WorldWideScience

Sample records for steam reforming technology

  1. Steam Reforming Technology for Denitration and Immobilization of DOE Tank Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J. B.; McKibbin, J.; Ryan, K.; Schmoker, D.

    2003-01-01

    THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (THOR) is a joint venture formed in June 2002 by Studsvik, Inc. (Studsvik) and Westinghouse Government Environmental Services Company LLC to further develop, market, and deploy Studsvik's patented THORSM non-incineration, steam reforming waste treatment technology. This paper provides an overview of the THORSM steam reforming process as applied to the denitration and conversion of Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes to an immobilized mineral form. Using the THORSM steam reforming technology to treat nitrate containing tank wastes could significantly benefit the DOE by reducing capital and life-cycle costs, reducing processing and programmatic risks, and positioning the DOE to meet or exceed its stakeholder commitments for tank closure. Specifically, use of the THORSM technology can facilitate processing of up to 75% of tank wastes without the use of vitrification, yielding substantial life-cycle cost savings

  2. Task 19 - Sampling, Analysis, and Vitrification Study for Thermochem's Steam Reformer Treatment Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillemoen, C.M.; McCollor, D.P.; Qi Sun

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to provide support to Thermochem, Inc., in the demonstration of the steam reformer treatment technology to treat LLMW. Within this program, specific objectives include the following: (1) Analyze cerium, chlorine, and fluorine concentrations in samples from the pilot-scale steam reformer tests to determine partitioning of these elements, mass balances, and changes in concentration with time. (2) Perform experimental characterization of temperature--viscosity profiles to aid in determining vitrification viability for long-term stabilization. Additionally, calculations of viscosity will be performed for several blend combinations to complement the experimentally determined values. (3) Conduct leachability tests on the vitrified slags to aid in determining if product leachability falls within EPA guidelines and to assess the suitability of the vitrified material for long-term disposal

  3. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  4. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-12-01

    Sodium bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many studies have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. DOE desired further experimental data, with regard to steam reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning selection of treatment technology for SBW. Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was performed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel September 27 through October 1, 2004. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, and located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Personnel from Science Applications International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, operated the pilot plant. The pilot scale test was terminated as planned after achieving a total of 100 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation. About 230 kg of SBW surrogate were processed that resulted in about 88 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 62

  5. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  6. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pierce, E. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, C. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, C. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, N. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, J. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valenta, M. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, D. J. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Robbins, R. A. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Thompson, L. E. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  7. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization. The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a highly efficient cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2-5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.7 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved

  8. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a highly efficient cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.7 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process

  9. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  10. Pyrolysis/Steam Reforming Technology for Treatment of TRU Orphan Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J. B.; McKibbin, J.; Schmoker, D.; Bacala, P.

    2003-01-01

    Certain transuranic (TRU) waste streams within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex cannot be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) because they do not meet the shipping requirements of the TRUPACT-II or the disposal requirements of the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) in the WIPP RCRA Part B Permit. These waste streams, referred to as orphan wastes, cannot be shipped or disposed of because they contain one or more prohibited items, such as liquids, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen gas, corrosive acids or bases, reactive metals, or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), etc. The patented, non-incineration, pyrolysis and steam reforming processes marketed by THOR Treatment Technologies LLC removes all of these prohibited items from drums of TRU waste and produces a dry, inert, inorganic waste material that meets the existing TRUPACT-II requirements for shipping, as well as the existing WAP requirements for disposal of TRU waste at WIPP. THOR Treatment Technologies is a joint venture formed in June 2002 by Studsvik, Inc. (Studsvik) and Westinghouse Government Environmental Services Company LLC (WGES) to further develop and deploy Studsvik's patented THORSM technology within the DOE and Department of Defense (DoD) markets. The THORSM treatment process is a commercially proven system that has treated over 100,000 cu. ft. of nuclear waste from commercial power plants since 1999. Some of this waste has had contact dose rates of up to 400 R/hr. A distinguishing characteristic of the THORSM process for TRU waste treatment is the ability to treat drums of waste without removing the waste contents from the drum. This feature greatly minimizes criticality and contamination issues for processing of plutonium-containing wastes. The novel features described herein are protected by issued and pending patents

  11. Radial Microchannel Reactor (RMR) used in Steam Reforming CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    steam reforming natural gas for a wide variety of application from distributed energy production...into synthesis gas . Synthesis gas is used in the production of hydrogen , in GTL and other chemical processes. Steam reforming in an RMR was studied...technology has the potential to have a transformational reduction in cost and size of steam reforming natural gas for a wide variety of application

  12. Steam reforming of light oxygenates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Resasco, Daniel E; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of ethanol, acetic acid, acetone, acetol, 1-propanol, and propanal has been investigated over Ni/MgAl2O4 at temperatures between 400 and 700 degrees C and at a steam-to-carbon-ratio (S/C) of 6. The yield of H-2 and conversion increased with temperature, while the yield of by-...... of CH4. Significant deactivation of the catalyst was observed for all of the compounds and was mainly due to carbon formation. The carbon formation was highest for alcohols due to a high formation of olefins, which are potent coke precursors....

  13. Hydrogen production through sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming and membrane technology: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Gallorini, F.; Servili, S.

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry, more and more waste gases are emitted into the atmosphere. In terms of total air emissions, CO 2 is emitted in the greatest amount, accounting for 99 wt% of the total air emissions, therefore contributing to global warming, the so-called 'Greenhouse Effect'. The recovery and disposal of CO 2 from flue gas is currently the object of great international interest. Most of the CO 2 comes from the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation, industrial boilers, residential and commercial heating, and transportation sectors. Consequently, in the last years' interest in hydrogen as an energy carrier has significantly increased both for vehicle fuelling and stationary energy production from fuel cells. The benefits of a hydrogen energy policy are the reduction of the greenhouse effect, principally due to the centralization of the emission sources. Moreover, an improvement to the environmental benefits can be achieved if hydrogen is produced from renewable sources, as biomass. The present paper provides an overview of the steam methane reforming (SMR) process and methodologies for performances improvement such as hydrogen removal, by selective permeation through a membrane or simultaneous reaction of the targeted molecule with a chemical acceptor, and equilibrium shift by the addition of a CO 2 acceptor to the reactor. In particular, attention was focused on the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) process in which sorbents are added in order to enhance the reactions and realize in situ CO 2 separation. The major operating parameters of SE-SMR are described by the authors in order to project and then realize the innovative carbonation reactor developed in previous studies

  14. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  15. Out-of-pile demonstration test of HTTR hydrogen production system structure and fabrication technology of steam reformer. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ouchi, Yoshihiro; Fujisaki, Katsuo; Kato, Michio; Uno, Hisao; Hayashi, Koji; Aita, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1999-10-01

    A hydrogen production system by steam reforming of natural gas, chemical reaction; CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2}O = 3H{sub 2}+CO, is to be the first heat utilization system of the HTTR. Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile test facility is presently under construction in order to confirm safety, controllability and performance of the steam reforming system under simulated operational conditions of the HTTR hydrogen production system. The out-of-pile test facility, using an electric heater as a reactor substitute, simulates key components downstream an intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR hydrogen production system on a scale of 1 to 30 with a hydrogen production rate of 110 Nm{sup 3}/h. A steam reformer (SR) is a key component to produce hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas. A bayonet-type catalyst tube was applied to the SR of the out-of-pile test facility in order to enhance the heat utilization rate. Also to promote heat transfer, the thickness of the catalyst tube should be decreased to 10 mm while augmenting heat transfer by fins formed on the outer surface of the catalyst tube. Therefore, the catalyst tube was designed on the basis of pressure difference between helium and process gases instead of total pressure of them. This design method was authorized for the first time in Japan. Furthermore, a function of explosion proof was applied to the SR because it contains inflammable gas and electric heater. This report describes the structure of the SR as well as the authorization both of the design method of the catalyst tube and the explosion proof function of the SR. (author)

  16. Out-of-pile demonstration test of HTTR hydrogen production system structure and fabrication technology of steam reformer. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ouchi, Yoshihiro; Fujisaki, Katsuo; Kato, Michio; Uno, Hisao; Hayashi, Koji; Aita, Hideki

    1999-10-01

    A hydrogen production system by steam reforming of natural gas, chemical reaction; CH 4 +H 2 O = 3H 2 +CO, is to be the first heat utilization system of the HTTR. Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile test facility is presently under construction in order to confirm safety, controllability and performance of the steam reforming system under simulated operational conditions of the HTTR hydrogen production system. The out-of-pile test facility, using an electric heater as a reactor substitute, simulates key components downstream an intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR hydrogen production system on a scale of 1 to 30 with a hydrogen production rate of 110 Nm 3 /h. A steam reformer (SR) is a key component to produce hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas. A bayonet-type catalyst tube was applied to the SR of the out-of-pile test facility in order to enhance the heat utilization rate. Also to promote heat transfer, the thickness of the catalyst tube should be decreased to 10 mm while augmenting heat transfer by fins formed on the outer surface of the catalyst tube. Therefore, the catalyst tube was designed on the basis of pressure difference between helium and process gases instead of total pressure of them. This design method was authorized for the first time in Japan. Furthermore, a function of explosion proof was applied to the SR because it contains inflammable gas and electric heater. This report describes the structure of the SR as well as the authorization both of the design method of the catalyst tube and the explosion proof function of the SR. (author)

  17. Development of ATSR (Auto Thermal Steam Reformer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, J.; Yoshino, Y.; Kuwabara, T.; Fujisima, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Maruko, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Auto-thermal reformers are used popularly for fuel cell vehicle because they are compact and can start up quickly. On the other hand, steam reformers are used for stationary fuel cell power plant because they are good thermal efficiency. While, there are many cases using the auto- thermal reformer for stationary use with expectation of cost reduction in USA, as well. However, they are still insufficient for its durability, compactness and cost. We have been developing the new type of fuel processing system that is auto-thermal steam reformer (ATSR), which is hybrid of a conventional steam reformer (STR) and a conventional auto-thermal reformer (ATR). In this study, some proto-type of ATSR for field test were designed, tried manufacturing and tested performance and durability. And we have tried to operate with fuel cell stack to evaluate the system interface performance, that is, operability and controllability. (author)

  18. Advanced Catalysis Technologies: Lanthanum Cerium Manganese Hexaaluminate Combustion Catalysts for Flat Plate Reactor for Compact Steam Reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    packed-bed steam reformer reactor using an open-flame or radiant burner as the heat source, the rate of heat transfer is limited by wall film and bed...resistances. Heat transfer can be effectively improved by replacing the burner /packed-bed system with parallel channels containing metal foam...combustion reactor was tested using the hexaaluminate catalyst in pellets and supported on FeCrAlloy metal foam. Both tests burned propane and JP-8

  19. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...

  20. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  1. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  2. Conceptual design of a hydrogen production system by DME steam reforming and high-efficiency nuclear reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Ogawa, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen is a potential alternative energy source and produced commercially by methane (natural gas) or LPG steam reforming, a process that requires high temperatures, which are produced by burning fossil fuels. However, since this process emits large amounts of CO 2 , replacement of the combustion heat source with a nuclear heat source for 773-1173 K processes has been proposed in order to eliminate these CO 2 emissions. This paper proposes a novel method of low-temperature nuclear hydrogen production by reforming dimethyl ether (DME) with steam produced by a low-temperature nuclear reactor at about 573 K. The authors identified conditions that provide high hydrogen production fraction at low pressure and temperatures of about 523-573 K. By setting this low-temperature hydrogen production process at about 573K upstream from a turbine, it was found theoretically that the total energy utilization efficiency is about 50% and very high. By setting a turbine upstream of the hydrogen production plant, an overall efficiency of is 75% for an FBR and 76% for a supercritical-water cooled power reactor (SCPR). (author)

  3. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  4. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO 2 and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N 2 . The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO 4 , I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the 2 durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form

  5. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  6. Design of a nuclear steam reforming plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a plant for the steam reforming of methane using a High Temperature Reactor has been studied by CEA in connection with the G.E.G.N. This group of companies (CEA, GAZ DE FRANCE, CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE, CREUSOT-LOIRE, NOVATOME) is in charge of studying the feasibility of the coal gasification process by using a nuclear reactor. The process is based on the hydrogenation of the coal in liquid phase with hydrogen produced by a methane steam reformer. The reformer plant is fed by a pipe of natural gas or SNG. The produced hydrogen feeds the gasification plant which could not be located on the same site. An intermediate hydrogen storage between the two plants could make the coupling more flexible. The gasification plant does not need a great deal of heat and this heat can be satisfied mostly by internal heat exchanges

  7. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-12-22

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

  8. Application of flexible micro temperature sensor in oxidative steam reforming by a methanol micro reformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Shen, Chia-Chieh; Yeh, Chuin-Tih; Chang, Chi-Chung; Lo, Yi-Man

    2011-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM), with the relevant parameters optimized as well.

  9. Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Man Lo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM, with the relevant parameters optimized as well.

  10. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  11. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies

  12. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H 2 . In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al 2 O 3 . The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N 2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H 2 , CH 4 , CO, CO 2 . The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H 2 O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%

  13. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Monica, E-mail: monica.dan@itim-cj.ro; Mihet, Maria, E-mail: maria.mihet@itim-cj.ro; Lazar, Mihaela D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293 Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  14. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  15. Duplex tube steam reformer development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewe, C.K.; Nieto, J.M.; Papadopoulos, A.

    1978-09-01

    Work done in partial fulfillment of Task 7 of the Duplex Steam Reformer Development Program is described. The DSR concept acts as a double barrier between a process heat high temperature reactor plant (PNP) and a closed loop chemical heat pipe (CHP) for the long distance transport of chemical energy to a remote industrial user. The current state of the DSR design is described as well as related systems and equipment. The PNP concept presented is based upon work currently underway in the Federal Republic of Germany

  16. Characterization of steam-reforming catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos D. C. R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of Mg and Ca to Ni/ a-Al2O3 catalysts was investigatedstudied, aiming to detail the promotion mechanismaddress their role as promoters in the steam reforming reaction. Temperature- programmed reduction and H2 and CO temperature-programmed desorption experiments indicated that Mg interacts with the metallic phase. Mg-promoted catalysts showed a greater difficulty for Ni precursors reduction besides different probe molecules (H2 and CO adsorbed states. In the conversion of cyclohexane, Mg inhibited the formation of hydrogenolysis products. Nonetheless, the presence of Ca did not influence the metallic phase.

  17. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  18. Steam Reforming of Bio-oil Model Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn; Dahl, Søren

    The steam reforming of bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable route to synthesis gas and hydrogen, where one of the main hurdles is carbon formation on the catalyst.......The steam reforming of bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable route to synthesis gas and hydrogen, where one of the main hurdles is carbon formation on the catalyst....

  19. Methane Steam Reforming Kinetics for a Rhodium-Based Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jon Geest; Jakobsen, M.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Methane steam reforming is the key reaction to produce synthesis gas and hydrogen at the industrial scale. Here the kinetics of methane steam reforming over a rhodium-based catalyst is investigated in the temperature range 500-800 A degrees C and as a function of CH4, H2O and H-2 partial pressures....... The methane steam reforming reaction cannot be modeled without taking CO and H coverages into account. This is especially important at low temperatures and higher partial pressures of CO and H-2. For methane CO2 reforming experiments, it is also necessary to consider the repulsive interaction of CO...

  20. Steam reforming of commercial ultra-low sulphur diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boon, J.; Van Dijk, E.; De Munck, S.; Van den Brink, R. [Energy research Centre of The Netherlands, ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, P.O. Box 1, NL1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-03-11

    Two main routes for small-scale diesel steam reforming exist: low-temperature pre-reforming followed by well-established methane steam reforming on the one hand and direct steam reforming on the other hand. Tests with commercial catalysts and commercially obtained diesel fuels are presented for both processes. The fuels contained up to 6.5 ppmw sulphur and up to 4.5 vol.% of biomass-derived fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Pre-reforming sulphur-free diesel at around 475C has been tested with a commercial nickel catalyst for 118 h without observing catalyst deactivation, at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.6. Direct steam reforming at temperatures up to 800C has been tested with a commercial precious metal catalyst for a total of 1190 h with two catalyst batches at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.5. Deactivation was neither observed with lower steam-to-carbon ratios nor for increasing sulphur concentration. The importance of good fuel evaporation and mixing for correct testing of catalysts is illustrated. Diesel containing biodiesel components resulted in poor spray quality, hence poor mixing and evaporation upstream, eventually causing decreasing catalyst performance. The feasibility of direct high temperature steam reforming of commercial low-sulphur diesel has been demonstrated.

  1. Steam reforming of commercial ultra-low sulphur diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Jurriaan; van Dijk, Eric; de Munck, Sander; van den Brink, Ruud

    Two main routes for small-scale diesel steam reforming exist: low-temperature pre-reforming followed by well-established methane steam reforming on the one hand and direct steam reforming on the other hand. Tests with commercial catalysts and commercially obtained diesel fuels are presented for both processes. The fuels contained up to 6.5 ppmw sulphur and up to 4.5 vol.% of biomass-derived fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Pre-reforming sulphur-free diesel at around 475 °C has been tested with a commercial nickel catalyst for 118 h without observing catalyst deactivation, at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.6. Direct steam reforming at temperatures up to 800 °C has been tested with a commercial precious metal catalyst for a total of 1190 h with two catalyst batches at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.5. Deactivation was neither observed with lower steam-to-carbon ratios nor for increasing sulphur concentration. The importance of good fuel evaporation and mixing for correct testing of catalysts is illustrated. Diesel containing biodiesel components resulted in poor spray quality, hence poor mixing and evaporation upstream, eventually causing decreasing catalyst performance. The feasibility of direct high temperature steam reforming of commercial low-sulphur diesel has been demonstrated.

  2. Experimental characterization and modeling of an ethanol steam reformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Bovo, Mirko; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the characterization of an ethanol reforming system for a high temperature PEM fuel cell system. High temperature PEM fuel cells are well suited for operation on reformate gas due to the superior CO tolerance compared with low temperature PEM. Steam reforming of liquid biofuels...

  3. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio-Oil to Hydrogen Rich Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus

    heating value and high content of oxygen, which makes it unsuited for direct utilization in engines. One prospective technology for upgrading of bio-oil is steam reforming (SR), which can be used to produce H2 for upgrading of bio-oil through hydrodeoxygenation or synthesis gas for processes like......-oil. There are two main pathways to minimize carbon deposition in steam reforming; either through optimization of catalyst formulation or through changes to the process parameters, like changes in temperature, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), or adding O2 or H2 to the feed. In this thesis both pathways have been...

  4. Steam reforming of technical bioethanol for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Johansson, Roger; Møller, Martin Hulbek

    2008-01-01

    Essentially all work on ethanol steam reforming so far has been carried out using simulated bioethanol feedstocks, which means pure ethanol mixed with water. However, technical bioethanol consists of a lot of different components including sugars, which cannot be easily vaporized and steam reformed....... For ethanol steam reforming to be of practical interest, it is important to avoid the energy-intensive purification steps to fuel grade ethanol. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze how technical bioethanol, with the relevant impurities, reacts during the steam reforming process. We show how three different...... bioethanol will result in a faster catalyst deactivation than what is observed when using pure ethanol-water mixtures because of contaminants remaining in the feed. However, the initial activity of the catalysts are not affected by this, hence it is important to not only focus on catalyst activity but rather...

  5. Internal steam reforming in solid oxide fuel cells: Status and opportunities of kinetic studies and their impact on modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, David; Grunwaldt, J.-D.; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2011-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) systems with internal steam reforming have the potential to become an economically competitive technology for cogeneration power plants, exploiting its significantly higher electrical efficiency compared to existing technologies. Optimal design and operation of such ......Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) systems with internal steam reforming have the potential to become an economically competitive technology for cogeneration power plants, exploiting its significantly higher electrical efficiency compared to existing technologies. Optimal design and operation...

  6. Steam reforming as a method to treat Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes a Sandia program that included partnerships with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Synthetica Technologies, Inc. to design and test a steam reforming system for treating Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes. The benefits of steam reforming the wastes include the resolution of tank safety issues and improved radionuclide separations. Steam reforming destroys organic materials by first gasifying, then reacting them with high temperature steam. Tests indicate that up to 99% of the organics could be removed from the UST wastes by steam exposure. In addition, it was shown that nitrates in the wastes could be destroyed by steam exposure if they were first distributed as a thin layer on a surface. High purity alumina and nickel alloys were shown to be good candidates for materials to be used in the severe environment associated with steam reforming the highly alkaline, high nitrate content wastes. Work was performed on designing, building, and demonstrating components of a 0.5 gallon per minute (gpm) system suitable for radioactive waste treatment. Scale-up of the unit to 20 gpm was also considered and is feasible. Finally, process demonstrations conducted on non-radioactive waste surrogates were carried out, including a successful demonstration of the technology at the 0.1 gpm scale

  7. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  8. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  9. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  10. Improvements of reforming performance of a nuclear heated steam reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Kazuhiko

    1996-10-01

    Performance of an energy production process by utilizing high temperature nuclear process heat was not competitive to that by utilizing non-nuclear process heat, especially fossil-fired process heat due to its less favorable chemical reaction conditions. Less favorable conditions are because a temperature of the nuclear generated heat is around 950degC and the heat transferring fluid is the helium gas pressurized at around 4 MPa. Improvements of reforming performance of nuclear heated steam reforming process were proposed in the present report. The steam reforming process, one of hydrogen production processes, has the possibility to be industrialized as a nuclear heated process as early as expected, and technical solutions to resolve issues for coupling an HTGR with the steam reforming system are applicable to other nuclear-heated hydrogen production systems. The improvements are as follows: As for the steam reformer, (1) increase in heat input to process gas by applying a bayonet type of reformer tubes and so on, (2) increase in reforming temperature by enhancing heat transfer rate by the use of combined promoters of orifice baffles, cylindrical thermal radiation pipes and other proposal, and (3) increase in conversion rate of methane to hydrogen by optimizing chemical compositions of feed process gas. Regarding system arrangement, a steam generator and superheater are set in the helium loop as downstream coolers of the steam reformer, so as to effectively utilize the residual nuclear heat for generating feed steam. The improvements are estimated to achieve the hydrogen production rate of approximately 3800 STP-m 3 /h for the heat source of 10 MW and therefore will provide the potential competitiveness to a fossil-fired steam reforming process. Those improvements also provide the compactness of reformer tubes, giving the applicability of seamless tubes. (J.P.N.)

  11. Influence of Steam Reforming Catalyst Geometry on the Performance of Tubular Reformer – Simulation Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franczyk Ewelina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A proper selection of steam reforming catalyst geometry has a direct effect on the efficiency and economy of hydrogen production from natural gas and is a very important technological and engineering issue in terms of process optimisation. This paper determines the influence of widely used seven-hole grain diameter (ranging from 11 to 21 mm, h/d (height/diameter ratio of catalyst grain and Sh/St (hole surface/total cylinder surface in cross-section ratio (ranging from 0.13 to 0.37 on the gas load of catalyst bed, gas flow resistance, maximum wall temperature and the risk of catalyst coking. Calculations were based on the one-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model of a steam reforming tubular reactor, with catalyst parameters derived from our investigations. The process analysis shows that it is advantageous, along the whole reformer tube length, to apply catalyst forms of h/d = 1 ratio, relatively large dimensions, possibly high bed porosity and Sh/St ≈ 0.30-0.37 ratio. It enables a considerable process intensification and the processing of more natural gas at the same flow resistance, despite lower bed activity, without catalyst coking risk. Alternatively, plant pressure drop can be reduced maintaining the same gas load, which translates directly into diminishing the operating costs as a result of lowering power consumption for gas compression.

  12. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  13. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  14. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful

  15. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming For Treatment And Immobilization Of Low-Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

  16. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING FOR TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEWITT WM

    2011-04-08

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

  17. Developing an energy efficient steam reforming process to produce hydrogen from sulfur-containing fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, Amanda

    Hydrogen powered fuel cells have the potential to produce electricity with higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional combustion technology. In order to realize the benefits of a hydrogen fuel cell an efficient method to produce hydrogen is needed. Currently, over 90% of hydrogen is produced from the steam reforming of natural gas. However, for many applications including fuel cell vehicles, the use of a liquid fuel rather than natural gas is desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of producing hydrogen efficiently by steam reforming E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline), a commercially available sulfur-containing transportation fuel. A Rh-Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst has demonstrated good activity for the E85 steam reforming reaction. An industrial steam reforming process is often run less efficiently, with more water and at higher temperatures, in order to prevent catalyst deactivation. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a process that can operate without catalyst deactivation at more energy efficient conditions. In this study, the steam reforming of a sulfur-containing fuel (E85) was studied at near stoichiometric steam/carbon ratios and at 650C, conditions at which catalyst deactivation is normally measured. At these conditions the catalyst was found to be stable steam reforming a sulfur-free E85. However, the addition of low concentrations of sulfur significantly deactivated the catalyst. The presence of sulfur in the fuel caused catalyst deactivation by promoting ethylene which generates surface carbon species (coke) that mask catalytic sites. The amount of coke increased during time on stream and became increasingly graphitic. However, the deactivation due to both sulfur adsorption and coke formation was reversible with air treatment at 650°C. However, regenerations were found to reduce the catalyst life. Air regenerations produce exotherms on the catalyst surface that cause structural changes to the catalyst. During regenerations the

  18. Steam reforming of biomass derived oxygenates to hydrogen : Importance of metal-support boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, K.; Aika, Ken-ichi; Seshan, Kulathu Iyer; Lefferts, L.

    2006-01-01

    Steam reforming of acetic acid over Pt/ZrO2 catalysts was studied as a model reaction of steam reforming of biomass derived oxygenates. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts were very active; however, the catalyst deactivated in time by formation of oligomers which block the active sites for steam reforming.

  19. In silico search for novel methane steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yue; Lausche, Adam C; Wang, Shengguang

    2013-01-01

    App’) with a microkinetic modeling technique to predict the rates and selectivities of a prospective material. This paper illustrates this screening technique using the steam reforming of methane to carbon monoxide and hydrogen as a test reaction. While catalysts are already commercially available for this process...

  20. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: METHLYCHLORIDE. (R822721C633)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effective destruction of trichloroethane, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene by steam reforming with a commercial nickel catalyst has been demonstrated. Conversion levels of up to 0.99999 were attained in both laboratory and semi-pilot experiments, with the products c...

  1. Staged catalytic gasification/steam reforming of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2009-01-01

    Gasification/steam reforming of pyrolysis oil was studied in a staged reactor concept, which consisted of an inert fluidized bed and a catalytic fixed bed. Methane and C2−C3 free syngas is produced at a single temperature around 800 °C at atmospheric pressure. By lowering the temperature of the

  2. Optimizing a steam-methane reformer for hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; Westendorp, G.

    2009-01-01

    By means of steam reforming, natural gas is converted to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The reactions take place in reactor tubes which are covered with catalyst at the inside, where the reactive mixture flows. At the outside they are heated by combustion of natural gas with air. In this paper the

  3. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

    2002-01-01

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill

  4. Optimizing the Heat Exchanger Network of a Steam Reforming System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Korsgaard, Anders Risum; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) based combined heat and power production systems are highly integrated energy systems. They may include a hydrogen production system and fuel cell stacks along with post combustion units optionally coupled with gas turbines. The considered system is based on a natural...... stationary numerical system model was used and process integration techniques for optimizing the heat exchanger network for the reforming unit are proposed. Objective is to minimize the system cost. Keywords: Fuel cells; Steam Reforming; Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) Synthesis; MINLP....... gas steam reformer along with gas purification reactors to generate clean hydrogen suited for a PEM stack. The temperatures in the various reactors in the fuel processing system vary from around 1000°C to the stack temperature at 80°C. Furthermore, external heating must be supplied to the endothermic...

  5. DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) WASTE FORMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium aqueous radioactive wastes. The addition of clay and a catalyst as co-reactants converts high sodium aqueous low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford and Idaho DOE sites to a granular ''mineralized'' waste form that may be made into a monolith form if necessary. Simulant Hanford and Idaho high sodium wastes were processed in a pilot scale FBSR at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The durability of the FBSR waste form products was tested in order to compare the measured durability to previous FBSR waste form testing on Hanford Envelope C waste forms that were made by THOR Treatment Technologies (TTT) and to compare the FBSR durability to vitreous LAW waste forms, specifically the Hanford low activity waste (LAW) glass known as the Low-activity Reference Material (LRM). The durability of the FBSR waste form is comparable to that of the LRM glass for the test responses studied

  6. Design of a steam reforming system to be connected to the HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, K.; Nishihara, T.; Shibata, T.; Shiozawa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Top priority objective for developing the first heat utilization system to be connected to the HTTR is to demonstrate technical feasibility of a nuclear process heat utilization system for production of hydrogen for the first time in the world. Major issues to be resolved for coupling the heat utilization system to the HTTR are 1)to develop safety philosophy for reasonably and reliably ensuring safety of the nuclear reactor, 2)to develop control design concept for the total system of the nuclear reactor and heat utilization system because thermal dynamics of endothermic chemical reactor to be heated by nuclear heat is much different from the nuclear reactor, 3)to develop helium-heated components and 4)to develop enhanced hydrogen production technologies for achieving competitiveness to a fossil-fired plant. A steam reforming hydrogen production system was studied as one of the first priority candidates for an HTTR-heat utilization system due to matured technology in fossil-fired plants and since technical solutions demonstrated by the coupling of the steam reforming system to the HTTR will contribute to all other hydrogen production systems. Basic design philosophy for the HTTR-steam reforming system is that the steam reforming plant downstream of an intermediate secondary helium loop is designed at the same safety level as fossil-fired plants and therefore the secondary helium loop was selected as a safety barrier to the HTTR nuclear reactor. (J.P.N.)

  7. Reforming Technical and Technological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Review of technical and technological educational reform in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sweden shows that reform takes time to complete effectively, long-term approaches are needed, and reform is linked to industrial development, regional cooperation, and decentralized decision making. (SK)

  8. Modeling and simulation of an isothermal reactor for methanol steam reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Menechini Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to growing electricity demand, cheap renewable energy sources are needed. Fuel cells are an interesting alternative for generating electricity since they use hydrogen as their main fuel and release only water and heat to the environment. Although fuel cells show great flexibility in size and operating temperature (some models even operate at low temperatures, the technology has the drawback for hydrogen transportation and storage. However, hydrogen may be produced from methanol steam reforming obtained from renewable sources such as biomass. The use of methanol as raw material in hydrogen production process by steam reforming is highly interesting owing to the fact that alcohol has the best hydrogen carbon-1 ratio (4:1 and may be processed at low temperatures and atmospheric pressures. They are features which are desirable for its use in autonomous fuel cells. Current research develops a mathematical model of an isothermal methanol steam reforming reactor and validates it against experimental data from the literature. The mathematical model was solved numerically by MATLAB® and the comparison of its predictions for different experimental conditions indicated that the developed model and the methodology for its numerical solution were adequate. Further, a preliminary analysis was undertaken on methanol steam reforming reactor project for autonomous fuel cell.

  9. Design of a surface alloy catalyst for steam reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Chorkendorff, Ib; Clausen, B.S.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed studies of elementary chemical processes on well-characterized single crystal surfaces have contributed substantially to the understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. insight into the structure of surface alloys combined with an understanding of the relation between the surface compositi...... and reactivity is shown to lead directly to new ideas for catalyst design, The feasibility of such an approach is illustrated by the synthesis, characterization, and tests of a high-surface area gold-nickel catalyst for steam reforming....

  10. Hydrogen production from biomass tar by catalytic steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Jun; Choi, Young-Chan; Lee, Jae-Goo

    2010-01-01

    The catalytic steam reforming of model biomass tar, toluene being a major component, was performed at various conditions of temperature, steam injection rate, catalyst size, and space time. Two kinds of nickel-based commercial catalyst, the Katalco 46-3Q and the Katalco 46-6Q, were evaluated and compared with dolomite catalyst. Production of hydrogen generally increased with reaction temperature, steam injection rate and space time and decreased with catalyst size. In particular, zirconia-promoted nickel-based catalyst, Katalco 46-6Q, showed a higher tar conversion efficiency and shows 100% conversion even relatively lower temperature conditions of 600 deg. C. Apparent activation energy was estimated to 94 and 57 kJ/mol for dolomite and nickel-based catalyst respectively.

  11. Hydrogen yield from low temperature steam reforming of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, N.K.; Dalai, A.K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories; Ranganathan, R. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Interest in the use of ethanol for fuel cell hydrogen production was discussed with particular reference to a study in which the production of hydrogen was maximized through low temperature steam reforming of ethanol in the temperature range of 200 to 360 degrees C. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of Mn concentration on a Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for steam reforming of ethanol to produce hydrogen. The purpose was to maximize ethanol conversion and hydrogen selectivity in the lowest possible reaction temperature for the ideal catalyst activity. The optimum reaction conditions in the presence of a suitable catalyst can produce the desired products of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with six different concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 weight per cent Mn, were prepared, characterized and studied for the ethanol-steam reforming reaction. The effects of different process variables were studied, including water-to-ethanol feed ratio, space time and catalyst reduction temperatures on ethanol conversion and hydrogen yield. Maximum ethanol conversion of 60.7 per cent and hydrogen yield of 3.74 (mol of hydrogen per mol of ethanol converted) were observed at 360 degrees C for a catalyst with 2.5 weight per cent Mn loading. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  12. Development and test evaluation of duplex steam reformer tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.C.; Meyer, D.J.; Pflasterer, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    For HTR applications involving a steam reformer (SR), it is uncertain whether an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required. There are several system configurations that could be developed for the application of nuclear heat using the steam reformer reaction. The considerations (advantages vs. disadvantages) for each of the system configurations are summarized. The approach that technically and economically appears to be the most attractive, in studies conducted by General Electric, combines the SR process heat exchanger and the IHX in a single component using a duplex tube. A central question concerning the duplex tube concept is whether the design would provide adequate leak monitoring capability and significant reduction in tritium and hydrogen diffusion, while introducing only a small increase in overall temperature difference from the helium to the process gas. A cooperative GE-KFA effort was undertaken to develop, fabricate, test, and evaluate a duplex steam reformer tube. GE was responsible for the development and fabrication of the tube, and KFA was responsible for testing the tube in the EVA I facility at Juelich. Both GE and KFA are evaluating the thermochemical and metallurgical test data. Actual fabrication of the tube was performed by Foster-Wheeler in accordance with the GE design. This paper reviews the highlights of the fabrication development and preliminary evaluation of the test data

  13. Thermoelectric generation coupling methanol steam reforming characteristic in microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Cao, Yiding; Wang, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) generator converts heat to electric energy by thermoelectric material. However, heat removal on the cold side of the generator represents a serious challenge. To address this problem and for improved energy conversion, a thermoelectric generation process coupled with methanol steam reforming (SR) for hydrogen production is designed and analyzed in this paper. Experimental study on the cold spot character in a micro-reactor with monolayer catalyst bed is first carried out to understand the endothermic nature of the reforming as the thermoelectric cold side. A novel methanol steam reforming micro-reactor heated by waste heat or methanol catalytic combustion for hydrogen production coupled with a thermoelectric generation module is then simulated. Results show that the cold spot effect exists in the catalyst bed under all conditions, and the associated temperature difference first increases and then decreases with the inlet temperature. In the micro-reactor, the temperature difference between the reforming and heating channel outlets decreases rapidly with an increase in thermoelectric material's conductivity coefficient. However, methanol conversion at the reforming outlet is mainly affected by the reactor inlet temperature; while at the combustion outlet, it is mainly affected by the reactor inlet velocity. Due to the strong endothermic effect of the methanol steam reforming, heat supply of both kinds cannot balance the heat needed at reactor local areas, resulting in the cold spot at the reactor inlet. When the temperature difference between the thermoelectric module's hot and cold sides is 22 K, the generator can achieve an output voltage of 55 mV. The corresponding molar fraction of hydrogen can reach about 62.6%, which corresponds to methanol conversion rate of 72.6%. - Highlights: • Cold spot character of methanol steam reforming was studied through experiment. • Thermoelectric generation Coupling MSR process has been

  14. Reforming technology for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.

    1997-01-01

    Methane forming reactions using either steam or CO 2 have been known to industry for a long time. These endothermic reactions require the investment of a relatively large amount of energy. German researchers, in the 1970's, conceived and developed the idea to use this reaction and the reverse methanation reaction in a closed loop for the transportation and distribution of nuclear heat. The idea was also adopted for use with solar energy as a heat source. Utilizing solar energy as the heat source, the Weismann Institute of Science has fabricated, installed and operated a complete loop capable of the conversion and transportation of over 400 kW of heat. This system can be operated with a wide range of CO 2 /H 2 O/CH 4 feed mixtures. Steam reforming is the common reforming reaction in the ''open loop'' mode for the purpose of synthesis gas production. This is accomplished with a large excess of steam on a nickel catalyst. However, it has only recently been recognized that there is also a substantial market for CO 2 reforming. The CO 2 /CH 4 mixture in various proportions exists in many places and has, so far, not been used efficiently. The sources for this mixture are biogas produced in anaerobic digestion processes and gas resources such as the NATUNA gas field in Indonesia, and many others. Therefore, the system of CO 2 /CH 4 deserves more attention. Commercial catalysts used for steam reforming based on nickel are not suitable for this system. Therefore, other catalysts based on Rhodium and Ruthenium have been developed and some performance data is presented in this paper. Also presented is a conceptual schematic layout of a CO 2 reforming plant and matching methanator. A computer code for a detailed design of the entire loop in a commercial size system has been prepared where optimized operational conditions as well as equipment parameters can be determined. (author). 3 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Methane steam reforming kinetics over Ni-YSZ anodematerials for Solid Oxide FuelCells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, David

    of internal reforming has to be carefully controlled. The objective of this thesis is to make such a careful control possible by examining the rate of internal steam reforming in SOFCs. The catalytic steam reforming activity of Ni-YSZ anode material was tested both in a packed bed reactor to determine...

  16. Methane steam reforming kinetics over Ni-YSZ anode materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, David

    of internal reforming has to be carefully controlled. The objective of this thesis is to make such a careful control possible by examining the rate of internal steam reforming in SOFCs. The catalytic steam reforming activity of Ni-YSZ anode material was tested both in a packed bed reactor to determine...

  17. Steam Methane Reformation Testing for Air-Independent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwara, Kamwana N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, NASA has been looking into utilizing landers that can be propelled by LOX-CH (sub 4), to be used for long duration missions. Using landers that utilize such propellants, also provides the opportunity to use solid oxide fuel cells as a power option, especially since they are able to process methane into a reactant through fuel reformation. One type of reformation, called steam methane reformation, is a process to reform methane into a hydrogen-rich product by reacting methane and steam (fuel cell exhaust) over a catalyst. A steam methane reformation system could potentially use the fuel cell's own exhaust to create a reactant stream that is hydrogen-rich, and requires less internal reforming of the incoming methane. Also, steam reformation may hold some advantages over other types of reforming, such as partial oxidation (PROX) reformation. Steam reformation does not require oxygen, while up to 25 percent can be lost in PROX reformation due to unusable CO (sub 2) reformation. NASA's Johnson Space Center has conducted various phases of steam methane reformation testing, as a viable solution for in-space reformation. This has included using two different types of catalysts, developing a custom reformer, and optimizing the test system to find the optimal performance parameters and operating conditions.

