert system for various technological subsystems of steam turbine unit: for steam flow path it is the correlation and regression analysis of multifactor relationship between the vibration parameters variations and the regime parameters; for system of thermal expansions it is the evaluation of force acting on the longitudinal keys depending on the temperature state of the turbine cylinder; for condensing unit it is the evaluation of separate effect of the heat exchange surface contamination and of the presence of air in condenser steam space on condenser thermal efficiency performance, as well as the evaluation of term for condenser cleaning and for tube system replacement and so forth. With a lack of initial information the expert system enables to formulate a diagnosis

  2. Steam turbines for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trassl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the electrical energy produced in the world is generated in power plants with steam turbines (fossil and nuclear). Although gas turbines are increasingly applied in combined cycle power plants, not much will change in this matter in the future. As far as the steam parameters and the maximum unit output are concerned, a certain consolidation was noted during the past decades. The standard of development and mathematical penetration of the various steam turbine components is very high today and is applied in the entire field: For saturated steam turbines in nuclear power plants and for steam turbines without reheat, with reheat and with double reheat in fossil-fired power plants and for steam turbines with and without reheat in combined cycle power plants. (orig.) [de

  3. Steam turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzumi, Naoaki.

    1994-01-01

    In a steam turbine cycle, steams exhausted from the turbine are extracted, and they are connected to a steam sucking pipe of a steam injector, and a discharge pipe of the steam injector is connected to an inlet of a water turbine. High pressure discharge water is obtained from low pressure steams by utilizing a pressurizing performance of the steam injector and the water turbine is rotated by the high pressure water to generate electric power. This recover and reutilize discharged heat of the steam turbine effectively, thereby enabling to improve heat efficiency of the steam turbine cycle. (T.M.)

  4. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  5. Structural integrity analysis of a steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagarcia, Maria P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a power utility is the rotor of the steam turbine. Catastrophic failures of the last decades have promoted the development of life assessment procedures for rotors. The present study requires the knowledge of operating conditions, component geometry, the properties of materials, history of the component, size, location and nature of the existing flaws. The aim of the present work is the obtention of a structural integrity analysis procedure for a steam turbine rotor, taking into account the above-mentioned parameters. In this procedure, a stress thermal analysis by finite elements is performed initially, in order to obtain the temperature and stress distribution for a subsequent analysis by fracture mechanics. The risk of a fast fracture due to flaws in the central zone of the rotor is analyzed. The procedure is applied to an operating turbine: the main steam turbine of the Atucha I nuclear power utility. (author)

  6. Technology of turbine plant operating with wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The technology of turbine plant operating with wet steam is a subject of continuing interest and importance, notably in view of the widespread use of wet steam cycles in nuclear power plants and the recent developments of advanced low pressure blading for both conventional and wet steam turbines. The nature of water formation in expanding steam has an important influence on the efficiency of turbine blading and on the integrity and safe operating life of blading and associated turbine and plant components. The subjects covered in this book include research, flow analysis and measurement, development and design of turbines and ancillary plant, selection of materials of construction, manufacturing methods and operating experience. (author)

  7. Steam turbine installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the arrangement described is to enable raising steam for driving steam turbines in a way suited to operating with liquid metals, such as Na, as heat transfer medium. A preheated water feed, in heat transfer relationship with the liquid metals, is passed through evaporator and superheater stages, and the superheated steam is supplied to the highest pressure stage of the steam turbine arrangement. Steam extracted intermediate the evaporator and superheater stages is employed to provide reheat for the lower pressure stage of the steam turbine. Only a major portion of the preheated water feed may be evaporated and this portion separated and supplied to the superheater stage. The feature of 'steam to steam' reheat avoids a second liquid metal heat transfer and hence represents a simplification. It also reduces the hazard associated with possible steam-liquid metal contact. (U.K.)

  8. Optimal design of marine steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengyang; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    The marine steam turbine is one of the key equipment in marine power plant, and it tends to using high power steam turbine, which makes the steam turbine to be heavier and larger, it causes difficulties to the design and arrangement of the steam turbine, and the marine maneuverability is seriously influenced. Therefore, it is necessary to apply optimization techniques to the design of the steam turbine in order to achieve the minimum weight or volume by means of finding the optimum combination of design parameters. The math model of the marine steam turbine design calculation was established. The sensitivities of condenser pressure, power ratio of HP turbine with LP turbine, and the ratio of diameter with height at the end stage of LP turbine, which influence the weight of the marine steam turbine, were analyzed. The optimal design of the marine steam turbine, aiming at the weight minimization while satisfying the structure and performance constraints, was carried out with the hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results show that, steam turbine weight is reduced by 3.13% with the optimization scheme. Finally, the optimization results were analyzed, and the steam turbine optimization design direction was indicated. (authors)

  9. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make?), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries)

  10. Influence of prolonged service of steam turbines on the properties of materials of rotor and vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anfimov, V.M.; Artamonov, V.V.; Chizhik, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of steam turbine elements of 25Kh1MF, 25Kh1M1FA (rotors), 15Kh1M1FL (vessel components) steels have been investigated both in initial state and after 200 000 h operation. The structure stability and phase composition of rotor steels providing conservation of heat resistance at a required level was established. Examination of vessel components showed a decrease in the yield strength by 15-20% and durability - by 10% as compared to initial ones. The conclusion on a possible prolongation of the steam turbine service life to 200 000 h is drawn. The nominal service life equals 100 000 h

  11. Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical (A-USC) Steam Turbines – A-USC Component Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Phillips, Jeffrey [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Hendrix, Howard [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Tanzosh, James [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The work by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE)/Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) Steam Boiler and Turbine Materials Consortia from 2001 through September 2015 was primarily focused on lab scale and pilot scale materials testing. This testing included air- or steam-cooled “loops” that were inserted into existing utility boilers to gain exposure of these materials to realistic conditions of high temperature and corrosion due to the constituents in the coal. Successful research and development resulted in metallic alloy materials and fabrication processes suited for power generation applications with metal temperatures up to approximately 1472°F (800°C). These materials or alloys have shown, in extensive laboratory tests and shop fabrication studies, to have excellent applicability for high-efficiency low CO2 transformational power generation technologies previously mentioned. However, as valuable as these material loops have been for obtaining information, their scale is significantly below that required to minimize the risk associated with a power company building a multi-billion dollar A-USC power plant. To decrease the identified risk barriers to full-scale implementation of these advanced materials, the U.S. DOE/OCDO A-USC Steam Boiler and Turbine Materials Consortia identified the key areas of the technology that need to be tested at a larger scale. Based upon the recommendations and outcome of a Consortia-sponsored workshop with the U.S.’s leading utilities, a Component Test (ComTest) Program for A-USC was proposed. The A-USC ComTest program would define materials performance requirements, plan for overall advanced system integration, design critical component tests, fabricate components for testing from advanced materials, and carry out the tests. The AUSC Component Test was premised on the program occurring at multiple facilities, with the operating temperatures, pressure and/or size of

  12. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the peculiarities of the design and operation of steam turbines, condensers and supplementary equipment of steam turbines for nuclear power plants; described are the processes of steam flow in humid-steam turbines, calculation and selection principles of main parameters of heat lines. Designs of the turbines installed at the Charkov turbine plant are described in detail as well as of those developed by leading foreign turbobuilding firms

  13. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averkina, N. V.; Zheleznyak, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Shishkin, V. I.

    2011-01-01

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  14. Evaluation of material integrity on electricity power steam generator cycles (turbine casing) component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histori; Benedicta; Farokhi; S A, Soedardjo; Triyadi, Ari; Natsir, M

    1999-01-01

    The evaluation of material integrity on power steam generator cycles component was done. The test was carried out on casing turbine which is made from Inconel 617. The tested material was taken from t anjung Priok plant . The evaluation was done by metallography analysis using microscope with magnification of 400. From the result, it is shown that the material grains are equiaxed

  15. Steam Turbine Control Valve Stiction Effect on Power System Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in power system dynamic stability is low frequency oscillations. This kind of oscillation has significant effects on the stability and security of the power system. In some previous papers, a fact was introduced that a steam pressure continuous fluctuation in turbine steam inlet pipeline may lead to a kind of low frequency oscillation of power systems. Generally, in a power generation plant, steam turbine system composes of some main components, i.e. a boiler or steam generator, stop valves, control valves and turbines that are connected by piping. In the conventional system, the turbine system is composed with a lot of stop and control valves. The steam is provided by a boiler or steam generator. In an abnormal case, the stop valve shuts of the steal flow to the turbine. The steam flow to the turbine is regulated by controlling the control valves. The control valves are provided to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine for starting, increasing or decreasing the power, and also maintaining speed control with the turbine governor system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherent static friction (stiction) nonlinearity characteristics. Industrial surveys indicated that about 20-30% of all control loops oscillate due to valve problem caused by this nonlinear characteristic. In this paper, steam turbine control valve stiction effect on power system oscillation is presented. To analyze the stiction characteristic effect, firstly a model of control valve and its stiction characteristic are derived by using Newton's laws. A complete tandem steam prime mover, including a speed governing system, a four-stage steam turbine, and a shaft with up to for masses is adopted to analyze the performance of the steam turbine. The governor system consists of some important parts, i.e. a proportional controller, speed relay, control valve with its stiction characteristic, and stem lift position of control valve controller. The steam turbine has

  16. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk,

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  17. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Saha, Deepak [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Thangirala, Mani [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Booras, George [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Powers, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Riley, Colin [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Hendrix, Howard [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  18. How to compute the power of a steam turbine with condensation, knowing the steam quality of saturated steam in the turbine discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Albarran, Manuel Jaime; Krever, Marcos Paulo Souza [Braskem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    To compute the power and the thermodynamic performance in a steam turbine with condensation, it is necessary to know the quality of the steam in the turbine discharge and, information of process variables that permit to identifying with high precision the enthalpy of saturated steam. This paper proposes to install an operational device that will expand the steam from high pressure point on the shell turbine to atmosphere, both points with measures of pressure and temperature. Arranging these values on the Mollier chart, it can be know the steam quality value and with this data one can compute the enthalpy value of saturated steam. With the support of this small instrument and using the ASME correlations to determine the equilibrium temperature and knowing the discharge pressure in the inlet of surface condenser, the absolute enthalpy of the steam discharge can be computed with high precision and used to determine the power and thermodynamic efficiency of the turbine. (author)

  19. Turbine steam path replacement at the Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weschenfelder, K.D.; Oeynhausen, H.; Bergmann, D.; Hosbein, P.; Termuehlen, H.

    1994-01-01

    In the last few years, replacement of old vintage steam turbine flow path components has been well established as a valid approach to improve thermal performance of aged turbines. In nuclear power plants, performance improvement is generally achieved only by design improvements since performance deterioration of old units is minor or nonexistent. With fossil units operating over decades loss in performance is an additional factor which can be taken into account. Such loss of performance can be caused by deposits, solid particle erosion, loss of shaft and inter-stage seal strips, etc. Improvement of performance is typically guaranteed as output increases for operation at full load. This value can be evaluated as a direct gain in unit capacity without fuel or steam supply increase. Since fuel intake does not change, the relative improvement of the net plant heat rate or efficiency is equal to the relative increase in output. The heat rate improvement is achieved not only at full load but for the entire load range. Such heat rate improvement not only moves a plant up on the load dispatch list increasing its capacity factor, but also extensive fuel savings can pay off for the investment cost of new steam path components. Another important factor is that quite often older turbine designs show a deterioration of their reliability and need costly repairs. With new flow path components an aged steam turbine starts a new useful life

  20. Gas--steam turbine combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this technology evaluation is to provide performance and cost characteristics of the combined gas and steam turbine, cycle system applied to an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). To date, most of the applications of combined cycles have been for electric power generation only. The basic gas--steam turbine combined cycle consists of: (1) a gas turbine-generator set, (2) a waste-heat recovery boiler in the gas turbine exhaust stream designed to produce steam, and (3) a steam turbine acting as a bottoming cycle. Because modification of the standard steam portion of the combined cycle would be necessary to recover waste heat at a useful temperature (> 212/sup 0/F), some sacrifice in the potential conversion efficiency is necessary at this temperature. The total energy efficiency ((electric power + recovered waste heat) divided by input fuel energy) varies from about 65 to 73% at full load to 34 to 49% at 20% rated electric power output. Two major factors that must be considered when installing a gas--steam turbine combines cycle are: the realiability of the gas turbine portion of the cycle, and the availability of liquid and gas fuels or the feasibility of hooking up with a coal gasification/liquefaction process.

  1. Steam turbines for PWR stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscroft, J.

    1989-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle requirements and mechanical design features applying to modern GEC 3000 rev/min steam turbines for pressurised water reactor power stations are reviewed. The most recent developments include machines of 630 MW and 985 MW output which are currently under construction. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet steam turbines associated with a variety of types of water cooled reactor and its relevance to the design of modern 3000 rev/min turbines for pressurised water reactor applications is emphasised. (author)

  2. Thermoelastic steam turbine rotor control based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzadkowski, Romuald; Dominiczak, Krzysztof; Radulski, Wojciech; Szczepanik, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considered here are Nonlinear Auto-Regressive neural networks with eXogenous inputs (NARX) as a mathematical model of a steam turbine rotor for controlling steam turbine stress on-line. In order to obtain neural networks that locate critical stress and temperature points in the steam turbine during transient states, an FE rotor model was built. This model was used to train the neural networks on the basis of steam turbine transient operating data. The training included nonlinearity related to steam turbine expansion, heat exchange and rotor material properties during transients. Simultaneous neural networks are algorithms which can be implemented on PLC controllers. This allows for the application neural networks to control steam turbine stress in industrial power plants.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected advanced gas turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Devendra; Bade, Mukund H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle. To analyse the thermodynamic performance of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycles, a methodology based on pinch analysis is proposed. This graphical methodology is a systematic approach proposed for a selection of gas turbine with steam injection. The developed graphs are useful for selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) for optimal operation of it and helps designer to take appropriate decision. The selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle can be done either at minimum steam ratio (ratio of mass flow rate of steam to air) with maximum efficiency or at maximum steam ratio with maximum net work conditions based on the objective of plants designer. Operating the steam injection based advanced gas turbine plant at minimum steam ratio improves efficiency, resulting in reduction of pollution caused by the emission of flue gases. On the other hand, operating plant at maximum steam ratio can result in maximum work output and hence higher available power.

  4. Service-cycle component-feature specimen TMF testing of steam turbine rotor steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radosavljevic, M.; Holdsworth, S.R. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Mazza, E. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland); Grossmann, P.; Ripamonti, L. [ALSTOM Power (Switzerland) Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the methodology adopted in a Swiss Research Collaboration to devise a component-feature representative specimen geometry and the TMF cycle parameters necessary to closely simulate arduous steam turbine operating duty. Implementation of these service-like experimental conditions provides a practical indication of the effectiveness of deformation and crack initiation endurance predictions. Comprehensive post test inspection provides evidence to demonstrate the physical realism of the laboratory simulations in terms of the creep-fatigue damage generated during the benchmark tests. Mechanical response results and physical damage observations are presented and their practical implications discussed for the example of a 2%CrMoNiWV rotor service cycle. (orig.)

  5. Critical review of use of high pressure saturated steam turbine economizers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, J.

    1981-01-01

    In the high-pressure part of the turbine drops of moisture condensate, which causes erosion and has negative impact on the service-life of the turbine and on its thermodynamic efficiency. Various designs have been put forward to eliminate moisture. A good combination is moisture separation combined with the offtake of steam for the regeneration of feed water or for the steam re-heater. As concerns the high-pressure component of the turbine it is best to offtake steam for the feed water heater and for heating the steam between the high- and low-pressure components of the turbine. The connections of the heater and re-heater in diagrams of various manufacturers are evaluated and compared. It appears to be uneconomical to use the heater in cases where feed water would be heated to temperature considerably below its optimal value. (M.D.)

  6. Nuclear turbine efficiency improvement by wet steam study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Morson, A.; Markytan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the turbine used at the nuclear power plant are operated at environment of wet steam, which composes of a big factor of its inner loss in comparison with those of the thermal power plant. If an analytical method predictable on behavior of the wet steam is established, it could be upgraded efficiency of the turbine and also reliability against corrosion formed by moisture. This study, therefore, aims at understanding of physical property of the wet steam flow scarcely known at present, development of an optimum turbine cascade design tool reflected by the property, development of a turbine cascade design reducible of steam loss due to wet steam by using the tool, and development on a method of removing moisture in the turbine to its outer portion. For the tool, a new three dimensional flow numerical analysis is necessary to be developed, to aim at accurately and numerically understanding of the behavior of wet steam. As this study is in advancing now, by using a turbine cascade optimized on the wet steam flow and a developed moisture removing apparatus, about 0.6 % of upgrading in turbine efficiency can be predicted in comparison with that of the advanced aero-cascade of the GE Corporation. (G.K.)

  7. Large steam turbines for nuclear power stations. Output growth prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riollet, G.; Widmer, M.; Tessier, J.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid growth of the output of nuclear reactors, even if temporary settlement occurs, leads the manufacturer to evaluate, at a given time, technological limitations encountered. The problems dealing with the main components of turbines: steam path, rotors and stators steam valves, controle devices, shafts and bearings, are reviewed [fr

  8. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastny, M.

    1983-01-01

    A three-cylinder 220 MW saturated steam turbine was developed for WWER reactors by the Skoda concern. Twenty four of these turbines are currently in operation, in production or have been ordered. A 1000 MW four-cylinder turbine is being developed. The disign of the turbines has had to overcome difficulties connected with the unfavourable effects of wet steam at extreme power values. Great attention had to be devoted to the aerodynamics of control valves and to the prevention of flow separation areas. The problem of corrosion-erosion in guide wheels and the high pressure section was resolved by the use of ferritic stainless steels. For the low pressure section it was necessary to separate the moisture and to reheat the steam in the separator-reheater. Difficulties caused by the generation of wet steam in the low pressure section by spontaneous condensation were removed. Also limited was the erosion caused by droplets resulting from the disintegration of water films on the trailing edges. (A.K.)

  9. 1000 MW steam turbine for Temelin nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1992-01-01

    Before the end 1991 the delivery was completed of the main parts (3 low-pressure sections and 1 high-pressure section, all of double-flow design) of the first full-speed (3000 r.p.m.) 1000 MW steam turbine for saturated admission steam for the Temelin nuclear power plant. Description of the turbine design and of new technologies and tools used in the manufacture are given. Basic technical parameters of the steam turbine are as follows: maximum output of steam generators 6060 th -1 ; maximum steam flow into turbine 5494.7 th -1 ; output of turbo-set 1024 MW; steam conditions before the turbine inlet: pressure 5.8 MPa, temperature 273.3 degC, steam wetness 0.5%; nominal temperature of cooling water 21 degC; temperature of feed water 220.8 degC; maximum consumption of heat from turbine for heating at 3-stage heating of heating water 60/150 degC. (Z.S.) 7 figs., 2 refs

  10. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  11. Steam turbine of WWER-1000 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The manufacture was started by Skoda of a saturated steam, 1,000 MW, 3,000 rpm turbine designed for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The turbine provides steam for heating water for district heating, this either with an output of 893 MW for a three-stage water heating at 150/60 degC, or of 570 MW for a two-stage water heating at 120/60 degC. The turbine features one high-pressure and three identical low-pressure stages. The pressure gradient between the high-pressure and the low-pressure parts was optimized with respect to the thermal efficiency of the cycle and to the thermodynamic efficiency of the low-pressure part. A value of 0.79 MPa was selected corresponding to the maximum through-flow of steam entering the turbine. This makes 5,495 t/h, the admission steam parameters are 273.3 degC and 5.8 MPa. The feed water temperature is 220.9 degC. 300 cold starts, 1,000 starts after shutdowns for 55 to 88 hours and 600 starts after shutdown for 8 hours are envisaged for the entire turbine service life. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  12. Development of High-Powered Steam Turbines by OAO NPO Central Research and Design Institute for Boilers and Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Kovalev, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the developments by OAO NPO TsKTI aimed at improvement of components and assemblies of new-generation turbine plants for ultra-supercritical steam parameters to be installed at the power-generating facilities in service. The list of the assemblies under development includes cylinder shells, the cylinder's flow paths and rotors, seals, bearings, and rotor cooling systems. The authors consider variants of the shafting-cylinder configurations for which advanced high-pressure and intermediate-pressure cylinders with reactive blading and low-pressure cylinders of conventional design and with counter-current steam flows are proposed and high-pressure rotors, which can increase the economic efficiency and reduce the overall turbine plant dimensions. Materials intended for the equipment components that operate at high temperatures and a steam cooling technique that allows the use of cheaper steel grades owing to the reduction in the metal's working temperature are proposed. A new promising material for the bearing surfaces is described that enables the operation at higher unit pressures. The material was tested on a full-scale test bench at OAO NPO TsKTI and a turbine in operation. Ways of controlling the erosion of the blades in the moisture-steam turbine compartments by the steam heating of the hollow guide blades are considered. To ensure the dynamic stability of the shafting, shroud and diaphragm seals that prevent the development of the destabilizing circulatory forces of the steam flow were devised and trialed. Advanced instrumentation and software are proposed to monitor the condition of the blading and thermal stresses under transient conditions, to diagnose the vibration processes, and to archive the obtained data. Attention is paid to the normalization of the electromagnetic state of the plant in order to prevent the electrolytic erosion of the plant components. The instrumentation intended for monitoring the relevant electric

  13. Genetic optimization of steam multi-turbines system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Optimization analysis of partially loaded cogeneration, multiple-stages steam turbines system was numerically investigated by using own-developed code (C++). The system can be controlled by following variables: fresh steam temperature, pressure, and flow rates through all stages in steam turbines. Five various strategies, four thermodynamics and one economical, which quantify system operation, were defined and discussed as an optimization functions. Mathematical model of steam turbines calculates steam properties according to the formulation proposed by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. Genetic algorithm GENOCOP was implemented as a solving engine for non–linear problem with handling constrains. Using formulated methodology, example solution for partially loaded system, composed of five steam turbines (30 input variables) with different characteristics, was obtained for five strategies. The genetic algorithm found multiple solutions (various input parameters sets) giving similar overall results. In real application it allows for appropriate scheduling of machine operation that would affect equable time load of every system compounds. Also based on these results three strategies where chosen as the most complex: the first thermodynamic law energy and exergy efficiency maximization and total equivalent energy minimization. These strategies can be successfully used in optimization of real cogeneration applications. - Highlights: • Genetic optimization model for a set of five various steam turbines was presented. • Four various thermodynamic optimization strategies were proposed and discussed. • Operational parameters (steam pressure, temperature, flow) influence was examined. • Genetic algorithm generated optimal solutions giving the best estimators values. • It has been found that similar energy effect can be obtained for various inputs

  14. Energetic and exergetic analysis of a steam turbine power plant in an existing phosphoric acid factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafdhi, Fathia; Khir, Tahar; Ben Yahyia, Ali; Ben Brahim, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The operating mode of the factory and the power supply streams are presented. • Energetic Analysis of steam turbine power plant of an existing phosphoric acid factory. • Exergetic Analysis of each component of steam turbine power plant and the different heat recovery system. • Energy, exergy efficiency and irreversibility rates for the main components are determined. • The effect of the operating parameters on the plant performance are analyzed. - Abstract: An energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory. The heat recovery systems used in the different parts of the plant are also considered in the study. Mass, energy and exergy balances are established on the main compounds of the plant. A numerical code is established using EES software to perform the calculations required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis considering real variation ranges of the main operating parameters such as pressure, temperature and mass flow rate. The effects of theses parameters on the system performances are investigated. The main sources of irreversibility are the melters, followed by the heat exchangers, the steam turbine generator and the pumps. The maximum energy efficiency is obtained for the blower followed by the heat exchangers, the deaerator and the steam turbine generator. The exergy efficiency obtained for the heat exchanger, the steam turbine generator, the deaerator and the blower are 88%, 74%, 72% and 66% respectively. The effects of High Pressure steam temperature and pressure on the steam turbine generator energy and exergy efficiencies are investigated.

  15. ORTURB, HTGR Steam Turbine Dynamic for FSV Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ORTURB was written specifically to calculate the dynamic behavior of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) steam turbines. The program is divided into three main parts: the driver subroutine; turbine subroutines to calculate the pressure-flow balance of the high-, intermediate-, and low-pressure turbines; and feedwater heater subroutines. 2 - Method of solution: The program uses a relationship derived for ideal gas flow in an iterative fashion that minimizes computational time to determine the pressure and flow in the FSV steam turbines as a function of plant transient operating conditions. An important computer modeling characteristic, unique to FSV, is that the high-pressure turbine exhaust steam is used to drive the reactor core coolant circulators prior to entering the reheater. A feedwater heater dynamic simulation model utilizing seven state variables for each of the five heaters is included in the ORTURB computer simulation of the regenerative Rankine cycle steam turbines. The seven temperature differential equations are solved at each time- step using a matrix exponential method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The turbine shaft is assumed to rotate at a constant (rated) speed of 3600 rpm. Energy and mass storage of steam in the high-, intermediate-, and low-pressure turbines is assumed to be negligible. These limitations exclude the use of ORTURB during a turbine transient such as startup from zero power or very low turbine flows

  16. Mechanical problems in turbomachines, steam and gas turbines. Large steam turbine manufacturing requirements to fulfill customer needs for electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazzini, R.

    1975-01-01

    The needs of the customers in large steam turbines for electric power are examined. The choices and decisions made by the utility about the equipments are dealt with after considering the evolution of power demand on the French network. These decisions and choices mainly result from a technical and economic optimization of production equipments: choice of field-proven solutions, trend to lower steam characteristics, trend to higher output of the units (i.e. size effect), spreading out standardization of machines and components (policy of technical as well as technological levels, i.e. mass production effect). Standardization of external characteristics of units of same level of output and even standardization of some main components. The requirements turbine manufacturers have to meet may fall in two categories: on one side: gaining experience and know-how, capability of making high quality experiments, out put capacity, will to hold a high efficiency level; on the other side: meeting the technical requirements related to the contracts. Among these requirements, one can differentiate those dealing with the service expected from the turbine and that resulting in the responsibility limits of the manufacturer and those tending to gain interchangeability, to improve availability of the equipment, to increase safety, and to make operation and maintenance easier [fr

  17. Specific features of steam turbine design at LMZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichugin, I.I.; Tsvetkov, A.M.; Simkin, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    General structural layouts of the condensation steam turbines produced by the Leningrad metalworks (LM) are considered. Currently LM produced 50 types and modifications of steam turbines with the capacity from 30 up to 1200 MW. Problems of turbine efficiency and ways of the flow section improvement are discussed

  18. Large nuclear steam turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushidani, Haruo; Moriya, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Kunio; Fujita, Isao; Ebata, Sakae; Nagai, Yoji.

    1986-01-01

    The technical development of the large capacity steam turbines for ABWR plants was partially completed, and that in progress is expected to be completed soon. In this report, the outline of those new technologies is described. As the technologies for increasing the capacity and heightening the efficiency, 52 in long blades and moisture separating heaters are explained. Besides, in the large bore butterfly valves developed for making the layout compact, the effect of thermal efficiency rise due to the reduction of pressure loss can be expected. As the new technology on the system side, the simplification of the turbine system and the effect of heightening the thermal efficiency by high pressure and low pressure drain pumping-up method based on the recent improvement of feed water quality are discussed. As for nuclear steam turbines, the actual records of performance of 1100 MW class, the largest output at present, have been obtained, and as a next large capacity machine, the development of a steam turbine of 1300 MWe class for an ABWR plant is in progress. It can be expected that by the introduction of those new technologies, the plants having high economical efficiency are realized. (Kako, I.)

  19. Study of steam, helium and supercritical CO2 turbine power generations in prototype fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro; Muto, Yasushi; Kato, Yasuyoshi; Nishio, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Nomoto, Yasunobu

    2008-01-01

    Power generation systems such as steam turbine cycle, helium turbine cycle and supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) turbine cycle are examined for the prototype nuclear fusion reactor. Their achievable cycle thermal efficiencies are revealed to be 40%, 34% and 42% levels for the heat source outlet coolant temperature of 480degC, respectively, if no other restriction is imposed. In the current technology, however, low temperature divertor heat source is included. In this actual case, the steam turbine system and the S-CO 2 turbine system were compared in the light of cycle efficiency and plant cost. The values of cycle efficiency were 37.7% and 36.4% for the steam cycle and S-CO 2 cycle, respectively. The construction cost was estimated by means of component volume. The volume became 16,590 m 3 and 7240 m 3 for the steam turbine system and S-CO 2 turbine system, respectively. In addition, separation of permeated tritium from the coolant is much easier in S-CO 2 than in H 2 O. Therefore, the S-CO 2 turbine system is recommended to the fusion reactor system than the steam turbine system. (author)

  20. Steam turbines of large output especially for nuclear power stations. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahny, J.; Stasny, M.

    1986-01-01

    At the international conference, 53 papers were presented in 3 sessions dealing with the design of large output steam turbines, with problems of flow in steam turbines, and with the reliability and service life of steam turbines. Part 1 of the conference proceedings contains two introductory papers, one reviewing the 100 years history of steam turbines (not included in INIS), the other giving an overview of the development of steam turbines in the eighties; and the 13 papers heard in the session on steam turbine design, all inputted in INIS. (A.K.)

  1. Risk-based and maintenance systems for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, K.; Nagai, S.; Akikuni, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Furuya, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takagi, K.; Kawabata, T.

    2003-01-01

    The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the form of unreliability functions of operation hours or start-up cycles through the cumulative hazard function method. The posterior unreliability is derived from the field data analysis according to the inspection information. Quick inspection can be conducted using air-cooled borescope and heat resistant ultrasonic sensors even if the turbine is not cooled down sufficiently. Another inspection information comes from degradation and damage measurement. The probabilistic life assessment using structural analysis and statistical material properties, the latter is estimated from hardness measurement, replica observation and embrittlement measurement. The risk function is calculated as the sum product of unreliability functions and expected monetary loss as the consequence of failure along event trees. The optimum maintenance plan is determined among simulated scenarios described through component breakdown trees, life cycle event trees and risk functions. Those methods are effective for total condition assessment and economical maintenance for operating plants. (orig.)

  2. Thermo-mechanical lifetime assessment of components for 700 °C steam turbine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, F.

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase thermal efficiency, steam turbine technology has been oriented to cover steam inlet temperatures above 700 °C and steam pressures exceeding 350 bar. These temperature levels require the use of nickel and cobalt based alloys. Nickel-based alloys were identified as being suitable for forgeable high-pressure steam turbine rotor materials, including welding procedures for joints between nickel-based alloys and alloyed ferritic steels. Expensive nickel-based alloys should be replaced with conventional heat-resistant steels in applications operating below ∼500-550°C. Since a welded rotor design is favoured, dissimilar metal weldments are required. The research work presented is aimed at the development of thermo-mechanical lifetime assessment methodologies for 700°C steam turbine components. The first main objective was the development of advanced creep-fatigue (CF) lifetime assessment methodologies for the evaluation of Alloy 617 steam turbine rotor features at maximum application temperatures. For the characterisation of the material behaviour under static loading conditions, creep rupture experiments for both medium temperatures and target application temperature have been conducted in order to investigate the influence of ageing treatment on Alloy 617. A creep deformation equation was developed on the basis of a modified Graham-Walles law. Continuous Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) experiments have been performed. A plasticity model of Chaboche type has been developed. Cyclic/hold experiments have been conducted on Alloy 617. A modification on the creep law was introduced for the description of the material’s decreased creep resistance under combined CF loading. A very promising approach considering plastic and creep-dissipated energy was developed. The effectiveness of this energy exhaustion method was verified with the calculation of endurance curves for continuous cycling LCF and cyclic/hold conditions over a broad range of temperatures, strain

  3. Thermo-mechanical lifetime assessment of components for 700 °C steam turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt, F.

    2014-07-01

    In order to increase thermal efficiency, steam turbine technology has been oriented to cover steam inlet temperatures above 700 °C and steam pressures exceeding 350 bar. These temperature levels require the use of nickel and cobalt based alloys. Nickel-based alloys were identified as being suitable for forgeable high-pressure steam turbine rotor materials, including welding procedures for joints between nickel-based alloys and alloyed ferritic steels. Expensive nickel-based alloys should be replaced with conventional heat-resistant steels in applications operating below ∼500-550°C. Since a welded rotor design is favoured, dissimilar metal weldments are required. The research work presented is aimed at the development of thermo-mechanical lifetime assessment methodologies for 700°C steam turbine components. The first main objective was the development of advanced creep-fatigue (CF) lifetime assessment methodologies for the evaluation of Alloy 617 steam turbine rotor features at maximum application temperatures. For the characterisation of the material behaviour under static loading conditions, creep rupture experiments for both medium temperatures and target application temperature have been conducted in order to investigate the influence of ageing treatment on Alloy 617. A creep deformation equation was developed on the basis of a modified Graham-Walles law. Continuous Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) experiments have been performed. A plasticity model of Chaboche type has been developed. Cyclic/hold experiments have been conducted on Alloy 617. A modification on the creep law was introduced for the description of the material’s decreased creep resistance under combined CF loading. A very promising approach considering plastic and creep-dissipated energy was developed. The effectiveness of this energy exhaustion method was verified with the calculation of endurance curves for continuous cycling LCF and cyclic/hold conditions over a broad range of temperatures, strain

  4. Flow characteristics in nuclear steam turbine blade passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, H.J.; Yoon, W.H.; Kwon, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid expansion of condensable gas such as moist air or steam gives rise to nonequilibrium condensation. As a result of irreversibility of condensation process in the nuclear steam turbine blade passage, the entropy of the flow increases, and the efficiency of the turbine decreases. In the present study, in order to investigate the flow characteristics of moist air in two-dimensional turbine blade passage which is made from the configuration of the last stage tip section of the actual nuclear steam turbine moving blade, the static pressures along both pressure and suction sides of blade are measured by static pressure taps and the distribution of Mach number on both sides of the blade are obtained by using the measured static pressure. Also, the flow field is visualized by a Schlieren system. From the experimental results, the effects of the stagnation temperature and specific humidity on the flow properties in the two dimensional steam turbine blade passage are clearly identified

  5. The fracture mechanics of steam turbine electron beam welded rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Increased steam turbine unit ratings presupposes that steelmakers are capable of manufacturing larger and larger rotor components. However, there are few steelmakers in the world capable of manufacturing monobloc rotors for high rated turbines, which limits the choice of supplier. Most nuclear turbine rotors have a composite arrangement and are made either by shrinking discs on a shaft or using elements welded together. Those in favour of welding have applied a classical socalled ''submerged'' method using a filler metal. However welding can also be performed by using an Electron Beam in a vacuum room without a filler metal. This technique has many advantages: mechanical characteristics of the joint are identical to those of the base material after tempering without heat affected zones. Moreover, parts are only very slightly deformed during welding. Two steam turbine rotors have been produced in this way. This paper described the destructive tests carried out in the four Electron Beam (EB) welds (two on each rotor)

  6. Performance Modelling of Steam Turbine Performance using Fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance Modelling of Steam Turbine Performance using Fuzzy Logic ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... A Fuzzy Inference System for predicting the performance of steam turbine

  7. Development of 52 inches last stage blade for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shinichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last stage blades of steam turbines are the important component controlling the power output and performance of plants. In order to realize a unit of large capacity and high efficiency, the proper exhaust area and the last stage blades having good performance are indispensable. Toshiba Corp. has completed the development of the 52 inch last stage blades for 1500 and 1800 rpm steam turbines. The 52 inch last stage blades are the longest in the world, which have the annular exhaust area nearly 1.5 times as much as that of 41 inch blades used for 1100 MW, 1500 rpm turbines in nuclear power stations. By adopting these 52 inch blades, the large capacity nuclear power plants up to 1800 MW can be economically constructed, the rate of heat consumption of 1350 MW plants is improved by 3 ∼ 4 % as compared with 41 inch blades, and in the plants up to 1100 MW, LP turbines can be reduced from three sets to two. The features of 52 inch blades, the flow pattern and blade form design, the structural strength analysis and the erosion withstanding property, and the verification by the rotation test of the actual blades, the performance test using a test turbine, the vibration analysis of the actually loaded blades and the analysis of wet steam behavior are reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Optimized Application of MSR and Steam Turbine Retrofits in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, Robert; McCoach, John [ALSTOM Power, Willans Works, Newbold Road, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 2NH (United Kingdom); Gagelin, Jean-Philippe [ALSTOM Power Heat Exchange, 19-21 avenue Morane-Saulnier, BP 65, 78143 Velizy Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    The benefit to a nuclear power plant from a steam turbine retrofit has often been clearly demonstrated in recent years but, for light water nuclear plants, the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) are also of prime importance. This paper describes how refurbishment of these crucial components can only provide full potential performance benefit when made in conjunction with a steam turbine retrofit (although in practice these activities are frequently separated). Examples are given to show how combined application is best handled within a single organization to ensure optimized integration into the thermal cycle. (authors)

  9. Optimized Application of MSR and Steam Turbine Retrofits in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, Robert; McCoach, John; Gagelin, Jean-Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The benefit to a nuclear power plant from a steam turbine retrofit has often been clearly demonstrated in recent years but, for light water nuclear plants, the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) are also of prime importance. This paper describes how refurbishment of these crucial components can only provide full potential performance benefit when made in conjunction with a steam turbine retrofit (although in practice these activities are frequently separated). Examples are given to show how combined application is best handled within a single organization to ensure optimized integration into the thermal cycle. (authors)

  10. Steam turbine chemistry in light water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, Robert; Haertel, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Steam turbines in boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants of various manufacturers have been affected by corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Steam chemistry has not been a prime focus for related research because the water in nuclear steam generating systems is considered to be of high purity. Steam turbine chemistry however addresses more the problems encountered in fossil fired power plants on all volatile treatment, where corrosive environments can be formed in zones where wet steam is re-evaporated and dries out, or in the phase transition zone, where superheated steam starts to condense in the low-pressure (LP) turbine. In BWR plants the situation is aggravated by the fact that no alkalizing agents are used in the cycle, thus making any anionic impurity immediately acidic. This is illustrated by case studies of pitting corrosion of a 12 % Cr steel gland seal and of flow-oriented corrosion attack on LP turbine blades in the phase transition zone. In PWR plants, volatile alkalizing agents are used that provide some buffering of acidic impurities, but they also produce anionic decomposition products. (orig.)

  11. The condition monitoring system of turbine system components for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shigetoshi

    2013-01-01

    The thermal and nuclear power plants have been imposed a stable supply of electricity. To certainly achieve this, we built the plant condition monitoring system based on the heat and mass balance calculation. If there are some performance changes on the turbine system components of their power plants, the heat and mass balance of the turbine system will change. This system has ability to detect the abnormal signs of their components by finding the changes of the heat and mass balance. Moreover we note that this system is built for steam turbine cycle operating with saturated steam conditions. (author)

  12. The 52-inch last-stage blades for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last-stage blades (LSB) of steam turbines are one of the most important components determining the plant's maximum capacity and efficiency. The development of LSBs necessitates high-technology including advanced methods of analyses and verifications as well as ample accumulation of technical data. The 52-inch LSB recently developed by Toshiba has raised nuclear power plant's capacity up to 1,300 ∼ 1,800 MW, has effected compact design of turbine units, and has improved thermal efficiency, keeping high reliability. (author)

  13. 1000 MW steam turbine for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1987-01-01

    Skoda Works started the manufacture of the 1000 MW steam turbine for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The turbine will use saturated steam at 3,000 r.p.m. It will allow steam supply to heat water for district heating, this of an output of 893 MW for a three-stage water heating at a temperature of 150/60 degC or of 570 MW for a two-stage heating at a temperature of 120/60 degC. The turbine features one high-pressure and three identical low-pressure stages. The pressure gradient between the high-pressure and the low-pressure parts was optimized as concerns the thermal efficiency of the cycle and the thermodynamic efficiency of the low-pressure part. A value of 0.79 MPa was selected corresponding to the maximum flow rate of the steam entering the turbine. This is 5,495 t/h, the admission steam parameters are 273.3 degC and 5.8 MPa. The feed water temperature is 220.9 degC. It is expected that throughout the life of the turbine, there will be 300 cold starts, 1,000 starts following shutdown for 55 to 88 hours, and 600 starts following shutdown for 8 hours. (Z.M.). 8 figs., 1 ref

  14. Determination of material behavior in 700 C turbine components under component and load specific conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueckemeyer, N.; Kirchner, H.; Kern, T.U. [Siemens AG, Muehlheim (Germany). Energy Sector; Reigl, M. [Alstom Power, Baden (Switzerland); Klenk, A.; Klein, T. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA; Schwienheer, M.; Cui, L.; Scholz, A.; Berger, C. [Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde (IfW), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    With global warming being one of mankind's greatest challenges, an increasing demand for electricity world-wide, and studies showing that fossil resources like coal and gas will remain a major source for electricity for the next couple of decades, research into the development of highest efficiency fossil power plants has become a top priority. Calculations for coal fired power plants have shown that CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by as much as 7% compared to the current state of the art equipment. It can be reached by increasing the live steam parameters to 700 C and 350bar. To achieve the desired operating hours at this temperature the application of nickel base materials is necessary for the main components such as rotors, inner casings and valves. Nowadays, the use of Nickel base alloys is common practice for selected gas turbine components. However, with steam turbine rotors being 1000mm in diameter and casings with wall thicknesses higher than 100mm the gas turbine application range and experience for nickel base alloys are well exceeded. This paper uses a basic design for a steam turbine to illustrate the core challenges in developing nickel based steam turbine components, such as casting, forging, nondestructive testing and welding. Suitable nickel based alloys have been investigated in research projects over the past years. The research results are summarized and an explanation is given as to why Alloy617 was selected for forged components and Alloy625 for cast components. This paper then focuses on the material behavior under long term and complex loading conditions and on the development of life time concepts for thick walled components made from these alloys. Due to the differences in the material behavior of nickel base alloys, the existing steel design philosophies cannot be completely adopted but rather must be carefully evaluated and modified where necessary. To do this, large test components were manufactured. Based on both standard tests

  15. Processing of Advanced Alloys for A-USC Steam Turbine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, P. D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Hawk, Jeffrey A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Cowen, Christopher J. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The high-temperature components within conventional supercritical coal-fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. To reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased to as high a temperature and pressure as feasible. The proposed steam temperature in the DOE/NETL Advanced Ultra Supercritical power plant is high enough (760 C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work for the majority of high-temperature components in the turbine or for pipes and tubes in the boiler due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Thus, Ni-based superalloys are being considered for many of these components. Off-the-shelf forged nickel alloys have shown good promise at these temperatures, but further improvements can be made through experimentation within the nominal chemistry range as well as through thermomechanical processing and subsequent heat treatment. However, cast nickel-based superalloys, which possess high strength, creep resistance, and weldability, are typically not available, particularly those with good ductility and toughness that are weldable in thick sections. To address those issues related to thick casting for turbine casings, for example, cast analogs of selected wrought nickel-based superalloys such as alloy 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105 have been produced. Alloy design criteria, melt processing experiences, and heat treatment are discussed with respect to the as-processed and heat-treated microstructures and selected mechanical properties. The discussion concludes with the prospects for full-scale development of a thick section casting for a steam turbine valve chest or rotor casing.

  16. Wet steam turbines for nuclear generating stations -design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.

    1977-01-01

    Lecture to the Institution of Nuclear Engineers, 11 Jan. 1977. The object of this lecture was to give an account of some design features of large wet steam turbines and to show by describing some recent operational experience how their design concepts were fulfilled. Headings are as follows: effects of wet steam cycle on turbine layout and operation (H.P. turbine, L.P. turbine); turbine control and operation; water separators; and steam reheaters. (U.K.)

  17. Recent technology for nuclear steam turbine-generator units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shin-ichi; Kuwashima, Hidesumi; Ueno, Takeshi; Ooi, Masao

    1988-01-01

    As the next nuclear power plants subsequent to the present 1,100 MWe plants, the technical development of ABWRs was completed, and the plan for constructing the actual plants is advanced. As for the steam turbine and generator facilities of 1,350 MWe output applied to these plants, the TC6F-52 type steam turbines using 52 in long blades, moisture separation heaters, butterfly type intermediate valves, feed heater drain pumping-up system and other new technologies for increasing the capacity and improving the thermal efficiency were adopted. In this paper, the outline of the main technologies of those and the state of examination when those are applied to the actual plants are described. As to the technical fields of the steam turbine system for ABWRs, the improvement of the total technologies of the plants was promoted, aiming at the good economical efficiency, reliability and thermal efficiency of the whole facilities, not only the main turbines. The basic specification of the steam turbine facilities for 50 Hz ABWR plants and the main new technologies applied to the turbines are shown. The development of 52 in long last stage blades, the development of the analysis program for the coupled vibration of the large rotor system, the development of moisture separation heaters, the turbine control system, condensate and feed water system, and the generators are described. (Kako, I.)

  18. Future development of large steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevance, A.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to forecast the future of the large steam turbines till 1985. Three parameters affect the development of large turbines: 1) unit output; and a 2000 to 2500MW output may be scheduled; 2) steam quality: and two steam qualities may be considered: medium pressure saturated or slightly overheated steam (light water, heavy water); light enthalpie drop, high pressure steam, high temperature; high enthalpic drop; and 3) the quality of cooling supply. The largest range to be considered might be: open system cooling for sea-sites; humid tower cooling and dry tower cooling. Bi-fluid cooling cycles should be also mentioned. From the study of these influencing factors, it appears that the constructor, for an output of about 2500MW should have at his disposal the followings: two construction technologies for inlet parts and for high and intermediate pressure parts corresponding to both steam qualities; exhaust sections suitable for the different qualities of cooling supply. The two construction technologies with the two steam qualities already exist and involve no major developments. But, the exhaust section sets the question of rotational speed [fr

  19. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today's high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors

  20. Methods of increasing thermal efficiency of steam and gas turbine plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasserman, A. A.; Shutenko, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    Three new methods of increasing efficiency of turbine power plants are described. Increasing average temperature of heat supply in steam turbine plant by mixing steam after overheaters with products of combustion of natural gas in the oxygen. Development of this idea consists in maintaining steam temperature on the major part of expansion in the turbine at level, close to initial temperature. Increasing efficiency of gas turbine plant by way of regenerative heating of the air by gas after its expansion in high pressure turbine and before expansion in the low pressure turbine. Due to this temperature of air, entering combustion chamber, is increased and average temperature of heat supply is consequently increased. At the same time average temperature of heat removal is decreased. Increasing efficiency of combined cycle power plant by avoiding of heat transfer from gas to wet steam and transferring heat from gas to water and superheated steam only. Steam will be generated by multi stage throttling of the water from supercritical pressure and temperature close to critical, to the pressure slightly higher than condensation pressure. Throttling of the water and separation of the wet steam on saturated water and steam does not require complicated technical devices.

  1. Risk-based inspection and maintenance systems for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, Kazunari; Nagai, Satoshi; Akikuni, Yasunari; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Furuya, Kenichiro; Matsumoto, Shigeru; Takagi, Kentaro; Kawabata, Taro

    2004-01-01

    The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the form of unreliability functions of operation hours or start-up cycles through the cumulative hazard function method. The posterior unreliability is derived from the field data analysis according to the inspection information. Quick inspection can be conducted using air-cooled borescope and heat resistant ultrasonic sensors even if the turbine is not cooled down sufficiently. Another inspection information comes from degradation and damage measurement. The probabilistic life assessment using structural analysis and statistical material properties, the latter is estimated from hardness measurement, replica observation and embrittlement measurement. The risk function is calculated as the sum product of unreliability functions and expected monetary loss as the consequence of failure along event trees. The optimum maintenance plan is determined among simulated scenarios described through component breakdown trees, life cycle event trees and risk functions. Those methods are effective for total condition assessment and economical maintenance for operating plants

  2. A detection of the coarse water droplets in steam turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoš Ondřej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel method for the detection of coarse water droplets in a low pressure part of steam turbines. The photogrammetry method has been applied for the measurement of coarse droplets in the low-pressure part of a steam turbine. A new probe based on this measurement technique was developed and tested in the laboratory and in a steam turbine in the Počerady power-plant. The probe was equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. The paper contains results from laboratory tests and the first preliminary measurements in a steam turbine. Possible applications of this method have been examined.

  3. Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

  4. A condenser for very high power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardey, Robert.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a condenser for very high power steam turbines under the masonry-block supporting the low-pressure stages of the turbine, that condenser comprises two horizontal aligned water-tube bundles passing through the steam-exhaust sleeves of the low-pressure stages, on both sides of a common inlet water box. The invention can be applied in particular to the 1000-2000 MW turbines of light water nuclear power stations [fr

  5. Steam temperature variation behind a turbine steam separator-superheater during NPP start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejzerovich, A.Sh.; Melamed, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    To determine necessary parameters of the steam temperature automatic regulator behind the steam separator-rheater supe (SSS) of an NPP turbine the static and dynamic characteristics of the temperature change behind the SSS were studied experimentally. The measurements were carried out at the K-220-44 turbine of the Kolskaja NPP in the case of both varying turbine loads and the flow rate of the heating vapor. Disturbances caused by the opening of the regulating valve at the inlet of the heating vapor are investigated as well. It is found that due to a relatively high inertiality of the SSS a rather simple structure of the start-up steam temperature regulators behind the SSS in composition with automatated driving systems of the turbine start-up without regard for the change of the dynamic characteristics can be used

  6. Time program using in automatization of steam turbines start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejzerovich, A.Sh.; Melamed, A.D.

    Examples and arguments for developing time programs of changing basic parameters of automated start-up of TPP and NPP high-power steam turbines are considered. Basic parameters subject to controlled changing at automatization of turbine start-up are rotation frequency, loading and temperature of steam supplied to the turbine. Principle facility schemes of program regulation of steam temperature at the start-up are presented. The facility scheme of loading the NPP wet steam turbine is given. The principles of developing time programs, of changing basic parameters of automated start-up enable realizing transient processes close to theoretically optimum processes at arbitrary prestart-up state of the turbine by means of rather simple autatic facilities. In particular, for automated temperature increase of steam supplied to the turbine of TES power units and AES turbine loading, it is advisable to use programs in the form of linear dependence of velocity of changing the controlled parameter on the given value, the initial level, from which the parameter increase with a regulated velocity is realized, is given in the form of analogue dependence on the turbine prestart-up state. The programs described and the schemes of their realization have been approved at the automatization of 300 MW power unit starts up with the K-300-240 turbine and K-220-44 turbine as well as used when creating control system for turbines of 500 MW and higher for designed TPP and NPP power units

  7. Main trends of upgrading the 1000 MW steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1990-01-01

    Parameters are compared for the 1000 MW steam turbine manufactured by the Skoda Works, Czechoslovakia, and turbines in the same power range by other manufacturers, viz. ABB, Siemens/KWU, GEC and LMZ. The Skoda turbine compares well with the other turbines with respect to all design parameters, and moreover, enables the most extensive heat extraction for district heating purposes. The main trends in upgrading this turbine are outlined; in particular, they include an additional increase in the heat extraction, which is made possible by a new design of the low-pressure section or by using a ''satellite'' turbine. The studies performed also indicate that the output of the full-speed saturated steam turbine can be increased to 1300 MW. An experimental turbine representing one flow of the high-pressure part of the 1000 MW turbine is being built on the 1:1 scale. It will serve to verify the methods of calculation of the wet steam flow and to experimentally test the high-pressure part over a wide span of the parameters. (Z.M.). 1 tab., 3 figs., 7 refs

  8. Liquid-phase problems in steam turbine LP stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc-Feraud, P.

    1978-01-01

    Wet steam formation owing to incipient condensation in final steam turbine pressure stages results in a loss of efficiency and possible rotor blading erosion. The effects of erosion are now clearly understood and quite easily counteracted, but loss of thermodynamics, mechanical and aerodynamic efficiency is still a problem. Only the final LP stages of conventional power station plant operate with wet steam, whereas nuclear plant turbines use it to produce most of their total output [fr

  9. Thermal expansion measurement of turbine and main steam piping by using strain gages in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sang Soo; Chung, Jae Won; Bong, Suk Kun; Jun, Dong Ki; Kim, Yun Suk

    2000-01-01

    One of the domestic co-generation plants have undergone excessive vibration problems of turbine attributed to external force for years. The root cause of turbine vibration may be shaft alignment problem which sometimes is changed by thermal expansion and external force, even if turbine technicians perfectly performed it. To evaluate the alignment condition from plant start-up to full load, a strain measurement of turbine and main steam piping subjected to thermal loading is monitored by using strain gages. The strain gages are bonded on both bearing housing adjusting bolts and pipe stoppers which installed in the x-direction of left-side main steam piping near the turbine inlet in order to monitor closely the effect of turbine under thermal deformation of turbine casing and main steam piping during plant full load. Also in situ load of constant support hangers in main steam piping system is measured by strain gages and its results are used to rebalance the hanger rod load. Consequently, the experimental stress analysis by using strain gages turns out to be very useful tool to diagnose the trouble and failures of not only to stationary components but to rotating machinery in power plants

  10. Steam turbine generators for Sizewell 'B' nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, J.A.; Muscroft, J.

    1990-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle of the modern 3000 r/min steam turbine as applied at Sizewell 'B' is presented. Review is made of the factors affecting thermal efficiency including the special nature of the wet steam cycle and the use of moisture separation and steam reheating. Consideration is given to the optimization of the machine and cycle parameters, including particular attention to reheating and to the provision of feedheating, in order to achieve a high overall level of performance. A modular design approach has made available a family of machines suitable for the output range 600-1300 MW. The constructional features of the 630 MW Sizewell 'B' turbine generators from this range are described in detail. The importance of service experience with wet steam turbines and its influence on the design of modern turbines for pressurized water reactor (PWR) applications is discussed. (author)

  11. Technical diagnostics of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlckova, B.; Drahy, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with practical experience in application of technical diagnostics methods to steam turbines, in particular using pedestal and shaft vibration measurements as well as estimation of bearing metal temperature and ultrasound emission signals. An estimation of effectiveness of the diagnostics methods used is given on the basis of experimental investigations made on a 30-MW turbine. (author)

  12. Why extraction lines and heaters in the turbine-condenser steam space should be lagged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, J.M.; Haynes, C.J.

    1998-07-01

    Deregulated utilities face conditions today that necessitate their nuclear and fossil steam plants have the best possible heat rates. The low pressure turbine exhaust and condenser areas are known to be particularly sensitive to betterment. One relatively modest but cost effective heat rate improvement and one whose function and design is often misunderstood is the insulation of the extraction lines and heaters that are located within the turbine-condenser steam space. This paper discusses the dynamic environment of that turbine exhaust region and quantifies the application and benefit of stainless steel lagging to the extraction lines and heater shells within. The paper first focuses on the high energy, non-uniform steam flows of the turbine exhaust and how that impacts the heat losses, mechanical design and support of any components located inside that space. It then examines and quantifies the varieties of heat transfer from the heaters and extraction lines to the passing lower temperature, moist, high velocity turbine exhaust steam as it travels to the condenser. A new relationship is developed that defines the predominantly evaporative heat transfer mechanism on the exterior surfaces in contact with the exhaust steam. For a typical 630 MW fossil plant with three heater of different temperature levels in the steam space as exemplified by the US Generation fossil fired Brayton Point 3, the paper determined the additional condenser heat load and extra extraction steam. The paper lastly concluded that in this case, lagging the larger diameter lines of the lowest pressure heater and the heater itself is likely not cost-effective.

  13. Design of large steam turbines for PWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.; Muscroft, J.

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle requirements for use with pressurized water reactors are reviewed and the manner in which thermal efficiency is maximised is outlined. The special nature of the wet steam cycle associated with turbines for this type of reactor is discussed. Machine and cycle parameters are optimised to achieve high thermal efficiency, particular attention being given to arrangements for water separation and steam reheating and to provisions for feedwater heating. Principles and details of mechanical design are considered for a range of both full-speed turbines running at 3000 rpm on 50 Hz systems and half-speed turbines running at 1800 rpm on 60 Hz systems. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet steam turbines and its relevance to the design of modern turbines for pressurized water reactor applications is discussed. (author)

  14. Wet steam turbines for CANDU-Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmacott, C.H.L.

    1977-01-01

    The technical characteristics of 4 wet steam turbine aggregates used in the Pickering nuclear power station are reported on along with operational experience. So far, the general experience was positive. Furthermore, plans are mentioned to use this type of turbines in other CANDU reactors. (UA) [de

  15. Processing of Advanced Cast Alloys for A-USC Steam Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffery A.; Cowen, Christopher J.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2012-02-01

    The high-temperature components within conventional supercritical coal-fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. To reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased to as high a temperature and pressure as feasible. The proposed steam temperature in the DOE/NETL Advanced Ultra Supercritical power plant is high enough (760°C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work for the majority of high-temperature components in the turbine or for pipes and tubes in the boiler due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Thus, Ni-based superalloys are being considered for many of these components. Off-the-shelf forged nickel alloys have shown good promise at these temperatures, but further improvements can be made through experimentation within the nominal chemistry range as well as through thermomechanical processing and subsequent heat treatment. However, cast nickel-based superalloys, which possess high strength, creep resistance, and weldability, are typically not available, particularly those with good ductility and toughness that are weldable in thick sections. To address those issues related to thick casting for turbine casings, for example, cast analogs of selected wrought nickel-based superalloys such as alloy 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105 have been produced. Alloy design criteria, melt processing experiences, and heat treatment are discussed with respect to the as-processed and heat-treated microstructures and selected mechanical properties. The discussion concludes with the prospects for full-scale development of a thick section casting for a steam turbine valve chest or rotor casing.

  16. Steam turbines of large output. Vol. 1, 2, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings contain 52 papers of which 14 have been inputted in INIS. They concern the development of high output turbines for power plants, the designing and testing of moisture separators, aerodynamics and vibrations of revolving parts of turbines, turbines suitable for heat extraction, the calculations and testing of steam flow characteristics, the mathematical model of thermodynamic cycles in wet steam, reliability, corrosion, and the questions of economics. (M.D.)

  17. Methods for calculating the speed-up characteristics of steam-water turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovach, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The methods of approximate and specified calculations of speed- up characteristics of steam-water turbines are considered. The specified non-linear method takes into account change of thermal efficiency, heat drop and losses in the turbine as well as vacuum break-up the condenser. Speed-up characteristics of the K-1000-60-1500 turbine are presented. The calculational results obtained by the non-linear method are compared with the calculations conducted by the approximate linearized method. Differences in the frequency speed up of the turbine rotor rotation calculated by the two methods constitute only 0.5-2.0%. That is why it is necessary to take into account in the specified calculations first of all the most important factors following the rotor speed- up in the following consequence: valve shift of the high pressure cylinder (HPC); steam volume in front of the HPC; shift of the valves behind the separator-steam superheater (SSS); steam volumes and moisture boiling in the SSS; steam consumption for regenerating heating of feed water, steam volumes at the intermediate elements of the turbine, losses in the turbine, heat drop and thermal efficiency [ru

  18. Repairing methods of steam turbine blades using welding procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Z.; Cristalinas, V.; Kubiak, J.

    1995-01-01

    The steam turbine blades are subjected to the natural permanent wear or damage, which may be of mechanical or metallurgical origin. The typical damage occurring during the lifetime of turbine blading may be erosion, corrosion, foreign objects damage, rubbing and cracking caused by high cycle fatigue and creep crack growth. The nozzle and diaphragm vanes (stationary blades) of the steam turbine are elements whose damage is commonly occurring and they require special repair processes. The damage of the blade trailing edge of nozzle and diaphragm vanes, due to the former causes, may be refurbished by welding deposits or stainless steel inserts welded to the blades. Both repair methods of the stationary steam turbine blades are presented. The results of the blades refurbishment are an increase of the turbine availability, reliability and efficiency, and a decrease of the risk that failure will occur. Also, the repair cost versus the spare blades cost represent significant reduction of expenditure. 7 refs

  19. Corrosion cracking of rotor steels of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melekhov, R.K.; Litvintseva, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    Results of investigation of stress corrosion cracking of steam turbine materials in nuclear, fossil and geothermal power plants have been analysed. The role of factors that cause damage to rotor discs, mono block and welding rotors of steam turbines has been shown. These are yield stress and steel composition, stress intensity coefficient and crack growth rate, composition and temperature of the condensed steam and water, electrochemical conditions. The conclusion has been made about the state of stress corrosion cracking of the rotors materials, and main investigation trends which are necessary to solve this problem have been listed

  20. Study on the behavior of moisture droplets in low pressure steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Y.; Kuramoto, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Etsu, M.

    1978-01-01

    Low pressure stages of fossil turbines and almost all stages of nuclear and geothermal turbines operate on wet steam. Turbine operating on wet steam have the following two disadvantages: decrease of efficiency and erosion of blades. Decrease of efficiency results from an increase in profile loss caused by water films on the blade surface; loss of steam energy in breaking up the films and accelerating moisture droplets; undercooling and condensation shocks associated with it; velocity difference between water and steam phases and consequent decelerating action of moisture droplets in the rotating blades, etc. Impingement of moisture droplets on the rotating blades also causes quick erosion of the blades. In this paper, the behavior of moisture droplets in wet steam flow is described and the correlation between their behavior and the abovementioned two disadvantages of turbines operating on wet steam is clarified. (author)

  1. Super titanium blades for advanced steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    In 1986, the Alsthom Steam Turbines Department launched the manufacture of large titanium alloy blades: airfoil length of 1360 mm and overall length of 1520 mm. These blades are designed for the last-stage low pressure blading of advanced steam turbines operating at full speed (3000 rpm) and rating between 300 and 800 MW. Using titanium alloys for steam turbine exhaust stages as substitutes for chrome steels, due to their high strength/density ratio and their almost complete resistance to corrosion, makes it possible to increase the length of blades significantly and correspondingly that steam passage section (by up to 50%) with a still conservative stresses level in the rotor. Alsthom relies on 8 years of experience in the field of titanium, since as early as 1979 large titanium blades (airfoil length of 1240 mm, overall length of 1430 mm) were erected for experimental purposes on the last stage of a 900 MW unit of the Dampierre-sur-Loire power plant and now totals 45,000 operating hours without problems. The paper summarizes the main properties (chemical, mechanical and structural) recorded on very large blades and is based in particular on numerous fatigue corrosion test results to justify the use of the Ti 6 Al 4 V alloy in a specific context of micrographic structure

  2. Steam feeding redundancy for turbine-drives of feed pumps at WWER-1000 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, Yu.V.; Shmukler, B.I.

    1987-01-01

    The system of steam supply for feed pump driving turbines (T) at the South Ukrainian Unit 1 according to the centralized redundancy principle is described. T is feeded through the collector of water auxiliary sytem (CWAS) to which steam from the third steam extraction line of turbine is supplied under thenormal regime. Under the reduction of turbine load, live steam from the steam generator is supplied to CWAS through the pressure regulator, possesing 10 s speed of responce. In this case the level reduction in the steam generator makes up 170 mm

  3. The taking into consideration of reliability in the design of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazzini, Robert; Chaboseau, J.; Mathey, J.

    1976-01-01

    Improvement of the quality of steam turbines is the object of continuous effort undertaken a long time ago. The turbines used in nuclear power stations, do not constitute a technical novation as compared to those which equip the 'conventional' type of power station. The specific conditions of the nuclear have nevertheless revealed anxieties which were not so acute in the case of conventional applications (intrinsic safety versus runaway risks, the operating surveillance of safety components, protection against corrosion by wet steam) and which reliability studies have been led to take into account. An example is given of the work carried out in this sense by describing the reliability studies devoted to the protection system of turbogenerator sets against overspeeds [fr

  4. Research on simulation of supercritical steam turbine system in large thermal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongyang

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the stability and safety of supercritical steam turbine system operation in large thermal power station, the body of the steam turbine is modeled in this paper. And in accordance with the hierarchical modeling idea, the steam turbine body model, condensing system model, deaeration system model and regenerative system model are combined to build a simulation model of steam turbine system according to the connection relationship of each subsystem of steam turbine. Finally, the correctness of the model is verified by design and operation data of the 600MW supercritical unit. The results show that the maximum simulation error of the model is 2.15%, which meets the requirements of the engineering. This research provides a platform for the research on the variable operating conditions of the turbine system, and lays a foundation for the construction of the whole plant model of the thermal power plant.

  5. ORCENT-2, Full Load Steam Turbine Cycle Thermodynamics for LWR Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ORCENT-2 performs heat and mass balance calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam, characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. The program handles both condensing and back-pressure turbine exhaust arrangements. Turbine performance calculations are based on the General Electric Company method for 1800-rpm large steam turbine- generators operating with light-water-cooled nuclear reactors. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. 2 - Method of solution: The turbine performance calculations follow the procedures outlined in General Electric report GET-6020. ORCENT-2 utilizes the 1967 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) formulations and procedures for calculating the properties of steam, adapted for ORNL use by D.W. Altom. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 12 feed-water heaters, 5 moisture removal stages in the low-pressure turbine section. ORCENT-2 is limited to 1800-rpm tandem-compound turbine-generators with single- or double-flow high pressure sections and one, two, or three double-flow low-pressure turbine sections. Steam supply for LWR cycles should be between 900 and 1100 psia and slightly wet to 100 degrees F of initial superheat. Generator rating should be greater than 100 MVA

  6. Method for extending the unrestricted operating range of condensing steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaba, G.; Bannerth, Cs.

    2009-01-01

    The allowed condenser temperature of the condensing steam turbines is determined by the design parameters of the steam turbine (casing geometry, exhaust area, blade length, blade angle, blade profile etc.). The fluctuations of condenser temperature may lead to reduced power output of the condensing steam turbine. Solutions where the low pressure turbine casings have the same exhaust area can be kept in operation at narrow condenser temperature range without restrictions. Exceeding the mentioned temperature range the exhaust hood temperature restriction, undergoing the temperature range choking point restriction appears causing increased operation cost. The aim of the paper is to present a condensing steam turbine - direct-contact condenser system that can extend the unrestricted operating range. The examined system consists of more parallelly connected low pressure turbine casings so-called diabolo that having at least two exhausts separated at the steam side. The exhausts, utilizing varying input-temperature coolant, are connected to the condensers that are separated at the steam side and serially connected at the coolant side. The casings have the same inlet areas while the exhausts have different areas resulting different volume flows and temperature operating range. The economic advantage of this solution approaches the savings between the serially connected direct-contact condensers and condensers in parallel of a dry cooling system. It can be proven by a simple calculation using the ambient air temperature duration diagram that is presented in the paper. (author)

  7. Method for operating a steam turbine of the nuclear type with electronic reheat control of a cycle steam reheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    An electronic system is provided for operating a nuclear electric power plant with electronic steam reheating control applied to the nuclear turbine system in response to low pressure turbine temperatures, and the control is adapted to operate in a plurality of different automatic control modes to control reheating steam flow and other steam conditions. Each of the modes of control permit turbine temperature variations within predetermined constraints and according to predetermined functions of time. (Official Gazette)

  8. Saturated steam turbines for power reactors of WWER-type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czwiertnia, K.

    1978-01-01

    The publication deals with design problems of large turbines for saturated steam and with problem of output limitations of single shaft normal speed units. The possibility of unification of conventional and nuclear turbines, which creates the economic basis for production of both types of turbines by one manufacturer based on standarized elements and assemblies is underlined. As separate problems the distribution of nuclear district heating power systems are considered. The choice of heat diagram for district heating saturated steam turbines, the advantages of different diagrams and evaluaton for further development are presented. On this basis a program of unified turbines both condensing and district heating type suitable for Soviet reactors of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 type for planned development of nuclear power in Poland is proposed. (author)

  9. Design of large steam turbines for PWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors review the thermodynamic cycle requirements for use with pressurized-water reactors, outline the way thermal efficiency is maximized, and discuss the special nature of the wet-steam cycle associated with turbines for this type of reactor. Machine and cycle parameters are optimized to achieve high thermal efficiency, particular attention being given to arrangements for water separation and steam reheating and to provisions for feedwater heating. Principles and details of mechanical design are considered for a range both of full-speed turbines running at 3000 rev/min on 50 Hz systems and of half-speed turbines running at 1800 rev/min on 60 Hz systems. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet-stream turbines, and its relevance to the design of modern turbines for PWR applications, is discussed. (author)

  10. Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit No.1 at the implementation and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yuhua; Xiao Bo; He Liu; Huang Min

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.l purpose, range of experience, experiment preparation, implementation, feedback and response. Turn of nuclear steam turbo-generator set flush, using the main reactor coolant pump and regulator of the heat generated by the electric heating element and the total heat capacity in secondary circuit of reactor coolant system (steam generator secondary side) of saturated steam turbine rushed to 1500 RPM, Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.1 implementation of the performance of the inspection of steam turbine and its auxiliary system, through the test problems found in the clean up in time, the nuclear steam sweep turn smooth realization has accumulated experience. At the same time, Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.1 at turn is half speed steam turbine generator non-nuclear turn at the first, with its smooth realization of other nuclear power steam turbine generator set in the field of non-nuclear turn play a reference role. (authors)

  11. Operating results of 220 MW SKODA saturated steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the steam turbines produced by the SKODA Works, the 220 MW steam turbine for saturated admission steam of a speed of 3000 r.p.m. is described; it is used in nuclear power plants with 400 MW PWR type reactors. 16 units of 8 turbines each have been in operation in the Jaslovske Bohunice and Dukovany power plants with the total period of operation of all machines exceeding 750,000 hours. The 220 MW steam turbine consists of a two-flow high-pressure section and of two identical two-flow low-pressure sections. The pressure of saturated steam at the inlet of the high-pressure section is 4.32 MPa (the corresponding temperature of the saturation limit being 255 degC) and during the expansion in the high-pressure section it drops to 0.6 MPa; steam moisture reaches 12%. In a separator and two-stage reheater using blend steam, the steam is freed of the moisture and is reheated to a temperature of 217 degC. Some operational problems are discussed, as are the loss of the material of the stator parts of the high-pressure section due to corrosion-erosion wear and corrosion-erosion wear of the guide wheels of the high-pressure section, and measures are presented carried out for the reduction of the corrosion-erosion effects of wet steam. One of the serious problems were the fatigue fractures of the blades of the 4th high-pressure stage, which appeared after 20 000 to 24 000 hours of operation in the dented tee-root. The guide wheels of the 4th stage were substituted by new guide wheels with uniform pitch of the channels and with increased number of guide blades. Also discussed are the dynamic behavior of the low-pressure section of the bridge structure, the operating reliability and the heat off-take for water heating of long-distance heating systems. (Z.S.) 9 figs

  12. Analysis of flow instability in steam turbine control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluviose, M.

    1981-01-01

    With the sponsorship of Electricite de France and the French steam turbine manufacturers, the Gas Turbine Laboratory of CETIM has started a research about the unsteady phenomena of flow in control valves of steam turbines. The existence of unsteady embossment in the valve cone at rise has been as certained, and a conventional computing procedure has been applied to locate the shock waves in the valve. These shock waves may suddenly arise at some valve lifts and give way to fluttering. Valve geometries attenuating instability of flow and increasing therefore the reliability of such equipment are proposed [fr

  13. Check of condition of steam generators, volume compensators and turbine condensers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J.; Holy, F.; Sobotka, J.

    1989-01-01

    A negative pressure leak detector is described designed for leak testing of tubes in steam generators and steam turbine condensers. The principle, operation and use are described of inflatable bags and an inflatable platform. The bags are designed for insulating and sealing spaces in nuclear reactor components while the inflatable platform is used in pressurizer inspections and repairs. Their properties, and other facilities for detecting leaks in steam generator tubes are briefly described. (M.D.). 3 figs

  14. Dual turbine power plant and method of operating such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    A power plant including dual steam turbine-generators connected to pass superheat and reheat steam from a steam generator which derives heat from the coolant gas of a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor is described. Associated with each turbine is a bypass line to conduct superheat steam in parallel with a high pressure turbine portion, and a bypass line to conduct superheat steam in parallel with a lower pressure turbine portion. Auxiliary steam turbines pass a portion of the steam flow to the reheater of the steam generator and drive gas blowers which circulate the coolant gas through the reactor and the steam source. Apparatus and method are disclosed for loading or unloading a turbine-generator while the other produces a steady power output. During such loading or unloading, the steam flows through the turbine portions are coordinated with the steam flows through the bypass lines for protection of the steam generator, and the pressure of reheated steam is regulated for improved performance of the gas blowers. 33 claims, 5 figures

  15. Control device for steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Hiroyuki.

    1993-01-01

    A power load imbalance detection circuit detects a power load imbalance when a load variation coefficient is large and output-load deviation is great. Then, it self-holds and causes a timer to start counting up and releases the self-holding after the elapse of a certain period of time. Upon load separation caused by system accidents, the power load imbalance detection circuit operates along with the increase of turbine rpm, to operate the control valve abrupt closing circuit and a bypassing value abrupt opening circuit. Then, self-holding of the power load imbalance detection circuit is released and, subsequently, a steam control value and a bypass valve are controlled by a control valve flow rate demand signal and a bypass flow rate demand signal determined by an entire main steam flow rate signal and a speed/load control signal. Accordingly, the turbine rpm is settled to about a rated rpm. This enables to avoid reactor shutdown upon occurrence of load interruption. (I.N.)

  16. Thermal performance test for steam turbine of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Yubing; Xu Zongfu; Wang Shiyong

    2014-01-01

    Through study of steam turbine thermal performance test of CPR1000 nuclear power plant, we solve the enthalpy calculation problems of the steam turbine in wet steam zone using heat balance method which can help to figure out the real overall heat balance diagram for the first time, and we develop a useful software for thermal heat balance calculation. Ling'ao phase II as an example, this paper includes test instrument layout, system isolation, risk control, data acquisition, wetness measurement, heat balance calculation, etc. (authors)

  17. Studies and solutions of steam turbines for nuclear heating power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibilities of combined generation of heat and electric power and special features of the corresponding equipment for WWER type reactors are considered. Condensing steam turbines with bled steam points and the constructional solution of bled points are presented for heating the network water to 110 0 C, 120 0 C, and 160 0 C, respectively. The dimensions of the low pressure final stage of the turbine are given. Problems concerning condensing and bleeding turbines and combination types of back-pressure and condensing turbines as well as solutions to the design of 250 MW and 500 MW turbines are discussed

  18. Dual turbine power plant and a reheat steam bypass flow control system for use therein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power plant having dual turbine-generators connected to a steam source that includes a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is described. Each turbine comprises a high pressure portion operated by superheat steam and an intermediate-low pressure portion operated by reheat steam; a bypass line is connected across each turbine portion to permit a desired minimum flow of steam from the source at times when the combined flow of steam through the turbine is less than the minimum. Coolant gas is propelled through the reactor by a circulator which is driven by an auxiliary turbine which uses steam exhausted from the high pressure portions and their bypass lines. The pressure of the reheat steam is controlled by a single proportional-plus-integral controller which governs the steam flow through the bypass lines associated with the intermediate-low pressure portions. At times when the controller is not in use its output signal is limited to a value that permits an unbiased response when pressure control is resumed, as in event of a turbine trip. 25 claims, 2 figures

  19. Concept of turbines for ultrasupercritical, supercritical, and subcritical steam conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Pichugin, I. I.; Kovalev, I. A.; Bozhko, V. V.; Vladimirskii, O. A.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article describes the design features of condensing turbines for ultrasupercritical initial steam conditions (USSC) and large-capacity cogeneration turbines for super- and subcritical steam conditions having increased steam extractions for district heating purposes. For improving the efficiency and reliability indicators of USSC turbines, it is proposed to use forced cooling of the head high-temperature thermally stressed parts of the high- and intermediate-pressure rotors, reaction-type blades of the high-pressure cylinder (HPC) and at least the first stages of the intermediate-pressure cylinder (IPC), the double-wall HPC casing with narrow flanges of its horizontal joints, a rigid HPC rotor, an extended system of regenerative steam extractions without using extractions from the HPC flow path, and the low-pressure cylinder's inner casing moving in accordance with the IPC thermal expansions. For cogeneration turbines, it is proposed to shift the upper district heating extraction (or its significant part) to the feedwater pump turbine, which will make it possible to improve the turbine plant efficiency and arrange both district heating extractions in the IPC. In addition, in the case of using a disengaging coupling or precision conical bolts in the coupling, this solution will make it possible to disconnect the LPC in shifting the turbine to operate in the cogeneration mode. The article points out the need to intensify turbine development efforts with the use of modern methods for improving their efficiency and reliability involving, in particular, the use of relatively short 3D blades, last stages fitted with longer rotor blades, evaporation techniques for removing moisture in the last-stage diaphragm, and LPC rotor blades with radial grooves on their leading edges.

  20. Postfact phenomena of the wet-steam flow electrization in turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarelin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Physical processes occurring in a turbine with natural electrization of a humidity-steam flow and their effect on efficiency and reliability of the turbine operation has been considered. Causes of the electrical potential occurrence on a rotor shaft are analyzed. The wet steam's electrization exposure on the electrical potential that is one of the major factors of bearings' electroerosion has been demonstrated on the full-scale installation. Hydrogen formation in wheelspace of the turbine as a result of electrochemical processes and electric field exposure of the space charge has been considered. Hydrogen concentration dependence on a volume charge density in the steam flow has been determined. It is stated that the processes occurring behind the final stage of wet-steam turbines are similar to the ones in elaerosol ectrostatic generators. It has been demonstrated that this phenomenon causes the flow's temporal inhibition and starts pulsations. These factors' impact on power loss of the turbine has been evaluated and recommendations for their elimination have been offered. It has been determined that motions of charged drops can cause self-maintained discharges inside of the flow and between the flow and grounded surfaces that are accompanied by electromagnetic radiation of the wide spectrum. The integrated studies have shown that physical phenomena occurring due to natural electrization negatively affect efficiency and reliability of the turbine operation. Practical recommendations allowing one to minimize the negative effects of the flow natural electrization process have been offered.

  1. Steam Turbine Flow Path Seals (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuimin, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Various types of shroud, diaphragm, and end seals preventing idle leak of working steam are installed in the flow paths of steam turbine cylinders for improving their efficiency. Widely known labyrinth seals are most extensively used in the Russian turbine construction industry. The category of labyrinth seals also includes seals with honeycomb inserts. The developers of seals with honeycomb inserts state that the use of such seals makes it possible to achieve certain gain due to smaller leaks of working fluid and more reliable operation of the system under the conditions in which the rotor rotating parts may rub against the stator elements. However, a positive effect can only be achieved if the optimal design parameters of the honeycomb structure are fulfilled with due regard to the specific features of its manufacturing technology and provided that this structure is applied in a goal-seeking manner in the seals of steam and gas turbines and compressors without degrading their vibration stability. Calculated and preliminary assessments made by experts testify that the replacement of conventional labyrinth seals by seals with honeycomb inserts alone, due to which the radial gaps in the shroud seal can be decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 mm, allows the turbine cylinder efficiency to be increased at the initial stage by approximately 1% with the corresponding gain in the turbine set power output. The use of rectangular-cellular seals may result, according to estimates made by their developers, in a further improvement of turbine efficiency by 0.5-1.0%. The labor input required to fabricate such seals is six to eight times smaller than that to fabricate labyrinth seals with honeycomb inserts. Recent years have seen the turbine construction companies of the United States and Germany advertising the use of abradable (sealing) coatings (borrowed from the gas turbine construction technology) in the turbine designs instead of labyrinth seals. The most efficient performance of

  2. Calculations of the nozzle coefficient of discharge of wet steam turbine stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinling, Z.; Yinian, C.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the coefficient of discharge of wet steam turbine nozzles. The theoretical formulation of the problem is rigorously in accordance with the theory of two-phase wet steam expansion flow through steam turbine nozzles. The computational values are plotted as sets of curves in accordance with orthogonality test principles. They agree satisfactorily both with historical empirical data and the most recent experimental data obtained in the wet steam two-phase flow laboratory of Xian Jiaotong University. (author)

  3. Two different modelling methods of the saturated steam turbine load rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negreanu, Gabriel-Paul; Oprea, Ion

    1999-01-01

    One of the most difficult operation regimes of a steam turbine is the load rejection. It happens usually when the main switchgear of the unit closes unexpectedly due to some external or internal causes. In this moment, the rotor balance collapses: the motor momentum is positive, the resistant momentum is zero and the rotation velocity increases rapidly. When this process occurs, the over-speed protection should activate the emergency stop valves and the control and intercept valves in order to stop the steam admission into the turbine. The paper presents two differential approaches of the fluid dynamic processes from the flow sections of the saturated steam turbine of the NPP, where the laws of mass and energy conservation are applied. In this manner, the 'power and speed versus time' diagrams can be drawn. The main parameters of such technical problem are the closure low of the valves, the large volume of internal cavities, the huge inertial momentum of the rotor and especially the moisture of the steam that evaporates when the pressure decreases and generates an extra power in the turbine. (authors)

  4. Development of 52 inch last stage blade for steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoya, Yoshiki; Harada, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Eiichiro

    1985-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed the last stage blades with 1320 mm length for a 1800 rpm LP turbine, and the verification by rotating vibration test using actual blades was finished, thus the blades were completed. In a nuclear power plant with an A-PWR of 3800 MW thermal output, the 1350 MW steam turbine has one HP turbine and three LP turbines coupled in tandem, and the optimum last stage blades for the LP turbines became the 1320 mm blades. The completion of these blades largely contributes to the improvement of thermal efficiency and the increase of generator output in large nuclear power plants, and has the possibility to decrease three LP turbines to two in 900 MW plants, which reduces the construction cost. The velocity energy of steam coming out of last stage blades is abandoned as exhaust loss in a condenser, which is the largest loss in a turbine. The increase of exhaust area using long blades reduces this loss. The economy of the 1320 mm blades, the features of the 1320 mm blades, the aerodynamic design and its verification, the prevention of the erosion of the 1320 mm blades due to wet steam, the strength design, the anti-vibration design and its verification, and the CAD/CAM system are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. Endoscopic inspection of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliniemi, H.; Muukka, E.

    1990-01-01

    For over ten years, Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed, complementary inspection methods for steam turbine condition monitoring, which can be applied both during operation and shutdown. One important method used periodically during outages is endoscopic inspection. The inspection is based on the method where the internal parts of the turbine is inspected through access borings with endoscope and where the magnified figures of the internal parts is seen on video screen. To improve inspection assurance, an image-processing based pattern recognition method for cracks has been developed for the endoscopic inspection of turbine blades. It is based on the deduction conditions derived from the crack shape. The computer gives an alarm of a crack detection and prints a simulated image of the crack, which is then checked manually

  6. Investigation of brush seals for application in steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Brush seals have high potential for efficiency increase compared to conventional labyrinth seals in steam turbines. Due to less experience in operation today there is a lot of scepticism with customers of steam turbine manufacturers. Therefore this thesis is investigating characteristics of this type of seal. Experiments and numerical models will be presented, which lead to better knowledge about leakages and influence of flow through seal onto dynamics of rotor in comparison to labyrinth seals. This thesis is increasing area of experience and one more positive reference.

  7. Boresonic inspection of steam turbine and generator spindles with the Tomoscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, N.; Bertholotti, D.; Yates, D.

    1990-01-01

    Steam turbine rotors in power utility plants can generate cracks and ultimately fail after long period of use. The inspection of rotors is done on a regular basis and particular attention is paid to areas near bore holes. An automated ultrasound system has been developed to control and ensure the quality of rotor bore holes of steam turbine rotors

  8. Dynamic computer simulation of the Fort St. Vrain steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is described for the dynamic response of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear reactor regenerative intermediate- and low-pressure steam turbines. The fundamental computer-modeling assumptions for the turbines and feedwater heaters are developed. A turbine heat balance specifying steam and feedwater conditions at a given generator load and the volumes of the feedwater heaters are all that are necessary as descriptive input parameters. Actual plant data for a generator load reduction from 100 to 50% power (which occurred as part of a plant transient on November 9, 1981) are compared with computer-generated predictions, with reasonably good agreement

  9. Recent technology for BWR nuclear steam turbine unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shin-ichi; Masuda, Toyohiko; Kashiwabara, Katsuto; Oshima, Yoshikuni

    1990-01-01

    As to the ABWR plants which is the third improvement standard boiling water reactor type plants, already the construction of a plant of 1356 MWe class for 50 Hz is planned. Hitachi Ltd. has accumulated the technology for the home manufacture of a whole ABWR plant including a turbine. As the results, the application of a butterfly type combination intermediate valve to No.5 plant in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., which began the commercial operation recently and later plants, the application of a moisture separating heater to No.4 plant in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., which is manufactured at present and later plants and so on were carried out. As to the steam turbine facilities for nuclear power generation manufactured by Hitachi Ltd., three turbines of 1100 MWe class for 50 Hz and one turbine for 60 Hz are in operation. As the new technologies for the steam turbines, the development of 52 in long last stage blades, the new design techniques for the rotor system, the moisture separating heater, the butterfly type combination intermediate valve, cross-around pipes and condensate and feedwater system are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Gas turbines had been traditionally used for peak load plants and remote locations as they offer advantage of low installation costs and quick start up time. Their use as a base load generator had not been feasible owing to their poor efficiency. However, with the advent of gas turbines based combined cycle plants (CCPs), continued advances in efficiency are being made. Coupled with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions, coal compatibility and higher unit output, gas turbines are now competing with conventional power plants for base load power generation. Currently, the turbines are designed with TIT of 2300{degrees}F and metal temperatures are maintained around 1700{degrees}F by using air cooling. New higher efficiency ATS turbines will have TIT as high as 2700{degrees}F. To withstand this high temperature improved materials, coatings, and advances in cooling system and design are warranted. Development of advanced materials with better capabilities specifically for land base applications are time consuming and may not be available by ATS time frame or may prove costly for the first generation ATS gas turbines. Therefore improvement in the cooling system of hot components, which can take place in a relatively shorter time frame, is important. One way to improve cooling efficiency is to use better cooling agent. Steam as an alternate cooling agent offers attractive advantages because of its higher specific heat (almost twice that of air) and lower viscosity.

  11. Multi-layer casing of a steam turbine for high steam pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remberg, A.

    1978-01-01

    In previous turbine casings there is no sealing provided between the inner layer and the outer layer, so that the steam pressure acts fully on the casing top and on the shaft seal housing situated there. To reduce the displacement which occurs there due to pressure differences in the various steam spaces, the normal inner casing is made with the shaft sealing housing in an inner layer, which cannot be divided in the axial direction. The inner layer can be inserted from the high pressure side into the unit outer casing. A horizontal section through the turbine in the attached drawing makes the construction and operation of the invention clear. (GL) [de

  12. Improved algorithm based on equivalent enthalpy drop method of pressurized water reactor nuclear steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hu; Qi Guangcai; Li Shaohua; Li Changjian

    2011-01-01

    Because it is difficulty to accurately determine the extraction steam turbine enthalpy and the exhaust enthalpy, the calculated result from the conventional equivalent enthalpy drop method of PWR nuclear steam turbine is not accurate. This paper presents the improved algorithm on the equivalent enthalpy drop method of PWR nuclear steam turbine to solve this problem and takes the secondary circuit thermal system calculation of 1000 MW PWR as an example. The results show that, comparing with the design value, the error of actual thermal efficiency of the steam turbine cycle obtained by the improved algorithm is within the allowable range. Since the improved method is based on the isentropic expansion process, the extraction steam turbine enthalpy and the exhaust enthalpy can be determined accurately, which is more reasonable and accurate compared to the traditional equivalent enthalpy drop method. (authors)

  13. PORST: a computer code to analyze the performance of retrofitted steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Hwang, I.T.

    1980-09-01

    The computer code PORST was developed to analyze the performance of a retrofitted steam turbine that is converted from a single generating to a cogenerating unit for purposes of district heating. Two retrofit schemes are considered: one converts a condensing turbine to a backpressure unit; the other allows the crossover extraction of steam between turbine cylinders. The code can analyze the performance of a turbine operating at: (1) valve-wide-open condition before retrofit, (2) partial load before retrofit, (3) valve-wide-open after retrofit, and (4) partial load after retrofit.

  14. Imitative modeling automatic system Control of steam pressure in the main steam collector with the influence on the main Servomotor steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriushin, A. V.; Zverkov, V. P.; Kuzishchin, V. F.; Ryzhkov, O. S.; Sabanin, V. R.

    2017-11-01

    The research and setting results of steam pressure in the main steam collector “Do itself” automatic control system (ACS) with high-speed feedback on steam pressure in the turbine regulating stage are presented. The ACS setup is performed on the simulation model of the controlled object developed for this purpose with load-dependent static and dynamic characteristics and a non-linear control algorithm with pulse control of the turbine main servomotor. A method for tuning nonlinear ACS with a numerical algorithm for multiparametric optimization and a procedure for separate dynamic adjustment of control devices in a two-loop ACS are proposed and implemented. It is shown that the nonlinear ACS adjusted with the proposed method with the regulators constant parameters ensures reliable and high-quality operation without the occurrence of oscillations in the transient processes the operating range of the turbine loads.

  15. The Effect of Condensing Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Body Geometry on Exhaust Performance Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribin, V. G.; Paramonov, A. N.; Mitrokhova, O. M.

    2018-06-01

    The article presents data from combined numerical and experimental investigations of the effect that the overall dimensions of the exhaust hood of a steam turbine with an underslung condenser has on the aerodynamic losses in the hood. Owing to the properly selected minimum permissible overall dimensions of the exhaust hood, more efficient operation of this turbine component is achieved, better vibration stability of the turbine set shaft line is obtained, and lower costs are required for arranging the steam turbine plant in the turbine building. Experiments have shown that the main overall dimensions of the hood body have a determining effect on the exhaust hood flow path profile and on its aerodynamic performance. Owing to properly selected ratios between the exhaust hood body main sizes without a diffuser, a total loss coefficient equal to approximately unity has been obtained. By using an axial-radial diffuser, the energy loss can be decreased by 30-40% depending on the geometrical parameters and level of velocities in the inlet section of a hood having the optimal overall dimensions. By using the obtained results, it becomes possible to evaluate the overall dimensions necessary for achieving the maximal aerodynamic hood efficiency and, as a consequence, to obtain better technical and economic indicators of the turbine plant as a whole already at the initial stage of its designing. If a need arises to select overall dimensions smaller than their optimal values, the increase of energy loss can be estimated using the presented dependences. The cycle of investigations was carried out on the experimental setups available in the fundamental research laboratory of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National University's Department of Steam and Gas Turbines with due regard to the operating parameters and similarity criteria.

  16. Microfabricated rankine cycle steam turbine for power generation and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, Luc (Inventor); Muller, Norbert (Inventor); Lee, Changgu (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, an integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip has been provided. The integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip of the present invention comprises a miniature electric power generation system fabricated using silicon microfabrication technology and lithographic patterning. The present invention converts heat to electricity by implementing a thermodynamic power cycle on a chip. The steam turbine power plant on-a-chip generally comprises a turbine, a pump, an electric generator, an evaporator, and a condenser. The turbine is formed by a rotatable, disk-shaped rotor having a plurality of rotor blades disposed thereon and a plurality of stator blades. The plurality of stator blades are interdigitated with the plurality of rotor blades to form the turbine. The generator is driven by the turbine and converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  17. Efficiency calculation on 10 MW experimental steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoznedl Michal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with defining flow path efficiency of an experimental steam turbine by using measurement of flow, torque, pressures and temperatures. The configuration of the steam turbine flow path is briefly described. Measuring points and devices are defined. The paper indicates the advantages as well as disadvantages of flow path efficiency measurement using enthalpy and torque on the shaft. The efficiency evaluation by the help pressure and temperature measurement is influenced by flow parameter distribution and can provide different values of flow path efficiency. The efficiency determination by using of torque and mass flow measurement is more accurate and it is recommended for using. The disadvantage is relatively very complicated and expensive measuring system.

  18. Unsteady coupling effects of wet steam in steam turbines flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    In addition to conventional turbomachinery problems, both the behavior and performances of steam turbines are highly dependent on the vapour thermodynamic state and the presence of a liquid phase. EDF, the main French electricity producer, is interested in further developing its' modelling capabilities and expertise in this area to allow for operational studies and long-term planning. This PhD thesis explores the modelling of wetness formation and growth in a steam turbine and an analysis of the coupling between the liquid phase and the main flow unsteadiness. To this end, the work in this thesis took the following approach. Wetness was accounted for using a homogeneous model coupled with transport equations to take into account the effects of non-equilibrium phenomena, such as the growth of the liquid phase and nucleation. The real gas attributes of the problem demanded adapted numerical methods. Before their implementation in the 3D elsA solver, the accuracy of the chosen models was tested using a developed one-dimensional nozzle code. In this manner, various condensation models were considered, including both poly-dispersed and monodispersed behaviours of the steam. Finally, unsteady coupling effects were observed from several perspectives (1D, 1D - 3D, 3D), demonstrating the ability of the method of moments to sustain unsteady phenomena which were not apparent in a simple monodispersed model. (author)

  19. Development of 1800 rpm, 43in. blade for large steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Michio; Yamazaki, Yoshiaki; Namura, Kiyoshi; Taki, Takamitsu; Ninomiya, Satoshi.

    1978-01-01

    In the turbines for nuclear power generation, the inlet conditions of steam is low pressure and low temperature as compared with the turbines for thermal power generation, therefore generally the required steam flow rate is much more. It is the main problem to cope with this steam of large flow rate effectively with long final stage blades and to make a turbine compact. This newly developed blade aims at the turbines from 1100 to 1300 MW class for nuclear power generation and those of 1000 MW class for thermal power generation, and it is the first low revolution, long blade in Japan used for large capacity machines of 60 Hz. Hereinafter, the outline of various examinations carried out at the time of the tests on this blade and the features of this blade are described. There is large margin in the exhaust area with this blade, therefore the turbines with large power output and good performance can be produced. The loss of exhaust energy at turbine exit can be reduced, and thermal efficiency can be raised. Large capacity machines from 1100 to 1300 MW class can be manufactured with six-flow exhaust, tandem compound turbines. In order to confirm the reliability, the vibration characteristics of the blade were investigated in the test of this time, and also the overspeed test and endurance test were carried out. (Kako, I.)

  20. Steam as turbine blade coolant: Experimental data generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsen, B.; Engeda, A.; Lloyd, J.R. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Steam as a coolant is a possible option to cool blades in high temperature gas turbines. However, to quantify steam as a coolant, there exists practically no experimental data. This work deals with an attempt to generate such data and with the design of an experimental setup used for the purpose. Initially, in order to guide the direction of experiments, a preliminary theoretical and empirical prediction of the expected experimental data is performed and is presented here. This initial analysis also compares the coolant properties of steam and air.

  1. Elimination of feedwater heaters in steam turbines: Prospects for substantial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzoni, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper re-proposes the theory that thermal regeneration (RT) in steam turbine plants decreases thermodynamic efficiency. This theory is supported by the criterion of maximization of variation of exergy in the steam generator (CMVEG) and by an mathematical argumentation based on the first law of thermodynamics. Consequences of great importance are deduced: plant operating costs reductions and a new possibility for cogeneration, that indicates exceptional advantages for the whole power industry, since steam turbine plants are responsible for the greater part of global electric power production

  2. Multi-objective PID Optimization for Speed Control of an Isolated Steam Turbine using Gentic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kr. Singh; D. Boolchandani; S.G. Modani; Nitish Katal

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on multi-objective optimization of the PID controllers for optimal speed control for an isolated steam turbine. In complex operations, optimal tuning plays an imperative role in maintaining the product quality and process safety. This study focuses on the comparison of the optimal PID tuning using Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) against normal genetic algorithm and Ziegler Nichols methods for the speed control of an isolated steam turbine. Isolated steam turbine...

  3. Optimization of Design of Steam Turbine Exhaust Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Goldin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving effectiveness turbine was and remains a key issue for today. In order to improve the efficiency of the turbine is necessary to reduce losses in the steam turbine exhaust conduit.This paper presents the design optimization exhaust conduit steam turbine K-27-2.9 produced by JSC «KTW» at the design stage. The aims of optimizing the design were: decreasing hydraulic resistance of the conduit, reduction of non-uniformity of the flow at the outlet of the conduit, equalizing steam flow ahead of the condenser tube bundle.The conduit models were made and flows in it were simulated in environment of the Solid Works and its application COSMOS Flo Works.As the initial conduit model was selected exhaust conduit of turbine PT-25/34-3.4 produced by JSC «KTW». Was obtained by the calculated velocity field at the outlet of the conduit. The analysis of the calculation results revealed the necessity of changes to the initial design of the conduit. The changes were accompanied by calculating currents flow in the conduit, and assessed the impact of design changes on the nature of the course. Further transformation of the construction of the conduit was held on the results of these calculations. Construction changes are not touched by the outer geometry of the conduit, and were introduced to meet technological.According to calculation results, conclusions were drawn and selected three versions of the conduit.Given are the research results for the initial conduit model and modified design versions. In order to evaluate the flow degree of irregularity the momentum factor (Bussinesku factor for outlet crosssection of the selected conduit design version. Analysis of the research results made it possible to determine optimum design of the exhaust conduit.Introducing the suggested alterations in the conduit design will result in improvement of heat exchange in the condenser, an increase in reliability of the tube bundle operation, a decrease in noise and

  4. STYLE, Steam Cycle Heat Balance for Turbine Blade Design in Marine Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, J.B.; Dines, W.R.

    1970-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The programme carries out iterative steam cycle heat balance calculations for a wide variety of steam cycles including single reheat, live steam reheat and multistage moisture separation. Facilities are also available for including the steam-consuming auxiliaries associated with a marine installation. Though no attempt is made to carry out a detailed turbine blading design the programme is capable of automatically varying the blading efficiency from stage to stage according to local steam volume flow rate, dryness fraction and shaft speed. 2 - Method of solution: 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Steam pressures to lie within range 0.2 to 5,000 lb/square inch abs steam temperatures to lie within range 50 to 1600 degrees F. Not more than 40 points per turbine expansion line; Not more than 10 expansion lines; Not more than 15 feed heaters. UNIVAC 1108 version received from FIAT Energia Nucleare, Torino, Italy

  5. Modeling and optimization of a utility system containing multiple extractions steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xianglong; Zhang, Bingjian; Chen, Ying; Mo, Songping

    2011-01-01

    Complex turbines with multiple controlled and/or uncontrolled extractions are popularly used in the processing industry and cogeneration plants to provide steam of different levels, electric power, and driving power. To characterize thermodynamic behavior under varying conditions, nonlinear mathematical models are developed based on energy balance, thermodynamic principles, and semi-empirical equations. First, the complex turbine is decomposed into several simple turbines from the controlled extraction stages and modeled in series. THM (The turbine hardware model) developing concept is applied to predict the isentropic efficiency of the decomposed simple turbines. Stodola's formulation is also used to simulate the uncontrolled extraction steam parameters. The thermodynamic properties of steam and water are regressed through linearization or piece-wise linearization. Second, comparison between the simulated results using the proposed model and the data in the working condition diagram provided by the manufacturer is conducted over a wide range of operations. The simulation results yield small deviation from the data in the working condition diagram where the maximum modeling error is 0.87% among the compared seven operation conditions. Last, the optimization model of a utility system containing multiple extraction turbines is established and a detailed case is analyzed. Compared with the conventional operation strategy, a maximum of 5.47% of the total operation cost is saved using the proposed optimization model. -- Highlights: → We develop a complete simulation model for steam turbine with multiple extractions. → We test the simulation model using the performance data of commercial turbines. → The simulation error of electric power generation is no more than 0.87%. → We establish a utility system operational optimization model. → The optimal industrial operation scheme featured with 5.47% of cost saving.

  6. Next Generation Engineered Materials for Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Arrell

    2006-05-31

    To reduce the effect of global warming on our climate, the levels of CO{sub 2} emissions should be reduced. One way to do this is to increase the efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels. This will in turn reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions for a given power output. Using US practice for efficiency calculations, then a move from a typical US plant running at 37% efficiency to a 760 C /38.5 MPa (1400 F/5580 psi) plant running at 48% efficiency would reduce CO2 emissions by 170kg/MW.hr or 25%. This report presents a literature review and roadmap for the materials development required to produce a 760 C (1400 F) / 38.5MPa (5580 psi) steam turbine without use of cooling steam to reduce the material temperature. The report reviews the materials solutions available for operation in components exposed to temperatures in the range of 600 to 760 C, i.e. above the current range of operating conditions for today's turbines. A roadmap of the timescale and approximate cost for carrying out the required development is also included. The nano-structured austenitic alloy CF8C+ was investigated during the program, and the mechanical behavior of this alloy is presented and discussed as an illustration of the potential benefits available from nano-control of the material structure.

  7. Repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, A.K.; Gill, T.P.S.; Albert, S.K.; Shanmugam, K.; Iyer, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The procedure for repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades made of martensitic stainless steels has been developed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Weld repair procedures were developed using both ER316L austenitic stainless steel filler wire and ER410 martensitic stainless steel filler wire. The repair welding procedure with austenitic filler wire was developed to avoid preheating of the blade as also hydrogen induced cold cracking, and involved evaluation of three different austenitic filler wires, viz. ER309L, ER316L and ERNiCr-3. The overall development of the repair welding procedure included selection of welding consumables (for austenitic filler metal), optimisation of post weld heat treatment parameters, selection of suitable method for local pre-heating and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the blades, determination of mechanical properties of weldments in as-welded and PWHT conditions, and microstructural examination. After various trials using different procedures, the procedure of local PWHT using electrical resistance heating on the top surface of the weldment and monitoring the temperature by placing a thermocouple at the bottom of the weld, was found to give the most satisfactory results. A similar procedure was used for preheating while using ER410 filler metal. Mechanical testing of weldments before and after PWHT involved tensile tests at room temperature, face and root bend tests, and microhardness measurements across the fusion line and heat affected zone. During procedure qualification, mock-ups and actual repair welding, dye penetrant testing was used at different stages and where ever possible radiography was carried out. These procedures were developed for repair welding of cracked blades in the low-pressure (LP) steam turbines of Indian nuclear power plants. The procedure with ER316 L filler wire has so far been applied for repair welding of 2 cracked blades (made of AISI 410 SS) of LP steam turbines, while the procedure

  8. Analysis of experimental characteristics of multistage steam-jet electors of steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Murmanskii, I. B.

    2017-02-01

    A series of questions for specification of physical gas dynamics model in flow range of steam-jet unit and ejector computation methodology, as well as functioning peculiarities of intercoolers, was formulated based on analysis of experimental characteristics of multistage team-jet steam turbines. It was established that coefficient defining position of critical cross-section of injected flow depends on characteristics of the "sound tube" zone. Speed of injected flow within this tube may exceed that of sound, and pressure jumps in work-steam decrease at the same time. Characteristics of the "sound tube" define optimal axial sizes of the ejector. According to measurement results, the part of steam condensing in the first-stage coolant constitutes 70-80% of steam amount supplied into coolant and is almost independent of air content in steam. Coolant efficiency depends on steam pressure defined by operation of steam-jet unit of ejector of the next stage after coolant of steam-jet stage, temperature, and condensing water flow. As a rule, steam entering content of steam-air mixture supplied to coolant is overheated with respect to saturation temperature of steam in the mixture. This should be taken into account during coolant computation. Long-term operation causes changes in roughness of walls of the ejector's mixing chamber. The influence of change of wall roughness on ejector characteristic is similar to the influence of reverse pressure of the steam-jet stage. Until some roughness value, injection coefficient of the ejector stage operating in superlimiting regime hardly changed. After reaching critical roughness, the ejector switches to prelimiting operating regime.

  9. Monitoring of large steam turbines, as seen by the constructor and the operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, J.M.; Bourcier, P.B.; Malherbe, C.