  18. Towards H2-rich gas production from unmixed steam reforming of methane: Thermodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima da Silva, Aline; Müller, Iduvirges Lourdes

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the Gibbs energy minimization method is applied to investigate the unmixed steam reforming (USR) of methane to generate hydrogen for fuel cell application. The USR process is an advanced reforming technology that relies on the use of separate air and fuel/steam feeds to create a cyclic process. Under air flow (first half of the cycle), a bed of Ni-based material is oxidized, providing the heat necessary for the steam reforming that occurs subsequently during fuel/steam feed stage (second half of the cycle). In the presence of CaO sorbent, high purity hydrogen can be produced in a single reactor. In the first part of this work, it is demonstrated that thermodynamic predictions are consistent with experimental results from USR isothermal tests under fuel/steam feed. From this, it is also verified that the reacted NiO to CH4 (NiOreacted/CH4) molar ratio is a very important parameter that affects the product gas composition and decreases with time. At the end of fuel/steam flow, the reforming reaction is the most important chemical mechanism, with H2 production reaching ∼75 mol%. On the other hand, at the beginning of fuel/steam feed stage, NiO reduction reactions dominate the equilibrium system, resulting in high CO2 selectivity, negative steam conversion and low concentrations of H2. In the second part of this paper, the effect of NiOreacted/CH4 molar ratio on the product gas composition and enthalpy change during fuel flow is investigated at different temperatures for inlet H2O/CH4 molar ratios in the range of 1.2-4, considering the USR process operated with and without CaO sorbent. During fuel/steam feed stage, the energy demand increases as time passes, because endothermic reforming reaction becomes increasingly important as this stage nears its end. Thus, the duration of the second half of the cycle is limited by the conditions under which auto-thermal operation can be achieved. In absence of CaO, H2 at concentrations of approximately 73 mol% can

  19. Methane-steam reforming by molten salt - membrane reactor using concentrated solar thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanuki, K.; Nakajima, H.; Hasegawa, N.; Kaneko, H.; Tamaura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    By utilization of concentrated solar thermal energy for steam reforming of natural gas, which is an endothermic reaction, the chemical energy of natural gas can be up-graded. The chemical system for steam reforming of natural gas with concentrated solar thermal energy was studied to produce hydrogen by using the thermal storage with molten salt and the membrane reactor. The original steam reforming module with hydrogen permeable palladium membrane was developed and fabricated. Steam reforming of methane proceeded with the original module with palladium membrane below the decomposition temperature of molten salt (around 870 K). (authors)

  20. Preliminary design of steam reformer in out-pile demonstration test facility for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro; Inagaki, Yosiyuki; Hata, Kazuhiko; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Sudo, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Yamada, Seiya

    1996-11-01

    One of the key objectives of HTTR is to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization system. Prior to connecting a heat utilization system to HTTR, an out-pile demonstration test is indispensable for the development of experimental apparatuses, operational control and safety technology, and verification of the analysis code of safety assessment. For the first heat utilization system of HTTR, design of the hydrogen production system by steam reforming is going on. We have proposed the out-pile demonstration test plan of the heat utilization system and conducted preliminary design of the test facility. In this report, design of the steam reformer, which is the principal component of the test facility, is described. In the course of the design, two types of reformers are considered. The one reformer contains three reactor tubes and the other contains one reactor tube to reduce the construction cost of the test facility. We have selected the steam reformer operational conditions and structural specifications by analyzing the steam reforming characteristics and component structural strength for each type of reformer. (author)

  1. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  2. Catalytic steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production: Brief status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineli Aulus R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen represents a promising fuel since it is considered as a cleanest energy carrier and also because during its combustion only water is emitted. It can be produced from different kinds of renewable feedstocks, such as ethanol, in this sense hydrogen could be treated as biofuel. Three chemical reactions can be used to achieve this purpose: the steam reforming (SR, the partial oxidation (POX and the autothermal reforming (ATR. In this study, the catalysts implemented in steam reforming of ethanol were reviewed. A wide variety of elements can be used as catalysts for this reaction, such as base metals (Ni, Cu and Co or noble metals (Rh, Pt and Ru usually deposited on a support material that increases surface area and improves catalytic function. The use of Rh, Ni and Pt supported or promoted with CeO2, and/or La2O3 shows excellent performance in ethanol SR catalytic process. The ratio of water to ethanol, reaction temperatures, catalysts loadings, selectivity and activity are also discussed as they are extremely important for high hydrogen yields.

  3. Development and validation of a CFD-based steam reformer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Dahlqvist, Mathis; Saksager, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Steam reforming of liquid biofuels (ethanol, bio-diesel etc.) represents a sustainable source of hydrogen for micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production as well as Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). In relation to the design of the steam reforming reactor several parameter are important including...... for expensive prototypes. This paper presents an advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics based model of a steam reformer. The model was implemented in the commercial CFD code Fluent through the User Defined Functions interface. The model accounts for the flue gas flow as well as the reformate flow including...... a detailed mechanism for the reforming reactions. Heat exchange between the flue gas and reformate streams through the reformer reactor walls was also included as a conjugate heat transfer process.  From a review of published models for the catalytic steam reforming of ethanol and preliminary predictions...

  4. Investigations on a new internally-heated tubular packed-bed methanol–steam reformer

    KAUST Repository

    Nehe, Prashant; Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy; Kumar, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale reformers for hydrogen production through steam reforming of methanol can provide an alternative solution to the demand of continuous supply of hydrogen gas for the operation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs). A packed

  5. Proposal and assessment of a novel integrated CCHP system with biogas steam reforming using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Bosheng; Han, Wei; Jin, Hongguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel CCHP system with biogas steam reforming using solar energy is raised. •Chemical and physical energy of biogas is efficiently used in a cascaded way. •The energy quality of concentrating solar heat is promoted in the system. •A parametric analysis is adopted to optimize the thermodynamic performance. •A typical-day study is conducted to explore the general operation features. -- Abstract: The conventional way to utilize biogas either is energy-intensive due to biogas upgrading or causes huge waste of energy grade and environmental pollution by direct burning. This paper proposes a biogas and solar energy-assisted combined cooling, heating and power (BSCCHP) system that upgrades the caloric value of biogas before combustion by introducing a thermochemical conversion process that is driven by solar heat. Adopting commercially established technologies including steam reforming and parabolic dish concentrators, the system exhibits an enhanced system exergy efficiency, and the technology considerably reduces the direct CO 2 footprint and saves depletable fossil fuel. With a solar thermal share of 22.2%, the proposed system not only has a high net solar-to-product thermal and exergy efficiency of 46.80% and 26.49%, respectively, but also results in a commensurate 18.27% reduction of the direct CO 2 footprint compared with the reference individual systems. The effect of critical parameters in the biogas steam reforming process on the system performance was studied. A proper selection of the steam/carbon ratio leads to the optimal direct CO 2 footprint and system exergy efficiency. Pursuing a very high conversion of biogas by improving the reforming temperature is not a wise choice from a system perspective. Finally, a typical-day dynamic simulation was conducted to preliminarily explore the general operation features. This study may provide a new way to efficiently use the renewable energy in the distributed energy system.

  6. Biomass-to-hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Czernik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and reforming the pyroligneous oils is being studied as a strategy for producing hydrogen. Novel technologies for the rapid pyrolysis of biomass have been developed in the past decade. They provide compact and efficient systems to transform biomass into vapors that are condensed to oils, with yields as high as 75-80 wt.% of the anhydrous biomass. This {open_quotes}bio-oil{close_quotes} is a mixture of aldehydes, alcohols, acids, oligomers from the constitutive carbohydrates and lignin, and some water derived from the dehydration reactions. Hydrogen can be produced by reforming the bio-oil or its fractions with steam. A process of this nature has the potential to be cost competitive with conventional means of producing hydrogen. The reforming facility can be designed to handle alternate feedstocks, such as natural gas and naphtha, if necessary. Thermodynamic modeling of the major constituents of the bio-oil has shown that reforming is possible within a wide range of temperatures and steam-to-carbon ratios. Existing catalytic data on the reforming of oxygenates have been studied to guide catalyst selection. Tests performed on a microreactor interfaced with a molecular beam mass spectrometer showed that, by proper selection of the process variables: temperature, steam-to-carbon ratio, gas hourly space velocity, and contact time, almost total conversion of carbon in the feed to CO and CO{sub 2} could be obtained. These tests also provided possible reaction mechanisms where thermal cracking competes with catalytic processes. Bench-scale, fixed bed reactor tests demonstrated high hydrogen yields from model compounds and carbohydrate-derived pyrolysis oil fractions. Reforming bio-oil or its fractions required proper dispersion of the liquid to avoid vapor-phase carbonization of the feed in the inlet to the reactor. A special spraying nozzle injector was designed and successfully tested with an aqueous fraction of bio-oil.

  7. Methanol steam-reforming in a catalytic fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duesterwald, H G; Hoehlein, B; Kraut, H; Meusinger, J; Peters, R [Research Centre Juelich (KFA) (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering; Stimming, U [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik und Techn. Phys.

    1997-12-01

    Designing an appropriate methanol steam reformer requires detailed knowledge about the processes within such a reactor. Thus, the axial temperature and concentration gradients and catalyst ageing were investigated. It was found that for a fresh catalyst load, the catalyst located in the reactor entrance was most active during the experiment. The activity of this part of the catalyst bed decreased after some time of operation due to ageing. With further operation, the most active zone moved through the catalyst bed. From the results concerning hydrogen production and catalyst degradation, the necessary amount of catalyst for a mobile PEMFC-system can be estimated. (orig.)

  8. Steam reforming of heptane in a fluidized bed membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakib, Mohammad A.; Grace, John R.; Lim, C. Jim; Elnashaie, Said S. E. H.

    n-Heptane served as a model compound to study steam reforming of naphtha as an alternative feedstock to natural gas for production of pure hydrogen in a fluidized bed membrane reactor. Selective removal of hydrogen using Pd 77Ag 23 membrane panels shifted the equilibrium-limited reactions to greater conversion of the hydrocarbons and lower yields of methane, an intermediate product. Experiments were conducted with no membranes, with one membrane panel, and with six panels along the height of the reactor to understand the performance improvement due to hydrogen removal in a reactor where catalyst particles were fluidized. Results indicate that a fluidized bed membrane reactor (FBMR) can provide a compact reformer for pure hydrogen production from a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock at moderate temperatures (475-550 °C). Under the experimental conditions investigated, the maximum achieved yield of pure hydrogen was 14.7 moles of pure hydrogen per mole of heptane fed.

  9. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) PRODUCT: MONOLITH FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-01-01

    The most important requirement for Hanford's low activity waste (LAW) form for shallow land disposal is the chemical durability of the product. A secondary, but still essential specification, is the compressive strength of the material with regards to the strength of the material under shallow land disposal conditions, e.g. the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations, because the term ''near-surface disposal'' indicates disposal in the uppermost portion, or approximately the top 30 meters, of the earth's surface. The THOR(reg s ign) Treatment Technologies (TTT) mineral waste form for LAW is granular in nature because it is formed by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). As a granular product it has been shown to be as durable as Hanford's LAW glass during testing with ASTM C-1285-02 known as the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and with the Single Pass Flow Through Test (SPFT). Hanford Envelope A and Envelope C simulants both performed well during PCT and SPFT testing and during subsequent performance assessment modeling. This is partially due to the high aluminosilicate content of the mineral product which provides a natural aluminosilicate buffering mechanism that inhibits leaching and is known to occur in naturally occurring aluminosilicate mineral analogs. In order for the TTT Na-Al-Si (NAS) granular mineral product to meet the compressive strength requirements (ASTM C39) for a Hanford waste form, the granular product needs to be made into a monolith or disposed of in High Integrity Containers (HIC's). Additionally, the Hanford intruder scenario for disposal in the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) trench is mitigated as there is reduced intruder exposure when a waste form is in a monolithic form. During the preliminary testing of a monolith binder for TTT's FBSR mineral product, four parameters were monitored: (1) waste loading (not optimized for each waste form tested); (2) density; (3) compressive strength; and (4

  10. Kinetic Study of Nonequilibrium Plasma-Assisted Methane Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop a detailed reaction mechanism for plasma-assisted methane steam reforming, a comprehensive numerical and experimental study of effect laws on methane conversion and products yield is performed at different steam to methane molar ratio (S/C, residence time s, and reaction temperatures. A CHEMKIN-PRO software with sensitivity analysis module and path flux analysis module was used for simulations. A set of comparisons show that the developed reaction mechanism can accurately predict methane conversion and the trend of products yield in different operating conditions. Using the developed reaction mechanism in plasma-assisted kinetic model, the reaction path flux analysis was carried out. The result shows that CH3 recombination is the limiting reaction for CO production and O is the critical species for CO production. Adding 40 wt.% Ni/SiO2 in discharge region has significantly promoted the yield of H2, CO, or CO2 in dielectric packed bed (DPB reactor. Plasma catalytic hybrid reforming experiment verifies the reaction path flux analysis tentatively.

  11. Steam reforming of ethanol over nickel-tungsten catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, I.P.; Fernandez, A.M. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Gochi-Ponce, Y. [Instituto Tecnologico de Oaxaca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Ave. Ing. Victor Bravo Ahuja, esq. Ave. Tecnologico No. 120, Col. Centro. Oaxaca, Oax (Mexico); Contreras Larios, J.L. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, CBI., Energia, Av. Sn. Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa, C.P. 02200, Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    Ni-W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were synthesized, characterized and tested for the steam reforming of ethanol from 300 to 600 C. Addition of Ni and W on the alumina, decreased the surface area and increased the pore volume of the mesoporous materials synthesized. The reaction products obtained were: H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 3}CHO. A promoting effect of Ni-W was observed in the conversion of ethanol to H{sub 2} from 15 to 30 wt.% Ni and 1 wt.% W. The selectivity to H{sub 2} on the alumina with Ni-W, was between 66.53 and 68.53% at 550 C, appearing some undesirable products, with low ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. Reaction was studied on a fixed bed reactor at atmospheric pressure with an ethanol/water molar ratio of 1:4, from 300 to 600 C. The catalysts were characterized by the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)-Differential thermal analysis (DTA), N{sub 2} physisorption (BET and BJH methods), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), these techniques were used for characterization, before and after of the steam reforming. (author)

  12. Ni Catalysts Supported on Modified Alumina for Diesel Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Tribalis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel catalysts are the most popular for steam reforming, however, they have a number of drawbacks, such as high propensity toward coke formation and intolerance to sulfur. In an effort to improve their behavior, a series of Ni-catalysts supported on pure and La-, Ba-, (La+Ba- and Ce-doped γ-alumina has been prepared. The doped supports and the catalysts have been extensively characterized. The catalysts performance was evaluated for steam reforming of n-hexadecane pure or doped with dibenzothiophene as surrogate for sulphur-free or commercial diesel, respectively. The undoped catalyst lost its activity after 1.5 h on stream. Doping of the support with La improved the initial catalyst activity. However, this catalyst was completely deactivated after 2 h on stream. Doping with Ba or La+Ba improved the stability of the catalysts. This improvement is attributed to the increase of the dispersion of the nickel phase, the decrease of the support acidity and the increase of Ni-phase reducibility. The best catalyst of the series doped with La+Ba proved to be sulphur tolerant and stable for more than 160 h on stream. Doping of the support with Ce also improved the catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst, but more work is needed to explain this behavior.

  13. Preliminary assessment of synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of methane and glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.; van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this article, hybrid steam reforming (HSR) of desulphurized methane, together with crude glycerol, in existing commercial steam reformers to produce synthesis gas is proposed. The proposed concept consists of a gasifier to produce vapors, gases, and char from crude glycerol, which is coupled with

  14. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  15. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  16. Steam reforming and oxidative steam reforming of methanol over CuO-CeO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udani, P.P.C.; Gunawardana, P.V.D.S.; Lee, Hyun Chan; Kim, Dong Hyun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea)

    2009-09-15

    Steam reforming (SRM) and oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM) were carried out over a series of coprecipitated CuO-CeO{sub 2} catalysts with varying copper content in the range of 30-80 at.% Cu (= 100 x Cu/(Cu + Ce)). The effects of copper content, reaction temperature and O{sub 2} concentration on catalytic activity were investigated. The activity of CuO-CeO{sub 2} catalysts for SRM and OSRM increased with the copper content and 70 at.% CuO-CeO{sub 2} catalyst showed the highest activity in the temperature range of 160-300 C for both SRM and OSRM. After SRM or OSRM, the copper species in the catalysts observed by XRD were mainly metallic copper with small amount of CuO and Cu{sub 2}O, an indication that metallic copper is an active species in the catalysis of both SRM and OSRM. It was observed that the methanol conversion increased considerably with the addition of O{sub 2} into the feed stream, indicating that the partial oxidation of methanol (POM) is much faster than SRM. The optimum 70 at.% CuO-CeO{sub 2} catalyst showed stable activities for both SRM and OSRM reactions at 300 C. (author)

  17. Steam Reforming of CH4 Using Ni- Substituted Pyrochlore Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Daniel J.

    The steam reforming of methane (SMR) continues to remain an important industrial reaction for large-scale production of H2 as well as synthesis gas mixtures which can be used for the production of useful chemicals (e.g. methanol). Although SMR is a rather mature technology, traditional nickel based catalysts used industrially are subjected to severe temperatures and reaction conditions, which lead to irreversible activity loss through sintering, support collapse, and carbon formation. Pyrochlore-based mixed oxide have been identified as refractory materials that can be modified through the substitution of catalytic metals and other promoting species into the structure to mitigate these issues causing deactivation. For this study, a lanthanum zirconate pyrochlore catalyst was substituted with Ni to determine whether the oxide structure could effectively stabilize the activity of the catalytic metal during the SMR. The effect of different variables including calcination temperature, a comparison of a substituted versus supported Ni pyrochlore catalyst, Ni weight loading, and Sr promotion have been evaluated to determine the location of the Ni in the structure, and their effect on catalytic behavior. It was revealed that the effect of calcination temperature on a 6wt% Ni substituted pyrochlore produced by the Pechini method demonstrated very little Ni was soluble in the pyrochlore lattice. It was further revealed that by XRD, TEM, and atom probe tomography that, despite the metal loading, Ni exsolves from the structure upon crystallization of the pyrochlore at 700°C, and forms NiO at the surface and grain boundaries. An additional separate La2ZrNiO6 perovskite phase also began to form at higher temperatures (>800°C). Increasing calcination temperature was found to lead to slight sintering of the NiO at the surface, which made the NiO more reducible. Meanwhile decreasing the Ni weight loading was found to produce a lower reduction temperature due to the presence of

  18. Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

  19. In silico search for novel methane steam reforming catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yue; Lausche, Adam C; Khan, Tuhin S; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Studt, Felix; Nørskov, Jens K; Bligaard, Thomas; Wang, Shengguang

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method for screening transition metal and metal alloy catalysts based on their predicted rates and stabilities for a given catalytic reaction. This method involves combining reaction and activation energies (available to the public via a web-based application ‘CatApp’) with a microkinetic modeling technique to predict the rates and selectivities of a prospective material. This paper illustrates this screening technique using the steam reforming of methane to carbon monoxide and hydrogen as a test reaction. While catalysts are already commercially available for this process, the method demonstrated in this paper is very general and could be applied to a wide range of catalytic reactions. Following the steps outlined herein, such an analysis could potentially enable researchers to understand reaction mechanisms on a fundamental level and, on this basis, develop leads for new metal alloy catalysts. (paper)

  20. Advanced technologies on steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Kaoru; Nakamura, Yuuki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., Takasago (Japan); Nakamori, Nobuo; Mizutani, Toshiyuki; Uwagawa, Seiichi; Saito, Itaru [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., Kobe (Japan); Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The thermal-hydraulic tests for a horizontal steam generator of a next-generation PWR (New PWR-21) were performed. The purpose of these tests is to understand the thermal-hydraulic behavior in the secondary side of horizontal steam generator during the plant normal operation. A test was carried out with cross section slice model simulated the straight tube region. In this paper, the results of the test is reported, and the effect of the horizontal steam generator internals on the thermalhydraulic behavior of the secondary side and the circulation characteristics of the secondary side are discussed. (orig.). 3 refs.

  1. Advanced technologies on steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Kaoru; Nakamura, Yuuki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., Takasago (Japan); Nakamori, Nobuo; Mizutani, Toshiyuki; Uwagawa, Seiichi; Saito, Itaru [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., Kobe (Japan); Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The thermal-hydraulic tests for a horizontal steam generator of a next-generation PWR (New PWR-21) were performed. The purpose of these tests is to understand the thermal-hydraulic behavior in the secondary side of horizontal steam generator during the plant normal operation. A test was carried out with cross section slice model simulated the straight tube region. In this paper, the results of the test is reported, and the effect of the horizontal steam generator internals on the thermalhydraulic behavior of the secondary side and the circulation characteristics of the secondary side are discussed. (orig.). 3 refs.

  2. Bio-oil steam reforming, partial oxidation or oxidative steam reforming coupled with bio-oil dry reforming to eliminate CO{sub 2} emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xun [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Lu, Gongxuan [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Biomass is carbon-neutral and utilization of biomass as hydrogen resource shows no impact on atmospheric CO{sub 2} level. Nevertheless, a significant amount of CO{sub 2} is always produced in biomass gasification processes. If the CO{sub 2} produced can further react with biomass, then the biomass gasification coupled with CO{sub 2} reforming of biomass will result in a net decrease of CO{sub 2} level in atmosphere and produce the chemical raw material, syngas. To achieve this concept, a ''Y'' type reactor is developed and applied in bio-oil steam reforming, partial oxidation, or oxidative steam reforming coupled with CO{sub 2} reforming of bio-oil to eliminate the emission of CO{sub 2}. The experimental results show that the reaction systems can efficiently suppress the emission of CO{sub 2} from various reforming processes. The different coupled reaction systems generate the syngas with different molar ratio of CO/H{sub 2}. In addition, coke deposition is encountered in the different reforming processes. Both catalysts and experimental parameters significantly affect the coke deposition. Ni/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst shows much higher resistivity toward coke deposition than Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, while employing high reaction temperature is vital for elimination of coke deposition. Although the different coupled reaction systems show different characteristic in terms of product distribution and coke deposition, which all can serve as methods for storage of the carbon from fossil fuels or air. (author)

  3. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  4. Steam reforming as an alternative technique for treatment of oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasalwa Zakaria; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohd Khairi Muhd Said; Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Mohd Puad Abu

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming treatment system is an innovative technology that holds a potential to treat mixed waste containing radioactive material. The system is utilizing the thermal heat of the superheated steam at 500 degree C to produce combustible gases and integrates it with ash melting at 1400 degree C for final destruction. In this system, liquids are evaporated, organics are converted into a hydrogen-rich gas, chlorinated compounds are converted in hydrochloric acid, and reactive chemicals in the waste containing radionuclide and heavy metals are converted into the stable product through ash melting dioxins and furans are not formed, but instead are destroyed in the reducing environment of the system. No secondary pollutants are produced from the system that requires subsequent treatment. The system is divided into three development stages, and currently the project is progressing at development stage 1. This project is an entailment of a concentrated effort to solve oil sludge containing radioactive material treatment issue. (Author)

  5. Kinetics study of ethanol steam reforming on Pt/CeO{sub 2} based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, A. [Queen' s-RMC Fuel Cell Research Centre, Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Thurgood, C.; Amphlett, J. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Peppley, B. [Queens Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Interest in fuel cell systems operating on fuels derived from renewable energy sources is increasing because they have the potential to produce electricity with high efficiency and minimal emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants. Bioethanol is currently produced by the fermentation of non-edible biomass, through conventional means and also through advances in enzyme technology. The authors previously reported on the steam reforming of bioethanol with a stable ceria supported precious metal catalyst, developed in-house. The catalyst had good thermal stability and resisted carbon formation. This paper reported on a more recent kinetic study in which the influence of operating conditions were quantified. The operating conditions included temperature, steam/carbon ratios, and gas hourly velocities. The results of standard catalyst characterization techniques such as BET, TGA, SEM and TPR were also provided. The data was used to drive an empirical rate expression. The study also investigated a potential rate mechanism.

  6. Sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming in fluidized bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Kim

    2006-10-15

    Hydrogen is considered to be an important potential energy carrier; however, its advantages are unlikely to be realized unless efficient means can be found to produce it without generation of CO{sub 2}. Sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) represent a novel, energy-efficient hydrogen production route with in situ CO{sub 2} capture, shifting the reforming and water gas shift reactions beyond their conventional thermodynamic limits. The use of fluidized bed reactors for SE-SMR has been investigated. Arctic dolomite, a calcium-based natural sorbent, was chosen as the primary CO{sub 2}-acceptor in this study due to high absorption capacity, relatively high reaction rate and low cost. An experimental investigation was conducted in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor of diameter 0.1 m, which was operated cyclically and batch wise, alternating between reforming/carbonation conditions and higher-temperature calcination conditions. Hydrogen concentrations of >98 mole% on a dry basis were reached at 600 C and 1 atm, for superficial gas velocities in the range of {approx}0.03-0.1 m/s. Multiple reforming-regeneration cycles showed that the hydrogen concentration remained at {approx}98 mole% after four cycles. The total production time was reduced with an increasing number of cycles due to loss of CO{sub 2}-uptake capacity of the dolomite, but the reaction rates of steam reforming and carbonation seemed to be unaffected for the conditions investigated. A modified shrinking core model was applied for deriving carbonation kinetics of Arctic dolomite, using experimental data from a novel thermo gravimetric reactor. An apparent activation energy of 32.6 kj/mole was found from parameter fitting, which is in good agreement with previous reported results. The derived rate expression was able to predict experimental conversion up to {approx}30% very well, whereas the prediction of higher conversion levels was poorer. However, the residence time of sorbent in a continuous

  7. An afterburner-powered methane/steam reformer for a solid oxide fuel cells application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzierz, Marcin; Chalusiak, Maciej; Kimijima, Shinji; Szmyd, Janusz S.; Brus, Grzegorz

    2018-04-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems can be fueled by natural gas when the reforming reaction is conducted in a stack. Due to its maturity and safety, indirect internal reforming is usually used. A strong endothermic methane/steam reforming process needs a large amount of heat, and it is convenient to provide thermal energy by burning the remainders of fuel from a cell. In this work, the mathematical model of afterburner-powered methane/steam reformer is proposed. To analyze the effect of a fuel composition on SOFC performance, the zero-dimensional model of a fuel cell connected with a reformer is formulated. It is shown that the highest efficiency of a solid oxide fuel cell is achieved when the steam-to-methane ratio at the reforming reactor inlet is high.

  8. A novel and anti-agglomerating Ni@yolk–ZrO₂ structure with sub-10 nm Ni core for high performance steam reforming of methane

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Zi-Yian; Wu, Chunzheng; Wang, Wei Guo; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Yin, Hongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Steam reforming of methane is a versatile technology for hydrogen production in oil refinery and fuel cell applications. Using natural gas is a promising method to produce rich-hydrogen gas. Ni@yolk–ZrO₂ catalyst is used to study steam reforming of methane under various GHSVs, steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratio, and its recyclability. The catalyst was characterized using a combination of XRD, TEM, AAS, TPR, TPH, TGA, BET, XPS, and Raman techniques. The catalyst is evaluated on time stream and identi...

  9. Investigations on a new internally-heated tubular packed-bed methanol–steam reformer

    KAUST Repository

    Nehe, Prashant

    2015-05-01

    Small-scale reformers for hydrogen production through steam reforming of methanol can provide an alternative solution to the demand of continuous supply of hydrogen gas for the operation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs). A packed-bed type reformer is one of the potential designs for such purpose. An externally heated reformer has issues of adverse lower temperature in the core of the reformer and significant heat loss to the environment thus impacting its performance. Experimental and numerical studies on a new concept of internally heated tubular packed-bed methanol-steam reformer have been reported in this paper with improved performance in terms of higher methanol conversion and reduced heat losses to surroundings. CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 is used as the catalyst for the methanol-steam reforming reaction and a rod-type electric heater at the center of the reactor is used for supplying necessary heat for endothermic steam reforming reaction. The vaporizer and the reformer unit with a constant volume catalyst bed are integrated in the annular section of a tubular reformer unit. The performance of the reformer was investigated at various operating conditions like feed rate of water-methanol mixture, mass of the catalyst and reforming temperature. The experimental and numerical results show that the methanol conversion and CO concentration increase with internal heating for a wide range of operating conditions. The developed reformer unit generates 50-80W (based on lower heating value) of hydrogen gas for applications in PEMFCs. For optimized design and operating conditions, the reformer unit produced 298sccm reformed gas containing 70% H2, 27% CO2 and 3% CO at 200-240°C which can produce a power output of 25-32W assuming 60% fuel cell efficiency and 80% of hydrogen utilization in a PEMFC. © 2015 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.

  10. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on Catalytic activity of catalysts for steam reforming reaction. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2003-05-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing a hydrogen production system by means of steam reforming of methane (chemical reation: CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O = CO + 3H{sub 2}) coupling with High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization. Prior to construction of HTTR hydrogen production system, a mock-up test facility with a full-scale reaction tube was constructed to investigate transient behavior of the hydrogen production system an establish system controllability. In order to predict transient behavior and hydrogen productivity of the hydrogen production system, it is important to estimate the reaction characteristics under the same temperature and pressure conditions as those of HTTR hydrogen production system. For the purpose of investigate an apparent activation energy of catalysts, catalytic activity test using small apparatus was carried out under the condition of methane flow rate from 1.18 x 10{sup -3} to 3.19 x 10{sup -3} mol/s, temperature from 500 to 900degC, pressure from 1.1 to 4.1MPa, and mol ratio of steam to methane from 2.5 to 3.5. It was confirmed that apparent activation energies of two kinds of Ni catalysts which are to be used in the mock-up test were 51.7 and 57.4kJ/mol, respectively, and reaction rate constants were propositional to the value from P{sup -0.15} to P{sup -0.33}. (author)

  11. A theoretical study on the structure dependence of the steam methane reforming reaction by rhodium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootel, van P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Steam methane reforming is an important industrial reaction for the conversion of methane with steam to synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Hydrogen is used in many applications, e.g. for hydrogenation purposes. It is also used for the production of bulk chemicals such as

  12. Zircon Supported Copper Catalysts for the Steam Reforming of Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastri, M.; Fendy, Marsih, I. N.

    2008-03-01

    Steam reforming of methanol (SRM) is known as one of the most favorable catalytic processes for producing hydrogen. Current research on zirconia, ZrO2 supported copper catalyst revealed that CuO/ZrO2 as an active catalyst for the SRM. Zircon, ZrSiO4 is available from the by-product of tin mining. In the work presented here, the catalytic properties of CuO/ZrSiO4 with various copper oxide compositions ranging from 2.70% (catalyst I), 4.12% (catalyst II), and 7.12%-mass (catalyst III), synthesized by an incipient wetness impregnation technique, were investigated to methanol conversion, selectivity towards CO formation, and effect of ZnO addition (7.83%CuO/8.01%ZnO/ZrSiO4 = catalyst V). The catalytic activity was obtained using a fixed bed reactor and the zircon supported catalyst activity was compared to those of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst (catalyst IV) and commercial Kujang LTSC catalyst. An X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to identify the abundant phases of the catalysts. The catalysts topography and particle diameter were measured with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and composition of the catalysts was measured by SEM-EDX, scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive using X-ray analysis. The results of this research provide information on the possibility of using zircon (ZrSiO4) as solid support for SRM catalysts.

  13. Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid over Co-Supported Catalysts: Coupling Ketonization for Greater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Stephen D. [Energy and Environmental; Spies, Kurt A. [Energy and Environmental; Mei, Donghai [Energy and Environmental; Kovarik, Libor [Energy and Environmental; Kutnyakov, Igor [Energy and Environmental; Li, Xiaohong S. [Energy and Environmental; Lebarbier Dagle, Vanessa [Energy and Environmental; Albrecht, Karl O. [Energy and Environmental; Dagle, Robert A. [Energy and Environmental

    2017-09-11

    We report on the markedly improved stability of a novel 2-bed catalytic system, as compared to a conventional 1-bed steam reforming catalyst, for the production of H2 from acetic acid. The 2-bed catalytic system comprises of i) a basic oxide ketonization catalyst for the conversion of acetic acid to acetone, and a ii) Co-based steam reforming catalyst, both catalytic beds placed in sequence within the same unit operation. Steam reforming catalysts are particularly prone to catalytic deactivation when steam reforming acetic acid, used here as a model compound for the aqueous fraction of bio-oil. Catalysts comprising MgAl2O4, ZnO, CeO2, and activated carbon (AC) both with and without Co-addition were evaluated for conversion of acetic acid and acetone, its ketonization product, in the presence of steam. It was found that over the bare oxide support only ketonization activity was observed and coke deposition was minimal. With addition of Co to the oxide support steam reforming activity was facilitated and coke deposition was significantly increased. Acetone steam reforming over the same Co-supported catalysts demonstrated more stable performance and with less coke deposition than with acetic acid feedstock. DFT analysis suggests that over Co surface CHxCOO species are more favorably formed from acetic acid versus acetone. These CHxCOO species are strongly bound to the Co catalyst surface and could explain the higher propensity for coke formation from acetic acid. Based on these findings, in order to enhance stability of the steam reforming catalyst a dual-bed (2-bed) catalyst system was implemented. Comparing the 2-bed and 1-bed (Co-supported catalyst only) systems under otherwise identical reaction conditions the 2-bed demonstrated significantly improved stability and coke deposition was decreased by a factor of 4.

  14. Hydrogen production by steam reforming methanol for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphlett, J.C.; Creber, K.A.M.; Davis, J.M.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Stokes, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of methanol has been studied as a means of generating hydrogen for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. A semi-empirical model of the kinetics of the catalytic steam reforming of methanol over Cu O/Zn O/Al 2 O 3 catalyst has been developed. This model is able to predict the performance of the reformer with respect to the various parameters important in developing an integrated reformer-polymer fuel cell system. A set of sample calculations of reformer temperature and CO production are given. The impact of the performance of the reformer catalyst on the design of the overall fuel cell power system is discussed. The selectivity of the catalyst to minimize CO content in the fuel gas is shown to be more critical than was previously believed. 4 figs., 4 tabs., 11 refs

  15. Thermodynamic analyses of hydrogen production from sub-quality natural gas. Part II: Steam reforming and autothermal steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali

    Part I of this paper analyzed sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) pyrolysis and autothermal pyrolysis. Production of hydrogen via direct thermolysis of SQNGs produces only 2 mol of hydrogen and 1 mol of carbon per mole of methane (CH 4). Steam reforming of SQNG (SRSQNG) could become a more effective approach because the processes produce two more moles of hydrogen via water splitting. A Gibbs reactor unit operation in the AspenPlus™ chemical process simulator was employed to accomplish equilibrium calculations for the SQNG + H 2O and SQNG + H 2O + O 2 systems. The results indicate that water and oxygen inlet flow rates do not significantly affect the decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) at temperatures lower than 1000 °C. The major co-product of the processes is carbonyl sulfide (COS) while sulfur dimer (S 2) and carbon disulfide (CS 2) are minor by-products within this temperature range. At higher temperatures (>1300 °C), CS 2 and S 2 become major co-products. No sulfur dioxide (SO 2) or sulfur trioxide (SO 3) is formed during either SRSQNG or autothermal SRSQNG processes, indicating that no environmentally harmful acidic gases are generated.

  16. Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Hydrogen Production Process from Glycerol using Steam Reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongpil; Cho, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae-Ok; Shin, Dongil; Lee, Seunghwan; Moon, Dong Ju

    2014-01-01

    For improved sustainability of the biorefinery industry, biorefinery-byproduct glycerol is being investigated as an alternate source for hydrogen production. This research designs and optimizes a hydrogen-production process for small hydrogen stations using steam reforming of purified glycerol as the main reaction, replacing existing processes relying on steam methane reforming. Modeling, simulation and optimization using a commercial process simulator are performed for the proposed hydrogen production process from glycerol. The mixture of glycerol and steam are used for making syngas in the reforming process. Then hydrogen are produced from carbon monoxide and steam through the water-gas shift reaction. Finally, hydrogen is separated from carbon dioxide using PSA. This study shows higher yield than former U.S.. DOE and Linde studies. Economic evaluations are performed for optimal planning of constructing domestic hydrogen energy infrastructure based on the proposed glycerol-based hydrogen station

  17. First principles calculations and experimental insight into methane steam reforming over transition metal catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Glenn; Jakobsen, Jon Geest; Shim, Signe Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the steam reforming process front first-principles calculations, supported by insight from experimental investigations. In the present work we employ recently recognised scaling relationships for adsorption energies of simple molecules adsorbed at pure...... metal Surfaces to develop an overview of the steam reforming process catalyzed by a range of transition metal surfaces. By combining scaling relationships with thermodynamic and kinetic analysis, we show that it is possible to determine the reactivity trends of the pure metals for methane steam...... in situ TEM measurements under a hydrogen atmosphere. The overall agreement between theory and experiment (at 773 K, 1 bar pressure and 10% conversion) is found to be excellent with Ru and Rh being the most active pure transition metals for methane steam reforming, while Ni, Ir, Pt, and Pd...

  18. Design of the steam reformer for the HTR-10 high temperature process heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Huaiming; Xu Yuanhui; Jia Haijun

    2000-01-01

    The 10 MW High Temperature Reactor Test Module (HTR-10) is being constructed now and planned to be operational in 2000. One of the objectives is to develop the high temperature process heat application. The methane steam reformer is one of the key-facilities for the nuclear process heat application system. The paper describes the conceptual design of the HTR-10 Steam Reformer with He heating, and the design optimization computer code. It can be used to perform sensitivity analysis for parameters, and to improve the design. Principal parameters and construction features of the HTR-10 reformer heated by He are introduced. (author)

  19. Dynamic simulation of a furnace of steam reforming of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna, A; Fuentes, C; Smith, C A

    1999-01-01

    Steam reforming of natural gas is a very important industrial process in refineries and ammonia and methanol plants. Hydrogen is produced by reforming methane with steam. This hydrogen is essential in the hydro-treating process in the refineries thus, it is important to supervise and control the performance of the hydrogen plant. Mathematical models of refineries and chemical plants are used to simulate the behavior of the process units. However, the models especially of reactors like reformers are not very reliable. This paper presents a dynamic model of a furnace-reactor. The simulation results are validated with industrial data

  1. Development of steam generator manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    In 1968 Babcock and Wilcox (Operations) Ltd., received an order from the CEGB to design, manufacture, install and commission 16 Steam Generators for 2 x 660 Mw (e) Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor Power Station at Hartlepool. This order was followed in 1970 by a similar order for the Heysham Power Station. The design and manufacture of the Steam Generators represented a major advance in technology and the paper discusses the methods by which a manufacturing facility was developed, by the Production Division of Babcock, to produce components to a quality, complexity and accuracy unique in the U.K. commercial boilermaking industry. The discussion includes a brief design background, a description of the Steam Generators and a view of the Production Division background. This is followed by a description of the organisation of the technological development and a consideration of the results. (author)

  2. Renewable hydrogen production by catalytic steam reforming of peanut shells pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.J.; Chornet, E.; Czernik, S.; Feik, C.; French, R.; Phillips, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Abedi, J.; Yeboah, Y.D. [Clark Atlanta Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Day, D.; Howard, J. [Scientific Carbons Inc., Blakely, GA (United States); McGee, D. [Enviro-Tech Enterprises Inc., Matthews, NC (United States); Realff, M.J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A project was initiated to determine the feasibility of producing hydrogen from agricultural wastes at a cost comparable to methane-reforming technologies. It is possible that hydrogen can be produced cost competitively with natural gas reforming by integrating hydrogen production with existing waste product utilization processes. This report presents initial results of an engineering demonstration project involving the development of a steam reforming process by a team of government, industrial and academic organizations working at the thermochemical facility at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The process is to be used on the gaseous byproducts from a process for making activated carbon from densified peanut shells. The reactor is interfaced with a 20 kg/hour fluidized-bed fast pyrolysis system and takes advantage of process chemical analysis and computer control and monitoring capacity. The reactor will be tested on the pyrolysis vapors produced in the activated carbon process. The final phase of the project will look at the production of hydrogen through the conversion of residual CO to H{sub 2} over a shift catalyst and separating hydrogen from CO{sub 2} using pressure swing adsorption. The purified oxygen will be mixed with natural gas and used for transportation purposes. The study demonstrates the potential impact of hydrogen and bioenergy on the economic development and diversification of rural areas. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. In-Space Propulsion, Logistics Reduction, and Evaluation of Steam Reformer Kinetics: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Kulis, M. J.; Gokoglu, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Human space missions generate waste materials. A 70-kg crewmember creates a waste stream of 1 kg per day, and a four-person crew on a deep space habitat for a 400+ day mission would create over 1600 kg of waste. Converted into methane, the carbon could be used as a fuel for propulsion or power. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is investing in space resource utilization with an emphasis on repurposing logistics materials for useful purposes and has selected steam reforming among many different competitive processes as the preferred method for repurposing organic waste into methane. Already demonstrated at the relevant processing rate of 5.4 kg of waste per day, high temperature oxygenated steam consumes waste and produces carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen which can then be converted into methane catalytically. However, the steam reforming process has not been studied in microgravity. Data are critically needed to understand the mechanisms that allow use of steam reforming in a reduced gravity environment. This paper reviews the relevant literature, identifies gravity-dependent mechanisms within the steam gasification process, and describes an innovative experiment to acquire the crucial kinetic information in a small-scale reactor specifically designed to operate within the requirements of a reduced gravity aircraft flight. The experiment will determine if the steam reformer process is mass-transport limited, and if so, what level of forced convection will be needed to obtain performance comparable to that in 1-g.