    1986-01-01

    The electricity in France is produced by large steam turbines in the range of 125 000 kW to 1 300 000 kW in nuclear power plants. Some operation problems are encountered on these large machines. The aim of this study is to justify and to describe the monitoring process implemented on the large steam turbines. This short study is divided into three parts: the monitoring justification during the start-up period, one example of a monitoring system, the turbine monitoring during the operation period [fr

  10. Remote inspection of steam turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    During the past five years Reinhart and Associates, Inc. has been involved in remote examination of L-0 and L-1 steam turbine blade rows of in-place LP turbines using visual and eddy current techniques. These tests have concentrated on the trailing edge and blade-to-rotor attachment (Christmas tree) areas. These remote nondestructive examinations were performed through hand access ports of the inner shell. Since the remote scanning system was in a prototype configuration, the inspection was highly operator-dependent. Refinement of the scanning equipment would considerably improve the efficiency of the test; however, the feasibility of remote in-place inspection of turbine blades was established. To further improve this technology, and to provide for remote inspection of other areas of the blade and additional turbine designs, EPRI is funding a one-year project with Reinhart and Associates, Inc. This project will develop a new system that employs state-of-the-art multifrequency eddy current techniques, a miniature charged coupled device (CCD) television camera, and remote positioning equipment. Project results from the first six months are presented

  11. Aerodynamic Optimization Design of a Multistage Centrifugal Steam Turbine and Its Off-Design Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal turbine which has less land occupation, simple structure, and high aerodynamic efficiency is suitable to be used as small to medium size steam turbines or waste heat recovery plant. In this paper, one-dimensional design of a multistage centrifugal steam turbine was performed by using in-house one-dimensional aerodynamic design program. In addition, three-dimensional numerical simulation was also performed in order to analyze design and off-design aerodynamic performance of the proposed centrifugal steam turbine. The results exhibit reasonable flow field and smooth streamline; the aerodynamic performance of the designed turbine meets our initial expectations. These results indicate that the one-dimensional aerodynamic design program is reliable and effective. The off-design aerodynamic performance of centrifugal steam turbine was analyzed, and the results show that the mass flow increases with the decrease of the pressure ratio at a constant speed, until the critical mass flow is reached. The efficiency curve with the pressure ratio has an optimum efficiency point. And the pressure ratio of the optimum efficiency agrees well with that of the one-dimensional design. The shaft power decreases as the pressure ratio increases at a constant speed. Overall, the centrifugal turbine has a wide range and good off-design aerodynamic performance.

  12. Improvement of Steam Turbine Operational Performance and Reliability with using Modern Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu M.; Kultishev, A. Yu

    2017-11-01

    The report presents improvement methods review in the fields of the steam turbine units design and operation based on modern information technologies application. In accordance with the life cycle methodology support, a conceptual model of the information support system during life cycle main stages (LC) of steam turbine unit is suggested. A classifying system, which ensures the creation of sustainable information links between the engineer team (manufacture’s plant) and customer organizations (power plants), is proposed. Within report, the principle of parameterization expansion beyond the geometric constructions at the design and improvement process of steam turbine unit equipment is proposed, studied and justified. The report presents the steam turbine unit equipment design methodology based on the brand new oil-cooler design system that have been developed and implemented by authors. This design system combines the construction subsystem, which is characterized by extensive usage of family tables and templates, and computation subsystem, which includes a methodology for the thermal-hydraulic zone-by-zone oil coolers design calculations. The report presents data about the developed software for operational monitoring, assessment of equipment parameters features as well as its implementation on five power plants.

  13. Nuclear steam turbines for power production in combination with heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frilund, B.; Knudsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    The general operating conditions for nuclear steam turbines in district heating system are briefly outlined. The turbine plant can consist of essentially the same types of machines as in conventional district heating systems. Some possible arrangements of back-pressure turbines, back-pressure turbines with condensing tails, or condensing turbines with heat extraction are considered for nuclear power and heat stations. Principles of control for hot water temperature and electrical output are described. Optimization of the plant, considering parallel variations during the year between heat load, cooling water temperature, and required outgoing temperature is discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Enhanced efficiency steam turbine blading - for cleaner coal plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, A.; Bell, D.; Cao, C.; Fowler, R.; Oliver, P.; Greenough, C.; Timmis, P. [ALSTOM Power, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this project was to increase the efficiency of the short height stages typically found in high pressure steam turbine cylinders. For coal fired power plant, this will directly lead to a reduction in the amount of fuel required to produce electrical power, resulting in lower power station emissions. The continual drive towards higher cycle efficiencies demands increased inlet steam temperatures and pressures, which necessarily leads to shorter blade heights. Further advances in blading for short height stages are required in order to maximise the benefit. To achieve this, an optimisation of existing 3 dimensional designs was carried out and a new 3 dimensional fixed blade for use in the early stages of the high pressure turbine was developed. 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Biomass-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine cogeneration for the cane sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Williams, R.H.; Ogden, J.M.; Hylton, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Steam injection for power and efficiency augmentation in aeroderivative gas turbines has been commercially established for natural gas-fired cogeneration since 1980. Steam-injected gas turbines fired with coal and biomass are being developed. A performance and economic assessment of biomass integrated-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine (BIG/STIG) cogeneration systems is carried out here. A detailed economic case study is presented for the second largest sugar factory in Jamaica, with cane residues as the fuel. BIG/STIG cogeneration units would be attractive investments for sugar producers, who could sell large quantities of excess electricity to the utility, or for the utility, as a low-cost generating option. Worldwide, the cane sugar industry could support some 50,000 MW of BIG/STIG electric generation capacity. The relatively modest development effort required to commercialize the BIG/STIG technology is discussed in a companion paper prepared for this conference

  16. Analysis of the Instability Phenomena Caused by Steam in High-Pressure Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pennacchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Instability phenomena in steam turbines may happen as a consequence of certain characteristics of the steam flow as well as of the mechanical and geometrical properties of the seals. This phenomenon can be modeled and the raise of the steam flow and pressure causes the increase of the cross coupled coefficients used to model the seal stiffness. As a consequence, the eigenvalues and eigenmodes of the mathematical model of the machine change. The real part of the eigenvalue associated with the first flexural normal mode of the turbine shaft may become positive causing the conditions for unstable vibrations. The original contribution of the paper is the application of a model-based analysis of the dynamic behavior of a large power unit, affected by steam-whirl instability phenomena. The model proposed by the authors allows studying successfully the experimental case. The threshold level of the steam flow that causes instability conditions is analyzed and used to define the stability margin of the power unit.

  17. Application of new designed butterfly type intermediate valve for nuclear steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Kawamata, Susumu; Fujita, Isao; Taketomo, Seiki.

    1991-01-01

    To cope with a large capacity nuclear steam turbine, a butterfly type intermediate valve has been developed. Compared to the conventional valve, or globe valve, the butterfly valve has the following design features: a) Higher thermal efficiency due to lower pressure loss, b) Easier maintenance due to simplified construction, and c) Lower station cost due to the smaller size of the valve assembly. An experiment with a scaled-down test valve was carried out using compressed air. Subsequently a full-scale valve was tested using steam under actual steam conditions. As a result, these tests gave us no problems. The first nuclear turbine (1100MW) equipped with a butterfly valve is operating satisfactorily with good performance as expected. (author)

  18. 900 MW CP1 nuclear steam turbine retrofit thermal effects on low pressure diaphragms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buguin, A.; Gruau, P.; Lamarque, F.; Huggett, J.

    2015-01-01

    The steam turbines of the Koeberg units 1 and 2 operated by ESKOM in South Africa have been retrofitted in order to mitigate the generic problems of stress corrosion cracking of the original shrunk-on disk rotor design. As already done in Belgium and France, the implementation of welded rotors improves the turbine reliability and availability. Moreover, the new technology implemented associated with a new steam path allows a significant performance improvement. With a wealth of experience in CP1 retrofit, ALSTOM has put in place new technical features in the steam path in order to further improve the heat rate. Among them, steam balance holes drilled in the rotor disks have exacerbated the thermal sensitivity of the LP diaphragms. During the commissioning of the Unit 1 LP turbines following the retrofit, the load increase led to unacceptable vibrations. An investigation program was launched to determine the root causes of the problem. This paper presents the findings following the turbine inspection, as well as the recommendations and modifications to allow a smooth return to service of the unit. In addition, the results of the root cause analysis of the vibration incident are explained. Based on finite element calculations and site measurements, ALSTOM has established that the diaphragm thermal behavior, intensified by the steam balance holes, has led to radial rubbing. It was also established that the phenomena had no effect on the diaphragms mechanical integrity. Design changes have been proposed to ensure a safe and reliable long term operation of the units. These modifications have been successfully implemented onto the Koeberg Unit 2 Nuclear Steam Turbine commissioned in November 2012. (authors)

  19. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 15.1-15.5 Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with turbines. addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: types and components of steam turbines, steam turbine auxiliaries, operation and maintenance of steam turbines, and gas…

  20. Aerodynamic Optimization Design of a Multistage Centrifugal Steam Turbine and Its Off-Design Performance Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li; Dian-Gui Huang

    2017-01-01

    Centrifugal turbine which has less land occupation, simple structure, and high aerodynamic efficiency is suitable to be used as small to medium size steam turbines or waste heat recovery plant. In this paper, one-dimensional design of a multistage centrifugal steam turbine was performed by using in-house one-dimensional aerodynamic design program. In addition, three-dimensional numerical simulation was also performed in order to analyze design and off-design aerodynamic performance of the pro...

  1. Design of large reheat steam turbines for U.K. and overseas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Two prototype designs of large reheat steam turbines are described, together with the technical, economic and plant design aspects that have influenced their main features. Relevant service experience is outlined and details are given of the solutions adopted to overcome the relatively few problems that were encountered. The evolution of these designs to form the current range of adaptable, pre-engineered modular designs is presented and the main features of current machines are described. A brief account is given of likely future developments in large steam turbines. (author)

  2. Power plant and system for accelerating a cross compound turbine in such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegtnes, K.O.; Braytenbah, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power plant having a cross compound steam turbine and a steam source that includes a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor is described. The steam turbine includes high and intermediate-pressure portions which drive a first generating means, and a low-pressure portion which drives a second generating means. The steam source supplies superheat steam to the high-pressure turbine portion, and an associated bypass permits the superheat steam to flow from the source to the exhaust of the high-pressure portion. The intermediate and low-pressure portions use reheat steam; an associated bypass permits reheat steam to flow from the source to the low-pressure exhaust. An auxiliary turbine driven by steam exhausted from the high-pressure portion and its bypass drives a gas blower to propel the coolant gas through the reactor. While the bypass flow of reheat steam is varied to maintain an elevated pressure of reheat steam upon its discharge from the source, both the first and second generating means and their associated turbines are accelerated initially by admitting steam to the intermediate and low-pressure portions. The electrical speed of the second generating means is equalized with that of the first generating means, whereupon the generating means are connected and acceleration proceeds under control of the flow through the high-pressure portion. 29 claims, 2 figures

  3. Using the artificial neural network to control the steam turbine heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Grzegorz; Rusin, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Inverse Artificial Neural Network has a potential to control the start-up process of a steam turbine. • Two serial neural networks made it possible to model the rotor stress based of steam parameters. • An ANN with feedback enables transient stress modelling with good accuracy. - Abstract: Due to the significant share of renewable energy sources (RES) – wind farms in particular – in the power sector of many countries, power generation systems become sensitive to variable weather conditions. Under unfavourable changes in weather, ensuring required energy supplies involves hasty start-ups of conventional steam power units whose operation should be characterized by higher and higher flexibility. Controlling the process of power engineering machinery operation requires fast predictive models that will make it possible to analyse many parallel scenarios and select the most favourable one. This approach is employed by the algorithm for the inverse neural network control presented in this paper. Based on the current thermal state of the turbine casing, the algorithm controls the steam temperature at the turbine inlet to keep both the start-up rate and the safety of the machine at the allowable level. The method used herein is based on two artificial neural networks (ANN) working in series.

  4. Laser shock peening of steam turbine blade for enhanced service life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Fretting-fatigue is an important factor influencing service life of turbine blades. The present paper describes laser shock peening of potential crack nucleation site in the root region of steam turbine blade for its enhanced service life. The experimental study, performed with an in-house developed 2.5 J/7 ns ...

  5. Moisture separators and reheaters for wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbins, J.

    1979-01-01

    Moisture separator reheater (M.S.R.) units are now a well established feature of the wet steam cycle as associated with the various types of water cooled reactor. This paper describes the development of M.S.Rs. as supplied by GEC for turbine generators of up to 1200 MW ratings covering the design procedures used and the features required to ensure efficient and reliable operation. In addition to details of the M.S.R. design, the desirable features of the steam supply, venting and drain control systems are also discussed. The recent developments, as provided on current projects, are described. (author)

  6. Thermoeconomic Modeling and Parametric Study of Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell â Gas Turbine â Steam Turbine Power Plants Ranging from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe

    OpenAIRE

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    2007-01-01

    Detailed thermodynamic, kinetic, geometric, and cost models are developed, implemented, and validated for the synthesis/design and operational analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) â gas turbine (GT) â steam turbine (ST) systems ranging in size from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe. The fuel cell model used in this thesis is based on a tubular Siemens-Westinghouse-type SOFC, which is integrated with a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) integrated in turn with a steam turbi...

  7. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 8.1-8.5 Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains five modules covering turbines. The modules provide information on the following topics: types, components, and auxiliaries of steam turbines; operation and maintenance of steam turbines; and gas turbines. Each module consists…

  8. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  9. Energy and exergy analysis of the turbo-generators and steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive on LNG carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrzljak, Vedran; Poljak, Igor; Mrakovčić, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two low-power steam turbines in the LNG carrier propulsion plant were investigated. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of both steam turbines vary between 46% and 62%. • The ambient temperature has a low impact on exergy efficiency of analyzed turbines. • The maximum efficiencies area of both turbines was investigated. • A method for increasing the turbo-generator efficiencies by 1–3% is presented. - Abstract: Nowadays, marine propulsion systems are mainly based on internal combustion diesel engines. Despite this fact, a number of LNG carriers have steam propulsion plants. In such plants, steam turbines are used not only for ship propulsion, but also for electrical power generation and main feed water pump drive. Marine turbo-generators and steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive were investigated on the analyzed LNG carrier with steam propulsion plant. The measurements of various operating parameters were performed and obtained data were used for energy and exergy analysis. All the measurements and calculations were performed during the ship acceleration. The analysis shows that the energy and exergy efficiencies of both analyzed low-power turbines vary between 46% and 62% what is significantly lower in comparison with the high-power steam turbines. The ambient temperature has a low impact on exergy efficiency of analyzed turbines (change in ambient temperature for 10 °C causes less than 1% change in exergy efficiency). The highest exergy efficiencies were achieved at the lowest observed ambient temperature. Also, the highest efficiencies were achieved at 71.5% of maximum developed turbo-generator power while the highest efficiencies of steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive were achieved at maximum turbine developed power. Replacing the existing steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive with an electric motor would increase the turbo-generator energy and exergy efficiencies for at least 1–3% in all analyzed

  10. Issues to improve the safety of 18K370 steam turbine operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bzymek Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of improving the safety and reliability of operation the 18K370 steam turbines Opole Power Plant since the first failure in 2010 [1], up to install the on-line monitoring system [2]. It shows how the units work and how to analyse the contol stage as a critical node in designing the turbine. Selected results of the analysis of the strength of CSD (Computational Solid Dynamic and the nature of the flow in different operating regimes - thanks to CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis have been included. We have also briefly discussed the way of lifecycle management of individual elements [2,3]. The presented actions could be considered satisfactory, and improve the safety of operating steam turbines of type 18K370.

  11. Application of Computer Simulation to Identify Erosion Resistance of Materials of Wet-steam Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostelyov, D. A.; Dergachyov, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    A problem of identifying the efficiency of using materials, coatings, linings and solderings of wet-steam turbine rotor blades by means of computer simulation is considered. Numerical experiments to define erosion resistance of materials of wet-steam turbine blades are described. Kinetic curves for erosion area and weight of the worn rotor blade material of turbines K-300-240 LMP and atomic icebreaker “Lenin” have been defined. The conclusion about the effectiveness of using different erosion-resistant materials and protection configuration of rotor blades is also made.

  12. Performance analysis of a small regenerative gas turbine system adopting steam injection and side-wall in finned tube evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Soo Young; Lee, Jong Jun; Kim, Tong Seop

    2009-01-01

    Small gas turbines in power range of several MWs are quite suitable for application in distributed generation as well as Community Energy Systems (CES). Humidification is an effective way to improve gas turbine performance, and steam injection is the most general and practically feasible method. This study intended to examine the effect of steam injection on the performance of several MW class gas turbines. A primary concern is given to the regenerative cycle gas turbine. The steam injection effect on the performance of a system without the regenerator (i.e. a simple cycle) is also examined. In addition, the influence of bypass of some of the exhaust gas on the performance of the gas turbine, especially the regenerative cycle gas turbine, is evaluated.

  13. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Carlos; Rey, Guillermo D.; Sánchez, Ángel; Cancela, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled "Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines." This is one of the topics covered in the course "Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer," which is offered in the second year of Mechanical…

  14. Steam turbines for nuclear power stations in Czechoslovakia and their use for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The first generation of nuclear power stations in Czechoslavakia is equipped with 440 MW e pressurized water reactors. Each reactor supplies two 220 MW, 3000 rpm condensing type turbosets operating with saturated steam. After the completion of heating water piping systems, all of the 24 units of 220 MW in Czechoslovak nuclear power stations will be operated as dual purpose units, delivering both electricity and heat. At the present time, second-generation nuclear power stations, with 1000 MW e PWRs, are being built. Each such plant is equipped with one 1000 MW full-speed saturated steam turbine. The turbine is so designed as to permit the extraction of steam corresponding to the following quantities of heat: 893 MJ/s with three-stage water heating (150/60 0 C); and 570 MJ/s with two-stage water heating (120/60 0 C). The steam is taken from uncontrolled steam extraction points. (author)

  15. The development of control systems for high power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, M.

    1983-01-01

    The functional and technological aspects of developments in the field of control systems for steam turbines over the last twenty years are analyzed. These developments have now culminated in very sophisticated systems which closely link electronics to high pressure hydraulic technology. A detailed description of these systeme high-lighting the high technical level of the control methods and the flexibility and reliability in service of turbines controlled in this way is given [fr

  16. Power plant and system for accelerating a cross compound turbine in such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegtnes, K.O.; Braytenbah, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, a power plant includes a steam source to generate superheat and reheat steam which flows through a turbine-generator and an associated bypass system. A high-pressure and an intermediate-pressure turbine portion drive a first electrical generating means, and a low-pressure turbine portion drives a second electrical generating means. A first flow of superheat steam flows through the high-pressure portion, while a second flow of reheat steam flows through the intermediate and low-pressure portions in succession. Provision is made for bypassing steam around the turbine portions; in particular, one bypass means permits a flow of superheat steam from the steam source to the exhaust of the high-pressure portion, and another bypass means allows reheated steam to pass from the source to the exhaust of the low-pressure portion. The first and second steam flows are governed independently. While one of such flows is varied for purposes of controlling the rotational speed of the first generating means according to a desired speed, the other flow is varied to regulate a power plant variable at its desired level. (author)

  17. Application of PHADEC method for the decontamination of radioactive steam piping components of Caorso plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Frano, R.; Aquaro, D.; Fontani, E.; Pilo, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of PHADEC chemical off-line methodology. • Decontamination of radioactive steam piping components of Caorso turbine building. • Experimental characterization of metallic components, e.g., by SEM analysis. • Measure of the efficiency of treatment by means of the reduction of activity and vs. the treatment time. • Minimization of secondary waste produced during decontamination activity of Caorso BWR plant. - Abstract: The dismantling of nuclear plants is a complex activity that originates often a large quantity of radioactive contaminated residue. In this paper the attention was focused on the PHADEC (PHosphoric Acid DEContamination) plant adopted for the clearance of Caorso NPP (in Italy) metallic systems and components contaminated by Co60 (produced by the neutron capture in the iron materials), like the main steam lines, moisture separator of the turbine buildings, etc. The PHADEC plant consists in a chemical off line treatment: the crud, deposited along the steam piping during life plant as an example, is removed by means of acid attacks in ponds coupled to a high pressure water washing. Due to the fact that the removed contaminated layers, essentially, iron oxides of various chemical composition, depend on components geometry, type of contamination and time of treatment in the PHADEC plant, it becomes of meaningful importance to suggest a procedure capable to improve the control of the PHADEC process parameters. This study aimed thus at the prediction and optimization of the mentioned treatment time in order to improve the efficiency of the plant itself and to achieve, in turn, the minimization of produced wastes. To the purpose an experimental campaign was carried out by analysing several samples, i.e., taken along the main steam piping line. Smear tests as well as metallographic analyses were carried out in order to determine respectively the radioactivity distribution and the crud composition on the inner surface of the

  18. Estimation of Temperature Influence on Creep Rate of High-Temperature Elements in Steam Turbines and Steam Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gerasimova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a high temperature influence on strength characteristics of steam pipelines and steam turbine parts of high and medium pressure. The charts showing a decisive temperature importance in diffuse creep have been presented in the paper. The paper contains a calculation of steel self-diffusion coefficient. Dependence Dsd = f(t for more accurate assessment of  resource characteristics of the applied steel has been proposed in the paper.

  19. Gas-steam turbine plant for cogenerative process at 'Toplifikacija' - Skopje (Joint-Stock Co. for district heating - Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovski, Andrijan

    2003-01-01

    The gas-steam power plant for combined heat and electric power production at A.D. 'Toplifikacija' Skopje - TO 'Zapad' is analyzed and determined. The analyzed plant is consisted of gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and condensate steam turbine with controlled steam extraction. It operates on natural gas as a main fuel source. The heating of the water for the district heating is dine in the heat exchanger, with // heat of controlled extraction from condensate turbine. The advantages of the both binary plant and centralized co generative production compared with the individual are analyzed. The natural gas consumption of for both specific heating and electrical capacity in join production as well as fuel savings compared to the separate production of the same quantity of energy is also analyzed. (Original)

  20. Through-flow analysis of steam turbines operating under partial admission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delabriere, H.; Werthe, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    In order to produce electric energy with improved efficiency, Electricite de France has to check the performances of equipment proposed by manufacturers. In the specific field of steam turbines, one of the main tools of analysis is the quasi 3D through flow computer code CAPTUR, which enables the calculation of all the aerothermodynamic parameters in a steam turbine. The last development that has been performed on CAPTUR is the extension to a calculation of a flow within a turbine operating under partial admission. For such turbines, it is now possible to calculate an internal flow field, and determine the efficiency, in a much more accurate way than with previous methods, which consist in an arbitrary efficiency correction on an averaged 1D flow calculation. From the aerodynamic point of view, partial admission involves specific losses in the first stage, then expansion and turbulent mixing just downstream of the first stage. Losses in the first stage are of very different types: windage, pumping and expansion at the ends of an admission sector. Their values have been estimated, with help of experimental results, and then expressed as a slow down coefficient applied to the relative velocity at the blade outlet. As for the flow downstream the first stage, a computational analysis has been made with specific 2D and 3D codes. It has led to define the numerical treatment established in the CAPTUR code. Some problems had to be solved to make compatible a quasi 3D formulation, making an average in the azimutal direction and using a streamline curvature method, with an absolute 3D phenomenon. Certain limitations of the working conditions were first adopted, but a generalization is on hand. The calculation of a nuclear HP steam turbine operating under partial admission has been performed. Calculation results are in good accordance with tests results, especially as regards the expansion line along the stages. The code CAPTUR will be particularly useful for the calculation

  1. Analisis Bahaya dengan Metode Hazop dan Manajemen Risiko pada Steam Turbine PLTU di Unit 5 Pembangkitan Listrik Paiton (PT. YTL Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Zulfiana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Steam turbine beroperasi pada temperatur dan tekanan uap yang tinggi sehingga keamanan proses harus dijaga agar tidak terjadi bahaya yang menimbulkan risiko. Untuk analisis dan identifikasi bahaya digunakan metode HAZOP yang selanjutnya melakukan manajemen resiko berupa emergency respon plan berdasarkan bahaya yang mungkin terjadi pada PLTU. Identifikasi bahaya dengan metode HAZOP dilakukan dengan penentuan 4 node pada steam turbine yaitu HP Turbine, IP Turbine, LP Turbine 1 dan LP Turbine 2, penentuan guideword dan deviasi berdasarkan control chart data proses transmitter di setiap node, dan untuk estimasi likelihood berdasarkan nilai MTTF tiap transmitter. ERP pada steam turbine dibuat untuk kejadian kebakaran karena berisiko tinggi dan kemungkinan besar terjadi serta dapat menyebabkan bahaya lain seperti ledakan dsb. Dari penelitian ini diketahui kondisi yang paling berbahaya pada steam turbine adalah kondisi high pressure yang diketahui dari risk matrix pressure trasnmitter pada 4 node yang bernilai high dan ekstrim yang dapat menyebabkan turbin mengalami overspeed. Rekomendasi untuk menanggulangi bahaya tersebut antara lain pemasangan pressure alarm, simulasi automatic turbine test, pemeriksaan turbine overspeed protection serta kalibrasi maupun pengecekan pada pressure trasnmitter tersebut.

  2. Modification of the algorithm for steam turbine control under loading drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Yu.V.; Mirnyj, V.A.; Gritsenko, V.N.; Nesterov, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    Problem related to powerful steam turbine control in case of emergency loading drop is considered. Two laws of control creating conditions for qualitative operation of control system under conditions considered are compared. The system of turbine control comprises the turbine major actuating mechanisms (electrohydraulic transducer, high-pressure servomotor, cut-off slide valve) actuating mechanisms of pulse discharge channel (low-pressure servomotor cut-off slide valve, low-pressure servomotor) and regulator. The frequency of the turbine rotor rotation is the parameter to be controlled in the mode of loading drop. The algorithms considered are based on linear variant of the optimal control theory. One of them is realized in electrohydraulic system of the K-750-65/3000 turbine control at the Ignalinsk NPP

  3. Integrating a SOFC Plant with a Steam Turbine Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is integrated with a Steam Turbine (ST) cycle. Different hybrid configurations are studied. The fuel for the plants is assumed to be natural gas (NG). Since the NG cannot be sent to the anode side of the SOFC directly, a desulfurization reactor is used to remove...

  4. Combined heat and power plants with parallel tandem steam turbines; Smaaskalig kraftvaerme med parallellkopplade tandemturbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwall, Pontus; Norstroem, Urban; Pettersson, Camilla; Oesterlin, Erik

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the technical and economical conditions for a concept with parallel coupled tandem turbines in small scale combined heat and power plants fired with bio-fuel and waste. Performance and heat production costs at varying electricity prices for the concept with two smaller tandem coupled steam turbines has been compared to the traditional concept with one single multi-staged turbine. Three different types of plants have been investigated: - Bio fuelled CHP plant with thermal capacity of 15 MW{sub th}; - Waste fired CHP plant with thermal capacity of 20 MW{sub th}; - Bio fuelled CHP plant with thermal capacity of 25 MW{sub th}. The simple steam turbines (Curtis turbines) used in the tandem arrangement has an isentropic efficiency of about 49 to 53% compared to the multi-staged steam turbines with isentropic efficiency in the range of 59% to 81%. The lower isentropic efficiency for the single staged turbines is to some extent compensated at partial load when one of the two turbines can be shut down leading to better operational conditions for the one still in operation. For concepts with saturated steam at partial load below 50% the tandem arrangements presents higher electricity efficiency than the conventional single turbine alternative. The difference in annual production of electricity is therefore less than the difference in isentropic efficiency for the two concepts. Production of electricity is between 2% and 42% lower for the tandem arrangements in this study. Investment costs for the turbine island has been calculated for the two turbine concepts and when the costs for turbines, generator, power transmission, condensing system, piping system, buildings, assembling, commissioning and engineering has been added the sum is about the same for the two concepts. For the bio-fuelled plant with thermal capacity of 15 MW{sub th} the turbine island amount to about 10-12 MSEK and about 13-15 MSEK for the waste fired plant with a thermal capacity of 20 MW

  5. Design, development and operating experience with wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The paper first describes the special characteristics of wet steam units. It then goes on to discuss the principal features of the units manufactured by the author's company, the considerations on which the designs were based, and the development work carried out to validate them. Some of the design features such as the separator/reheater units and the arrangements for water extraction in the high pressure turbine are unconventional. An important characteristic of all nuclear plant is the combination of high capital cost and low fuel cost, and the consequent emphasis placed on high availability. The paper describes some service problems experienced with wet steam plant and how these were overcome with minimum loss of generation. The paper also describes a number of the developments for future wet steam plant which have evolved from these experiences, and from research and development programmes aimed at increasing the efficiency and reliability of both conventional and wet steam units. Blading, rotor construction and separator/reheater units are considered. (author)

  6. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  7. Generalised pole-placement control of steam turbine speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del-Busto, R. [ITESM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias; Munoz, J. [ITESM, Xochimilco (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias

    1996-12-31

    An application of a pole-placement self-tuning predictive control algorithm is developed to regulate speed of a power plant steam turbine model. Two types of system representation (CARMA and CARIMA) are used to test the control algorithm. Simulation results show that when using a CARMA model better results are produced. Two further comparisons are made when using a PI controller and a generalised predictive controller. (author)

  8. Moving blade for steam turbines with axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raschke, K.; Wehle, G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the improvement of the production of moving blades for steam turbines with axial flow, especially of multi-blades produced by welding of the top plates. It is proposed to weld the top plates before the moving blades are fitted into the rotor. Welding is this made much easier and can be carried out under protective gas and with better results. (UWI) [de

  9. Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 4: Cast Superalloy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangirala, Mani

    2015-09-30

    The Steam Turbine critical stationary structural components are high integrity Large Shell and Valve Casing heavy section Castings, containing high temperature steam under high pressures. Hence to support the development of advanced materials technology for use in an AUSC steam turbine capable of operating with steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F) and 35 Mpa (5000 psia), Casting alloy selection and evaluation of mechanical, metallurgical properties and castability with robust manufacturing methods are mandated. Alloy down select from Phase 1 based on producability criteria and creep rupture properties tested by NETL-Albany and ORNL directed the consortium to investigate cast properties of Haynes 282 and Haynes 263. The goals of Task 4 in Phase 2 are to understand a broader range of mechanical properties, the impact of manufacturing variables on those properties. Scale up the size of heats to production levels to facilitate the understanding of the impact of heat and component weight, on metallurgical and mechanical behavior. GE Power & Water Materials and Processes Engineering for the Phase 2, Task 4.0 Castings work, systematically designed and executed casting material property evaluation, multiple test programs. Starting from 15 lbs. cylinder castings to world’s first 17,000 lbs. poured weight, heavy section large steam turbine partial valve Haynes 282 super alloy casting. This has demonstrated scalability of the material for steam Turbine applications. Activities under Task 4.0, Investigated and characterized various mechanical properties of Cast Haynes 282 and Cast Nimonic 263. The development stages involved were: 1) Small Cast Evaluation: 4 inch diam. Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 Cylinders. This provided effects of liquidus super heat range and first baseline mechanical data on cast versions of conventional vacuum re-melted and forged Ni based super alloys. 2) Step block castings of 300 lbs. and 600 lbs. Haynes 282 from 2 foundry heats were evaluated which

  10. Integration of steam injection and inlet air cooling for a gas turbine generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.J.; Chiou, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The temperature of exhaust gases from simple cycle gas turbine generation sets (GENSETs) is usually very high (around 500 deg. C), and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is often used to recover the energy from the exhaust gases and generate steam. The generated steams can be either used for many useful processes (heating, drying, separation etc.) or used back in the power generation system for enhancing power generation capacity and efficiency. Two well-proven techniques, namely steam injection gas turbine (STIG) and inlet air cooling (IAC) are very effective features that can use the generated steam to improve the power generation capacity and efficiency. Since the energy level of the generated steam needed for steam injection is different from that needed by an absorption chiller to cool the inlet air, a proper arrangement is required to implement both the STIG and the IAC features into the simple cycle GENSET. In this study, a computer code was developed to simulate a Tai power's Frame 7B simple cycle GENSET. Under the condition of local summer weather, the benefits obtained from the system implementing both STIG and IAC features are more than a 70% boost in power and 20.4% improvement in heat rate

  11. Cogeneration steam turbine plant for district heating of Berovo (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin

    2000-01-01

    A plant for combined heat and electric power production, for central heating of the town Berovo (Macedonia) is proposed. The common reason to use a co-generation unit is the energy efficiency and a significant reduction of environmental pollution. A coal dust fraction from B rik' - Berovo coal mine is the main energy resource for cogeneration steam turbine plant. The heat consumption of town Berovo is analyzed and determined. Based on the energy consumption of a whole power plant, e. i. the plant for combined and simultaneous production of power is proposed. All necessary facilities of cogeneration plant is examined and determined. For proposed cogeneration steam turbine power plant for combined heat and electric production it is determined: heat and electric capacity of the plant, annually heat and electrical quantity production and annually coal consumption, the total investment of the plant, the price of both heat and electric energy as well as the pay back period. (Authors)

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  13. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE THEORY OF VENTILLATION PROCESSES IN THE STEAM TURBINES TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Neuimin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article proposes the theoretical framework of ventilation processes emerging and going on in the stages of TPP steam turbines during the operating regimes with small-quantity volumetric flow rates in the low-pressure cylinder. The basic theory includes new physicomathematical models for estimating the ventilating capacity losses and ventilation heatings-up of the steam and the air-gas channel of the turbine; search and investigation of the factors causing the increased momental loads on the blade wheels of the finale stages which are likely to lead to destruction of the rotating blades. The paper renders the practical results of utilizing the theoretical framework of ventilation processes.The author obtains a new mathematical relation for high-accuracy assessment of the ventilating capacity losses accounting for all the diversification of parameters defining the level of these losses (it is established that the Coriolis force contributes twice as much to the ventilating capacity losses as the centrifugal force. Seven ordinary formulae obtained on its basis provide a separate stage ventilation-losses immediate evaluation (with rotation blades of the finale stage not unwinding from the turning, with rotation blades of the finale and intermediate stages unwinding from the turning, in the turbine altogether-vapor-evacuated including by readings of the regular instruments located at the connecters of the exhaust part of the lowpressure cylinder.As the cornerstone of the new ventilation heating-up evaluation system the author lays two experimentally established facts: the ventilating capacity losses are practically constant at working steam negligible volumetric flow rates; symmetrical ventilating flows in the blade channel mingle entirely to the moment of their split up at the periphery. This renders possible estimating the complete enthalpy increment of the steam being discharged from a stage in relation to the enthalpy of the steam being

  14. The main features of control and operation of steam turbines at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czinkoczky, B.

    1981-01-01

    The output and speed control of steam turbines at nuclear power plants as well as the combination of both controls are reviewed and evaluated. At the same time the tasks of unit control at nuclear power plants, the control of steady main steam pressure and medium pressure of primary circuit, further the connection of reactor and turbine controls and the self-controlling properties of pressurized water reactor are dealt with. Hydraulic and electro-hydraulic speed control, the connection of cach-up dampers and speed control and the application of electro-hydraulic signal converters are discussed. The accomplishment of protection is also described. (author)

  15. Erosion-corrosion of structural materials of wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomarov, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    A model of erosion-corrosion wear of elements of a wet steam zone and a condensate-feeding path of turbines is considered. It is shown that diffusion of impurities and corrosion products in pores of an oxide layer is the control mechanism under conditions of laminar flow of a media. Processes of mass transfer are controlling factors in turbulent flow

  16. Operational Measurement of Stationary Characteristics and Positions of Shrouded Steam Turbine Blades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Pavel; Vaněk, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2016), s. 1079-1086 ISSN 0018-9456 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : displacement measurement * turbomachine blades * steam turbines Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.456, year: 2016

  17. Process for resuperheating steam coming from the high-pressure stage of a turbine and device to bring into use this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacault, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    A process is described for resuperheating steam coming from the high pressure stage of a turbine fed by a steam generator, itself heated from a base thermal source. The resuperheating is done by desuperheating at least a part of the steam coming from the generator, taken from the inflow of the turbine high pressure stage, the desuperheated steam being condensed, partially at least, in a condensation exchanger forming a preliminary resuperheater [fr

  18. Effects of surface roughness on deviation angle and performance losses in wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri Esfe, H.; Kermani, M.J.; Saffar Avval, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, effects of turbine blade roughness and steam condensation on deviation angle and performance losses of the wet stages are investigated. The steam is assumed to obey non-equilibrium thermodynamic model, in which abrupt formation of liquid droplets produces condensation shocks. An AUSM-van Leer hybrid scheme is used to solve two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow around turbine rotor tip sections. The dominant solver of the computational domain is taken to be the AUSM scheme (1993) that in regions with large gradients smoothly switches to van Leer scheme (1979). This guarantees a robust hybrid scheme throughout the domain. It is observed that as a result of condensation, the aerothermodymics of the flow field changes. For example for a supersonic wet case with exit isentropic Mach number M e,is  = 1.45, the deviation angle and total pressure loss coefficient change by 65% and 200%, respectively, when compared with dry case. It is also observed that losses due to surface roughness in subsonic regions are much larger than those in supersonic regions. Hence, as a practical guideline for maintenance sequences, cleaning of subsonic parts of steam turbines should be considered first. - Highlights: • Two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow is numerically studied in this paper. • As a result of condensation, aerothermodynamics of the flow field changes. • Surface roughness has almost negligible effect on deviation angle. • Surface roughness plays an important role in performance losses. • Contribution of different loss mechanisms for smooth and rough blades are computed.

  19. Control of internal packing seal clearances considering for shaft behavior during steam turbine operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Min Sik; Lee, Si Yeon; Choi, Sung Choul; Lee, Jae Geun [Korea Plant Service and Engineering Co., Ltd., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Bo Suk [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of internal clearances for the interstage of blades and shaft gland seals on the steam turbine which are installed in tandem compound. Internal clearances was changed when the rotor turned in the cylindrical sleeve bearing due to the generation of oil film wedge. This presented concern is very useful to prevent the rubbing damage of seal edge between the fixed and moving parts in steam turbine due to the misalignment at the rotating and stationary parts. This method is applied for the unbalanced clearances distribution to the left and right sides in the turbine casing. A considerable amount of unbalanced clearances distribution trend is determined according to the rotating speed of rotor, size and type of journal bearing, oil viscosity, surface roughness of bearing and shaft, oil temperature, oil pressure and bearing load.

  20. The T-100-12.8 family of cogeneration steam turbines: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    The T-100-12.8 turbine and its versions, a type of cogeneration steam turbines that is among best known, unique, and most widely used ones in Russia and abroad, are considered. A list of turbine design versions and quantities in which they were produced, their technical and economic indicators, design features, schematic solutions used in different design versions, and a list of solutions available in a comprehensive portfolio offered for modernizing type T-100-12.8 turbines are presented. Information about amounts in which turbines of the last version are supplied currently and supposed to be supplied soon is given.

  1. Steam generators: critical components in nuclear steam supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Guille, P D

    1974-02-28

    Steam generators are critical components in power reactors. Even small internal leaks result in costly shutdowns for repair. Surveys show that leaks have affected one half of all water-cooled reactors in the world with steam generators. CANDU reactors have demonstrated the highest reliability. However, AECL is actively evolving new technology in design, manufacture, inspection and operation to maintain reliability. (auth)

  2. Power-generation method using combined gas and steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C; Radtke, K; Keller, H J

    1997-03-20

    The invention concerns a method of power generation using a so-called COGAS (combined gas and steam) turbine installation, the aim being to improve the method with regard to the initial costs and energy consumption so that power can be generated as cheaply as possible. This is achieved by virtue of the fact that air taken from the surrounding atmosphere is splint into an essentially oxygen-containing stream and an essentially nitrogen-containing stream and the two streams fed further at approximately atmospheric pressure. The essentially nitrogen-containing stream is mixed with an air stream to form a mixed nitrogen/air stream and the mixed-gas stream thus produced is brought to combustion chamber pressure in the compressor of the gas turbine, the combustion of the combustion gases in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine being carried out with the greater part of this compressed mixed-gas stream. (author) figs.

  3. For effective thermodynamic calculation of turbines flow-through by gas and steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S; Hultsch, M

    1982-03-01

    A programme system for the medium and multiple section calculation of axial-flow turbines is explained. It allows calculations of turbine flow-through by gas and steam at designing and partial load states. The algorithms are independent upon the formulation of thermodynamic function, so that the programmes can be used for any means of production. The highest accuracy and efficiency can be guaranteed by the use of formulations of thermodynamic functions of water.

  4. Performance and environment as objectives in multi-criterion optimization of steam injected gas turbine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayadelen, Hasan Kayhan; Ust, Yasin

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly growing demand for gas turbines promotes research on their performance improvement and reducing their exhaust pollutants. Even small increments in net power or thermal efficiency and small changes in pollutant emissions have become significant concerns for both new designs and cycle modifications. To fulfill these requirements an accurate performance evaluation method which enables to see the effects on the exhaust gas composition is an important necessity. To fill this gap, a thermo-ecologic performance evaluation approach for gas turbine cycles with chemical equilibrium approximation which enables performance and environmental aspects to be considered simultaneously, is presented in this work. Steam injection is an effective modification to boost power and limit NO x emissions for gas turbine systems. Steam injection also increases thermal efficiency so less fuel is burnt to maintain the same power output. Because of its performance related and environmental advantages, presented approach is applied on the steam injected gas turbine cycle and a precise multi-criterion optimization is carried out for varying steam injection, as well as equivalence and pressure ratios. Irreversibilities and pressure losses are also considered. Effects of each parameter on the net work and thermal efficiency as well as non-equilibrium NO x and CO emissions are demonstrated. Precision improvement of the presented thermo-ecological model is shown and two main concerns; constant turbine inlet condition for higher net work output and constant net work output condition for lower fuel consumption are compared. - Highlights: • A thermodynamically precise performance estimation tool for GT cycles is presented. • STIG application is provided to show its flexibility for any GT cycle and diluents. • Constant TIT and net work output conditions have been compared and discussed. • The model provides results to evaluate economic and environmental aspects together. • It provides a

  5. Component Test Facility (Comtest) Phase 1 Engineering For 760°C (1400°F) Advanced Ultrasupercritical (A-USC) Steam Generator Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Paul [Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc., Barberton, OH (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) performed a Pre-Front End Engineering Design (Pre-FEED) of an A-USC steam superheater for a proposed component test program achieving 760°C (1400°F) steam temperature. This would lead to follow-on work in a Phase 2 and Phase 3 that would involve detail design, manufacturing, construction and operation of the ComTest. Phase 1 results have provided the engineering data necessary for proceeding to the next phase of ComTest. The steam generator superheater would subsequently supply the steam to an A-USC prototype intermediate pressure steam turbine. The ComTest program is important in that it will place functioning A-USC components in operation and in coordinated boiler and turbine service. It is also important to introduce the power plant operation and maintenance personnel to the level of skills required and provide the first background experience with hands-on training. The project will provide a means to exercise the complete supply chain events required in order to practice and perfect the process for A-USC power plant design, supply, manufacture, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance. Representative participants will then be able to transfer knowledge and recommendations to the industry. ComTest is conceived in the manner of using a separate standalone plant facility that will not jeopardize the host facility or suffer from conflicting requirements in the host plant’s mission that could sacrifice the nickel alloy components and not achieve the testing goals. ComTest will utilize smaller quantities of the expensive materials and reduce the risk in the first operational practice for A-USC technology in the United States. Components at suitable scale in ComTest provide more assurance before putting them into practice in the full size A-USC demonstration plant.

  6. Improvement of testing techniques for inspecting steam turbine rotor in power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yeong Shuenn; Wei, Chieng Neng; Wu, Chien Wen; Wu, Yung How

    1997-01-01

    Steam turbine rotor is important to the Utility industry, it degrades over time due to fatigue and corrosion under high temperature and high pressure environment. Periodic inspection is required in the wake of plant annual overhaul to ensure the integrity of turbine rotor. Non-Destructive Testing of turbine rotor is usually performed using magnetic particle testing with wet fluorescent magnetic particle. However, it is very difficult to ensure the reliability of inspection due to the limitation of using one NDT method only. The crack-susceptible areas, such as turbine blade, and blade root have high incidence of stress corrosion cracking, The blade root section is difficult to locate cracks because of the complex geometry which may cause inadequate magnetic field and poor accessibility. Improved inspection practices was developed by our Department, together with remaining life analysis, in maintaining the high availability of steam turbine rotor. The newly-developed inspection system based on the practical study of magnetic field strength distribution, quality of magnetic particle bath and a combination of different NDT methods with Eddy Current Testing using absolute pen-type coil and Visual Testing using reflective mirror to examine the key areas concerned are described. TPC' experience with the well-trained technicians together with the adequate inspection procedure in detecting blade-root flaws are also discussed in the paper. Many of these inspection improvement have been applied in the fields for several times and the inspection reliability has been enhanced substantially. Results are quite encouraging and satisfactory.

  7. Heat balance calculation and feasibility analysis for initial startup of Fuqing nuclear turbine unit with non-nuclear steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Liu; Xiao Bo; Song Yumeng

    2014-01-01

    Non-nuclear steam run up compared with nuclear steam run up, can verify the design, manufacture, installation quality of the unit, at the same time shorten the follow-up duration of the entire group ready to start debugging time. In this paper, starting from the first law of thermodynamics, Analyzed Heat balance Calculation and Feasibility analysis for Initial startup of Fuqing nuclear Turbine unit with Non-nuclear steam, By the above calculation, to the system requirements and device status on the basis of technical specifications, confirmed the feasibility of Non-nuclear steam running up in theory. After the implementation of the Non-nuclear turn of Fuqing unit, confirmed the results fit with the actual process. In summary, the Initial startup of Fuqing turbine unit with Non-nuclear steam is feasible. (authors)

  8. Influence of steam leakage through vane, gland, and shaft seals on rotordynamics of high-pressure rotor of a 1,000 MW ultra-supercritical steam turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, P.N. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Turbine Company, Department of R and D, Shanghai (China); Wang, W.Z.; Liu, Y.Z. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China); Meng, G. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China)

    2012-02-15

    A comparative analysis of the influence of steam leakage through vane, gland, and shaft seals on the rotordynamics of the high-pressure rotor of a 1,000 MW ultra-supercritical steam turbine was performed using numerical calculations. The rotordynamic coefficients associated with steam leakage through the three labyrinth seals were calculated using the control-volume method and perturbation analysis. A stability analysis of the rotor system subject to the steam forcing induced by the leakage flow was performed using the finite element method. An analysis of the influence of the labyrinth seal forcing on the rotordynamics was carried out by varying the geometrical parameters pertaining to the tooth number, seal clearance, and inner diameter of the labyrinth seals, along with the thermal parameters with respect to pressures and temperatures. The results demonstrated that the steam forcing with an increase in the length of the blade for the vane seal significantly influences the rotordynamic coefficients. Furthermore, the contribution of steam forcing to the instability of the rotor is decreased and increased with increases in the seal clearance and tooth number, respectively. The comparison of the rotordynamic coefficients associated with steam leakage through the vane seal, gland seal, and shaft seal convincingly disclosed that, although the steam forcing attenuates the stability of the rotor system, the steam turbine is still operating under safe conditions. (orig.)

  9. Avoiding failures of steam turbine discs by automated ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, J.; Bird, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, stress corrosion cracking can cause catastrophic failure of steam turbine discs. Nuclear Electric has developed a range of inspection techniques for disc keyways, bores, buttons and blade attachments and has accumulated substantial experience on their use on plant. This paper gives examples of the techniques used and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the techniques applied

  10. Experience with and techniques of diagnosing power plant steam turbines without dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drapal, A.; Kopecek, K.

    1987-01-01

    Within the framework of vibration diagnostics of steam turbines at the Dukovany nuclear power plant the following factors were monitored: the summation signal of vibrations (usually the path of vibration movement), the time course of the vibration and the phase angle. In non-steady states also run-in and run-out curves, the absolute vibration of bearing stands and the relative vibration of the rotor are monitored. The method has so far not allowed to diagnose failures of antifriction bearings, loose parts, some gear box defects, the development of cracks in vanes, radial cracks in the disk, etc. Briefly characterized is the portable equipment which is available at the Dukovany nuclear power plant for vibration diagnostics of steam turbines. Suggestions are made for completing the system for monitoring service life, operation economics, the diagnosis of control circuits, etc. (Z.M.)

  11. Welding repair of the steam and gas turbines rotors made of Cr-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Z.; Kubiak, J.; Hernandez, A.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of typical steam turbine and gas turbine rotor failures is carried out. On the base of the rotors different failure causes and their mode of occurring, an evaluation of the weldability of the Cr-Mo-V steels and the classification of the common turbine rotors repair possibilities is presented. The developing of specific in-situ welding repair process of the damaged 20.65 MW gas turbine rotor is described. After repair, the rotor was put back into service. (Author) 15 refs

  12. Steam turbine controls and their integration into power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kure-Jensen, J.; Hanisch, R.

    1989-01-01

    The main functions of a modern steam turbine control system are: speed and acceleration control during start-up; initialization of generator excitation; synchronization and application of load; pressure control of various forms: inlet, extraction backpressure, etc.; unloading and securing of the turbine; sequencing of the above functions under constraint of thermal stress overspeed protection during load rejection and emergencies; protection against serious hazards, e.g., loss of oil pressure, high bearing vibration; and testing of valves and vitally important protection functions. It is characteristic of the first group of functions that they must be performed with high control bandwidth, or very high reliability, or both, to ensure long-term satisfactory service of the turbine. It is for these reasons that GE has, from the very beginning of the technology, designed and provided the controls and protection for its units, starting with mechanical and hydraulic devices and progressing to analog electrohydraulic systems introduced in the 1960s, and now continuing with all-digital electrohydraulic systems

  13. The market for steam turbine generators around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandement, O.; Anglaret, P.; Ledermann, P.

    2012-01-01

    As a discrete market (in the mathematical meaning of the word) with irregular sales from one year to the next, the market for steam turbine generators in nuclear plants requires working out a strategy adapted to each project. The diversity of the reactors proposed (technology, thermal power, the thermodynamic characteristics of the steam supplied), the variety of the cold sources to be used (ranging from the Baltic Sea to the Indian Ocean) and the different frequencies of electricity grids (50 or 60 Hz) necessitate developing platforms of solutions. Furthermore, the requirement that local businesses have a share in contracts often entails partnerships. After pointing out the diversity of this market, the effort is made to point out its principal characteristics. (authors)

  14. Experimental verification of blade elongation and axial rotor shift in steam turbines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2016), s. 190-192 ISSN 2149-8024 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : blade elongation * axial rotor shift * steam turbines * magnetoresistive sensors Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.challengejournal.com/index.php/cjsmec/article/download/74/62

  15. Energy Analysis of Cascade Heating with High Back-Pressure Large-Scale Steam Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the exergy loss that is caused by the high-grade extraction steam of traditional heating mode of combined heat and power (CHP generating unit, a high back-pressure cascade heating technology for two jointly constructed large-scale steam turbine power generating units is proposed. The Unit 1 makes full use of the exhaust steam heat from high back-pressure turbine, and the Unit 2 uses the original heating mode of extracting steam condensation, which significantly reduces the flow rate of high-grade extraction steam. The typical 2 × 350 MW supercritical CHP units in northern China were selected as object. The boundary conditions for heating were determined based on the actual climatic conditions and heating demands. A model to analyze the performance of the high back-pressure cascade heating supply units for off-design operating conditions was developed. The load distributions between high back-pressure exhaust steam direct supply and extraction steam heating supply were described under various conditions, based on which, the heating efficiency of the CHP units with the high back-pressure cascade heating system was analyzed. The design heating load and maximum heating supply load were determined as well. The results indicate that the average coal consumption rate during the heating season is 205.46 g/kWh for the design heating load after the retrofit, which is about 51.99 g/kWh lower than that of the traditional heating mode. The coal consumption rate of 199.07 g/kWh can be achieved for the maximum heating load. Significant energy saving and CO2 emission reduction are obtained.

  16. The influence of selected design and operating parameters on the dynamics of the steam micro-turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żywica, Grzegorz; Kiciński, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The topic of the article is the analysis of the influence of selected design parameters and operating conditions on the radial steam micro-turbine, which was adapted to operate with low-boiling agent in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). In the following parts of this article the results of the thermal load analysis, the residual unbalance and the stiffness of bearing supports are discussed. Advanced computational methods and numerical models have been used. Computational analysis showed that the steam micro-turbine is characterized by very good dynamic properties and is resistant to extreme operating conditions. The prototype of micro-turbine has passed a series of test calculations. It has been found that it can be subjected to experimental research in the micro combined heat and power system.

  17. CFD-based shape optimization of steam turbine blade cascade in transonic two phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noori Rahim Abadi, S.M.A.; Ahmadpour, A.; Abadi, S.M.N.R.; Meyer, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CFD-based shape optimization of a nozzle and a turbine blade regarding nucleating steam flow is performed. • Nucleation rate and droplet radius are the best suited objective functions for the optimization process. • Maximum 34% reduction in entropy generation rate is reported for turbine cascade. • A maximum 10% reduction in Baumann factor and a maximum 2.1% increase in efficiency is achieved for a turbine cascade. - Abstract: In this study CFD-based shape optimization of a 3D nozzle and a 2D turbine blade cascade is undertaken in the presence of non-equilibrium condensation within the considered flow channels. A two-fluid formulation is used for the simulation of unsteady, turbulent, supersonic and compressible flow of wet steam accounting for relevant phase interaction between nucleated liquid droplets and continuous vapor phase. An in-house CFD code is developed to solve the governing equations of the two phase flow and was validated against available experimental data. Optimization is carried out in respect to various objective functions. It is shown that nucleation rate and maximum droplet radius are the best suited target functions for reducing thermodynamic and aerodynamic losses caused by the spontaneous nucleation. The maximum increase of 2.1% in turbine blade efficiency is achieved through shape optimization process.

  18. Design and field operation of 1175 MW steam turbine for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yoshio; Nakagami, Yasuo; Fujii, Hisashi; Shibanai, Hirooki.

    1980-01-01

    Two 1175 MW steam turbine and generator units have been successfully in commercial operation since March 1979 and December 1979 respectively at Ohi Nuclear Power Station of the Kansai Electric Power Company. Those units, the largest in their respective outputs in Japan, have also such remarkable design features as two-stage reheat, nozzle governing turbine, water cooled generator stator and turbine-driven feedwater pumps. This paper covers design features and some topics of various pre-operational tests of the above-mentioned units. (author)

  19. Avoiding failures of steam turbine discs by automated ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, C.R.; Morton, J.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, stress corrosion cracking can cause catastrophic failure of steam turbine discs. Nuclear Electric has developed a range of inspection techniques for disc keyways, bores, buttons and blade attachments and has accumulated substantial experience on their use on plant. This paper gives examples of the techniques used and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the techniques applied. (Author)

  20. Energy efficiency analysis of steam ejector and electric vacuum pump for a turbine condenser air extraction system based on supervised machine learning modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strušnik, Dušan; Marčič, Milan; Golob, Marjan; Hribernik, Aleš; Živić, Marija; Avsec, Jurij

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam ejector pump and electric liquid ring vacuum pump are analysed and modelled. • A supervised machine learning models by using real process data are applied. • The equation of ejector pumped mass flow from steam turbine condenser was solved. • The loss of specific energy capable of work in a SEPS or LRVP component was analysed. • The economic efficiency analysis per different coal heating values was made. - Abstract: This paper compares the vapour ejector and electric vacuum pump power consumptions with machine learning algorithms by using real process data and presents some novelty guideline for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pump system of a steam turbine power plant. The machine learning algorithms are made by using the supervised machine learning methods such as artificial neural network model and local linear neuro-fuzzy models. The proposed non-linear models are designed by using a wide range of real process operation data sets from the CHP system in the thermal power plant. The novelty guideline for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pumps system is expressed in the comparative analysis of the energy consumption and use of specific energy capable of work. Furthermore, the novelty is expressed in the economic efficiency analysis of the investment taking into consideration the operating costs of the vacuum pump systems and may serve as basic guidelines for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pump system of a steam turbine.

  1. Investigation for vertical, two-phase steam-water flow of three turbine models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, S.; Goodrich, L.D.

    1977-01-01

    One of the basic quantities of interest during a loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE) is the primary system mass flow rate. Presently, there are no transducers commercially available which continuously measure this parameter. Therefore, a transducer was designed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. which combines a drag-disc and turbine into a single unit. The basis for the design was that the drag-disc would measure momentum flux (rhoV 2 ), the turbine would measure velocity and the mass flow rate could then be calculated from the two quantities by assuming a flow profile. For two-phase flow, the outputs are approximately proportional to the desired parameter, but rather large errors can be expected under those assumptions. Preliminary evaluation of the experimental two- and single-phase calibration data has resulted in uncertainty estimates of +-8% of range for the turbine and +-20% of range for the drag-disc. In an effort to reduce the errors, further investigations were made to determine what the drag-disc and turbine really measure. In the present paper, three turbine models for vertical, two-phase, steam/water flow are investigated; the Aya Model, the Rouhani Model, and a volumetric flow model. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data for vertical, two-phase steam/water flow. For the purposes of the mass flow calculation, velocity profiles were assumed to be flat for the free-field condition. It is appreciated that this may not be true for all cases investigated, but for an initial inspection, flat profiles were assumed

  2. An optical technique for characterizing the liquid phase of steam at the exhaust of an LP turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kercel, S.W.; Simpson, M.L.; Azar, M.; Young, M.

    1993-01-01

    Optical observation of velocity and size of water droplets in powerplant steam has several applications. These include the determination of steam wetness fraction, mass flow rate, and predicting erosion of turbine blades and pipe elbows. The major advantages of optical techniques are that they do not interfere with the flow or perturb the observation. This paper describes the measurement of the size and velocity of particles based on the observation and analysis of visibility patterns created by backscattered circularly polarized light. The size of latex particles in a dry nitrogen stream was measured in the laboratory. Visibility patterns of water droplets were observed in the low pressure turbine of Unit 6 of Alabama Power's Gorgas Steam Plant

  3. Modernization of turbines in fossil and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, T.; Oeynhausen, H.

    2004-01-01

    Steam turbine power plants have a big share in power generation world-wide. In view of their age structure, they offer the biggest potential for increasing power plant performance, availability and environmental protection. Modernisation and replacement of key components by improved components will reduce fuel consumption and improve power plant performance by higher capacity, higher power, shorter start-up and shutdown times, and reduced standstill times. Modern steam turbine bladings will result in further improvements without additional fuel consumption. (orig.)

  4. Design and field operation of 1175 MW steam turbine for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Y.; Nakagami, Y.; Fujii, H.; Shibanai, H.

    1980-01-01

    Two 1,175 MW steam turbine and generator units have been successfully in commercial operation since March 1979 and December 1979 respectively at Ohi Nuclear Power Station of the Kansai Electric Power Company. Those units, the largest in their respective outputs in Japan, have also such remarkable design features as two-stage reheat, nozzle governing turbine, water cooled generator stator and turbine-driven feedwater pumps. This paper covers design features and some topics of various pre-operational tests of the above-mentioned units. (author)

  5. United States Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Component Test Facility for 760°C Steam Power Plants ComTest Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Horst [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Purgert, Robert Michael [Energy Industries of Ohio

    2017-12-13

    Following the successful completion of a 15-year effort to develop and test materials that would allow coal-fired power plants to be operated at advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) steam conditions, a United States-based consortium is presently engaged in a project to build an A-USC component test facility (ComTest). A-USC steam cycles have the potential to improve cycle efficiency, reduce fuel costs, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Current development and demonstration efforts are focused on enabling the construction of A-USC plants, operating with steam temperatures as high as 1400°F (760°C) and steam pressures up to 5000 psi (35 MPa), which can potentially increase cycle efficiencies to 47% HHV (higher heating value), or approximately 50% LHV (lower heating value), and reduce CO2 emissions by roughly 25%, compared to today’s U.S. fleet. A-USC technology provides a lower-cost method to reduce CO2 emissions, compared to CO2 capture technologies, while retaining a viable coal option for owners of coal generation assets. Among the goals of the ComTest facility are to validate that components made from advanced nickel-based alloys can operate and perform under A-USC conditions, to accelerate the development of a U.S.-based supply chain for the full complement of A-USC components, and to decrease the uncertainty of cost estimates for future A-USC power plants. The configuration of the ComTest facility would include the key A-USC technology components that were identified for expanded operational testing, including a gas-fired superheater, high-temperature steam piping, steam turbine valve, and cycling header component. Membrane walls in the superheater have been designed to operate at the full temperatures expected in a commercial A-USC boiler, but at a lower (intermediate) operating pressure. This superheater has been designed to increase the temperature of the steam supplied by the host utility boiler up to 1400°F (760

  6. Corrosion fatigue in LP steam turbine blading - experiences, causes and appropriate measures; Korrosionsutmattning i aangturbinskovlar - Erfarenheter, inverkande faktorer och moejliga aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavast, J [ABB STAL AB, Finspaang (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Corrosion fatigue in LP steam turbine blading was reviewed together with result of tests performed in order to find blade materials with improved resistance against this. According to international experience, corrosion fatigue of 12Cr steam turbine blades in the transition zone between dry and wet steam, is one of the major causes, if not the major cause, for unavailability of steam turbines. Corrosion fatigue in LP blading is a frequent problem also in Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants, especially in turbines of type D54 in BWR-plants. Corrosion fatigue has also been discovered in at least one type of nuclear turbine. Initiation times have been very long and the varying experiences in different types of turbines may simply reflect differing initiation times. Corrosion fatigue may therefore become more frequent in other types of turbines in the future. The type of water treatment (BWR/PWR) and possibly temperature after reheating seem to influence the risk for corrosion fatigue. Influence of inleakage of cooling water is less clear for these nuclear plants. The long initiation times together with the fact that very few of the cracked blades have actually failed, indicate that the cracks initiate and/or propagate during transients. Extensive laboratory tests show that there are alternative blade materials available with improved resistance against corrosion fatigue, with the most promising being 15/5 PH and A905, together with Ti6Al4V. The Ti alloy shows the best resistance against corrosion fatigue in most environments and is already used in some turbines. Disadvantage is a higher cost and possible need for redesign of the blades. The alternative materials are recommended for use for blades in the transition zone between dry and wet steam in LP turbines. The main disadvantage is a lack of references, even if 15%5 PH has been used to a very limited extent. 40 refs, 24 figs, 12 tabs, 9 appendices

  7. Optimization of Root Section for Ultra-long Steam Turbine Rotor Blade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hála, Jindřich; Luxa, Martin; Šimurda, David; Bobčík, M.; Novák, O.; Rudas, B.; Synáč, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2018), s. 95-102 ISSN 1003-2169 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA03020277; GA TA ČR TH02020057 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : steam turbine * blade cascade * root section Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 0.678, year: 2016

  8. Application of PHADEC method for the decontamination of radioactive steam piping components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Frano, R.; Pilo, F.; Aquaro, D.

    2013-01-01

    The dismantling of nuclear plants is a complex activity that originates often a large quantity of radioactive contaminated residue. In this paper the attention was focused on the PHADEC (Phosphoric Acid Decontamination) plant adopted for the clearance of Caorso NPP (in Italy) metallic systems and components contaminated by Co 60 (produced by the neutron capture in the iron materials), like the main steam lines, moisture separator of the turbine buildings, etc.. The PHADEC plant consists in a chemical off line treatment: the crud, deposited along the steam piping during life plant as an example, is removed by means of acid attacks in ponds coupled to a high pressure water washing. Due to the fact that the removed contaminated layers, essentially, iron oxides of various chemical composition, depend on components geometry, type of contamination and time of treatment in the PHADEC plant, it becomes of meaningful importance to suggest a procedure capable to improve the control of the PHADEC process parameters. This study aimed thus at the prediction and optimization of the mentioned treatment time in order to improve the efficiency of the plant itself and to achieve, in turn, the minimization of produced wastes. To the purpose an experimental campaign was carried out by analysing several samples, i.e. taken along the main steam piping line. Smear tests as well as metallographic analyses were carried out in order to determine respectively the radioactivity distribution and the crud composition on the inner surface of the components. Moreover the radioactivity in the crud thickness was measured. These values allowed finally to correlate the residence time in the acid attack ponds to the level of the achieved decontamination. (authors)

  9. The use of tracer techniques to measure water flow rates in steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, O.J.; Blaylock, G.; Gale, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive and chemical tracers offer some unique advantages in detailed flow measurement on steam turbine plant. A series of experiments on a nuclear power station are reported where tracers successfully measured water flow rates and the initial steam moisture with an accuracy suitable for performance and commissioning tests. Both radioactive and chemical tracer methods produced identical results. Straightforward practical procedures were evolved that ensured repeatable accuracy and in addition a quantitative method of detecting heater leaks on load was established. (author)

  10. Energy analysis of a combined solid oxide fuel cell with a steam turbine power plant for marine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Mosleh, M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2013-12-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SO x , NO x ) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. The analyzed variant of the combined cycle includes a SOFC operated with natural gas fuel and a steam turbine with a single-pressure waste heat boiler. The calculations were performed for two types of tubular and planar SOFCs, each with an output power of 18 MW. This paper includes a detailed energy analysis of the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effects of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance are investigated. It has been found that a high overall efficiency approaching 60% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using the SOFC system. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  11. Accurate calibration of steam turbine speed control system and its influence on primary regulation at electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrazabal Bohorquez, Washington Orlando; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy], E-mail: barbosa@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    In an interconnected electric system there are two very important parameters: the field voltage and the frequency system. The frequency system is very important for the primary regulation of the electric grid. Each turbomachine actuating as generator interconnected to the grid has an automatic speed regulator to keep the rotational speed and mechanical power of the prime machine operating at the set conditions and stable frequency. The electric grid is a dynamical system and in every moment the power units are exposed to several types of disturbances, which cause unbalance of the mechanical power developed by prime machine and the consumed electric power at the grid. The steam turbine speed control system controls the turbine speed to support the electric grid primary frequency at the same time it controls the frequency of the prime machine. Using a mathematical model for the speed control system, the transfer functions were calculated, as well as the proportionality constants of each element of the steam turbine automatic speed regulator. Among other parameters, the droop characteristic of steam turbine and the dynamic characteristics of the automatic speed regulator elements were calculated. Another important result was the determination of the behavior of the speed control when disturbances occur with the improvement of the calibration precision of the control system. (author)

  12. Strategies for steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennagir, T.

    1996-01-01

    This article is a review of worldwide developments in the steam turbine and heat recovery steam generator markets. The Far East is driving the market in HRSGs, while China is driving the market in orders placed for steam turbine prime movers. The efforts of several major suppliers are discussed, with brief technical details being provided for several projects

  13. Thermo-economic comparative analysis of gas turbine GT10 integrated with air and steam bottoming cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Daniel; Chmielnak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    A thermodynamic and economic analysis of a GT10 gas turbine integrated with the air bottoming cycle is presented. The results are compared to commercially available combined cycle power plants based on the same gas turbine. The systems under analysis have a better chance of competing with steam bottoming cycle configurations in a small range of the power output capacity. The aim of the calculations is to determine the final cost of electricity generated by the gas turbine air bottoming cycle based on a 25 MW GT10 gas turbine with the exhaust gas mass flow rate of about 80 kg/s. The article shows the results of thermodynamic optimization of the selection of the technological structure of gas turbine air bottoming cycle and of a comparative economic analysis. Quantities are determined that have a decisive impact on the considered units profitability and competitiveness compared to the popular technology based on the steam bottoming cycle. The ultimate quantity that can be compared in the calculations is the cost of 1 MWh of electricity. It should be noted that the systems analyzed herein are power plants where electricity is the only generated product. The performed calculations do not take account of any other (potential) revenues from the sale of energy origin certificates. Keywords: Gas turbine air bottoming cycle, Air bottoming cycle, Gas turbine, GT10

  14. Acceptance test guideline for steam turbine control systems. Anahmerichtlinie fuer Regel- und Steuereinrichtungen von Dampfturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The acceptances to be obtained during the first operational run, refer to measures proving the functional integrity of the turbine control system and assuring the compliance with the maximum allowable overspeed in case of lead changes or perturbations. The Guideline concerns essentially speed, power, and pressure controllers coupled to generators. It may be appropriately extended to steam turbines serving other purposes.

  15. C. F. Braun. Standard turbine island design, safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A standard turbine island used with a BWR is described. It consists of the turbine-generator; steam system; condensate storage, cleanup, and transfer systems; control and instrumentation; water treatment plant; make-up demineralizer; potable and waste water systems; and a compressed air system. The turbine-generator is a tandem-compound nuclear-type turbine with one double-flow high-pressure section and a six-flow low-pressure section in three double-flow low-pressure casings. The turbine is direct connected to an 1800 rpm synchronous a-c generator. A combined moisture separator and two-stage reheater is provided. The main steam system delivers the steam generated in a BWR to the main turbine stop valves. The condensate system maintains proper water inventory. Protective features prevent loss of the system due to electrical failure of a component and isolates faults to ensure continuity of a power supply from alternate sources. (U.S.)

  16. The impact research of control modes in steam turbine control system (digital electric hydraulic to the low-frequency oscillation of grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanghai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the control theory for steam turbine, the transfer function of the steam turbine control modes in the parallel operation was obtained. The frequency domain analysis indicated that different control modes of turbine control system have different influence on the damping characteristics of the power system. The comparative analysis shows the direction and the degree of the influence under the different oscillation frequency range. This can provide the theory for the suppression of the low-frequency oscillation from turbine side and has a guiding significance for the stability of power system. The results of simulation tests are consistent with the theoretic analysis.

  17. Dynamic performances of wet turbine and steam-separator-superheater and their mathematical simulation as objects of temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovach, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical model of a turbine and steam-separator-superheater (SSS) as applied to solution of the tasks of steam temperature regulaton after SSS has been developed. SSS as objects of steam temperature control are considerably less inertial, than intermediate superheaters (IS) of power units in thermal power plants, since for typical SSS and IS considered the duration of transition process according to steam temperature after SSS is 5-10 times loweA than for IS

  18. Possibility of revitalization of control system of steam turbine 210 MW LMZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racki, Branko

    2004-01-01

    It is a one-shaft, three casing condensing turbine, type K-210-130. A rigid coupling connects it directly to the electric energy generator. There is one intermediate superheat of steam and seven non regulated blending for regenerative condensate heating. A considerate number of such turbines have been used on the territory of the Eastern Europe. There are two blocks installed in TP Sisak, Croatia. There is a survey of the existing control system of turbine, power 210 MW. It points out and describes problems appearing during exploitation. Technical solutions according to complexity of realization have been described. It gives an overview of minimum range of modification with utilization of the existing oil system and maximum range by adding separate high pressure oil system with new solutions for performing segments. (Author)

  19. User's instructions for ORCENT II: a digital computer program for the analysis of steam turbine cycles supplied by light-water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, L.C.

    1979-02-01

    The ORCENT-II digital computer program will perform calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. Turbine performance calculations are based on a method published by the General Electric Company. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. The program is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM System 360 digital computers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  20. Operating experience feedback report: Reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps. Commercial power reactors, Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of failure initiators, causes and design features for steam turbine assemblies (turbines with their related components, such as governors and valves) which are used as drivers for standby pumps in the auxiliary feedwater systems of US commercial pressurized water reactor plants, and in the high pressure coolant injection and reactor core isolation cooling systems of US commercial boiling water reactor plants. These standby pumps provide a redundant source of water to remove reactor core heat as specified in individual plant safety analysis reports. The period of review for this report was from January 1974 through December 1990 for licensee event reports (LERS) and January 1985 through December 1990 for Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) failure data. This study confirmed the continuing validity of conclusions of earlier studies by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by the US nuclear industry that the most significant factors in failures of turbine-driven standby pumps have been the failures of the turbine-drivers and their controls. Inadequate maintenance and the use of inappropriate vendor technical information were identified as significant factors which caused recurring failures

  1. HTGR power plant hot reheat steam pressure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1975-01-01

    A control system for a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) power plant is disclosed wherein such plant includes a plurality of steam generators. Dual turbine-generators are connected to the common steam headers, a high pressure element of each turbine receiving steam from the main steam header, and an intermediate-low pressure element of each turbine receiving steam from the hot reheat header. Associated with each high pressure element is a bypass line connected between the main steam header and a cold reheat header, which is commonly connected to the high pressure element exhausts. A control system governs the flow of steam through the first and second bypass lines to provide for a desired minimum steam flow through the steam generator reheater sections at times when the total steam flow through the turbines is less than such minimum, and to regulate the hot reheat header steam pressure to improve control of the auxiliary steam turbines and thereby improve control of the reactor coolant gas flow, particularly following a turbine trip. (U.S.)

  2. Evaluation of Steam Generator Level behavior for Determination of Turbine Runback rate on COPs trip for Yonggwang 1 and 2 Power Uprating Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Jin; Hwang, Su Hyun; Yoo, Tae Geun; Chung, Soon Il; An, Byung Chang; Park, Jung Gu

    2010-01-01

    4.5% power uprate project has been progressing for the first time in Yonggwang 1 and 2(YGN1 and 2). Reviews for design change due to the power uprate were accomplished. Steam generator level behavior was one of the most important parameters because it could be cause of reactor trip or turbine trip. As the results of the reviews, YGN1 and 2 had to reassess it for change of turbine runback rate when turbine runback occurs due to the condensate operating pumps (COP) trip. This study has been carried out for evaluating the steam generator level behavior for determination of turbine runback rate on COPs trip for Yonggwang 1 and 2 Power Uprating Units. The steam generator water level evaluation program for YGN1 and 2 (SLEP-Y1) has been developed for it. The program includes models for the steam generator water level response. SLEP-Y1 is programmed with advanced continuous system simulation language (ACSL). The language has been used to simulate physical systems as a commercial tool used to evaluate system designs

  3. Ecotaxes and their impact in the cost of steam and electric energy generated by a steam turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Gisela

    2006-01-01

    Ecotaxes allow the internalization of costs that are considered externalities associated with polluting industrial process emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, ecotaxes internalize polluting emissions negative impacts that are added to electricity and steam generated costs of a steam turbine and heat recovery systems from a utilities refinery plant. Steam costs were calculated by means of an exergy analysis tool and Aspen Plus simulation models. Ecotaxes were calculated for specific substances emitted in the refinery flue gases, based on a toxicity and pollution scale. Ecotaxes were generated from a model that includes damages produced to biotic and abiotic resources and considers the relative position of those substances in a toxicity and pollution scale. These ecotaxes were internalized by an exergoeconomic analysis resulting in an increase in the cost per kWh produced. This kind of ecotax is not applied in Mexico. The values of ecotaxes used in the cost determination are referred to the values currently applied by some European countries to nitrogen oxides emissions. (author)

  4. Computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K H; Weber, M; Weiss, M [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    As the output and economic value of power plants increase, the detection and sizing of the type of flaws liable to occur in the rotors of turbines using ultrasonic methods assumes increasing importance. An ultrasonic inspection carried out at considerable expense is expected to bring to light all safety-relevant flaws and to enable their size to be determined so as to permit a fracture-mechanics analysis to assess the reliability of the rotor under all possible stresses arising in operation with a high degree of accuracy. The advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors have improved reliability, accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasonic inspection. Further, there has been an improvement in the resolution of resolvable group indications by applying reconstruction and imagine methods. In general, it is also true for the advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection methods that, in the case of flaw-affected forgings, automated data acquisition provides a substantial rationalization and a significant documentation of the results for the fracture mechanics assessment compared to manual inspection. (orig.) 8 refs.

  5. Computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K.H.; Weber, M.; Weiss, M. [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    As the output and economic value of power plants increase, the detection and sizing of the type of flaws liable to occur in the rotors of turbines using ultrasonic methods assumes increasing importance. An ultrasonic inspection carried out at considerable expense is expected to bring to light all safety-relevant flaws and to enable their size to be determined so as to permit a fracture-mechanics analysis to assess the reliability of the rotor under all possible stresses arising in operation with a high degree of accuracy. The advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors have improved reliability, accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasonic inspection. Further, there has been an improvement in the resolution of resolvable group indications by applying reconstruction and imagine methods. In general, it is also true for the advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection methods that, in the case of flaw-affected forgings, automated data acquisition provides a substantial rationalization and a significant documentation of the results for the fracture mechanics assessment compared to manual inspection. (orig.) 8 refs.

  6. Aerodynamic instabilities in governing valves of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, J.M.; Pluviose, M.

    1991-01-01

    The capacity of a.c. turbogenerators in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is regulated by means of governing valves located at the inlet of the high-pressure turbine. The conditions created in these valves (due to the throttling of the steam) involve the generation of a jet structure, possibly supersonic. Aerodynamic instabilities could potentially excite the mechanical structure. These aerodynamic phenomena are studied in this paper by means of a two-dimensional numerical model. Viscous effects are taken into account with heuristic criteria on separation and reattachment. Detailed experimental analysis of the flow behaviour is compared with the numerical prediction of stability limits. (Author)

  7. Arabelle: The most powerful steam turbine in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarque, F.; Deloroix, V.

    1998-01-01

    On the 30th of August 1996 at the CHOOZ power station in the Ardennes, the first 1,500 MW turbine was started up under nuclear steam and connected to the grid. It will reach full power in the spring of 1997, followed shortly afterwards by a second identical machine. This turbine, known as ARABELLE, is currently the most powerful in the world, with a single line rotating at 1,500 rpm. It has been entirely designed, manufactured and installed by the teams of GEC ALSTHOM, within the framework of the Electricite de France N4 PWR program. It represents a new type of nuclear turbine, the fruit of much research and development work which started in the 1980s. It benefits from GEC ALSTHOM's considerable experience in the field of nuclear turbines: 143 machines with a total power output of 100,000 MW and more than ten million hours of operation. It should be remembered that the first 1,000 MW unit for a PWR plant was connected at Fessenheim in 1977, and since then the different EDF plants have been equipped with 58 GEC ALSTHOM turbines, ranging from 1,000 MW to 1,350 MW, this providing the company with a vast amount of information. The process which led to a new design for ARABELLE was based on: Feedback of service experience from previous machines; this provides precious learning material with a view to improving the performance of operating equipment. Research and development work resulting in significant technical advances which could then be integrated into the design of a new generation of turbines. Taking account of the major concerns of the customer-user: Electricite de France (EDF): Improved reliability and operating availability, increased efficiency, reduced investment and maintenance costs

  8. DESAIN AWAL TURBIN UAP TIPE AKSIAL UNTUK KONSEP RGTT30 BERPENDINGIN HELIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2016-06-01

    FOR HELIUM-COOLED RGTT30 CONCEPT. The concept of a nuclear power reactor, which evolves, is high temperature gas-cooled reactor type (HTGR. Gas that is used to cool the HTGR core, is helium. The HTGR concept used in this study can yield thermal power of 30 MWth so that named RGTT30. Helium temperature can reach 700 °C when come out from the RGTT30 core and it is used for heating the water within steam generator to achieve the temperature of 435 °C. The steam generator is connected to a steam turbine, which is coupled with an electricity generator, for generating electric power of 7.27 MWe. The steam that comes out from the turbine is flowed through condenser for changing the steam into water. The component train of steam generator, turbine, and condenser was given the name of steam turbine system. The turbine consists of blades that are intended to transform the steam power into mechanical power in the form of rotational speed. Turbine efficiency is a parameter that must be considered in this steam turbine system. The aims of this paper are to propose blade of axial type and to analyze the efficiency improvement of the turbine. The method used is the application of the thermodynamic principles associated with conservations of energy and mass. Cycle-Tempo software is used to obtain thermodynamic parameters and to simulate the steam turbine system based on RGTT30. Firstly, a scenario is created to model and simulate the steam turbine system for determining the efficiency and the mass flow rate of steam. The optimal values for the efficiency and the mass flow rates at the speed of 3000 rpm are 87.52 % and 8.759 kg/s, respectively. Then, the steam turbine was given the blade of axial type with a tip diameter of 1580 mm and a length of 150 mm. The results obtained are turbine efficiency increasing to 88.3% on constant speed (3000 rpm. Enhancement in the turbine efficiency value of 0.78% showed raising the overall performance of RGTT30. Keywords: Axial type, steam turbine

  9. An investigation of nucleating flows of steam in a cascade of turbine blading: Effect of overall pressure ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtar, F.; Savage, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the course of expansion of steam in turbines the state path crosses the saturation line and the fluid becomes a two-phase mixture. To reproduce turbine nucleating and wet conditions realistically requires a supply of supercooled steam which can be obtained under blow down conditions. An experimental short duration cascade tunnel working on this principle has been constructed. The blade profile studied is that of a typical nozzle The paper is one of a set and describes the surface pressure measurements carried out to investigate the effect of the overall pressure ratio on the performance of the blade

  10. An innovative modular device and wireless control system enabling thermal and pressure sensors using FPGA on real-time fault diagnostics of steam turbine functional deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, S.; Saravanan, M.

    2018-03-01

    It is necessary that the condition of the steam turbines is continuously monitored on a scheduled basis for the safe operation of the steam turbines. The review showed that steam turbine fault detection and operation maintenance system (STFDOMS) is gaining importance recently. In this paper, novel hardware architecture is proposed for STFDOMS that can be communicated through the GSM network. Arduino is interfaced with the FPGA so as to transfer the message. The design has been simulated using the Verilog programming language and implemented in hardware using FPGA. The proposed system is shown to be a simple, cost effective and flexible and thereby making it suitable for the maintenance of steam turbines. This system forewarns the experts to access to data messages and take necessary action in a short period with great accuracy. The hardware developed is promised as a real-time test bench, specifically for investigations of long haul effects with different parameter settings.

  11. Analysis and control of erosion by solid particles in the elements of the flow system of steam turbines; Analisis y control de erosion por particulas solidas en los elementos del sistema de flujo de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw; Campos Amezcua, Alfonso; Campos Amezcua, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of erosion by solid particles is presented of different elements of the flow channel of the steam turbines that operate in Mexico: nozzles, stop valves, blade bosses, labyrinth seals and rotor disc; using tools of of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In these main elements of turbines a strong problem of erosion was registered that threatens the reliable operation of the turbines, its availability and its optimal yield. With base on the results of the numerical analyses, the design modifications of the different elements were developed from the flow channel of the steam turbines, in order to reduce the erosion and thus diminishing the energy losses and increasing the steam turbine efficiency. This work presents the main benefits that the Thermoelectric Power Plants obtain with the reduction of the erosion by solid particles that affect the critical components of steam turbines: extension of the period between maintenance, replacement of components, reduction of operation and maintenance costs of the turbines, and extension of the useful life of the main components. [Spanish] Se presenta el analisis de erosion por particulas solidas de diferentes elementos del canal de flujo de las turbinas de vapor que operan en Mexico: toberas, valvula de paro, tetones de los alabes, sellos de laberinto y disco del rotor; utilizando herramientas de Dinamica de Fluidos Computacional (DFC). En estos elementos principales de turbinas se registro un fuerte problema de erosion que amenaza la operacion confiable de las turbinas, su disponibilidad y su rendimiento optimo. Con base en los resultados de los analisis numericos, se desarrollaron las modificaciones de diseno de los diferentes elementos del canal de flujo de las turbinas de vapor, con el proposito de reducir la erosion y asi, disminuir las perdidas de energia e incrementar el rendimiento de las turbinas de vapor. Este trabajo presenta los principales beneficios que obtienen las Centrales Termoelectricas con la

  12. Condensation of steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisyazhniuk, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    An equation for nucleation kinetics in steam condensation has been derived, the equation taking into account the concurrent and independent functioning of two nucleation mechanisms: the homogeneous one and the heterogeneous one. The equation is a most general-purpose one and includes all the previously known condensation models as special cases. It is shown how the equation can be used in analyzing the process of steam condensation in the condenser of an industrial steam-turbine plant, and in working out new ways of raising the efficiency of the condenser, as well as of the steam-turbine plant as a whole. (orig.)

  13. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  14. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ulloa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled “Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines.” This is one of the topics covered in the course “Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer,” which is offered in the second year of Mechanical Engineering at the Defense University Center at the Naval Academy in Vigo, Spain. While participating in the activity, students will be divided into groups of no more than 10 for seminars. The groups will create PowerPoint presentations that include all of the analyzed aspects. The topics to be discussed during the workshop on power plant turbines are the: (1 principles of operation; (2 processes involved; (3 advantages and disadvantages; (4 efficiency; (5 combined cycle; and (6 transversal competences, such as teamwork, oral and written presentations, and analysis and synthesis of information. This paper presents the use of Google Sites as a guide to the WebQuest so that students can access all information online, including instructions, summaries, resources, and information on qualifications.

  15. User's instructions for ORCENT II: a digital computer program for the analysis of steam turbine cycles supplied by light-water-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, L.C.

    1979-02-01

    The ORCENT-II digital computer program will perform calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. Turbine performance calculations are based on a method published by the General Electric Company. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. The program is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM System 360 digital computers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. To the choice of the regeneration system of the K-1000-68/1500 turbine plant for the NPP with a vertical-type steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N.M.; Piskarev, A.A.; Grinman, M.I.; Kruglikov, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Several variants of the heat regeneration system for the NPP with WWER-1000 type reactors using vertical steam generator (SG) generating saturated steam at 7.2 MPa pressure and 200 deg C feed water temperature at the SG inlet are considered. The results of comparison of variants in water and steam circuits of turbine plants are greatly influenced by integral economy account, i.e. efficiency indexes account under variable conditions of power unit operation. From variants of water and steam circuits of the K-1000-68/1500 turbine plant considered preference is given to the variant with four low pressure heaters with increased up to 1.25 MPa pressure in a deacrator without high pressure heater with pumping intermediate steam superheater condensate into feedwater circuit

  17. Co-generation on steam industrial systems with disks turbines; Co-geracao em sistemas industriais de vapor com turbinas de discos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezsovits, Ferenc [Universidad de Tecnologia y Economia de Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-03-15

    The disk turbine, also called Tesla turbine, being of simple construction and low cost, can be used as steam pressure reduction on industrial systems, generating simultaneously electric power, becoming the co-generation even at lower levels. Can be used for various operational parameters and mass flux ratios.This paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the turbines under various operation conditions.

  18. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sobczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power system, newly connected large thermal units and delaying of building new transmission lines. The principle of fast-valving and advantages of applying this technique in large steam turbine units was presented in the paper. Effectiveness of fast-valving in enhancing the stability of the Polish Power Grid was analyzed. The feasibility study of fast-valving application in the 560 MW unit in Kozienice Power Station (EW SA was discussed.

  19. Redesign of steam turbine rotor blades and rotor packages – Environmental analysis within systematic eco-design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic approach to eco-design of steam turbine rotor blades was applied. • Eco-innovative solutions are based on structural and technological change. • At the stage of detailed design the variants were analyzed using LCA. • Main achieved benefits: energy and material savings, lower environmental impact. • Benefits related to the possible scale of the solution practical application. - Abstract: Eco-design of steam turbine blades could be one of the possibilities of decreasing the environmental impact of energy systems based on turbines. The paper investigates the eco-design approach to elaboration of the rotor blades and packages. The purpose is to present the course of eco-design of the rotor blades and the rotor packages taking account of eco-design assumptions, solutions and the concept itself. The following eco-design variants of the rotor blades and the rotor packages are considered: elements of the rotor blades made separately (baseline variant of the rotor blades); elements of the rotor blades made of one piece of material; blades in packages made separately and welded (baseline variant of the rotor packages); packages milled as integral elements. At the stage of detailed design, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed in relation to a functional unit – the rotor blades and packages ready for installation in a steam turbine, which is the stage of the turbine. The obtained results indicate that eco-innovative solutions for the turbine blades and packages could be achieved through structural and technological changes. Applying new solutions of the rotor blades may produce the following main benefits: 3.3% lower use of materials, 29.4% decrease in energy consumption at the manufacturing stage, 7.7% decrease in the environmental impact in the life cycle. In relation to the rotor packages, the following main benefits may be achieved: 20.5% lower use of materials, 25.0% decrease in energy consumption at the production stage, 16

  20. Model for transient simulation in a PWR steam circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, L.A. de.

    1982-11-01

    A computer code (SURF) was developed and used to simulate pressure losses along the tubes of the main steam circuit of a PWR nuclear power plant, and the steam flow through relief and safety valves when pressure reactors its thresholds values. A thermodynamic model of turbines (high and low pressure), and its associated components are simulated too. The SURF computer code was coupled to the GEVAP computer code, complementing the simulation of a PWR nuclear power plant main steam circuit. (Author) [pt

  1. Influence of the Operational Wear of the Stator Parts of Shroud Seals on the Economic Efficiency of the Steam Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Dmitriev, S. S.; Petrunin, B. N.; Gusev, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    During the operation of steam turbines under transient conditions, due to different thermal expansion of the stator and rotor parts in the radial and axial directions, the clearances fixed in the course of assembling the seals of the flow path change, which causes rubbing in the seals and the wear of the latter. This inevitably increases the leakages through the seals. A particularly large difference in the relative axial and radial displacements of the rotor and stator parts is observed during the turbine start-ups when the difference in their temperature expansion is maximal. Upon the turbine stops, the turbine shafting runs down freely, as a rule, passing through all critical speeds at which the amplitude of the shafting oscillations reach their peak values, which also leads to seizures in the seals and their wear and tear. The seizures in the seals may also be a consequence of the eccentricity between the rotor and stator caused by the thermal strain of the stator, incorrect choice of the clearances, floating-up of the rotor in the bearing, and many other factors. Recently, standard shroud labyrinth seals are being replaced in the steam turbines by seals with honeycomb stator inserts, the design of which allows the ridges to cut into the honeycomb surface without damaging the former, which allows fixing a radial clearance in the seals of 0.5 mm. On the honeycomb surface where the ridges touch it, grooves are cut through. The wear of the shroud seals reduces the efficiency of the steam turbines during the operation to the greatest degree. However, by the present there have been no exact quantitative data available on the change in the leakage through the worn-out honeycomb seals. The paper presents the results of comparative experimental studies on the flow and power characteristics of seal models with smooth and honeycomb stator parts for various degrees of their wear. The studies showed that the leakages through the worn-out stator parts of the honeycomb seals

  2. Engineering nonlinearity characteristic compensation for commercial steam turbine control valve using linked MARS code and Matlab Simulink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A nonlinearity characteristic compensation is proposed of the steam turbine control valve. ► A steady state and transient analyzer is developed of Ulchin Units 3 and 4 OPR1000 nuclear plants. ► MARS code and Matlab Simulink are used to verify the compensation concept. ► The results show the concept can compensate for the nonlinearity characteristic very well. - Abstract: Steam turbine control valves play a pivotal role in regulating the output power of the turbine in a commercial power plant. They thus have to be operated linearly to be run by an automatic control system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherently nonlinearity characteristics. The flow increases more significantly near the closed end than near the open end of the stem travel given the valve position signal. The steam flow should nonetheless be proportional to the final desired quantity, output power, of the turbine to obtain a linear operation. This paper presents the valve engineering linked analysis (VELA) for nonlinearity characteristic compensation of the steam turbine control valve by using a linked two existing commercial software. The Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS) code and Matlab Simulink have been selected for VELA to develop a steady state and transient analyzer of Ulchin Units 3 and 4 powered by the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MWe (OPR1000). MARS is capable of modeling a wide range of systems from single pipes to full nuclear power plants. As one of standard nuclear power plant thermal hydraulic analysis software tools, MARS simulates the primary and secondary sides of the nuclear power plant. To simulate the electric power flow part, Matlab Simulink is chosen as the standard analysis software. Matlab Simulink having an interactive environment to model analyzes and simulates a wide variety of engineering dynamic systems including multimachine power systems. Based on the MARS code result, Matlab Simulink analyzes the power flow of the

  3. Physical-chemistry aspects of water in steam turbines associated with material stress and electrochemical assessment of the AISI 403 to simulate real condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, D S; Franco, C V; Godinho, J F; Frech, W A; Sonai, G G [Univ. Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); Torres, L A.M.; Ellwanger, A R.F. [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This study described a methodology developed to prevent the occurrence of corrosion failure in steam turbines. The methodology was developed after the failure of a turbine blade at a plant in Brazil. Deposits were collected from various locations along the turbine blade path and analyzed. A turbine deposit collector and simulator was installed to determine the concentrations of steam impurities. Samples were collected from the low pressure turbine at the crossover point and from the polishing station and analyzed using inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in order to determine if sodium levels exceeded 3 ppb. Filters were weighed in order to determine the accumulation of impurities. A 3-electrode system was used to determine the influence of chloride ions. The design of the system's condensate polisher beds was modified in order to improve condensate effluent conductivity. The condensate treatment procedure lowered the concentrations of salt impurities and established a monitoring methodology for water and steam used at the plant. It was concluded that the methodology can be used to to reduce inspection intervals and increase system reliability. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  4. A study on reliability of electro-hydraulic governor control system for large steam turbine in power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Gu Hwa; Lee, Tae Hoon; Moon, Seung Jae; Lee, Jae Heon; Yoo, Ho Seon

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the right management procedure for hydraulic power oil will be discussed and suggested. A thermal power plant turbine should respond to the change of load status. However, to satisfy the frequency of alternating current, the revolution per minute should be kept constant. Therefore, by controlling the flow rate of the steam to the turbine, the governor satisfies the load variation without alternating the revolution per minutes of the turbine. To protect the governor, the hydraulic power unit should be managed carefully by controlling the quality and the flow rate of the oil

  5. Method for repairing a steam turbine or generator rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.; Amos, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for repairing low alloy steel steam turbine or generator rotors, the method comprising: a. machining mating attachments on a replacement end and a remaining portion of the original rotor; b. mating the replacement end and the original rotor; c. welding the replacement end to the original rotor by narrow-gap gas metal arc or submerged arc welding up to a depth of 1/2-2 inches from the rotor surface; d. gas tungsten arc welding the remaining 1/2-2 inches; e. boring out the mating attachment and at least the inside 1/4 inch of the welding; and f. inspecting the bore

  6. A theoretical analysis of flow through the nucleating stage in a low pressure steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skillings, S.A.; Walters, P.T.; Jackson, R.

    1989-01-01

    In order to improve steam turbine efficiency and reliability, the phenomena associated with the formation and growth of water droplets must be understood. This report describes a theoretical investigation into flow behaviour in the nucleating stage, where the predictions of a one-dimensional theory are compared with measured turbine data. Results indicate that droplet sizes predicted by homogeneous condensation theory cannot be reconciled with measurements unless fluctuating shock waves arise. Heterogeneous effects and flow turbulence are also discussed along with their implications for the condensation process. (author)

  7. New low pressure (LP) turbines for NE Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemcic, K.; Novsak, M.

    2004-01-01

    During the evaluation of possible future maintenance strategies on steam turbine in very short period of time, engineering decision was made by NE Krsko in agreement with Owners to replace the existing two Low Pressure (LP) Turbines with new upgrading LP Turbines. This decision is presented with review of the various steam turbine problems as: SCC on turbine discs; blades cracking; erosion-corrosion with comparison of various maintenance options and efforts undertaken by the NE Krsko to improve performance of the original low pressure turbines. This paper presents the NEK approach to solve the possible future problems with steam turbine operation in NE Krsko as pro-active engineering and maintenance activities on the steam turbine. This paper also presents improvements involving retrofits, confined to the main steam turbine path, with major differences between original and new LP Turbines as beneficial replacement because of turbine MWe upgrading and return capital expenditures.(author)

  8. Evaluation of material integrity on electricity generator water steam cycles component (Main Steam Pipe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudardjo; Histori; Triyadi, Ari

    1998-01-01

    The evaluation of material integrity on electricity generator component has been done. That component was main steam pipe of Unit II Suralaya Coal Fired Power Plant. evaluation was done by replication technique. The damage was found are two porosity's, from two point samples of six points sample population. Based on cavity evaluation in steels, which proposed by Neubauer and Wedel that porosity's still at class A damage. For class A damage, its means no remedial action would be required until next major scheduled maintenance outage. That porosity's was grouped on isolated cavities and not need ti repair that main steam pipe component less than three year after replication test

  9. A CFD Analysis of Steam Flow in the Two-Stage Experimental Impulse Turbine with the Drum Rotor Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Kukchol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the CFD analysis of the steam flow in the two-stage turbine with a drum rotor and balancing slots. The balancing slot is a part of every rotor blade and it can be used in the same way as balancing holes on the classical rotor disc. The main attention is focused on the explanation of the experimental knowledge about the impact of the slot covering and uncovering on the efficiency of the individual stages and the entire turbine. The pressure and temperature fields and the mass steam flows through the shaft seals, slots and blade cascades are calculated. The impact of the balancing slots covering or uncovering on the reaction and velocity conditions in the stages is evaluated according to the pressure and temperature fields. We have also concentrated on the analysis of the seal steam flow through the balancing slots. The optimized design of the balancing slots has been suggested.

  10. Comparison of performances of full-speed turbine and half-speed turbine for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hu; Zhang Weihong; Zhang Qiang; Li Shaohua

    2010-01-01

    The steam turbines of nuclear power plants can be divided into the full-speed turbine and half-speed turbine. Different speed leads to differences in many aspects. Therefore, the rational speed is the key point in the selection of steam turbines. This paper contrasts the economy between the half-speed turbine and full-speed turbine, by calculating the relative internal efficiency of half-speed and full-speed steam turbines with the typical level of 1000 megawatt. At the same time, this paper also calculate the relative speed of high speed water drops in the last stage blade of half-speed turbine and full-speed turbine, to contrast the water erosion between the half-speed turbine and full-speed turbine. The results show that the relative internal efficiency of half-speed turbine is higher than that of the full-speed turbine, and that the security especially the ability of preventing water erosion of half-speed turbine is better than that of the full-speed turbine. (authors)

  11. Research and engineering application of coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator on nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    The coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator (TG) usually is very significant and complicated for a new construction of nuclear power plant, because it carries the safety, economy and availability of nuclear power plant. Based on successful practice of a nuclear power plant, the experience on interface design and hardware architecture of coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator was abstracted and researched. In this paper, the key points and engineering experience were introduced to give the helpful instructions for the new project. (author)

  12. Upgrading the SPP-500-1 moisture separators-steam reheaters used in the Leningrad NPP turbine units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legkostupova, V. V.; Sudakov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The specific features of existing designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters (MSRs) and experience gained with using them at nuclear power plants are considered. Main factors causing damage to and failures of MSRs are described: nonuniform distribution of wet steam flow among the separation modules, breakthrough of moisture through the separator (and sometimes also through the steam reheater), which may lead to the occurrence of additional thermal stresses and, hence, to thermal-fatigue damage to or stress corrosion cracking of metal. MSR failure results in a less efficient operation of the turbine unit as a whole and have an adverse effect on the reliability of the low-pressure cylinder's last-stage blades. By the time the design service life of the SPP-500-1 MSRs had been exhausted in power units equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors, the number of damages inflicted to both the separation part and to the pipework and heating surface tubes was so large, that a considerable drop of MSR effectiveness and turbine unit efficiency as a whole occurred. The design of the upgraded separation part used in the SPP-500-1 MSR at the Leningrad NPP is described and its effectiveness is shown, which was confirmed by tests. First, efforts taken to achieve more uniform distribution of moisture content over the perimeter and height of steam space downstream of the separation modules and to bring it to values close to the design ones were met with success. Second, no noticeable effect of the individual specific features of separation modules on the moisture content was revealed. Recommendations on elaborating advanced designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters are given: an MSR arrangement in which the separator is placed under or on the side from the steam reheater; axial admission of wet steam for ensuring its uniform distribution among the separation modules; inlet chambers with an extended preliminary separation system and devices for uniformly distributing steam flows in the

  13. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1998. Hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine (development of major components such as turbine blades and rotors); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (turbine yoku, rotor nado shuyo kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present research and development is intended to establish the fundamental technologies required to develop a pilot plant, by investigating development of such major component devices as turbine blades and rotors in a hydrogen combustion turbine. In the turbine moving and stator blade cooling technology, it is intended to achieve the power plant efficiency of 60% (based on HHV) as established in the interim evaluation performed in fiscal 1996. Therefore, the necessary element tests, detailed blade design, and partial fabrication were moved forward on the three kinds of the selected blade cooling systems as the cooling systems that can deal with the steam temperature condition as high as 1,700 degrees C. Fiscal 1998 will execute the design and fabrication of test blades and testing devices for blade cooling evaluation tests to be performed at Tashiro Township in Akita Prefecture. At the same time, evaluation and selection will be made on the three kinds of the cooling blades. In the rotor cooling technology, for the purpose of analyzing the rolling-in phenomenon of steam in the main turbine flow, a method will be developed to analyze rotor disk cavity temperatures based on CFD, the basic sealing conditions based thereon will be discussed, and generalization will be made on the rotor cooling technology. (NEDO)

  14. Repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades using austenitic and martensitic stainless-steel consumables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, A.K.; Gill, T.P.S.; Albert, S.K.; Shanmugam, K.; Iyer, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    The procedure for repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades made of martensitic stainless steels has been developed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Weld repair procedures were developed using both ER 316L austenitic and ER 410 martensitic stainless-steel filler wire. The overall development of the repair welding procedure included selection of welding consumables (for austenitic filler metal), optimisation of post-weld heat treatment parameters, selection of suitable method for local pre-heating and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the blades, determination of mechanical properties of weldments in as-welded and PWHT conditions, and microsturctural examination. After various trials using different procedures, the procedure of local PWHT (and preheating when using martensitic stainless-steel filler wire) using electrical resistance heating on the top surface of the weldment and monitoring the temperature by placing a thermocouple at the bottom of the weld was found to give the most satisfactory results. These procedures have been developed and/or applied for repair welding of cracked blades in steam turbines

  15. Probabilistic Modeling of Wind Turbine Drivetrain Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafsanjani, Hesam Mirzaei

    Wind energy is one of several energy sources in the world and a rapidly growing industry in the energy sector. When placed in offshore or onshore locations, wind turbines are exposed to wave excitations, highly dynamic wind loads and/or the wakes from other wind turbines. Therefore, most components...... in a wind turbine experience highly dynamic and time-varying loads. These components may fail due to wear or fatigue, and this can lead to unplanned shutdown repairs that are very costly. The design by deterministic methods using safety factors is generally unable to account for the many uncertainties. Thus......, a reliability assessment should be based on probabilistic methods where stochastic modeling of failures is performed. This thesis focuses on probabilistic models and the stochastic modeling of the fatigue life of the wind turbine drivetrain. Hence, two approaches are considered for stochastic modeling...

  16. Use of a microvideo probe to measure the size and velocity of water droplets in EDF steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, J.J.; Heurtebise, F.; Kleitz, A.

    1992-09-01

    Owing to the necessity to protect equipment associated with power plant turbines using saturated steam and following verification of the turbine design codes, EDF has developed a probe specifically designed for velocimetric and particle size grading measurements in this 2-phase environment. This method is also suitable for the measurement of cold or incandescent solid particles entrained in gas. (authors). 8 figs., 3 refs

  17. Numerical study of aero-excitation of steam-turbine rotor blade self-oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaev, S. A.; Makhnov, V. Yu.; Ris, V. V.; Smirnov, E. M.

    2018-05-01

    Blade aero-excitation increment is evaluated by numerical solution of the full 3D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations governing wet steam flow in a powerful steam-turbine last stage. The equilibrium wet steam model was adopted. Blade surfaces oscillations are defined by eigen-modes of a row of blades bounded by a shroud. Grid dependency study was performed with a reduced model being a set of blades multiple an eigen-mode nodal diameter. All other computations were carried out for the entire blade row. Two cases are considered, with an original-blade row and with a row of modified (reinforced) blades. Influence of eigen-mode nodal diameter and blade reinforcing on aero-excitation increment is analyzed. It has been established, in particular, that maximum value of the aero-excitation increment for the reinforced-blade row is two times less as compared with the original-blade row. Generally, results of the study point definitely to less probability of occurrence of blade self-oscillations in case of the reinforced blade-row.