  4. Hydrogen production from biomass pyrolysis gas via high temperature steam reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongchang, Thawatchai; Patumsawad, Suthum

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this work has been undertaken as part of the design of continuous hydrogen production using the high temperature steam reforming process. The steady-state test condition was carried out using syngas from biomass pyrolysis, whilst operating at high temperatures between 600 and 1200 degree Celsius. The main reformer operating parameters (e.g. temperature, resident time and steam to biomass ratio (S/B)) have been examined in order to optimize the performance of the reformer. The operating temperature is a key factor in determining the extent to which hydrogen production is increased at higher temperatures (900 -1200 degree Celsius) whilst maintaining the same as resident time and S/B ratio. The effects of exhaust gas composition on heating value were also investigated. The steam reforming process produced methane (CH 4 ) and ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) between 600 to 800 degree Celsius and enhanced production ethane (C 2 H 6 ) at 700 degree Celsius. However carbon monoxide (CO) emission was slightly increased for higher temperatures all conditions. The results show that the use of biomass pyrolysis gas can produce higher hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming. In addition the increasing reformer efficiency needs to be optimized for different operating conditions. (author)

  5. Syngas Production from CO2 Reforming and CO2-steam Reforming of Methane over Ni/Ce-SBA-15 Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. S.; Danh, H. T.; Singh, S.; Truong, Q. D.; Setiabudi, H. D.; Vo, D.-V. N.

    2017-06-01

    This study compares the catalytic performance of mesoporous 10 Ni/Ce-SBA-15 catalyst for CO2 reforming and CO2-steam reforming of methane reactions in syngas production. The catalytic performance of 10 Ni/Ce-SBA-15 catalyst for CO2 reforming and CO2-steam reforming of methane was evaluated in a temperature-controlled tubular fixed-bed reactor at stoichiometric feed composition, 1023 K and atmospheric pressure for 12 h on-stream with gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 36 L gcat -1 h-1. The 10 Ni/Ce-SBA-15 catalyst possessed a high specific BET surface area and average pore volume of 595.04 m2 g-1. The XRD measurement revealed the presence of NiO phase with crystallite dimension of about 13.60 nm whilst H2-TPR result indicates that NiO phase was completely reduced to metallic Ni0 phase at temperature beyond 800 K and the reduction temperature relied on different degrees of metal-support interaction associated with the location and size of NiO particles. The catalytic reactivity was significantly enhanced with increasing H2O/CO2 feed ratio. Interestingly, the H2/CO ratio for CO2-steam reforming of methane varied between 1 and 3 indicated the occurrence of parallel reactions, i.e., CH4 steam reforming giving a H2/CO of 3 whilst reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction consuming H2 to produce CO gaseous product.

  6. Data Quality Objectives For Selecting Waste Samples To Test The Fluid Bed Steam Reformer Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banning, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

  7. Low Temperature Steam Methane Reforming Over Ni Based Catalytic Membrane Prepared by Electroless Palladium Plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moon; Hong, Sung Chang; Kim, Sung Su

    2018-09-01

    A Pd/Ni-YSZ porous membrane with different palladium loadings and hydrazine as a reducing reagent was prepared by electroless plating and evaluated for the steam methane reforming activity. The steam-reforming activity of a Ni-YSZ porous membrane was greatly increased by the deposition of 4 g/L palladium in the low-temperature range (600 °C). With an increasing amount of reducing reagent, the Pd clusters were well dispersed on the Ni-YSZ surface and were uniform in size (∼500 nm). The Pd/Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane prepared by 1 of Pd/hydrazine ratio possessed an abundant amount of metallic Pd. The optimal palladium loadings and Pd/hydrazine ratio increased the catalytic activity in both the steam-reforming reaction and the Pd dispersion.

  8. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Natural Gas Over Vanadium-Nickel-Alumina Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jaekyeong; Park, Seungwon; Song, Ji Hwan; Song, In Kyu

    2018-09-01

    A series of vanadium-nickel-alumina (xVNA) catalysts were prepared by a single-step sol-gel method with a variation of vanadium content (x, wt%) for use in the hydrogen production by steam reforming of natural gas. The effect of vanadium content on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of xVNA catalysts in the steam reforming of natural gas was investigated. It was found that natural gas conversion and hydrogen yield showed volcano-shaped trends with respect to vanadium content. It was also revealed that natural gas conversion and hydrogen yield increased with decreasing nickel crystallite size.

  9. Advances in steam generator service technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Ric

    1998-01-01

    The most recent advances in pressurized water reactor steam generator service technology are discussed in this article. Focus is on new developments in robotics, including the Remotely Operated Service Arm (ROSA III); repair and maintenance services on the SG secondary side; and the newest advances in SG inspection. These products and services save utility costs, shorten outage durations, enhance plant performance and safety, and reduce radiation exposure. (author)

  10. Advances in steam generator service technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, B. R.; Bastin, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will discuss the most recent and innovative advances in the areas of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator service technology. The paper will include detail of new products such as the Remotely Operated Service Arm (ROSA-III), laser welded sleeving, and laser welded Direct Tube Repair (DTR) - products and services that save utility costs, shorten outage durations, enhance plant performance and safety, and reduce radiation exposure. (author)

  11. Hydrogen-rich gas production from waste plastics by pyrolysis and low-temperature steam reforming over a ruthenium catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namioka, Tomoaki; Saito, Atsushi; Inoue, Yukiharu; Park, Yeongsu; Min, Tai-jin; Roh, Seon-ah; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Operating conditions for low-temperature pyrolysis and steam reforming of plastics over a ruthenium catalyst were investigated. In the range studied, the highest gas and lowest coke fractions for polystyrene (PS) with a 60 g h -1 scale, continuous-feed, two-stage gasifier were obtained with a pyrolyzer temperature of 673 K, steam reforming temperature of 903 K, and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 0.10 g-sample g-catalyst -1 h -1 . These operating conditions are consistent with optimum conditions reported previously for polypropylene. Our results indicate that at around 903 K, the activity of the ruthenium catalyst was high enough to minimize the difference between the rates of the steam reforming reactions of the pyrolysates from polystyrene and polypropylene. The proposed system thus has the flexibility to compensate for differences in chemical structures of municipal waste plastics. In addition, the steam reforming temperature was about 200 K lower than the temperature used in a conventional Ni-catalyzed process for the production of hydrogen. Low-temperature steam reforming allows for lower thermal input to the steam reformer, which results in an increase in thermal efficiency in the proposed process employing a Ru catalyst. Because low-temperature steam reforming can be also expected to reduce thermal degradation rates of the catalyst, the pyrolysis-steam reforming process with a Ru catalyst has the potential for use in small-scale production of hydrogen-rich gas from waste plastics that can be used for power generation.

  12. Analysis on Operating Parameter Design to Steam Methane Reforming in Heat Application RDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibyo, Sukmanto; Sunaryo, Geni Rina; Bakhri, Syaiful; Zuhair; Irianto, Ign. Djoko

    2018-02-01

    The high temperature reactor has been developed with various power capacities and can produce electricity and heat application. One of heat application is used for hydrogen production. Most hydrogen production occurs by steam reforming that operated at high temperature. This study aims to analyze the feasibility of heat application design of RDE reactor in the steam methane reforming for hydrogen production using the ChemCAD software. The outlet temperature of cogeneration heat exchanger is analyzed to be applied as a feed of steam reformer. Furthermore, the additional heater and calculating amount of fuel usage are described. Results show that at a low mass flow rate of feed, its can produce a temperature up to 480°C. To achieve the temperature of steam methane reforming of 850°C the additional fired heater was required. By the fired heater, an amount of fuel usage is required depending on the Reformer feed temperature produced from the heat exchanger of the cogeneration system.

  13. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraioli, Anthony V.; Young, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  14. Thermodynamic modeling of the power plant based on the SOFC with internal steam reforming of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical model based on the thermodynamic modeling of gaseous mixtures is developed for SOFC with internal steam reforming of methane. Macroscopic porous-electrode theory, including non-linear kinetics and gas-phase diffusion, is used to calculate the reforming reaction and the concentration polarization. Provided the data concerning properties and costs of materials the model is fit for wide range of parametric analysis of thermodynamic cycles including SOFC

  15. 2D heat and mass transfer modeling of methane steam reforming for hydrogen production in a compact reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Meng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A heat and mass transfer model is developed for a compact reformer. ► Hydrogen production from methane steam reforming is simulated. ► Increasing temperature greatly increases the reaction rates at the inlet. ► Temperature in the downstream is increased at higher rate of heat supply. ► Larger permeability enhances gas flow and reaction rates in the catalyst layer. - Abstract: Compact reformers (CRs) are promising devices for efficient fuel processing. In CRs, a thin solid plate is sandwiched between two catalyst layers to enable efficient heat transfer from combustion duct to the reforming duct for fuel processing. In this study, a 2D heat and mass transfer model is developed to investigate the fundamental transport phenomenon and chemical reaction kinetics in a CR for hydrogen production by methane steam reforming (MSR). Both MSR reaction and water gas shift reaction (WGSR) are considered in the numerical model. Parametric simulations are performed to examine the effects of various structural/operating parameters, such as pore size, permeability, gas velocity, temperature, and rate of heat supply on the reformer performance. It is found that the reaction rates of MSR and WGSR are the highest at the inlet but decrease significantly along the reformer. Increasing the operating temperature raises the reaction rates at the inlet but shows very small influence in the downstream. For comparison, increasing the rate of heat supply raises the reaction rates in the downstream due to increased temperature. A high gas velocity and permeability facilitates gas transport in the porous structure thus enhances reaction rates in the downstream of the reformer.

  16. Steam vacuum cleaning. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The baseline technology currently used for washing debris is a high-pressure water cleaning (HPWC) system. The system used at the FEMP is the Hotsy reg-sign Model 550B HPWC. Although the HPWC technology has functioned satisfactorily, improvements are being sought in areas related to reduced liquid waste volume, increased productivity, increased washing effectiveness, and decreased airborne contamination. An innovative technology that offers potential improvements in these areas is a steam vacuum cleaning (SVC) system that integrates high-pressure steam cleaning with a vacuum recovery sub-system that simultaneously collects dislodged contaminants thereby reducing airborne contamination. The SVC system selected for demonstration at the FEMP was the Kelly trademark Decontamination System shown. This report provides comparative performance and cost analyses between the Hotsy HPWC system and the Kelly Decontamination System. Both technologies were demonstrated at the FEMP site located at Fernald, Ohio from July 29, 1996 through August 15, 1996. The demonstrations were conducted at the FEMP Plant 1 as part of the LSTD project sponsored by the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the US DOE's Office of Science and Technology

  17. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  18. Stabilization of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Aqueous Waste by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C

    2004-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in Aiken, South Carolina. Research and development programs have been conducted at SRNL for ∼50 years generating non-radioactive (hazardous and non-hazardous) and radioactive aqueous wastes. Typically the aqueous effluents from the R and D activities are disposed of from each laboratory module via the High Activity Drains (HAD) or the Low Activity Drains (LAD) depending on whether they are radioactive or not. The aqueous effluents are collected in holding tanks, analyzed and shipped to either H-Area (HAD waste) or the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) (LAD waste) for volume reduction. Because collection, analysis, and transport of LAD and HAD waste is cumbersome and since future treatment of this waste may be curtailed as the F/H-Area evaporators and waste tanks are decommissioned, SRNL laboratory operations requested several proof of principle demonstrations of alternate technologies that would define an alternative disposal path for the aqueous wastes. Proof of principle for the disposal of SRNL HAD waste using a technology known as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is the focus of the current study. The FBSR technology can be performed either as a batch process, e.g. in each laboratory module in small furnaces with an 8'' by 8'' footprint, or in a semi-continuous Bench Scale Reformer (BSR). The proof of principle experiments described in this study cover the use of the FBSR technology at any scale (pilot or full scale). The proof of principle experiments described in this study used a non-radioactive HAD simulant

  19. Production of hydrogen from biomass by catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernik, S.; Wang, D.; Chornet, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Center for Renewable Chemical Technologies and Materials

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen is the prototype of the environmentally cleanest fuel of interest for power generation using fuel cells and for transportation. The thermochemical conversion of biomass to hydrogen can be carried out through two distinct strategies: (a) gasification followed by water-gas shift conversion, and (b) catalytic steam reforming of specific fractions derived from fast pyrolysis and aqueous/steam processes of biomass. This paper presents the latter route that begins with fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce bio-oil. This oil (as a whole or its selected fractions) can be converted to hydrogen via catalytic steam reforming followed by a water-gas shift conversion step. Such a process has been demonstrated at the bench scale using model compounds, poplar oil aqueous fraction, and the whole pyrolysis oil with commercial Ni-based steam reforming catalysts. Hydrogen yields as high as 85% have been obtained. Catalyst initial activity can be recovered through regeneration cycles by steam or CO{sub 2} gasification of carbonaceous deposits.

  20. The role of promoters for Ni catalysts in low temperature (membrane) steam methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, D.A.J.M.; Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the search for active and stable Ni-based catalysts for steam methane reforming in membrane reactors, the effect of three different promoters La, B and Rh was compared. Promoted and unpromoted Ni catalysts were characterized by TEM, TPR and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The average Ni particle

  1. First-principles investigations of the Ni3Sn alloy at steam reforming conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saadi, Souheil; Hinnemann, Berit; Helveg, Stig

    2009-01-01

    The structure and surface composition of a Ni3Sn alloy at conditions relevant for the steam reforming reaction was investigated using density functional theory calculations. Both the flat Ni3Sn [1 0 (1) over bar 0] surface and a surface with steps in the closed packed direction [1 0 (1) over bar 0...

  2. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: TRICHLOROETHANE, TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND PERCHLOROETHYLENE. (R826694C633)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effective destruction of trichloroethane, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene by steam reforming with a commercial nickel catalyst has been demonstrated. Conversion levels of up to 0.99999 were attained in both laboratory and semi-pilot experiments, with the products c...

  3. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: CATALYST COMPARISONS. (R822721C633)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalyst candidates for steam reforming chlorocarbons have been screened for activity using methyl chloride as a model reactant. At 500°C, a H2O/C ratio of about 10 and a GHSV of 254 000 h-1, catalysts comprising 0.5% loading of the metals o...

  4. Solar membrane natural gas steam-reforming process: evaluation of reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Falco, M.; Basile, A.; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the performance of an innovative plant for efficient hydrogen production using solar energy for the process heat duty requirements has been evaluated via a detailed 2D model. The steam-reforming reactor consists of a bundle of coaxial double tubes assembled in a shell. The annular

  5. Solar membrane natural gas steam-reforming process : evaluation of reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, de M.; Basile, A.; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the performance of an innovative plant for efficient hydrogen production using solar energy for the process heat duty requirements has been evaluated via a detailed 2D model. The steam-reforming reactor consists of a bundle of coaxial double tubes assembled in a shell. The annular

  6. Thermal analysis of cylindrical natural-gas steam reformer for 5 kW PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Taehyun; Han, Junhee; Koo, Bonchan; Lee, Dohyung

    2016-11-01

    The thermal characteristics of a natural-gas based cylindrical steam reformer coupled with a combustor are investigated for the use with a 5 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. A reactor unit equipped with nickel-based catalysts was designed to activate the steam reforming reaction without the inclusion of high-temperature shift and low-temperature shift processes. Reactor temperature distribution and its overall thermal efficiency depend on various inlet conditions such as the equivalence ratio, the steam to carbon ratio (SCR), and the fuel distribution ratio (FDR) into the reactor and the combustor components. These experiments attempted to analyze the reformer's thermal and chemical properties through quantitative evaluation of product composition and heat exchange between the combustor and the reactor. FDR is critical factor in determining the overall performance as unbalanced fuel injection into the reactor and the combustor deteriorates overall thermal efficiency. Local temperature distribution also influences greatly on the fuel conversion rate and thermal efficiency. For the experiments, the operation conditions were set as SCR was in range of 2.5-4.0 and FDR was in 0.4-0.7 along with equivalence ratio of 0.9-1.1; optimum results were observed for FDR of 0.63 and SCR of 3.0 in the cylindrical steam reformer.

  7. Hierarchically structured catalysts for cascade and selective steam reforming/hydrodeoxygenation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Rainbolt, James; Kovarik, Libor; Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Yong

    2015-12-04

    We report a hierarchically structured catalyst with steam reforming and hydrodeoxygenation functionalities being deposited in the micropores and macropores, respectively. The catalyst is highly efficient to upgrade the pyrolysis vapors of pine forest product residual, resulting in a dramatically decreased acid content and increased hydrocarbon yield without external H2 supply.

  8. Methane Steam Reforming over an Ni-YSZ Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode in Stack Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, David; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of catalytic steam reforming of methane over an Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) have been investigated with the cell placed in a stack configuration. In order to decrease the degree of conversion, a single cell stack with reduced area was used. Measurements were...

  9. Synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of natural gas and bio-liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with (catalytic) steam reforming of bio-liquids for the production of synthesis gas. Glycerol, both crude from the biodiesel manufacturing and refined, and pyrolysis oil are tested as bio-based feedstocks. Liquid bio-based feeds could be preferred over inhomogeneous fibrous solid

  10. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: CATALYST COMPARISONS. (R826694C633)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalyst candidates for steam reforming chlorocarbons have been screened for activity using methyl chloride as a model reactant. At 500°C, a H2O/C ratio of about 10 and a GHSV of 254 000 h-1, catalysts comprising 0.5% loading of the metals ...

  11. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, Leon; Aika, Ken-ichi

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate present in bio-oil over Pt/ZrO2 catalysts has been studied. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts are very active, completely converting acetic acid and give hydrogen yield close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The catalyst deactivated by formation of oligomers, which

  12. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Aika, Ken-ichi; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, Leon

    Studies were conducted with acetic acid (HAc) as model oxygenate for the design of active and stable catalysts for steam reforming of bio-oil. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation technique. The Pt/ZrO2 catalysts showed high activities at initial time on stream, but lost its activity

  13. Ethanol steam reforming kinetics of a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tosti, S.; Basile, A.; Borelli, R.; Borgognoni, F.; Castelli, S.; Fabbricino, M.; Gallucci, F.; Licusati, C.

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol steam reforming reaction carried out in a Pd-based tubular membrane reactor has been modelled via a finite element code. The model considers the membrane tube divided into finite volume elements where the mass balances for both lumen and shell sides are carried out accordingly to the

  14. Pd-Ag membrane reactor for steam reforming reactions: a comparison between different fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Basile, A.

    2008-01-01

    The simulation of a dense Pd-based membrane reactor for carrying out the methane, the methanol and the ethanol steam reforming (SR) reactions for pure hydrogen production is performed. The same simulation is also performed in a traditional reactor. This modelling work shows that the use of membrane

  15. A dense Pd/Ag membrane reactor for methanol steam reforming: Experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basile, A.; Gallucci, F.; Paturzo, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on an experimental study of the methanol steam reforming (MSR) reaction. A dense Pd/Ag membrane reactor (MR) has been used, and its behaviour has been compared to the performance of a traditional reactor (TR) packed with the same catalyst type and amount. The parameters

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences. LCA is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process or competing processes

  17. Hydrogen production via catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis oil fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Czernik, S.; Montane, D.; Mann, M.; Chornet, E.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen is the prototype of the environmentally cleanest fuel of interest for power generation using fuel cells, and as a co-adjuvant or autonomous transportation fuel in internal combustion engines. The conversion of biomass to hydrogen can be carried out through two distinct thermochemical strategies: (a) gasification followed by shift conversion; (b) catalytic steam reforming and shift conversion of specific fractions derived from fast pyrolysis and aqueous/steam processes of biomass. This paper shows that fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a bio-oil that can be adequately fractionated into valuable co-products leaving as by-product an aqueous fraction containing soluble organics (a mixture of alcohols, aldehydes and acids). This fraction can be converted to hydrogen by catalytic steam reforming followed by a shift conversion step. The methods used, the yields obtained and their economic significance will be discussed. (author)

  18. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  19. A numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer during the steam reforming process of ethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiczek, Marcin; Kaczmarczyk, Robert; Mozdzierz, Marcin; Brus, Grzegorz

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer during the steam reforming of ethane. From a chemical point of view, the reforming process of heavy hydrocarbons, such as ethane, is complex. One of the main issue is a set of undesired chemical reactions that causes the deposition of solid carbon and consequently blocks the catalytic property of a reactor. In the literature a carbon deposition regime is selected by thermodynamical analysis to design safe operation conditions. In the case of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD, hereafter) models each control volume should be investigated to determinate if carbon deposition is thermodynamically favourable. In this paper the authors combine equilibrium and kinetics analysis to simulate the steam reforming of methane-ethane rich fuel. The results of the computations were juxtaposed with experimental data for methane steam reforming, and good agreement was found. An analysis based on the kinetics of reactions was conducted to predict the influence of temperature drop and non-equilibrium composition on solid carbon deposition. It was found that strong non-uniform temperature distribution in the reactor causes conditions favourable for carbon deposition at the inlet of the reformer. It was shown that equilibrium calculations, often used in the literature, are insufficient.

  20. Synergetic mechanism of methanol–steam reforming reaction in a catalytic reactor with electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taegyu; Jo, Sungkwon; Song, Young-Hoon; Lee, Dae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methanol–steam reforming was performed on Cu catalysts under an electric discharge. • Discharge had a synergetic effect on the catalytic reaction for methanol conversion. • Discharge lowered the temperature for catalyst activation or light off. • Discharge controlled the yield and selectivity of species in a reforming process. • Adsorption triggered by a discharge was a possible mechanism for a synergetic effect. - Abstract: Methanol–steam reforming was performed on Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 catalysts under an electric discharge. The discharge occurred between the electrodes where the catalysts were packed. The electric discharge was characterized by the discharge voltage and electric power to generate the discharge. The existence of a discharge had a synergetic effect on the catalytic reaction for methanol conversion. The electric discharge provided modified reaction paths resulting in a lower temperature for catalyst activation or light off. The discharge partially controlled the yield and selectivity of species in a reforming process. The aspect of control was examined in view of the reaction kinetics. The possible mechanisms for the synergetic effect between the catalytic reaction and electric discharge on methanol–steam reforming were addressed. A discrete reaction path, particularly adsorption triggered by an electric discharge, was suggested to be the most likely mechanism for the synergetic effect. These results are expected to provide a guide for understanding the plasma–catalyst hybrid reaction

  1. Effect of microchannel structure on the reaction performance of methanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Minqiang; Wu, Qiuyu; Jiang, Lianbo; Zeng, Dehuai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of microchannel cross-section and distribution on MSR are investigated. • Microchannel distribution shows much more influence on reaction performance. • SLDR and ELR with rectangular cross-section present better reaction performance. • DLSR and EUU with tooth cross-section have better reaction performance. • Equal-distribution of microchannels present the best reaction performance. - Abstract: Methanol steam reforming inside microchannel reactors is regarded as one of effective methods for supplying hydrogen for fuel cells. Microchannel structure plays an important role on the reaction performance of methanol steam reforming. Parallel and uniform-distributed microchannels with rectangular cross-section are generally adopted. In this work, two kinds of microchannel cross-sections and four kinds of microchannel distributions are selected to investigate the effect of microchannel structure on the reaction performance of methanol steam reforming. The result indicates that microchannel distribution shows much more influences on the reaction performance of methanol steam reforming than the microchannel cross-section. Sparse-distribution in the Left direction and Dense-distribution in the Right direction (SLDR) as well as Equal-distribution in the Left–Right direction (ELR) with rectangular cross-section present relatively good reaction performances, whereas Dense-distribution in the Left direction and Sparse-distribution in the Right direction (DLSR) as well as Equal-distribution in the Upside–Underside direction (EUU) with tooth cross-section have relatively good performances. ELR presents the best reaction performances of methanol steam reforming among all the investigated microchannel structures, whether rectangular or tooth cross-section

  2. Steam reforming of bio-oil from coconut shell pyrolysis over Fe/olivine catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Cui; Xu, Shaoping; Zhou, Congcong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam reforming of the actual bio-oil was investigated with Fe/olivine catalyst. • Most of phenols in bio-oil were converted into gas products. • A carbon conversion of 97.2% was obtained under optimized conditions. - Abstract: Catalytic steam reforming of coconut shell pyrolysis bio-oil over Fe/olivine catalyst was conducted in a fixed-bed quartz reactor. The effects of calcination temperature, iron loading, reaction temperature, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), bio-oil weight hourly space velocity (W b HSV) on gas composition and carbon conversion were investigated. The results indicate that Fe/olivine has good activity for steam reforming of bio-oil, the couple Fe 2+/3+ /Fe 2+ may be sufficiently efficient for C–C, C–O and C–H breaking. After steam reforming, most of the phenolics in pyrolysis oil are converted into light molecular compounds such as H 2 , CO, CO 2 , and CH 4 . The H 2 concentration and carbon conversion were enhanced by increasing reaction temperature from 750 to 800 °C and the S/C from 1.5 to 2, but decreased with increasing calcination temperature. In the W b HSV range of 0.5–0.6, the hydrogen concentration decreased obviously, whereas it decreased slightly by further increasing W b HSV. The highest hydrogen concentration of 47.6 vol% was obtained among the catalysts tested, and the best carbon conversion was 97.2% over 10% Fe/olivine catalyst under the reforming conditions of temperature = 800 °C, W b HSV = 0.5, S/C = 2.

  3. Co-current and Counter-Current Operations for Steam Reforming of Heptane in a Novel CFB Membrane Reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Elnashaie, S.S.E.H.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen production by steam reforming of higher hydrocarbon over nickel supported catalyst is investigated in an earlier suggested novel Circulating Fast Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer (CFFBMR). Palladium hydrogen membranes are used with co-current and counter-current operation modes. It is found that hydrogen production has a non-monotonic dependence upon the reaction temperature in the range of 623-823 K. Between 623 and 723 K. the yields of hydrogen decrease and then increase between 723 and 823 K. This important phenomenon is investigated, discussed and explained. The simulation results shows that the reformer performance can be significantly improved using hydrogen membranes, especially in the counter-current operation mode. At low temperatures around 623 K, both .co-current and counter-current operation modes provide similar yields of hydrogen. While at temperature 723 K and higher, the counter-current operation provides the highest yield of hydrogen

  4. Steam reforming of different biomass tar model compounds over Ni/Al_2O_3 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artetxe, Maite; Alvarez, Jon; Nahil, Mohamad A.; Olazar, Martin; Williams, Paul T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Order of reactivity: anisole > furfural > indene > phenol > toluene > methyl naphthalene. • Higher coke deposition for oxygenates (1.5–2.8%) than for aromatics (0.5–0.8%). • Amorphous coke is deposited for oxygenates and filamentous carbon for aromatics. • Ni content of 20 wt.% shows the higher conversion (90%) and H_2 potential (63%). - Abstract: This work focuses on the removal of the tar derived from biomass gasification by catalytic steam reforming on Ni/Al_2O_3 catalysts. Different tar model compounds (phenol, toluene, methyl naphthalene, indene, anisole and furfural) were individually steam reformed (after dissolving each one in methanol), as well as a mixture of all of them, at 700 °C under a steam/carbon (S/C) ratio of 3 and 60 min on stream. The highest conversions and H_2 potential were attained for anisole and furfural, while methyl naphthalene presented the lowest reactivity. Nevertheless, the higher reactivity of oxygenates compared to aromatic hydrocarbons promoted carbon deposition on the catalyst (in the 1.5–2.8 wt.% range). When the concentration of methanol is decreased in the feedstock and that of toluene or anisole is increased, the selectivity to CO is favoured in the gaseous products, thus increasing coke deposition on the catalyst and decreasing catalyst activity for the steam reforming reaction. Moreover, an increase in Ni loading in the catalyst from 5 to 20% enhances carbon conversion and H_2 formation in the steam reforming of a mixture of all the model compounds studied, but these values decrease for a Ni content of 40%. Coke formation also increased by increasing Ni loading, attaining its maximum value for 40% Ni (6.5 wt.%).

  5. Ethanol internal steam reforming in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethelm, Stefan; Van herle, Jan

    This study investigates the performance of a standard Ni-YSZ anode supported cell under ethanol steam reforming operating conditions. Therefore, the fuel cell was directly operated with a steam/ethanol mixture (3 to 1 molar). Other gas mixtures were also used for comparison to check the conversion of ethanol and of reformate gases (H 2, CO) in the fuel cell. The electrochemical properties of the fuel cell fed with four different fuel compositions were characterized between 710 and 860 °C by I- V and EIS measurements at OCV and under polarization. In order to elucidate the limiting processes, impedance spectra obtained with different gas compositions were compared using the derivative of the real part of the impedance with respect of the natural logarithm of the frequency. Results show that internal steam reforming of ethanol takes place significantly on Ni-YSZ anode only above 760 °C. Comparisons of results obtained with reformate gas showed that the electrochemical cell performance is dominated by the conversion of hydrogen. The conversion of CO also occurs either directly or indirectly through the water-gas shift reaction but has a significant impact on the electrochemical performance only above 760 °C.

  6. Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based micro-reactors for steam reforming of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Ji Won; Kundu, Arunabha; Jang, Jae Hyuk

    2010-11-15

    A miniaturized methanol steam reformer with a serpentine type of micro-channels was developed based on poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. This way of fabricating micro-hydrogen generator is very simple and inexpensive. The volume of a PDMS micro-reformer is less than 10 cm{sup 3}. The catalyst used was a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reforming catalyst from Johnson Matthey. The Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reforming catalyst particles of mean diameter 50-70 {mu}m was packed into the micro-channels by injecting water based suspension of catalyst particles at the inlet point. The miniaturized PDMS micro-reformer was operated successfully in the operating temperatures of 180-240 C and 15%-75% molar methanol conversion was achieved in this temperature range for WHSV of 2.1-4.2 h{sup -1}. It was not possible to operate the micro-reformer made by pure PDMS at temperature beyond 240 C. Hybrid type of micro-reformer was fabricated by mixing PDMS and silica powder which allowed the operating temperature around 300 C. The complete conversion (99.5%) of methanol was achieved at 280 C in this case. The maximum reformate gas flow rate was 30 ml/min which can produce 1 W power at 0.6 V assuming hydrogen utilization of 60%. (author)

  7. Thermodynamic comparison of two processes of hydrogen production: steam methane reforming-A solar thermochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomri, Rabah; Boumaza, Mourad

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is mainly employed like primary product, for the synthesis of ammonia. The ammonia is synthesized by chemically combining hydrogen and nitrogen under pressure, in the presence of a catalyst. This ammonia is used, for the production of the nitrate fertilizers. Nowadays hydrogen gains more attention mainly because, it is regarded as a future significant fuel by much of experts. The widespread use of hydrogen as source of energy could help to reduce the concern concerning the safety of energy, the total change of climate and the quality of air. Hydrogen is presented then as an excellent alternate initially and as substitute thereafter. It can play a role even more significant than conventional energies. Indeed, it has the advantage of being nonpolluting and it can use the same means of transport as conventional energies. For Algeria, it proves of importance capital. It not only makes it possible to increase and diversify its energy reserves and its exports but also to provide for its energy needs which become increasingly significant. Although hydrogen can be produced starting from a large variety of resources using a range of various technologies, the natural gas is generally preferred and will remain in the near future the principal primary product for the manufacture of hydrogen. Currently the most effective means of production of hydrogen is the Steam Reforming of Natural Gas (SMR). This process is seen as a one of principal technologies for the production of hydrogen. The disadvantages of this process it's that it consumes a great quantity of primary energy and that it releases in the atmosphere the gases that contribute to the warming of the plane. Among the alternatives processes of hydrogen production one can quote solar thermochemical processes. In this study, an exergetic analysis of the process of hydrogen production based on Zn/ZnO redox reactions is presented. In the first part of this study, an exergetic analysis is made for a temperature of the

  8. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  9. Computational Investigation of the Thermochemistry and Kinetics of Steam Methane Reforming Over a Multi-Faceted Nickel Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Blaylock, D. Wayne; Zhu, Yi-An; Green, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A microkinetic model of steam methane reforming over a multi-faceted nickel surface using planewave, periodic boundary condition density functional theory is presented. The multi-faceted model consists of a Ni(111) surface, a Ni(100) surface

  10. Membrane steam reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production by utilization of medium temperature nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djati Hoesen Salimy

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of steam reforming process with membrane reactor for hydrogen production by utilizing of medium temperature nuclear reactor has been carried out. Difference with the conventional process of natural gas steam reforming that operates at high temperature (800-1000°C), the process with membrane reactor operates at lower temperature (~500°C). This condition is possible because the use of perm-selective membrane that separate product simultaneously in reactor, drive the optimum conversion at the lower temperature. Besides that, membrane reactor also acts the role of separation unit, so the plant will be more compact. From the point of nuclear heat utilization, the low temperature of process opens the chance of medium temperature nuclear reactor utilization as heat source. Couple the medium temperature nuclear reactor with the process give the advantage from the point of saving fossil fuel that give direct implication of decreasing green house gas emission. (author)

  11. CO-free hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basile, A.; Gallucci, F.; Iulianelli, A.; Tosti, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been studied by using a dense Pd-Ag membrane reactor (MR) by varying the water/ethanol molar ratio between 3:1 and 9:1 in a temperature range of 300-400°C and at 1.3 bar as reaction pressure. The MR was packed with a commercial Ru-based

  12. Synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of natural gas and bio-liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with (catalytic) steam reforming of bio-liquids for the production of synthesis gas. Glycerol, both crude from the biodiesel manufacturing and refined, and pyrolysis oil are tested as bio-based feedstocks. Liquid bio-based feeds could be preferred over inhomogeneous fibrous solid biomass because of their logistic advantages, better mineral balance, and better processability. Especially the ease of pressurization, which is required for large scale synthesis gas production, is...

  13. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas production due to its favorable composition of lower molecular weight compounds. This paper presents a study for a 250 kW net electrical power PEM fuel cell system utilizing a partial oxidation in one case study and steam reformers in the second. This study has shown that steam-reforming process is the most competitive fuel processing option in terms of fuel processing efficiency. Partial oxidation process has proved to posses the lowest fuel processing efficiency. Among the options studied, the highest fuel processing efficiency is achieved with natural gas steam reforming system.

  14. Density functional theory study of acetic acid steam reforming on Ni(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yan-Xiong; Du, Zhen-Yi; Guo, Yun-Peng; Feng, Jie; Li, Wen-Ying

    2017-04-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of bio-oil is a promising process to convert biomass into hydrogen. To shed light on this process, acetic acid is selected as the model compound of the oxygenates in bio-oil, and density functional theory is applied to investigate the mechanism of acetic acid steam reforming on the Ni(111) surface. The most favorable pathway of this process on the Ni(111) surface is suggested as CH3COOH* → CH3COO* → CH3CO* → CH2CO* → CH2* + CO* → CH* → CHOH* → CHO* → CO*, followed by the water gas shift reaction to produce CO2 and H2. CH* species are identified as the major carbon deposition precursor, and the water gas shift reaction is the rate-determining step during the whole acetic acid steam reforming process, as CO* + OH* → cis-COOH* is kinetically restricted with the highest barrier of 1.85 eV. Furthermore, the formation pathways and initial dissociation of important intermediates acetone and acetaldehyde are also investigated.

  15. Parametric study of hydrogen production from ethanol steam reforming in a membrane microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de-Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Microreactors are miniaturized chemical reaction systems, which contain reaction channels with characteristic dimensions in the range of 10-500 µm. One possible application for microreactors is the conversion of ethanol to hydrogen used in fuel cells to generate electricity. In this paper a rigorous isothermal, steady-state two-dimensional model was developed to simulate the behavior of a membrane microreactor based on the hydrogen yield from ethanol steam reforming. Furthermore, this membrane microreactor is compared to a membraneless microreactor. A potential advantage of the membrane microreactor is the fact that both ethanol steam reforming and the separation of hydrogen by a permselective membrane occur in one single microdevice. The simulation results for steam reforming yields are in agreement with experimental data found in the literature. The results show that the membrane microreactorpermits a hydrogen yield of up to 0.833 which is more than twice that generated by the membraneless reactor. More than 80% of the generated hydrogen permeates through the membrane and, due to its high selectivity, the membrane microreactor delivers high-purity hydrogen to the fuel cell.

  16. Enhanced catalytic behavior of Ni alloys in steam methane reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeongpil; Kim, Hanmi; Lee, Jaichan

    2017-08-01

    The dissociation process of methane on Ni and Ni alloys are investigated by density functional theory (DFT) in terms of catalytic efficiency and carbon deposition. Examining the dissociation to CH3, CH2, CH, C, and H is not sufficient to properly predict the catalytic efficiency and carbon deposition, and further investigation of the CO gas-evolving reaction is required to completely understand methane dissociation in steam. The location of alloying element in Ni alloy needed be addressed from the results of ab-inito molecular dynamics (MD). The reaction pathway of methane dissociation associated with CO gas evolution is traced by performing first-principles calculations of the adsorption and activation energies of each dissociation step. During the dissociation process, two alternative reaction steps producing adsorbed C and H or adsorbed CO are critically important in determining coking inhibition as well as H2 gas evolution (i.e., the catalytic efficiency). The theoretical calculations presented here suggest that alloying Ni with Ru is an effective way to reduce carbon deposition and enhance the catalytic efficiency of H2 fueling in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

  17. PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FROM THE STEAM AND OXIDATIVE REFORMING OF LPG: THERMODYNAMIC AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objective of this paper was to use a thermodynamic analysis to find operational conditions that favor the production of hydrogen from steam and oxidative reforming of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. We also analyzed the performance of a catalyst precursor, LaNiO3, in order to compare the performance of the obtained catalyst with the thermodynamic equilibrium predictions. The results showed that it is possible to produce high concentrations of hydrogen from LPG reforming. The gradual increase of temperature and the use of high water concentrations decrease the production of coke and increase the formation of H2. The reaction of oxidative reforming of LPG was more suitable for the production of hydrogen and lower coke formation. Furthermore the use of an excess of water (H2O/LPG =7.0 and intermediate temperatures (973 K are the most suitable conditions for the process.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of 1D Ceria Nanomaterials for CO Oxidation and Steam Reforming of Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Chowdhury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel one-dimensional (1D ceria nanostructure has been investigated as a promising and practical approach for the reforming of methanol reaction. Size and shape of the ceria nanomaterials are directly involved with the catalytic activities. Several general synthesis routes as including soft and hard template-assemble phenomenon for the preparation of 1D cerium oxide are discussed. This preparation phenomenon is consisting with low cost and ecofriendly. Nanometer-sized 1D structure provides a high-surface area that can interact with methanol and carbon-monoxide reaction. Overall, nanometer-sized structure provides desirable properties, such as easy recovery and regeneration. As a result, the use of 1D cerium has been suitable for catalytic application of reforming. In this paper, we describe the 1D cerium oxide syntheses route and then summarize their properties in the field of CO oxidation and steam reforming of methanol approach.

  19. Steam reforming of ethanol over Co3O4–Fe2O3 mixed oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, A.; Daly, H.; Saih, Y.; Morgan, K.; Mohamed, M.A.; Halawy, S.A.; Hardacre, C.

    2013-01-01

    solvent/dispersing agent. The catalysts were studied in the steam reforming of ethanol to investigate the effect of the partial substitution of Co3O4 with Fe2O 3 on the catalytic behaviour. The reforming activity over Fe 2O3, while initially high

  20. Technology of turbine plant operating with wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The technology of turbine plant operating with wet steam is a subject of continuing interest and importance, notably in view of the widespread use of wet steam cycles in nuclear power plants and the recent developments of advanced low pressure blading for both conventional and wet steam turbines. The nature of water formation in expanding steam has an important influence on the efficiency of turbine blading and on the integrity and safe operating life of blading and associated turbine and plant components. The subjects covered in this book include research, flow analysis and measurement, development and design of turbines and ancillary plant, selection of materials of construction, manufacturing methods and operating experience. (author)

  1. Hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming over co-hydrotalcites having basic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, J.L.; Salmones, J.; Garcia, L.A.; Ponce, A.; Zeifert, B.; Fuentes, G.A. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico City (Mexico); Contreras, J.L.; Salmones, J.; Garcia, L.A.; Ponce, A.; Zeifert, B.; Fuentes, G.A. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Contreras, J.L.; Salmones, J.; Garcia, L.A.; Ponce, A.; Zeifert, B.; Fuentes, G.A. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The catalytic steam reforming process can be used to produce hydrogen from ethanol for use in fuel cells. In comparison to methanol or gasoline, ethanol offers many advantages, notably, it is a renewable resource and neutral with respect to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}); it is less toxic; it can be readily stored without handling risk; and it can be obtained in large quantities from biomass. The reaction of ethanol with steam is strongly endothermic and can form undesirable products during the reaction. This article presented a study that combined, for the first time, the catalytic properties of cobalt (Co) with a new family of supports that are the hydrotalcites of high surface area and with basic sites. Co/Hydrotalcite catalysts were prepared, characterized and evaluated during the steam reforming of ethanol from 500 to 650 degrees Celsius. The article discussed the experiment, including the preparation of catalysts; characterization of solids; and catalytic evaluation. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies were also described. Results were described in terms of area and pore volume distribution; thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis; temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO{sub 2}; scanning electron microscopy; x-ray diffraction; the crystalline nature of cobalt; and ethanol steam-reforming reaction. It was concluded that the Co concentration was enriched on the hydrotalcite surface. In addition, a direct relationship between the Co concentration and the total basicity was found. A direct relationship between basicity and the conversion was also found. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  2. Plasma steam reforming of E85 for hydrogen rich gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinli; Hoang Trung; Lobban, Lance L; Mallinson, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    E85 (85 vol% ethanol and 15 vol% gasoline) is a partly renewable fuel that is increasing in supply availability. Hydrogen production from E85 for fuel cell or internal combustion engine applications is a potential method for reducing CO 2 emissions. Steam reforming of E85 using a nonthermal plasma (pulse corona discharge) reactor has been exploited at low temperature (200-300 0 C) without external heating, diluent gas, oxidant or catalyst in this work. Several operational parameters, including the discharge current, E85 concentration and feed flow rate, have been investigated. The results show that hydrogen rich gases (63-67% H 2 and 22-29% CO, with small amounts of CO 2 , C 2 hydrocarbons and CH 4 ) can be produced by this method. A comparison with ethanol reforming and gasoline reforming under identical conditions has also been made and the behaviour of E85 reforming is found to be close to that of ethanol reforming with slightly higher C 2 hydrocarbons yields.