  18. Performance of nickel base superalloy components in gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the microstructural behaviour of hot section components in the industrial gas turbine......The topic of this thesis is the microstructural behaviour of hot section components in the industrial gas turbine...

  19. Emergency makeup of nuclear steam generators in blackout conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, A.V.; Derevyanko, O.V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes an original solution for using steam energy to organize makeup of NPP steam generators in blackout conditions. The proposed solution combines a disk friction turbine and an axial turbine in a single housing to provide a high overall technical effect enabling the replenishment of nuclear steam generators with steam using the pump turbine drive assembly. The application of the design is analyzed and its efficiency and feasibility are shown

  20. Ni-base wrought alloy development for USC steam turbine rotor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkalla, H.-J.; Schubert, F.

    2004-01-01

    For the development of a new generation of steam turbines for use in advanced power plants with prospective operating temperatures of about 700 o C the ferritic steels for rotor applications must be replaced by advanced wrought Ni-base superalloys as the most qualified candidate materials for this purpose. In this paper three different potential candidates are discussed under the aspects of fabricability, sufficient microstructural and mechanical stability. As a result of theoretical and experimental investigation suitable strategies for the development two modified alloys are proposed to improve the fabricability and microstructural stability. (author)

  1. The new equation of steam quality and the evaluation of nonradioactive tracer method in PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki Bang, Sung; Young Jin, Chang

    2001-01-01

    The performance of steam turbines is tested as ANSI/ASME-PTC 6. This code provides rules for the accurate testing of steam turbines for the purpose of obtaining the level of performance with a minimum uncertainty. Only the relevant portion of this code needs to process any individual case, In some case the procedure is simple. However, in complex turbines or complex operation modes, more procedures are required to test the involved provisions. Anyway, to measure the steam quality in the Wolsong PHWR with 4 SGs in Korea by the methods in the section ''Measure of steam quality methods'' of ANSI/ASME PTC 6, the result was not good though the steam generators are efficient. So, the new testing method was developed and the sophisticated equation of steam quality was introduced and uses the nonradioactive chemical tracer, Lithium hydroxide(LiOH) instead of the radioactive tracer, Na-24. (author)

  2. Vibration Spectrum Analysis for Indicating Damage on Turbine and Steam Generator Amurang Unit 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beny Cahyono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance on machines is a mandatory asset management activity to maintain asset reliability in order to reduce losses due to failure. 89% of defects have random failure mode, the proper maintenance method is predictive maintenance. Predictive maintenance object in this research is Steam Generator Amurang Unit 1, which is predictive maintenance is done through condition monitoring in the form of vibration analysis. The conducting vibration analysis on Amurang Unit 1 Steam Generator is because vibration analysis is very effective on rotating objects. Vibration analysis is predicting the damage based on the vibration spectrum, where the vibration spectrum is the result of separating time-based vibrations and simplifying them into vibrations based on their frequency domain. The transformation of time-domain-wave into frequency-domain-wave is using the application of FFT, namely AMS Machinery. The measurement of vibration value is done on turbine bearings and steam generator of Unit 1 Amurang using Turbine Supervisory Instrument and CSI 2600 instrument. The result of this research indicates that vibration spectrum from Unit 1 Amurang Power Plant indicating that there is rotating looseness, even though the vibration value does not require the Unit 1 Amurang Power Plant to stop operating (shut down. This rotating looseness, at some point, can produce some indications that similar with the unbalance. In order to avoid more severe vibrations, it is necessary to do inspection on the bearings in the Amurang Unit 1 Power Plant.

  3. Steam separator-superheater with drawing of a fraction of the dried steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessouat, Roger; Marjollet, Jacques.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a vertical separator-superheater of the steam from a high pressure expansion turbine before it is admitted to an expansion turbine at a lower pressure, by heat exchange with steam under a greater pressure, and drawing of a fraction of the dried steam before it is superheated. Such drawing off is necessary in the heat exchange systems of light water nuclear reactors. Its purpose is to provide a separator-superheater that provides an even flow of non superheated steam and a regular distribution of the steam to be superheated to the various superheating bundles, with a significantly uniform temperature of the casing, thereby preventing thermal stresses and ensuring a minimal pressure drop. The vertical separator-superheater of the invention is divided into several vertical sections comprising as from the central area, a separation area of the steam entrained water and a superheater area and at least one other vertical section with only a separation area of the steam entrained water [fr

  4. Dynamic life-time assessing method for the N1C700 turbine's rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu-Vifor, B.

    1993-01-01

    The N1C700 turbine's rotor subject to different sorts of stress variations was investigated through dynamic life-time assessing method. To obtain the temperature fields at different steam parameters inside the turbine components, a computer code named DENOPAR was developed

  5. Characterisation and modelling of the microstructural and mechanical evolution of a steam turbine rotor steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, T.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the effective mechanical analysis of steam turbine parts which is not only required for the reliable and safe use of newly built steam turbines, but also for the remaining life assessment of components that have been exposed to service duty over long periods of time. This Thesis aims to develop a physically motivated evolutionary constitutive model for a low-alloy bainitic 2CrMoNiWV (23CrMoNiWV8-8) steam turbine rotor steels. A comprehensive experimental characterisation is performed concerning the mechanical and microstructural evolution of 2CrMoNiWV as subjected to low cycle fatigue (LCF) deformation at elevated temperatures, at different strain rates and for various strain amplitudes. This cyclic plastic deformation causes the rearrangement of dislocations in the microstructure of the steels used for such rotor applications. Symmetric, strain controlled LCF experiments have been carried out in the Laboratory of the High Temperature Integrity Group at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology EMPA. These include mechanical tests in the temperature range between 20 °C to 600 °C at strain rates of 0.001%/s to 1.0%/s and strain amplitudes of ±0.25% to ±1.0%. The LCF experiments reported on comprehensively characterise the temperature, strain rate and strain amplitude dependent cyclic elastic-plastic behaviour of 2CrMoNiWV. Both complete single-specimen endurance tests and interrupted multi-specimen tests have been performed. On the basis of this experimental evidence, an evolutionary formulation of the model is further developed that excellently reproduces the strain amplitude dependent mechanical evolution of 2CrMoNiWV when subjected to LCF loading at different constant strain amplitudes but equal temperature and strain rate. The simulation of benchmark experiments introducing increasing or decreasing strain amplitude steps into the LCF deformation history provide promising results. A further important

  6. Characterisation and modelling of the microstructural and mechanical evolution of a steam turbine rotor steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T.

    2012-07-01

    This dissertation deals with the effective mechanical analysis of steam turbine parts which is not only required for the reliable and safe use of newly built steam turbines, but also for the remaining life assessment of components that have been exposed to service duty over long periods of time. This Thesis aims to develop a physically motivated evolutionary constitutive model for a low-alloy bainitic 2CrMoNiWV (23CrMoNiWV8-8) steam turbine rotor steels. A comprehensive experimental characterisation is performed concerning the mechanical and microstructural evolution of 2CrMoNiWV as subjected to low cycle fatigue (LCF) deformation at elevated temperatures, at different strain rates and for various strain amplitudes. This cyclic plastic deformation causes the rearrangement of dislocations in the microstructure of the steels used for such rotor applications. Symmetric, strain controlled LCF experiments have been carried out in the Laboratory of the High Temperature Integrity Group at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology EMPA. These include mechanical tests in the temperature range between 20 °C to 600 °C at strain rates of 0.001%/s to 1.0%/s and strain amplitudes of ±0.25% to ±1.0%. The LCF experiments reported on comprehensively characterise the temperature, strain rate and strain amplitude dependent cyclic elastic-plastic behaviour of 2CrMoNiWV. Both complete single-specimen endurance tests and interrupted multi-specimen tests have been performed. On the basis of this experimental evidence, an evolutionary formulation of the model is further developed that excellently reproduces the strain amplitude dependent mechanical evolution of 2CrMoNiWV when subjected to LCF loading at different constant strain amplitudes but equal temperature and strain rate. The simulation of benchmark experiments introducing increasing or decreasing strain amplitude steps into the LCF deformation history provide promising results. A further important

  7. Engineering design and exergy analyses for combustion gas turbine based power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue, D.-C.; Chuang, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering design and theoretical exergetic analyses of the plant for combustion gas turbine based power generation systems. Exergy analysis is performed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power generation systems. The results show the exergy analyses for a steam cycle system predict the plant efficiency more precisely. The plant efficiency for partial load operation is lower than full load operation. Increasing the pinch points will decrease the combined cycle plant efficiency. The engineering design is based on inlet air-cooling and natural gas preheating for increasing the net power output and efficiency. To evaluate the energy utilization, one combined cycle unit and one cogeneration system, consisting of gas turbine generators, heat recovery steam generators, one steam turbine generator with steam extracted for process have been analyzed. The analytical results are used for engineering design and component selection

  8. Creep of Hi-Nicalon S Fiber Tows at Elevated Temperature in Air and in Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    with steam port and alumina steam feeding tube with slot to divert steam away from directly impacting the fiber tow specimen . . . . 25 4.7 Hi-Nicalon...The activation energy for the creep of Hi-Nicalon fibers was determined to be 360 kJ/mol and the predominant creep mechanism was identified as...engines, gas turbines for electrical power/steam cogeneration , as well as nuclear power plant components. It is recognized that the structural

  9. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part...... of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better part......-load performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft configuration. As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the gas turbine part...

  10. Electrical and non-electrical environment of wind turbine main components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holboell, J.; Henriksen, M.; Olsen, R.S.

    of the electrical components or even lead to catastrophic component failure. In the present paper, results are presented from investigations on existing standards which give detailed descriptions of the environmental and operational conditions of wind turbine components. It is found that there is currently a lack...... of application standards for wind turbine electrical equipment. Component-level environmental requirements as given in equipment-specific standards are compared with the environment described in the IEC's 61400 series concerning wind turbines. Based on methods defined in IEC 60721, the non-electrical environment...... of wind turbine is described by means of specific classes. In the paper, new class combinations are suggested covering the different operating conditions the components are exposed to. The class combinations include factors of climatic, mechanical and chemical character. The factors occur in different...

  11. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines into an exi......Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines...... into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)) could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO2 emissions....... Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less complex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity costs. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbines. This is also the target...

  12. Advanced LP turbine blade design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, M.; Pfeiffer, R.; Termuehlen, H.

    1990-01-01

    In the 1960's and early 1970's, the development of steam turbines for the utility industry was mainly influenced by the demand for increasing unit sizes. Nuclear plants in particular, required the design of LP turbines with large annulus areas for substantial mass and volumetric steam flows. Since then the development of more efficient LP turbines became an ongoing challenge. Extensive R and D work was performed in order to build efficient and reliable LP turbines often exposed to severe corrosion, erosion and dynamic excitation conditions. This task led to the introduction of an advanced disk-type rotor design for 1800 rpm LP turbines and the application of a more efficient, reaction-type blading for all steam turbine sections including the first stages of LP turbines. The most recent developments have resulted in an advanced design of large LP turbine blading, typically used in the last three stages of each LP turbine flow section. Development of such blading required detailed knowledge of the three dimensional, largely transonic, flow conditions of saturated steam. Also the precise assessment of blade stressing from dynamic conditions, such as speed and torsional resonance, as well as stochastic and aerodynamic excitation is of extreme importance

  13. An opportunity for capacity up-rating of 1000 MW steam turbine plant in Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.

    2005-01-01

    In connection with earlier and forced decommissioning of the Kozloduy NPP units 1 - 4, an alternative has to be found in order to substitute these capacities. As a reasonable options, capacity up-rating of 1000 MW steam turbine plants without nuclear reactor thermal capacity increase, is investigated in the present study. The cooling water for these units is delivered by Danube river. The cooling water temperatures substantially decrease during the winter months. These changes create an opportunity for steam back end pressure reduction. It was found that when the cooling water temperature decreases from 15 0 C to 3 0 C, the steam back end pressure is on the decrease of from 3.92 kPa to 2.3 kPa. As a result capacity of the plant could be raised up to 50 MW without any substantial equipment and systems change

  14. Fatigue and creep cracking of nickel alloys for 700 C steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Granacher, J.; Thoma, A.; Roesler, J.; Del Genovese, D.

    2001-01-01

    Four materials of the types Inconel 706 (two heat treatment states), Inconel 617, and Waspaloy were tested as shaft materials for 700 to 720 C steam turbines. At an extrapolation time ratio of 10, Waspaloy was expected to have the highest creep strength (about 270 MPa at 700 C), with values of about 140 MPa at 700 C for Inconel 617. A preliminary evaluation of the 700 C creep rupture tests showed the highest creep rupture resistance for Inconel 617, followed by Waspaloy and Inconel 706 [de

  15. Dismantling of the 50 MW steam generator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Onojima, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Isozaki, T.; Gunji, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have been dismantling the 50MW Steam Generator Test Facility (50MWSGTF). The objectives of the dismantling are reuse of sodium components to a planned large scale thermal hydraulics sodium test facility and the material examination of component that have been operated for long time in sodium. The facility consisted of primary sodium loop with sodium heater by gas burner as heat source instead of reactor, secondary sodium loop with auxiliary cooling system (ACS) and water/steam system with steam temperature and pressure reducer instead of turbine. It simulated the 1 loop of the Monju cooling system. The rated power of the facility was 50MWt and it was about 1/5 of the Monju power plant. Several sodium removal methods are applied. As for the components to be dismantled such as piping, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), air cooled heat exchangers (AC), sodium is removed by steam with nitrogen gas in the air or sodium is burned in the air. As for steam generators which material tests are planned, sodium is removed by steam injection with nitrogen gas to the steam generator. The steam generator vessel is filled with nitrogen and no air in the steam generator during sodium removal. As for sodium pumps, pump internal structure is pulled out from the casing and installed into the tank. After the installation, sodium is removed by the same method of steam generator. As for relatively small reuse components such as sodium valves, electromagnet flow meters (EMFs) etc., sodium is removed by alcohol process. (author)

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of heat recovery steam generator in combined cycle power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Naradasu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined cycle power plants play an important role in the present energy sector. The main challenge in designing a combined cycle power plant is proper utilization of gas turbine exhaust heat in the steam cycle in order to achieve optimum steam turbine output. Most of the combined cycle developers focused on the gas turbine output and neglected the role of the heat recovery steam generator which strongly affects the overall performance of the combined cycle power plant. The present paper is aimed at optimal utilization of the flue gas recovery heat with different heat recovery steam generator configurations of single pressure and dual pressure. The combined cycle efficiency with different heat recovery steam generator configurations have been analyzed parametrically by using first law and second law of thermodynamics. It is observed that in the dual cycle high pressure steam turbine pressure must be high and low pressure steam turbine pressure must be low for better heat recovery from heat recovery steam generator.

  17. Development, implementation and operational experience with 900 mm R1T pocket-type bearings at Oskarshamn unit 3 nuclear steam turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, P.; Roos, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Oskarshamn unit 3 nuclear steam turbine generator in Sweden is operated by OKG and, following the extensive PULS upgrade project, delivers an increased rated output of 1450 MW making it the most powerful BWR unit worldwide. Several turbine bearing incidents occurred in 2009 and 2010, which initiated a detailed root cause analysis to determine the reasons and propose appropriate mitigation measures to ensure reliable unit operation. Together with OKG, ALSTOM Power implemented a short-term solution to operate the unit over the winter period of 2010-11. Subsequently, during the annual outage in June 2011, a permanent solution involving a R1T pocket-type bearing design was installed at three shaft-line positions. Since the 1980's, R1T bearings with diameters from 250 to 670 mm have been operating in numerous full-speed (3000/3600 rpm) steam turbine generators. However, this was the first application of a R1T bearing developed at a diameter of 900 mm and for half-speed operation. This paper presents an overview of the bearing development and details the successful operational feedback gathered to date on the three installed bearings. In comparison with the three tilting pad bearing design, which has typically been used on large half-speed ALSTOM Power steam turbine generators to date, it confirms the R1T bearing design as a viable alternative. (authors)

  18. Flow simulation of a partial-admission steam turbine; Stroemungssimulation einer teilbeaufschlagten Dampfturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkkuhl, Tobias J.

    2014-11-21

    This thesis discusses the CFD simulation of the flow in an industrial steam turbine, equipped with a control stage. Due to partial admission, the rotor blades suffer from high cyclic blade loading. Specific losses occur. The circumferential asymmetry of the flow involves high gradients of the flow variables in circumferential direction. At the boundaries, between the admitted and the non-admitted sectors, high velocities appear. The specific flow patterns produce high flow unsteadiness of the rotor resulting in cyclic blade loading. Due to the pressure fluctuations the aerodynamic forces, acting on the rotor blades, are many times higher than the average forces in the admitted sector. The thesis describes the high cyclic blade loading, together with the unsteady and three-dimensional flow patterns inside the control stage and the attenuation in the adjacent turbine stages. Modifications to the geometry within the control stage show severe influence on the dynamics.

  19. Status on the Component Models Developed in the Modelica Framework: High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis Plant & Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk Kim, Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report has been prepared as part of an effort to design and build a modeling and simulation (M&S) framework to assess the economic viability of a nuclear-renewable hybrid energy system (N-R HES). In order to facilitate dynamic M&S of such an integrated system, research groups in multiple national laboratories have been developing various subsystems as dynamic physics-based components using the Modelica programming language. In fiscal year (FY) 2015, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed a dynamic analysis of two region-specific N-R HES configurations, including the gas-to-liquid (natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuel) and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination plants as industrial processes. In FY 2016, INL has developed two additional subsystems in the Modelica framework: a high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) plant and a gas turbine power plant (GTPP). HTSE has been proposed as a high priority industrial process to be integrated with a light water reactor (LWR) in an N-R HES. This integrated energy system would be capable of dynamically apportioning thermal and electrical energy (1) to provide responsive generation to the power grid and (2) to produce alternative industrial products (i.e., hydrogen and oxygen) without generating any greenhouse gases. A dynamic performance analysis of the LWR/HTSE integration case was carried out to evaluate the technical feasibility (load-following capability) and safety of such a system operating under highly variable conditions requiring flexible output. To support the dynamic analysis, the detailed dynamic model and control design of the HTSE process, which employs solid oxide electrolysis cells, have been developed to predict the process behavior over a large range of operating conditions. As first-generation N-R HES technology will be based on LWRs, which provide thermal energy at a relatively low temperature, complementary temperature-boosting technology was suggested for integration with the

  20. Operating Point Optimization of a Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Steam Turbine (SOFC-ST Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjo Ugartemendia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hydrogen powered hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-steam turbine (SOFC-ST system and studies its optimal operating conditions. This type of installation can be very appropriate to complement the intermittent generation of renewable energies, such as wind generation. A dynamic model of an alternative hybrid SOFC-ST configuration that is especially suited to work with hydrogen is developed. The proposed system recuperates the waste heat of the high temperature fuel cell, to feed a bottoming cycle (BC based on a steam turbine (ST. In order to optimize the behavior and performance of the system, a two-level control structure is proposed. Two controllers have been implemented for the stack temperature and fuel utilization factor. An upper supervisor generates optimal set-points in order to reach a maximal hydrogen efficiency. The simulation results obtained show that the proposed system allows one to reach high efficiencies at rated power levels.

  1. Preliminary conceptual design of the secondary sodium circuit-eliminated JSFR (Japan Sodium Fast Reactor) adopting a supercritical CO2 turbine system (2). Turbine system and plant size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Kotake, Shoji

    2014-09-01

    Research and development of the supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) cycle turbine system is underway in various countries for further improvement of the safety and economy of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The Component Design and Balance-Of-Plant (CD and BOP) of the Generation IV International Nuclear Forum (Gen-IV) has addressed this study, and their analytical and experimental results have been discussed between the relevant countries. JAEA, who is a member of the CD and BOP, has performed a design study of an S-CO 2 gas turbine system applied to the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR). In this study, the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system was directly connected to the primary sodium system of the JSFR to eliminate the secondary sodium circuit, aiming for further economical improvement. This is because there is no risk of sodium-water reaction in the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system of SFRs. This report describes the system configuration, heat/mass balance, and main components of the S-CO 2 turbine system, based on the JSFR specifications. The layout of components and piping in the reactor and turbine buildings were examined and the dimensions of the buildings were estimated. The study has revealed that the reactor and turbine buildings could be reduced by 7% and 40%, respectively, in comparison with those in the existing JSFR design with the secondary sodium circuit employing the steam turbine. The cycle thermal was also calculated as 41.9-42.3%, which is nearly the same as that of the JSFR with the water/steam system. (author)

  2. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  3. EPRI research program NDE techniques for crack initiation of steam turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Kimura, J.; Kawamoto, K.; Kadoya, Y.; Viswanathan, R.

    1990-01-01

    EPRI RP 2481-8 aims at the development of nondestructive methods for the life assessment of steam turbine rotor for its crack initiation caused by creep and/or fatigue. As a part of the research project, the demonstration of the state of the art NDE techniques was conducted during June to August of 1988 at EPRI NDE Center, Charlotte, N.C. by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. using four rotors retired after long term service (16-22x10 4 hr). This paper introduces the results of the demonstration

  4. Analysis of Turbine Load Rejection for APR1400 using SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Park, Chan Eok; Choi, Jong Ho; Lee, Gyu Cheon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Turbine Load Rejection event is one of the Performance Related Design Basis Event (PRDBE) that can be stabilized using plant control systems without any safety system actuation. The initiation of the event is turbine load rejection from 100% to 5% in 0.019 seconds. The NSSS control systems of APR1400 is composed of the Power Control System (PCS) and the Process-Component Control System (P-CCS). The PCS includes Reactor Regulating System (RRS), Reactor Power Cutback System (RPCS) and Digital Rod Control System (DRCS). The P-CCS includes the Pressurizer Pressure Control System (PPCS), the Pressurizer Level Control System (PLCS), the Feedwater Control System (FWCS) and the Steam Bypass Control System (SBCS). Turbine load rejection results in the increase of secondary pressure due to sudden blocking of steam flow to turbine. Then the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) cooling through steam generators is decreased rapidly and the RCS temperature will be increased. Turbine load rejection is a typical event to test NSSS control systems since it requires the automatic response of all major NSSS control systems. It is shown that the NSSS control systems of APR1400 have the capability to stabilize the plant without any safety system actuation for turbine load rejection event. This analysis results show that SPACE code has the capability to analyze the turbine load rejection event. However, further validation is necessary for other PRDBEs such as Two Main Feedwater Pumps Trip, Turbine Load Step Change and Turbine Load Ramp Down (5%/min) to verify the capability of SPACE for the full range of performance analyses.

  5. Analysis of Turbine Load Rejection for APR1400 using SPACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Park, Chan Eok; Choi, Jong Ho; Lee, Gyu Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Turbine Load Rejection event is one of the Performance Related Design Basis Event (PRDBE) that can be stabilized using plant control systems without any safety system actuation. The initiation of the event is turbine load rejection from 100% to 5% in 0.019 seconds. The NSSS control systems of APR1400 is composed of the Power Control System (PCS) and the Process-Component Control System (P-CCS). The PCS includes Reactor Regulating System (RRS), Reactor Power Cutback System (RPCS) and Digital Rod Control System (DRCS). The P-CCS includes the Pressurizer Pressure Control System (PPCS), the Pressurizer Level Control System (PLCS), the Feedwater Control System (FWCS) and the Steam Bypass Control System (SBCS). Turbine load rejection results in the increase of secondary pressure due to sudden blocking of steam flow to turbine. Then the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) cooling through steam generators is decreased rapidly and the RCS temperature will be increased. Turbine load rejection is a typical event to test NSSS control systems since it requires the automatic response of all major NSSS control systems. It is shown that the NSSS control systems of APR1400 have the capability to stabilize the plant without any safety system actuation for turbine load rejection event. This analysis results show that SPACE code has the capability to analyze the turbine load rejection event. However, further validation is necessary for other PRDBEs such as Two Main Feedwater Pumps Trip, Turbine Load Step Change and Turbine Load Ramp Down (5%/min) to verify the capability of SPACE for the full range of performance analyses

  6. The deterministic prediction of failure of low pressure steam turbine disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chun; Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Localized corrosion phenomena, including pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue, are the principal causes of corrosion-induced damage in electric power generating facilities and typically result in more than 50% of the unscheduled outages. Prediction of damage, so that repairs and inspections can be made during scheduled outages, could have an enormous impact on the economics of electric power generation. To date, prediction of corrosion damage has been made on the basis of empirical/statistical methods that have proven to be insufficiently robust and accurate to form the basis for the desired inspection/repair protocol. In this paper, we describe a deterministic method for predicting localized corrosion damage. We have used the method to illustrate how pitting corrosion initiates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low pressure steam turbine disks downstream of the Wilson line, where a thin condensed liquid layer exists on the steel disk surfaces. Our calculations show that the SCC initiation and propagation are sensitive to the oxygen content of the steam, the environment in the thin liquid condensed layer, and the stresses that the disk experiences in service

  7. Steam drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1978-01-01

    Steam drums are described that are suitable for use in steam generating heavy water reactor power stations. They receive a steam/water mixture via riser headers from the reactor core and provide by means of separators and driers steam with typically 0.5% moisture content for driving turbines. The drums are constructed as prestressed concrete pressure vessels in which the failure of one or a few of the prestressing elements does not significantly affect the overall strength of the structure. The concrete also acts as a radiation shield. (U.K.)

  8. Method of determining the enthalpy and moisture content of wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear powered multi-stage steam turbine system wherein steam at higher than atmospheric pressure is introduced into the turbine system at a high pressure turbine element and thereafter flows through a series of turbine elements at successively decreasing pressures, wherein portions of the steam are extracted from the turbine elements at a plurality of lower pressure points and the steam is finally exhausted at a lowest pressure point, the method of determining moisture content and enthalpy of steam at a selected pressure point. It comprises sampling a small quantity of steam at the selected pressure point; super heating the steam sample to a single-phase state by reducing its pressure and bottling it in a closed measuring chamber whereby the flow energy of the sample is converted into internal energy; measuring the pressure of the steam sample within the chamber; determining the sonic velocity of the steam sample by passing a sound wave through the sample from a transmitter to a receiver located at a known distance from the transmitter and measuring the time required for the sound wave to travel from transmitter to receiver; and utilizing the measured pressure and sonic velocity of the steam sample to calculate the moisture content and enthalpy of the steam at the selected pressure point

  9. A drier unit for steam separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrelongue, J.-P.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a drier unit adapted to equip a water separator mounted in a unit for treating a wet steam fed from a high pressure enclosure, so as to dry and contingently superheat said steam prior to injecting same into a turbine low pressure stage. This drier unit is constituted by at least a stack of separating sheets maintained in parallel relationship and at a slight angle with respect to the horizontal so as to allow the water provided by wet steam to flow toward a channel communicating with a manifold, and by means for guiding the steam between the sheets and evenly distributing it. This can be applied to steam turbines in nuclear power stations [fr

  10. Steam plant for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the research and development organisations and users to highlight those aspects of the steam turbine and associated plant which are particularly related to the PWR system. The contents include: Characteristics of the steam system (including feed train, dump system and safety aspects); overall design aspects of high and half speed turbines; design aspects of the steam generator and seismic considerations; moisture separators and reheaters; feed pumps and their drives; water treatment; safety related valves; operational experience; availability and performance

  11. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  12. Low cycle fatigue analysis of a last stage steam turbine blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Měšťánek P.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the low cycle fatigue analysis of the low pressure (LP steam turbine blade. The blade is cyclically loaded by the centrifugal force because of the repeated startups of the turbine. The goal of the research is to develop a technique to assess fatigue life of the blade and to determine the number of startups to the crack initiation. Two approaches were employed. First approach is based on the elastic finite element analysis. Fictive 'elastic' results are recalculated using Neuber's rule and the equivalent energy method. Triaxial state of stress is reduced using von Mises theory. Strain amplitude is calculated employing the cyclic deformation curve. Second approach is based on elastic-plastic FE analysis. Strain amplitude is determined directly from the FE analysis by reducing the triaxial state of strain. Fatigue life was assessed using uniaxial damage parameters. Both approaches are compared and their applicability is discussed. Factors that can influence the fatigue life are introduced. Experimental low cycle fatigue testing is shortly described.

  13. Water separator for a steam turbine for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.; Hubble, W.S.; Woods, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a water separator for the condensation of humidity from steam of the inertia type, which has an improved flow distribution and can therefore be built for large dimensions. This is achieved by variation of the dimensions of the components of the liquid separator, particularly by the configuration of the drain trough, and by the fixing of suitable impact sheets, which produce turbulence and distribute the wet steam evenly over the separator elements. There is a detailed representation with drawings. (UW) [de

  14. Advanced technology for aero gas turbine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    The Symposium is aimed at highlighting the development of advanced components for new aero gas turbine propulsion systems in order to provide engineers and scientists with a forum to discuss recent progress in these technologies and to identify requirements for future research. Axial flow compressors, the operation of gas turbine engines in dust laden atmospheres, turbine engine design, blade cooling, unsteady gas flow through the stator and rotor of a turbomachine, gear systems for advanced turboprops, transonic blade design and the development of a plenum chamber burner system for an advanced VTOL engine are among the topics discussed.

  15. The Influence of Inlet Asymmetry on Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Zoe; Hogg, Simon; Ingram, Grant L

    2014-04-01

    It has been widely recognized for some decades that it is essential to accurately represent the strong coupling between the last stage blades (LSB) and the diffuser inlet, in order to correctly capture the flow through the exhaust hoods of steam turbine low pressure cylinders. This applies to any form of simulation of the flow, i.e., numerical or experimental. The exhaust hood flow structure is highly three-dimensional and appropriate coupling will enable the important influence of this asymmetry to be transferred to the rotor. This, however, presents challenges as the calculation size grows rapidly when the full annulus is calculated. The size of the simulation means researchers are constantly searching for methods to reduce the computational effort without compromising solution accuracy. However, this can result in excessive computational demands in numerical simulations. Unsteady full-annulus CFD calculation will remain infeasible for routine design calculations for the foreseeable future. More computationally efficient methods for coupling the unsteady rotor flow to the hood flow are required that bring computational expense within realizable limits while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for meaningful design calculations. Research activity in this area is focused on developing new methods and techniques to improve accuracy and reduce computational expense. A novel approach for coupling the turbine last stage to the exhaust hood employing the nonlinear harmonic (NLH) method is presented in this paper. The generic, IP free, exhaust hood and last stage blade geometries from Burton et al. (2012. "A Generic Low Pressure Exhaust Diffuser for Steam Turbine Research,"Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper No. GT2012-68485) that are representative of modern designs, are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. This is achieved by comparing results obtained with the NLH to those obtained with a more conventional mixing

  16. An investigation of two-dimensional, two-phase flow of steam in a cascade of turbine blading by the time-marching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teymourtash, A. R.; Mahpeykar, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    During the course of expansion in turbines, the steam at first super cools and then nucleated to become a two-phase mixture. This is an area where greater understanding can lead to improved design. This paper describes a numerical method for the solution of two-dimensional two-phase flow of steam in a cascade of turbine blading; the unsteady euler equations governing the overall behaviour of the fluid are combined with equations describing droplet behaviour and treated by Jasmine fourth order runge Kutta time marching scheme which modified to allow for two-phase effects. The theoretical surface pressure distributions, droplet radii and contours of constant wetness fraction are presented and results are discussed in the light of knowledge of actual surface pressure distributions

  17. Effect of internal elements of the steam turbine exhaust hood on losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajč Ladislav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The document deals with the flow in the exhaust hood of a single flow steam turbine. The effect of the shape of the external case of the hood and the position and dimensions of the internal reinforcements on the energy loss coefficient is evaluated. Using this coefficient, it is possible to determine the gained or lost output in the diffuser and the entire exhaust hood at a known flow and efficiency of the last stage. Flow research in the exhaust hood was performed especially using numeric simulations; some variants were verified experimentally in the aerodynamic wind tunnel.

  18. Lifetime of superheated steam components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklossa, K.H.; Oude-Hengel, H.H.; Kraechter, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The current evaluation schemes in use for judging the lifetime expectations of superheated steam components are compared with each other. The influence of pressure and temperature fluctuations, the differences in the strength of the wall, and the spread band of constant-strainrates are critically investigated. The distribution of these contributory effects are demonstrated in the hight of numerous measuring results. As an important supplement to these evaluation schemes a newly developed technique is introduced which is designed to calculate failure probabilities. (orig./RW) [de

  19. The Analysis of process optimization during the loading distribution test for steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangwei; Cao Yuhua; Li Dawei

    2014-01-01

    The loading distribution of steam turbine needs six times to complete in total, the first time is completed when the turbine cylinder buckles, the rest must be completed orderly in the process of installing GVP pipe. To complete 5 tests of loading distribution and installation of GVP pipe, it usually takes around 90 days for most nuclear plants while the unit l of Fuqing Nuclear Power Station compress it into about 45 days by optimizing the installation process. this article describes the successful experience of how the Unit l of Fuqing Nuclear Power Station finished 5 tests of loading distribution and installation of GVP pipe in 45 days by optimizing the process, Meanwhile they analysis the advantages and disadvantages through comparing it with the process provide by suppliers, which brings up some rationalization proposals for installation work to the follow-up units of our plant. (authors)

  20. High speed drying of saturated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.; Peyrelongue, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the drying process for the saturated steam used in the PWR nuclear plant turbines in order to prevent negative effects of water on turbine efficiency, maintenance costs and equipment lifetime. The high speed drying concept is based on rotating the incoming saturated steam in order to separate water which is more denser than the steam; the water film is then extracted through an annular slot. A multicellular modular equipment has been tested. Applications on high and low pressure extraction of various PWR plants are described (Bugey, Loviisa)

  1. Steam turbine power plant having improved testing method and system for turbine inlet valves associated with downstream inlet valves preferably having feedforward position managed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardi, F.; Ronnen, U.G.

    1981-01-01

    A throttle valve test system for a large steam turbine functions in a turbine control system to provide throttle and governor valve test operations. The control system operates with a valve management capability to provide for pre-test governor valve mode transfer when desired, and it automatically generates feedforward valve position demand signals during and after valve tests to satisfy test and load control requirements and to provide smooth transition from valve test status to normal single or sequential governor valve operation. A digital computer is included in the control system to provide control and test functions in the generation of the valve position demand signals

  2. Influence of upstream stator on rotor flutter stability in a low pressure steam turbine stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.; He, L. [University of Durham (United Kingdom). School of Engineering; Bell, D. [ALSTOM Power Ltd., Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Conventional blade flutter prediction is normally based on an isolated blade row model, however, little is known about the influence of adjacent blade rows. In this article, an investigation is presented into the influence of the upstream stator row on the aero-elastic stability of rotor blades in the last stage of a low pressure (LP) steam turbine. The influence of the upstream blade row is computed directly by a time-marching, unsteady, Navier-Stokes flow solver in a stator-rotor coupled computational domain. The three-dimensional flutter solution is obtained, with adequate mesh resolution, in a single passage domain through application of the Fourier-Transform based Shape-Correction method. The capability of this single-passage method is examined through comparison with predictions obtained from a complete annulus model, and the results demonstrate a good level of accuracy, while achieving a speed up factor of 25. The present work shows that the upstream stator blade row can significantly change the aero-elastic behaviour of an LP steam turbine rotor. Caution is, therefore, advised when using an isolated blade row model for blade flutter prediction. The results presented also indicated that the intra-row interaction is of a strong three-dimensional nature. (author)

  3. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  4. Repair of steam turbines by welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnstedt, H.J.; Loebert, P.

    1987-01-01

    In some cases, turbine parts can be repaired by welding, even rotating parts such as the shaft or the blades. Practical examples of successful repair work are explained, as for instance: welding of the last web of the turbine wheel of two MD-rotors, repair of erosion damage on turbine blades, of solid-matter erosion on a medium-pressure blading, or welding repair of a high-pressure turbine casing. (DG) [de

  5. Advanced on-line monitoring of power plant water/steam quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perboni, G.; Rocchini, G.; Sigon, F. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    To improve the behaviour and resistance of materials in the water-steam cycle critical components (steam generator, condensate heaters, turbine) it is necessary to adopt proper actions for promoting formation and integrity of surface protective oxide layers and preventing general and localised corrosion and transport processes of corrosion products throughout the cycle. In this report two important topics are reported: steam side corrosion in the low pressure turbines induced by the `first condensate` in the final stages of the turbine, and the stability of the oxides layers as a function of the condensate chemistry, with particular attention to the transport of corrosion products to the boiler. Furthermore an innovative technique for monitoring some physico-chemical parameters at the actual fluid temperature (150-300C) using new electrochemical sensors improved by ENEL/CRAM is studied: pH, conductivity, corrosion rate, corrosion and redox potentials.ENEL/CRAM validated on lab-scale testing loops these sensors and carried out the following programs: calibration procedures, reliability of the response, long-term stability and assessment of a reduced maintenance. Applications of the electrochemical methods to fossil fired units have demonstrated their validity for monitoring the cycle chemistry and the resistance to corrosion of structural materials in real time.

  6. Ways of TPP and NPP powerful steam turbine blade erosion decreasing in low flow rate regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrabrov, P.V.; Khaimov, V.A.; Matveenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    A systematized approach to the problem of efficient cooling of flow passage and exhaust parts of TPP and NPP steam turbines and prevention of erosion wear of inlet and outlet edges of operating blades is presented. Methods for LP casing cooling and sources of erosion-hazard moisture as well as the main technological and design measures to decrease the erosion of blades are determined

  7. Technical and economical feasibility of the Rankine compression gas turbine (RCG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, H.; Lange, de H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Rankine compression gas turbine (RCG) is a new type of combined cycle, i.e. combined steam and gas turbine installation, that returns all shaft power on one free power turbine. The novelty of the RCG is that the steam turbine drives the compressor of the gas turbine cycle. This way, the turbine

  8. Impact of steam generator start-up limitations on the performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferruzza, Davide; Topel, Monika; Laumert, Björn

    2018-01-01

    typically start-up and shut down every day, so in order to maximize their profitability, it is necessary to increase their flexibility in transient operation and to initiate power generation as rapidly as possible. Two of the key components are the steam generator and steam turbine and the rates at which...... they can reach operational speed are limited by thermo-mechanical constraints. This paper presents an analysis of the effects of the thermal stress limitations of the steam generator and steam turbine on the power plant start-up, and quantifies their impact on the economy of the system. A dynamic model......-driven and peak-load. The results indicate that for steam generator hot start-ups, a 1.5% increase in peak-load electricity production would be achieved by doubling the maximum allowable heating rate of the evaporator. No useful increase would be achieved by increasing the rates beyond a limit of 7–8 K...

  9. Evaluation on mechanical and corrosion properties of steam generator tubing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Sup; Lee, Byong Whi; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jun Whan; Lee, Ju Seok; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Su Jung

    1998-06-01

    Steam generator is one of the major components of nuclear reactor pressure boundary. It's main function os transferring heat which generated in the reactor to turbine generator through steam generator tube. In these days, steam generator tubing materials of operating plant are used Inconel 600 alloys. But according to the operation time, there are many degradation phenomena which included mechanical damage due to flow induced vibration and corrosion damage due to PWSCC, IGA/SCC and pitting etc. Recently Inconel 690 alloys are selected as new and replacement steam generator tubes for domestic nuclear power plant. But there are few study about mechanical and corrosion properties of Inconel 600 and 690. The objectives of this study is to evaluate and compare mechanical and corrosion propertied of steam generator tube materials

  10. Evaluation on mechanical and corrosion properties of steam generator tubing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Sup; Lee, Byong Whi; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jun Whan; Lee, Ju Seok; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Su Jung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    Steam generator is one of the major components of nuclear reactor pressure boundary. It's main function os transferring heat which generated in the reactor to turbine generator through steam generator tube. In these days, steam generator tubing materials of operating plant are used Inconel 600 alloys. But according to the operation time, there are many degradation phenomena which included mechanical damage due to flow induced vibration and corrosion damage due to PWSCC, IGA/SCC and pitting etc. Recently Inconel 690 alloys are selected as new and replacement steam generator tubes for domestic nuclear power plant. But there are few study about mechanical and corrosion properties of Inconel 600 and 690. The objectives of this study is to evaluate and compare mechanical and corrosion propertied of steam generator tube materials.

  11. Testing of ceramic gas turbine components under service-like conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebmanns, W [Motoren- und Turbinen-Union G.m.b.H., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-08-01

    If all gas turbine components which are in contact with hot gas are manufactured from special ceramics (silicon nitride, silicon carbide), cycle and component temperatures can be increased up to 1600/sup 0/K. MTU is developing various components, such as combustor and turbine wheel, step by step until they are ready for service. At present, combustors are surviving comprehensive service-like cyclic tests in hot gas at atmospheric pressure (1000 h, 1000 starts per component) without damage. Tests above atmospheric pressure (5 bar) are underway. At MTU, a rotor wheel variant consisting of a metallic hub with inserted single blades is being constructed. The step to aerodynamically contoured airfoils will follow, as soon as the stress problems encountered in connection with the blade root are fully under control. The program will be completed in 1980 with a test run of a prototype turbine made from ceramic components developed by various companies under the leadership of the DFVLR (Aerospace Research and Testing Institute).

  12. Fatigue Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbine Cast Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafsanjani, Hesam Mirzaei; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Fæster, Søren

    2017-01-01

    .) and to quantify the relevant uncertainties using available fatigue tests. Illustrative results are presented as obtained by statistical analysis of a large set of fatigue data for casted test components typically used for wind turbines. Furthermore, the SN curves (fatigue life curves based on applied stress......The fatigue life of wind turbine cast components, such as the main shaft in a drivetrain, is generally determined by defects from the casting process. These defects may reduce the fatigue life and they are generally distributed randomly in components. The foundries, cutting facilities and test...... facilities can affect the verification of properties by testing. Hence, it is important to have a tool to identify which foundry, cutting and/or test facility produces components which, based on the relevant uncertainties, have the largest expected fatigue life or, alternatively, have the largest reliability...

  13. Simulation and experimental approach to CVD-FBR aluminide coatings on ferritic steels under steam oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, J.; Alcala, G.; Bolivar, F.J.; Sanchez, L.; Hierro, M.P.; Perez, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ferritic steels used to produce structural components for steam turbines are susceptible to strong corrosion and creep damage due to the extreme working conditions pushed to increase the process efficiency and to reduce pollutants release. The response of aluminide coatings on the P-92 ferritic steel, deposited by CVD-FBR, during oxidation in a simulated steam environment was studied. The analyses were performed at 650 deg. C in order to simulate the working conditions of a steam turbine, and 800 deg. C in order to produce a critical accelerated oxidation test. The Thermo-Calc software was used to predict the different solid phases that could be generated during the oxidation process, in both, coated and uncoated samples. In order to validate the thermodynamic results, the oxides scales produced during steam tests were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, SEM and EDS. The preliminary results obtained are discussed in the present work

  14. Promising Direction of Perfection of the Utilization Combine Cycle Gas Turbine Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdullina Albina I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues of improving the efficiency of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT recovery type have been presented. Efficiency gas turbine plant reaches values of 45 % due to rise in temperature to a gas turbine to 1700 °C. Modern technologies for improving the cooling gas turbine components and reducing the excess air ratio leads to a further increase of the efficiency by 1-2 %. Based on research conducted at the Tomsk Polytechnic University, it shows that the CCGT efficiency can be increased by 2-3 % in the winter time due to the use of organic Rankine cycle, low-boiling substances, and air-cooled condensers (ACC. It is necessary to apply the waste heat recovery with condensation of water vapor from the flue gas, it will enhance the efficiency of the CCGT by 2-3 % to increase the efficiency of the heat recovery steam boiler (HRSB to 10-12 %. Replacing electric pumps gas turbine engine (GTE helps to reduce electricity consumption for auxiliary needs CCGT by 0.5-1.5 %. At the same time the heat of flue gas turbine engine may be useful used in HRSB, thus will increase the capacity and efficiency of the steam turbine.

  15. Component design considerations for gas turbine HTGR waste-heat power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Vrable, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Component design considerations are described for the ammonia waste-heat power conversion system of a large helium gas-turbine nuclear power plant under development by General Atomic Company. Initial component design work was done for a reference plant with a 3000-MW(t) High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and this is discussed. Advanced designs now being evaluated include higher core outlet temperature, higher peak system pressures, improved loop configurations, and twin 4000-MW(t) reactor units. Presented are the design considerations of the major components (turbine, condenser, heat input exchanger, and pump) for a supercritical ammonia Rankine waste heat power plant. The combined cycle (nuclear gas turbine and waste-heated plant) has a projected net plant efficiency of over 50 percent. While specifically directed towards a nuclear closed-cycle helium gas-turbine power plant (GT-HTGR), it is postulated that the bottoming waste-heat cycle component design considerations presented could apply to other low-grade-temperature power conversion systems such as geothermal plants

  16. Web-based turbine cycle performance analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Lee, Sung Jin; Chang, Soon Heung; Choi, Seong Soo

    2000-01-01

    As an approach to improve the economical efficiency of operating nuclear power plants, a thermal performance analysis tool for steam turbine cycle has been developed. For the validation and the prediction of the signals used in thermal performance analysis, a few statistical signal processing techniques are integrated. The developed tool provides predicted performance calculation capability that is steady-state wet steam turbine cycle simulation, and measurement performance calculation capability which determines component- and cycle-level performance indexes. Web-based interface with all performance analysis is implemented, so even remote users can achieve performance analysis. Comparing to ASME PTC6 (Performance Test Code 6), the focusing point of the developed tool is historical performance analysis rather than single accurate performance test. The proposed signal processing techniques are validated using actual plant signals, and turbine cycle models are tested by benchmarking with a commercial thermal analysis tool

  17. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Sobczak; Robert Rink; Rafał Kuczyński; Robert Trębski

    2014-01-01

    Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power syst...

  18. Steam purity in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkinson, J.; Passell, T.

    1982-01-01

    Reports that 2 EPRI studies of PWRs prove that impure steam triggers decay of turbine metals. Reveals that EPRI is attempting to improve steam monitoring and analysis, which are key steps on the way to deciding the most cost-effective degree of steam purity, and to upgrade demineralizing systems, which can then reliably maintain that degree of purity. Points out that 90% of all cracks in turbine disks have occurred at the dry-to-wet transition zone, dubbed the Wilson line. Explains that because even very clean water contains traces of chemical impurities with concentrations in the parts-per-billion range, Crystal River-3's secondary loop was designed with even more purification capability; a deaerator to remove oxygen and prevent oxidation of system metals, and full-flow resin beds to demineralize 100% of the secondary-loop water from the condenser. Concludes that focusing attention on steam and water chemistry can ward off cracking and sludge problems caused by corrosion

  19. Stochastic Modeling Of Wind Turbine Drivetrain Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafsanjani, Hesam Mirzaei; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    reliable components are needed for wind turbine. In this paper focus is on reliability of critical components in drivetrain such as bearings and shafts. High failure rates of these components imply a need for more reliable components. To estimate the reliability of these components, stochastic models...... are needed for initial defects and damage accumulation. In this paper, stochastic models are formulated considering some of the failure modes observed in these components. The models are based on theoretical considerations, manufacturing uncertainties, size effects of different scales. It is illustrated how...

  20. Cleaning device for steam units in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamuro, Takemi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent radioactive contamination upon dismantling and inspection of steam units such as a turbine to a building containing such units and the peripheral area. Constitution: A steam generator indirectly heated by steam supplied from steam generating source in a separate system containing no radioactivity is provided to produce cleaning steam. A cleaning steam pipe is connected by way of a stop valve between separation valve of a nuclear power plant steam pipe and a high pressure turbine. Upon cleaning, the separation valve is closed, and steam supplied from the cleaning steam pipe is flown into a condenser. The water thus condensated is returned by way of a feed water heater and a condenser to a water storage tank. (Nakamura, S.)

  1. Nitrided steel with increased reliability for steam turbine blades of low pressure cylinders; Vysokoazotistaya stal` s povishennoj nadezhdnostni dlya lopatok ha tsilindrov niskogo davleniya parnikh turbin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, Ch; Lengarski, P [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Metaloznanie i Tekhnologiya na Metalite

    1996-12-31

    A new type of steel has been developed, containing 0.11-0.20% N and less than 0.05% C, the sum of both components being within the range 0.16-0.26%. The metal has an austenite-martensite structure with 10-30% austenite content. Samples obtained by counter-pressure casting have been investigated with respect to the influence of the thermal treatment on mechanical properties. The best properties are obtained when applying hardening by heating at 1050{sup o} C and cooling at 550{sup o} C: fluidity limit R{sub 0}.2>=850 MPa, relative elongation A>=15%, relative shortening Z>=50%, impact viscosity KCU >= 588 kJ/m{sup 2} at critical temperature of brittleness <-40{sup o} C. These properties are combined with high corrosion and wear resistance and make the steel suitable for steam turbine blades. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Turbines for nuclear power plants. 2.ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanovskij, B.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the second edition of the book considered are practically all the main problems of calculation and operation of turbines and turbine installations of nuclear power plants. As compared to the first edition, essentially addes is the reproduction of the problem on combined generation of heat and electric energy. Also represented is detailed material on methods of preliminary evaluation of turbine effectiveness. Considered are peculiarities of turbine operation on wet steam and the basis of their thermal calculation. Much attention is payed to the problem of wet stream current in the turbine elements and wetness effect on their characteristics. Problems of wetness separation and moving blade erosion as well as other turbine elements are extracted in a special section. Given are structural schemes of different methods of innerchannel and periphery wet removal as well as experimental materials on their effectiveness. Given are descriptions and critical analysis of a great number of typical constructions of nuclear power plant steam turbines, produced by native plants as well as by the main foreign firms. Considered also are constructions of outside separators and steam superheaters. Separately given is the problem of rotation frequency choise of nuclear power plant wet steam turbines. Represented are materials on turbine installation tests, considered are the problems of turbine starting and manoeuvrability, analyzed are their typical jailures and damages. One of the sections of the book is devoted to gas turbine installations of nuclear power plants. Different material on this theme scattered before in various sources is summarized in the book

  3. EPRI steam turbine and generator NDE, life assessment, and maintenance workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottingham, L.D.; Sabourin, P.F.

    1992-10-01

    On July 16--19, 1991, the EPRI NDE Center hosted the second EPRI Steam Turbine and Generator NDE, Life Assessment and Maintenance Workshop. This workshop was co-sponsored by the Nuclear Power and the Generation and Storage Divisions of EPRI. Attendees represented all sectors of the industry including utilities, equipment manufacturers, forging suppliers, service organizations, government organizations, insurancecarriers, and consultants from the United States and abroad. Domestic utility presence was again strong, with 105 representatives from 44 utilities in attendance. Australia, Canada, England, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland were represented in the international contingent. A key and integral part of the workshop was a vendor equipment fair, in which some 23 organizations displayed and demonstrated equipment and services that they offer. Formal presentation of 53 technical papers made up the technical portion of the agenda, which also included two breakout discussion sessions on topical subjects. To provide optimum opportunity for participants to hear all presentations on closely related topics, the sessions were set such that a NDE session ran parallel to the life assessment session. The first NDE session included turbine related topics while the first life assessment session addressed generator issues. The last sessions of the workshop were just reversed with turbine topics being addressed in the life assessment session while generator issues were presented in the NDE session. Presentations on maintenance topics and on monitoring and diagnostics topics were also presented in parallel sessions. These proceedings contain the texts of the papers presented at the workshop. Individual papers in indexed separately

  4. Steam generating system in LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Katsutoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the thermal shock loads to the structures of reactor system and secondary coolant system, for instance, upon plant trip accompanying turbine trip in the steam generation system of LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: Additional feedwater heater is disposed to the pipeway at the inlet of a steam generator in a steam generation system equipped with a closed loop extended from a steam generator by way of a gas-liquid separator, a turbine and a condensator to the steam generator. The separated water at high temperature and high pressure from a gas-liquid separator is heat exchanged with coolants flowing through the closed loop of the steam generation system in non-contact manner and, thereafter, introduced to a water reservoir tank. This can avoid the water to be fed at low temperature as it is to the steam generator, whereby the thermal shock loads to the structures of the reactor system and the secondary coolant system can be suppressed. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. Exergetic analysis of a gas turbine plant with chemical recuperation; Analise exergetica de uma planta de turbina a gas com recuperacao quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Mario G. Sanchez; Nebra, Silvia Azucena; Gallo, Waldir L. Ribeiro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: 192572rg@discovery.fem.unicamp.br; sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; wgallo@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    One of the proposals that has been more recently analyzed with growing interest in Gas Turbine cycles, with the purpose of obtaining gains in the power output and thermal efficiency, is the Chemically Recuperated Gas Turbine Cycle, (CRGT). Such systems are equipped of chemical heat recovery components in which the waste heat in the turbine exhaust is used to convert a methane-steam mixture into a hydrogen-rich fuel in a methane steam reformer. One additional aspect of these cycles that represents a potential benefit is explained by the ultra-low NO{sub x} emission levels, even less than those system which use steam injection This paper, with the aid of the concepts emanated from the Second Thermodynamic Law, is presenting an evaluation of the exergetic performance of one installation of this type. Exergetic efficiencies are evaluated according to the relation fuel-product, considering one control volume for each component of the system. (author)

  6. Fluid distribution network and steam generators and method for nuclear power plant training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliston, W.H.; Johnson, S.J.; Mutafelija, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a training simulator for the real-time dynamic operation of a nuclear power plant which utilizes apparatus that includes control consoles having manual and automatic devices corresponding to simulated plant components and indicating devices for monitoring physical values in the simulated plant. A digital computer configuration is connected to the control consoles to calculate the dynamic real-time simulated operation of the plant in accordance with the simulated plant components to provide output data including data for operating the control console indicating devices. In the method and system for simulating a fluid distribution network of the power plant, such as that which includes, for example, a main steam system which distributes steam from steam generators to high pressure turbine steam reheaters, steam dump valves, and feedwater heaters, the simultaneous solution of linearized non-linear algebraic equations is used to calculate all the flows throughout the simulated system. A plurality of parallel connected steam generators that supply steam to the system are simulated individually, and include the simulation of shrink-swell characteristics

  7. Reliability Analysis of Fatigue Failure of Cast Components for Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Hesam Mirzaei Rafsanjani; John Dalsgaard Sørensen

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue failure is one of the main failure modes for wind turbine drivetrain components made of cast iron. The wind turbine drivetrain consists of a variety of heavily loaded components, like the main shaft, the main bearings, the gearbox and the generator. The failure of each component will lead to substantial economic losses such as cost of lost energy production and cost of repairs. During the design lifetime, the drivetrain components are exposed to variable loads from winds and waves an...

  8. Penentuan Interval Waktu Perawatan Komponen Kritis pada Mesin Turbin di PT PLN (Persero Sektor Pembangkit Ombilin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Taufik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy requirements in Indonesia annually increase in line with economic growth and an increase in population. So, PT PLN (Persero have to be able to fulfill the public demands for electrical energy. One of the power generation existed is Steam PowerGeneration. The condition of power generation depended on the maintenance, so, well maintenance made power plant operated at ease condition. Production process in SteamPower Generation of Ombilin used a closed cycle or continuous process. If a machine or an equipment damaged, it will stop the whole function. In the production process, the company involved several main engines are boiler, turbine, condenser, and generator. But the damage often occurs in turbine engine which caused the generation power in Steam PowerGeneration of Ombilin can not operate. Therefore, it needs a maintenance action of machinery/equipment to be able to prevent the damage. The right strategy to keep the engine operating is determining the optimal maintenance interval of equipment for minimizing downtime.The stages of this research begin by determining the critical engine with Criticality Analysis method. Then, the determination of the critical components using Pareto diagram. Then, the determination of the probability density function (pdf and the reliability of critical components. After that, the determination of maintenance intervals of the critical components by using the criterion of minimizing the downtime that will be used to make maintenance scheduling.Based on the processing data has been done, it was found that the critical engine is a turbine engine with a total value is 44 and the critical components of a turbine engine are membrane turbine, bearing and turning gear with the examination time interval for each critical component are 960.48 hours (40 days, 908.57 hours (37 days and 1150.28 hours (48days. While the preventive replacement intervals for components of turbine membrane is after operating for

  9. New low pressure exhaust modules for the MAN steam turbine product line. High performance bladings for highest efficiency levels; Neue Niederdruck-Module fuer die MAN-Dampfturbinenproduktlinie. Hochentwickelte Beschaufelungen fuer hoechste Leistungsdichten und Wirkungsgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, M.A.; Behnke, K.; Klemm, H. [MAN TURBO AG, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Currently it can be observed that in the case of generator drives as well as 'mechanical drives' smaller units are demanded with a steam turbine capacity of up to 150 MW and clearly higher efficiencies. MAN TURBO is meeting the challenge through realisation of a comprehensive development project aiming at the extension of the application range of the current steam turbine series.

  10. Variable electricity and steam from salt, helium and sodium cooled base-load reactors with gas turbines and heat storage - 15115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.; McDaniel, P.; Zohuri, B.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in utility natural-gas-fired air-Brayton combed cycle technology is creating the option of coupling salt-, helium-, and sodium-cooled nuclear reactors to Nuclear air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC) power systems. NACC may enable a zero-carbon electricity grid and improve nuclear power economics by enabling variable electricity output with base-load nuclear reactor operations. Variable electricity output enables selling more electricity at times of high prices that increases plant revenue. Peak power is achieved using stored heat or auxiliary fuel (natural gas, bio-fuels, hydrogen). A typical NACC cycle includes air compression, heating compressed air using nuclear heat and a heat exchanger, sending air through a turbine to produce electricity, reheating compressed air, sending air through a second turbine, and exhausting to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). In the HRSG, warm air produces steam that is used to produce added electricity. For peak power production, auxiliary heat (natural gas, stored heat) is added before the air enters the second turbine to raise air temperatures and power output. Like all combined cycle plants, water cooling requirements are dramatically reduced relative to other power cycles because much of the heat rejection is in the form of hot air. (authors)

  11. Stochastic Models of Defects in Wind Turbine Drivetrain Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafsanjani, Hesam Mirzaei; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    The drivetrain in a wind turbine nacelle typically consists of a variety of heavily loaded components, like the main shaft, bearings, gearbox and generator. The variations in environmental load challenge the performance of all the components of the drivetrain. Failure of each of these components...

  12. Combined gas and steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D T; Davis, J P

    1977-06-02

    The invention concerns a combination of internal combustion engine and steam turbine, where not only the heat of the hot exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine, but also the heat in the coolant of the internal combustion engine is used for power generation. The working fluid of the steam turbine is an organic fluid of low boiling point. A mixture of 85 mol% of tri-fluoro ethanol and 15 mol% of water is the most suitable fluid. The combustion engine (a Diesel engine is the most suitable), drives a working machine, e.g. a generator. The hot combustion exhaust gases produce evaporation of the working fluid in an HP evaporator. The superheated steam gives up its energy in the HP turbine stage, flows through the feed preheater of the fluid, and is condensed in the condenser. A pump pumps the fluid via control valve to heat the feed preheater of the fluid, from which it returns to the HP evaporator. At the same time evaporated coolant flows into an LP evaporator in counter-flow to the working fluid, condenses, and is returned to the cooling circuit of the combustion engine. The working fluid in the LP evaporator is heated to its boiling point, gives up its energy in the LP stage of the steam turbine is condensed, pumped to the preheater and returns to the LP evaporator. The two rotors of the turbine stages (HP and LP stages) are mounted on the same shaft, which drives a working machine or a generator.

  13. A fast response miniature probe for wet steam flow field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosdas, Ilias; Mansour, Michel; Abhari, Reza S; Kalfas, Anestis I

    2016-01-01

    Modern steam turbines require operational flexibility due to renewable energies’ increasing share of the electrical grid. Additionally, the continuous increase in energy demand necessitates efficient design of the steam turbines as well as power output augmentation. The long turbine rotor blades at the machines’ last stages are prone to mechanical vibrations and as a consequence time-resolved experimental data under wet steam conditions are essential for the development of large-scale low-pressure steam turbines. This paper presents a novel fast response miniature heated probe for unsteady wet steam flow field measurements. The probe has a tip diameter of 2.5 mm, and a miniature heater cartridge ensures uncontaminated pressure taps from condensed water. The probe is capable of providing the unsteady flow angles, total and static pressure as well as the flow Mach number. The operating principle and calibration procedure are described in the current work and a detailed uncertainty analysis demonstrates the capability of the new probe to perform accurate flow field measurements under wet steam conditions. In order to exclude any data possibly corrupted by droplets’ impact or evaporation from the heating process, a filtering algorithm was developed and implemented in the post-processing phase of the measured data. In the last part of this paper the probe is used in an experimental steam turbine test facility and measurements are conducted at the inlet and exit of the last stage with an average wetness mass fraction of 8.0%. (paper)

  14. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  15. The Impact of Gas Turbine Component Leakage Fault on GPA Performance Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Ntantis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leakage analysis is a key factor in determining energy loss from a gas turbine. Once the components assembly fails, air leakage through the opening increases resulting in a performance loss. Therefore, the performance efficiency of the engine cannot be reliably determined, without good estimates and analysis of leakage faults. Consequently, the implementation of a leakage fault within a gas turbine engine model is necessary for any performance diagnostic technique that can expand its diagnostics capabilities for more accurate predictions. This paper explores the impact of gas turbine component leakage fault on GPA (Gas Path Analysis Performance Diagnostics. The analysis is demonstrated with a test case where gas turbine performance simulation and diagnostics code TURBOMATCH is used to build a performance model of a model engine similar to Rolls-Royce Trent 500 turbofan engine, and carry out the diagnostic analysis with the presence of different component fault cases. Conclusively, to improve the reliability of the diagnostic results, a leakage fault analysis of the implemented faults is made. The diagnostic tool used to deal with the analysis of the gas turbine component implemented faults is a model-based method utilizing a non-linear GPA.

  16. Alternatives to electrical cogeneration: The direct application of steam engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Although small to medium sized industrial facilities are aware of electrical cogeneration, often they are too small for it to be economically justifiable. The direct application of steam turbine power to equipment formerly powered by electric motors, can allow them to use steam capacity to reduce electrical demand and consumption, bypassing cogeneration. Cogeneration converts the heat energy of steam into circular mechanical motion and then converts the circular mechanical motion into electricity. Each conversion entails a loss of energy due to friction and other conversion losses. A substantial amount of the generated electricity is then converted back into circular motion with electric motors, again incurring energy losses. Directly applying the mechanical motion of turbines eliminates both the motion-to-electricity (generator) and the electricity-to-motion (motor) conversion losses. Excess steam capacity during the summer is not unusual for facilities that use steam to provide winter heating. Similarly, most of these facilities experience a large electrical demand peak during the cooling season due to the electricity needed to operate centrifugal chillers. Steam capacity via a turbine to power the chillers can allow the boilers to operate at a higher loading while reducing electrical consumption and demand precisely those periods when demand reduction is most needed. In facilities where the steam generating capacity is sufficient, air compressors provide an appropriate year-round application for turbine power. This paper is the result of an on-going project by the Energy Division, State of North Carolina, Department of Economic and Community Development, in conjunction with the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The objective of this project is to educate the operating engineers and managers of small to medium sized manufacturing facilities on the technical application and economic justification of steam turbine power

  17. AFB/open cycle gas turbine conceptual design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, T. W.; Tashjian, R.

    1983-09-01

    Applications of coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed gas turbine systems in industrial cogeneration are identified. Based on site-specific conceptual designs, the potential benefits of the AFB/gas turbine system were compared with an atmospheric fluidized design steam boiler/steam turbine system. The application of these cogeneration systems at four industrial plant sites is reviewed. A performance and benefit analysis was made along with a study of the representativeness of the sites both in regard to their own industry and compared to industry as a whole. A site was selected for the conceptual design, which included detailed site definition, AFB/gas turbine and AFB/steam turbine cogeneration system designs, detailed cost estimates, and comparative performance and benefit analysis. Market and benefit analyses identified the potential market penetration for the cogeneration technologies and quantified the potential benefits.

  18. Numerical Research of Steam and Gas Plant Efficiency of Triple Cycle for Extreme North Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galashov Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows that temperature decrease of heat rejection in a cycle is necessary for energy efficiency of steam turbine plants. Minimum temperature of heat rejection at steam turbine plant work on water steam is 15°C. Steam turbine plant of triple cycle where lower cycle of steam turbine plant is organic Rankine cycle on low-boiling substance with heat rejection in air condenser, which safely allows rejecting heat at condensation temperatures below 0°C, has been offered. Mathematical model of steam and gas plant of triple cycle, which allows conducting complex researches with change of working body appearance and parameters defining thermodynamic efficiency of cycles, has been developed. On the basis of the model a program of parameters and index cycles design of steam and gas plants has been developed in a package of electron tables Excel. Numerical studies of models showed that energy efficiency of steam turbine plants of triple cycle strongly depend on low-boiling substance type in a lower cycle. Energy efficiency of steam and gas plants net 60% higher can be received for steam and gas plants on the basis of gas turbine plant NK-36ST on pentane and its condensation temperature below 0°C. It was stated that energy efficiency of steam and gas plants net linearly depends on condensation temperature of low-boiling substance type and temperature of gases leaving reco very boiler. Energy efficiency increases by 1% at 10% decrease of condensation temperature of pentane, and it increases by 0.88% at 15°C temperature decrease of gases leaving recovery boiler.

  19. Evolution of design of steam generator for sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.; Vaidyanathan

    1997-01-01

    The first sodium cooled reactor was the experimental breeder reactor (EBR-I) in usa which was commissioned in 1951 and was incidentally the first nuclear reactor to generate electrical energy. This was followed by fast breeder reactors in USSR, UK, france, USA, japan, germany and India. The use of sodium as a coolant is due to its low moderation which helps in breeding fissile fuel from fertile materials and also its high heat transfer coefficient at comparatively low velocities. The good heat transfer properties introduce thermal stresses when there are rapid changes in the sodium temperatures. Also sodium has a chemical affinity with air and water. The steam generators for sodium cooled reactors have to allow for these novel conditions and in addition, unlike other components. Choices have to be made whether it is a recirculation type as in most fossil plants or an once through unit, the power rating, shape of the tube (straight, helical, U-tube), materials (Ferritic or austenitic), with free level of sodium or not, sodium on tube side or shell side and so on. With higher pressures and steam temperatures reheating steam after partial expansion in the turbine becomes essential as in conventional turbines. For this purpose the choice of reheating fluid viz sodium or live main steam has to be made. This paper traces the evolution of steam generator designs in the different sodium cooled reactors (chronologically) and the operation experience. 16 figs., 1 tab

  20. Numerical simulation of thermohydraulic behavior of the steam generator of PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, C.V.M.; Carajilescov, P.

    1981-01-01

    Generally, 'U' tube steam generators with natural internal recirculation are used in PWR power stations. A thermalhydraulic model is developed for simulation of such components, in steady state. The flow of the secondary cycle fluid is divided in two parts individually homogeneous, allowing for heat and mass exchange between them. The secondary pressure is determined by defining the moisture of the vapor that feeds the turbine. This model is applied to the Angra II steam generator, operating in nominal conditions and with tubing partially plugged. (Author) [pt

  1. Some perspective decisions for the regeneration system equipment of the thermal and nuclear power plants decreasing the probability of water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Yesin, S. B.; Nikolayenkova, E. K.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigorieva, E. B.

    2016-03-01

    The regeneration system heaters are one of the sources of possible ingress of the water into the turbine. The water penetrates into the turbine either at the heaters overflow or with the return flow of steam generated when the water being in the heater boils up in the dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit. The return flow of steam and water is dangerous to the turbine blades and can result in the rotor acceleration. The known protective devices used to prevent the overflow of the low-pressure and high-pressure heaters (LPH and HPH), of the horizontal and vertical heaters of heating-system water (HWH and VWH), as well as of the deaerators and low-pressure mixing heaters (LPMH) were considered. The main protective methods of the steam and water return flows supplied by the heaters in dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit are described. Previous operating experience shows that the available protections do not fully prevent water ingress into the turbine and the rotor acceleration and, therefore, the development of measures to decrease the possibility of ingress of the water into the turbine is an actual problem. The measures allowing eliminating or reducing the water mass in the heaters are expounded; some of them were designed by the specialists of OAO Polzunov Scientific and Development Association on Research and Design of Power Equipment (NPO CKTI) and are efficiently introduced at heat power plants and nuclear power plants. The suggested technical solutions allow reducing the possibility of the water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow in the dynamic operation modes or in the case of power generating unit deenergization. Some of these solutions have been tested in experimental-industrial exploitation and can be used in industry.

  2. Effects of phosphate environments on turbine materials: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.C.; Shalvoy, R.S.; Gould, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a serious hazard to large steam turbines. In many cases, this cracking is thought caused by concentrated deposits of caustics or chlorides, formed from the steam by concentrating mechanisms. To minimize the likelihood of forming these corrosive deposits, turbine manufacturers recommend that the levels of contaminants in the steam be maintained at low levels. The steam purity needed to prevent the formation of corrosive deposits is at present uncertain. As an aid in judging the steam purity needed to avoid corrosive deposits, the General Electric Company surveyed the utility industry to determine current feedwater practices, the levels of steam purity attained, and the nature of the corrosion problems encountered. One hypothesis to explain the lower corrosivity of steam from drum boilers concerns the sodium phosphate to compounds commonly added to drum boiler water for pH control. To test this hypothesis, the present program was undertaken to study the effect of sodium phosphate on the corrosivity of the two most common corrosive turbine deposits, sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide. Four turbine materials - a rotor steel, a disc steel, and two turbine blade steels - were chosen for this study. The results from the first half of a two-year project are described. So far the corrosivity of the deposits without phosphate has been determined. Work to determine the corrosivity of deposits with phosphate is presently under way and only the electrochemical test results are discussed

  3. Turbine Energy Evaluation by internal dimensional control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediavilla, F.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain the optimum thermal performance in a high level throughout the life of the turbines requires a good testing program, proper analysis of the test data, and a steam path audit during turbine overhauls. If from operating data analysis collected during the performance test before the outage shows that the efficiency of the turbine is coming down, the steam path audit, that is an internal inspection and a dimensional control of the internals, identity and quantity causes of performance degradation like, seal leakages, excessive clearances, solid particle erosion damages, blades deposits and other losses. The steam path audit assigns the heat rate penalties associated with each of these individual losses to the total degradation. This are used to make cost-effective maintenance decisions during the course of the overhaul. After repairs, a closing steam path audit is conducted during the re assembly of the turbine in order to predict return to service condition of the machine and to provide a quality control check on outage repairs. (Author)

  4. Digital implementation, simulation and tests in MATLAB of the models of Steam line, the turbines, the pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this phase of the project they were carried out exhaustive tests to the models of the steam lines, turbines and pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric central for to verify that their tendencies and behaviors are it more real possible. For it, it was necessary to also analyze the transfer functions of the different components along the steam line until the power generator. Such models define alone the dominant poles of the system, what is not limitation to reproduce a wide range of anticipated transitoriness of a power station operation. In the same manner, it was integrated and proved the integrated model form with the models of feeding water of the SUN-RAH, simulating the nuclear reactor starting from predetermined entrances of the prospective values of the vessel. Also it was coupled with the graphic interface developed with the libraries DirectX implementing a specific monitoring panel for this system. (Author)

  5. Crack of a first stage blade in a steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nurbanasari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The failure of the first stage blade in a steam turbine of 55 MW was investigated. The blade was made of 17-4 PH stainless steel and has been used for 12 years before failure. The current work aims to find out the main cause of the first stage blade failure. The methods for investigation were metallurgical analysis, chemical composition test, and hardness measurement. The result showed that there was no evidence the blade failure was due to material. The damage found on the blade namely crack on the blade root. Two locations of the crack observed at the blade root, which was at the tang and the fillet, with different failure modes. In general, the damage of the blade was started by the corrosion occurred on the blade root. The crack at the blade root tang was due to corrosion fatigue and the crack occurred at the blade root fillet owing to stress corrosion cracking.

  6. A system to control low pressure turbine temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An improved system to control low pressure turbine cycle steam and metal temperatures by governing the heat transfer operation in a moisture separator-reheater is described. The use of the present invention in a pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor steam turbine system is demonstrated. (UK)

  7. The elastic plastic behaviour of a 1/2% Cr Mo V steam turbine steel during high strain thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.C.; Batte, A.D.; Stringer, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    High strain fatigue problem in steam turbine. Cyclic stress strain hysteresis loops and stress relaxation behaviour in 16 h dwell period tests. Variation of stress and strain during tests under nominally strain controlled conditions. Definition of test conditions and of criteria for crack initiation and failure. Comparison of reverse bend and push pull failure data. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  8. Device for starting a steam generator by heating sodium in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hisao.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To enhance cooperation between ventilation and steam conditions of turbine and ventilation condition relative to a superheater at the time of starting a plant using a fast breeder, and to enhance safety with respect to failure of heat transmission tubes at the time of start. Structure: In a device in which steam generated in an evaporator is fed to a high pressure turbine through a super-heater and an outlet steam of high pressure turbine is reheated by means of a re-heater and fed into a turbine on the side of low pressure to drive the turbine for power generation, opening and closing valves are mounted on outlet and inlet pipes, respectively, of the heat transmission pipe in the super heater, said outlet and inlet pipes being connected by a bypass pipe. Upstream side of the opening and closing valve on the inlet pipe and the downstream side of the opening and closing valve on the outlet pipe and connected by a bypass pipe in the re-heater and said bypass pipe in the re-heater is provided with a steam heat exchanger to be heated by steam in the outlet of the superheater, and a steam line in an auxiliary boiler is connected to the side of re-heater from the opening and closing valve on the heat transmission pipe in the re-heater. (Hanada, M.)

  9. Electrical components library for HAWC2; Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutululis, N.A.; Larsen, Torben J.; Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D. (Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (DK)); Iov, F. (Aalborg Univ., Institute of Energy Technology (DK))

    2007-12-15

    The work presented in this report is part of the EFP project called ''A Simulation Platform to Model, Optimize and Design Wind Turbines'' partly funded by the Danish Energy Authority under contract number 1363/04-0008. The project is carried out in cooperation between Risoe National Laboratory and Aalborg University. In this project, the focus is on the development of a simulation platform for wind turbine systems using different simulation tools. This report presents the electric component library developed for use in the aeroelastic code HAWC2. The developed library includes both steady state and dynamical models for fixed and variable speed wind turbines. A simple steady-state slip model was developed for the fixed speed wind turbine. This model is suitable for aeroelastic design of wind turbines under normal operation. A dynamic model of an induction generator for the fixed speed wind turbine was developed. The model includes the dynamics of the rotor fluxes. The model is suitable for a more detailed investigation of the mechanical-electrical interaction, both under normal and fault operation. For the variable speed wind turbine, a steadystate model, typically used in aeroelastic design, was implemented. The model can be used for normal and, to some extent, for fault operation. The reduced order dynamic model of a DFIG was implemented. The model includes only the active power controller and can be used for normal operation conditions. (au)

  10. Dynamic analysis of multi layer foundation of steam turbines in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseni, D.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the coupled Rotor-pedestal-foundation motion is modeled and formulated. Transfer matrix method is implemented in the modeling. The model is adequate for multi layer foundation systems of steam turbines in nuclear power plants. The rotor modeled used is distributed mass model. Bearings are modeled with eight stiffness and damping coefficients and pedestals by mass, stiffness and damping property. Foundation is modeled with distributed mass and stiffness properties in which properties in vertical and horizontal direction may be different. The model is examined using analytical results and good agreement is achieved. Results of the coupled modeling indicate less error in comparison with previous separate modeling and lumped-mass methods

  11. Energy analysis and design of mixed CO{sub 2}/steam gas turbine cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bram, S; De Ruyck, J [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Mechanics

    1995-06-01

    The capturing and disposal of CO{sub 2} from power plant exhaust gases is a possible route for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The present paper investigates the full recirculation of exhaust gases in a gas turbine cycle, combined with the injection of steam or water. Such recirculation leads to an exhaust gas with very high CO{sub 2} concentration (95% or more). Different regenerative cycle layouts are proposed and analyzed for efficiency, exergy destruction and technical feasibility. Pinch Technology methods are next applied to find the best configuration for heat regeneration and injection of water. From this analysis, dual pressure evaporation with water injection in the intercooler emerges as an interesting option. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Advanced Materials Test Methods for Improved Life Prediction of Turbine Engine Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stubbs, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Phase I final report developed under SBIR contract for Topic # AF00-149, "Durability of Turbine Engine Materials/Advanced Material Test Methods for Improved Use Prediction of Turbine Engine Components...

  13. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet pressure, boiler exit steam temperature, and condenser pressure on the first and second laws' efficiencies are investigated. Also the best turbine extraction pressure on the first law efficiency is obtained. The results show that the biggest exergy loss occurs in the boiler followed by the turbine. The results also show that the overall thermal efficiency and the second law efficiency decrease as the condenser pressure increases for any fixed outlet boiler temperature, however, they increase as the boiler temperature increases for any condenser pressure. Furthermore, the best values of extraction pressure from high, intermediate, and low pressure turbine which give the maximum first law efficiencies are obtained based on the required heat load corresponding to each exit boiler temperature.

  14. Recent technology on steam turbine performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirada, M.; Watanabe, E.; Tashiro, H.

    1991-01-01

    Continuous efforts have been made to improve turbine efficiency by applying the latest aerodynamic technologies to meet the energy saving requirement. In recent years, there has been considerable improvement in the field of computational fluid dynamics and these new technologies have been applied to the new blade design for HP, IP and LP turbines. Experimental verification for the new blade in turbine tests has established the overall turbine performance improvement and the excellent correspondence of flow pattern to the predicted value. This paper introduces the latest design technologies for the newly developed high efficiency blade and the verification test results

  15. Steam generator and circulator model for the HELAP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.

    1975-07-01

    An outline is presented of the work carried out in the 1974 fiscal year on the GCFBR safety research project consisting of the development of improved steam generator and circulator (steam turbine driven helium compressor) models which will eventually be inserted in the HELAP (1) code. Furthermore, a code was developed which will be used to generate steady state input for the primary and secondary sides of the steam generator. The following conclusions and suggestions for further work are made: (1) The steam-generator and circulator model are consistent with the volume and junction layout used in HELAP, (2) with minor changes these models, when incorporated in HELAP, could be used to simulate a direct cycle plant, (3) an explicit control valve model is still to be developed and would be very desirable to control the flow to the turbine during a transient (initially this flow will be controlled by using the existing check valve model); (4) the friction factor in the laminar flow region is computed inaccurately, this might cause significant errors in loss-of-flow accidents; and (5) it is felt that HELAP will still use a large amount of computer time and will thus be limited to design basis accidents without scram or loss of flow transients with and without scram. Finally it may also be used as a test bed for the development of prototype component models which would be incorporated in a more sophisticated system code, developed specifically for GCFBR's

  16. Nonlinear Synergetic Governor Controllers for Steam Turbine Generators to Enhance Power System Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbao Ju

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a decentralized nonlinear synergetic governor controller (NSGC for turbine generators to enhance power system stability by using synergetic control theory and the feedback linearization technique. The precise feedback linearization model of a turbine-generator with a steam valve control is obtained, at first, by using a feedback linearization technique. Then based on this model, a manifold is defined as a linear combination of the deviation of the rotor angle, speed deviation, and speed derivative. The control law of the proposed NSGC is deduced and the stability condition of the whole closed-loop system is subsequently analyzed. According to the requirement of the primary frequency regulation, an additional proportional integral (PI controller is designed to dynamically track the steady-state value of the rotor angle. Case studies are undertaken based on a single-machine infinite-bus system and the New England system, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed NSGC can suppress the power oscillations and improve transient stability more effectively in comparison with the conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID governor controller. Moreover, the proposed NSGC is robust to the variations of the system operating conditions.

  17. Engineering analysis of mass flow rate for turbine system control and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A computer code is written to predict the steam mass flow rate through valves. → A test device is built to study the steam flow characteristics in the control valve. → Mass flow based methodology eases the programming and experimental procedures. → The methodology helps express the characteristics of each device of a turbine system. → The results can commercially be used for design and operation of the turbine system. - Abstract: The mass flow rate is determined in the steam turbine system by the area formed between the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. For precise control the steam mass flow rate should be known given the stem lift. However, since the thermal hydraulic characteristics of steam coming from the generator or boiler are changed going through each device, it is hard to accurately predict the steam mass flow rate. Thus, to precisely determine the steam mass flow rate, a methodology and theory are developed in designing the turbine system manufactured for the nuclear and fossil power plants. From the steam generator or boiler to the first bunch of turbine blades, the steam passes by a stop valve, a control valve and the first nozzle, each of which is connected with piping. The corresponding steam mass flow rate can ultimately be computed if the thermal and hydraulic conditions are defined at the stop valve, control valve and pipes. The steam properties at the inlet of each device are changed at its outlet due to geometry. The Compressed Adiabatic Massflow Analysis (CAMA) computer code is written to predict the steam mass flow rate through valves. The Valve Engineered Layout Operation (VELO) test device is built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve with the CAMA input data. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected as reference. CAMA is expected to be commercially utilized to accurately design and operate the turbine system for fossil as well as nuclear power

  18. Chemical impurity monitoring in the turbine environment at ANO-1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, D.P.

    1982-05-01

    An overview is presented here of three independent measurement campaigns for trace impurities in the secondary side water/steam of ANO-1, a PWR containing a once-through steam generator. The measurements took place in 1978-1979 between two turbine disc cracking incidents near the point of first condensation in the low pressure turbines. Turbine disc cracking occurred despite maintenance of conditions near the turbine manufacturers recommended limits. Measurements focused on sodium, chloride, and sulfate. The primary source of contamination was found to be the condensate polishing plant. Major improvements were seen to result from changes in regeneration procedures. Turbine damage may be the result of acid conditions at the Wilson Line since chloride and sulfate were enriched relative to sodium in the LP turbine inlet steam

  19. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} caused by the consumption of hydrocarbon fuel is one of the main gases which affect the global climate. In order to reduce the formation of CO{sub 2}, it is necessary to conserve energy as effectively as possible. Therefore the heat energy provided by the fuel should be utilized in multi-cascades. The energy at the high temperature should be used for the generation of electric power and the energy at low temperature could be used for making the steam and the hot water. The gas turbine is preferable for this purpose. The heat energy of exhaust gas can be reused more easily. The two systems are proposed by using the gas turbine as the high temperature stage. One is the cogeneration system and the other is the combined cycle. The former generates electric power by the gas turbine and make steam or hot water in the exhaust gas. The latter employs the gas turbine as the high temperature cycle and the steam turbine as the low temperature cycle.

  20. Fault detection and diagnosis of an industrial steam turbine using fusion of SVM (support vector machine) and ANFIS (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahshoor, Karim [Department of Instrumentation and Automation, Petroleum University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kordestani, Mojtaba; Khoshro, Majid S. [Department of Control Engineering, Islamic Azad University South Tehran branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The subject of FDD (fault detection and diagnosis) has gained widespread industrial interest in machine condition monitoring applications. This is mainly due to the potential advantage to be achieved from reduced maintenance costs, improved productivity and increased machine availability. This paper presents a new FDD scheme for condition machinery of an industrial steam turbine using a data fusion methodology. Fusion of a SVM (support vector machine) classifier with an ANFIS (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) classifier, integrated into a common framework, is utilized to enhance the fault detection and diagnostic tasks. For this purpose, a multi-attribute data is fused into aggregated values of a single attribute by OWA (ordered weighted averaging) operators. The simulation studies indicate that the resulting fusion-based scheme outperforms the individual SVM and ANFIS systems to detect and diagnose incipient steam turbine faults. (author)

  1. Research and development of improved efficiency small steam turbines (IESST). Technical progress report, Phase I, 16 April-31 December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choate, D.M.; Tuttle, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Product Statistical Bulletins of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and Turbodyne's shipment records over a 10-y period were researched to determine quantities installed and to define general parameters of design. Engineering studies were conducted to determine the optimum turbine design to meet the defined design parameters. Two conceptual designs plus an added variation of one design were completed together with designs of gearing required to provide speeds compatible with driven equipment speeds. The calculated performance of the recommended design and currently available small steam turbines were compared and a life cycle cost analysis was conducted to determine the economic competitiveness of the new design.

  2. Use of NDE and FM for the assessment of remaining life of steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alley, T [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States); Stone, R [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States). Nondestructive Evaluation Center

    1988-12-31

    Catastrophic failures of rotating turbine components, such as the Gallatin rotor burst in 1974 and the shrunk-on disk rupture at Hinkley Point in 1969, alerted the utility industry to the failure potential of these components. Such failures can cause severe financial loss; endanger personnel; and, in nuclear plants, damage safety related equipment. To adequately predict the remaining life of a turbine rotor requires accurate information about component flaws, material properties, future operating loads, relevant failure mechanisms, and an approach to combine this information to make an assessment of remaining life. EPRI has supported the development of improved ultrasonic test equipment for use from the rotor bore (bore-sonic examination) and a fracture mechanics based life assessment code called SAFER (Stress and Fracture Evaluation of Rotors). The EPRI NDE Center has supported the transfer of this technology to industry. This presentation deals with the NDE Center`s transfer of the NDE and life assessment technology to industry and discusses a particular application by Duke Power Company at their Allen Plant, Unit 1 to extend the operating life of an IP/LP turbine. (author).

  3. Use of NDE and FM for the assessment of remaining life of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, T.; Stone, R.

    1988-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of rotating turbine components, such as the Gallatin rotor burst in 1974 and the shrunk-on disk rupture at Hinkley Point in 1969, alerted the utility industry to the failure potential of these components. Such failures can cause severe financial loss; endanger personnel; and, in nuclear plants, damage safety related equipment. To adequately predict the remaining life of a turbine rotor requires accurate information about component flaws, material properties, future operating loads, relevant failure mechanisms, and an approach to combine this information to make an assessment of remaining life. EPRI has supported the development of improved ultrasonic test equipment for use from the rotor bore (bore-sonic examination) and a fracture mechanics based life assessment code called SAFER (Stress and Fracture Evaluation of Rotors). The EPRI NDE Center has supported the transfer of this technology to industry. This presentation deals with the NDE Center's transfer of the NDE and life assessment technology to industry and discusses a particular application by Duke Power Company at their Allen Plant, Unit 1 to extend the operating life of an IP/LP turbine. (author)

  4. Correlation of operating parameters on turbine shaft vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Harsh Kumar; Rajora, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    The new generation of condition monitoring and diagnostics system plays an important role in efficient functioning of power plants. In most of the rotating machine, defects can be detected by such a system much before dangerous situation occurs. It allows the efficient use of stationary on-line continuous monitoring system for condition monitoring and diagnostics as well. Condition monitoring of turbine shaft can not only reduce expenses of maintenance of turbo generator of power plants but also prevents likely shutdown of plant, thereby increases plant load factor. Turbo visionary parameters are essential part of health diagnosis system of turbo generator. Particularly steam pressure, steam temperature and lube oil temperature are important parameters to monitor because they are having much influence on turbine shaft vibration and also governing systems are available for change values of those parameters. This paper includes influence of turbo visionary parameters i.e., steam temperature, steam pressure, lube oil temperature, turbine speed and load on turbine shaft vibration at turbo generator at 195 MW unit-6,Kota Super Thermal Power Station by measuring vibration amplitude and analyze them in MATLAB.

  5. Reliability Analysis of Fatigue Failure of Cast Components for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Mirzaei Rafsanjani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure is one of the main failure modes for wind turbine drivetrain components made of cast iron. The wind turbine drivetrain consists of a variety of heavily loaded components, like the main shaft, the main bearings, the gearbox and the generator. The failure of each component will lead to substantial economic losses such as cost of lost energy production and cost of repairs. During the design lifetime, the drivetrain components are exposed to variable loads from winds and waves and other sources of loads that are uncertain and have to be modeled as stochastic variables. The types of loads are different for offshore and onshore wind turbines. Moreover, uncertainties about the fatigue strength play an important role in modeling and assessment of the reliability of the components. In this paper, a generic stochastic model for fatigue failure of cast iron components based on fatigue test data and a limit state equation for fatigue failure based on the SN-curve approach and Miner’s rule is presented. The statistical analysis of the fatigue data is performed using the Maximum Likelihood Method which also gives an estimate of the statistical uncertainties. Finally, illustrative examples are presented with reliability analyses depending on various stochastic models and partial safety factors.

  6. Global Value Chain and Manufacturing Analysis on Geothermal Power Plant Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    The global geothermal electricity market has significantly grown over the last decade and is expected to reach a total installed capacity of 18.4 GWe in 2021 (GEA, 2016). Currently, geothermal project developers customize the size of the power plant to fit the resource being developed. In particular, the turbine is designed and sized to optimize efficiency and resource utilization for electricity production; most often, other power plant components are then chosen to complement the turbine design. These custom turbine designs demand one-off manufacturing processes, which result in higher manufacturing setup costs, longer lead-times, and higher capital costs overall in comparison to larger-volume line manufacturing processes. In contrast, turbines produced in standard increments, manufactured in larger volumes, could result in lower costs per turbine. This study focuses on analysis of the global supply chain and manufacturing costs for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) turboexpanders and steam turbines used in geothermal power plants. In this study, we developed a manufacturing cost model to identify requirements for equipment, facilities, raw materials, and labor. We analyzed three different cases 1) 1 MWe geothermal ORC turboexpander 2) 5 MWe ORC turboexpander and 3) 20 MWe geothermal steam turbine, and calculated the cost of manufacturing the major components, such as the impellers/blades, shaft/rotor, nozzles, inlet guide lanes, disks, and casings. Then we used discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis to calculate the minimum sustainable price (MSP). MSP is the minimum price that a company must sell its product for in order to pay back the capital and operating expenses during the plant lifetime (CEMAC, 2017). The results showed that MSP could highly vary between 893 dollar/kW and 30 dollar/kW based on turbine size, standardization and volume of manufacturing. The analysis also showed that the economy of scale applies both to the size of the turbine and the number

  7. A Novel Hybrid Approach for Numerical Modeling of the Nucleating Flow in Laval Nozzle and Transonic Steam Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Yousefi Rad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, considering the importance of desirable steam turbine design, improvement of numerical modeling of steam two-phase flows in convergent and divergent channels and the blades of transonic steam turbines has been targeted. The first novelty of this research is the innovative use of combined Convective Upstream Pressure Splitting (CUSP and scalar methods to update the flow properties at each calculation point. In other words, each property (density, temperature, pressure and velocity at each calculation point can be computed from either the CUSP or scalar method, depending on the least deviation criterion. For this reason this innovative method is named “hybrid method”. The next novelty of this research is the use of an inverse method alongside the proposed hybrid method to find the amount of the important parameter z in the CUSP method, which is herein referred to as “CUSP’s convergence parameter”. Using a relatively simple computational grid, firstly, five cases with similar conditions to those of the main cases under study in this research with available experimental data were used to obtain the value of z by the Levenberg-Marquardt inverse method. With this innovation, first, an optimum value of z = 2.667 was obtained using the inverse method and then directly used for the main cases considered in the research. Given that the aim is to investigate the two-dimensional, steady state, inviscid and adiabatic modeling of steam nucleating flows in three different nozzle and turbine blade geometries, flow simulation was performed using a relatively simple mesh and the innovative proposed hybrid method (scalar + CUSP, with the desired value of z = 2.667 . A comparison between the results of the hybrid modeling of the three main cases with experimental data showed a very good agreement, even within shock zones, including the condensation shock region, revealing the efficiency of this numerical modeling method innovation

  8. A system for regulating the pressure of resuperheated steam in high temperature gas-cooled reactor power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegines, K.O.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to a system for regulating steam-pressure in the re-superheating portion of a steam-boiler receiving heat from a gas-cooled high temperature nuclear reactor, provided with gas distributing pumps driven by steam-turbines. The system comprises means for generating a pressure signal of desired magnitude for the re-superheating portion, and means for providing a real pressure in the re-superheating portion, means (including a by-passing device) for generating steam-flow rate signal of desired magnitude, a turbine by-pass device comprising a by-pass tapping means for regulating the steam-flow-rate in said turbine according to the desired steam-flow rate signal and means for controlling said by-pass tapping means according to said desired steam-flow-rate signal [fr

  9. Steam purity in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkinson, J.

    1982-01-01

    Impurities enter the secondary loop of the PWR through both makeup water from lake or well and cooling-water leaks in the condenser. These impurities can be carried to the steam generator, where they cause corrosion deposits to form. Corrosion products in steam are swept further through the system and become concentrated at the point in the low-pressure turbine where steam begins to condense. Several plants have effectively reduced impurities, and therefore corrosion, by installing a demineralizer for the makeup water, a resin-bed system to clean condensed steam from the condenser, and a deaerator to remove oxygen from the water and so lower the risk of system metal oxidation. 5 references, 1 figure

  10. Advanced numerical description of the behavior of 700 C steam power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maile, K. [Materialpruefungsanstalt, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Schmidt, K.; Roos, E.; Klenk, A.; Speicher, M.

    2009-07-01

    To make full use of the strength potential of new boiler materials like the new 9-11% Cr steels and nickel based alloys, taking into account their specific stress-strain relaxation behavior, new design methods are required in the design of today's power plants. Highly loaded components are approaching more and more the classical design limits with regard to critical wall thicknesses and the related tolerable thermal gradients, due to planed increases of steam parameters like steam pressure and steam temperature. ''Design by analysis'' can be realized by modern state of the art Numerical Finite Element (FE) simulation codes and in some cases by the use of user defined advanced inelastic material laws. These material laws have to be adjusted to specific material behavior of new boiler materials. To model the strain and stress situation in components under high temperature loading, a constitutive equation based on a Graham-Walles approach is used in this paper. Furthermore essential steps and recommendations to implement experimental data in the user defined subroutines and the subsequent integration of the subroutines in modern FE codes like ABAQUS trademark and ANSYS trademark are given. As an example, the results of FE simulations of components like hollow cylinders and waterwall like components made of Alloy 617 or 9-11% Cr steels are discussed and verified with experimental results. In a last step, the successful application of the developed creep equation will be demonstrated by calculating the creep strains and stress relaxation of a P92 steam header under constant loading. (orig.)

  11. Parametric simulation on enhancement of the Regenerative Gas Turbine performance by effect of Inlet Air Cooling system and Steam Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadel Abdulrazzaq Alkumait

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq being one of the developing countries of the world considers energy efficiency and the impact of its generation on the environment an imperative process in improvement of its power generation policies. Iraq bearing high temperatures all year long results in reduction of air density, therefore, Inlet air Cooling and Steam Injection Gas Turbines are a striking addition to the regenerative gas turbines. Regenerating Gas turbines tend to have a high back work ratio and a high exhaust temperature, thus, it leads to a low efficiency in power generation in hotter climate. Moreover, STIG and IAC through fog cooling have known to be the best retrofitting methods available in the industry which improve the efficiency of generation from 30.5 to 43% and increase the power output from 22MW to 33.5MW as the outcomes of computer simulations reveal. Additionally, this happens without bringing about much extensive change to original features of the power generation cycle. Furthermore, STIG and spray coolers have also resulted in power boosting and exceeding generation efficiency of gas turbine power plant.

  12. Cycle improvement for nuclear steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A pressure-increasig ejector element is disposed in an extraction line intermediate to a high pressure turbine element and a feedwater heater. The ejector utilizes high pressure fluid from a reheater drain as the motive fluid to increase the pressure at which the extraction steam is introduced into the feedwater heater. The increase in pressure of the extraction steam entering the feedwater heater due to the steam passage through the ejector increases the heat exchange capability of the extraction steam thus increasing the overall steam power plant efficiency

  13. Heat extraction from turbines of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two design are described of SKODA extraction turbines for Czechoslovak nuclear power plants with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors. 220 MW steam turbines were originally designed as pure condensation turbines with uncontrolled steam extraction. Optimal ways are now being sought for their use for heating hot water for district heating. For district heating of the town of Trnava, the nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice will provide a two-step heating of water from 70 to 120 degC with a heat supply of 60 MW th from one turbine unit. The ratio of obtained heat power to lost electric power is 5.08. Investigations showed the possibility of extracting 85 MW th of heat from uncontrolled steam extraction, this at three-step water heating from 60 to 145 degC, the ratio of gained and lost power being 7.14. Information is presented on the SKODA 220 MW turbine with steam extraction for heat supply purposes and on the 1000 MW turbine with 893 MW th heat extraction. The specifications of both types are given. (Pu)

  14. Nuclear steam power plant cycle performance calculations supported by power plant monitoring and results computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettes, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the real time performance calculations for the turbine cycle and reactor and steam generators of a nuclear power plant. Program accepts plant measurements and calculates performance and efficiency of each part of the cycle: reactor and steam generators, turbines, feedwater heaters, condenser, circulating water system, feed pump turbines, cooling towers. Presently, the calculations involve: 500 inputs, 2400 separate calculations, 500 steam properties subroutine calls, 200 support function accesses, 1500 output valves. The program operates in a real time system at regular intervals

  15. Application of the Combined Cycle LWR-Gas Turbine to PWR for NPP Life Extension Safety Upgrade and Improving Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. N.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, some of the most important problem for the nuclear industry are life extension, advance competitiveness and safety of aging LWR NPPs. Based on results of studies performed in the USA (Battelle Memorial Institute) and in Russia (NIKIET), a new power technology, using a combined cycle gas-turbine facility CCGT - LWR, so called TD-Cycle, can significantly help in resolution of some problems of nuclear power industry. The nuclear steam and gas topping cycle is used for re-powering a light water pressurized reactor of PWR or VVER type. An existing NPP is topped with a gas turbine facility with a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) generating steam from waste heat. The superheated steam of high pressure (P=90-165 bar, T=500-550 C) generated in the HRSG, is expanded in a high pressure (HP) turbine for producing electricity. The HP turbine can work on one shaft with the the gas turbine or at one shaft with intermediate (IP) or low (LP) pressure parts of the main nuclear steam turbine, or with a separate electric generator. The exhausted steam from the HP turbine is injected into the steam mixer where it is mixed with the saturated steam from the NPP steam generator (SG). The mixer is intended to superheat the main nuclear steam and should be characterized by minimum losses during mixing superheated and saturated steam. Steam from the mixer superheated by 20-60 C directs to the existing IP turbine, and then, through a separator-reheater flows into the LP turbine. Feed water re-heaters of LP and HP are actually unchanged in this case. Feed water extraction to the HRSG is supplied after one of LP water heaters. This proposal is intended to re-power existing LWR NPPs. To minimize cost, the IP and LP turbines and electric generator would remain the same. The reactor thermal power and fast neutron flux to the reactor vessel would decrease by 30-50 percent of nominal values. The external peripheral row of fuel elements can be replaced with metal absorber rods to

  16. LCA-LCCA of oil fired steam turbine power plant in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Tso, C.P.; Osman, Ramli; Ho, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the non-renewable energy use and global warming potential in electricity generation from a typical oil fired steam turbine plant in Singapore. As the conventional LCA does not include any cost analysis, which is a major criterion in decision making, the cost of power generation is estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. It is estimated that the hidden processes consumed about 9% additional energy on top of the fuel embedded energy, while the hidden GHG emission is about 12%. A correlation is established to estimate the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions directly from the power plant net efficiency. The study methodology, results and the empirical relations are presented, together with a brief overview of the Singapore power sector. It also highlights the need for consideration of the reserves availability in the pricing mechanism and how such cost indices could be developed based on the LCA-LCCA. (Author)

  17. LCA-LCCA of oil fired steam turbine power plant in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Tso, C.P.; Osman, Ramli; Ho, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the non-renewable energy use and global warming potential in electricity generation from a typical oil fired steam turbine plant in Singapore. As the conventional LCA does not include any cost analysis, which is a major criterion in decision making, the cost of power generation is estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. It is estimated that the hidden processes consumed about 9% additional energy on top of the fuel embedded energy, while the hidden GHG emission is about 12%. A correlation is established to estimate the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions directly from the power plant net efficiency. The study methodology, results and the empirical relations are presented, together with a brief overview of the Singapore power sector. It also highlights the need for consideration of the reserves availability in the pricing mechanism and how such cost indices could be developed based on the LCA-LCCA

  18. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  19. Modelling and simulation of the steam line, the high and low pressure turbines and the pressure regulator for the SUN-RAH nucleo electric university simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the following article the development of a simulator that allows to represent the dynamics of the following systems: steam line, nozzle, vapor separator, reheater, high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, power generator and the pressure regulator of a nucleo electric power station. We start from the supposition that this plant will be modeled from a nuclear reactor type BWR (Boiling Water Reactor), using models of reduced order that represent the more important dynamic variables of the physical processes that happen along the steam line until the one generator. To be able to carry out the simulation in real time the Mat lab mathematical modeling software is used, as well as the specific simulation tool Simulink. It is necessary to point out that the platform on which the one is executed the simulator is the Windows operating system, to allow the intuitive use that only this operating system offers. The above-mentioned obeys to that the objective of the simulator it is to help the user to understand some of the dynamic phenomena that are present in the systems of a nuclear plant, and to provide a tool of analysis and measurement of variables to predict the desirable behavior of the same ones. The model of a pressure controller for the steam lines, the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine is also presented that it will be the one in charge of regulating the demand of the system according to the characteristics and critic restrictions of safety and control, assigned according to those wanted parameters of performance of this system inside the nucleo electric plant. This simulator is totally well defined and it is part of the University student nucleo electric simulator with Boiling Water Reactor (SUN-RAH), an integral project and of greater capacity. (Author)

  20. Global Value Chain and Manufacturing Analysis on Geothermal Power Plant Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-03

    The global geothermal electricity market has significantly grown over the last decade and is expected to reach a total installed capacity of 18.4 GWe in 2021 (GEA, 2016). Currently, geothermal project developers customize the size of the power plant to fit the resource being developed. In particular, the turbine is designed and sized to optimize efficiency and resource utilization for electricity production; most often, other power plant components are then chosen to complement the turbine design. These custom turbine designs demand one-off manufacturing processes, which result in higher manufacturing setup costs, longer lead-times, and higher capital costs overall in comparison to larger-volume line manufacturing processes. In contrast, turbines produced in standard increments, manufactured in larger volumes, could result in lower costs per turbine. This study focuses on analysis of the global supply chain and manufacturing costs for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) turboexpanders and steam turbines used in geothermal power plants. In this study, we developed a manufacturing cost model to identify requirements for equipment, facilities, raw materials, and labor. We analyzed three different cases 1) 1 MWe geothermal ORC turboexpander 2) 5 MWe ORC turboexpander and 3) 20 MWe geothermal steam turbine, and calculated the cost of manufacturing the major components, such as the impellers/blades, shaft/rotor, nozzles, inlet guide lanes, disks, and casings. Then we used discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis to calculate the minimum sustainable price (MSP). MSP is the minimum price that a company must sell its product for in order to pay back the capital and operating expenses during the plant lifetime (CEMAC, 2017). The results showed that MSP could highly vary between 893 dollar/kW and 30 dollar/kW based on turbine size, standardization and volume of manufacturing. The analysis also showed that the economy of scale applies both to the size of the turbine and the number

  1. Contribution to life-time predictions of gas turbine components under cyclic load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher, R.

    1982-02-15

    The low cycle fatique life of gas turbine components is analysed using the turbine blade of the ATAR 101 F jet engine turbine as example. The results show that, among other things thermal stresses during start-up and shut-off cause considerable damage to the material. Tests using a model rig showed that damage caused by material creep and LCF-mechanisms stongly depended on cyclic parameters such as temperature, temperature development, and power etc. Two long-term tests confirm that the Manson model can be used to give a reasonable prediction of turbine blade life.

  2. Analysis of the reasons for failures of the 1500 MW turbines HP diaphragms on the EDF N4 units. Implementation of a solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franc, J. C.; Franconville, M.