  3. Numerical analysis of performance of steam reformer of methane reforming hydrogen production system connected with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Huaqiang; Jiang Shengyao; Zhang Youjie

    2007-01-01

    Methane conversion rate and hydrogen output are important performance indexes of the steam reformer. The paper presents numerical analysis of performance of the reformer connected with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor HTR-10. Setting helium inlet flow rate fixed, performance of the reformer was examined with different helium inlet temperature, pressure, different process gas temperature, pressure, flow rate, and different steam to carbon ratio. As the range concerned, helium inlet temperature has remarkable influence on the performance, and helium inlet temperature, process gas temperature and pressure have little influence on the performance, and improving process gas flow rate, methane conversion rate decreases and hydrogen output increases, however improving steam to carbon ratio has reverse influence on the performance. (authors)

  4. Structural and surface changes of cobalt modified manganese oxide during activation and ethanol steam reforming reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, Wojciech; Greluk, Magdalena; Słowik, Grzegorz; Turczyniak-Surdacka, Sylwia

    2018-05-01

    Surface and structural changes of unmodified manganese and cobalt-manganese oxide during activation and ethanol steam reforming reaction conditions (ESR) were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction/oxidation (TPR/TPO) and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that synthesis of cobalt manganese oxide by the redox precipitation method led to the formation of strongly dispersed cobalt ionic species within cryptomelane-based manganese oxide structure. Development of large cube-like MnO nanoparticles with spherical cobalt metallic crystallites decorated by manganese oxide on the high oxidation state and potassium species was observed during reduction. Cobalt manganese catalyst showed high initial activity and selectivity to H2 and CO2 in ethanol stem reforming reaction in the range of 390-480 °C. The drop of ethanol conversion and changes of selectivity with the time-on-stream were observed. An increase of reaction temperature led to intensification of deactivation phenomena. TEM studies evidenced coexistence of Co and CoOx nanoparticles formed under ethanol steam reforming conditions, partially covered by filamentous and encapsulating carbonaceous deposits.

  5. Thermodynamic investigation and environment impact assessment of hydrogen production from steam reforming of poultry tallow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaji, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis and environmental impact assessment of H 2 production system. • Thermodynamic analysis identifies optimal conditions for H 2 production. • LCA is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of H 2 production system. • Inventories data are derived from process simulation and from literature review. • Thermal energy process is the main contributor to the environmental impact. - Abstract: In this research, various assessment tools are applied to comprehensively investigate hydrogen production from steam reforming of poultry tallow (PT). These tools investigate the chemical reactions, design and simulate the entire hydrogen production process, study the energetic performance and perform an environment impact assessment using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The chemical reaction investigation identifies thermodynamically optimal operating conditions at which PT may be converted to hydrogen via the steam reforming process. The synthesis gas composition was determined by simulations to minimize the Gibbs free energy using the Aspen Plus™ 10.2 software. These optimal conditions are, subsequently, used in the design and simulation of the entire PT-to-hydrogen process. LCA is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of PT-to-hydrogen system. The system boundaries include rendering and reforming along with the required transportation process. The reforming inventories data are derived from process simulation in Aspen Plus™, whereas the rendering data are adapted from a literature review. The life cycle inventories data of PT-to-hydrogen are computationally implemented into SimaPro 7.3. A set of seven relevant environmental impact categories are evaluated: global warming, abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, and cumulative non-renewable fossil and nuclear energy demand. The results are subject to a systematic sensitivity analysis and compared

  6. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-alcohols. The use of conventional and membrane-assisted catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, P. K.

    2013-11-01

    The energy consumption around the globe is on the rise due to the exponential population growth and urbanization. There is a need for alternative and non-conventional energy sources, which are CO{sub 2}-neutral, and a need to produce less or no environmental pollutants and to have high energy efficiency. One of the alternative approaches is hydrogen economy with the fuel cell (FC) technology which is forecasted to lead to a sustainable society. Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is recognized as a potential fuel and clean energy carrier being at the same time a carbon-free element. Moreover, H{sub 2} is utilized in many processes in chemical, food, metallurgical, and pharmaceutical industry and it is also a valuable chemical in many reactions (e.g. refineries). Non-renewable resources have been the major feedstock for H{sub 2} production for many years. At present, {approx}50% of H{sub 2} is produced via catalytic steam reforming of natural gas followed by various down-stream purification steps to produce {approx}99.99% H{sub 2}, the process being highly energy intensive. Henceforth, bio-fuels like biomass derived alcohols (e.g. bio-ethanol and bio-glycerol), can be viable raw materials for the H{sub 2} production. In a membrane based reactor, the reaction and selective separation of H{sub 2} occur simultaneously in one unit, thus improving the overall reactor efficiency. The main motivation of this work is to produce H{sub 2} more efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way from bio-alcohols with a high H{sub 2} selectivity, purity and yield. In this thesis, the work was divided into two research areas, the first being the catalytic studies using metal decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) based catalysts in steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) at low temperatures (<450 deg C). The second part was the study of steam reforming (SR) and the water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions in a membrane reactor (MR) using dense and composite Pd-based membranes to produce high purity H{sub 2}. CNTs

  7. Steam reforming of ethanol over Ni-based catalysts: Effect of feed composition on catalyst stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2014-01-01

    In this work the effects of steam-to-carbon ratio (S/C), and addition of H2 or O2 to the feed on the product yields and carbon deposition in the steam reforming (SR) of ethanol over Ni/MgAl2O4, Ni/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2, and Ni/CeO2 at 600 °C have been investigated. Increasing the S/C-ratio from 1.6 to 8.3...... showed stable behavior and an average rate of carbon deposition of less than 7 μg C/gCat h. The results indicate that stable operation of ethanol SR is only possible under oxidative conditions....

  8. Thermal and chemical analysis on steam reforming in an out-of-pile test facility (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Katsuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Suyama, Kazumasa; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Kohji; Ogawa, Masuro

    1999-08-01

    An out-of-pile test facility of a hydrogen production system whose scale is 1/30th of the HTTR hydrogen production system is presently under construction at the Oarai Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this system, a steam generator works as a thermal buffer for mitigating the heat consumption fluctuation in a steam reformer so as not to affect an operation of the reactor system. To control the thermal buffer system properly, it is important to evaluate the effect of the steam reforming parameters on the heat fluctuation in advance. So, using the mass and thermal balance analysis code developed for a simulation of the out-of-pile test facility, the heat consumption fluctuation in the steam reformer was analyzed by various changes of the process gas flow rate, the process gas inlet temperature, the process gas composition etc. From the analytical results, it was found that the heat transfer augmentation of the reformer tube by using repeated fins was effective in increasing the hydrogen production rate of up to 12.5%. Also, the fluctuation of the process gas flow rate tended to greatly affect the heat consumption rate for the steam reforming reaction, so that the helium gas temperature increased from 586degC to 718degC. (author)

  9. Study of Catalyst Variation Effect in Glycerol Conversion Process to Hydrogen Gas by Steam Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat; Hartono, R.; Elizabeth, E.; Annisa, A. N.

    2018-04-01

    Along with the economic development, needs of energy being increase too. Hydrogen as alternative energy has many usages. Besides that, hydrogen is one source of energy that is a clean fuel, but process production of hydrogen from natural gas as a raw material has been used for a long time. Therefore, there is need new invention to produce hydrogen from the others raw material. Glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, is a compound which can be used as a raw material for hydrogen production. By using glycerol as a raw material of hydrogen production, we can get added value of glycerol as well as an energy source solution. The process production of hydrogen by steam reforming is a thermochemical process with efficiency 70%. This process needs contribution of catalyst to improve its efficiency and selectivity of the process. In this study will be examined the effect variation of catalyst for glycerol conversion process to hydrogen by steam reforming. The method for catalyst preparation was variation of catalyst impregnation composition, catalyst calcined with difference concentration of hydrochloric acid and calcined with difference hydrochloric acid ratio. After that, all of catalyst which have been prepared, used for steam reforming process for hydrogen production from glycerol as a raw material. From the study, the highest yield of hydrogen gas showed in the process production by natural zeolite catalyst with 1:15 Hydrochloric acid ratio was 42.28%. Hydrogen yield for 2M calcined natural zeolite catalyst was 38.37%, for ZSM-5 catalyst was 15.83%, for 0.5M calcined natural zeolite was 13.09% and for ultrasonic natural zeolite was 11.43%. The lowest yield of hydrogen gas showed in catalyst 2Zn/ZSM-5 with 11.22%. This result showed that hydrogen yield product was affected by catalyst variation because of the catalyst has difference characteristic and difference catalytic activity after the catalyst preparation process.

  10. Comparative thermoeconomic analysis of hydrogen production by water electrolysis and by ethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros-Godoy, Gustavo; Chavez-Rodriguez, Mauro; Cavaliero, Carla [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering School], Email: garg@fem.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is the focus of this work that evaluates in comparative form through thermo economic analysis two hydrogen production processes: water electrolysis and ethanol steam reforming. Even though technical-economical barriers still exist for the development of an economy based on hydrogen, these difficulties are opportunities for the appearance of new business of goods and services, diversification of the energy mix, focus of research activities, development and support to provide sustainability to the new economy. Exergy and rational efficiency concept are used to make a comparison between both processes. (author)

  11. Steam and CO2 reforming of methane over a Ru/ZrO2 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jon Geest; Jørgensen, T.L.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of methane steam reforming over a Ru/ZrO2 catalyst was studied at 1.3 bar total pressure and in the temperature range 425-575 degrees C. These data were fitted by combining a reactor model with a series of kinetic models. The best fit was obtained by a model with methane dissociative...... adsorption as the rate limiting step and with CO and H adspecies partly blocking the active sites. The Ru/ZrO2 catalyst was characterized by TEM and H-2 chemisorption. By comparison of ex situ and in situ TEM, it is evident that Ru particles with diameters of...

  12. Effects of adding lanthanum to Ni/ZrO2 catalysts on ethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profeti, Luciene Paula Roberto; Habitzheuter, Filipe; Assaf, Elisabete Moreira

    2012-01-01

    The catalytic performance of Ni/ZrO 2 catalysts loaded with different lanthanum content for steam reforming of ethanol was investigated. Catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, temperature programmed reduction, and X-ray absorption fine structure techniques. Results showed that lanthanum addition led to an increase in the degree of reduction of both NiO and nickel surface species interacting with the support, due to the higher dispersion effect. The best catalytic performance at 450 deg C was found for the Ni/12LZ catalyst, which exhibited an effluent gaseous mixture with the highest H 2 yield. (author)

  13. Ethanol steam reforming kinetics of a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosti, Silvano; Borelli, Rodolfo; Borgognoni, Fabio [ENEA, Dipartimento FPN, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (RM) I-00044 (Italy); Basile, Angelo [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, c/o Univ. of Calabria, via P. Bucci, Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Castelli, Stefano [ENEA, Dipartimento ACS, C.R. ENEA Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, Roma I-00123 (Italy); Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Licusati, Celeste [Dept. of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, Naples 80125 (Italy); Gallucci, Fausto [Fundamentals of Chemical Reaction Engineering Group, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    The ethanol steam reforming reaction carried out in a Pd-based tubular membrane reactor has been modelled via a finite element code. The model considers the membrane tube divided into finite volume elements where the mass balances for both lumen and shell sides are carried out accordingly to the reaction and permeation kinetics. Especially, a simplified ''power law'' has been applied for the reaction kinetics: the comparison with experimental data obtained by using three different kinds of catalyst (Ru, Pt and Ni based) permitted defining the coefficients of the kinetics expression as well as to validate the model. Based on the Damkohler-Peclet analysis, the optimization of the membrane reformer has been also approached. (author)

  14. Fabrication and characteristics of cube-post microreactors for methanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Dehuai; Pan, Minqiang; Wang, Liming; Tang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a cube-post microreactor for methanol steam reforming. ► We investigated the influences of micro-milling parameters on the burr formation during fabricating the cube posts. ► Larger cutting speed, smaller feed rate and cutting depth are in favor of obtaining relatively small burrs. ► Cube post and manifold structure show important effects on reaction performances at relatively low reaction temperature. -- Abstract: The lamination-plate structure patterned with microchannels and triangle manifolds regarded as one of the preferred constructions for micro fuel reformers. Learned from the microchannel plate structure, a similar plate structure with cube-post array and triangle manifolds is proposed in this work. A micro-milling process is applied to fabricate the cube posts on the plate surface, and the influences of cutting parameters on the burr formation are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that larger cutting speed, smaller feed rate and cutting depth are in favor of obtaining relatively small burrs. Two plates with different cube-post dimensions and manifold structures are experimentally investigated the performances of methanol steam reforming over the Cu/Zn/Al/Zr catalyst. It indicates that the reactor with small-scale cube posts and acute triangle manifold presents better reforming performances at 260 °C than that of the one with large-scale cube posts and right triangle manifolds. However, their performances are closed to each other at relatively high reaction temperature since the catalyst activity is situated in dominated position at the time.

  15. H_2 production by the steam reforming of excess boil off gas on LNG vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Ignacio Arias; Gómez, Manuel Romero; Gómez, Javier Romero; López-González, Luis M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • BOG excess in LNG vessels is burned in the GCU without energy use. • The gas management plants need to be improved to increase efficiency. • BOG excess in LNG vessels is used for H_2 production by steam reforming. • The availability of different fuels increases the versatility of the ship. - Abstract: The gas management system onboard LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) vessels is crucial, since the exploitation of the BOG (Boil Off Gas) produced is of utmost importance for the overall efficiency of the plant. At present, LNG ships with no reliquefaction plant consume the BOG generated in the engines, and the excess is burned in the GCU (Gas Combustion Unit) without any energy use. The need to improve the gas management system, therefore, is evident. This paper proposes hydrogen production through a steam reforming plant, using the excess BOG as raw material and thus avoiding it being burned in the GCU. To test the feasibility of integrating the plant, an actual study of the gas management process on an LNG vessel with 4SDF (4 Stroke Dual Fuel) propulsion and with no reliquefaction plant was conducted, along with a thermodynamic simulation of the reforming plant. With the proposed gas management system, the vessel disposes of different fuels, including H_2, a clean fuel with zero ozone-depleting emissions. The availability of H_2 on board in areas with strict anti-pollution regulations, such as ECAs (Emission Control Area), means that the vessel may be navigated without using fossil fuels which generate CO_2 and SO_X emissions. Moreover, while at port, Cold Ironing is avoided, which entails high costs. Thus it is demonstrated that the installation of a reforming plant is both energetically viable and provides greater versatility to the ship.

  16. Preparation and characterization of nickel catalysts supported on cerium for obtaining hydrogen from steam reforming of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbaninho, A.B.; Bergamaschi, V.S.; Ferreira, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    The Ni/Ce catalysts for were prepared by co- precipitation method with a view to their use in steam reforming of ethanol to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture. The catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy; x-ray dispersive Spectroscopy and surface area BET method. This paper proposes to prepare, characterize and test nickel catalyst supported on cerium in order to obtain a material with higher activity and selectivity of the catalyst using the steam reforming reaction of ethanol, by varying the reaction temperature, molar ratio water/ethanol and uptime. The catalytic tests were monitored by chemical analysis of syngas from steam reforming of ethanol using an analysis online by gas Chromatograph in the reactor. (author)

  17. Soviet steam generator technology: fossil fuel and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengaus, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, particular operational requirements, coupled with a centralized planning system adopted in the 1920s, have led to a current technology which differs in significant ways from its counterparts elsewhere in the would and particularly in the United States. However, the monograph has a broader value in that it traces the development of steam generators in response to the industrial requirements of a major nation dealing with the global energy situation. Specifically, it shows how Soviet steam generator technology evolved as a result of changing industrial requirements, fuel availability, and national fuel utilization policy. The monograph begins with a brief technical introduction focusing on steam-turbine power plants, and includes a discussion of the Soviet Union's regional power supply (GRES) networks and heat and power plant (TETs) systems. TETs may be described as large central co-generating stations which, in addition to electricity, provide heat in the form of steam and hot water. Plants of this type are a common feature of the USSR today. The adoption of these cogeneration units as a matter of national policy has had a central influence on Soviet steam generator technology which can be traced throughout the monograph. The six chapters contain: a short history of steam generators in the USSR; steam generator design and manufacture in the USSR; boiler and furnace assemblies for fossil fuel-fired power stations; auxiliary components; steam generators in nuclear power plants; and the current status of the Soviet steam generator industry. Chapters have been abstracted separately. A glossary is included containing abbreviations and acronyms of USSR organizations. 26 references

  18. On the potential of nickel catalysts for steam reforming in membrane reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Boon, J.; Van Delft, Y.C.; Dijkstra, J.W.; Van den Brink, R.W. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen membrane reactors have been identified as a promising option for hydrogen production for power generation from natural gas with pre-combustion decarbonisation. While Pd or Pd-alloy membranes already provide good hydrogen permeances the most suitable catalyst design for steam reforming in membrane reactors (SRMR) is yet to be identified. This contribution aims to provide insight in the suitability of nickel based catalysts in SRMR. The use of nickel (Ni) catalysts would benefit the cost-effectiveness of membrane reactors and therefore its feasibility. For this, the activity of nickel catalysts in SRMR was assessed with kinetics reported in literature. A 1D model was composed in order to compare the hydrogen production rates derived from the kinetics with the rate of hydrogen withdrawal by permeation. Catalyst stability was studied by exposing the catalysts to reformate gas with two different H/C ratios to mimic the hydrogen lean reformate gas in the membrane reactor. For both the activity (modeling) and stability study the Ni-based catalysts were compared to relevant catalyst compositions based on rhodium (Rh). Using the high pressure kinetics reported for Al2O3 supported Rh and MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 supported Ni catalyst it showed that Ni and Rh catalysts may very well provide similar hydrogen production rates. Interestingly, the stability of Ni-based catalysts proved to be superior to precious metal based catalysts under exposure to simulated reformate feed gas with low H/C molar ratio. A commercial (pre-)reforming Ni-based catalyst was selected for further testing in an experimental membrane reactor for steam reforming at high pressure. During the test period 98% conversion at 873 K could be achieved. The conversion was adjusted to approximately 90% and stable conversion was obtained during the test period of another 3 weeks. Nonetheless, carbon quantification tests of the Ni catalyst indicated that a small amount of carbon had deposited onto the catalyst

  19. Experimental and Numerical Study of Low Temperature Methane Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Khzouz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature methane steam reforming for hydrogen production, using experimental developed Ni/Al2O3 catalysts is studied both experimentally and numerically. The catalytic activity measurements were performed at a temperature range of 500–700 °C with steam to carbon ratio (S/C of 2 and 3 under atmospheric pressure conditions. A mathematical analysis to evaluate the reaction feasibility at all different conditions that have been applied by using chemical equilibrium with applications (CEA software and in addition, a mathematical model focused on the kinetics and the thermodynamics of the reforming reaction is introduced and applied using a commercial finite element analysis software (COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0. The experimental results were employed to validate the extracted simulation data based on the yields of the produced H2, CO2 and CO at different temperatures. A maximum hydrogen yield of 2.7 mol/mol-CH4 is achieved at 700 °C and S/C of 2 and 3. The stability of the 10%Ni/Al2O3 catalyst shows that the catalyst is prone to deactivation as supported by Thermogravimetric Analysis TGA results.

  20. Study on methane separation from steam reforming product gas with polyimide membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koiso, Hiroshi; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro.

    1997-10-01

    In the HTTR hydrogen production system by steam reforming of natural gas (main component: CH 4 ), CH 4 conversion rate is limited to approximately 65% due to high pressure and low temperature conditions (4.5 MPa, 800degC). The one of the measures to improve CH 4 conversion is recycling of residual CH 4 extracted from steam reforming product gas with a gas separator. Experimental and analytical studies on CH 4 separation from gas mixture composed of CH 4 , H 2 , CO 2 and CO were carried out to investigate gas separation characteristics of a polyimide membrane gas separator. Measured permeability of each gas in gas mixture was reduced from 1/3 to 1/14 of that obtained with a single gas (catalog value). The polyimide membrane could extracted CH 4 of approximately 80% from gas mixture, then, H 2 and CO 2 more than 98% were removed. It was confirmed that the polyimide membrane could be available to residual CH 4 recycling. The analytical results by a difference method gave good prospects of experimental results such as permeated flow rate, mol-fraction profiles and so on. Therefore, it can be said the analysis method was established. (author)

  1. Stable hydrogen production from ethanol through steam reforming reaction over nickel-containing smectite-derived catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Arai, Masahiko

    2014-12-25

    Hydrogen production through steam reforming of ethanol was investigated with conventional supported nickel catalysts and a Ni-containing smectite-derived catalyst. The former is initially active, but significant catalyst deactivation occurs during the reaction due to carbon deposition. Side reactions of the decomposition of CO and CH4 are the main reason for the catalyst deactivation, and these reactions can relatively be suppressed by the use of the Ni-containing smectite. The Ni-containing smectite-derived catalyst contains, after H2 reduction, stable and active Ni nanocrystallites, and as a result, it shows a stable and high catalytic performance for the steam reforming of ethanol, producing H2.

  2. Feasability of the direct generation of hydrogen for fuel-cell-powered vehicles by on-board steam reforming of naphta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, Naif A.; Hilal, Nidal; Versteeg, Geert; Heesink, Albertus B.M.

    2004-01-01

    A process flow sheet for the production of hydrogen to run a 50 kW fuel-cell-powered-vehicle by steam reforming of naphtha is presented. The major units in the flow sheet involve a desulfurization unit, a steam reformer, a low temperature (LT) shift reactor, a methanation reactor, and a membrane

  3. Feasibility of the direct generation of hydrogen for fuel-cell-powered vehicles by on-board steam reforming of naphtha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, Naif A.; Hilal, Nidal; Versteeg, Geert; Heesink, Bert

    2004-01-01

    A process flow sheet for the production of hydrogen to run a 50 kW fuel-cell-powered-vehicle by steam reforming of naphtha is presented. The major units in the flow sheet involve a desulfurization unit, a steam reformer, a low temperature (LT) shift reactor, a methanation reactor, and a membrane

  4. Influence of potassium on the competition between methane and ethane in steam reforming over Pt supported on yttrium-stabilized zirconia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graf, P.O.; Mojet, Barbara; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2008-01-01

    effect of addition of potassium to Pt supported on yttrium-stabilized zirconia (PtYSZ) catalyst for steam reforming of methane, ethane and methane/ethane mixtures was explored. Addition of potassium has a positive effect on preferential steam reforming of methane in mixtures of methane and ethane

  5. Dynamic simulation of pure hydrogen production via ethanol steam reforming in a catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati, Ali; Le Corre, Olivier; Lacarrière, Bruno; Llorca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was performed over Pd-Rh/CeO 2 catalyst in a catalytic membrane reactor (CMR) as a reformer unit for production of fuel cell grade pure hydrogen. Experiments were performed at 923 K, 6–10 bar, and fuel flow rates of 50–200 μl/min using a mixture of ethanol and distilled water with steam to carbon ratio of 3. A static model for the catalytic zone was derived from the Arrhenius law to calculate the total molar production rates of ESR products, i.e. CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , H 2 , and H 2 O in the catalytic zone of the CMR (coefficient of determination R 2  = 0.993). The pure hydrogen production rate at steady state conditions was modeled by means of a static model based on the Sieverts' law. Finally, a dynamic model was developed under ideal gas law assumptions to simulate the dynamics of pure hydrogen production rate in the case of the fuel flow rate or the operating pressure set point adjustment (transient state) at isothermal conditions. The simulation of fuel flow rate change dynamics was more essential compared to the pressure change one, as the system responded much faster to such an adjustment. The results of the dynamic simulation fitted very well to the experimental values at P = 7–10 bar, which proved the robustness of the simulation based on the Sieverts' law. The simulation presented in this work is similar to the hydrogen flow rate adjustments needed to set the electrical load of a fuel cell, when fed online by the pure hydrogen generating reformer studied. - Highlights: • Ethanol steam reforming (ESR) experiments were performed in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. • The model of the catalytic zone of the reactor was derived from the Arrhenius law. • The permeation zone (membrane) was modeled based on the Sieverts' law. • The Sieverts' law model showed good results for the range of P = 7–10 bar. • Pressure and fuel flow rate adjustments were considered for dynamic simulation.

  6. MINERALIZING, STEAM REFORMING TREATMENT OF HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE (a.k.a. INEEL/EXT-05-02526)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. L. Olson; N. R. Soelberg; D. W. Marshall; G. L. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization''. The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2-5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.4 hours of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved

  7. Effect of a diffuser on performance enhancement of a cylindrical methanol steam reformer by computational fluid dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perng, Shiang-Wuu; Horng, Rong-Fang; Wu, Horng-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •We enhance performance of a cylindrical MSR to get higher net power of fuel cell. •We study diffuser angle and length and wall temperature on net power of fuel cell. •We study methanol conversion, hydrogen production, CO of a novel reformer. •Diffuser in catalyst bed upstream raises methanol conversion, hydrogen production. •The MSR raises hydrogen production up to 44.6% and net fuel cell power up to 24.6%. -- Abstract: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) connected with a methanol steam reformer designed to enhance its performance is considered as a promising future power source. Enhancing the performance of a cylindrical methanol steam reformer due to diffuser effects was then investigated applying three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics by the SIMPLE-C algorithm and an Arrhenius form of reaction model. The effect of the angle and length of the diffuser, and wall temperature have been explored on heat and fluid flow, methanol conversion, hydrogen production, carbon monoxide reduction, as well as estimated net power of fuel cell with the same catalyst volume and entrance condition in a cylindrical methanol steam reformer. The results indicate that the diffuser obviously enhances methanol conversion and hydrogen production of a cylindrical methanol steam reformer. In comparison with a traditional reformer, the reformer with a diffuser of θ d = 6° and L d = 75 mm obtains the maximum enhancement of 22.96% in methanol conversion, 44.62% in hydrogen production, and 24.59% in estimated net power of fuel cell at wall temperature of 250 °C. In addition, the novel reformer with a diffuser of θ d = 9° and L d = 100 mm generates the maximum reduction of 44.17% in CO production at T W = 250 °C.

  8. Heat supply analysis of steam reforming hydrogen production process in conventional and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Alimah; Djati Hoesen Salimy

    2015-01-01

    Tile analysis of heat energy supply in the production of hydrogen by natural gas steam reforming process has been done. The aim of the study is to compare the energy supply system of conventional and nuclear heat. Methodology used in this study is an assessment of literature and analysis based on the comparisons. The study shows that the heat sources of fossil fuels (natural gas) is able to provide optimum operating conditions of temperature and pressure of 850-900 °C and 2-3 MPa, as well as the heat transfer is dominated by radiation heat transfer, so that the heat flux that can be achieved on the catalyst tube relatively high (50-80 kW/m"2) and provide high thermal efficiency of about 85 %. While in the system with nuclear energy, due to the demands of safety, process operating at less than optimum conditions of temperature and pressure of 800-850 °C and 4.5 MPa, as well as the heat transfer is dominated by convection heat transfer, so that the heat flux that can be achieved catalyst tube is relatively low (1020 kW/m"2) and it provides a low thermal efficiency of about 50 %. Modifications of reformer and heat utilization can increase the heat flux up to 40 kW/m"2 so that the thermal efficiency can reach 78 %. Nevertheless, the application of nuclear energy to hydrogen production with steam reforming process is able to reduce the burning of fossil fuels which has implications for the potential decrease in the rate of CO2 emissions into the environment. (author)

  9. Effects of key factors on solar aided methane steam reforming in porous medium thermochemical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fuqiang; Tan, Jianyu; Ma, Lanxin; Leng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of key factors on chemical reaction for solar methane reforming are studied. • MCRT and FVM method coupled with UDFs is used to establish numerical model. • Heat and mass transfer model coupled with thermochemical reaction is established. • LTNE model coupled with P1 approximation is used for porous matrix solar reactor. • A formula between H 2 production and conductivity of porous matrix is put forward. - Abstract: With the aid of solar energy, methane reforming process can save up to 20% of the total methane consumption. Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) method and Finite Volume Method (FVM) combined method are developed to establish the heat and mass transfer model coupled with thermochemical reaction kinetics for porous medium solar thermochemical reactor. In order to provide more temperature information, local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model coupled with P1 approximation is established to investigate the thermal performance of porous medium solar thermochemical reaction. Effects of radiative heat loss and thermal conductivity of porous matrix on temperature distribution and thermochemical reaction for solar driven steam methane reforming process are numerically studied. Besides, the relationship between hydrogen production and thermal conductivity of porous matrix are analyzed. The results illustrate that hydrogen production shows a 3 order polynomial relation with thermal conductivity of porous matrix

  10. Hydrogen from biomass gas steam reforming for low temperature fuel cell: energy and exergy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sordi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to analyze hydrogen production by biomass gasification, as well as electric power generation in small scale fuel cells. The proposed methodology is the thermodynamic modeling of a reaction system for the conversion of methane and carbon monoxide (steam reforming, as well as the energy balance of gaseous flow purification in PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption is used with eight types of gasification gases in this study. The electric power is generated by electrochemical hydrogen conversion in fuel cell type PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell. Energy and exergy analyses are applied to evaluate the performance of the system model. The simulation demonstrates that hydrogen production varies with the operation temperature of the reforming reactor and with the composition of the gas mixture. The maximum H2 mole fraction (0.6-0.64 mol.mol-1 and exergetic efficiency of 91- 92.5% for the reforming reactor are achieved when gas mixtures of higher quality such as: GGAS2, GGAS4 and GGAS5 are used. The use of those gas mixtures for electric power generation results in lower irreversibility and higher exergetic efficiency of 30-30.5%.

  11. Investigation of methane steam reforming in planar porous support of solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongping; Du Xiaoze; Yang Lijun; Huang Yuan; Xian Haizhen

    2009-01-01

    Adopting the porous support in integrated-planar solid oxide fuel cell (IP-SOFC) can reduce the operating temperature by reducing thickness of electrolyte layer, and also, provide internal reforming environment for hydrogen-rich fuel gas. The distributions of reactant and product components, and temperature of methane steam reforming for IP-SOFC were investigated by the developed physical and mathematical model with thermodynamic analysis, in which eleven possible reaction mechanisms were considered by the source terms and Arrhenius relationship. Numerical simulation of the model revealed that the progress of reforming reaction and the distribution of the product, H 2 , were influenced by the operating conditions, included that of temperature, ratio of H 2 O and CH 4 , as well as by the porosity of the supporting material. The simulating results indicate that the methane conversion rate can reach its maximum value under the operating temperature of 800 deg. C and porosity of ε = 0.4, which rather approximate to the practical operating conditions of IP-SOFC. In addition, characteristics of carbon deposition on surface of catalyst were discussed under various operating conditions and configuration parameters of the porous support. The present works provided some theoretical explanations to the numerous experimental observations and engineered practices

  12. Preparation and initial characterization of fluidized bed steam reforming pure-phase standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missimer, D. M.; Rutherford, R. L.

    2013-03-21

    Hanford is investigating the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process for their Low Activity Waste. The FBSR process offers a low-temperature continuous method by which liquid waste can be processed with the addition of clay into a sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is mainly comprised of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Anions such as perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup -}), pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), and iodine (I{sup -}) are expected to replace sulfate in the nosean structure and/or chloride in the sodalite mineral structure (atomically bonded inside the aluminosilicate cages that these mineral structures possess). In the FBSR waste form, each of these phases can exist in a variety of solid solutions that differ from the idealized forms observed in single crystals in nature. The lack of understanding of the durability of these stoichiometric or idealized mineral phases complicates the ability to deconvolute the durability of the mixed phase FBSR product since it is a combination of different NAS phases. To better understand the behavior, fabrication and testing of the individual phases of the FBSR product is required. Analytical Development (AD) of the Science and Technology directorate of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare the series of phase-pure standards, consisting of nepheline, nosean, and Cl, Re, and I sodalite. Once prepared, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to confirm the products were phase pure. These standards are being used for subsequent characterization studies consisting of the following: single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing, development of thermodynamic data, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) calibration curves. In addition to the above mentioned phase-pure standards, AD was tasked with fabricating a mixed Tc-Re sodalite.

  13. Energy efficiency of a direct-injection internal combustion engine with high-pressure methanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poran, Arnon; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of a direct-injection ICE (internal combustion engine) with thermo-chemical recuperation realized through SRM (steam reforming of methanol). It is shown that the energy required to compress the reformate gas prior to its injection into the cylinder is substantial and has to be accounted for. Results of the analysis prove that the method of reformate direct-injection is unviable when the reforming is carried-out under atmospheric pressure. To reduce the energy penalty resulted from the gas compression, it is suggested to implement a high-pressure reforming process. Effects of the injection timing and the injector's flow area on the ICE-SRM system's fuel conversion efficiency are studied. The significance of cooling the reforming products prior to their injection into the engine-cylinder is demonstrated. We show that a direct-injection ICE with high-pressure SRM is feasible and provides a potential for significant efficiency improvement. Development of injectors with greater flow area shall contribute to further efficiency improvements. - Highlights: • Energy needed to compress the reformate is substantial and has to be accounted for. • Reformate direct-injection is unviable if reforming is done at atmospheric pressure. • Direct-injection engine with high-pressure methanol reforming is feasible. • Efficiency improvement by 12–14% compared with a gasoline-fed engine was shown

  14. Co-current and counter-current configurations for ethanol steam reforming in a dense Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; de Falco, M.; Tosti, S.; Marrelli, L; Basile, A.

    2008-01-01

    The ethanol steam-reforming reaction to produce pure hydrogen has been studied theoretically. A mathematical model has been formulated for a traditional system and a palladium membrane reactor packed with a Co-based catalyst and the simulation results related to the membrane reactor for both

  15. Decontamination of Steam Generator tube using Abrasive Blasting Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Kim, G. N.; Choi, W. K.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    As a part of a technology development of volume reduction and self disposal for large metal waste project, We at KAERI and our Sunkwang Atomic Energy Safety (KAES) subcontractor colleagues are demonstrating radioactively contaminated steam generator tube by abrasive blasting technology at Kori-1 NPP. A steam generator is a crucial component in a PWR (pressurized Water Reactor). It is the crossing between the primary, contaminated, circuit and the secondary waste-steam circuit. The heat from the primary reactor coolant loop is transferred to the secondary side in thousands of small tubes. Due to several problems in the material of those tube, like SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking), insufficient control in water chemistry, which can be cause of tube leakage, more and more steam generators are replaced today. Only in Korea, already 2 of them are replaced and will be replaced in the near future. The retired 300 ton heavy Steam generator was stored at the storage waste building of Kori NPP site. The steam generator waste has a large volume, so that it is necessary to reduce its volume by decontamination. A waste reduction effect can be obtained through decontamination of the inner surface of a steam generator. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an optimum method for decontamination of the inner surface of bundle tubes. The dry abrasive blasting is a very interesting technology for the realization of three-dimensional microstructures in brittle materials like glass or silicon. Dry abrasive blasting is applicable to most surface materials except those that might be shattered by the abrasive. It is most effective on flat surface and because the abrasive is sprayed and can also applicable on 'hard to reach' areas such as inner tube ceilings or behind equipment. Abrasive decontamination techniques have been applied in several countries, including Belgium, the CIS, France, Germany, Japan, the UK and the USA

  16. A Numerical Study on Mass Transfer and Methanol Conversion Efficiency According to Porosity and Temperature Change of Curved Channel Methanol-Steam Reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Hong Seok; Lee, Chung Ho; Suh, Jeong Se

    2016-01-01

    Micro methanol-steam reformer for fuel cell can effectively produce hydrogen as reforming response to steam takes place in low temperature (less than 250℃). This study conducted numerical research on this reformer. First, study set wall temperature of the reformer at 100, 140, 180 and 220℃ while methanol conversion efficiency was set in 0, 0.072, 3.83 and 46.51% respectively. Then, porosity of catalyst was set in 0.1, 0.35, 0.6 and 0.85 and although there was no significant difference in methanol conversion efficiency, values of pressure drop were 4645.97, 59.50, 5.12 and 0.45 kPa respectively. This study verified that methanol-steam reformer rarely responds under the temperature of 180℃ and porosity does not have much effect on methanol conversion efficiency if the fluid flowing through reformer lowers activation energy by sufficiently contacting reformer.

  17. A Numerical Study on Mass Transfer and Methanol Conversion Efficiency According to Porosity and Temperature Change of Curved Channel Methanol-Steam Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Hong Seok; Lee, Chung Ho; Suh, Jeong Se [Gyeongsang Nat’l Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Micro methanol-steam reformer for fuel cell can effectively produce hydrogen as reforming response to steam takes place in low temperature (less than 250℃). This study conducted numerical research on this reformer. First, study set wall temperature of the reformer at 100, 140, 180 and 220℃ while methanol conversion efficiency was set in 0, 0.072, 3.83 and 46.51% respectively. Then, porosity of catalyst was set in 0.1, 0.35, 0.6 and 0.85 and although there was no significant difference in methanol conversion efficiency, values of pressure drop were 4645.97, 59.50, 5.12 and 0.45 kPa respectively. This study verified that methanol-steam reformer rarely responds under the temperature of 180℃ and porosity does not have much effect on methanol conversion efficiency if the fluid flowing through reformer lowers activation energy by sufficiently contacting reformer.

  18. Kinetic Studies on State of the Art Solid Oxide Cells – A Comparison between Hydrogen/Steam and Reformate Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njodzefon, Jean-Claude; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical reaction kinetics at the electrodes of Solid Oxide Cells (SOCs) were investigated at 700 °C for two cells with different fuel electrode microstructures as well as on a third cell with a reduced active electrode area. Three fuel mixtures were investigated – hydrogen/steam and refor......Electrochemical reaction kinetics at the electrodes of Solid Oxide Cells (SOCs) were investigated at 700 °C for two cells with different fuel electrode microstructures as well as on a third cell with a reduced active electrode area. Three fuel mixtures were investigated – hydrogen....../steam fuel split into two processes with opposing temperature behavior in the reformate fuels. An 87.5% reduction in active electrode area diminishes the gas conversion impedance in the hydrogen/steam fuel at high fuel flow rates. In both reformates, the second and third lowest frequency processes merged...

  19. Repair technology for steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Chang Hoi; Jung, Young Moo; Seo, Yong Chil; Kim, Jung Su; Seo, Moo Hong

    2001-02-01

    The most commonly used sleeving materials are thermally treated Alloy 600 and thermally treated Alloy 690 Alloy. Currently, thermally treated Alloy 690 and Alloy 800 are being offered although Alloy 800 has not been licensed in the US. To install sleeve, joint strength, leak tightness, PWSCC resistance, evaluation on process parameter range and the effect of equipments and procedures on repair plan and radiation damage have to be investigated before sleeving. ABB CE provides three type of leak tight Alloy 690 TIG welded and PLUSS sleeve. Currently, Direct Tube Repair technique using Nd:YAG laser has been developed by ABB CE and Westinghouse. FTI has brazed and kinetic sleeve designs for recirculating steam generator and hydraulic and rolled sleeve designs for one-through steam generators. Westinghouse provides HEJ, brazed and laser welded sleeve design. When sleeve is installed in order to repair the damaged S/G tubes, it is certain that defects can be occurred due to the plastic induced stress and thermal stress. Therefore it is important to minimize the residual stress. FTI provides the electrosleeve technique as a future repair candidate using electroplating.

  20. Repair technology for steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Chang Hoi; Jung, Young Moo; Seo, Yong Chil; Kim, Jung Su; Seo, Moo Hong

    2001-02-01

    The most commonly used sleeving materials are thermally treated Alloy 600 and thermally treated Alloy 690 Alloy. Currently, thermally treated Alloy 690 and Alloy 800 are being offered although Alloy 800 has not been licensed in the US. To install sleeve, joint strength, leak tightness, PWSCC resistance, evaluation on process parameter range and the effect of equipments and procedures on repair plan and radiation damage have to be investigated before sleeving. ABB CE provides three type of leak tight Alloy 690 TIG welded and PLUSS sleeve. Currently, Direct Tube Repair technique using Nd:YAG laser has been developed by ABB CE and Westinghouse. FTI has brazed and kinetic sleeve designs for recirculating steam generator and hydraulic and rolled sleeve designs for one-through steam generators. Westinghouse provides HEJ, brazed and laser welded sleeve design. When sleeve is installed in order to repair the damaged S/G tubes, it is certain that defects can be occurred due to the plastic induced stress and thermal stress. Therefore it is important to minimize the residual stress. FTI provides the electrosleeve technique as a future repair candidate using electroplating

  1. Numerical simulation of effect of catalyst wire-mesh pressure drop characteristics on flow distribution in catalytic parallel plate steam reformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    Steam reforming of hydrocarbons using a catalytic plate-type-heat-exchanger (CPHE) reformer is an attractive method of producing hydrogen for a fuel cell-based micro combined-heat-and-power system. In this study the flow distribution in a CPHE reformer, which uses a coated wire-mesh catalyst...

  2. Activity Tests of Macro-Meso Porous Catalysts over Metal Foam Plate for Steam Reforming of Bio-Ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, No-Kuk; Jeong, Yong Han; Kang, Misook; Lee, Tae Jin

    2018-09-01

    The catalytic activity of a macro-mesoporous catalyst coated on a metal foam plate in the reforming of bio-ethanol to synthesis gas was investigated. The catalysts were prepared by coating a support with a noble metal and transition metal. The catalytic activity for the production of synthetic gas by the reforming of bio-ethanol was compared according to the support material, reaction temperature, and steam/carbon ratio. The catalysts coated on the metal foams were prepared using a template method, in which macro-pores and meso-pores were formed by mixing polymer beads. In particular, the thermodynamic equilibrium composition of bio-ethanol reforming with the reaction temperature and steam/carbon ratio to produce synthetic gas was examined using the HSC (Enthalpy-Entropy-Heat capacity) chemistry program in this study. The composition of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the reformate gas produced by steam reforming over the Rh/Ni-Ce-Zr/Al2O3-based pellet type catalysts and metal foam catalysts that had been coated with the Rh/Al-Ce-Zr-based catalysts was investigated by experimental activity tests. The activity of the metal foam catalyst was higher than that of the pellet type catalyst.

  3. Hydrogen Production via Steam Reforming of Ethyl Alcohol over Palladium/Indium Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Umegaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synergetic effect between palladium and indium oxide on hydrogen production in the steam reforming reaction of ethyl alcohol. The palladium/indium oxide catalyst shows higher hydrogen production rate than indium oxide and palladium. Palladium/indium oxide affords ketonization of ethyl alcohol with negligible by-product carbon monoxide, while indium oxide mainly affords dehydration of ethyl alcohol, and palladium affords decomposition of ethyl alcohol with large amount of by-product carbon monoxide. The catalytic feature of palladium/indium oxide can be ascribed to the formation of palladium-indium intermetallic component during the reaction as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.

  4. Methane Steam Reforming over an Ni-YSZ Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode in Stack Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mogensen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of catalytic steam reforming of methane over an Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC have been investigated with the cell placed in a stack configuration. In order to decrease the degree of conversion, a single cell stack with reduced area was used. Measurements were performed in the temperature range 600–800°C and the partial pressures of all reactants and products were varied. The obtained rates could be well fitted with a power law expression (r ∝PCH40.7. A simple model is presented which is capable of predicting the methane conversion in a stack configuration from intrinsic kinetics of the anode support material. The predictions are compared with the stack measurements presented here, and good agreement is observed.

  5. Direct Hysteresis Heating of Catalytically Active Ni–Co Nanoparticles as Steam Reforming Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Engbæk, Jakob Soland; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated a proof-of-concept catalytic steam reforming flow reactor system heated only by supported magnetic nickel–cobalt nanoparticles in an oscillating magnetic field. The heat transfer was facilitated by the hysteresis heating in the nickel–cobalt nanoparticles alone. This produced...... a sufficient power input to equilibrate the reaction at above 780 °C with more than 98% conversion of methane. The high conversion of methane indicated that Co-rich nanoparticles with a high Curie temperature provide sufficient heat to enable the endothermic reaction, with the catalytic activity facilitated...... by the Ni content in the nanoparticles. The magnetic hysteresis losses obtained from temperature-dependent hysteresis measurements were found to correlate well with the heat generation in the system. The direct heating of the catalytic system provides a fast heat transfer and thereby overcomes the heat...

  6. Methanol steam reforming over Cu/CeO2 catalysts: influence of zinc addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tonelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol steam reforming reaction was studied over Cu(5 wt.%/CeO2 with and without the presence of Zn. The Zn addition decreased the Cu+2 reducibility and increased the oxygen mobility of ceria. The main products were CO2 and H2 with small amount of CO. Selectivity to CO decreased with the Zn addition and it was lower at lower reaction temperatures and lower space velocities. At 230 ºC and W/F MeOH = 648 g min mol-1 selectivities to H2 and to CO2 were 100% on Zn/Cu/Ce. The catalytic results indicated that CO was mainly a secondary product formed from reverse water gas shift reaction.

  7. Structured reactors as alternative to pellets catalyst for propane oxidative steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vita, A.; Pino, L.; Cipiti, F.; Lagana, M.; Recupero, V. [CNR - Institute for Advanced Energy Technologies ' ' Nicola Giordano' ' , Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5, 98126 Messina (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    The performance of a Pt/CeO{sub 2} catalyst as packed bed, coated on monolith and as self-structured bed has been evaluated during C{sub 3}H{sub 8} oxidative steam reforming. Structured bed, prepared by a new aqueous tape casting method, combining high total porosity (80%) with a self-supported channel structure, offers a better and more efficient control of heat and mass transfer along the catalytic bed, showing, especially at high gas hourly space velocity (30 x 10{sup 4} h{sup -1}), better performance in terms of fuel conversion, hydrogen production and low by-products formation coupled with an economy of the catalyst of about to 43% with respect to the traditional packed bed system. (author)

  8. Hydrogen production from steam methane reforming and electrolysis as part of a near-term hydrogen infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, K.

    2003-01-01

    Building a complete hydrogen infrastructure for a transportation system based on Fuel Cells (FC) and hydrogen is a risky and expensive ordeal, especially given that it is not known with complete certainty that Fuel Cells will indeed replace the gasoline ICE. But how can we expect the diffusion of an automotive technology if there is no infrastructure to support its fuel needs? This gives rise to a chicken and egg type problem. One way to get around this problem is to produce hydrogen when and where it is needed. This solves the problems of high costs associated with expensive pipeline distribution networks, the high energy-intensities associated with liquefaction of hydrogen and the high costs of cryogenic equipment. This paper will consider the advantages and disadvantages of two such hydrogen production mechanisms, namely, onsite production of hydrogen from Electrolysis and onsite production of hydrogen from Steam Methane Reforming (SMR). Although SMR hydrogen may be more economical due to the availability and low cost of methane, under certain market and technological conditions onsite electrolytic hydrogen can be more attractive. The paper analyses the final price of delivered hydrogen based on its sensitivity to market conditions and technology developments. (author)

  9. Optimization of a Pd-based membrane reactor for hydrogen production from methane steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, A.J.; Hori, C.E.; Silva, L.C.; Murata, V.V. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: adilsonjassis@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    In this work, it is proposed a phenomenological model in steady state to describe the performance of a membrane reactor for hydrogen production through methane steam reform as well as it is performed an optimization of operating conditions. The model is composed by a set of ordinary differential equations from mass, energy and momentum balances and constitutive relations. They were used two different intrinsic kinetic expressions from literature. The results predicted by the model were validated using experimental data. They were investigated the effect of five important process parameters, inlet reactor pressure (PR0), methane feed flow rate (FCH40), sweep gas flow rate (FI), external reactor temperature (TW) and steam to methane feed flow ratio (M), both on methane conversion (XCH{sub 4} ) and hydrogen recovery (YH{sub 2}). The best operating conditions were obtained through simple parametric optimization and by a method based on gradient, which uses the computer code DIRCOL in FORTRAN. It is shown that high methane conversion (96%) as well as hydrogen recovery (91%) can be obtained, using the optimized conditions. (author)

  10. Catalytic steam reforming of tar derived from steam gasification of sunflower stalk over ethylene glycol assisting prepared Ni/MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnjanakom, Surachai; Guan, Guoqing; Asep, Bayu; Du, Xiao; Hao, Xiaogang; Samart, Chanatip; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni/MCM-41 was prepared by EG-assisted co-impregnation method. • EG-assisted co-impregnation method resulted in Ni particles well dispersed on MCM-41. • Ni/MCM-41-EG catalyst had high catalytic activity for tar reforming. • The highest H 2 gas yield was obtained when using 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41-EG. • The catalysts were reused up to 5 cycles without any serious deactivation. - Abstract: Ethylene glycol (EG) assisted impregnation of nickel catalyst on MCM-41 (Ni/MCM-41-EG) was performed and applied for steam reforming of tar derived from biomass. The catalyst was characterized by SEM–EDX, BET, XRD, and TPR. It is found that smaller nickel particles were well dispersed on MCM-41 and better catalytic activity was shown for the Ni/MCM-41-EG when compared with the catalyst of Ni/MCM-41 prepared by using the conventional impregnation method. H 2 yield increased approximately 8% when using 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41-EG instead of 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41 for the steam reforming of tar derived from sunflower stalk. The catalyst reusability was also tested up to five cycles, and no obvious activity reduction was observed. It indicates that EG assisted impregnation method is a good way to prepare metal loaded porous catalyst with high catalytic activity, high loading amount and long-term stability for the tar reforming

  11. Recent technology for nuclear steam turbine-generator units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shin-ichi; Kuwashima, Hidesumi; Ueno, Takeshi; Ooi, Masao

    1988-01-01

    As the next nuclear power plants subsequent to the present 1,100 MWe plants, the technical development of ABWRs was completed, and the plan for constructing the actual plants is advanced. As for the steam turbine and generator facilities of 1,350 MWe output applied to these plants, the TC6F-52 type steam turbines using 52 in long blades, moisture separation heaters, butterfly type intermediate valves, feed heater drain pumping-up system and other new technologies for increasing the capacity and improving the thermal efficiency were adopted. In this paper, the outline of the main technologies of those and the state of examination when those are applied to the actual plants are described. As to the technical fields of the steam turbine system for ABWRs, the improvement of the total technologies of the plants was promoted, aiming at the good economical efficiency, reliability and thermal efficiency of the whole facilities, not only the main turbines. The basic specification of the steam turbine facilities for 50 Hz ABWR plants and the main new technologies applied to the turbines are shown. The development of 52 in long last stage blades, the development of the analysis program for the coupled vibration of the large rotor system, the development of moisture separation heaters, the turbine control system, condensate and feed water system, and the generators are described. (Kako, I.)

  12. Co-Fe-Si Aerogel Catalytic Honeycombs for Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Domínguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt talc doped with iron (Fe/Co~0.1 and dispersed in SiO2 aerogel was prepared from silica alcogel impregnated with metal nitrates by supercritical drying. Catalytic honeycombs were prepared following the same procedure, with the alcogel synthesized directly over cordierite honeycomb pieces. The composite aerogel catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, focus ion beam, specific surface area and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic layer is about 8 µm thick and adheres well to the cordierite support. It is constituted of talc layers of about 1.5 µm × 300 nm × 50 nm which are well dispersed and anchored in a SiO2 aerogel matrix with excellent mass-transfer properties. The catalyst was tested in the ethanol steam reforming reaction, aimed at producing hydrogen for on-board, on-demand applications at moderate temperature (573–673 K and pressure (1–7 bar. Compared to non-promoted cobalt talc, the catalyst doped with iron produces less methane as byproduct, which can only be reformed at high temperature, thereby resulting in higher hydrogen yields. At 673 K and 2 bar, 1.04 NLH2·mLEtOH(l−1·min−1 are obtained at S/C = 3 and W/F = 390 g·min·molEtOH−1.

  13. Modeling and simulation of a packed bed reactor for hydrogen by methanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboudheir, A.; Idem, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The performance of a catalytic packed bed tubular reactor for hydrogen production depends on mass transport characteristics and temperature distribution in the reactor. To accurately predict this performance, a rigorous numerical model has been developed based on coupled mass, energy, and momentum balance equations in cylindrical coordinates. This comprehensive model takes into account the variations of the concentration and temperature in both the axial and radial directions as well as the pressure drop along the packed reactor. Also, experimental measurements for hydrogen production were collected using a manganese-promoted co-precipitated Cu-Al catalyst for methanol-steam reforming in a micro-reactor having 10 mm i.d. and 460 mm overall length. The operating temperature ranged from 443 to 523 K and the space-time ranged from 0.1 to 2.5 kg cat h/kmol CH3OH. The simulation results were found to be in close agreement with the experimental data over the various operating conditions. This confirms the validity of both the numerical model of this work and our previous published kinetics models for this reaction system. In addition, the model formulation is applicable to handle reactions, not only for the microreactor presented in this work, but also, for other laboratory size and industrial scale processes for hydrogen production by hydrocarbon reformation. (author)

  14. Direct internal steam reforming of ethanol in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) - A thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima da Silva, Aline; De Fraga Malfatti, Celia; Heck, Nestor Cesar; Melo Halmenschlager, Cibele

    2003-01-01

    Among the various types of fuel cells, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has attracted considerable interest due to the possibility for operation with an internal reformer and higher system efficiency. In SOFC, high operative temperature allows the direct conversion of ethanol into H 2 and CO to take place in the electrochemical cell. Ethanol is considered to be an attractive fuel because it is a renewable energy source and presents some advantages over other green fuels such as safety in storage and handling. Direct internal reforming of ethanol, however, can produce undesirable products that diminish system efficiency and, in the case of carbon deposition over the anode, promote the growth of carbon filaments attached to the anode crystallites which generate massive forces within the electrode structure leading to its rapid breakdown. In this context, a thermodynamic analysis is fundamental to predict the product distribution as well as the conditions favorable for carbon to precipitate inside the cell. Despite of such importance, there are few works in literature dealing with thermodynamic analysis of the direct internal steam reforming of ethanol in fuel cell systems. Hence, the aim of this work is to find appropriate ranges for operating conditions where carbon deposition in SOFC with direct internal reforming operation is not feasible, in temperature range of 500- 1200K. The calculation here is more complicated than that for a reformer because the disappearance of hydrogen and the generation of H 2 O from electrochemical reaction must be taken into account. In the present study, the effects of hydrogen consumption on anode components and on carbon formation are investigated. Equilibrium determinations are performed by the Gibbs energy minimization method, considering the following species: H 2 , H 2 O, CH 4 , CO, CO 2 and C gr . (graphite). The effect of the type of solid electrolyte (oxygen-conducting and hydrogen-conducting) on carbon formation is also

  15. Effects of electric current upon catalytic steam reforming of biomass gasification tar model compounds to syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jun; Lu, Qiang; Dong, Changqing; Du, Xiaoze; Dahlquist, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ECR technique was proposed to convert biomass gasification tar model compounds. • Electric current enhanced the reforming efficiency remarkably. • The highest toluene conversion reached 99.9%. • Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 exhibited good stability during the ECR performance. - Abstract: Electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR) technique, known as electric current enhanced catalytic reforming technique, was proposed to convert the biomass gasification tar into syngas. In this study, Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst was prepared, and toluene was employed as the major feedstock for ECR experiments using a fixed-bed lab-scale setup where thermal electrons could be generated and provided to the catalyst. Several factors, including the electric current intensity, reaction temperature and steam/carbon (S/C) ratio, were investigated to reveal their effects on the conversion of toluene as well as the composition of the gas products. Moreover, toluene, two other tar model compounds (benzene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and real tar (tar-containing wastewater) were subjected to the long period catalytic stability tests. All the used catalysts were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. The results indicated that the presence of electric current enhanced the catalytic performance remarkably. The toluene conversion reached 99.9% under the electric current of 4 A, catalytic temperature of 800 °C and S/C ratio of 3. Stable conversion performances of benzene, 1-methylnaphthalene and tar-containing wastewater were also observed in the ECR process. H 2 and CO were the major gas products, while CO 2 and CH 4 were the minor ones. Due to the promising capability, the ECR technique deserves further investigation and application for efficient tar conversion

  16. Maintenance and plugging technology for CANDU steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, J.; Nicholson, A.; Hare, J.; McGoey, L.; Stafford, T.; Gowthorpe, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to keep aging steam generators in service and to successfully manage the life of these critical components, the capability must exist to perform tube plugging and other complex maintenance activities in-situ. In the early days of CANDU steam generator operation, the only option was to perform these activities manually, which had inherent safety and quality risks. The challenge was to be able to perform these activities remotely thus eliminating some of the confined space and radiological exposure risks. The additional challenge was to develop equipment and techniques which would result in significantly improved quality, particularly for the completed plug welds which would be returned to service. Over the past fifteen years, this technology has matured and has produced remarkable results in field application. Some 14000 tube plugs have been successfully installed to date using automated plugging techniques. This paper presents an overview of the development of techniques available to utilities for steam generator tube plugging as well as some highlights of other steam generator tube maintenance activities such as primary side tube removal and tube end damage repair. Aspects covered in the paper include plug and procedure development, automated equipment and manipulators for tool deployment, process controls and personnel requirements. Recently, the steam generator tube plugging performed by OPG has been incorporated into a formal quality program under the requirements of ASME NCA 4000. An overview of the quality program will be presented and details of some of the important aspects of the quality program will be discussed. (author)

  17. Hydrogen production by enhanced-sorption chemical looping steam reforming of glycerol in moving-bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Binlin; Song, Yongchen; Wang, Chao; Chen, Haisheng; Yang, Mingjun; Xu, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New approach on continuous high-purity H 2 produced auto-thermally with long time. • Low-cost NiO/NiAl 2 O 4 exhibited high redox performance to H 2 from glycerol. • Oxidation, steam reforming, WSG and CO 2 capture were combined into a reactor. • H 2 purity of above 90% was produced without heating at 1.5–3.0 S/C and 500–600 °C. • Sorbent regeneration and catalyst oxidization achieved simultaneously in a reactor. - Abstract: The continuous high-purity hydrogen production by the enhanced-sorption chemical looping steam reforming of glycerol based on redox reactions integrated with in situ CO 2 removal has been experimentally studied. The process was carried out by a flow of catalyst and sorbent mixture using two moving-bed reactors. Various unit operations including oxidation, steam reforming, water gas shrift reaction and CO 2 removal were combined into a single reactor for hydrogen production in an overall economic and efficient process. The low-cost NiO/NiAl 2 O 4 catalyst efficiently converted glycerol and steam to H 2 by redox reactions and the CO 2 produced in the process was simultaneously removed by CaO sorbent. The best results with an enriched hydrogen product of above 90% in auto-thermal operation for reforming reactor were achieved at initial temperatures of 500–600 °C and ratios of steam to carbon (S/C) of 1.5–3.0. The results indicated also that not all of NiO in the catalyst can be reduced to Ni by the reaction with glycerol, and the reduced Ni can be oxidized to NiO by air at 900 °C. The catalyst oxidization and sorbent regeneration were achieved under the same conditions in air reactor

  18. PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol Steam Reforming, and Reverse-Water-Gas-Shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Platon, Alexandru; Datye, Abhaya K.; Vohs, John M.; Wang, Yong; Palo, Daniel R.

    2008-03-07

    Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were studied for water-gas-shift (WGS), methanol steam reforming, and reverse-water-gas-shift (RWGS) reactions. WGS activity was found to be dependent on the Pd:Zn ratio with a maximum activity obtained at approximately 0.50, which was comparable to that of a commercial Pt-based catalyst. The catalyst stability was demonstrated for 100 hours time-on-stream at a temperature of 3600C without evidence of metal sintering. WGS reaction rates were approximately 1st order with respect to CO concentration, and kinetic parameters were determined to be Ea = 58.3 kJ mol-1 and k0 = 6.1x107 min-1. During methanol steam reforming, the CO selectivities were observed to be lower than the calculated equilibrium values over a range of temperatures and steam/carbon ratios studied while the reaction rate constants were approximately of the same magnitude for both WGS and methanol steam reforming. These results indicate that although Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 are active WGS catalysts, WGS is not involved in methanol steam reforming. RWGS rate constants are on the order of about 20 times lower than that of methanol steam reforming, suggesting that RWGS reaction could be one of the sources for small amount of CO formation in methanol steam reforming.

  19. Recent technology on steam turbine performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirada, M.; Watanabe, E.; Tashiro, H.

    1991-01-01

    Continuous efforts have been made to improve turbine efficiency by applying the latest aerodynamic technologies to meet the energy saving requirement. In recent years, there has been considerable improvement in the field of computational fluid dynamics and these new technologies have been applied to the new blade design for HP, IP and LP turbines. Experimental verification for the new blade in turbine tests has established the overall turbine performance improvement and the excellent correspondence of flow pattern to the predicted value. This paper introduces the latest design technologies for the newly developed high efficiency blade and the verification test results

  20. Steam-assisted gravity drainage technology enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, S.; Menshikova, I.

    2018-05-01

    A hydrodynamic model of a region of Yaregskoye heavy oilfield was build. The results of the simulation have shown that injection capacity along the wellbore of a horizontal well is not uniform. It is determined by the geological heterogeneity of the formation. Therefore, there is importance of enhancing SAGD technology for Yaregskoye oilfield. A new technology was created. The efficiency of the technology is proved by numerical modelling. Horizontal injector and two-wellhead production wells penetrate the formation. Horizontal sections of the wells are located one above the other in the payzone. Wells are divided into two sections. Those sections work simultaneously and independently of one another. This technology allows to increase oil recovery of the oilfield.

  1. Steam reforming of methane over Pt/Rh based wire mesh catalyst in single channel reformer for small scale syngas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    of a catalytic parallel plate type heat exchanger (CPHE) reformer stack, where coated Pt/Rh based wire mesh is used as a catalyst. Heat is supplied to the endothermic reaction with infrared electric heaters. All the experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure and at stable operating conditions......The purpose of this study is to investigate a small scale steam methane reformer for syngas production for a micro combined heat and power (mCPH) unit under different operational conditions. The study presents an experimental analysis of the performance of a specially built single channel...... to evaluate the effect of flow maldistribution in a CPHE reformer stack on the CH4 conversion and H2 yield....

  2. Modification of Catalysts for Steam Reforming of Fluid Hydrocarbons. Research of Gas-Dynamic Duct Cooling Using Planar and Framework Catalysts (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuranov, Alexander L

    2005-01-01

    .... One way of fuel conversion is the catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbon. This reaction has a large heat capacity and gives maximum quantity of molecular hydrogen among known reactions of hydrocarbons...

  3. Process for manufacture of a catalyst suitable for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons and for obtaining methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golebiowski, A.; Romotowski, T.; Hennel, W.; Wroblewska-Wroblewska, T.; Polanski, A.; Janecki, Z.; Paluch-Paluch, S.

    1982-07-29

    The invention concerns a process for the manufacture of a catalyst suitable for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons or for obtaining methane, by the deposition of the catalytic components on a metal carrier with a large surface area, particularly a process for the manufacture of a solid nickel catalyst, which is suitable for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons, particularly of methane. The following steps of the process are carried out: producing a highly porous layer of spongy metal from Ni powder on the side of a metal wall away from a heat medium, which separates the reaction mixture from the heat medium, then separate application of a non-reducing oxide (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and a reducing oxide (nickel oxide) on the spongy metal by soaking with metal salt solution and then roasting in the temperature range of 400 to 1200/sup 0/C.

  4. A comparative economic assessment of hydrogen production from coke oven gas, water electrolysis and steam reforming of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Y.V.; Ngo, Y.A.; Tinkler, M.J.; Cowan, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the comparative economics of producing hydrogen for the hydrogen economy by recovering it from waste gases from the steel industry, by water electrolysis and by conventional steam reforming of natural gas. Steel makers produce coke for their blast furnace operation by baking coal at high temperature in a reduced environment in their coke ovens. These ovens produce a coke oven gas from the volatiles in the coal. The gas, containing up to 60% hydrogen, is commonly used for its heating value with some of it being flared. The feasibility of recovering this hydrogen from the gas will be presented. A comparison of this opportunity with that of hydrogen from water electrolysis using low cost off-peak electricity from nuclear energy will be made. The impact of higher daily average electricity rate in Ontario will be discussed. The benefits of these opportunities compared with those from conventional steam reforming of natural gas will be highlighted. (author)

  5. Hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming carried out in membrane reactor on Cu/Zn/Mg-based catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basile, A.; Parmaliana, A.; Tosti, S.; Iulianelli, A.; Gallucci, F.; Espro, C.; Spooren, J.

    2008-01-01

    The methanol steam reforming (MSR) reaction was studied by using both a dense Pd-Ag membrane reactor (MR) and a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Both the FBR and the MR were packed with a new catalyst based on CuOAl2O3ZnOMgO, having an upper temperature limit of around 350 °C. A constant sweep gas flow rate

  6. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY TEST OF CoMo/ZnO CATALYST ON ETHANOL CONVERSION USING STEAM REFORMING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wega Trisunaryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity test of CoMo/ZnO catalyst for steam reforming of ethanol have been investigated. The catalysts preparation was carried out by impregnation of Co and/or Mo onto ZnO sample. Water excess was used in ethanol feed for steam reforming process under mol ratio of ethanol:water (1:10. Characterizations of catalysts were conducted by analysis of metal content using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Determination of catalysts acidity was conducted by gravimetric method of adsorption of pyridine base. Catalytic activity test on ethanol conversion using steam reforming method was conducted in a semi-flow reactor system, at a temperature of 400 oC, for 1.5 h under N2 flow rate of 10 mL/min. Gas product was analyzed by gas chromatograph with TCD system. The results of catalysts characterizations showed that the impregnation of Co and/or Mo metals on ZnO sample increased its acidity and specific surface area. The content of Co in Co/ZnO and CoMo/ZnO catalysts was 1.14 and 0.49 wt%. The Mo content in CoMo/ZnO catalyst was 0.36 wt%. The catalytic activity test result on ethanol conversion showed that the ZnO, Co/ZnO, and CoMo/ZnO catalysts produced gas fraction of 16.73, 28.53, and 35.53 wt%, respectively. The coke production of ZnO, Co/ZnO, and CoMo/ZnO catalysts was 0.86, 0.24, and 0.08 wt%, respectively. The gas products consisted mainly of hydrogen.   Keywords: CoMo/ZnO catalyst, steam reforming, ethanol

  7. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 °C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction.

  8. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Bucaramanga 678 (Colombia)

    2009-07-01

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction. (author)

  9. Process Technology Development of Ni Electroplating in Steam Generator Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, H. P.; Lim, Y. S.; Kim, S. S.; Hwang, S. S.; Yi, Y. S.; Kim, D. J.; Jeong, M. K.

    2009-11-01

    Operating nuclear power steam generator tubing material, Alloy 600, having superior resistance to corrosion has many experiences of damage by various corrosion mechanisms during long term operation period. In this research project, a new Ni electroplating technology to be applied to repair the damaged steam generator tubes has been developed. In this technology development, the optimum conditions for variables affecting the Ni electroplating process, optimum process conditions for maximum adhesion forces at interface between were established. The various mechanical properties (RT and HT tensile, fatigue, creep, burst, etc.) and corrosion properties (general corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, boric acid corrosion, doped steam) of the Ni plated layers made at the established optimum conditions have been evaluated and confirmed to satisfy the specifications. In addition, a new ECT probe developed at KAERI enable to detect defects from magnetic materials was confirmed to be used for Ni electroplated Alloy 600 tubes at the field. For the application of this developed technology to operating plants, a mock-up electroplating system has been designed and manufactured, and set up at Doosan Heavy Industry Co. and also its performance test has been done. At same time, the anode probe has been modified and improved to be used with the established mock-up system without any problem

  10. Methanol steam reforming over Pd/ZnO and Pd/CeO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Easwar S.; Bej, Shyamal K.; Thompson, Levi T. [University of Michigan, Department of Chemical Engineering, 3026 H.H. Dow Building, 2300 Hayward Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 (United States)

    2005-08-10

    The goal of work described in this paper was to better understand the methanol steam reforming (MSR) activity and selectivity patterns of ZnO and CeO{sub 2} supported Pd catalysts. This reaction is being used to produce H{sub 2}-rich gas for a number of applications including hydrogen fuel cells. The Pd/ZnO catalysts had lower MSR rates but were more selective for the production of CO{sub 2} than the Pd/CeO{sub 2} catalysts. The CH{sub 3}OH conversion rates were proportional to the H{sub 2} chemisorption uptake suggesting that the rate determining step was catalyzed by Pd. The corresponding turnover frequencies averaged 0.8+/-0.3s{sup -1} and 0.4+/-0.2s{sup -1} at 230{sup o}C for the Pd/ZnO and Pd/CeO{sub 2} catalysts, respectively. The selectivities are explained based on the reaction pathways, and characteristics of the support. The key surface intermediate appeared to be a formate. The ZnO supported catalysts had a higher density of acidic sites and favored pathways where the intermediate was converted to CO{sub 2} while the CeO{sub 2} supported catalysts had a higher density of basic sites and favored the production of CO.

  11. Sorption-enhanced steam reforming of ethanol: thermodynamic comparison of CO{sub 2} sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.J.; Santos, J.C.; Cunha, A.F.; Rodrigues, A.E. [University of Porto, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Associated Laboratory LSRE/LCM, Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Porto (Portugal); Diaz Alvarado, F.; Gracia, F. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Biotecnologia, Laboratorio de Catalisis, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-05-15

    A thermodynamic analysis is performed with a Gibbs free energy minimization method to compare the conventional steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) process and sorption-enhanced SRE (SE-SRE) with three different sorbents, namely, CaO, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, and hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc). As a result, the use of a CO{sub 2} adsorbent can enhance the hydrogen yield and provide a lower CO content in the product gas at the same time. The best performance of SE-SRE is found to be at 500 C with an HTlc sorbent. Nearly 6 moles hydrogen per mole ethanol can be produced, when the CO content in the vent stream is less than 10 ppm, so that the hydrogen produced via SE-SRE with HTlc sorbents can be directly used for fuel cells. Higher pressures do not favor the overall SE-SRE process due to lower yielding of hydrogen, although CO{sub 2} adsorption is enhanced. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Effect of microwave double absorption on hydrogen generation from methanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Bo-Jhih [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Hydrogen generation from steam reforming of methanol (SRM) with a CuO/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was investigated in the study; particular emphasis was placed on the reactions of SRM exposed to an environment with microwave irradiation. By virtue of the double absorption of microwaves by both the reagents and the catalyst, the experiments suggested that the SRM could be heated and triggered rapidly within a short time, and the methanol conversion from SRM with microwave heating was high compared to that with conventional heating. The obtained results also indicated that, when the reaction temperature was as high as 250 C, thermodynamic equilibrium governed the SRM, whereas the reaction was kinetically controlled for the temperature lower than 250 C. Contrary to Le Chatelier's principle, it was noted that an increase in S/C ratio decreased methanol conversion. This can be explained by the fact that water absorbs microwave irradiation stronger than methanol. The performance of the SRM was evaluated based on the carbon conservation method and the nitrogen tracer method. It was found that the latter was also capable of providing an accurate prediction on methanol conversion, even though the flow rate of the product gas was not measured. (author)

  13. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M. email toddn@inel.gov

    2002-01-01

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train

  14. Methanol Steam Reforming Promoted by Molten Salt-Modified Platinum on Alumina Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, Matthias; Agel, Friederike; Ní Bhriain, Nollaig; Kaftan, Andre; Laurin, Mathias; Libuda, Jörg; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We herein describe a straight forward procedure to increase the performance of platinum-on-alumina catalysts in methanol steam reforming by applying an alkali hydroxide coating according to the “solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer” (SCILL) approach. We demonstrate by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies that potassium doping plays an important role in the catalyst activation. Moreover, the hygroscopic nature and the basicity of the salt modification contribute to the considerable enhancement in catalytic performance. During reaction, a partly liquid film of alkali hydroxides/carbonates forms on the catalyst/alumina surface, thus significantly enhancing the availability of water at the catalytically active sites. Too high catalyst pore fillings with salt introduce a considerable mass transfer barrier into the system as indicated by kinetic studies. Thus, the optimum interplay between beneficial catalyst modification and detrimental mass transfer effects had to be identified and was found on the applied platinum-on-alumina catalyst at KOH loadings around 7.5 mass %. PMID:25124120

  15. Preparation of Palladium-Impregnated Ceria by Metal Complex Decomposition for Methane Steam Reforming Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawat Wattanathana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-impregnated ceria materials were successfully prepared via an integrated procedure between a metal complex decomposition method and a microwave-assisted wetness impregnation. Firstly, ceria (CeO2 powders were synthesized by thermal decomposition of cerium(III complexes prepared by using cerium(III nitrate or cerium(III chloride as a metal source to form a metal complex precursor with triethanolamine or benzoxazine dimer as an organic ligand. Palladium(II nitrate was consequently introduced to the preformed ceria materials using wetness impregnation while applying microwave irradiation to assist dispersion of the dopant. The palladium-impregnated ceria materials were obtained by calcination under reduced atmosphere of 10% H2 in He stream at 700°C for 2 h. Characterization of the palladium-impregnated ceria materials reveals the influences of the metal complex precursors on the properties of the obtained materials. Interestingly, the palladium-impregnated ceria prepared from the cerium(III-benzoxazine dimer complex revealed significantly higher BET specific surface area and higher content of the more active Pdδ+ (δ > 2 species than the materials prepared from cerium(III-triethanolamine complexes. Consequently, it exhibited the most efficient catalytic activity in the methane steam reforming reaction. By optimization of the metal complex precursors, characteristics of the obtained palladium-impregnated ceria catalysts can be modified and hence influence the catalytic activity.

  16. Optimization of catalytic glycerol steam reforming to light olefins using Cu/ZSM-5 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Z.Y.; Amin, N.A.S.; Linnekoski, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Glycerol steam reforming to light olefin using Cu/ZSM-5 process was optimized. • Response surface methodology and multi-objective genetic algorithm were employed. • Second order polynomial model produced adequately fitted experimental data. • Thermodynamic study inferred high temperature requirement for ethylene formation. • Turn-over-frequency at optimized responses is higher than the non-optimized process. - Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the process parameters for catalytic conversion of glycerol, a byproduct from biodiesel production, to light olefins using Cu/ZSM-5 catalyst. The effects of operating temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and glycerol concentration on light olefins selectivity and yield were observed. Experimental results revealed the data adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model. The linear temperature and quadratic WHSV terms gave significant effect on both responses. Optimization of both the responses indicated that temperature favouring high light olefin formation lied beyond the experimental design range. The trend in the temperature profile concurred commensurately with the thermodynamic analysis. Multi-objective genetic algorithm was performed to attain a single set of processing parameters that could produce both the highest light olefin selectivity and yield. The turn-over-frequency (TOF) of the optimized responses demonstrated a slightly higher value than the one which was not optimized. Combination of RSM, multi-objective response and thermodynamic is useful to determine the process optimal operating conditions for industrial applications

  17. Mechanistic Insights into Catalytic Ethanol Steam Reforming Using Isotope-Labeled Reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Stephen; Castaldi, Marco J

    2016-08-26

    The low-temperature ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction mechanism over a supported Rh/Pt catalyst has been investigated using isotope-labeled EtOH and H2 O. Through strategic isotope labeling, all nonhydrogen atoms were distinct from one another, and allowed an unprecedented level of understanding of the dominant reaction pathways. All combinations of isotope- and non-isotope-labeled atoms were detected in the products, thus there are multiple pathways involved in H2 , CO, CO2 , CH4 , C2 H4 , and C2 H6 product formation. Both the recombination of C species on the surface of the catalyst and preservation of the C-C bond within ethanol are responsible for C2 product formation. Ethylene is not detected until conversion drops below 100 % at t=1.25 h. Also, quantitatively, 57 % of the observed ethylene is formed directly through ethanol dehydration. Finally there is clear evidence to show that oxygen in the SiO2 -ZrO2 support constitutes 10 % of the CO formed during the reaction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Catalytic activity of cobalt and cerium catalysts supported on calcium hydroxyapatite in ethanol steam reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobosz Justyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Co,Ce/Ca10(PO46(OH2 catalysts with various cobalt loadings for steam reforming of ethanol (SRE were prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal and sol-gel methods, and characterized by XRD, TEM, TPR-H2, N2 adsorption-desorption measurements and cyclohexanol (CHOL decomposition tests. High ethanol conversion (close to 100% was obtained for the catalysts prepared by both methods but these ones prepared under hydrothermal conditions (HAp-H ensured higher hydrogen yield (3.49 mol H2/mol C2H5OH as well as higher amount of hydrogen formed (up to 70% under reaction conditions. The superior performance of 5Co,10Ce/HAp-H catalyst is thought to be due to a combination of factors, including increased reducibility and oxygen mobility, higher density of basic sites on its surface, and improved textural properties. The results also show a significant effect of cobalt loading on catalysts efficiency in hydrogen production: the higher H2 yield exhibit catalysts with lower cobalt content, regardless of the used synthesis method.

  19. Steam generator asset management: integrating technology and asset management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, P.; Cislo, D.

    2006-01-01

    Asset Management is an established but often misunderstood discipline that is gaining momentum within the nuclear generation industry. The global impetus behind the movement toward asset management is sustainability. The discipline of asset management is based upon three fundamental aspects; key performance indicators (KPI), activity-based cost accounting, and cost benefits/risk analysis. The technology associated with these three aspects is fairly well-developed, in all but the most critical area; cost benefits/risk analysis. There are software programs that calculate, trend, and display key-performance indicators to ensure high-level visibility. Activity-based costing is a little more difficult; requiring a consensus on the definition of what comprises an activity and then adjusting cost accounting systems to track. In the United States, the Nuclear Energy Institute's Standard Nuclear Process Model (SNPM) serves as the basis for activity-based costing. As a result, the software industry has quickly adapted to develop tracking systems that include the SNPM structure. Both the KPI's and the activity-based cost accounting feed the cost benefits/risk analysis to allow for continuous improvement and task optimization; the goal of asset management. In the case where the benefits and risks are clearly understood and defined, there has been much progress in applying technology for continuous improvement. Within the nuclear generation industry, more specialized and unique software systems have been developed for active components, such as pumps and motors. Active components lend themselves well to the application of asset management techniques because failure rates can be established, which serves as the basis to quantify risk in the cost-benefits/risk analysis. A key issue with respect to asset management technologies is only now being understood and addressed, that is how to manage passive components. Passive components, such as nuclear steam generators, reactor vessels

  20. Two-dimensional thermal analysis of radial heat transfer of monoliths in small-scale steam methane reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Xiaoti; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2018-01-01

    Monolithic catalysts have received increasing attention for application in the small-scale steam methane reforming process. The radial heat transfer behaviors of monolith reformers were analyzed by two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling. A parameter study was conducted...... by a large number of simulations focusing on the thermal conductivity of the monolith substrate, washcoat layer, wall gap, radiation heat transfer and the geometric parameters (cell density, porosity and diameter of monolith). The effective radial thermal conductivity of the monolith structure, kr......,eff, showed good agreement with predictions made by the pseudo-continuous symmetric model. This influence of the radiation heat transfer is low for highly conductive monoliths. A simplified model has been developed to evaluate the importance of radiation for monolithic reformers under different conditions...

  1. Bi-reforming of methane from any source with steam and carbon dioxide exclusively to metgas (CO-2H2) for methanol and hydrocarbon synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Czaun, Miklos; Prakash, G K Surya

    2013-01-16

    A catalyst based on nickel oxide on magnesium oxide (NiO/MgO) thermally activated under hydrogen is effective for the bi-reforming with steam and CO(2) (combined steam and dry reforming) of methane as well as natural gas in a tubular flow reactor at elevated pressures (5-30 atm) and temperatures (800-950 °C). By adjusting the CO(2)-to-steam ratio in the gas feed, the H(2)/CO ratio in the produced syn-gas could be easily adjusted in a single step to the desired value of 2 for methanol and hydrocarbon synthesis.