    2002-01-01

    The full text follows. Diaphragms are major components of an impulse type steam turbine since they hold the fixed blades which allow part of the steam expansion (the other part being on the moving blades mounted on the rotor) The 4 impulse type 1500 MW nuclear steam turbines, from the EDF N4 program,were commissioned in 1996 on the CHOOZ and then CIVAUX plants.The diaphragms, located in the HP(high pressure) part of these turbines, have shown signs of failures very soon, due to a cracking of assembly welds,which is dangerous for the machines integrity. These failures questioned a construction mode which had been highly experienced previously. A large campaign of inspections and tests was carried out to feature the ways of failure,on site or in the factory during manufacturing.Site measurements combined with numerical simulations allowed to define excitations, harmful to these components,during operation. Temporary solutions were applied in order to allow immediate restart of the plants.In parallel,a modification of the diaphragms design and assembly method was studied and applied to withstand the various operating stresses. (author)

  3. THE USE OF COATINGS FOR HOT CORROSION AND EROSION PROTECTION IN TURBINE HOT SECTION COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin AHLATCI

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressure turbine components are subjected to a wide variety of thermal and mechanical loading during service. In addition, the components are exposed to a highly oxidizing atmosphere which may contain contaminants such as sulphates, chlorides and sulphuorous gases along with erosive media. So the variety of surface coatings and deposition processes available for the protection of blade and vane components in gas turbines are summarised in this study. Coating types range from simple diffusion aluminides to modified aluminides and a CoCrAlY overlayer. The recommendations for corrosion-resistant coatings (for low temperature and high temperature hot corrosion environments are as follows: silicon aluminide and platinumchromium aluminide for different gas turbine section superalloys substrates. Platinum metal additions are used to improve the properties of coatings on turbine components. Inorganic coatings based on ceramic films which contain aluminium or aluminium and silicon are very effective in engines and gas turbines. Diffusion, overlayer and thermal barrier coatings which are deposited on superalloys gas turbine components by pack cementation, plasma spraying processes and a number of chemical vapour deposition, physical vapour deposition processes (such as electron beam, sputtering, ion plating are described. The principles underlying the development of protective coatings serve as a useful guide in the choice of coatings for other high temperature applications.

  4. Advanced materials for critical components in industrial gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, T.B. (Div. of Materials Metrology, National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom))

    1992-06-01

    Combined-cycle plant for power production has advantages in terms of capital costs and flexibility compared to large power plants either nuclear of fossil-fired, used for base load. In combined-cycle plant the overall efficiency is highly dependent on the performance of the gas turbine and turbine entry temperatures of > 1200deg C will be required to obtain attractive levels of efficiency. Bearing in mind the need for reliability and longterm performance from components such as turbine blades, the challenge to the materials enginer is formidable. In this paper some of the recent developments in Ni - Cr-base alloys are described and the potential for advanced materials such as ceramics and intermetallics is briefly considered. Development in coating technology to provide effective thermal barriers and good resistance to aggressive environments are discussed. (orig./MM).

  5. Failure rate modeling using fault tree analysis and Bayesian network: DEMO pulsed operation turbine study case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongiovanni, Danilo Nicola; Iesmantas, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • RAMI (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability) assessment of secondary heat transfer loop for a DEMO nuclear fusion plant. • Definition of a fault tree for a nuclear steam turbine operated in pulsed mode. • Turbine failure rate models update by mean of a Bayesian network reflecting the fault tree analysis in the considered scenario. • Sensitivity analysis on system availability performance. - Abstract: Availability will play an important role in the Demonstration Power Plant (DEMO) success from an economic and safety perspective. Availability performance is commonly assessed by Reliability Availability Maintainability Inspectability (RAMI) analysis, strongly relying on the accurate definition of system components failure modes (FM) and failure rates (FR). Little component experience is available in fusion application, therefore requiring the adaptation of literature FR to fusion plant operating conditions, which may differ in several aspects. As a possible solution to this problem, a new methodology to extrapolate/estimate components failure rate under different operating conditions is presented. The DEMO Balance of Plant nuclear steam turbine component operated in pulse mode is considered as study case. The methodology moves from the definition of a fault tree taking into account failure modes possibly enhanced by pulsed operation. The fault tree is then translated into a Bayesian network. A statistical model for the turbine system failure rate in terms of subcomponents’ FR is hence obtained, allowing for sensitivity analyses on the structured mixture of literature and unknown FR data for which plausible value intervals are investigated to assess their impact on the whole turbine system FR. Finally, the impact of resulting turbine system FR on plant availability is assessed exploiting a Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) model for a typical secondary cooling system implementing a Rankine cycle. Mean inherent availability

  6. Failure rate modeling using fault tree analysis and Bayesian network: DEMO pulsed operation turbine study case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongiovanni, Danilo Nicola, E-mail: danilo.dongiovanni@enea.it [ENEA, Nuclear Fusion and Safety Technologies Department, via Enrico Fermi 45, Frascati 00040 (Italy); Iesmantas, Tomas [LEI, Breslaujos str. 3 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • RAMI (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability) assessment of secondary heat transfer loop for a DEMO nuclear fusion plant. • Definition of a fault tree for a nuclear steam turbine operated in pulsed mode. • Turbine failure rate models update by mean of a Bayesian network reflecting the fault tree analysis in the considered scenario. • Sensitivity analysis on system availability performance. - Abstract: Availability will play an important role in the Demonstration Power Plant (DEMO) success from an economic and safety perspective. Availability performance is commonly assessed by Reliability Availability Maintainability Inspectability (RAMI) analysis, strongly relying on the accurate definition of system components failure modes (FM) and failure rates (FR). Little component experience is available in fusion application, therefore requiring the adaptation of literature FR to fusion plant operating conditions, which may differ in several aspects. As a possible solution to this problem, a new methodology to extrapolate/estimate components failure rate under different operating conditions is presented. The DEMO Balance of Plant nuclear steam turbine component operated in pulse mode is considered as study case. The methodology moves from the definition of a fault tree taking into account failure modes possibly enhanced by pulsed operation. The fault tree is then translated into a Bayesian network. A statistical model for the turbine system failure rate in terms of subcomponents’ FR is hence obtained, allowing for sensitivity analyses on the structured mixture of literature and unknown FR data for which plausible value intervals are investigated to assess their impact on the whole turbine system FR. Finally, the impact of resulting turbine system FR on plant availability is assessed exploiting a Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) model for a typical secondary cooling system implementing a Rankine cycle. Mean inherent availability

  7. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  8. Study on Creep Damage Model of 1Cr1Mo1/4V Steel for Turbine Rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Sung; Song, Gee Wook; Kim, Bum Shin; Chang, Sung Ho; Fleury, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the dominant damage mechanisms in high-temperature steam turbine facilities such as rotor and casing are creep and fatigue damages. Even though coupling of creep and fatigue should be considered while predicting the life of turbine facilities, the remaining life of large steam turbine facilities is generally determined on the basis of creep damage because the turbines must generate stable base-load power and because they are operated at a high temperature and pressure for a long time. Almost every large steam turbine in Korea has been operated for more than 20 years and is made of steel containing various amounts of principal alloying elements nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and vanadium. In this study, creep damage model of 1Cr1Mo1/4V steel for turbine rotor is proposed and that can assess the high temperature creep life of large steam turbine facilities is proposed

  9. Static and dynamic modelling of gas turbines in advanced cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jan-Olof

    1998-12-01

    Gas turbines have been in operation for at least 50 years. The engine is used for propulsion of aircraft and high speed ships. It is used for power production in remote locations and for peak load and emergency situations. Gas turbines have been used in combined cycles for 20 to 30 years. Highly efficient power plants based on gas turbines are a competitive option for the power industry today. The thermal efficiency of the simple cycle gas turbine has increased due to higher turbine inlet temperatures and improved compressor and expander designs. Equally important are the improved cycles in which the gas turbine operates. One example is the combined cycle that uses steam for turbine cooling. Steam is extracted from the bottoming cycle, then used as airfoil coolant in a closed loop and returned to the bottoming cycle. The Evaporative Gas Turbine (EvGT), also known as the Humid Air Turbine (HAT), is another advanced cycle. A mixture of air and water vapour is used as working media. Air from the compressor outlet is humidified and then preheated in a recuperator prior to combustion. The static and dynamic performance is changed when the gas turbine is introduced in an evaporative cycle. The cycle is gaining in popularity, but so far it has not been demonstrated. A Swedish joint program to develop the cycle has been in operation since 1993. As part of the program, a small pilot plant is being erected at the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH). The plant is based on a 600 kW gas turbine, and demonstration of the EvGT cycle started autumn 1998 and will continue, in the present phase, for one year. This thesis presents static and dynamic models for traditional gas turbine components, such as, the compressor, combustor, expander and recuperator. A static model for the humidifier is presented, based on common knowledge for atmospheric humidification. All models were developed for the pilot plant at LTH with the objective to support evaluation of the process and individual

  10. Control of PWR reactor energy supplied to a stream turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petetrot, J.F.; Parent, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    This patent presents a process for regulating the power provided by a pressurized water nuclear reactor to a steam turbine, by moving the control rods absorbing the neutrons in the reactor core and by diverting a fraction of the steam produced by the reactor, outside the turbine circuit, by opening by-pass valves [fr

  11. Development and validation of advanced oxidation protective coatings for super critical steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, M.B.; Scheefer, M. [Alstom Power Ltd., Rugby (United Kingdom); Agueero, A. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA) (Spain); Allcock, B. [Monitor Coatings Ltd. (United Kingdom); Norton, B. [Indestructible Paints Ltd. (United Kingdom); Tsipas, D.N. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece); Durham, R. [FZ Juelich (Germany); Xiang, Z. [Northumbria Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power plant by increasing steam temperatures and pressures brings benefits in terms of cheaper electricity and reduced emissions, particularly CO{sub 2}. In recent years the development of advanced 9%Cr ferritic steels with improved creep strength has enabled power plant operation at temperatures in excess of 600 C, such that these materials are being exploited to construct a new generation of advanced coalfired plant. However, the move to higher temperatures and pressures creates an extremely hostile oxidising environment. To enable the full potential of the new steels to be achieved, it is vital that protective coatings are developed, validated under high temperature steam and applied to candidate components from the steam path. This paper reviews recent work conducted within the Framework V project ''Coatings for Supercritical Steam Cycles'' (SUPERCOAT) to develop and demonstrate advanced slurry and thermal spray coatings capable of providing steam oxidation protection at temperatures in excess of 620 C and up to 300 bar. The programme of work has demonstrated the feasibility of applying a number of candidate coatings to steam turbine power plant components and has generated long-term steam oxidation rate and failure data that underpin the design and application work packages needed to develop and establish this technology for new and retrofit plant. (orig.)

  12. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  13. In situ analysis of chemical components induced by steaming between fresh ginseng, steamed ginseng, and red ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyo In

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: This study elucidates the dynamic changes in the chemical components of P. ginseng when the steaming process was induced. These results are thought to be helpful for quality control and standardization of herbal drugs using P. ginseng and they also provide a scientific basis for pharmacological research of processed ginseng (Red ginseng.

  14. Parametric Simulation on Enhancement of the Regenerative Gas Turbine Performance by Effect of Inlet Air Cooling System and Steam Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadel A. Alkumait

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aadel Abdulrazzaq Alkumait/Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences 22(1 (201538-44Iraq being one of the developing countries of the world considers energy efficiency and the impact of its generation on the environment an imperative process in improvement of its power generation policies. Iraq bearing high temperatures all year long results in reduction of air density, therefore, Inlet air Cooling and Steam Injection Gas Turbines are a striking addition to the regenerative gas turbines. Regenerating Gas turbines tend to have a high back work ratio and a high exhaust temperature, thus, it leads to a low efficiency in power generation in hotter climate. Moreover, STIG and IAC through fog cooling have known to be the best retrofitting methods available in the industry which improve the efficiency of generation from 30.5 to 43% and increase the power output from 22MW to 33.5MW as the outcomes of computer simulations reveal. Additionally, this happens without bringing about much extensive change to original features of the power generation cycle. Furthermore, STIG and spray coolers have also resulted in power boosting and exceeding generation efficiency of gas turbine power plant.

  15. Data Reconciliation in the Steam-Turbine Cycle of a Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunde, Svein; Berg, Oivind; Dahlberg, Lennart; Fridqvist, Nils-Olof

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model for a boiling water reactor steam-turbine cycle was assembled by means of a configurable, steady-state modeling tool TEMPO. The model was connected to live plant data and intermittently fitted to these by minimization of a weighted least-squares object function. The improvement in precision achieved by this reconciliation was assessed from quantities calculated from the model equations linearized around the minimum and from Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the inclusion of the flow-passing characteristics of the turbines in the model equations significantly improved the precision as compared to simple mass and energy balances, whereas heat transfer calculations in feedwater heaters did not. Under the assumption of linear model equations, the quality of the fit can also be expressed as a goodness-of-fit Q. Typical values for Q were in the order of 0.9. For a validated model Q may be used as a fault detection indicator, and Q dropped to very low values in known cases of disagreement between the model and the plant state. The sensitivity of Q toward measurement faults is discussed in relation to redundancy. The results of the linearized theory and Monte Carlo simulations differed somewhat, and if a more accurate analysis is required, this is better based on the latter. In practical application of the presently employed techniques, however, assessment of uncertainties in raw data is an important prerequisite

  16. Exergy Steam Drying and Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Prem; Muenter, Claes (Exergy Engineering and Consulting, SE-417 55 Goeteborg (Sweden)). e-mail: verma@exergyse.com

    2008-10-15

    Exergy Steam Drying technology has existed for past 28 years and many new applications have been developed during this period. But during past few years the real benefits have been exploited in connection with bio-fuel production and energy integration. The steam dryer consists of a closed loop system, where the product is conveyed by superheated and pressurised carrier steam. The carrier steam is generated by the water vapours from the product being dried, and is indirectly superheated by another higher temperature energy source such as steam, flue gas, thermal oil etc. Besides the superior heat transfer advantages of using pressurised steam as a drying medium, the energy recovery is efficient and simple as the recovered energy (80-90%) is available in the form of steam. In some applications the product quality is significantly improved. Examples presented in this paper: Bio-Combine for pellets production: Through integration of the Exergy Steam Dryer for wood with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, together with HP steam turbine, the excess carrier steam can be utilised for district heating and/or electrical power production in a condensing turbine. Bio-ethanol production: Both for first and second generation of ethanol can the Exergy process be integrated for treatment of raw material and by-products. Exergy Steam Dryer can dry the distillers dark grains and solubles (DDGS), wood, bagasse and lignin. Bio-diesel production: Oil containing seeds and fruits can be treated in order to improve both the quality of oil and animal feed protein, thus minimizing further oil processing costs and increasing the sales revenues. Sewage sludge as bio-mass: Municipal sewage sludge can be considered as a renewable bio-fuel. By drying and incineration, the combustion heat value of the sludge is sufficient for the drying process, generation of electrical energy and production of district heat. Keywords; Exergy, bio-fuel, bio-mass, pellets, bio-ethanol, biodiesel, bio

  17. Vibration crack corrosion behavior and failure mechanisms of highly alloyed duplex steels in steam turbine rotor blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, R.

    1991-01-01

    The aim was to test the new duplex steel X3CrMnNiMoN 25 6 4 (A905) for its suitability as a steam turbine rotor blade material. Due to the increased proportion of manganese and nitrogen, compared to A903, in this duplex steel in the solution annealed state, an elastic limit of about 600 N/mm 2 acceptable for steam turbine rotor blades was reached. A micro-duplex structure (recrystallized secondary structure) consisting of 50% each of ferrite and Austenite proved to be the optimum structure composition. To measure the SwRK behaviour, Woehler curves were produced in media containing corrosive NaCl. The mean stress was 250 N/mm 2 , partly 350 N/mm 2 . The maximum duration of the test was given as 3 x 10 7 load cycles at a frequency of 50 Hz. The experimental time was partly extended to 5 x 10 7 load cycles. In order to guarantee as realistic a test as possible, the Sw RK tests took place in aqueous NaCl solution saturated with air. To correspond to envorinmental conditions in actual operation, the electrolyte temperature was varied between 80deg and 150deg C, the Na Cl concentration of the solution was varied between very dilute (0.01 M) and nearly saturated (22%) and the pH value was varied between pH 8 and pH 3. Accompanying passive oxide layer investigations should give information on the thickness and morphology of the layers formed. (orig./MM) [de

  18. HTR plus modern turbine technology for higher efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Kugeler, K.

    1996-01-01

    The recent efficiency race for natural gas fired power plants with gas-plus steam-turbine-cycle, is shortly reviewed. The question 'can the HTR compete with high efficiencies?' is answered: Yes, it can - in principle. The gas-plus steam-turbine cycle, also called combi-cycle, is proposed to be taken into consideration here. A comparative study on the efficiency potential is made; it yields 54.5% at 1,050 deg. C gas turbine-inlet temperature. The mechanisms of release versus temperature in the HTR are summarized from the safety report of the HTR MODUL. A short reference is made to the experiences from the HTR-Helium Turbine Project HHT, which was performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1968 to 1981. (author). 8 figs,. 1 tab

  19. HTR plus modern turbine technology for higher efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert, H; Kugeler, K [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1996-08-01

    The recent efficiency race for natural gas fired power plants with gas-plus steam-turbine-cycle, is shortly reviewed. The question `can the HTR compete with high efficiencies?` is answered: Yes, it can - in principle. The gas-plus steam-turbine cycle, also called combi-cycle, is proposed to be taken into consideration here. A comparative study on the efficiency potential is made; it yields 54.5% at 1,050 deg. C gas turbine-inlet temperature. The mechanisms of release versus temperature in the HTR are summarized from the safety report of the HTR MODUL. A short reference is made to the experiences from the HTR-Helium Turbine Project HHT, which was performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1968 to 1981. (author). 8 figs,. 1 tab.

  20. A steam superheater exchanger provided with two coaxial casings and an horizontal axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjollet, Jacques; Palacio, Gerard; Tondeur, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns the general lay-out of an horizontal axis separator-superheater for supplying steam to a high power turbine, particularly for a nuclear power station. The invention significantly reduces the length of the pipework connecting the superheated steam outlet and its inlet to the turbine. For this, the outer casing is provided with a coaxial internal annular sleeve in which are housed, one above the other, the separator and the bundle of superheater tubes through which circulates the water emulsion to be separated and steam to be superheated. At the end of its treatment, the superheated steam spreads out in the space between the sleeve and the outer casing from whence it can be drawn off at any point of its periphery, thus making it possible to choose an extraction point as near as possible to the inlet of the turbine to be fed [fr

  1. A study on the crack inspection signal characteristics for power plant components by phased array UT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sang; Lim, Sang Gyu; Kil, Du Song

    2001-01-01

    Phased array ultrasonic testing system has become available for practical application in complicated geometry such as turbine blade root, tenon, disc in power industry. This research describes the characteristics of phased array UT signal for various type of blade roots in thermal Power Plant turbines. This application of Phased array ultrasonic testing system has been promoted mainly to save inspection time and labor cost of turbine inspection. The characteristic of phase array UT signal for power plant component is very simple to understand but to difficult for perform the inspection. Since our sophisticated inspection technique and systems are essential for the inspection of steam turbine blade roots that require high reliability, we intend to develop new technology and improve phased array technique based on the wide and much experience for the inspection of turbine components.

  2. ORTAP: a nuclear steam supply system simulation for the dynamic analysis of high temperature gas cooled reactor transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, J.C.; Hedrick, R.A.; Ball, S.J.; Delene, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    ORTAP was developed to predict the dynamic behavior of the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) Nuclear Steam Supply System for normal operational transients and postulated accident conditions. It was developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as an independent means of obtaining conservative predictions of the transient response of HTGRs over a wide range of conditions. The approach has been to build sufficient detail into the component models so that the coupling between the primary and secondary systems can be accurately represented and so that transients which cover a wide range of conditions can be simulated. System components which are modeled in ORTAP include the reactor core, a typical reheater and steam generator module, a typical helium circulator and circulator turbine and the turbine generator plant. The major plant control systems are also modeled. Normal operational transients which can be analyzed with ORTAP include reactor start-up and shutdown, normal and rapid load changes. Upset transients which can be analyzed with ORTAP include reactor trip, turbine trip and sudden reduction in feedwater flow. ORTAP has also been used to predict plant response to emergency or faulted conditions such as primary system depressurization, loss of primary coolant flow and uncontrolled removal of control poison from the reactor core

  3. Cheaper power generation from surplus steam generating capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.

    1996-01-01

    Prior to independence most industries had their own captive power generation. Steam was generated in own medium/low pressure boilers and passed through extraction condensing turbines for power generation. Extraction steam was used for process. With cheaper power made available in Nehru era by undertaking large hydro power schemes, captive power generation in industries was almost abandoned except in sugar and large paper factories, which were high consumers of steam. (author)

  4. The effect of steam separataor efficiency on transient following a steam line break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Ohn, M.Y.; Lee, N.H.; Hwang, S.T.; Lee, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed thermalhydraulic simulations for CANDU 6 steam line break inside containment are performed to predict the response of the primary and secondary circuits. The analysis is performed using the thermalhydraulic computer code, CATHENA, with a coupled primary and secondary circuit model. A two-loop representation of the primary and secondary circuits is modelled. The secondary circuit model includes the feedwater line from the deaerator storage tank, multi-node steam generators and the steam line up to the turbine. Two cases were carried out using different assumptions for the efficiency of the steam separators. Case 1 assumes the efficiency of the steam separators becomes zero when the water level in the steam drum increases to the elevation of primary cyclones, or the outlet flow from the steam generator becomes higher than 150 % of normal flow. Case 2 assumes the efficiency becomes zero only when the water level in the steam drum reaches the elevation of primary cyclones. The simulation results show that system responses are sensitive to the assumption for the efficiency of the steam separators and case 1 gives higher discharge energy. Fuel cooling is assured, since primary circuit is cooled down sufficiently by the steam generators for both cases. (author)

  5. Control of the thermostressed state of low-pressure cylinder rotors for power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejzerovich, A.Sh.

    1980-01-01

    The principle arrangement of an analog device for operation control of the low pressure cylinder (LPC) heating at large steam turbine start-up has been developed. Different forms of representation of the thermal conductivity equation used for realization by means of analog models are analized. Presented are the results of calculating the heating indices for the welded rotor of LPC during the turbine start-up from a cold state and the curves of temperature distribution in the disc of the first sections of welded LPC rotor at start-up from a cold state and in a steady-state regime. The results obtained show that in the process of start-up the error of the temperature difference DELTAt determination according to the suggested scheme does not exceed 10 deg C. After achieving the maximum of DELTAt in the process of the rotor temperature field flattening, this error increases and constitutes 32 deg C in steady-state regime, mainly, due to the error of temperature determination on the rotation axis in controlled cross section. As far as the control for the LPC rotor heating is necessary only during start-up and the requirements for its accuracy are not equivalent, therefore, for all regimes, representativity and accuracy of control provided by the accepted calculation scheme is quite satisfactory

  6. Determination of moisture content in steams and variation in moisture content with operating boiler level by analyzing sodium content in steam generator water and steam condensate of a nuclear power plant using ion chromatographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Dry steam with moisture content less than <1% is the stringent requirements in a steam generator for good health of the turbine. In order to confirm the same, determination of sodium is done in steam generator water and steam condensate using Flame photometer in ppm level and ion chromatograph in ppb level. Depending on the carry over of sodium in steam along with the water droplet (moisture), the moisture content in steam was calculated and was found to be < 1% which is requirements of the system. The paper described the salient features of a PHWR, principle of Ion Chromatography, chemistry parameters of Steam Generators and calculation of moisture content in steam on the basis of sodium analysis. (author)

  7. Parametric Optimization of Biomass Steam-and-Gas Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a parametric analysis of the simplest scheme of a steam-and gas plant for the conditions required for biomass burning. It has been shown that application of gas-turbine and steam-and-gas plants can significantly exceed an efficiency of steam-power supply units which are used at the present moment. Optimum thermo-dynamical conditions for application of steam-and gas plants with the purpose to burn biomass require new technological solutions in the field of heat-exchange equipment designs.

  8. Evaluation of the useful life of steam turbine rotors; Evaluacion de vida util de rotores de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnero Parra, Antonio; Garcia Illescas, Rafael; Kubiak Szyszka, Janusz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This article presents the methodology applied by the Management of Turbomachinery of the Institute of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the evaluation of the remaining useful life of steam turbine rotors in the phase of initiation of fissures. The evaluation of the remaining useful life of turbines, will reveal the real state of health of the rotor and will serve as a base for the future decision making that guarantees their structural integrity. [Spanish] El presentes articulo presenta la metodologia aplicada por la Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para la evaluacion de la vida util remanente de rotores de turbinas de vapor en la fase de iniciacion de fisuras. La evaluacion de la vida util de turbinas, revelar el estado real de salud del rotor y servira de base para la toma de decisiones futuras que garanticen su integridad estructural.

  9. Possibilities for gas turbine and waste incinerator integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.; Jellema, P.; Hirs, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    The aggressive nature of the flue gases in municipal waste incinerators does not allow the temperature of steam in the boiler to rise above 400°C. An increase in steam temperature can be achieved by external superheating in a heat recovery steam generator positioned behind a gas turbine, so that

  10. Evaluation of steam as a potential coolant for nonbreeding blanket designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, H.C.; Misra, B.; Youngdahl, C.K.

    1978-01-01

    A steam-cooled nonbreeding blanket design has been developed as an evolution of the Argonne Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) studies. This blanket concept complete with maintenance considerations is to function at temperatures up to 650 0 C utilizing nickel-based alloys such as Inconel 625. Thermo-mechanical analyses were carried out in conjunction with thermal hydraulic analysis to determine coolant chennel arrangements that permit delivery of superheated steam at 500 0 C directly to a modern fossil plant-type turbine. A dual-cycle system combining a pressurized water circuit coupled with a superheated steam circuit can produce turbine plant conversion efficiencies approaching 41.5%

  11. Combined cogeneration equipment containing gas turbine using low sulphur heavy stock as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Goro; Ishiki, Katsuhiko

    1988-03-10

    This paper describes the combined cogeneration in Chemical and Plastics Co. Madras (India) which uses low sulphur heavy stock (LSHS) as a fuel. By the combined cogeneration of gas turbine and boiler steam turbine power generation, the exhaust from the steam turbine is supplied to the factory as a process steam. This equipment has a capacity of 4835 kW in overall generation power and 23.5 tons/hrs. in steam evaporation. The gas turbine system is equipped with an axial-flow, 11 step compressor, an axial flow, 4 step turbine, and a single-can back flow combustor fixed to the intermediate casing. The temperature of the exhaust from the gas turbine is 542/sup 0/C. Low quality LSHS when burned exerts no influence on the service life of the turbine blades. The boiler is a horizontal bent pipe, forced circulation type, and the steam turbine is a back pressure control type. The fuel is treated with a horizontal, two drum, electrostatic separator to which a demulsifier is supplied, to be separated into oil and water. As to the vanadium salts contained in the fuels, a chemical liquid containing MgO as a major ingredient is added to the fuel prior to the combustion. Thereby, the melting temperature of the vanadium oxide is enhanced, which serves for prevention of the melting and adhesion of the vanadium oxide to the gas turbine. LSHS is a residual oil produced by the ordinary pressure distillation of India-produced crude oil, has a sulphur content of 1.75%, and is solid at room temperature. Attention should be paid to clogging of the pipings. The overall efficiency is 80%. The combined cogeneration can be coordinated with load variations of 10 - 20%. (12 figs, 1 tab)

  12. Integrity Analysis of Turbine Building for the MSLB Using GOTHIC code for Wolsong NPP Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Bong-Jin; Jin, Dong-Sik; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Han, Sang-Koo [ACT, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Kho, Dong-Wook [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A break in the piping between the steam generators and the turbine can lead to rapid loss of secondary circuit inventory. A break inside the turbine building leads to pressure differentials between different areas of the turbine building. In order to improve the environmental protection of various components within the turbine building, a wall has been erected which effectively separates the area in which these components are housed from the rest of the turbine building. Relief panels installed in the turbine building ensure that the pressure differential across the wall would be less than that required to jeopardize the wall integrity. The turbine building service wing is excluded from the scope of this analysis. It is further assumed that any doors in the heavy wall are as strong as the wall itself, with no gaps or leakage around the doors. For the full scope safety analysis of turbine building for Wolsong NPP unit 2, input decks for the various objectives, which can be read by GOTHIC 7.2a, are developed and tested for the steady state simulation. The input data files provide simplified representations of the geometric layout of the turbine building (volumes, dimensions, flow paths, doors, panels, etc.) and the performance characteristics of the various turbine building subsystems.

  13. Integrity Analysis of Turbine Building for the MSLB Using GOTHIC code for Wolsong NPP Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Bong-Jin; Jin, Dong-Sik; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Han, Sang-Koo; Choi, Hoon; Kho, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    A break in the piping between the steam generators and the turbine can lead to rapid loss of secondary circuit inventory. A break inside the turbine building leads to pressure differentials between different areas of the turbine building. In order to improve the environmental protection of various components within the turbine building, a wall has been erected which effectively separates the area in which these components are housed from the rest of the turbine building. Relief panels installed in the turbine building ensure that the pressure differential across the wall would be less than that required to jeopardize the wall integrity. The turbine building service wing is excluded from the scope of this analysis. It is further assumed that any doors in the heavy wall are as strong as the wall itself, with no gaps or leakage around the doors. For the full scope safety analysis of turbine building for Wolsong NPP unit 2, input decks for the various objectives, which can be read by GOTHIC 7.2a, are developed and tested for the steady state simulation. The input data files provide simplified representations of the geometric layout of the turbine building (volumes, dimensions, flow paths, doors, panels, etc.) and the performance characteristics of the various turbine building subsystems

  14. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  15. Fatigue life and damage evolution of martensitic steels for low-pressure steam turbine blades in the VHCF regime; Lebensdauer und Schaedigungsentwicklung martensitischer Staehle fuer Niederdruck-Dampfturbinenschaufeln bei Ermuedungsbeanspruchung im VHCF-Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Stephan

    2014-07-01

    Low-pressure steam turbine blades are usually made of martensitic steels with Cr contents between 9 and 12%, which combine good corrosion resistance, high mechanical strength and sufficient ductility. The inhomogeneous flow field behind the vanes generates high-frequency oscillations above 1 kHz. In addition, the blades with lengths up to 1.5 m are operated at rotational speeds up to 3000 rpm, resulting in large centrifugal forces leading to the superposition of extremely high mean stresses. Also resonance oscillations during start-up and shutdown cannot be completely excluded. Currently, the components are designed using high safety factors against S-N curves with an assumed asymptotic fatigue limit above 107 load cycles. Nevertheless, fatigue cracks are observed even at high number of cycles, starting from the blade root without pre-damage by erosion or steam droplet impingement. While fatigue failure usually occurs at the surface, fatigue cracks at very high number of cycles (> 108) initiate at oxides or intermetallic inclusions below the surface. This transition between both failure mechanisms in the Very High-Cycle Fatigue (VHCF) regime is in the focus of numerous current research activities, because numbers of cycles above 108 can be attained in a viable period of time using the recently developed high-frequency testing techniques operated at 20 kHz. Also for wind turbines, gas turbines, bearings, springs, etc. VHCF issues become increasingly important. Within this work, the fatigue life and damage behavior of a martensitic Cr-steel during fatigue loading with and without high mean stresses at number of cycles to failure above 108 was analyzed. On the one hand, the studies gave insights into the relation between fatigue life and fatigue damage evolution of the investigated group of high-strength steels in the very high cycle fatigue regime (up to 2·109). In particular, the influence of high mean stresses on the VHCF behavior (fracture origin, crack growth

  16. Castability of Traditionally Wrought Ni-Based Superalloys for USC Steam Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, P D; Cowen, C J; Hawk, J A; Evens, N; Maziasz, P

    2011-02-27

    The high temperature components within conventional coal fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased. The proposed steam temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) power plant is high enough (760°C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work due to temperature limitations of this class of materials; thus Ni-based superalloys are being considered. The full size castings are quite substantial: ~4in thick, several feet in diameter and weigh 5-10,000lb each half. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled in order to produce relevant microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed in order to better deploy the alloy constituents. The castability of two traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys to which minor alloy adjustments have been made in order to improve foundry performance is further explored.

  17. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Graa Andreasen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of the conventional dual pressure steam Rankine cycle process and the organic Rankine cycle process for marine engine waste heat recovery. The comparison was based on a container vessel, and results are presented for a high-sulfur (3 wt % and low-sulfur (0.5 wt % fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane, toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison indicate that the net power output of the steam Rankine cycle process is higher at high engine loads, while the performance of the organic Rankine cycle units is higher at lower loads. Preliminary turbine design considerations suggest that higher turbine efficiencies can be obtained for the ORC unit turbines compared to the steam turbines. When the efficiency of the c-pentane turbine was allowed to be 10% points larger than the steam turbine efficiency, the organic Rankine cycle unit reaches higher net power outputs than the steam Rankine cycle unit at all engine loads for the low-sulfur fuel case. The net power production from the waste heat recovery units is generally higher for the low-sulfur fuel case. The steam Rankine cycle unit produces 18% more power at design compared to the high-sulfur fuel case, while the organic Rankine cycle unit using MM produces 33% more power.

  18. Turbine protecting device in a BWR type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, Hajime; Oka, Yoko.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent highly humid steams from flowing into the turbine upon abnormal reduction in the reactor water level in order to ensure the turbine soundness, as well as in order to trip the turbine with no undesired effect on the reactor. Constitution: A protection device comprising a judging device and a timer are disposed in a BWR type reactor, in order to control a water level signal from a reactor water level gage. If the reactor water level is reduced during rated power operation, steams are kept to be generated due to decay heat although reactor is scramed. When a signal from the reactor water level detector is inputted to the protection device, a trip signal is outputted by way of a judging device after 15 second by means of the timer, when the main steam check valve is closed to trip the turbine. With this delay of time, abrupt increase in the pressure of the reactor due to sudden shutdown can be prevented. (Nakamoto, H)

  19. Shiraz solar power plant operation with steam engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghoubi, M.; Azizian, K.

    2004-01-01

    The present industrial developments and daily growing need of energy, as well as economical and environmental problem caused by fossil fuels consumption, resulted certain constraint for the future demand of energy. During the past two decades great attention has been made to use renewable energy for different sectors. In this regard for the first time in Iran, design and construction of a 250 K W Solar power plant in Shiraz, Iran is being carried out and it will go to operation within next year. The important elements of this power plant is an oil cycle and a steam cycle, and several studies have been done about design and operation of this power plant, both for steady state and transient conditions. For the steam cycle, initially a steam turbine was chosen and due to certain limitation it has been replaced by a steam engine. The steam engine is able to produce electricity with hot or saturated vapor at different pressures and temperatures. In this article, the effects of installing a steam engine and changing its vapor inlet pressure and also the effects of sending hot or saturated vapor to generate electricity are studied. Various cycle performance and daily electricity production are determined. The effects of oil cycle temperature on the collector field efficiency, and daily, monthly and annual amount of electricity production is calculated. Results are compared with the steam cycle output when it contains a steam turbine. It is found that with a steam engine it is possible to produce more annual electricity for certain conditions

  20. Mechanized inspection of steam generator components during manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, H.-J.; Leupoldt, K.; Meister, W.

    2009-01-01

    Steam Generator (SG) parts are intensively inspected by UT in the course of the manufacturing process. These inspections - mostly performed manually using different codes - are time consuming and call for a sophisticated documentation, figuring part of the life time documentation package. In order to reduce time and costs mechanized inspection equipment is introduced, combining short inspection times, avoiding influence of the human factor and providing proper electronic storage of all inspection results prepared for comparison with data generated during in-service inspection. Since 2001 Cegelec delivered various UT systems for gas turbine disks and rotor ends called SIRO-MAN. Within only a few years the majority of important providers of such components successfully switched from manual inspection to mechanized inspection following the requirements of manufacturers like ALSTOM, GE and Siemens. The SIRO-MAN is now adapted to the needs of mechanized inspection of SG components. The inspection is performed on the products during rotation around the vertical axis. The multi - probe assemblies are manoeuvred on the products by a manipulator system backed by a NC control unit. Acoustic coupling of UT probes to the product surface is performed with oil or water in a closed circuit. UT and - if requested ET - data along with position information of the probe assembly provided by the control unit are acquired, processed and evaluated by an UT / ET electronic system delivered by either Olympus or ZETEC. As performed already on rotor ends a sequence of inspections using different parameter settings can be programmed with simple means (Teach In) so that such inspection sequence can be executed without operating personnel. Probe assemblies allow for individual operation of probes out of the probe assembly according to the individual needs. Conventional UT and phased array applications or combination of both techniques can be provided. The UT / ET electronic equipment offers

  1. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    , combustion, cooling, materials, coatings and casting development. The market potential for the ATS gas turbine in the 2000-2014 timeframe was assessed for combined cycle, simple cycle and integrated gasification combined cycle, for three engine sizes. The total ATS market potential was forecasted to exceed 93 GW. Phase 3 and Phase 3 Extension involved further technology development, component testing and W501ATS engine detail design. The technology development efforts consisted of ultra low NO{sub x} combustion, catalytic combustion, sealing, heat transfer, advanced coating systems, advanced alloys, single crystal casting development and determining the effect of steam on turbine alloys. Included in this phase was full-load testing of the W501G engine at the McIntosh No. 5 site in Lakeland, Florida.

  2. TG-MS analysis and kinetic study for thermal decomposition of six representative components of municipal solid waste under steam atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinzhi; Chen, Tianju; Wu, Jingli; Wu, Jinhu

    2015-09-01

    Thermal decomposition of six representative components of municipal solid waste (MSW, including lignin, printing paper, cotton, rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cabbage) was investigated by thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) under steam atmosphere. Compared with TG and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves under N2 atmosphere, thermal decomposition of MSW components under steam atmosphere was divided into pyrolysis and gasification stages. In the pyrolysis stage, the shapes of TG and DTG curves under steam atmosphere were almost the same with those under N2 atmosphere. In the gasification stage, the presence of steam led to a greater mass loss because of the steam partial oxidation of char residue. The evolution profiles of H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were well consistent with DTG curves in terms of appearance of peaks and relevant stages in the whole temperature range, and the steam partial oxidation of char residue promoted the generation of more gas products in high temperature range. The multi-Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was proved plausible to describe thermal decomposition behaviours of MSW components under steam atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. THE USE OF COATINGS FOR HOT CORROSION AND EROSION PROTECTION IN TURBINE HOT SECTION COMPONENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hayrettin AHLATCI

    1999-01-01

    High pressure turbine components are subjected to a wide variety of thermal and mechanical loading during service. In addition, the components are exposed to a highly oxidizing atmosphere which may contain contaminants such as sulphates, chlorides and sulphuorous gases along with erosive media. So the variety of surface coatings and deposition processes available for the protection of blade and vane components in gas turbines are summarised in this study. Coating types range from simple diff...

  4. Estimation of the Influence of Operational Factors on the Oxygen Content of the Turbine Condensate at the Outlet from the Condenser of Steam Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shempelev A. G.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the influence of different factors on the oxygen content in the condensate using the example of the condenser of the steam turbine unit T-110/120-130. For the first time, the authors of the article analyze in details how the basic parameters of the condenser's operation (the condenser heat load, the flow and temperature of the cooling water, the air inflow in the condenser, the condition of the heat exchange surface influence the oxygen content of the condensate. The authors come to the conclusion that with standard air inflow in the vacuum system, the equilibrium oxygen content, which corresponds to the norms in the condensate at the condenser outlet, is only possible in its operation modes when the steam flow to the condenser is more than 50% of the nominal flow and cooling water temperatures are equal to or greater than calculated for this type of condenser. The conclusions are confirmed by the experimental material. The results of the research are the basis for the development of measures aimed to increase the deaerating capacity of condensers depending on specific operating conditions.

  5. Low speed turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugol'nikov, V.V.; Kosyak, Yu.F.; Virchenko, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Work of the Kharkov turbine plant on planning and manufacture for nuclear power plants of low-speed (1500 rpm) turbines with a power of 500-1000 MW is described. The selection of a construction diagram for the turbine assembly, determined basically by the presence or absence of parts of average pressure, is considered. Special construction features of the condenser and turbine are described. Turbine K-500, with a rate of 1500 rpm, was calculated for operation in a two-loop nuclear power plant with saturated steam with intermediate separation and two-stage steam regeneration. On the base of this turbine, three models of 1000-MW turbines were developed. The first model has a cylinder of average pressure (TsSD) and a lateral condenser. The second has no TsSD but a low location of the condensers. The third has no TsSD and the condensers are located laterally. Calculations of the heat efficiency of the three types of turbines showed that several advantages are offered by the model with a TsSD. Better aerodynamic properties of the exhaust nozzles and condensers with lateral location allows decreasing the specific heat consumption to 0.5-1% or, at the same power, a 10-20% decrease in cooling water consumption

  6. Theory of the spontaneous condensation of steam during expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleitz, Alain

    1978-01-01

    When steam expands in a nozzle or turbine, it cools and, at a certain pressure level, the saturation limit is exceeded. The appearance of moisture does not comply with the simple laws of thermodynamic balance. The liquid phase appears only as from a certain sub-cooling of the steam, at which stage it forms suddenly as a finely dispersed mist. On the basis of the kinetic theory of gases and the critical radius concept, Oswatitch produced a theory on spontaneous condensation which was checked by tests in nozzles. On the other hand, this theory does not fully explain that which is observed in turbines or manifolds fed with fluids other than steam. Modifications have been made to the conventional theory in an endeavour to corroborate the experimental results [fr

  7. The effects of solarization on the performance of a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Christiaan; van der Spuy, Johan; von Backström, Theodor

    2016-05-01

    Various hybrid solar gas turbine configurations exist. The Stellenbosch University Solar Power Thermodynamic (SUNSPOT) cycle consists of a heliostat field, solar receiver, primary Brayton gas turbine cycle, thermal storage and secondary Rankine steam cycle. This study investigates the effect of the solarization of a gas turbine on its performance and details the integration of a gas turbine into a solar power plant. A Rover 1S60 gas turbine was modelled in Flownex, a thermal-fluid system simulation and design code, and validated against a one-dimensional thermodynamic model at design input conditions. The performance map of a newly designed centrifugal compressor was created and implemented in Flownex. The effect of the improved compressor on the performance of the gas turbine was evident. The gas turbine cycle was expanded to incorporate different components of a CSP plant, such as a solar receiver and heliostat field. The solarized gas turbine model simulates the gas turbine performance when subjected to a typical variation in solar resource. Site conditions at the Helio100 solar field were investigated and the possibility of integrating a gas turbine within this system evaluated. Heat addition due to solar irradiation resulted in a decreased fuel consumption rate. The influence of the additional pressure drop over the solar receiver was evident as it leads to decreased net power output. The new compressor increased the overall performance of the gas turbine and compensated for pressure losses incurred by the addition of solar components. The simulated integration of the solarized gas turbine at Helio100 showed potential, although the solar irradiation is too little to run the gas turbine on solar heat alone. The simulation evaluates the feasibility of solarizing a gas turbine and predicts plant performance for such a turbine cycle.

  8. Influencia de los parámetros de proceso, en el comportamiento del parámetro vibración absoluta en turbinas de vapor. // Influence of process parameters of the behaviour of absolute vibration parameters in steam turbine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado en turbinas de vapor de pequeña capacidad de generación de las centralestermoeléctricas cubanas, relacionadas con la influencia estadística entre parámetros de proceso de la turbina, respecto alparámetro vibración absoluta, medidos en las chumaceras de la turbina. Se utilizan las bases de datos de los sistemas demonitoreado on-line de la turbina. Se exponen las relaciones existentes entre los principales parámetros seleccionados paraeste estudio.Palabras claves: Monitorado on-line, Monitorado de la condición, Parámetros de proceso, Vibraciónabsoluta, Turbinas de vapor.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work show the estudy in small steam turbine capacity of generation in cubans thermoelectric power station to relative withstatistical influence between steam process parameters regarding absolute vibration parameter, in the steam housing measurements.Themselves use database as steam on-line monitoring systems. Expose the existing relation between the principal selection parametersfor this study.Key Words: On.line monitoring, Condition monitoring, Process parameters, Absolute vibration, SteamTurbine.

  9. Turbines. NO{sub x} processing on Solar gas turbines; Turbines. Traitement des NO{sub x} sur les turbines a gaz solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chausse, X. [Spie-Trindel, 95 - Cergy (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the SoLoNOx process developed by the Solar Turbines Incorporated company for the prevention of NO{sub x} production in his gas turbines. The formation of combustion products, by-products and NO{sub x} are recalled first and then the different existing processes for the reduction of pollutants are reviewed: water or steam injection, and purification of exhaust gases. The SoLoNOx process uses a dry, weak and pre-mixed mixture and allows better NO{sub x} and CO reductions than the water injection process. (J.S.)

  10. QA practice for online analyzers in water steam cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, L.

    2010-01-01

    The liberalization of power markets throughout the world has resulted in more and more power stations being operated in cycling mode, with frequent load changes and multiple daily start-up and shut-down cycles. This more flexible operation also calls for better automation and poses new challenges to water chemistry in water steam cycles, to avoid subsequent damage to vital plant components such as turbines, boilers or condensers. But automation for the most important chemistry control tool, the sampling and online analyzer system, is only possible if chemists can rely on their online analysis equipment. Proof of plausibility as well as reliability and availability of online analysis results becomes a major focus. While SOP and standard QA procedures for laboratory equipment are well established and daily practice, such measures are widely neglected for online process analyzers. This paper is aiming to establish a roadmap for the implementation of SOP and QA/QC procedures for online instruments in water steam cycles, leading to reliable chemical information that is trustworthy for process automation and chemistry control in water steam cycles. (author)

  11. QA practice for online analyzers in water steam cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub Lukas

    2009-01-01

    The liberalization of power markets throughout the world has resulted in more and more power stations being operated in cycling mode, with frequent load changes and multiple daily start-up and shut-down cycles. This more flexible operation also calls for better automation and poses new challenges to water chemistry in water steam cycles, to avoid subsequent damage to vital plant components such as turbines, boilers or condensers. But automation for the most important chemistry control tool, the sampling and online analyzer system, is only possible if chemists can rely on their online analysis equipment. Proof of plausibility as well as reliability and availability of online analysis results becomes a major focus. While SOP and standard QA procedures for laboratory equipment are well established and daily practice, such measures are widely neglected for online process analyzers. This paper is aiming to establish a roadmap for the implementation of SOP and QA/QC procedures for online instruments in water steam cycles, leading to reliable chemical information that is trustworthy for process automation and chemistry control in water steam cycles. (author)

  12. SCC life estimation based on cracks initiated from the corrosion pits of bolting material SCM435 used in steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hitomi; Ochi, Mayumi; Fujiwara, Isao; Momoo, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Life estimation was performed for the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that occurs in deaerated and wet hot pure steam at the bottoms of the threads of bolts made of SCM435 (equivalent to AISI 4137) used in steam turbine. SCC is believed to occur when corrosion pits are formed and grow to critical size, after which SCC is initiated and cracks propagate until the critical fracture toughness value is reached. Calculations were performed using laboratory and field data. The results showed that, for a 40mm diameter bolt with 0.2% offset strength of 820MPa, the critical crack depth for straight-front cracks was 5.4mm. The SCC life depends on the lubricant used; the SCC life estimated from this value is approximately 70,000 hours when graphite is used as a lubricant. (author)

  13. A small capacity co generative gas-turbine plant in factory AD 'Komuna' - Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin; Armenski, Slave; Tashevski, Done

    2000-01-01

    The factory AD 'Komuna' -Skopje (Macedonia), has two steam block boilers, type ST 800 for steam production for process and space heating. The factory satisfies the electricity needs from the national grid. By the use of natural gas like fuel it is possible to produce electrical energy in its own co generative gas turbine plant. In this article, a co generative plant with small-scale gas turbine for electricity production is analyzed . The gas from gas turbine have been introduce in the steam block boiler. Also, a natural gas consumption, the electricity production, total investment and payback period of investment are determined. (Authors)

  14. Feed water pre-heater with two steam spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tratz, H.; Kelp, F.; Netsch, E.

    1976-01-01

    A feed water pre-heater for the two stage heating of feed water by condensing steam, having a low installed height is described, which can be installed in the steam ducts of turbines of large output, as in LWRs in nuclear power stations. The inner steam space is closed on one side by the water vessel, while the tubes of the inner steam space go straight from the water vessel, and the tubes of the outer steam space are bent into a U shape and open out into the water vessel. The two-stage preheater is thus surrounded by feedwater in two ways. (UWI) [de

  15. Effects of Gas Turbine Component Performance on Engine and Rotary Wing Vehicle Size and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Subsonic Rotary Wing Project, further gas turbine engine studies have been performed to quantify the effects of advanced gas turbine technologies on engine weight and fuel efficiency and the subsequent effects on a civilian rotary wing vehicle size and mission fuel. The Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) vehicle and mission and a previous gas turbine engine study will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. Methodology used to assess effects of different compressor and turbine component performance on engine size, weight and fuel efficiency will be presented. A process to relate engine performance to overall LCTR vehicle size and fuel use will also be given. Technology assumptions and levels of performance used in this analysis for the compressor and turbine components performances will be discussed. Optimum cycles (in terms of power specific fuel consumption) will be determined with subsequent engine weight analysis. The combination of engine weight and specific fuel consumption will be used to estimate their effect on the overall LCTR vehicle size and mission fuel usage. All results will be summarized to help suggest which component performance areas have the most effect on the overall mission.

  16. Recent trends in repair and refurbishing of steam turbine components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    be adequately addressed at various stages of its design and fabrication. ... lead to plant shutdown, loss in production and productivity, fire explosion, radiation or gas ..... component manufacturers, there is a growing necessity for in-house ...

  17. Design of a H∞ Robust Controller with μ-Analysis for Steam Turbine Power Generation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Iannino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Solar Power plants are complex systems subjected to quite sensitive variations of the steam production profile and external disturbances, thus advanced control techniques that ensure system stability and suitable performance criteria are required. In this work, a multi-objective H∞ robust controller is designed and applied to the power control of a Concentered Solar Power plant composed by two turbines, a gear and a generator. In order to provide robust performance and stability in presence of disturbances, not modeled plant dynamics and plant-parameter variations, the advanced features of the μ-analysis are exploited. A high order controller is obtained from the process of synthesis that makes the implementation of the controller difficult and computational more demanding for a Programmable Logic Controller. Therefore, the controller order is reduced through the Balanced Truncation method and then discretized. The obtained robust control is compared to the current Proportional Integral Derivative-based governing system in order to evaluate its performance, considering unperturbed as well as perturbed scenarios, taking into account variations of steam conditions, sensor measurement delays and power losses. The simulations results show that the proposed controller achieves better robustness and performance compared to the existing Proportional Integral Derivative controller.

  18. Influence of the Steam Addition on Premixed Methane Air Combustion at Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Steam-diluted combustion in gas turbine systems is an effective approach to control pollutant emissions and improve the gas turbine efficiency. The primary purpose of the present research is to analyze the influence of steam dilution on the combustion stability, flame structures, and CO emissions of a swirl-stabilized gas turbine model combustor under atmospheric pressure conditions. The premixed methane/air/steam flame was investigated with three preheating temperatures (384 K/434 K/484 K and the equivalence ratio was varied from stoichiometric conditions to the flammability limits where the flame was physically blown out from the combustor. In order to represent the steam dilution intensity, the steam fraction Ω defined as the steam to air mass flow rate ratio was used in this work. Exhaust gases were sampled with a water-cooled emission probe which was mounted at the combustor exit. A 120 mm length quartz liner was used which enabled the flame visualization and optical measurement. Time-averaged CH chemiluminescence imaging was conducted to characterize the flame location and it was further analyzed with the inverse Abel transform method. Chemical kinetics calculation was conducted to support and analyze the experimental results. It was found that the LBO (lean blowout limits were increased with steam fraction. CH chemiluminescence imaging showed that with a high steam fraction, the flame length was elongated, but the flame structure was not altered. CO emissions were mapped as a function of the steam fraction, inlet air temperature, and equivalence ratios. Stable combustion with low CO emission can be achieved with an appropriate steam fraction operation range.