  2. Performance and economic assessments of a solid oxide fuel cell system with a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming process using CaO sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen production process is known to be important to a fuel cell system. In this study, a carbon-free hydrogen production process is proposed by using a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming procedure, which consists of ethanol dehydrogenation and steam reforming, as a fuel processor in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. An addition of CaO in the reformer for CO2 capture is also considered to enhance the hydrogen production. The performance of the SOFC system is analyzed under thermally self-sufficient conditions in terms of the technical and economic aspects. The simulation results show that the two-step reforming process can be run in the operating window without carbon formation. The addition of CaO in the steam reformer, which runs at a steam-to-ethanol ratio of 5, temperature of 900 K and atmospheric pressure, minimizes the presence of CO2; 93% CO2 is removed from the steam-reforming environment. This factor causes an increase in the SOFC power density of 6.62%. Although the economic analysis shows that the proposed fuel processor provides a higher capital cost, it offers a reducing active area of the SOFC stack and the most favorable process economics in term of net cost saving.

  3. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline

  4. Radioactive Demonstration Of Final Mineralized Waste Forms For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste By Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Using The Bench Scale Reformer Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137 Cs, 129 I, 99 Tc, Cl, F, and SO 4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form

  5. Steam reforming of cyclic model compounds of bio-oil over Ni-based catalysts: Product distribution and carbon formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2015-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR) of furfural, 2-methylfuran, and guaiacol have been investigated in the temperature range 400-800°C at a steam to carbon (S/C)-ratio of 5 and oxygen to carbon (O/C)-ratio of 0.2-1.4 over Ni/CeO2-K/MgAl2O4. Carbon oxides and H2 were the major...... products in the SR of 2-methylfuran and furfural, while the by-products were methane, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetone. Temperatures of 500°C or above were needed to minimize the formation of by-products in the SR of 2-methylfuran and furfural. Phenolics, like benzenediols and phenol, were produced in high...... yields in the SR of guaiacol and temperatures of 780°C were needed to totally convert guaiacol to carbon oxides and H2.Carbon deposition was observed in the SR of all three model compounds and was most severe for guaiacol followed by furfural and 2-methylfuran. The carbon deposition could be reduced...

  6. Steam reforming of ethanol over Co3O4–Fe2O3 mixed oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, A.

    2013-05-03

    Co3O4, Fe2O3 and a mixture of the two oxides Co-Fe (molar ratio of Co3O4/Fe 2O3 = 0.67 and atomic ratio of Co/Fe = 1) were prepared by the calcination of cobalt oxalate and/or iron oxalate salts at 500 C for 2 h in static air using water as a solvent/dispersing agent. The catalysts were studied in the steam reforming of ethanol to investigate the effect of the partial substitution of Co3O4 with Fe2O 3 on the catalytic behaviour. The reforming activity over Fe 2O3, while initially high, underwent fast deactivation. In comparison, over the Co-Fe catalyst both the H2 yield and stability were higher than that found over the pure Co3O4 or Fe 2O3 catalysts. DRIFTS-MS studies under the reaction feed highlighted that the Co-Fe catalyst had increased amounts of adsorbed OH/water; similar to Fe2O3. Increasing the amount of reactive species (water/OH species) adsorbed on the Co-Fe catalyst surface is proposed to facilitate the steam reforming reaction rather than decomposition reactions reducing by-product formation and providing a higher H2 yield. © Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  8. Effectiveness factors for a commercial steam reforming (Ni) catalyst and for a calcined dolomite used downstream biomass gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J; Narvaez, I; Orio, A [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chem. Eng.

    1997-12-31

    A commercial steam reforming catalyst from BASF, the G1-25 S one, and a calcined dolomite, Norte-1, from Cantabria-Spain, have been used, once crushed and sieved to different particle fractions between 1.0 and 4.0 mm. The materials have been tested downstream small pilot biomass gasifiers, bubbling fluidized bed type, gasifying with air and with steam. The Thiele modulus and the effectiveness factor have been calculated at temperatures of 750-850 deg C. It is experimentally shown that diffusion control plays an important part when particle size is larger than ca. 0.5 mm. This has to be taken into account when comparing the quality of the solids for tar elimination. (author) (5 refs.)

  9. Effectiveness factors for a commercial steam reforming (Ni) catalyst and for a calcined dolomite used downstream biomass gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chem. Eng.

    1996-12-31

    A commercial steam reforming catalyst from BASF, the G1-25 S one, and a calcined dolomite, Norte-1, from Cantabria-Spain, have been used, once crushed and sieved to different particle fractions between 1.0 and 4.0 mm. The materials have been tested downstream small pilot biomass gasifiers, bubbling fluidized bed type, gasifying with air and with steam. The Thiele modulus and the effectiveness factor have been calculated at temperatures of 750-850 deg C. It is experimentally shown that diffusion control plays an important part when particle size is larger than ca. 0.5 mm. This has to be taken into account when comparing the quality of the solids for tar elimination. (author) (5 refs.)

  10. Ethanol steam reforming heated up by molten salt CSP: Reactor assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Falco, Marcello; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper hydrogen production via reforming of ethanol has been studied in a novel hybrid plant consisting in a ethanol reformer and a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant using molten salt as heat carrier fluid. The heat needed for the reforming of ethanol has been supplied to the system by

  11. Ethanol steam reforming heated up by molten salt CSP : reactor assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, de M.; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper hydrogen production via reforming of ethanol has been studied in a novel hybrid plant consisting in a ethanol reformer and a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant using molten salt as heat carrier fluid. The heat needed for the reforming of ethanol has been supplied to the system by

  12. Remarkable support effect on the reactivity of Pt/In2O3/MOx catalysts for methanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Men, Yong; Wang, Jinguo; He, Rong; Wang, Yuanqiang

    2017-10-01

    Effects of supports over Pt/In2O3/MOx catalysts with extremely low loading of Pt (1 wt%) and In2O3 loadings (3 wt%) are investigated for the hydrogen production of methanol steam reforming (MSR) in the temperature range of 250-400 °C. Under practical conditions without the pre-reduction, the 1Pt/3In2O3/CeO2 catalyst shows the highly efficient catalytic performance, achieving almost complete methanol conversion (98.7%) and very low CO selectivity of 2.6% at 325 °C. The supported Pt/In2O3 catalysts are characterized by means of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM), temperature programmed reduction with hydrogen (H2-TPR), CO pulse chemisorption, temperature programmed desorption of methanol and water (CH3OH-TPD and H2O-TPD). These demonstrate that the nature of catalyst support of Pt/In2O3/MOx plays crucial roles in the Pt dispersion associated by the strong interaction among Pt, In2O3 and supporting materials and the surface redox properties at low temperature, and thus affects their capability to activate the reactants and determines the catalytic activity of methanol steam reforming. The superior 1Pt/3In2O3/CeO2 catalyst, exhibiting a remarkable reactivity and stability for 32 h on stream, demonstrates its potential for efficient hydrogen production of methanol steam reforming in mobile and de-centralized H2-fueled PEMFC systems.

  13. Steam reforming: an old process for a new solution; Le vaporeformage catalytique: un vieux procede pour une solution nouvelle...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aupretre, F.; Descorme, C.; Duprez, D. [Poitiers Univ., Lab. de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, LACCO, UMR CNRS 6503, 86 (France)

    2000-07-01

    A bibliographic review allows to understand very quickly the stake that the electric-powered vehicle represents. The research of a hydrogen production process answering to the demands of the fuel cell application is then one of the main stakes. The catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons or of alcohols is a very promising way. The choices of ethanol and of rhodium based catalysts supported on oxides with strong oxygen mobility will be entirely justified because of the physico-chemical characteristics of the ethanol, of the reaction mechanism, of the cerium based oxide catalyst and of the specifications involved in the fuel cell application. (O.M.)

  14. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of ethanol over Ni/MgO-CeO_2 catalyst at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石秋杰; 刘承伟; 谌伟庆

    2009-01-01

    MgO,CeO2 and MgO-CeO2 with different mole ratio of Mg:Ce were prepared by solid-phase burning method.Catalysts Ni/MgO,Ni/CeO2 and Ni/MgO-CeO2 were prepared by impregnation method.The catalytic properties were evaluated in ethanol steam reforming(ESR) reaction.Specific surface areas of the supports were measured by nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K,and the catalysts were characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRD),temperature programmed reduction(TPR) and thermogravimetric(TG).The results showed that well...

  15. Recent technology for BWR nuclear steam turbine unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shin-ichi; Masuda, Toyohiko; Kashiwabara, Katsuto; Oshima, Yoshikuni

    1990-01-01

    As to the ABWR plants which is the third improvement standard boiling water reactor type plants, already the construction of a plant of 1356 MWe class for 50 Hz is planned. Hitachi Ltd. has accumulated the technology for the home manufacture of a whole ABWR plant including a turbine. As the results, the application of a butterfly type combination intermediate valve to No.5 plant in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., which began the commercial operation recently and later plants, the application of a moisture separating heater to No.4 plant in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., which is manufactured at present and later plants and so on were carried out. As to the steam turbine facilities for nuclear power generation manufactured by Hitachi Ltd., three turbines of 1100 MWe class for 50 Hz and one turbine for 60 Hz are in operation. As the new technologies for the steam turbines, the development of 52 in long last stage blades, the new design techniques for the rotor system, the moisture separating heater, the butterfly type combination intermediate valve, cross-around pipes and condensate and feedwater system are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Method of preparing a catalyst suitable for steam reformation of hydrocarbons and for methane production. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golebiowski, A; Romotowski, T; Hennel, W; Wroblewska-Wroblewska, T; Polanski, A; Janecki, Z; Paluch-Paluch, S

    1977-05-26

    A method of producing a nickel catalyst suitable for steam reformation and methane production is described which forms a permanent bond with the inner surface of an externally heated metal tube, e.g. a heat exchanger tube. To begin with, a metal sponge with good adhesion to the metal tube is produced on the basis of a metallic powder of the metal group which is treated by a conventional calcination process. The metal sponge is then covered with a metal oxide which is not reduced under reformation conditions, e.g. aluminium oxide, by wetting the metal sponge with aluminium nitrate and repeated calcination. Wetting and calcination are repeated twice, and the calcination temperature is lower each time in the range between 400 and 1200/sup 0/C. The activated nickel is there deposited by wetting with a nickel salt solution and subsequent calcination.

  17. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming As A Supplementary Treatment For Hanford's Low Activity Waste And Secondary Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-01-01

    , fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of I-125/129 and Tc-99 to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Ninety six grams of radioactive product were made for testing. The second campaign commenced using SRS LAW chemically trimmed to look like Hanford's LAW. Six hundred grams of radioactive product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  18. Mixture preparation by cool flames for diesel-reforming technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.; Lucka, K.; Köhne, H.

    The separation of the evaporation from the high-temperature reaction zone is crucial for the reforming process. Unfavorable mixtures of liquid fuels, water and air lead to degradation by local hot spots in the sensitive catalysts and formation of unwanted by-products in the reformer. Furthermore, the evaporator has to work with dynamic changes in the heat transfer, residence times and educt compositions. By using exothermal pre-reactions in the form of cool flames it is possible to realize a complete and residue-free evaporation of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. The conditions whether cool flames can be stabilised or not is related to the heat release of the pre-reactions in comparison to the heat losses of the system. Examinations were conducted in a flow reactor at atmospheric pressure and changing residence times to investigate the conditions under which stable cool flame operation is possible and auto-ignition or quenching occurs. An energy balance of the evaporator should deliver the values of heat release by cool flames in comparison to the heat losses of the system. The cool flame evaporation is applied in the design of several diesel-reforming processes (thermal and catalytic partial oxidation, autothermal reforming) with different demands in the heat management and operation range (air ratio λ, steam-to-carbon ratio, SCR). The results are discussed at the end of this paper.

  19. Heat and fuel coupled operation of a high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell with a heat exchanger methanol steam reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, G.; Vázquez, F. Vidal; Waiblinger, W.; Auvinen, S.; Ribeirinha, P.

    2017-04-01

    In this work a methanol steam reforming (MSR) reactor has been operated thermally coupled to a high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack (HT-PEMFC) utilizing its waste heat. The operating temperature of the coupled system was 180 °C which is significantly lower than the conventional operating temperature of the MSR process which is around 250 °C. A newly designed heat exchanger reformer has been developed by VTT (Technical Research Center of Finland LTD) and was equipped with commercially available CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 (BASF RP-60) catalyst. The liquid cooled, 165 cm2, 12-cell stack used for the measurements was supplied by Serenergy A/S. The off-heat from the electrochemical fuel cell reaction was transferred to the reforming reactor using triethylene glycol (TEG) as heat transfer fluid. The system was operated up to 0.4 A cm-2 generating an electrical power output of 427 Wel. A total stack waste heat utilization of 86.4% was achieved. It has been shown that it is possible to transfer sufficient heat from the fuel cell stack to the liquid circuit in order to provide the needed amount for vaporizing and reforming of the methanol-water-mixture. Furthermore a set of recommendations is given for future system design considerations.

  20. Coupling of a 2.5 kW steam reformer with a 1 kW el PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiak, J.; Heinzel, A.; Roes, J.; Kalk, Th.; Kraus, H.; Brandt, H.

    The University of Duisburg-Essen has developed a compact multi-fuel steam reformer suitable for natural gas, propane and butane. This steam reformer was combined with a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEM FC) and a system test of the process chain was performed. The fuel processor comprises a prereformer step, a primary reformer, water gas shift reactors, a steam generator, internal heat exchangers in order to achieve an optimised heat integration and an external burner for heat supply as well as a preferential oxidation step (PROX) as CO purification. The fuel processor is designed to deliver a thermal hydrogen power output from 500 W to 2.5 kW. The PEM fuel cell stack provides about 1 kW electrical power. In the following paper experimental results of measurements of the single components PEM fuel cell and fuel processor as well as results of the coupling of both to form a process chain are presented.

  1. Thermochemical recuperative combined cycle with methane-steam reforming combustion; Tennengasu kaishitsu nensho ni yoru konbaindo saikuru hatsuden no kokoritsuka oyobi denryoku fuka heijunka taio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, R.; Essaki, K.; Tsutsumi, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Chemical System Engineering; Kaganoi, S.; Kurimura, H. [Teikoku Sekiyu Co., Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, T.; Ogawa, T. [Toshiba Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    Thermochemical recuperative combined cycles with methane-steam reforming are proposed for improving their thermal efficiency and for peak-load leveling. For targeting higher thermal efficiency, a cycle with methane-steam reforming reaction heated by gas turbine exhaust was analyzed. The inlet temperature of gas turbine was set at 1,350 degree C. Low-pressure steam extracted from a steam turbine is mixed with methane, and then this mixture is heated by part of the gas turbine exhaust to promote a reforming reaction. The rest of the exhaust heat is used to produce steam, which drives steam turbines to generate electricity. The effect of steam-to-methane ratio (S/C) on thermal efficiency of the cycle, as well as on methane conversion, is investigated by using the ASPEN Plus process simulator. The methane feed rate was fixed at constant and S/C ratio was varied from 2.25 to 4.75. Methane conversion shows an increasing trend toward the ratio and has a maximum value of 17.9 % at S/C=4.0. Thermal efficiency for the system is about 51 % higher than that calculated for a conventional 1,300 degree C class combined cycle under similar conditions. A thermochemical recuperative combined cycle is designed for peak-load leveling. In night-time operation from 20 : 00 to 8 : 00 it stores hydrogen produced by methane steam reforming at S/C=3.9 to save power generation. The gas turbine inlet temperature is 1,330 degree C. In daytime operation from 8 : 00 to 20 : 00 the chemically recuperated combined cycle operated at S/C=2.0 is driven by the mixture of a combined cycle operated at constant load with the same methane feed rate, whereas daytime operation generated power 1.26 times larger than that of the combined cycle. (author)

  2. MECHANISTIC KINETIC MODELS FOR STEAM REFORMING OF CONCENTRATED CRUDE ETHANOL ON NI/AL2O3 CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. OLAFADEHAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic kinetic models were postulated for the catalytic steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on a Ni-based commercial catalyst at atmosphere pressure in the temperature range of 673-863 K, and at different catalyst weight to the crude ethanol molar flow rate ratio (in the range 0.9645-9.6451 kg catalyst h/kg mole crude ethanol in a stainless steel packed bed tubular microreactor. The models were based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW and Eley-Rideal (ER mechanisms. The optimization routine of Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm was used to estimate the inherent kinetic parameters in the proposed models. The selection of the best kinetic model amongst the rival kinetic models was based on physicochemical, statistical and thermodynamic scrutinies. The rate determining step for the steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be surface reaction between chemisorbed CH3O and O when hydrogen and oxygen were adsorbed as monomolecular species on the catalyst surface. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experimental rate of reaction and conversion of crude ethanol, and the simulated results, with ADD% being ±0.46.

  3. Design and optimization of a fixed - bed reactor for hydrogen production via bio-ethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria A Goula; Olga A Bereketidou; Costas G Economopoulos; Olga A Bereketidou; Costas G Economopoulos

    2006-01-01

    Global climate changes caused by CO 2 emissions are currently debated around the world. Renewable sources of energy are being sought as alternatives to replace fossil fuels. Hydrogen is theoretically the best fuel, environmentally friendly and its combustion reaction leads only to the production of water. Bio-ethanol has been proven to be effective in the production of hydrogen via steam reforming reaction. In this research the steam reforming reaction of bio-ethanol is studied at low temperatures over 15,3 % Ni/La 2 O 3 catalyst. The reaction and kinetic analysis takes place in a fixed - bed reactor in 130 - 250 C in atmospheric pressure. This study lays emphasis on the design and the optimization of the fixed - bed reactor, including the total volume of the reactor, the number and length of the tubes and the degree of ethanol conversion. Finally, it is represented an approach of the total cost of the reactor, according to the design characteristics and the materials that can be used for its construction. (authors)

  4. On direct internal methane steam reforming kinetics in operating solid oxide fuel cells with nickel-ceria anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallam Thattai, A.; van Biert, L.; Aravind, P. V.

    2017-12-01

    Major operating challenges remain to safely operate methane fuelled solid oxide fuel cells due to undesirable temperature gradients across the porous anode and carbon deposition. This article presents an experimental study on methane steam reforming (MSR) global kinetics for single operating SOFCs with Ni-GDC (gadolinium doped ceria) anodes for low steam to carbon (S/C) ratios and moderate current densities. The study points out the hitherto insufficient research on MSR global and intrinsic kinetics for operating SOFCs with complete Ni-ceria anodes. Further, it emphasizes the need to develop readily applicable global kinetic models as a subsequent step from previously reported state-of-art and complex intrinsic models. Two rate expressions of the Power law (PL) and Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) type have been compared and based on the analysis, limitations of using previously proposed rate expressions for Ni catalytic beds to study MSR kinetics for complete cermet anodes have been identified. Firstly, it has been shown that methane reforming on metallic (Ni) current collectors may not be always negligible, contrary to literature reports. Both PL and LH kinetic models predict significantly different local MSR reaction rate and species partial pressure distributions along the normalized reactor length, indicating a strong need for further experimental verifications.

  5. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas over a nickel catalyst supported on mesoporous alumina xerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Cho, Kyung Min; Park, Sunyoung; Song, In Kyu

    Mesoporous alumina xerogel (A-SG) is prepared by a sol-gel method for use as a support for a nickel catalyst. The Ni/A-SG catalyst is then prepared by an impregnation method, and is applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of the mesoporous alumina xerogel support on the catalytic performance of Ni/A-SG catalyst is investigated. For the purpose of comparison, a nickel catalyst supported on commercial alumina (A-C) is also prepared by an impregnation method (Ni/A-C). Both the hydroxyl-rich surface and the electron-deficient sites of the A-SG support enhance the dispersion of the nickel species on the support during the calcination step. The formation of the surface nickel aluminate phase in the Ni/A-SG catalyst remarkably increases the reducibility and stability of the catalyst. Furthermore, the high-surface area and the well-developed mesoporosity of the Ni/A-SG catalyst enhance the gasification of surface hydrocarbons that are adsorbed in the reaction. In the steam reforming of LNG, the Ni/A-SG catalyst exhibits a better catalytic performance than the Ni/A-C catalyst in terms of LNG conversion and hydrogen production. Moreover, the Ni/A-SG catalyst shows strong resistance toward catalyst deactivation.

  6. Development of methane conversion improvement method by recycling of residual methane for steam reforming as a part of R and D of HTGR-hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Hino, Ryutaro; Koiso, Hiroshi.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to improve methane conversion for an HTGR-steam reforming system by recycling of residual methane. The residual methane in a product gas after steam reforming was recycled with a gas separator of polyimide membrane. Gas separation characteristics of the separator were investigated experimentally and numerically, and an experimental study on recycling system was carried out. The results showed that the recycling system improves apparent methane conversion, ratio of methane conversion to methane supply from a cylinder, from 20 to 32% compared with those without recycling. (author)

  7. Hydrogen Production from Cyclic Chemical Looping Steam Methane Reforming over Yttrium Promoted Ni/SBA-16 Oxygen Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Daneshmand-Jahromi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the modification of Ni/SBA-16 oxygen carrier (OC with yttrium promoter is investigated. The yttrium promoted Ni-based oxygen carrier was synthesized via co-impregnation method and applied in chemical looping steam methane reforming (CL-SMR process, which is used for the production of clean energy carrier. The reaction temperature (500–750 °C, Y loading (2.5–7.4 wt. %, steam/carbon molar ratio (1–5, Ni loading (10–30 wt. % and life time of OCs over 16 cycles at 650 °C were studied to investigate and optimize the structure of OC and process temperature with maximizing average methane conversion and hydrogen production yield. The synthesized OCs were characterized by multiples techniques. The results of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX of reacted OCs showed that the presence of Y particles on the surface of OCs reduces the coke formation. The smaller NiO species were found for the yttrium promoted OC and therefore the distribution of Ni particles was improved. The reduction-oxidation (redox results revealed that 25Ni-2.5Y/SBA-16 OC has the highest catalytic activity of about 99.83% average CH4 conversion and 85.34% H2 production yield at reduction temperature of 650 °C with the steam to carbon molar ratio of 2.

  8. Response Surface Methodology and Aspen Plus Integration for the Simulation of the Catalytic Steam Reforming of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernay Cifuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steam reforming of ethanol (SRE on a bimetallic RhPt/CeO2 catalyst was evaluated by the integration of Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Aspen Plus (version 9.0, Aspen Tech, Burlington, MA, USA, 2016. First, the effect of the Rh–Pt weight ratio (1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1 on the performance of SRE on RhPt/CeO2 was assessed between 400 to 700 °C with a stoichiometric steam/ethanol molar ratio of 3. RSM enabled modeling of the system and identification of a maximum of 4.2 mol H2/mol EtOH (700 °C with the Rh0.4Pt0.4/CeO2 catalyst. The mathematical models were integrated into Aspen Plus through Excel in order to simulate a process involving SRE, H2 purification, and electricity production in a fuel cell (FC. An energy sensitivity analysis of the process was performed in Aspen Plus, and the information obtained was used to generate new response surfaces. The response surfaces demonstrated that an increase in H2 production requires more energy consumption in the steam reforming of ethanol. However, increasing H2 production rebounds in more energy production in the fuel cell, which increases the overall efficiency of the system. The minimum H2 yield needed to make the system energetically sustainable was identified as 1.2 mol H2/mol EtOH. According to the results of the integration of RSM models into Aspen Plus, the system using Rh0.4Pt0.4/CeO2 can produce a maximum net energy of 742 kJ/mol H2, of which 40% could be converted into electricity in the FC (297 kJ/mol H2 produced. The remaining energy can be recovered as heat.

  9. Numerical study of methanol–steam reforming and methanol–air catalytic combustion in annulus reactors for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chein, Reiyu; Chen, Yen-Cho; Chung, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance of mini-scale integrated annulus reactors for hydrogen production. ► Flow rates fed to combustor and reformer control the reactor performance. ► Optimum performance is found from balance of flow rates to combustor and reformer. ► Better performance can be found when shell side is designed as combustor. -- Abstract: This study presents the numerical simulation on the performance of mini-scale reactors for hydrogen production coupled with liquid methanol/water vaporizer, methanol/steam reformer, and methanol/air catalytic combustor. These reactors are designed similar to tube-and-shell heat exchangers. The combustor for heat supply is arranged as the tube or shell side. Based on the obtained results, the methanol/air flow rate through the combustor (in terms of gas hourly space velocity of combustor, GHSV-C) and the methanol/water feed rate to the reformer (in terms of gas hourly space velocity of reformer, GHSV-R) control the reactor performance. With higher GHSV-C and lower GHSV-R, higher methanol conversion can be achieved because of higher reaction temperature. However, hydrogen yield is reduced and the carbon monoxide concentration is increased due to the reversed water gas shift reaction. Optimum reactor performance is found using the balance between GHSV-C and GHSV-R. Because of more effective heat transfer characteristics in the vaporizer, it is found that the reactor with combustor arranged as the shell side has better performance compared with the reactor design having the combustor as the tube side under the same operating conditions.

  10. The application of inelastic neutron scattering to investigate the steam reforming of methane over an alumina-supported nickel catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, Andrew R.; Silverwood, Ian P.; Norris, Elizabeth L.; Ormerod, R. Mark; Frost, Christopher D.; Parker, Stewart F.; Lennon, David

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Inelastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate a Ni/alumina catalyst. • The extent of hydrogen retention by the catalyst has been determined. • Filamentous carbon is identified as a by-product. - Abstract: An alumina-supported nickel catalyst, previously used in methane reforming experiments employing CO 2 as the oxidant, is applied here in the steam reforming variant of the process. Micro-reactor experiments are used to discern an operational window compatible with sample cells designed for inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments. INS spectra are recorded after 6 h reaction of a 1:1 mixture of CH 4 and H 2 O at 898 K. Weak INS spectra are observed, indicating minimal hydrogen retention by the catalyst in this operational regime. Post-reaction, the catalyst is further characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. In a comparable fashion to that seen for the ‘dry’ reforming experiments, the catalyst retains substantial quantities of carbon in the form of filamentous coke. The role for hydrogen incorporation by the catalyst is briefly considered

  11. The application of inelastic neutron scattering to investigate the steam reforming of methane over an alumina-supported nickel catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Andrew R.; Silverwood, Ian P. [School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Norris, Elizabeth L.; Ormerod, R. Mark [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Staffs ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Frost, Christopher D.; Parker, Stewart F. [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Lennon, David, E-mail: David.Lennon@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-12

    Highlights: • Inelastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate a Ni/alumina catalyst. • The extent of hydrogen retention by the catalyst has been determined. • Filamentous carbon is identified as a by-product. - Abstract: An alumina-supported nickel catalyst, previously used in methane reforming experiments employing CO{sub 2} as the oxidant, is applied here in the steam reforming variant of the process. Micro-reactor experiments are used to discern an operational window compatible with sample cells designed for inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments. INS spectra are recorded after 6 h reaction of a 1:1 mixture of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O at 898 K. Weak INS spectra are observed, indicating minimal hydrogen retention by the catalyst in this operational regime. Post-reaction, the catalyst is further characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. In a comparable fashion to that seen for the ‘dry’ reforming experiments, the catalyst retains substantial quantities of carbon in the form of filamentous coke. The role for hydrogen incorporation by the catalyst is briefly considered.

  12. IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

  13. Comments on US LMFBR steam generator base technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The development of steam generators for the LMFBR was recognized from the onset by the AEC, now DOE, as a difficult, challenging, and high-priority task. The highly reactive nature of sodium with water/steam requires that the sodium-water/steam boundaries of LMFBR steam generators possess a degree of leak-tightness reliability not normally attempted on a commercial scale. In addition, the LMFBR steam generator is subjected to high fluid temperatures and severe thermal transients. These requirements place great demand on materials, fabrication processes, and inspection methods; and even greater demands on the designer to provide steam generators that can meet these demanding requirements, be fabricated without unreasonable shop requirements, and tolerate off-normal effects

  14. The matrix reformed : science fiction, technology, and Christian philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusveller, B.; Verkerk, M.J.; Vries, de M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Matrix Reformed provides an analysis of both science fiction and the contemporary adoration of technology from a Christian point-of-view, weaving a discussion of issues in religion, philosophy, and ethics in major sci-fi works (e.g., The Matrix, Star Wars, and Star Trek) with the insights and

  15. Influence of Social Reform Ideologies on Industrial/Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireh, Maduakolam

    2016-01-01

    The founding of industrial/technology education in Ameria represents the convergence of many influences dating back to the pre-industrial revolution era. Social reform movement, one of these influences, set out to change conditions considered to be causes of poverty and other social problems through active engagements in political, educational,…

  16. Rotating sensor technology for the inspection of steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, S.W.; Richards, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    A high-resolution profilometry system, has been developed to assess the dimensional condition of steam generator tubes and rapidly produce the data to evaluate the potential for developing in-service leaks. The probe has an electromechanical sensor in a rotating head. This technique has been demonstrated in the field at four U.S. plants and one plant owned by Electricite de France. The Indian Point-2 plant of Consolidated Edison has twice used this technology to save tubes that would have been plugged with the go-gauge criterion and identifying other high-risk candidates for plugging that might otherwise not have been removed from service. As an extension of the PROFIL-360 technology, a rotating eddy current system (EDDY-360) has also been developed. The system provides improved sensitivity, resolution, and characterization of small-volume flaws and complete circumferential coverage as compared to conventional (bobbin and 8 x 1) eddy current techniques. Enhanced eddy current data processing provides on-line data analysis and real-time imaging of detected flaws. (author)

  17. Pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renny, Andrew; Santhosh, Viswanathan; Somkuwar, Nitin; Gokak, D T; Sharma, Pankaj; Bhargava, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen. As per literature, presence of heavy nitrogenous and oxygenated compounds leads to catalyst deactivation. Here, an attempt has been made to tune pyrolytic reactions to optimize the N and O content of the pyrolytic bio-oil. Bio-oil conversion and hydrogen yield decreased as reaction progressed, which attributes to temporary loss of catalytic activity by blockage of catalyst pores by carbon deposition. Further, retention of steam reforming activity after repetitive steam activation suggests long-term catalyst usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HIGHTEX: a computer program for the steady-state simulation of steam-methane reformers used in a nuclear process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Seya, Toko

    1977-08-01

    This report describes a computational model and the input procedure of HIGHTEX, a computer program for steady-state simulation of the steam-methane reformers used in a nuclear process heat plant. The HIGHTEX program simulates rapidly a single reformer tube, and treats the reactant single-phase in the two-dimensional catalyst bed. Output of the computer program is radial distributions of temperature and reaction products in the catalyst-packed bed, pressure loss of the packed bed, stress in the reformer tube, hydrogen permeation rate through the reformer tube, heat rate of reaction, and heat-transfer rate between helium and process gas. The running time (cpu) for a 9m-long bayonet type reformer tube is 12 min with FACOM-230/75. (auth.)

  19. Co/Zr substitution in a cerium-zirconium oxide by catalytic steam reforming of bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, J.C.; Thomas, S.; Roger, A.C.; Kiennemann, A.; Vargas, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with the production of hydrogen by bio-ethanol catalytic steam reforming. The aim is to develop a catalyst active in ethanol conversion, selective in hydrogen and resistant to deactivation, particularly those induced by the formation of carbon deposition. The metal-support interaction being one of the keys of this challenge, catalysts in which a transition metal is inserted into an oxide by a liquid synthesis method (by the precursor method) have been developed. The initial insertion of cobalt into a cerium oxide-zirconia structure presents the advantages to increase the redox properties of the host oxide and to allow a stable reduction of a cobalt part while favoring the metal-support interaction. (O.M.)

  20. Influence of Gold on Ce-Zr-Co Fluorite-Type Mixed Oxide Catalysts for Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Pitchon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gold presence on carbon monoxide oxidation and ethanol steam reforming catalytic behavior of two Ce-Zr-Co mixed oxides catalysts with a constant Co charge and different Ce/Zr ratios was investigated. The Ce-Zr-Co mixed oxides were obtained by the pseudo sol-gel like method, based on metallic propionates polymerization and thermal decomposition, whereas the gold-supported Ce-Zr-Co mixed oxides catalysts were prepared using the direct anionic exchange. The catalysts were characterized using XRD, TPR, and EDXS-TEM. The presence of Au in doped Ce-Zr-Co oxide catalyst decreases the temperature necessary to reduce the cobalt and the cerium loaded in the catalyst and favors a different reaction pathway, improving the acetaldehyde route by ethanol dehydrogenation, instead of the ethylene route by ethanol dehydration or methane re-adsorption, thus increasing the catalytic activity and selectivity into hydrogen.

  1. Highly stable and active Ni-doped ordered mesoporous carbon catalyst on the steam reforming of ethanol application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Y.Z. Chiou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel one-step direct synthesis of nickel embedded in an ordered mesoporous carbon catalyst (NiOMC is done in a basic medium of nonaqueous solution by a solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The NiOMC sample is characterized by a variety of analytical and spectroscopy techniques, e.g., N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and temperature-programed reduction (TPR. In this study, the NiOMC catalyst is found to exhibit superior catalytic activity for the steam reforming of ethanol (SRE, showing high hydrogen selectivity and durability. Ethanol can be completely converted at 350 °C over the NiOMC catalyst. Also, the durability of the NiOMC catalyst on the SRE reaction exceeds 100 h at 450 °C, with SH2 approaching 65% and SCO of less than 1%.

  2. Preparation of Cu-Fe-Al-O nanosheets and their catalytic application in methanol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Fan; Miao, Dinghao; Zhang, Lei; Ren, Tiezhen; Hui, Xidong; He, Zhanbing

    2017-03-01

    Candidates of precious metal catalysts, prepared in a facile and environmental way and showing high catalytic performances at low temperatures, are always highly desired by industry. In this work, large-scale Cu-Fe-Al-O nanosheets were synthesized by facile dealloying of Al-Cu-Fe alloys in NaOH solution. The composition, microscopic morphology, and crystal structure were respectively investigated using wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy with an electron probe microanalyzer, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we found that the 2D Cu-Fe-Al-O nanosheets gave excellent catalytic performances in hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming at relatively low temperatures, e.g. 513 K.

  3. Improving carbon tolerance of Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane by palladium addition for low temperature steam methane reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moon; Won, Jong Min; Kim, Geo Jong; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Sung Su; Hong, Sung Chang

    2017-10-01

    Palladium was added on the Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane by wet impregnation and electroless plating methods. Its surface morphology characteristics and carbon deposition properties for the low temperature steam methane reforming were investigated. The addition of palladium could obviously be enhanced the catalytic activity as well as carbon tolerance of the Ni-YSZ porous membrane. The porous membranes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), CH4 temperature-programmed reduction (CH4-TPR), and O2 temperature-programmed oxidation (O2-TPO). It was found that the Pd-Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane showed the superior stability as well as the deposition of carbon on the surface during carbon dissociation adsorption at 650 °C was also suppressed.

  4. Hydrogen production from raw bioethanol steam reforming: optimization of catalyst composition with improved stability against various impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Valant, A.; Can, F.; Bion, N.; Epron, F.; Duprez, D.

    2009-01-01

    Usually, ethanol steam reforming is performed using pure ethanol, whereas the use of raw bioethanol is of major importance for a cost effective industrial application. Raw bioethanol contains higher alcohols as the main impurities and also aldehydes, amines, acids and esters. The effect of these impurities on the catalytic performances for ethanol steam reforming (ESR) has been studied, using a reference catalyst, Rh/MgAl 2 O 4 . It was shown that the aldehyde, the amine and methanol has no negative effect on the catalytic performances, contrary to the ester, acid and higher alcohols. The deactivation is mainly explained by coke formation favored by the presence of these impurities in the feed. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst and its performances in the presence of these deactivating impurities, the catalyst formulation, i.e. the composition of the support and of the metallic phase, was modified. The addition of rare earth elements instead of magnesium to the alumina support leads to a decrease of the strong and medium acid sites and to an increase of the basicity. On these modified supports, the dehydration reaction, leading to olefins, which are coke precursors, is disfavored, the ethanol conversion and the hydrogen yield are increased. The best catalytic performances were obtained with Rh/Y-Al 2 O 3 . Then, the metallic phase was also modified by adding a second metal (Ni, Pt or Pd). The Rh-Ni/Y-Al 2 O 3 catalyst leads to the highest hydrogen yield. This catalyst, tested in the presence of raw bioethanol during 24h was very stable compared to the reference catalyst Rh/MgAl 2 O 4 , which was strongly deactivated after 2h of time-on-stream. (author)

  5. The Influence of oxide additives on Ni/Al2O3 catalysts in low temperature methane steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, Mihaela; Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Almasan, Valer

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen is industrially produced by methane steam reforming. The process is catalytic and the usual catalyst is based on Ni as the active element. The main problem of this process is its inefficiency. It requires high temperatures at which Ni also favors the formation of graphite, which deactivates the catalysts. Ni has the advantage of being much cheaper than noble metal catalysts, so many researches are done in order to improve the properties of supported Ni catalysts and to decrease the temperature at which the process is energetically efficient. In order to obtain catalysts with high activity and stability, it is essential to maintain the dispersion of the active phase (Ni particles) and the stability of the support. Both properties can be improved by addition of a second oxide to the support. In this paper we present the results obtained in preparation and characterization of Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalysts modified by addition of CeO 2 and La 2 O 3 to alumina support. The following catalysts were prepared by impregnation method: Ni/Al 2 O 3 , Ni/CeO 2 -Al 2 O 3 and Ni/La 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 (10 wt.% Ni and 6 wt.% additional oxide). The catalytic surface was characterized by N 2 adsorption - desorption isotherms. The hydrogen - surface bond was characterized by Thermo-Programmed-Desorption (TPD) method. All catalysts were tested in steam reforming reaction of methane in the range of 600 - 700 deg. C, at atmospheric pressure working with CH 4 :H 2 O ratio of 1:3. The modified catalysts showed a better catalytic activity and selectivity for H 2 and CO 2 formation, at lower temperatures than the simple Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalyst. (authors)

  6. Effect of Ce and Zr Addition to Ni/SiO2 Catalysts for Hydrogen Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Calles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of Ni/Ce\\(_{x}\\Zr\\(_{1-x}\\O\\(_{2}\\/SiO\\(_{2}\\ catalysts with different Zr/Ce mass ratios were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. Ni/SiO\\(_{2}\\, Ni/CeO\\(_{2}\\ and Ni/ZrO\\(_{2}\\ were also prepared as reference materials to compare. Catalysts' performances were tested in ethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production and characterized by XRD, H\\(_{2}\\-temperature programmed reduction (TPR, NH\\(_{3}\\-temperature programmed desorption (TPD, TEM, ICP-AES and N\\(_{2}\\-sorption measurements. The Ni/SiO\\(_{2}\\ catalyst led to a higher hydrogen selectivity than Ni/CeO\\(_{2}\\ and Ni/ZrO\\(_{2}\\, but it could not maintain complete ethanol conversion due to deactivation. The incorporation of Ce or Zr prior to Ni on the silica support resulted in catalysts with better performance for steam reforming, keeping complete ethanol conversion over time. When both Zr and Ce were incorporated into the catalyst, Ce\\(_{x}\\Zr\\(_{1-x}\\O\\(_{2}\\ solid solution was formed, as confirmed by XRD analyses. TPR results revealed stronger Ni-support interaction in the Ce\\(_{x}\\Zr\\(_{1-x}\\O\\(_{2}\\-modified catalysts than in Ni/SiO\\(_{2}\\ one, which can be attributed to an increase of the dispersion of Ni species. All of the Ni/Ce\\(_{x}\\Zr\\(_{1-x}\\O\\(_{2}\\/SiO\\(_{2}\\ catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity and stability after 8 h of time on stream at 600°. The best catalytic performance in terms of hydrogen selectivity was achieved when the Zr/Ce mass ratio was three.