  19. Composite electric generator equipped with steam generator for heating reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Masaharu; Soman, Yoshindo; Kawanishi, Kohei; Ota, Masato.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a composite electric generator having coolants, as a heating source, of a PWR type reactor or a thermonuclear reactor. An electric generator driving gas turbine is disposed, and a superheater using a high temperature exhaust gas of the gas turbine as a heating source is disposed, and main steams are superheated by the superheater to elevate the temperature at the inlet of the turbine. This can increase the electric generation capacity as well as increase the electric generation efficiency. In addition, since the humidity in the vicinity of the exit of the steam turbine is reduced, occurrence of loss and erosion can be suppressed. When cooling water of the thermonuclear reactor is used, the electric power generated by the electric generator driven by the gas turbine can be used upon start of the thermonuclear reactor, and it is not necessary to dispose a large scaled special power source in the vicinity, which is efficient. (N.H.)

  20. Apparatus for the separation of water from water-steam mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judith, H.; Schwerdtner, O. von.

    1975-01-01

    Steam flowing from the high-pressure part of a saturated-steam turbine of nuclear power stations to the preheater or steam directly passing off to the low-pressure part contains a high amount of moisture. This is removed by a separating device in the overflow pipe working as an axial cyclon. To this end a twist generator with radially mounted guide vanes forces a twisting movement on the water-steam mixture whereby the water component is thrown towards the wall of the overflow pipe. Behind the twist generator the overflow pipe is provided with ring slots or annular gaps through which the centrifuged water gets into water collecting chambers concentrically surrounding the overflow pipe. The main water seperation results from the first annular gap through centrifugal effects. The rest is removed by steam suction through the other gaps. For steam suction purposes, i.e. in order to produce an underpressure, the collecting chambers of these gaps are connected with the overflow pipe behind the twist generators by means of a suction pipe. In order to also remove small water droplets without increasing the twist, an agglomerator is installed in the overflow pipe before the twist generator. It consists of baffle or guide plates within an elliptic intermediate piece in a bend of the overflow pipe. Therefore the flanks of the guide plates run parallel to the flow direction of the steam. (DG/PB) [de

  1. High-power condensation turbine application to district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virchenko, M.A.; Arkad'ev, B.A.; Ioffe, V.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    In general outline the role of condensation turbines in NPP district heating is considered. The expediency of expansion of central heating loading of turbines of operating as well as newly designed condensation power plants on the basis of the WWER-1000-type reactors is shown. The principle heat flowsheet of the 1000 MW power turbine is given. An advantage in using turbines with uncontrolled steam bleeding is pointed out [ru

  2. The ecological quasi-turbine, the best of the piston and the turbine[The supremacy of piston engines questioned; La suprematie du moteur a pistons remise en cause]; La quasiturbine ecologique, le meilleur du piston et de la turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Hilaire, R.; Saint-Hilaire, Y.; Saint-Hilaire, G.; Saint-Hilaire, F.

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the theory that forms the basis for quasi-turbines. The quasi-turbine is the culmination of three modern engines: it takes its inspiration from the turbine, perfects the piston, and improves Wankel engines. The quasi-turbine eliminates idle time by modifying the allocations to the various engine strokes and by replacing the progressive torque impulses by plateau impulses. The quasi-turbine optimizes engine performance with an almost constant instantaneous engine torque. The quasi-turbine can be powered by different fuels, including fossil fuels, steam, solar thermal, hydrogen, or diesel. There are several constraints associated with the quasi-turbine theory, each of which was discussed in turn. The quasi-turbine consists of four carriages which support the pivots of four pivoting blades of a variable shaped rotor and which roll as a roller bearing on the interior contour wall of a skating rink-like surface. This surface is also referred to as the Saint-Hilaire confinement profile. Engine technology is improved by increasing the mobile components utilization factor, eliminating all dead times, eliminating the excessive volume during expansion or power stroke, optimizing engine time management, allowing less time for compression and exhaust strokes, and by allowing more time and volume for intake and expansion strokes. The quasi-turbine engine satisfies the criteria of the envisioned hydrogen engine of the future. figs.

  3. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  4. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  5. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  6. Design codes for gas cooled reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    High-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants have been under development for about 30 years and experimental and prototype plants have been operated. The main line of development has been electricity generation based on the steam cycle. In addition the potential for high primary coolant temperature has resulted in research and development programmes for advanced applications including the direct cycle gas turbine and process heat applications. In order to compare results of the design techniques of various countries for high temperature reactor components, the IAEA established a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Design Codes for Gas-Cooled Reactor Components. The Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the USSR participated in this Co-ordinated Research Programme. Within the frame of this CRP a benchmark problem was established for the design of the hot steam header of the steam generator of an HTGR for electricity generation. This report presents the results of that effort. The publication also contains 5 reports presented by the participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these reports. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Optimum gas turbine cycle for combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzakis, A.L.; Koroneos, C.; Xydis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The gas turbine based power plant is characterized by its relatively low capital cost compared with the steam power plant. It has environmental advantages and short construction lead time. However, conventional industrial engines have lower efficiencies, especially at part load. One of the technologies adopted nowadays for efficiency improvement is the 'combined cycle'. The combined cycle technology is now well established and offers superior efficiency to any of the competing gas turbine based systems that are likely to be available in the medium term for large scale power generation applications. This paper has as objective the optimization of a combined cycle power plant describing and comparing four different gas turbine cycles: simple cycle, intercooled cycle, reheated cycle and intercooled and reheated cycle. The proposed combined cycle plant would produce 300 MW of power (200 MW from the gas turbine and 100 MW from the steam turbine). The results showed that the reheated gas turbine is the most desirable overall, mainly because of its high turbine exhaust gas temperature and resulting high thermal efficiency of the bottoming steam cycle. The optimal gas turbine (GT) cycle will lead to a more efficient combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and this will result in great savings. The initial approach adopted is to investigate independently the four theoretically possible configurations of the gas plant. On the basis of combining these with a single pressure Rankine cycle, the optimum gas scheme is found. Once the gas turbine is selected, the next step is to investigate the impact of the steam cycle design and parameters on the overall performance of the plant, in order to choose the combined cycle offering the best fit with the objectives of the work as depicted above. Each alterative cycle was studied, aiming to find the best option from the standpoint of overall efficiency, installation and operational costs, maintainability and reliability for a combined power

  8. Temperature conditions in an LMFBR power plant from primary sodium to steam circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, M.; Chaumont, J.M.; Mougniot, J.C.; Recolin, J.; Acket.

    1977-01-01

    The optimization analysis which is presented is based on an evaluation of the tender prior to contracting Super Phenix. Process constraints are reviewed: fuel limitations, turbine, steam generators; parameter selection involves major temperatures (primary ΔT 0 , steam generator water inlet temperature, turbine steam inlet temperature) or minor temperature (secondary sodium); countervailing mechanisms include upward and downward tendencies. The optimum values obtained by the method represent a coherent balanced set of parameters. So, the most significant tendency revealed by an optimization of investment costs involves the advantages of a hot system with a steam temperature above 515 0 C, but the hot temperature range is very limited (3 0 C between the hot primary sodium temperature and the steam temperature) while the cold temperatures cover a much wide range. The tolerance range within which each critical temperature may be selected without exceeding a certain cost margin per KWh is given

  9. Soviet steam generator technology: fossil fuel and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengaus, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, particular operational requirements, coupled with a centralized planning system adopted in the 1920s, have led to a current technology which differs in significant ways from its counterparts elsewhere in the would and particularly in the United States. However, the monograph has a broader value in that it traces the development of steam generators in response to the industrial requirements of a major nation dealing with the global energy situation. Specifically, it shows how Soviet steam generator technology evolved as a result of changing industrial requirements, fuel availability, and national fuel utilization policy. The monograph begins with a brief technical introduction focusing on steam-turbine power plants, and includes a discussion of the Soviet Union's regional power supply (GRES) networks and heat and power plant (TETs) systems. TETs may be described as large central co-generating stations which, in addition to electricity, provide heat in the form of steam and hot water. Plants of this type are a common feature of the USSR today. The adoption of these cogeneration units as a matter of national policy has had a central influence on Soviet steam generator technology which can be traced throughout the monograph. The six chapters contain: a short history of steam generators in the USSR; steam generator design and manufacture in the USSR; boiler and furnace assemblies for fossil fuel-fired power stations; auxiliary components; steam generators in nuclear power plants; and the current status of the Soviet steam generator industry. Chapters have been abstracted separately. A glossary is included containing abbreviations and acronyms of USSR organizations. 26 references

  10. Influence of precooling cooling air on the performance of a gas turbine combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ik Hwan; Kang, Do Won; Kang, Soo Young; Kim, Tong Seop [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Cooling of hot sections, especially the turbine nozzle and rotor blades, has a significant impact on gas turbine performance. In this study, the influence of precooling of the cooling air on the performance of gas turbines and their combined cycle plants was investigated. A state of the art F class gas turbine was selected, and its design performance was deliberately simulated using detailed component models including turbine blade cooling. Off design analysis was used to simulate changes in the operating conditions and performance of the gas turbines due to precooling of the cooling air. Thermodynamic and aerodynamic models were used to simulate the performance of the cooled nozzle and rotor blade. In the combined cycle plant, the heat rejected from the cooling air was recovered at the bottoming steam cycle to optimize the overall plant performance. With a 200K decrease of all cooling air stream, an almost 1.78% power upgrade due to increase in main gas flow and a 0.70 percent point efficiency decrease due to the fuel flow increase to maintain design turbine inlet temperature were predicted.

  11. Full scale turbine-missile casing exit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Schamaun, J.T.; Sliter, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Two full-scale tests have simulated the impact of a fragment from a failed turbine disk upon the steel casing of a low-pressure steam turbine with the objective of providing data for making more realistic assessments of turbine missile effects for nuclear power plant designers. Data were obtained on both the energy-absorbing mechanisms of the impact process and the post-impact trajectory of the fragment. (orig.)

  12. Advanced LP turbine installation at 1300 MW nuclear power station Unterweser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, G.; Oeynhausen, H.; Termuehlen, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Preussen Elektra AG's Unterweser power plant. The steam turbine-generator features a disk-type LP turbine rotor design developed in the late 1960's to early 1970's. This rotor design has been installed in 19 nuclear power plants. The 47 rotors in these plants have been in operation for an average of almost 10 years. The design of the 1970 vintage nuclear LP turbine rotors was based on extensive experience gained with disk-type rotors of fossil turbines built in the 1950's. When EPRI reported about corrosion cracking in nuclear LP turbines, a program was initiated by Siemens/KWU as original steam turbine supplier to ultrasonically inspect all their disk-type rotors in nuclear power plats. Indications on one rotor disk in the Unterweser plant was found. This single event was the only one found out of 310 disks inspected in nuclear power plants

  13. On risk-based operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbine components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Operation and maintenance are significant contributors to the cost of energy for offshore wind turbines. Optimal planning could rationally be based on Bayesian pre-posterior decision theory, and all costs through the lifetime of the structures should be included. This paper contains a study...... of a generic case where the costs are evaluated for a single wind turbine with a single component. Costs due to inspections, repairs, and lost production are included in the model. The costs are compared for two distinct maintenance strategies, namely with and without inclusion of periodic imperfect...

  14. Steam condensation process in a power production cycle and heat exchanger for it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, Gerard; Andro, Jean; Marjollet, Jacques; Pouderoux, Pierre.

    1982-01-01

    Steam condensation process in a power production cycle by expansion in turbines, characterized by the fact that this condensation is performed by the vaporization of a coolant with a vaporization temperature at atmospheric pressure lower than that of water, and that the vaporized coolant fluid is expanded in a turbine and then condensed by heat exchange with cold water being heated, while the liquefied coolant is recompressed and used for heat exchange with the steam to be condensed [fr

  15. Effect of adoption of gas turbine in oil refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Hiroto

    1988-08-01

    With progress in energy saving, and increase in automation in facilities, the dependence on electric power increases relative steam power. Further in order to reduce the production cost, the adoption of gas turbine combined cycle system, mainly aimed at power generation, is considered to be most suitable. This adoption, accompanied with the utilization of refinery offgas, dresults in a reduction in unit power generation cost, by increasing the ratio of domestic power generation. The gas turbine using deethanizing tower offgas as main fuel and butane as auxillary fuel, the combined cycle system, where steam produced from the turbine waste heat boiler drives the existing back pressure turbine, was constituted. The generator is 118 kVA in capacity. Against the maximum power demand being 16,500 kWh in the oil refinery, the obtainment of 11,000 kWh by the gas turbine and 2,500 kWh by the back pressure turbine was assured, with a considerable lowering in power to be purchased. (7 figs, 1 tab, 1 ref)

  16. Electricity from geothermal steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheatcroft, E L.E.

    1959-01-01

    The development of the power station at Wairakei geothermal field is described. Wairakei is located at the center of New Zealand's volcanic belt, which lies within a major graben which is still undergoing some degree of downfaulting. A considerable number of wells, some exceeding 610 m, have been drilled. Steam and hot water are produced from both deep and shallow wells, which produce at gauge pressures of 1.5 MPa and 0.6 MPa, respectively. The turbines are fed by low, intermediate, and high pressure mains. The intermediate pressure turbine bank was installed as a replacement for a heavy water production facility which had originally been planned for the development. Stage 1 includes a 69 MW plant, and stage 2 will bring the capacity to 150 MW. A third stage, which would bring the output up to 250 MW had been proposed. The second stage involves the installation of more high pressure steam turbines, while the third stage would be powered primarily by hot water flashing. Generation is at 11 kV fed to a two-section 500 MVA board. Each section of the board feeds through a 40 MVA transformer to a pair of 220 V transmission lines which splice into the North Island grid. Other transformers feed 400 V auxiliaries and provide local supply.

  17. Reduction in the specific consumption of heat by the thermal circuit, achieved by rationalization of the steam turbine condensation at nuclear power plants of the WWER-440 type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacek, A.

    1992-01-01

    Specific consumption of heat needed for the production of a net electricity unit is a criterion for assessing the efficiency of conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy in the steam turbine. Based on theoretical calculations and analyses, a way of evaluating the specific heat consumption is demonstrated for the thermal circuit of the steam-engine equipment with one turbogenerator. The dependence of the specific heat consumption on the steam condensation temperature and on the amount of cooling water flowing through the condenser is calculated, as is the dependence of the limiting pressure on the relative loss of vacuum of the condenser and on the cooling water temperature. Such dependences can be used to upgrade the thermal circuit condensation regime. (M.D.). 2 figs., 12 refs

  18. Remaining life assessment of a high pressure turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ninh; Little, Alfie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes finite element and fracture mechanics based modelling work that provides a useful tool for evaluation of the remaining life of a high pressure (HP) steam turbine rotor that had experienced thermal fatigue cracking. An axis-symmetrical model of a HP rotor was constructed. Steam temperature, pressure and rotor speed data from start ups and shut downs were used for the thermal and stress analysis. Operating history and inspection records were used to benchmark the damage experienced by the rotor. Fracture mechanics crack growth analysis was carried out to evaluate the remaining life of the rotor under themal cyclic loading conditions. The work confirmed that the fracture mechanics approach in conjunction with finite element modelling provides a useful tool for assessing the remaining life of high temperature components in power plants.

  19. Steam generators in indirect-cycle water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajeau, M.

    1976-01-01

    In the indirect cycle water-cooled nuclear reactors, the steam generators are placed between the primary circuit and the turbine. They act both as an energy transmitter and as a leaktigh barrier against fission or corrosion products. Their study is thus very important from a performance and reliability point of view. Two main types are presented here: the U-tube and the once-through steam generators [fr

  20. Molten salt fueled nuclear facility with steam-and gas turbine cycles of heat transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananich, P.I.; Bunin, E.N.; Kazazyan, V.T.; Nemtsev, V.A.; Sikorin, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    The molten salt fueled nuclear facilities with fuel circulating in the primary circuit have a series of the potential advantages in comparison with the traditional thermal and fast reactors with solid fuel elements. These advantages are ensured by the possibility to receive effective neutron balance in the core, minimum margin reactivity, more deep fuel burnup, unbroken correctness of the fuel physical and chemical properties and by low prices of the fuel cycle. The neutron and thermal-physical calculations of the various variants of the MSFNF with steam-water and gas turbine power circuits and their technical and economical comparison are carried out in this article. Calculations of molten salt nuclear power plant with gas turbine power circuit have been carried out using chemically reacting working body ''nitrin'' (N304 + 1%NO). The molten salt fueled reactors with the thermal power near of 2300 MW with two fuel compositions have been considered. The base variant has been taken the design of NPP with VVER NP-1000 when comparing the results of the calculations. Its economical performances are presented in prices of 1990. The results of the calculations show that it is difficult to determine the advantages of any one of the variants considered in a unique fashion. But NPP with MSR possesses large reserves in the process of optimization of cycle and energy equipment parameters that can improve its technical and economical performances sufficiently. (author)

  1. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  2. The status of ceramic turbine component fabrication and quality assurance relevant to automotive turbine needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richerson, D.W.

    2000-02-01

    This report documents a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) with guidance from the Ceramics Division of the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). DOE and the automotive companies have funded extensive development of ceramic materials for automotive gas turbine components, the most recent effort being under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program.

  3. Determination of stresses caused by fluctuation of acoustic load in the steam dryers of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno P, J.; Quezada G, S.; Prieto G, A.; Vazquez R, A.; Espinosa P, G.; Nunez C, A.

    2014-10-01

    The extended power up-rate (EPU) in a nuclear power plant cause various problems in BWR components also in the steam system. This due to increased steam flow generated in the reactor and is conveyed to the turbine by the four main steam lines (MSL). One of the most serious problems is the generation of acoustic pressure loads in the metal structure of the steam dryer which eventually leads to fatigue failure and even the appearance of cracks, and in turn it causes loose parts that are entrained by the steam and transported in the MSL. This problem is due to the fluctuation of load acoustics caused by the union of the safety or relief valves (SRV) with the MSL, spreading through these to reach the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) where the effect of resonance of the acoustic wave is amplified and impacts directly in the supporting structure of the steam dryer, skirt and the panels where the mixture liquid-steam is dried, by centrifugation effect and runoff of liquid water. Efforts in the steam dryer operating conditions of EPU for two cases will be analyzed in this work, the first is before the installation of Acoustic Side Branch (ASB), and in the second case we consider the installation of said ASB in the standpipes of SRV. The analysis was performed with numerical experiments on a platform for computational fluid dynamics with virtual geometries previously designed based on the actual components of the reactor and steam system. The model to study is delimited by the top of the RPV, the steam dryer and a section of each of the four MSL with ten standpipes of SRV. With the obtained data and considering the mechanical-structural properties of the steam dryer material, we can evaluate the mechanical resistance to impacts by acoustic pressure load and its possible deformation or cracking. (Author)

  4. Signal analysis of steam line acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C. Samuel

    2003-01-01

    The vibration of nuclear steam piping is usually associated with pressure fluctuations emanating from flow disturbances such as steam generator nozzles, bends, or other pipe fittings. Flow separation at pipe tees and within steam chest manifolds or headers generate pressure fluctuations that propagate both upstream to steam generators as well as downstream to the steam turbine. Steady-state acoustic oscillations at various frequencies occur within the piping, possibly exciting structural vibrations. This paper focuses on the assessment of the origin of the disturbances using signal analyses of two dynamic pressure recordings from pressure transducers located along straight runs in the steam piping. The technique involves performing the cross spectrum to two dynamic pressure signals in piping between (1) the steam generator and steam chest header, and (2) between the header and steam turbine outlet. If, at a specified frequency, no causality occurs between the two signals then the cross spectra magnitude will be negligible. Of interest here is the value of the phase between the two signals for frequencies for which the magnitude of the cross spectrum is not negligible. It is shown in the paper that the direction of the dominant waves at all frequencies can be related to the phase angle from the cross spectrum. It has to be realized that pressure waves emanating from one source such as a steam generator will propagate along uniform steam pipes with little transformation or attenuation, but will be reflected at fittings and at inlets and outlets. Hence, the eventual steady-state time record at a given location in the piping is a result of not only the disturbance, but also reflections of earlier pulsations. Cross-spectral analyses has been employed to determine the direction of the dominant acoustic waves in the piping for various frequencies for which there are signals. To prove the technique, synthetic spectra are generated comprised of harmonic waves moving both

  5. Statistical analysis of manufacturing defects on fatigue life of wind turbine casted Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafsanjani, Hesam Mirzaei; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Mukherjee, Krishnendu

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine components experience heavily variable loads during its lifetime and fatigue failure is a main failure mode of casted components during their design working life. The fatigue life is highly dependent on the microstructure (grain size and graphite form and size), number, type, location...... and size of defects in the casted components and is therefore rather uncertain and needs to be described by stochastic models. Uncertainties related to such defects influence prediction of the fatigue strengths and are therefore important in modelling and assessment of the reliability of wind turbine...... for the fatigue life, namely LogNormal and Weibull distributions. The statistical analyses are performed using the Maximum Likelihood Method and the statistical uncertainty is estimated. Further, stochastic models for the fatigue life obtained from the statistical analyses are used for illustration to assess...

  6. Numerical study on steam injection in a turbocompound diesel engine for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rongchao; Li, Weihua; Zhuge, Weilin; Zhang, Yangjun; Yin, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam injection was adopted in a turbocompound engine to further recover waste heat. • Thermodynamics model for the turbocompound engine was established and calibrated. • Steam injection at CT inlet obtained lower engine BSFC than injection at PT inlet. • The optimal injected steam mass at different engine speeds was presented. • Turbocompounding combined with steam injection can reduce the BSFC by 6.0–11.2%. - Abstract: Steam injection and turbocompouding are both effective methods for engine waste heat recovery. The fuel saving potential obtained by the combination of the two methods is not clear. Based on a turbocompound engine developed in the previous study, the impacts of pre-turbine steam injection on the fuel saving potentials of the turbocompound engine were investigated in this paper. Firstly, thermodynamic cycle model for the baseline turbocompound engine is established using commercial software GT-POWER. The cycle model is calibrated with the experiment data of the turbocompound engine and achieves high accuracy. After that, the influences of steam mass flow rate, evaporating pressure and injection location on the engine performance are studied. In addition, the impacts of hot liquid water injection are also investigated. The results show that steam injection at the turbocharger turbine inlet can reduce the turbocompound engine BSFC at all speed conditions. The largest fuel reduction 6.15% is obtained at 1000 rpm condition. However, steam injection at power turbine inlet can only lower the BSFC at high speed conditions. Besides, it is found that hot liquid water injection in the exhaust cannot improve the engine performance. When compared with the conventional turbocharged engine, the combination of turbocompounding and steam injection can reduce the BSFC by 6.0–11.2% over different speeds.

  7. Carbon steel corrosion prevention during chemical cleaning of steam generator secondary side components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulger, M.; Lucan, D.; Velciu, L.

    2009-01-01

    During operation of a nuclear power plant, many contaminants, such as solid particles or dissolved species are formed in the secondary circuit, go into steam generator and deposit as scales on heat transfer tubing, support plate or as sludge on tube sheet. By accumulation of these impurities, heat transfer is reduced and the integrity of the steam generator tubing is influenced. Chemical cleaning is a qualified, efficient measure to improve steam generator corrosion performance. The corrosion mechanism can be counteracted by the chemical cleaning of the deposits on the tube sheet and the scales on the heat transfer tubing. The major component of the scales is magnetite, which can be dissolved using an organic chelating agent (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) in combination with a complexing agent such as citric acid in an alkaline reducing environment. As the secondary side of SG is a conglomerate of alloys it is necessary to choose an optimal chemical cleaning solution for an efficient cleaning properties and at the same time with capability of corrosion prevention of carbon steel components during the process. The paper presents laboratory tests initiated to confirm the ability of this process to clean the SG components. The experiments followed two paths: - first, carbon steel samples have been autoclavized in specific secondary circuit solutions of steam generator to simulate the deposits constituted during operation of this equipment; - secondly, autoclavized samples have been cleaned with a solvent composed of EDTA citric acid, hydrazine of pH = 5 and temperature of 85 deg. C. Before chemical cleaning, the oxide films were characterized by surface analysis techniques including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Applied to dissolve corrosion products formed in a steam generator, the solvents based on chelating agents are aggressive toward carbon steels and corrosion inhibitors are

  8. Power engineering and turbine manufacture in Japan. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanovskij, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Vapour turbines designs of thermal power plants, including those with increased steam parameters, nuclear power plants, vapour-gas facilities are considered. Data on efficiency of turbofacilities, turbinesmaterials, maneuverability characteristics, releases from gas-turbine facilities are presented. 21 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  9. Summary of erosion-corrosion observations made in power stations on damp-steam circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaille, L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the light-water system has profoundly modified the operating conditions of the turbines, in which expansion now takes place from the first saturated-steam stages. In addition to the traditional phenomena of mechanical erosion there are now problems of a chemical nature, linked to the temperatures of the liquid phase, which cause destruction in the HP stages of the turbines, the drier-feed heaters, and the linking piping. Systematic observations have been made in the PWR stations at Chooz, Doel, Tihange, Fessenheim, and Le Bugey, followed by trials of materials, improvements in the flow, chemical treatment of the secondary circuit, and reduction of the liquid phase in the steam emerging from the HP turbine [fr

  10. Applications of field portable computers to NDE of nuclear power plant steam turbine/generator rotors, discs, and retaining rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, E.R.; Leon-Salamanca, T.

    2004-01-01

    The new generation of compact, powerful portable computers have been incorporated into a number of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems used to inspect critical areas of the steam turbine and generator units of nuclear power plants. Due to the complex geometry of turbine rotors, generator rotors, retaining rings, and shrunk-on turbine discs, the computers are needed to rapidly calculate the optimum position of an ultrasonic transducer or eddy current probe in order to detect defects at several critical areas. Examples where computers have been used to overcome problems in nondestructive evaluation include; analysis of large numbers of closely spaced near-bore ultrasonic reflectors to determine their potential for link-up in turbine and generator rotor bores, distinguishing ultrasonic crack signals from other reflectors such as the shrink-fit form reflector detected during ultrasonic scanning of shrunk-on generator retaining rings, and detection and recording of eddy current and ultrasonic signals from defects that could be missed by data acquisition systems with inadequate response. The computers are also used to control scanners to insure total inspection coverage. To facilitate the use of data from detected discontinuities in conjunction with stress and fracture mechanics analysis programs, the computers provide presentations of flaws in color and in three dimensions. The field computers have been instrumental in allowing the inspectors to develop on-site reports that enable the owner/operator to rapidly make run/repair/replace decisions. Examples of recent experiences using field portable computers in NDE systems will be presented along with anticipated future developments. (author)

  11. Influences of mach number and flow incidence on aerodynamic losses of steam turbine blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seok Jae; Ng, Wing Fai

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the aerodynamic losses of high pressure steam turbine nozzle (526A) subjected to a large range of incident angles (-34 .deg. to 26 .deg. ) and exit Mach numbers (0.6 and 1.15). Measurements included downstream pitot probe traverses, upstream total pressure, and endwall static pressures. Flow visualization techniques such as shadowgraph and color oil flow visualization were performed to complement the measured data. When the exit Mach number for nozzles increased from 0.9 to 1.1 the total pressure loss coefficient increased by a factor of 7 as compared to the total pressure losses measured at subsonic conditions (M 2 <0.9). For the range of incidence tested, the effect of flow incidence on the total pressure losses is less pronounced. Based on the shadowgraphs taken during the experiment, it's believed that the large increase in losses at transonic conditions is due to strong shock/ boundary layer interaction that may lead to flow separation on the blade suction surface

  12. Maintenance and adjustment of control systems of central heating turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasyuk, V.A.; Balashov, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Principles of operation and design of systems of automatic control of steam turbines with controlled heating stem extraction are described. Specific features of maintenance and adjustment of the most common domestic turbines are considered. Recommendations on testing state of turbine control systems and improving reliability of their operation are given. 22 refs., 51 refs

  13. A calculation and measurement of the flow field in a steam condenser external to the tube nest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastny, M.; Feistauer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The suggested physical and mathematical model is used to solve the flow of steam normal to the cooling tubes of condenser cross-sections in the region external to the nests. Numerical calculations are carried out by means of a multipurpose system of programmes for the finite element method and a programme for the boundary layer calculation. The results of the calculations are compared with measurements on the condenser of a 500MW steam turbine. The calculations of the flow field in a double pass condenser for the 1000MW saturated steam turbine are described. (author)

  14. Turbine flow diagram of Paks-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancso, Tamas

    1983-01-01

    Computer calculations and programs are presented which inform the operators on the effect projected on the turbine and thermal efficiency of the modification in the flow diagram and in the starting parameters of the power cycle. In the program the expansion line of steam turbine type K-220-44 and the thermo-technical parameters of the elements of the feed-water heater system are determined. Detailed degree calculations for turbine unit of high pressure can be made. (author)

  15. Examples of fatigue lifetime and reliability evaluation of larger wind turbine components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    This report is one out of several that constitute the final report on the ELSAM funded PSO project “Vindmøllekomponenters udmattelsesstyrke og levetid”, project no. 2079, which regards the lifetime distribution of larger wind turbine components in ageneric turbine that has real life dimensions....... Though it was the initial intention of the project to consider only the distribution of lifetimes the work reported in this document provides also calculations of reliabilities and partial load safetyfactors under specific assumptions about uncertainty sources, as reliabilities are considered...

  16. Influence of quality coal combustion and domestic stoves outbreaks steam generators and the environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Petrilean, Dan Codrut

    2008-01-01

    It was drawn balance a steam generator. We determined the pollutant emissions from coal combustion in the furnace Jiu Valley steam generator with an output of 150 MW. As an example of the steam generator was considered the type BabkoK Hitachi with turbine Turbao + Atom, in cogeneration.

  17. Problems of steam turbine diagnostics and the 'Simens' diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tserner, V.; Andrea, K.

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostics system, allowing one to detect changes in the state on single turbine elements at an early stage is described. Besides this system allows one to utilize the turbine plant optimally and efficiency from the viewpoint of the equipment durability. Specially oriented monitoring of the turbine plant and equipment element state saves resources necessary to keep up the working order of the equipment

  18. Thermodynamic investigation of an integrated gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and steam cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, Masoud [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Energy System

    2012-07-01

    A gasification plant is integrated on the top of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle, while a steam turbine (ST) cycle is used as a bottoming cycle for the SOFC plant. The gasification plant was fueled by woodchips to produce biogas and the SOFC stacks were fired with biogas. The produced gas was rather clean for feeding to the SOFC stacks after a simple cleaning step. Because all the fuel cannot be burned in the SOFC stacks, a burner was used to combust the remaining fuel. The off-gases from the burner were then used to produce steam for the bottoming steam cycle in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The steam cycle was modeled with a simple single pressure level. In addition, a hybrid recuperator was used to recover more energy from the HRSG and send it back to the SOFC cycle. Thus two different configurations were investigated to study the plants characteristic. Such system integration configurations are completely novel and have not been studied elsewhere. Plant efficiencies of 56% were achieved under normal operation which was considerably higher than the IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) in which a gasification plant is integrated with a gas turbine and a steam turbine. Furthermore, it is shown that under certain operating conditions, plant efficiency of about 62 is also possible to achieve. (orig.)

  19. Técnica de monitorado continuo (on – line para la evaluación del estado técnico de los turbogrupos de 64 y 100 MW. // Technique of continuous monitored (on - line for the evaluation of the technical state in steam turbine units of 64 and 100 MW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre. Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el resultado del estudio de factibilidad realizado a los turbogrupos de 64 y 100 MW de dosCentrales Termoeléctricas, sobre el empleo de técnicas de monitorado continuo “on line” para la evaluación del estadotécnico de estos turbogrupos.Palabras claves: Turbinas de vapor,vibraciones, monitorado continuo “on line”, diagnóstico.______________________________________________________________________Abstract:In this work an study of feasibility is presented. This study is carried out in steam turbine units of 64 and 100 MW, and show the use ofcontinuous monitored technique (on line for the evaluation of the technical state of these turbine units.Key Words: Steam turbines, vibrations, continuous monitoring on line, turbines supervision, Diagnosis,technical state evaluation.

  20. Development of the monoblock rotor for large scale LP turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Satoshi; Kashiwahara, Katsuto

    1981-01-01

    One of the important points in large steam turbines is the long last stage blades. So far, rotor disks were shrink-fitted to a shaft, but recently, the operation of steam turbines requires frequent start and stop, and is subjected to frequent load variation. In order to improve the reliability of steam turbines drastically under such situation, the large rotors of one-body forging type have been demanded. Hitachi Ltd. Manufactured a large rotor of one-body forging type for trial, and in order to confirm its reliability, the rotation test simulating the temperature distribution in the operation of steam turbines was carried out. The large material must be thoroughly forged to the inner part, and the effect of heat treatment reaches to the whole body, thus the prescribed chemical composition and mechanical properties must be obtained. The material must be homogeneous and stable to the thermal effect in operation. The largest outside diameter of the rotor is about 2.5 m, the shaft length is 12 m, and the finished weight is 220 t. A 500 t ingot of Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel was used. As the results of various tests, it was confirmed that the material was clean and homogeneous, and had good mechanical properties. Also the material was sufficiently thermally stable in the heating deflection measurement. In the high speed rotation test at the actual temperature, the vibration of the rotor was very small, and the good result was obtained. (Kako, I.)

  1. The gas turbine: Present technology and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minghetti, E.

    1997-03-01

    The gas turbine is the most widely used prime mover all over the world for either power generation or mechanical drive applications. The above fact is due to the recent great improvements that have been done especially in terms of efficiency, availability and reliability. The future for gas turbine technological development looks very promising. In fact, although tremendous growth has already taken place, there is still the potential for dramatic improvements in performance. Compared with the competitive prime movers (conventional steam power plants and reciprocating piston engines) the gas turbine technology is younger and still following a strong growth curve. The coming decades will witness the continued increasing in turbine inlet temperature, the development of new materials and refrigeration systems and the commercialization of inter cooled system and steam cooled turbines. With the very soon introduction of the G and H technology, expected single and combined cycle efficiencies for heavy duty machines are respectively 40% and 60%, while maintaining 'single digit' levels in pollutant emissions. In this report are given wide information on gas turbine present technology (Thermodynamics, features, design, performances, emission control, applications) and are discussed the main lines for the future developments. Finally are presented the research and technological development activities on gas turbine of Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Energy Department

  2. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  3. Thermochemical recuperative combined cycle with methane-steam reforming combustion; Tennengasu kaishitsu nensho ni yoru konbaindo saikuru hatsuden no kokoritsuka oyobi denryoku fuka heijunka taio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, R.; Essaki, K.; Tsutsumi, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Chemical System Engineering; Kaganoi, S.; Kurimura, H. [Teikoku Sekiyu Co., Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, T.; Ogawa, T. [Toshiba Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    Thermochemical recuperative combined cycles with methane-steam reforming are proposed for improving their thermal efficiency and for peak-load leveling. For targeting higher thermal efficiency, a cycle with methane-steam reforming reaction heated by gas turbine exhaust was analyzed. The inlet temperature of gas turbine was set at 1,350 degree C. Low-pressure steam extracted from a steam turbine is mixed with methane, and then this mixture is heated by part of the gas turbine exhaust to promote a reforming reaction. The rest of the exhaust heat is used to produce steam, which drives steam turbines to generate electricity. The effect of steam-to-methane ratio (S/C) on thermal efficiency of the cycle, as well as on methane conversion, is investigated by using the ASPEN Plus process simulator. The methane feed rate was fixed at constant and S/C ratio was varied from 2.25 to 4.75. Methane conversion shows an increasing trend toward the ratio and has a maximum value of 17.9 % at S/C=4.0. Thermal efficiency for the system is about 51 % higher than that calculated for a conventional 1,300 degree C class combined cycle under similar conditions. A thermochemical recuperative combined cycle is designed for peak-load leveling. In night-time operation from 20 : 00 to 8 : 00 it stores hydrogen produced by methane steam reforming at S/C=3.9 to save power generation. The gas turbine inlet temperature is 1,330 degree C. In daytime operation from 8 : 00 to 20 : 00 the chemically recuperated combined cycle operated at S/C=2.0 is driven by the mixture of a combined cycle operated at constant load with the same methane feed rate, whereas daytime operation generated power 1.26 times larger than that of the combined cycle. (author)

  4. Turbine Energy Evaluation by internal dimensional control; Evaluacion energetica de turbinas por control dimensional de internos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediavilla, F. [Tecnatom. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To maintain the optimum thermal performance in a high level throughout the life of the turbines requires a good testing program, proper analysis of the test data, and a steam path audit during turbine overhauls. If from operating data analysis collected during the performance test before the outage shows that the efficiency of the turbine is coming down, the steam path audit, that is an internal inspection and a dimensional control of the internals, identity and quantity causes of performance degradation like, seal leakages, excessive clearances, solid particle erosion damages, blades deposits and other losses. The steam path audit assigns the heat rate penalties associated with each of these individual losses to the total degradation. This are used to make cost-effective maintenance decisions during the course of the overhaul. After repairs, a closing steam path audit is conducted during the re assembly of the turbine in order to predict return to service condition of the machine and to provide a quality control check on outage repairs. (Author)

  5. Manufacture of steam generator units and components for the AGR power stations at Heysham II and Torness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, J.R.; Parkin, K.

    1984-01-01

    The current AGR Steam Generator is a development of the successful once-through units supplied for the Oldbury Magnox and Hinkley B/Hunterston B AGR power stations. In this paper a brief outline of the evolution of the steam generator design from the earlier gas cooled reactor stations is presented. A description of the main items of fabrication development is given. The production facilities for the manufacture of the units are described. Reference is also made to some of the work on associated components. The early experience on the construction site of installation of the steam generators is briefly outlined. (author)

  6. Manufacture of steam generator units and components for the AGR power stations at Heysham II and Torness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasgow, J R; Parkin, K [N.E.I. Nuclear Systems Ltd., Gateshead, Tyne and Wear (United Kingdom)

    1984-07-01

    The current AGR Steam Generator is a development of the successful once-through units supplied for the Oldbury Magnox and Hinkley B/Hunterston B AGR power stations. In this paper a brief outline of the evolution of the steam generator design from the earlier gas cooled reactor stations is presented. A description of the main items of fabrication development is given. The production facilities for the manufacture of the units are described. Reference is also made to some of the work on associated components. The early experience on the construction site of installation of the steam generators is briefly outlined. (author)

  7. Results of Steam-Water-Oxygen Treatment of the Inside of Heating Surfaces in Heat-Recovery Steam Generators of the PGU-800 Power Unit at the Perm' District Thermal Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovechkina, O. V.; Zhuravlev, L. S.; Drozdov, A. A.; Solomeina, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    Prestarting, postinstallation steam-water-oxygen treatment (SWOT) of the natural circulation/steam reheat heat-recovery steam generators (HRSG) manufactured by OAO Krasny Kotelshchik was performed at the PGU-800 power unit of the Perm District Thermal Power Station (GRES). Prior to SWOT, steam-oxygen cleaning, passivation, and preservation of gas condensate heaters (GCH) of HRSGs were performed for 10 h using 1.3MPa/260°C/70 t/h external steam. After that, test specimens were cut out that demonstrated high strength of the passivating film. SWOT of the inside of the heating surfaces was carried out during no-load operation of the gas turbine unit with an exhaust temperature of 280-300°C at the HRSG inlet. The steam turbine was shutdown, and the generated steam was discharged into the atmosphere. Oxygen was metered into the discharge pipeline of the electricity-driven feed pumps and downcomers of the evaporators. The behavior of the concentration by weight of iron compounds and the results of investigation of cutout specimens by the drop or potentiometric method indicate that the steam-water-oxygen process makes it possible to remove corrosion products and reduce the time required to put a boiler into operation. Unlike other processes, SWOT does not require metal-intensive cleaning systems, temporary metering stations, and structures for collection of the waste solution.

  8. Welding repair of the high-intermediate pressure steam casings made of Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Z.; Cristalinas, V.; Kubiak, J.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of typical failure causes and their location at high-intermediate pressure steam turbine casing, and weldability analysis of the Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V steels, is carried out. basing on the steam turbine of 158 MW capacity, the internal high pressure casing failures and development of in situ repair welding technology is described. After repair, the casing was put back into service

  9. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    CRS Sirrine (CRSS) is evaluating a novel IGCC process in which gases exiting the gasifier are burned in a gas turbine combustion system. The turbine exhaust gas is used to generate additional power in a conventional steam generator. This results in a significant increase in efficiency. However, the IGCC process requires development of novel approaches to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and alkali vapors which can damage downstream turbine components. Ammonia is produced from the reaction of coal-bound nitrogen with steam in the reducing zone of any fixed bed coal gasifier. This ammonia can be partially oxidized to NO{sub x} when the product gas is oxidized in a gas turbine combustor. Alkali metals vaporize in the high-temperature combustion zone of the gasifier and laser condense on the surface of small char or ash particles or on cooled metal surfaces. It these alkali-coated materials reach the gas turbine combustor, the alkali will revaporize condense on turbine blades and cause rapid high temperature corrosion. Efficiency reduction will result. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) was contracted by CRSS to evaluate and recommend solutions for NO{sub x} emissions and for alkali metals deposition. Various methods for NO{sub x} emission control and the potential process and economic impacts were evaluated. This included estimates of process performance, heat and mass balances around the combustion and heat transfer units and a preliminary economic evaluation. The potential for alkali metal vaporization and condensation at various points in the system was also estimated. Several control processes and evaluated, including an order of magnitude cost for the control process.

  10. What is geothermal steam worth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhallsson, S.; Ragnarsson, A.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal steam is obtained from high-temperature boreholes, either directly from the reservoir or by flashing. The value of geothermal steam is similar to that of steam produced in boilers and lies in its ability to do work in heat engines such as turbines and to supply heat for a wide range of uses. In isolated cases the steam can be used as a source of chemicals, for example the production of carbon dioxide. Once the saturated steam has been separated from the water, it can be transported without further treatment to the end user. There are several constraints on its use set by the temperature of the reservoir and the chemical composition of the reservoir fluid. These constraints are described (temperature of steam, scaling in water phase, gas content of steam, well output) as are the methods that have been adopted to utilize this source of energy successfully. Steam can only be transported over relatively short distances (a few km) and thus has to be used close to the source. Examples are given of the pressure drop and sizing of steam mains for pipelines. The path of the steam from the reservoir to the end user is traced and typical cost figures given for each part of the system. The production cost of geothermal steam is estimated and its sensitivity to site-specific conditions discussed. Optimum energy recovery and efficiency is important as is optimizing costs. The paper will treat the steam supply system as a whole, from the reservoir to the end user, and give examples of how the site-specific conditions and system design have an influence on what geothermal steam is worth from the technical and economic points of view

  11. Performance analysis of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal power plants have attracted increasing interest in the past few years – with respect to both the design of the various plant components, and extending the operation hours by employing different types of storage systems. One approach to improve the overall plant efficiency is to use direct steam generation with water/steam as both the heat transfer fluid in the solar receivers and the cycle working fluid. This enables operating the plant with higher turbine inlet temperatures. Available literature suggests that it is feasible to use ammonia-water mixtures at high temperatures without corroding the equipment by using suitable additives with the mixture. The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate if there is any benefit of using a Kalina cycle for a direct steam generation, central receiver solar thermal power plant with high live steam temperature (450 °C) and pressure (over 100 bar). Thermodynamic performance of the Kalina cycle in terms of the plant exergy efficiency was evaluated and compared with a simple Rankine cycle. The rates of exergy destruction for the different components in the two cycles were also calculated and compared. The results suggest that the simple Rankine cycle exhibits better performance than the Kalina cycle when the heat input is only from the solar receiver. However, when using a two-tank molten-salt storage system as the primary source of heat input, the Kalina cycle showed an advantage over the simple Rankine cycle because of about 33 % reduction in the storage requirement. The solar receiver showed the highest rate of exergy destruction for both the cycles. The rates of exergy destruction in other components of the cycles were found to be highly dependent on the amount of recuperation, and the ammonia mass fraction and pressure at the turbine inlet. - Highlights: •Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation. •Rankine cycle shows better plant exergy

  12. Radiation shield ring assembly and method of disassembling components of a nuclear steam generator using such assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuschke, R.E.; Wolfe, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and a method for cutting, within a shielding confinement, the irradiated components of a nuclear steam generator to reduce such components to a size to permit their subsequent removal from the containment structure of the generator

  13. SINGLE PHASE ANALYTICAL MODELS FOR TERRY TURBINE NOZZLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Zou, Ling; O' Brien, James

    2016-11-01

    All BWR RCIC (Reactor Core Isolation Cooling) systems and PWR AFW (Auxiliary Feed Water) systems use Terry turbine, which is composed of the wheel with turbine buckets and several groups of fixed nozzles and reversing chambers inside the turbine casing. The inlet steam is accelerated through the turbine nozzle and impacts on the wheel buckets, generating work to drive the RCIC pump. As part of the efforts to understand the unexpected “self-regulating” mode of the RCIC systems in Fukushima accidents and extend BWR RCIC and PWR AFW operational range and flexibility, mechanistic models for the Terry turbine, based on Sandia National Laboratories’ original work, has been developed and implemented in the RELAP-7 code to simulate the RCIC system. RELAP-7 is a new reactor system code currently under development with the funding support from U.S. Department of Energy. The RELAP-7 code is a fully implicit code and the preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method is used to solve the discretized nonlinear system. This paper presents a set of analytical models for simulating the flow through the Terry turbine nozzles when inlet fluid is pure steam. The implementation of the models into RELAP-7 will be briefly discussed. In the Sandia model, the turbine bucket inlet velocity is provided according to a reduced-order model, which was obtained from a large number of CFD simulations. In this work, we propose an alternative method, using an under-expanded jet model to obtain the velocity and thermodynamic conditions for the turbine bucket inlet. The models include both adiabatic expansion process inside the nozzle and free expansion process out of the nozzle to reach the ambient pressure. The combined models are able to predict the steam mass flow rate and supersonic velocity to the Terry turbine bucket entrance, which are the necessary input conditions for the Terry Turbine rotor model. The nozzle analytical models were validated with experimental data and

  14. A steam separator-superheater apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androw, Jean; Bessouat, Roger; Peyrelongue, J.-P.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a separator-superheater apparatus comprising an outer enclosure containing a separating-unit and a steam superheating unit according to the main patent. The present addition relates to an improvement in that apparatus, characterized in that the separating unit and the superheating unit, mounted in two distinct portions of the outer enclosure, are divided into the same number of sub-units of each unit being identical and operating in parallel, and in that to each separator sub-unit is associated a superheater sub-unit, said sub-units being mounted in series and located in one in the other of the enclosure two portions, respectively. This can be applied to the treatment of the exhaust steam of a turbine high pressure body, prior to re-injecting said steam into the low pressure body [fr

  15. Station power supply by residual steam of Fugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y.; Kato, H.; Hattori, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    In the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', when the sudden decrease of load more than 40% occurs due to the failure of power system, the turbine regulating valve is rapidly shut, and the reactor is brought to scrum. However, the operation of turbo-generators is continued with the residual steam in the reactor, and the power for inside the station is supplied for 30 sec by the limiting timer, then the power-generating plant is automatically stopped. The reasons why such design was adopted are to reduce manual operation at the time of emergency, to continue water supply for cooling the reactor and to maintain the water level in the steam drum, and to reduce steam release from the safety valve and the turbine bypass valve. The output-load unbalance relay prevents the everspeed of the turbo-generator when load decreased suddenly, but when the failure of power system is such that recovers automatically in course of time, it does not work. The calculation for estimating the dynamic characteristics at the time of the sole operation within the station is carried out by the analysis code FATRAC. The input conditions for the calculation and the results are reported. Also the dynamic characteristics were actually tested to confirm the set value of the limiting timer and the safe working of turbine and generator trips. The estimated and tested results were almost in agreement.

  16. Ejectors of power plants turbine units efficiency and reliability increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Kuptsov, V. K.; Murmanskii, I. B.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Khaet, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    The functioning of steam turbines condensation systems influence on the efficiency and reliability of a power plant a lot. At the same time, the condensation system operating is provided by basic ejectors, which maintain the vacuum level in the condenser. Development of methods of efficiency and reliability increasing for ejector functioning is an actual problem of up-to-date power engineering. In the paper there is presented statistical analysis of ejector breakdowns, revealed during repairing processes, the influence of such damages on the steam turbine operating reliability. It is determined, that 3% of steam turbine equipment breakdowns are the ejector breakdowns. At the same time, about 7% of turbine breakdowns are caused by different ejector malfunctions. Developed and approved design solutions, which can increase the ejector functioning indexes, are presented. Intercoolers are designed in separated cases, so the air-steam mixture can’t move from the high-pressure zones to the low-pressure zones and the maintainability of the apparatuses is increased. By U-type tubes application, the thermal expansion effect of intercooler tubes is compensated and the heat-transfer area is increased. By the applied nozzle fixing construction, it is possible to change the distance between a nozzle and a mixing chamber (nozzle exit position) for operating performance optimization. In operating conditions there are provided experimental researches of more than 30 serial ejectors and also high-efficient 3-staged ejector EPO-3-80, designed by authors. The measurement scheme of the designed ejector includes 21 indicator. The results of experimental tests with different nozzle exit positions of the ejector EPO-3-80 stream devices are presented. The pressure of primary stream (water steam) is optimized. Experimental data are well-approved by the calculation results.

  17. Turbine component having surface cooling channels and method of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carlos Miguel; Trimmer, Andrew Lee; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu

    2017-09-05

    A component for a turbine engine includes a substrate that includes a first surface, and an insert coupled to the substrate proximate the substrate first surface. The component also includes a channel. The channel is defined by a first channel wall formed in the substrate and a second channel wall formed by at least one coating disposed on the substrate first surface. The component further includes an inlet opening defined in flow communication with the channel. The inlet opening is defined by a first inlet wall formed in the substrate and a second inlet wall defined by the insert.

  18. On risk-based operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen Nielsen, Jannie; Dalsgaard Sorensen, John

    2011-01-01

    Operation and maintenance are significant contributors to the cost of energy for offshore wind turbines. Optimal planning could rationally be based on Bayesian pre-posterior decision theory, and all costs through the lifetime of the structures should be included. This paper contains a study of a generic case where the costs are evaluated for a single wind turbine with a single component. Costs due to inspections, repairs, and lost production are included in the model. The costs are compared for two distinct maintenance strategies, namely with and without inclusion of periodic imperfect inspections. Finally the influence of different important parameters, e.g. failure rate, reliability of inspections, inspection interval, and decision rule for repairs, is evaluated.

  19. Simulation of main steam and feedwater system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoyu

    1996-01-01

    The simulation of main steam and feedwater system is the most important and maximal part in secondary circuit model, including all of main steam and feedwater's thermal-hydraulic properties, except heat-exchange of secondary side of steam generator. It simulates main steam header, steam power in each stage of turbine, moisture separator-reheater, deaerator, condenser, high pressure and low pressure heater, auxiliary feedwater and main steam bypass in full scope

  20. Basic chemically recuperated gas turbines--power plant optimization and thermodynamics second law analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Lourenco Gobira; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2004-01-01

    One of the proposals to increase the performance of the gas turbines is to improve chemical recuperated cycle. In this cycle, the heat in the turbine exhaust gases is used to heat and modify the chemical characteristics of the fuel. One mixture of natural gas and steam receives heat from the exhaust turbine gases; the mixture components react among themselves producing hot synthesis gas. In this work, an analysis and nonlinear optimization of the cycle were made in order to investigate the temperature and pressure influence on the global cycle performance. The chemical composition in the reformer was assumed according to chemical equilibrium equations, which presents good agreement with data from literature. The mixture of hot gases was treated like ideal gases. The maximum net profit was achieved and a thermodynamic second law analysis was made in order to detect the greatest sources of irreversibility