  7. Effect study of the support in nickel and cobalt catalysts for obtaining hydrogen from ethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sirlane Gomes da

    2013-01-01

    A range of oxide-supported metal catalysts have been investigated for the steam reforming of ethanol for the production of hydrogen and subsequent application in fuel cells. The catalysts were synthesized by the co-precipitation and internal gelification methods using cobalt and nickel as active metals supported on aluminum, zirconium, lanthanum and cerium oxides. After prepared and calcined at 550 Cº the solids were fully characterized by different techniques such as X-rays diffraction(DRX), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption (B.E.T), temperature-programmed reduction in H2 (TPR-H2) and thermogravimetric analysis. The catalytic tests were performed in a monolithic quartz reactor and submitted to different thermodynamic conditions of steam reforming of ethanol at temperatures varying from 500º C to 800 ºC. The product gas streams from the reactor were analyzed by an on-line gas chromatograph. The cobalt/nickel catalyst supported on a ceria-lanthania mixture (Co 10% / Ni 5% - CeO 2 La 2 O 3 ) showed good catalytic performance in hydrogen selectivity reaching a concentration greater than 65%, when compared to other catalytic systems such as: Co 10% / Ni5% - CeO 2 ; Co 10% / Ni 5% - CeO 2 ZrO 2 ; Co 10% / Ni 5% - ZrO 2 ; Co 10% / Ni 5% - La 2 O 3 ; Co 10% / Ni 5% - CeO 2 La 2 O 3 /K 2% ; Co 10 % / Ni 5% - CeO 2 La 2 O 3 / Na 2% ; Ni 10% / Co 5% - CeO 2 La 2 O 3 ; Co-Al 2 O 3 e Co-Al 2 O 3 CeO 2 . (author)

  8. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105 And AN-103) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol; Herman, Connie; Crawford, Charles; Bannochie, Christopher; Burket, Paul; Daniel, Gene; Cozzi, Alex; Nash, Charles; Miller, Donald; Missimer, David

    2014-01-10

    One of the immobilization technologies under consideration as a Supplemental Treatment for Hanford’s Low Activity Waste (LAW) is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The FBSR technology forms a mineral waste form at moderate processing temperatures thus retaining and atomically bonding the halides, sulfates, and technetium in the mineral phases (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite). Additions of kaolin clay are used instead of glass formers and the minerals formed by the FBSR technology offers (1) atomic bonding of the radionuclides and constituents of concern (COC) comparable to glass, (2) short and long term durability comparable to glass, (3) disposal volumes comparable to glass, and (4) higher Na2O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings than glass. The higher FBSR Na{sub 2}O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings contribute to the low disposal volumes but also provide for more rapid processing of the LAW. Recent FBSR processing and testing of Hanford radioactive LAW (Tank SX-105 and AN-103) waste is reported and compared to previous radioactive and non-radioactive LAW processing and testing.

  9. Overview of steam generator tube-inspection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Renaud, J.; Lakhan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of steam generator (SG) tubing due to both mechanical and corrosion modes has resulted in extensive repairs and replacement of SGs around the world. The variety of degradation modes challenges the integrity of SG tubing and, therefore, the stations' reliability. Inspection and monitoring aimed at timely detection and characterization of the degradation is a key element for ensuring tube integrity. Up to the early-70's, the in-service inspection of SG tubing was carried out using single-frequency eddy current testing (ET) bobbin coils, which were adequate for the detection of volumetric degradation. By the mid-80's, additional modes of degradation such as pitting, intergranular attack, and axial and circumferential inside or outside diameter stress corrosion cracking had to be addressed. The need for timely, fast detection and characterization of these diverse modes of degradation motivated the development in the 90's of inspection systems based on advanced probe technology coupled with versatile instruments operated by fast computers and remote communication systems. SG inspection systems have progressed in the new millennium to a much higher level of automation, efficiency and reliability. Also, the role of Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) has evolved from simple detection tools to diagnostic tools that provide input into integrity assessment decisions, fitness-far-service and operational assessments. This new role was motivated by tighter regulatory requirements to assure the safety of the public and the environment, better SG life management strategies and often self-imposed regulations. It led to the development of advanced probe technologies, more reliable and versatile instruments and robotics, better training and qualification of personnel and better data management and analysis systems. This paper provides a brief historical perspective regarding the evolution of SG inspections and analyzes the motivations behind that evolution. It presents an

  10. Overview of steam generator tube-inspection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrutsky, L.; Renaud, J.; Lakhan, R., E-mail: obrutskl@aecl.ca, E-mail: renaudj@aecl.ca, E-mail: lakhanr@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Degradation of steam generator (SG) tubing due to both mechanical and corrosion modes has resulted in extensive repairs and replacement of SGs around the world. The variety of degradation modes challenges the integrity of SG tubing and, therefore, the stations' reliability. Inspection and monitoring aimed at timely detection and characterization of the degradation is a key element for ensuring tube integrity. Up to the early-70's, the in-service inspection of SG tubing was carried out using single-frequency eddy current testing (ET) bobbin coils, which were adequate for the detection of volumetric degradation. By the mid-80's, additional modes of degradation such as pitting, intergranular attack, and axial and circumferential inside or outside diameter stress corrosion cracking had to be addressed. The need for timely, fast detection and characterization of these diverse modes of degradation motivated the development in the 90's of inspection systems based on advanced probe technology coupled with versatile instruments operated by fast computers and remote communication systems. SG inspection systems have progressed in the new millennium to a much higher level of automation, efficiency and reliability. Also, the role of Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) has evolved from simple detection tools to diagnostic tools that provide input into integrity assessment decisions, fitness-far-service and operational assessments. This new role was motivated by tighter regulatory requirements to assure the safety of the public and the environment, better SG life management strategies and often self-imposed regulations. It led to the development of advanced probe technologies, more reliable and versatile instruments and robotics, better training and qualification of personnel and better data management and analysis systems. This paper provides a brief historical perspective regarding the evolution of SG inspections and analyzes the motivations behind that

  11. A novel approach to the experimental study on methane/steam reforming kinetics using the Orthogonal Least Squares method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciazko, Anna; Komatsu, Yosuke; Brus, Grzegorz; Kimijima, Shinji; Szmyd, Janusz S.

    2014-09-01

    For a mathematical model based on the result of physical measurements, it becomes possible to determine their influence on the final solution and its accuracy. However, in classical approaches, the influence of different model simplifications on the reliability of the obtained results are usually not comprehensively discussed. This paper presents a novel approach to the study of methane/steam reforming kinetics based on an advanced methodology called the Orthogonal Least Squares method. The kinetics of the reforming process published earlier are divergent among themselves. To obtain the most probable values of kinetic parameters and enable direct and objective model verification, an appropriate calculation procedure needs to be proposed. The applied Generalized Least Squares (GLS) method includes all the experimental results into the mathematical model which becomes internally contradicted, as the number of equations is greater than number of unknown variables. The GLS method is adopted to select the most probable values of results and simultaneously determine the uncertainty coupled with all the variables in the system. In this paper, the evaluation of the reaction rate after the pre-determination of the reaction rate, which was made by preliminary calculation based on the obtained experimental results over a Nickel/Yttria-stabilized Zirconia catalyst, was performed.

  12. Computational Investigation of the Thermochemistry and Kinetics of Steam Methane Reforming Over a Multi-Faceted Nickel Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Blaylock, D. Wayne

    2011-08-20

    A microkinetic model of steam methane reforming over a multi-faceted nickel surface using planewave, periodic boundary condition density functional theory is presented. The multi-faceted model consists of a Ni(111) surface, a Ni(100) surface, and nickel step edge sites that are modeled as a Ni(211) surface. Flux and sensitivity analysis are combined to gain an increased understanding of the important reactions, intermediates, and surface facets in SMR. Statistical thermodynamics are applied to allow for the investigation of SMR under industrially-relevant conditions (e.g., temperatures in excess of 500 °C and pressures in excess of 1 bar). The most important surface reactions are found to occur at the under-coordinated step edge sites modeled using the Ni(211) surface as well as on the Ni(100) surface. The primary reforming pathway is predicted to be through C*+ O*→ CO*at high temperatures; however, hydrogen-mediated reactions such as C*+ OH*→ COH*and C.H.*+ O*→ CHO*are predicted to become more important at low temperatures. The rate-limiting reactions are predicted to be dissociative chemisorption of methane in addition to the aforementioned C-O addition reactions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. A theoretical study on the role of water and its derivatives in acetic acid steam reforming on Ni(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhen-Yi; Ran, Yan-Xiong; Guo, Yun-Peng; Feng, Jie; Li, Wen-Ying

    2017-10-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid can be divided into two steps, i.e. acetic acid decomposition followed by water gas shift. While theoretical studies have been devoted to these two individual reactions, the role of water and its derivatives in the reforming process, especially in CH3COOH decomposition, remains largely unknown. In this study, a thorough investigation of the effects of the solvent water and its derived O*/OH* species on some key dehydrogenation steps on Ni(111) is carried out using density functional theory. The involved dehydrogenation species include O-H bond scission species H2O*, CH3COOH*, trans-COOH* and C-H bond scission species CH3CO*, CH3C*, CH2C*. The results show that the pre-adsorbed O*, OH*, and H2O* species not only affect the adsorption stability of these species, but also influence their dehydrogenation reactivity. O* and OH* species can both enhance the O-H bond scission, and the promotional effect of O* is superior to OH*. Nevertheless, H-abstraction from C-H bond by O* and OH* are both hindered except for CH3CO* dehydrogenation in the presence of OH*. Furthermore, the solvent water notably weakens O-H bonds, yet exhibits negligible effect on the C-H bond breakage. Analogously, the solvent effect of CH3COOH* on O-H bond scission is also investigated.

  14. Hydrogen Production from Ethanol Steam Reforming over SnO2-K2O/Zeolite Y Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Sung; Kim, Ji Eun; Kang, Mi Sook

    2011-01-01

    The SnO 2 with a particle size of about 300 nm instead of Ni is used in this study to overcome rapid catalytic deactivation by the formation of a NiAl 2 O 4 spinal structure on the conventional Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst and simultaneously impregnated the catalyst with potassium (K). The SnO 2 -K 2 O impregnated Zeolite Y catalyst (SnO 2 -K 2 O/ZY) exhibited significantly higher ethanol reforming reactivity that that achieved with SnO 2 100 and SnO 2 30 wt %/ZY catalysts. The main products from ethanol steam reforming (ESR) over the SnO 2 -K 2 O/ ZY catalyst were H 2 , CO 2 , and CH 4 , with no evidence of any CO molecule formation. The H 2 production and ethanol conversion were maximized at 89% and 100%, respectively, over SnO 2 30 wt %-K 2 O 3.0 wt %/ZY at 600 .deg. C for 1 h at a CH 3 CH 2 OH:H 2 O ratio of 1:1 and a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 12,700 h -1 . No catalytic deactivation occurred for up to 73 h. This result is attributable to the easier and weaker of reduction of Sn components and acidities over SnO 2 -K 2 O/ZY catalyst, respectively, than those of Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalysts

  15. Modeling of electrochemistry and steam-methane reforming performance for simulating pressurized solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Ryan, Emily M.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Khaleel, Moe A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines the electrochemical and direct internal steam-methane reforming performance of the solid oxide fuel cell when subjected to pressurization. Pressurized operation boosts the Nernst potential and decreases the activation polarization, both of which serve to increase cell voltage and power while lowering the heat load and operating temperature. A model considering the activation polarization in both the fuel and the air electrodes was adopted to address this effect on the electrochemical performance. The pressurized methane conversion kinetics and the increase in equilibrium methane concentration are considered in a new rate expression. The models were then applied in simulations to predict how the distributions of direct internal reforming rate, temperature, and current density are effected within stacks operating at elevated pressure. A generic 10 cm counter-flow stack model was created and used for the simulations of pressurized operation. The predictions showed improved thermal and electrical performance with increased operating pressure. The average and maximum cell temperatures decreased by 3% (20 C) while the cell voltage increased by 9% as the operating pressure was increased from 1 to 10 atm. (author)

  16. A comprehensive energy–exergy-based assessment and parametric study of a hydrogen production process using steam glycerol reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaji, Noureddine; Chahbani, Amna; Khila, Zouhour

    2014-01-01

    Various assessment tools are applied to comprehensively investigate a glycerol-to-hydrogen production system. These tools investigate the chemical reactions, design and simulate the entire hydrogen production process, study the energetic and exergetic performances and perform parametric analyses (using intuitive and design of experiment-based methods). Investigating the chemical reaction of steam glycerol reforming reveals that the optimal conditions, determined based on maximizing the hydrogen production while minimizing the methane and carbon monoxide contents and coke formation, can be achieved at a reforming temperature and a water-to-glycerol feed ratio (WGFR) of 950 K and 9, respectively. The thermal and exergetic efficiencies of the resulting process are 66.6% and 59.9%, respectively. These findings are lower than those cited in the literature and relative to other reformates (methane, ethanol and methanol). The parametric investigation indicates that the performance of the process (energetic and exergetic) could be ensured by using an appropriate and judiciously selected combination of the reactor temperature and WGFR. Based on the parametric energetic and exergetic investigation, WGFR = 6 and T = 1100 K appear to be the most accurate parameters for the entire glycerol-to-hydrogen process. For this recommend configuration, the thermal and exergetic efficiencies are 78.1% and 66.1%, respectively. - Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis are used to assess glycerol-to-hydrogen process. • Recommended conditions for glycerol-to-hydrogen process are WGFR = 6 and T = 1100 K. • For recommend conditions, thermal and exergetic efficiencies are 78.1% and 66.1%. • Energy and exergy consideration should be included by engineers and scientists

  17. Ni-Based Catalysts for Low Temperature Methane Steam Reforming: Recent Results on Ni-Au and Comparison with Other Bi-Metallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Venezia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Steam reforming of light hydrocarbons provides a promising method for hydrogen production. Ni-based catalysts are so far the best and the most commonly used catalysts for steam reforming because of their acceptably high activity and significantly lower cost in comparison with alternative precious metal-based catalysts. However, nickel catalysts are susceptible to deactivation from the deposition of carbon, even when operating at steam-to-carbon ratios predicted to be thermodynamically outside of the carbon-forming regime. Reactivity and deactivation by carbon formation can be tuned by modifying Ni surfaces with a second metal, such as Au through alloy formation. In the present review, we summarize the very recent progress in the design, synthesis, and characterization of supported bimetallic Ni-based catalysts for steam reforming. The progress in the modification of Ni with noble metals (such as Au and Ag is discussed in terms of preparation, characterization and pretreatment methods. Moreover, the comparison with the effects of other metals (such as Sn, Cu, Co, Mo, Fe, Gd and B is addressed. The differences of catalytic activity, thermal stability and carbon species between bimetallic and monometallic Ni-based catalysts are also briefly shown.

  18. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Toluene as a Model Compound of Biomass Gasification Tar Using Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Dahlquist

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nickel supported on SBA-15 doped with CeO2 catalysts (Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 was prepared, and used for steam reforming of toluene which was selected as a model compound of biomass gasification tar. A fixed-bed lab-scale set was designed and employed to evaluate the catalytic performances of the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts. Experiments were performed to reveal the effects of several factors on the toluene conversion and product gas composition, including the reaction temperature, steam/carbon (S/C ratio, and CeO2 loading content. Moreover, the catalysts were subjected to analysis of their carbon contents after the steam reforming experiments, as well as to test the catalytic stability over a long experimental period. The results indicated that the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts exhibited promising capabilities on the toluene conversion, anti-coke deposition and catalytic stability. The toluene conversion reached as high as 98.9% at steam reforming temperature of 850 °C and S/C ratio of 3 using the Ni-CeO2(3wt%/SBA-15 catalyst. Negligible coke formation was detected on the used catalyst. The gaseous products mainly consisted of H2 and CO, together with a little CO2 and CH4.

  19. Development of a coupled reactor with a catalytic combustor and steam reformer for a 5 kW solid oxide fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sanggyu; Lee, Kanghun; Yu, Sangseok; Lee, Sang Min; Ahn, Kook-Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposes the scale-up strategy to develop a large-scale coupled reactor. • Investigation of performance of steam reformer coupled with catalytic combustor. • Experimental parameters are inlet temp., air excess ratio, SCR, fuel utilization. • Evaluation of the heat transfer distribution along the gas flow direction. • The mean value of methane conversion rate is approximately 93.4%. - Abstract: The methane (CH 4 ) conversion rate of a steam reformer can be increased by thermal integration with a catalytic combustor, called a coupled reactor. In the present study, a 5 kW coupled reactor has been developed based on a 1 kW coupled reactor in previous work. The geometric parameters of the space velocity, diameter and length of the coupled reactor selected from the 1 kW coupled reactor are tuned and applied to the design of the 5 kW coupled reactor. To confirm the scale-up strategy, the performance of 5 kW coupled reactor is experimentally investigated with variations of operating parameters such as the fuel utilization in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack, the inlet temperature of the catalytic combustor, the excess air ratio of the catalytic combustor, and the steam to carbon ratio (SCR) in the steam reformer. The temperature distributions of coupled reactors are measured along the gas flow direction. The gas composition at the steam reformer outlet is measured to find the CH 4 conversion rate of the coupled reactor. The maximum value of the CH 4 conversion rate is approximately 93.4%, which means the proposed scale-up strategy can be utilized to develop a large-scale coupled reactor

  20. Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production by Sorption Enhanced Steam Reforming of Woodgas Containing TAR over a Commercial Ni Catalyst and Calcined Dolomite as CO2 Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Naso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of the catalytic steam reforming of a gaseous fuel obtained by steam biomass gasification to convert topping atmosphere residue (TAR and CH4 and to produce pure H2 by means of a CO2 sorbent. This experimental work deals with the demonstration of the practical feasibility of such concepts, using a real woodgas obtained from fluidized bed steam gasification of hazelnut shells. This study evaluates the use of a commercial Ni catalyst and calcined dolomite (CaO/MgO. The bed material simultaneously acts as reforming catalyst and CO2 sorbent. The experimental investigations have been carried out in a fixed bed micro-reactor rig using a slipstream from the gasifier to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. The reforming/sorption tests were carried out at 650 °C while regeneration of the sorbent was carried out at 850 °C in a nitrogen environment. Both combinations of catalyst and sorbent are very effective in TAR and CH4 removal, with conversions near 100%, while the simultaneous CO2 sorption effectively enhances the water gas shift reaction producing a gas with a hydrogen volume fraction of over 90%. Multicycle tests of reforming/CO2 capture and regeneration were performed to verify the stability of the catalysts and sorbents to remove TAR and capture CO2 during the duty cycle.

  1. Thermodynamic simulation of biomass gas steam reforming for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sordi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to simulate a small-scale fuel cell system for power generation using biomass gas as fuel. The methodology encompasses the thermodynamic and electrochemical aspects of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, as well as solves the problem of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. In this case the complex system is the internal reforming of biomass gas to produce hydrogen. The fuel cell input variables are: operational voltage, cell power output, composition of the biomass gas reforming, thermodynamic efficiency, electrochemical efficiency, practical efficiency, the First and Second law efficiencies for the whole system. The chemical compositions, molar flows and temperatures are presented to each point of the system as well as the exergetic efficiency. For a molar water/carbon ratio of 2, the thermodynamic simulation of the biomass gas reforming indicates the maximum hydrogen production at a temperature of 1070 K, which can vary as a function of the biomass gas composition. The comparison with the efficiency of simple gas turbine cycle and regenerative gas turbine cycle shows the superiority of SOFC for the considered electrical power range.

  2. Enhancement of Glycerol Steam Reforming Activity and Thermal Stability by Incorporating CeO2 and TiO2 in Ni- and Co-MCM-41 Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade, William N.

    Hydrogen (H2) has many applications in industry with current focus shifted to production of hydrocarbon fuels and valuable oxygenates using the Fischer-Tropsch technology and direct use in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Hydrogen is generally produced via steam reforming of natural gas or alcohols like methanol and ethanol. Glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production process, is currently considered to be one of the most attractive sources of sustainable H2 due to its high H/C ratio and bio-based origin. Ni and Co based catalysts have been reported to be active in glycerol steam reforming (GSR); however, deactivation of the catalysts by carbon deposition and sintering under GSR operating conditions is a major challenge. In this study, a series of catalysts containing Ni and Co nanoparticles incorporated in CeO2 and TiO2 modified high surface area MCM-41 have been synthesized using one-pot method. The catalysts are tested for GSR (at H2O/Glycerol mole ratio of 12 and GHSV of 2200 h-1) to study the effect of support modification and reaction temperature (450 - 700 °C) on the product selectivity and long term stability. GSR results revealed that all the catalysts performed significantly well exhibiting over 85% glycerol conversion at 650 °C except Ni catalysts that showed better low temperature activities. Deactivation studies of the catalysts conducted at 650 °C indicated that the Ni-TiO2-MCM-41 and Ni-CeO 2-MCM-41 were resistant to deactivation with ˜100% glycerol conversion for 40 h. In contrast, Co-TiO2-MCM-41 perform poorly as the catalyst rapidly deactivated after 12 h to yield ˜20% glycerol conversion after 40 h. The WAXRD and TGA-DSC analyses of spent catalysts showed a significant amount of coke deposition that might explain catalysts deactivation. The flattening shape of the original BET type IV isotherm with drastic reduction of catalyst surface area can also be responsible for observed drop in catalysts activities.

  3. Promoting Effect of CeO2 Addition on Activity and Catalytic Stability in Steam Reforming of Methane over Ni/Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakib, A.; Gennequin, C.; Ringot, S.; Aboukais, A.; Abi-Aad, E.; Dhainaut, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen production by steam reforming of methane was studied over Ni catalysts supported on CeO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and CeO 2 -Al 2 O 3 . These catalysts were prepared using the impregnation method and characterized by XRD. The effect of CeO2 promoter on the catalytic performance of Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalyst for methane steam reforming reaction was investigated. In fact, CeO 2 had a positive effect on the catalytic activity in this reaction. Experimental results demonstrated that Ni/CeO 2 -Al 2 O 3 catalyst showed excellent catalytic activity and high reaction performance. In addition, the effects of reaction temperature and metal content on the conversion of CH 4 and H 2 /CO ratio were also investigated. Results indicated that CH4 conversion increased significantly with the increase of the reaction temperature and metal content. (author)

  4. Steam reforming of methanol over oxide decorated nanoporous gold catalysts: a combined in situ FTIR and flow reactor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J; Mahr, C; Murshed, M M; Gesing, T M; Rosenauer, A; Bäumer, M; Wittstock, A

    2017-03-29

    Methanol as a green and renewable resource can be used to generate hydrogen by reforming, i.e., its catalytic oxidation with water. In combination with a fuel cell this hydrogen can be converted into electrical energy, a favorable concept, in particular for mobile applications. Its realization requires the development of novel types of structured catalysts, applicable in small scale reactor designs. Here, three different types of such catalysts were investigated for the steam reforming of methanol (SRM). Oxides such as TiO 2 and CeO 2 and mixtures thereof (Ce 1 Ti 2 O x ) were deposited inside a bulk nanoporous gold (npAu) material using wet chemical impregnation procedures. Transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy reveal oxide nanoparticles (1-2 nm in size) abundantly covering the strongly curved surface of the nanoporous gold host (ligaments and pores on the order of 40 nm in size). These catalysts were investigated in a laboratory scaled flow reactor. First conversion of methanol was detected at 200 °C. The measured turn over frequency at 300 °C of the CeO x /npAu catalyst was 0.06 s -1 . Parallel investigation by in situ infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) reveals that the activation of water and the formation of OH ads are the key to the activity/selectivity of the catalysts. While all catalysts generate sufficient OH ads to prevent complete dehydrogenation of methanol to CO, only the most active catalysts (e.g., CeO x /npAu) show direct reaction with formic acid and its decomposition to CO 2 and H 2 . The combination of flow reactor studies and in operando DRIFTS, thus, opens the door to further development of this type of catalyst.

  5. Cesium Removal From Tanks 241-AN-103 and 241-SX-105 and 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 Composite For Testing In Bench Scale Steam Reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.; Huber, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  6. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  7. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  8. Deactivation Studies of Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 Catalysts in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platon, Alex; Roh, Hyun-Seog; King, David L.; Wang, Yong

    2007-10-30

    Rapid deactivation of Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalysts in low temperature ethanol steam reforming was studied. A significant build-up of carbonaceous intermediate, instead of carbon deposit, was observed at a lower reaction temperature which was attributed to the rapid catalyst deactivation. Co-feed experiments indicated that acetone and ethylene caused more severe catalyst deactivation than other oxygenates such as acidic acid and acetaldehyde.

  9. Hydrogen Production from Methanol Steam Reforming over TiO2 and CeO2 Pillared Clay Supported Au Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongbin Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Methanol steam reforming is a promising process for the generation of hydrogen. In this study, Au catalysts supported on modified montmorillonite were prepared and their catalytic activity for methanol steam reforming was investigated at 250–500 °C. The physical and chemical properties of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer–Emmet–Teller method (BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopic (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP, and thermogravimetrc analysis (TGA. For the catalysts examined, Au-Ti-Ce/Na-ABen exhibits the best catalytic performance with methanol conversion of 72% and H2 selectivity of 99% at 350 °C. This could be attributed to Au, Ce, and Ti species which form a solid solution and move into the interlayer space of the bentonite leading to a high surface area, large average pore volume, large average pore diameter, and small Au particle size. We considered that the synergistic effect of the crosslinking agent, the Ce species, and the Au active sites were responsible for the high activity of Au-Ti-Ce/Na-ABen catalyst for methanol steam reforming.

  10. Numerical analysis of hydrogen production via methane steam reforming in porous media solar thermochemical reactor using concentrated solar irradiation as heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fuqiang; Tan, Jianyu; Shuai, Yong; Gong, Liang; Tan, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • H 2 production by hybrid solar energy and methane steam reforming is analyzed. • MCRT and FVM coupling method is used for chemical reaction in solar porous reactor. • LTNE model is used to study the solid phase and fluid phase thermal performance. • Modified P1 approximation programmed by UDFs is used for irradiative heat transfer. - Abstract: The calorific value of syngas can be greatly upgraded during the methane steam reforming process by using concentrated solar energy as heat source. In this study, the Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) and Finite Volume Method (FVM) coupling method is developed to investigate the hydrogen production performance via methane steam reforming in porous media solar thermochemical reactor which includes the mass, momentum, energy and irradiative transfer equations as well as chemical reaction kinetics. The local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model is used to provide more temperature information. The modified P1 approximation is adopted for solving the irradiative heat transfer equation. The MCRT method is used to calculate the sunlight concentration and transmission problems. The fluid phase energy equation and transport equations are solved by Fluent software. The solid phase energy equation, irradiative transfer equation and chemical reaction kinetics are programmed by user defined functions (UDFs). The numerical results indicate that concentrated solar irradiation on the fluid entrance surface of solar chemical reactor is highly uneven, and temperature distribution has significant influence on hydrogen production

  11. Life cycle inventory analysis of hydrogen production by the steam-reforming process: comparison between vegetable oils and fossil fuels as feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquevich, M.; Sonnemann, G.W.; Castells, F.; Montane, D.

    2002-01-01

    A life cycle inventory analysis has been conducted to assess the environmental load, specifically CO 2 (fossil) emissions and global warming potential (GWP), associated to the production of hydrogen by the steam reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks (methane and naphtha) and vegetable oils (rapeseed oil, soybean oil and palm oil). Results show that the GWPs associated with the production of hydrogen by steam reforming in a 100 years time frame are 9.71 and 9.46 kg CO 2 -equivalent/kg H 2 for natural gas and naphtha, respectively. For vegetable oils, the GWP decreases to 6.42 kg CO 2 -equivalent/kg H 2 for rapeseed oil, 4.32 for palm oil and 3.30 for soybean oil. A dominance analysis determined that the part of the process that has the largest effect on the GWP is the steam reforming reaction itself for the fossil fuel-based systems, which accounts for 56.7% and 74% of the total GWP for natural gas and naphtha, respectively. This contribution is zero for vegetable oil-based systems, for which harvesting and oil production are the main sources of CO 2 -eq emissions.(author)

  12. Draft, development and optimization of a fuel cell system for residential power generation with steam reformer; Entwurf, Aufbau und Optimierung eines PEM-Brennstoffzellensystems zur Hausenergieversorgung mit Dampfreformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, H

    2006-05-17

    The first development cycle of a residential power generation system is described. A steam reformer was chosen to produce hydrogen out of natural gas. After carbon monoxide purification with a preferential oxidation (PrOx) unit the hydrogen rich reformat gas is feed to the anode of the PEM-fuel cell, where due to the internal reaction with air oxygen form the cathode side water, heat and electricity is produced. Due to an incomplete conversion the anode off gas contains hydrogen and residual methane, which is feed to the burner of the steam reformer to reduce the needed amount of external fuel to heat the steam reformer. To develop the system the components are separately investigated and optimized in their construction or operation to meet the system requirements. After steady state and dynamic characterization of the components they were coupled one after another to build the system. To operate the system a system control was developed to operate and characterize this complex system. After characterization the system was analyzed for further optimization. During the development of the system inventions like a water cooled PrOx, an independent fuel cell controller or a burner for anodic off gas recirculation were made. The work gives a look into the interactions between the components and allows to understand the problems by coupling such components. (orig.)

  13. On Study of Teaching Reform of Organic Chemistry Course in Applied Chemical Industry Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshen

    2017-11-01

    with the implementation of new curriculum reform, the education sees great changes in teaching methods. Teaching reform is profound in organic chemistry course in applied chemical industry technology. However, many problems which have never been noticed before occur when reform programs are implemented which harm students’ ability for learning and enthusiasm in side face. This paper proposes reform measures like combining theory and practice, improving professional quality, supplementing professional needs and integrating teaching into life after analyzing organic chemistry course teaching in applied chemical industry technology currently, hoping to play a role of reference for organic chemistry course teaching reform in applied chemical industry technology.

  14. Valorisation of Vietnamese Rice Straw Waste: Catalytic Aqueous Phase Reforming of Hydrolysate from Steam Explosion to Platform Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Huong Giang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A family of tungstated zirconia solid acid catalysts were synthesised via wet impregnation and subsequent thermochemical processing for the transformation of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. Acid strength increased with tungsten loading and calcination temperature, associated with stabilisation of tetragonal zirconia. High tungsten dispersions of between 2 and 7 W atoms·nm−2 were obtained in all cases, equating to sub-monolayer coverages. Glucose isomerisation and subsequent dehydration via fructose to HMF increased with W loading and calcination temperature up to 600 °C, indicating that glucose conversion to fructose was favoured over weak Lewis acid and/or base sites associated with the zirconia support, while fructose dehydration and HMF formation was favoured over Brönsted acidic WOx clusters. Aqueous phase reforming of steam exploded rice straw hydrolysate and condensate was explored heterogeneously for the first time over a 10 wt% WZ catalyst, resulting in excellent HMF yields as high as 15% under mild reaction conditions.

  15. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-oil aqueous fraction over Co-Fe/ZSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingqiang; Wang, Yishuang; Liang, Tian; Yang, Zhonglian

    2018-02-01

    A series of Co-Fe/ZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by impregnation method and their catalytic performance under steam reforming bio-oil aqueous fraction (SRBAF). The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, and SEM. The characterization results revealed the Co-Fe alloy phase was formed in Co0.5Fe0.5/ZSM-5 catalyst, and this catalyst exhibited unique pore volume (0.28 cm3/g) and pore size (8.4 nm). The results of experiment demonstrated the addition of Fe species could significantly increase C conversion and H2 yield, and the formation of Co-Fe alloy effectively inhibited methanation reaction and improved water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. The highest H2 yield (81%) and C conversion (85%) was obtained at the following reaction conditions: 2.5 g of C0.5F0.5/Z catalyst, T = 700 °C, S/C = 10-14,.feed flow rate was 10.0 gbio-oil/h, N2 flow rate was 0.16 L/min.

  16. Estimation of transient heat flux density during the heat supply of a catalytic wall steam methane reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settar, Abdelhakim; Abboudi, Saïd; Madani, Brahim; Nebbali, Rachid

    2018-02-01

    Due to the endothermic nature of the steam methane reforming reaction, the process is often limited by the heat transfer behavior in the reactors. Poor thermal behavior sometimes leads to slow reaction kinetics, which is characterized by the presence of cold spots in the catalytic zones. Within this framework, the present work consists on a numerical investigation, in conjunction with an experimental one, on the one-dimensional heat transfer phenomenon during the heat supply of a catalytic-wall reactor, which is designed for hydrogen production. The studied reactor is inserted in an electric furnace where the heat requirement of the endothermic reaction is supplied by electric heating system. During the heat supply, an unknown heat flux density, received by the reactive flow, is estimated using inverse methods. In the basis of the catalytic-wall reactor model, an experimental setup is engineered in situ to measure the temperature distribution. Then after, the measurements are injected in the numerical heat flux estimation procedure, which is based on the Function Specification Method (FSM). The measured and estimated temperatures are confronted and the heat flux density which crosses the reactor wall is determined.

  17. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—THOR® Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  18. Economic analysis of hydrogen production through a bio-ethanol steam reforming process: Sensitivity analyses and cost estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hua; Ozkan, Umit S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the hydrogen selling price from ethanol steam reforming has been estimated for two different production scenarios in the United States, i.e. central production (150,000 kg H 2 /day) and distributed (forecourt) production (1500 kg H 2 /day), based on a process flowchart generated by Aspen Plus registered including downstream purification steps and economic analysis model template published by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE). The effect of several processing parameters as well as catalyst properties on the hydrogen selling price has been evaluated. 2.69/kg is estimated as the selling price for a central production process of 150,000 kg H 2 /day and 4.27/kg for a distributed hydrogen production process at a scale of 1500 kg H 2 /day. Among the parameters investigated through sensitivity analyses, ethanol feedstock cost, catalyst cost, and catalytic performance are found to play a significant role on determining the final hydrogen selling price. (author)

  19. Catalytic steam reforming of ethanol over W-, V-, or Nb–modified Ni-Al-O hydrotalcite-type precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korneeva E.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available 2:1 Ni/Al layered double hydroxides (LDH doped by anions using ammonium salts (NH410[W12O41], NH4VO3 or (NH43[NbO(C2O43] have been prepared by co-precipitation, dried and calcined at 600оС, forming NiO-based solid solutions. Diffraction patterns are typical for the layered Ni-Al-O hydrotalcite-like structure. Anion incorporation into the interlayer space increases the interlayer distance for W- and Nb-containing anions but decreases it for VO3 -1. Broad halos in the diffraction patterns indicate amorphous or strongly disordered phases containing the doping anions. H2 reduction of undoped Ni-Al-O (NA and those doped by W (NAW and Nb (NANb occurred in one step, while that doped by V (NAV was reduced in two steps. W doping increases the reduction temperature, but Nb doping decreases it. The hydrogen consumed increases in the row: NANb < NAW < NAV < NA. In the ethanol steam reforming reaction, modification by W and Nb anions results in ethanol conversion rates close to that of the unmodified sample, but V increases it nearly twofold.

  20. A Review of Multi-Sensory Technologies in a Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics (STEAM) Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljaard, Johann

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on multi-sensory technology and, in particular, looks at answering the question: "What multi-sensory technologies are available to use in a science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics (STEAM) classroom, and do they affect student engagement and learning outcomes?" Here engagement is defined…

  1. Hydrogen production from cheese whey by catalytic steam reforming: Preliminary study using lactose as a model compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remón, J.; Laseca, M.; García, L.; Arauzo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam reforming of lactose: a promising strategy for cheese whey management. • Thermodynamic and experimental analyses of the effect of the operating conditions. • Reaction pathway showing the formation of the most important gas and liquid products. • Technical/energetic assessment: H_2 rich gas, C-free liquid and neutral energy process. - Abstract: Cheese whey is a yellowish liquid by-product of the cheese making process. Owing to its high BOD and COD values, this feedstock should not be directly discharged into the environment without appropriate treatment. Before dealing with real cheese whey, this work addresses the production of a rich hydrogen gas from lactose (the largest organic constituent of this waste) by catalytic steam reforming. This reforming process has been theoretically and experimentally studied. The theoretical study examines the effect of the temperature (300–600 °C), lactose concentration (1–10 wt.%) and N_2 (0–80 cm"3 STP/min) and liquid flow (0.1–0.5 mL/min) rates on the thermodynamic composition of the gas. The results show that the temperature and lactose concentration exerted the greatest influence on the thermodynamics. The experimental study, conducted in a fixed bed reactor using a Ni-based catalyst, considers the effect of the temperature (300–600 °C), lactose concentration (1–10 wt.%) and spatial time (4–16 g catalyst min/g lactose) on the global lactose conversion, product distribution on a carbon basis (gas, liquid and solid) and the compositions of the gas and liquid phases. Complete lactose conversion was achieved under all the experimental conditions. The carbon converted into gas, liquid and solid was 2–97%, 0–66% and 0–94%, respectively. The gas phase was made up of a mixture of H_2 (0–70 vol.%), CO_2 (20–70 vol.%), CO (2–34 vol.%) and CH_4 (0–3 vol.%). The liquid phase consisted of a mixture of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, sugars, furans, alcohols and phenols

  2. FLOX {sup registered} - steam reforming - industrial competence and entrepreneurship for the fuel cell industry; FLOX {sup registered} -Dampfreformierung - Mit Industriekompetenz und Unternehmergeist in die Brennstoffzellentechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, H.P. [WS Reformer GmbH, Renningen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The modular container concept enables economically competitive on-site hydrogen production for all classic applications. Processes in power engineering and chemical engineering in which a 20 percent fraction of CO2 in the reformer gas can be tolerated are new applications which can be put into practice by the WS reformer technology. (orig.)

  3. Steam reforming of bio-ethanol over Ni on Ce-ZrO2 support: Influence of redox properties on the catalyst reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumittra Charojrochkul

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The steam reforming of ethanol over Ni on Ce-ZrO2 support, (Ni/ Ce-ZrO2 were studied. The catalyst provides significantly higher reforming reactivity and excellent resistance toward carbon deposition compared to Ni/Al2O3 under the same conditions. At the temperature above 800ºC, the main products from the reforming processes over Ni/Ce-ZrO2 were H2, CO, and CO2 with small amount of CH4 depending on the inlet ethanol/steam and oxygen/ethanol ratios, whereas high hydrocarbon compounds i.e., C2H4 and C2H6 were also observed from the reforming of ethanol over Ni/Al2O3 in the range of conditions studied (700- 1000ºC.These excellent ethanol reforming performances of Ni/Ce-ZrO2 in terms of stability, reactivity and product selectivities are due to the high redox property of Ce-ZrO2. During the ethanol reforming process, in addition to the reactions on Ni surface, the gas-solid reactions between the gaseous components presented in the system (C2H5OH, C2H6, C2H4, CH4, CO2, CO, H2O, and H2 and the lattice oxygen (Ox on Ce-ZrO2 surface also take place. Among these redox reactions, the reactions of adsorbed surface hydrocarbons with the lattice oxygen (Ox (CnHm + Ox → nCO + m/2(H2 + Ox-n can eliminate the formation of high hydrocarbons (C2H6 and C2H4, which easily decompose and form carbon species on Ni surface (CnHm→ nC + m/2H2.

  4. Impacts Of Electricity Market Reform And Non-Reform Factors On Technology Uptake: Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Structure and ownership: The first phase of the reform (1992–2000) encouraged private participation in the generation segment. By 1998, foreign-owned IPPs accounted for around 4800 MW of generating capacity. During the 1990s, over 90% of the new capacity was built by foreign-owned IPPs [86]. In the second phase of the reform (2001 to present), the vertically integrated electricity utility was unbundled, regulatory arrangements including open access to network services were developed and the WESM was created. These changes further promoted private participation in the power sector. Price signals generated from the competitive electricity market act as the main driving force to make new investments in generation. Besides, the pressure from market competition pushes investors to select the most efficient and advanced generating technologies to meet growing demand. In the Visayas region, for example, rapid growth in electricity demand drove up electricity prices, which attracted private investors to build three new coal fired power plants in 2010 and 2011. These plants use low cost and highly efficient circulating fluidized bed technology. Regulatory arrangements: The EPIRA of 2001 established the ERC to promote competition, encourage market development, ensure customer choice and penalize abuse of market power in the electricity industry. The ERC is also mandated by law to maintain a level playing field in the competitive sectors (generation and supply) and to regulate the transmission and distribution sectors. The EPIRA also mandates the ERC to enforce market share limitations wherein no generation company can own, operate or control more than 30% of the total installed generating capacity of a grid and/or more than 25% of the total national installed capacity. The ERC must also ensure that before a generation company can operate and supply power, it must secure a certificate of compliance with all the appropriate licences or clearances (health, environment and

  5. Combined steam and carbon dioxide reforming of methane and side reactions: Thermodynamic equilibrium analysis and experimental application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Won-Jun; Jeong, Dae-Woon; Shim, Jae-Oh; Kim, Hak-Min; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Son, In Hyuk; Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Selected variables have a significant influence on yields of synthesis gas. • (CO_2 + H_2O)/CH_4 affects the temperature which can achieve the maximum conversion. • Coke is formed at low temperatures even with excess oxidizing agent. • The occurrence of RWGS becomes critical in real chemical reactions. • Equilibrium conversions are maintained for 500 h without detectable deactivation. - Abstract: Thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of the combined steam and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CSCRM) and side reactions was performed using total Gibbs free energy minimization. The effects of (CO_2 + H_2O)/CH_4 ratio (0.9–2.9), CO_2:H_2O ratio (3:1–1:3), and temperature (500–1000 °C) on the equilibrium conversions, yields, coke yield, and H_2/CO ratio were investigated. A (CO_2 + H_2O)/CH_4 ratio greater than 1.2, a CO_2:H_2O ratio of 1:2.1, and a temperature of at least 850 °C are preferable reaction conditions for the synthesis gas preparation in the gas to liquid process. Simulated conditions were applied to the CSCRM reaction and the experimental data were compared with the thermodynamic equilibrium results. The thermodynamic equilibrium results were mostly consistent with the experimental data, but the reverse water gas shift reaction rapidly occurred in the real chemical reaction and under excess oxidizing agent conditions. In addition, a long-term stability test (under simulated conditions) showed that the equilibrium conversion was maintained for 500 h and that the coke formation on the used catalyst was not observed.

  6. A Phenomenological Study on the Synergistic Role of Precious Metals in the Steam Reforming of Logistic Fuels on Bimetal-Supported Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Majeed Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel processors are required to convert sulfur-laden logistic fuels into hydrogen-rich reformate and deliver to the fuel cell stack with little or no sulfur. Since sulfur poisons and deactivates the reforming catalyst, robust sulfur-tolerant catalysts ought to be developed. In this paper, the development, characterization and evaluation of a series of reforming catalysts containing two noble metals (with total metal loading not exceeding 1 weight percent supported on nanoscale ceria for the steam-reforming of kerosene is reported. Due to inherent synergy, a bimetallic catalyst is superior to its monometallic analog, for the same level of loading. The choice of noble metal combination in the bimetallic formulations plays a vital and meaningful role in their performance. Presence of ruthenium and/or rhodium in formulations containing palladium showed improved sulfur tolerance and significant enhancement in their catalytic activity and stability. Rhodium was responsible for higher hydrogen yields in the logistic fuel reformate. Duration of steady hydrogen production was higher in the case of RhPd (75 h than for RuPd (68 h; hydrogen generation was stable over the longest period (88 h with RuRh containing no Pd. A mechanistic correlation between the characteristic role of precious metals in the presence of each other is discussed.

  7. Hydrogen Production by Ethanol Steam Reforming (ESR over CeO2 Supported Transition Metal (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu Catalysts: Insight into the Structure-Activity Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Konsolakis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate steam reforming of ethanol with regard to H2 production over transition metal catalysts supported on CeO2. Various parameters concerning the effect of temperature (400–800 °C, steam-to-carbon (S/C feed ratio (0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, metal entity (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and metal loading (15–30 wt.% on the catalytic performance, were thoroughly studied. The optimal performance was obtained for the 20 wt.% Co/CeO2 catalyst, achieving a H2 yield of up to 66% at 400 °C. In addition, the Co/CeO2 catalyst demonstrated excellent stability performance in the whole examined temperature range of 400–800 °C. In contrast, a notable stability degradation, especially at low temperatures, was observed for Ni-, Cu-, and Fe-based catalysts, ascribed mainly to carbon deposition. An extensive characterization study, involving N2 adsorption-desorption (BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDS, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, and Temperature Programmed Reduction (H2-TPR was undertaken to gain insight into the structure-activity correlation. The excellent reforming performance of Co/CeO2 catalysts could be attributed to their intrinsic reactivity towards ethanol reforming in combination to their high surface oxygen concentration, which hinders the deposition of carbonaceous species.

  8. DFT Studies of Adsorption of Cu7-atom Nanoclusters on TiO2 Surfaces and Application to Methanol Steam Reforming Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Michael J., Sr.

    Alcohol conversion to hydrogen, via steam reforming, is an alternative energy process that is promising for the future of clean energy economies. With advancements in fuel cell technologies, on-board hydrogen reforming could leverage already existing automotive designs and fuel infrastructure. The design of catalytic materials with tunable properties requires a level of insight that has yet to be achieved experimentally. The central objective of this project is to develop a working model of metal-oxide surface mediated copper clusters, since such catalytic beds have a wide-range of applications. More specifically, we investigate the catalytic framework of this process with theoretical models of the active metal (Cu) and metal­oxide support (TiO2). We employ a Density Functional Theory (DFT)-Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) approach for the quantum level electronic structure calculations of Cu, TiO2 and CH3OH. Additionally, we have generated anatase (A(001), A(101)) and rutile (R(100), R(110)) surface morphologies and 7­atom copper cluster complexes with those planes. To examine the possible influence of TiO2 on the adsorption properties of our active metal, Cu7, we have carried out adsorption studies with CH3OH. Our final data and observations predict that the Cu7 cluster adopts a symmetric pentagonal bipyramidal geometry with D5h symmetry. We find that the anatase morphology has a greater overall stability than rutile. The adsorption strength of the Cu7 cluster has been predicted in this study to be according to the following order: A(001) > A(101)> R(110). Indeed, the R(100) surface appears to be an unfavorable surface for metal cluster binding. Our data indicates that copper cluster stabilization on the metal-oxide surface depends on the nature of the crystal face. Again, we studied the adsorption properties of methanol on nascent Cu7 cluster, Cu7-TiO 2 complex and on pure TiO2-surface in A(001) polymorphic form. The calculations revealed that methanol

  9. The New Technology and Educational Reform: Guidelines for School Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Mark; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper presents the results of a literature review on educational methodology reforms. The first section discusses five factors in broad-based school reforms: change theory; organizational theory; state/national politics; local politics/governance; and leadership theory. Five types of reforms for school-wide success are described in the second…

  10. Synthesis and Activity Test of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 for the Methanol Steam Reforming as a Fuel Cell’s Hydrogen Supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGBN Makertihartha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of hydrogen from hydrocarbons through the steam reforming of methanol on Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst has been investigated. This process is assigned to be one of the promising alternatives for fuel cell hydrogen process source. Hydrogen synthesis from methanol can be carried out by means of methanol steam reforming which is a gas phase catalytic reaction between methanol and water. In this research, the Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by the dry impregnation was used. The specific surface area of catalyst was 194.69 m2/gram.The methanol steam reforming (SRM reaction was carried out by means of the injection of gas mixture containing methanol and water with 1:1.2 mol ratio and 20-90 mL/minute feed flow rate to a fixed bed reactor loaded by 1 g of catalyst. The reaction temperature was 200-300 °C, and the reactor pressure was 1 atm. Preceding the reaction, catalyst was reduced in the H2/N2 mixture at 160 °C. This study shows that at 300 °C reaction temperature, methanol conversion reached 100% at 28 mL/minute gas flow rate. This conversion decreased significantly with the increase of gas flow rate. Meanwhile, the catalyst prepared for SRM was stable in 36 hours of operation at 260 °C. The catalyst exhibited a good stability although the reaction condition was shifted to a higher gas flow rate.

  11. A Comparative Discussion of the Catalytic Activity and CO2-Selectivity of Cu-Zr and Pd-Zr (Intermetallic Compounds in Methanol Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Köpfle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The activation and catalytic performance of two representative Zr-containing intermetallic systems, namely Cu-Zr and Pd-Zr, have been comparatively studied operando using methanol steam reforming (MSR as test reaction. Using an inverse surface science and bulk model catalyst approach, we monitored the transition of the initial metal/intermetallic compound structures into the eventual active and CO2-selective states upon contact to the methanol steam reforming mixture. For Cu-Zr, selected nominal stoichiometries ranging from Cu:Zr = 9:2 over 2:1 to 1:2 have been prepared by mixing the respective amounts of metallic Cu and Zr to yield different Cu-Zr bulk phases as initial catalyst structures. In addition, the methanol steam reforming performance of two Pd-Zr systems, that is, a bulk system with a nominal Pd:Zr = 2:1 stoichiometry and an inverse model system consisting of CVD-grown ZrOxHy layers on a polycrystalline Pd foil, has been comparatively assessed. While the CO2-selectivity and the overall catalytic performance of the Cu-Zr system is promising due to operando formation of a catalytically beneficial Cu-ZrO2 interface, the case for Pd-Zr is different. For both Pd-Zr systems, the low-temperature coking tendency, the high water-activation temperature and the CO2-selectivity spoiling inverse WGS reaction limit the use of the Pd-Zr systems for selective MSR applications, although alloying of Pd with Zr opens water activation channels to increase the CO2 selectivity.

  12. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG) over nickel catalysts supported on cationic surfactant-templated mesoporous aluminas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Park, Sunyoung; Jung, Ji Chul; Kim, Pil; Chung, Jin Suk; Song, In Kyu

    Two types of mesoporous γ-aluminas (denoted as A-A and A-S) are prepared by a hydrothermal method under different basic conditions using cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) as a templating agent. A-A and A-S are synthesized in a medium of ammonia solution and sodium hydroxide solution, respectively. Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts (Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S) are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of a mesoporous γ-Al 2O 3 support on the catalytic performance of Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 is investigated. The identity of basic solution strongly affects the physical properties of the A-A and A-S supports. The high surface-area of the mesoporous γ-aluminas and the strong metal-support interaction of supported catalysts greatly enhance the dispersion of nickel species on the catalyst surface. The well-developed mesopores of the Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts prohibit the polymerization of carbon species on the catalyst surface during the reaction. In the steam reforming of LNG, both Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts give better catalytic performance than the nickel catalyst supported on commercial γ-Al 2O 3 (Ni/A-C). In addition, the Ni/A-A catalyst is superior to the Ni/A-S catalyst. The relatively strong metal-support interaction of Ni/A-A catalyst effectively suppresses the sintering of metallic nickel and the carbon deposition in the steam reforming of LNG. The large pores of the Ni/A-A catalyst also play an important role in enhancing internal mass transfer during the reaction.

  13. Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection Data Package—Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pires, Richard P.

    2011-09-12

    The Hanford Site in southeast Washington State has 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored in 177 underground tanks (ORP 2010). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), through its contractors, is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to convert the radioactive and hazardous wastes into stable glass waste forms for disposal. Within the WTP, the pretreatment facility will receive the retrieved waste from the tank farms and separate it into two treated process streams. These waste streams will be vitrified, and the resulting waste canisters will be sent to offsite (high-level waste [HLW]) and onsite (immobilized low-activity waste [ILAW]) repositories. As part of the pretreatment and ILAW processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed of in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is developing data packages to support that down-selection. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilizing and solidifying the liquid secondary wastes. At the Hanford Site, the FBSR process is being evaluated as a supplemental technology for treating and immobilizing Hanford LAW radioactive tank waste and for treating secondary wastes from the WTP pretreatment and LAW vitrification processes.

  14. Chemical and physical modification of hemp fibres by steam explosion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutka, Anna; Kukle, Silvija; Gravitis, Janis; Berzins, Agris

    2013-01-01

    In current research attempt has been made to analyse hemp fibres treated with steam explosion (SE) technology. Disintegration of hemp fibres separated from non-retted, dew-retted and dried stems of hemp ('Purini')[1] by alkali treatment and steam explosion (SE) were investigated. An average intensive SE in combination with the hydro-thermal and alkali after-treatment allows decreasing the diameter of hemp fibres and reduce the concentration of non-celluloses components, among them hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin, waxes and water [1;2

  15. Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming with Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hyun-Seog; Platon, Alex; Wang, Yong; King, David L.

    2006-08-01

    Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts with various CeO2/ZrO2 ratios have been applied to H2 production from ethanol steam reforming at low temperatures. The catalysts all deactivated with time on stream (TOS) at 350 C. The addition of 0.5% K has a beneficial effect on catalyst stability, while 5% K has a negative effect on catalytic activity. The catalyst could be regenerated considerably even at ambient temperature and could recover its initial activity after regeneration above 200 C with 1% O2. The results are most consistent with catalyst deactivation due to carbonaceous deposition on the catalyst.

  16. Investigation of the promoting effect of Mn on a Pt/C catalyst for the steam and aqueous phase reforming of glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossola, Filippo; Pereira-Hernández, Xavier Isidro; Evangelisti, Claudio; Wang, Yong; Dal Santo, Vladimiro

    2017-05-01

    The catalytic performances in steam reforming (SR) and aqueous phase reforming (APR) of glycerol of a bimetallic Pt-Mn catalyst supported on activated carbon are investigated and correlated with the surface properties of the catalyst. Under SR conditions, Mn showed a significant promoting effect over Pt/C, both in terms of hydrogen production rate and conversion, with a higher selectivity toward the glycerol dehydration products. Upon addition of Mn the amount of strong Lewis acid sites increased, promoting the dehydration of glycerol and favoring the CAO over CAC cleavage at expenses of hydrogen selectivity. Conversely, under APR conditions, a slightly higher hydrogen selectivity and only minimal enhancement in hydrogen production were found, while the products selectivity was comparable to Pt/C. Most of Mn leached into the aqueous media, but the remaining (<5% of the fresh parent sample) might be alloyed with Pt and promote the CO desorption from neighbor Pt sites.

  17. A contribution to the modelling of steam reformers for natural gas fuelled fuel cell heating systems; Ein Beitrag zur Modellierung von Dampfreformern fuer erdgasbetriebene Brennstoffzellenheizgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nietzsche, Joerg

    2010-10-29

    The author attempted to verify the assumptions and simplifications of common mathematical models of small-scale steam reformers. The emphasis was on the derivation of important model parameters on the basis of easily identifiable catalyst, fluid and reactor characteristics. An easily validated 2D model of a reformer tube is then used for a wide sensitivity analysis and a comparative investigation of various reactor types. [German] Die Motivation dieser Arbeit liegt in der Ueberpruefung der bislang in mathematischen Modellen von kleintechnischen Dampfreformern getroffenen Annahmen und Vereinfachungen, mit speziellem Augenmerk auf die Aufklaerung der Herkunft wichtiger Modellparameter anhand von leicht bestimmbaren Katalysator-, Fluid- und Reaktoreigenschaften. Ein leicht zu validierendes, zweidimensionales Modell eines Reformerrohres soll im Anschluss fuer eine breit angelegte Sensitivitaetsanalyse und eine vergleichende Untersuchung verschiedener Reaktortypen dienen.

  18. Technological investigations and efficiency analysis of a steam heat exchange condenser: Conceptual design of a hybrid steam condenser

    OpenAIRE

    Kapooria, R K; Kumar, S; Kasana, K S

    2008-01-01

    Most of the electricity being produced throughout the world today is from steam power plants. At the same time, many other competent means of generating electricity have been developed viz. electricity from natural gas, MHD generators, biogas, solar cells, etc. But steam power plants will continue to be competent because of the use of water as the main working fluid which is abundantly available and is also reusable. The condenser remains among one of the key components of a steam power plant...

  19. MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to

  20. Electricity reforms and firm level responses: changing ownership, fuel choices, and technology decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.R.; Nag, Tirthankar; Biswas, Debashish

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how electricity reforms in India managed to influence the responses of generating firms. Indian electricity reforms have federal and state character. This paper utilises an extensive survey of generation units in Gujarat State. The findings suggest that reforms have created heterogeneous ownership of generation units. The fuel-mix and technology choices of new owners differ from pre-reform pattern followed by state-owned utilities. The new owners prefer natural gas, sourced technologies internationally, and chosen unit sizes that follow market dynamics. Consequently, the operational performance of power plants has improved. This paper quantifies energy efficiency and carbon intensity baselines, projects their trends, and delineates the contribution of reforms for the state. In generalisation, this paper argues that energy and cost efficiency of power plants across different states shows secular improvements under the reforms, though it cautions that environmental performance would not show such uniformly improving trends. (Author)

  1. Preparation and characterization of nickel catalysts supported on cerium for obtaining hydrogen from steam reforming of ethanol; Preparacao e caracterizacao de catalisadores de niquel suportados em ceria para obtencao de hidrogenio a partir da reforma a vapor do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbaninho, A.B.; Bergamaschi, V.S.; Ferreira, J.C., E-mail: jcferrei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Células à Combustível e Hidrogênio

    2016-07-01

    The Ni/Ce catalysts for were prepared by co- precipitation method with a view to their use in steam reforming of ethanol to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture. The catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy; x-ray dispersive Spectroscopy and surface area BET method. This paper proposes to prepare, characterize and test nickel catalyst supported on cerium in order to obtain a material with higher activity and selectivity of the catalyst using the steam reforming reaction of ethanol, by varying the reaction temperature, molar ratio water/ethanol and uptime. The catalytic tests were monitored by chemical analysis of syngas from steam reforming of ethanol using an analysis online by gas Chromatograph in the reactor. (author)

  2. Comparison of Heat Transfer Fluid and Direct Steam Generation technologies for Integrated Solar Combined Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, Antonio; Montes, María José; Varela, Fernando; Gil, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    At present time and in the medium term, Solar Thermal Power Plants are going to share scenario with conventional energy generation technologies, like fossil and nuclear. In such a context, Integrated Solar Combined Cycles (ISCCs) may be an interesting choice since integrated designs may lead to a very efficient use of the solar and fossil resources. In this work, different ISCC configurations including a solar field based on parabolic trough collectors and working with the so-called Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and Direct Steam Generation (DSG) technologies are compared. For each technology, four layouts have been studied: one in which solar heat is used to evaporate part of the high pressure steam of a bottoming Rankine cycle with two pressure levels, another that incorporates a preheating section to the previous layout, the third one that includes superheating instead of preheating and the last one including both preheating and superheating in addition to the evaporation. The analysis is made with the aim of finding out which of the different layouts reaches the best performance. For that purpose, three types of comparisons have been performed. The first one assesses the benefits of including a solar steam production fixed at 50 MW th . The second one compares the configurations with a standardised solar field size instead of a fixed solar steam production. Finally, the last one consists on an even more homogeneous comparison considering the same steam generator size for all the configurations as well as standardised solar fields. The configurations are studied by mean of exergy analyses. Several figures of merit are used to correctly assess the configurations. Results reveal that the only-evaporative DSG configuration becomes the best choice, since it benefits of both low irreversibility at the heat recovery steam generator and high thermal efficiency in the solar field. Highlights: ► ISCC configurations with DSG and HTF technologies are compared. ► Four

  3. Design principles of an integrated natural gas steam reformer for stationary PEMFC systems; Auslegungsprinzipien eines integrierten Erdgas-Dampfreformers fuer stationaere PEM-Brennstoffzellen-Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosser, K.

    2006-09-05

    The function, efficiency and economic efficiency of fuel cell systems are defined by various influencing factors, especially in the case of hydrogen production by steam reforming of natural gas. The dissertation describes the design of integrated natural gas steam reformers for PEM fuel cell systems in the electric power range of 1- 10 kW; the influencing factors of the process are investigated and weighted. Design principles are derived from which optimum operating parameters can be defined and which can be used for designing a multitude of components. [German] Die Funktionsfaehigkeit, der Wirkungsgrad und die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Brennstoffzellen-Systemen werden insbesondere bei der Wasserstofferzeugung durch Erdgas-Dampfreformierung durch verschiedene Einflussfaktoren bestimmt. In dieser Dissertation werden die Methodik der Auslegung integrierter Erdgas-Dampfreformer fuer PEM-Brennstoffzellen-Systeme im elektrischen Leistungsbereich von 1-10 kW beschrieben und die prozessbestimmenden Einflussfaktoren untersucht und gewichtet. Daraus werden Auslegungsprinzipien abgeleitet, mit denen sich die optimalen Betriebsparameter ermitteln lassen und die zur konstruktiven Gestaltung einer Vielzahl von Anlagenteilen genutzt werden koennen.

  4. Template-Assisted Wet-Combustion Synthesis of Fibrous Nickel-Based Catalyst for Carbon Dioxide Methanation and Methane Steam Reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayan, M; Potemkin, D I; Rubio-Marcos, F; Uskov, S I; Snytnikov, P V; Hussainova, I

    2017-12-20

    Efficient capture and recycling of CO 2 enable not only prevention of global warming but also the supply of useful low-carbon fuels. The catalytic conversion of CO 2 into an organic compound is a promising recycling approach which opens new concepts and opportunities for catalytic and industrial development. Here we report about template-assisted wet-combustion synthesis of a one-dimensional nickel-based catalyst for carbon dioxide methanation and methane steam reforming. Because of a high temperature achieved in a short time during reaction and a large amount of evolved gases, the wet-combustion synthesis yields homogeneously precipitated nanoparticles of NiO with average particle size of 4 nm on alumina nanofibers covered with a NiAl 2 O 4 nanolayer. The as-synthesized core-shell structured fibers exhibit outstanding activity in steam reforming of methane and sufficient activity in carbon dioxide methanation with 100% selectivity toward methane formation. The as-synthesized catalyst shows stable operation under the reaction conditions for at least 50 h.

  5. Performance evaluation and comparison of fuel processors integrated with PEM fuel cell based on steam or autothermal reforming and on CO preferential oxidation or selective methanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercolino, Giuliana; Ashraf, Muhammad A.; Specchia, Vito; Specchia, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling of different fuel processors integrated with PEM fuel cell stack. • Steam or autothermal reforming + CO selective methanation or preferential oxidation. • Reforming of different hydrocarbons: gasoline, light diesel oil, natural gas. • 5 kW e net systems comparison via energy efficiency and primary fuel rate consumed. • Highest net efficiency: steam reformer + CO selective methanation based system. - Abstract: The performances of four different auxiliary power unit (APU) schemes, based on a 5 kW e net proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) stack, are evaluated and compared. The fuel processor section of each APU is characterized by a reformer (autothermal ATR or steam SR), a non-isothermal water gas shift (NI-WGS) reactor and a final syngas catalytic clean-up step: the CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reactor or the CO selective methanation (SMET) one. Furthermore, three hydrocarbon fuels, the most commonly found in service stations (gasoline, light diesel oil and natural gas) are considered as primary fuels. The comparison is carried out examining the results obtained by a series of steady-state system simulations in Aspen Plus® of the four different APU schemes by varying the fed fuel. From the calculated data, the performance of CO-PROX is not very different compared to that of the CO-SMET, but the performance of the SR based APUs is higher than the scheme of the ATR based APUs. The most promising APU scheme with respect to an overall performance target is the scheme fed with natural gas and characterized by a fuel processor chain consisting of SR, NI-WGS and CO-SMET reactors. This processing reactors scheme together with the fuel cell section, notwithstanding having practically the same energy efficiency of the scheme with SR, NI-WGS and CO-PROX reactors, ensures a less complex scheme, higher hydrogen concentration in the syngas, lower air mass rate consumption, the absence of nitrogen in the syngas and higher potential

  6. Time for TIGER to ROAR! Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhan; Hubner, Ursula; Shaw, Toria; Blake, Rachelle; Ball, Marion

    2017-11-01

    Information Technology (IT) continues to evolve and develop with electronic devices and systems becoming integral to healthcare in every country. This has led to an urgent need for all professions working in healthcare to be knowledgeable and skilled in informatics. The Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform (TIGER) Initiative was established in 2006 in the United States to develop key areas of informatics in nursing. One of these was to integrate informatics competencies into nursing curricula and life-long learning. In 2009, TIGER developed an informatics competency framework which outlines numerous IT competencies required for professional practice and this work helped increase the emphasis of informatics in nursing education standards in the United States. In 2012, TIGER expanded to the international community to help synthesise informatics competencies for nurses and pool educational resources in health IT. This transition led to a new interprofessional, interdisciplinary approach, as health informatics education needs to expand to other clinical fields and beyond. In tandem, a European Union (EU) - United States (US) Collaboration on eHealth began a strand of work which focuses on developing the IT skills of the health workforce to ensure technology can be adopted and applied in healthcare. One initiative within this is the EU*US eHealth Work Project, which started in 2016 and is mapping the current structure and gaps in health IT skills and training needs globally. It aims to increase educational opportunities by developing a model for open and scalable access to eHealth training programmes. With this renewed initiative to incorporate informatics into the education and training of nurses and other health professionals globally, it is time for educators, researchers, practitioners and policy makers to join in and ROAR with TIGER. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Utilization of acetone-butanol-ethanol-water mixture obtained from biomass fermentation as renewable feedstock for hydrogen production via steam reforming: Thermodynamic and energy analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Kumar, Shashi; Sinha, Shishir; Kumar, Surendra

    2018-08-01

    A thermodynamic equilibrium analysis on steam reforming process to utilize acetone-butanol-ethanol-water mixture obtained from biomass fermentation as biorenewable fuel has been performed to produce clean energy carrier H 2 via non-stoichiometric approach namely Gibbs free energy minimization method. The effect of process variables such as temperature (573-1473 K), pressure (1-10 atm), and steam/fuel molar feed ratio (F ABE  = 5.5-12) have been investigated on equilibrium compositions of products, H 2 , CO, CO 2 , CH 4 and solid carbon. The best suitable conditions for maximization of desired product H 2 , suppression of CH 4 , and inhibition of solid carbon are 973 K, 1 atm, steam/fuel molar feed ratio = 12. Under these conditions, the maximum molar production of hydrogen is 8.35 with negligible formation of carbon and methane. Furthermore, the energy requirement per mol of H 2 (48.96 kJ), thermal efficiency (69.13%), exergy efficiency (55.09%), exergy destruction (85.36 kJ/mol), and generated entropy (0.29 kJ/mol.K) have been achieved at same operating conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of Steam Turbine Operational Performance and Reliability with using Modern Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu M.; Kultishev, A. Yu

    2017-11-01

    The report presents improvement methods review in the fields of the steam turbine units design and operation based on modern information technologies application. In accordance with the life cycle methodology support, a conceptual model of the information support system during life cycle main stages (LC) of steam turbine unit is suggested. A classifying system, which ensures the creation of sustainable information links between the engineer team (manufacture’s plant) and customer organizations (power plants), is proposed. Within report, the principle of parameterization expansion beyond the geometric constructions at the design and improvement process of steam turbine unit equipment is proposed, studied and justified. The report presents the steam turbine unit equipment design methodology based on the brand new oil-cooler design system that have been developed and implemented by authors. This design system combines the construction subsystem, which is characterized by extensive usage of family tables and templates, and computation subsystem, which includes a methodology for the thermal-hydraulic zone-by-zone oil coolers design calculations. The report presents data about the developed software for operational monitoring, assessment of equipment parameters features as well as its implementation on five power plants.

  9. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-09-19

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H₂ to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H₂, CO and CO₂. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H₂O, CO₂ and H₂. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H₂ and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H₂ and compressed CO₂ ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H₂ permeance and purity, high CH₄ conversion levels and reduced CO yields.

  10. From STEM to STEAM: Strategies for Enhancing Engineering & Technology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M. Connor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to challenge the common pedagogies found in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics education with a particular focus on engineering. The dominant engineering pedagogy remains “chalk and talk”; despite research evidence that demonstrates its ineffectiveness. Such pedagogical approaches do not embrace the possibilities provided by more student-centric approaches and more active learning. The paper argues that there is a potential confusion in engineering education around the role of active learning approaches, and that the adoption of these approaches may be limited as a result of this confusion, combined with a degree of disciplinary egocentrism. The paper presents examples of design, engineering and technology projects that demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting pedagogies and delivery methods more usually attributed to the liberal arts such as studio based learning. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how best to create a fertile environment from which inquiry based learning can emerge as well as a reflection on whether the only real limitation on cultivating such approaches is the disciplinary egocentrism of traditional engineering educators.

  11. Development of radiation protection technology for application of the retired steam generator, Kori Unit no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Jang, D. C.; Song, K. S.; Lee, S. J.; Ahn, C. S.; Kim, D. H.; Im, Y. K.; Kim, H. D. [Hanil Nuclear Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-15

    It is a field study to develop and verify maintenance technologies such as verification and technology development of ECT (Eddy current test) using failure, heat tube excavation and field pressure test regarding the utilization of retired steam generator using 2 units of Retired Steam Generator in Kori 1 that was replaced for the first time in Korea in 1998. Since May, 2003, our team has investigated Retired Steam Generator which was stored in Radioactive waste warehouse in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Kori unit no.1 Branch, in order to study natural fault ECT signal acquisition, maintenance technology verification, small tubes/samples abstraction. A temporal task zone was made focusing on 'Man Way at the bottom of Chamber 'A'.' The purpose of the study is to establish Radiological Protection and Radioactive Waste Treatment Plan by setting ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) goal systematically, which is the basic concept of Radiological Protection and reduction in exposure of radiological workers to radioactive materials with proper Radiological Protection countermeasures according to the changes in radioactivity, to prevent expansion from contamination and to manage 'Radioactive Waste Reduction Activities' effectively.

  12. Parametric study on the steam reforming of phenol-PET solution to hydrogen production over Ni promoted on Al_2O_3-La_2O_3 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabgan, Bahador; Nabgan, Walid; Tuan Abdullah, Tuan Amran; Tahir, Muhammad; Gambo, Yahya; Ibrahim, Maryam; Syie Luing, Wong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Parametric study of H_2 production from phenol-PET steam reforming was studied. • Optimised conditions were 800 °C, 0.10 ml/min feed flow rate, and 7% PET. • High amount of aliphatic branched-chains and cyclic compounds were produced. • PET was efficiently converted to hydrogen and valuable fuels at optimized condition. • Significant influence resulted for all the main independent factors. - Abstract: Production of hydrogen from plastic waste could be a prospective key to the ecological problems resulted from waste. To further explore the process, a 32-runs parametric study on the steam reforming of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) dissolved in phenol was conducted in a fixed bed reactor using Ni over La_2O_3-Al_2O_3 support. The five factors studied were temperature (A), feed flow rate (B), mass flow (C), phenol concentration (D), and concentration of PET solution (E), whereas the responses were phenol conversion (Y_1) and hydrogen selectivity (Y_2). From the result, it was observed that significant influence resulted for all the main independent variables on the dependent variable of Y_1 and Y_2 with the range of 47.24–97.6% and 49–70.96%, respectively. Moreover, the Y_1 and Y_2 responses have influenced by some interaction variables like AC, CD, CE, ACE, and BCE. As evident from the design, initial variables such as 800 °C, 0.10 ml/min feed flow rate, 10 SCCM mass flow, 10 wt.% of phenol in the feed, and 7% PET concentration were the best preliminary conditions that formed maximum Y_1 (94%) and Y_2 (71%) responses. However, analyses on the product composition revealed that high amount of aliphatic branched-chains along with moderate amount of cyclic compounds were produced from steam reforming of PET-phenol. Due to the short retention time of the compounds on the catalysts bed, the aromatization of PET cracking products was small.

  13. Optimization of process parameter and reformer configuration for hydrogen production from steam reforming of heavy hydrocarbons. Paper no. IGEC-1-079

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Elnashaie, S.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    The present optimization investigation is classified into reforming configuration optimization in one hand and parameter optimization of each configuration on the other hand. Heptane is used as a model component for heavy hydrocarbons. The proposed novel reforming process is basically a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Membrane Reformer (CFBMR) with continuous catalyst regeneration and gas-solid separation. Composite hydrogen selective membranes are used for removing the product hydrogen from the reacting gas mixture and therefore driving the reversible reactions beyond their thermodynamic equilibriums. Dense perovskite oxygen selective membranes are also used to introduce oxygen for the exothermic oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon. Four configurations are investigated, two of them are with the catalyst regeneration before the gas-solid separation and the other two are with the catalyst regeneration after the gas-solid separation. The optimization of the performance of each configuration is carried out for a number of design and operating parameters as optimization parameters and under both non-autothermal and autothermal reforming conditions. Results show that the autothermal operation with direct contact between cold feeds (water and heptane) and hot circulating catalyst can be the best configuration for efficient hydrogen production with minimum energy consumption. The maximum net hydrogen yield is 16.732 moles of hydrogen per mole of heptane fed, which is 76.05% of the maximum theoretical hydrogen yield of 22. (author)

  14. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hall, H. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is

  15. Treatment of clinical solid waste using a steam autoclave as a possible alternative technology to incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2012-03-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.

  16. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2012-01-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management. PMID:22690168

  17. Characterization of catalysts Rh and Ni/CexZr1-xO2 for hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birot, A.

    2005-01-01

    This work concerned a study on catalytic behaviour of metallic catalysts (Rh or Ni) supported on earth rare oxides Ce x Zr 1-x O 2 in ethanol steam reforming in order to produce hydrogen. Catalyst 1%Rh/Ce0,50Zr0,50O 2 showed a good activity with a good hydrogen yield. We turned a study onto understanding inter-conversion reaction between H 2 , CO and CO 2 which lead to CH 4 formation. We also studied intrinsic properties of catalysts. We confirmed basic character of catalysts and a good hydrogenation activity. A good activity in CO hydrogenation allowed to evidence a necessity to use a catalyst which is less active in hydrogenation reaction and with a basic character in order to improve hydrogen yield. (author)

  18. The cycle use test of Pt based catalyst for the steam reforming of naphthalene / benzene as model tar compounds of biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Takeshi; Saito, Katsuhiko; Sato, Masahide; Suzuki, Noboru [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Although Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst showed high and stable activity (carbon conv. to gas: 90%) for steam reforming of naphthalene/benzene at 1073 K with S/C=3, this catalyst gradually lost its activity at 1023 K with S/C=3 due to deposition of carboneous species. Two kinds of regeneration treatment was conducted to enlongate the life time of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Although regeneration treatment completely remove the carboneous species from catalyst, mild oxidation treatment led to decrease activity due to sintering of Pt particles. On the contrary, hydrogen treatment led to maintain activity until 5th cycle test. It was concluded from these obtained results that hydrogen treatment is suitable regeneration method during cycle test in the case of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. (orig.)

  19. Pembuatan Katalis Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 untuk Proses Steam Reforming Metanol menjadi Hidrogen sebagai Bahan Bakar Alternatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Husin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on the use of copper zinc oxide supported on alumina catalyst for steam reforming of methanol to hydrogen has been done. The aim of this work is to study the catalytic properties of copper based catalysts used in the steam reforming of methanol. This method is known as one of the most favorable catalytic processes for producing hydrogen on-board. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation method with Cu loading of 5%, 10%, and 15%,. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the catalyst compositions are Cu, CuO, ZnO, and Al2O3. The reactions were carried out in the fixed bed tubular reactor operating at temperatures of 150oC, 200oC, 250oC, 300oC, and 350oC and atmospheric pressure. The product was analyzed using Shimadzu Gas Chromatography GC 8A with mole sieve 5A and porapak-N column 80/100 mesh. The performance of the catalyst shows that the highest methanol conversion was 86% over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst with 15% of Cu loading. The selectivity and yield of hydrogen was 66% and 57% respectively over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst with 15% of Cu loading. Selectivity of carbon dioxide is 18% over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst with 15% of Cu loading at 300oC. Keywords: alumina oxide catalyst, copper zinc oxide, hydrogen, impregnation

  20. Evaluation of Reaction Parameters of the Phenol Steam Reforming over Ni/Co on ZrO2 Using the Full Factorial Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Nabgan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Full factorial experimental design with 32 runs was used to investigate the significant and interaction variable of the reaction parameters on phenol steam reforming toward hydrogen production. Effects of selected factors on the phenol conversion (Y1 and hydrogen yield (Y2 were evaluated. These factors were as follows: (A temperature (500 and 800 °C; (B feed flow rate (0.16–0.46 mL/min; (C catalyst weight (0.1–0.3 g; (D Ni-Co ratio (0–1; and (E phenol concentration in the feed (2–10 wt %. Ni and Co over ZrO2 support for catalytic performance of phenol steam reforming (SRP was prepared by the impregnation method. The result indicated that all the main independent variables had significant influence on the dependent variable of Y1 and Y2 with a range of 2.7%–96.8% and 21.4%–72.4%, respectively. Additionally, some interaction variables like AE, BE, CE, and DE have also influenced the Y1 and Y2 responses. This design showed that the best initial conditions that produced maximum Y1 and Y2 responses were at 800 °C, 0.16 mL/min feed flow rate, 0.3 g of catalyst, 0 ratio of Ni-Co (Co/ZrO2, and 10 wt % of phenol in the feed, where the phenol conversion was predicted to be 94.98% and the hydrogen yield was predicted to be 67.4%. Within the limits the variables were examined, a regression model which well-fitted the experimental data was proposed. The regression model were reduced to simplify and to get the significant regression coefficient with p-value less than 0.05.

  1. Assessing the Life-Cycle Performance of Hydrogen Production via Biofuel Reforming in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Susmozas, Ana; Iribarren, Diego; Dufour, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Currently, hydrogen is mainly produced through steam reforming of natural gas. However, this conventional process involves environmental and energy security concerns. This has led to the development of alternative technologies for (potentially) green hydrogen production. In this work, the environmental and energy performance of biohydrogen produced in Europe via steam reforming of glycerol and bio-oil is evaluated from a life-cycle perspective, and contrasted with that of conventional hydroge...

  2. Technology Used for Realization of the Reform in Informal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qirko, K.

    2008-12-01

    ORGANIZATION OF STRUCTURE AND ADMINISTRATION OF ALUIZNI Law no. 9482, date 03.03.2006 " On legalization, urban planning and integration of unauthorized buildings", entered into force on May 15, 2006. The Council of Ministers, with its decision no.289, date 17.05.2006, established the Agency for the Legalization, Urbanization, and Integration of the Informal Zones/Buildings (ALUIZNI), with its twelve local bodies. ALUIZNI began its activity in reliance to Law no. 9482, date 03.03.2006 " On legalization, urban planning and integration of unauthorized buildings", in July 2006. The administration of this agency was completed during this period and it is composed of; General Directory and twelve regional directories. As of today, this institution has 300 employees. The administrative structure of ALUIZNI is organized to achieve the objectives of the reform and to solve the problems arising during its completion. The following sectors have been established to achieve the objectives: Sector of compensation of owners; sector of cartography, sector of geographic system data elaboration (GIS) and Information Technology; sector of urban planning; sector of registration of legalized properties and Human resource sector. Following this vision, digital air photography of the Republic of Albania is in process of realization, from which we will receive, for the first time, orthophoto and digital map, unique for the entire territory of our country. This cartographic product, will serve to all government institutions and private ones. All other systems, such as; system of territory management; system of property registration ; system of population registration; system of addresses; urban planning studies and systems; definition of boundaries of administrative and touristic zones will be established based on this cartographic system. The cartographic product will be of parameters mentioned below, divided in lots:(2.3 MEuro) 1.Lot I: It includes the urban zone, 1200 km2. It will have

  3. Influence of the Crystal Structure of Titanium Oxide on the Catalytic Activity of Rh/TiO2 in Steam Reforming of Propane at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Sato, Katsutoshi; Toriyama, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi

    2018-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) using liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) reduce CO2 emissions due to their high energy-conversion efficiency. Although SOFCs can convert LPG directly, coking occurs easily by decomposition of hydrocarbons, including C-C bonds on the electrode of fuel cell stacks. It is therefore necessary to develop an active steam pre-reforming catalyst that eliminates the hydrocarbons at low temperature, where waste heat of SOFCs is used. Here we show that the crystal structure of the TiO2 that anchors Rh particles is crucial for catalytic activity of Rh/TiO2 catalysts for propane pre-reforming. Our experimental results revealed that strong metal support interaction (SMSI) induced during H2 pre-reduction were optimized over Rh/TiO2 with a rutile structure; this catalyst catalyzed the reaction much more effectively than conventional Rh/γ-Al2O3. In contrast, the SMSI was too strong for Rh/TiO2 with an anatase structure, and the surface of the Rh particles was therefore covered mostly with partially reduced TiO2. The result was very low activity. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Ethanol over Nickel Catalysts Supported on Sol Gel Made Alumina: Influence of Calcination Temperature on Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakob, Zahira; Bshish, Ahmed; Ebshish, Ali; Tasirin, Siti Masrinda; Alhasan, Fatah H

    2013-05-30

    Selecting a proper support in the catalyst system plays an important role in hydrogen production via ethanol steam reforming. In this study, sol gel made alumina supports prepared for nickel (Ni) catalysts were calcined at different temperatures. A series of (Ni/Al S.G. ) catalysts were synthesized by an impregnation procedure. The influence of varying the calcination temperature of the sol gel made supports on catalyst activity was tested in ethanol reforming reaction. The characteristics of the sol gel alumina supports and Ni catalysts were affected by the calcination temperature of the supports. The structure of the sol gel made alumina supports was transformed in the order of γ → (γ + θ) → θ-alumina as the calcination temperature of the supports increased from 600 °C to 1000 °C. Both hydrogen yield and ethanol conversion presented a volcano-shaped behavior with maximum values of 4.3 mol/mol ethanol fed and 99.5%, respectively. The optimum values were exhibited over Ni/Al S.G800 (Ni catalyst supported on sol gel made alumina calcined at 800 °C). The high performance of the Ni/Al S.G800 catalyst may be attributed to the strong interaction of Ni species and sol gel made alumina which lead to high nickel dispersion and small particle size.

  5. The effect of potassium addition to Pt supported on YSZ on steam reforming of mixtures of methane and ethane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graf, P.O.; Mojet, Barbara; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2009-01-01

    The influence of potassium addition on Pt supported on yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was studied with FT-IR CO adsorption and CO-FT-IR-TPD, in order to understand the effect of potassium on the performance of the catalyst in reforming of mixtures of methane and ethane. Potassium modification of

  6. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Castro-Dominguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs effectively remove H2 to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS. Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H2, CO and CO2. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H2O, CO2 and H2. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H2 and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H2 and compressed CO2 ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR for MSR, (ii a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H2 permeance and purity, high CH4 conversion levels and reduced CO yields.

  7. Technology of steam generators for gas-cooled reactors. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The activity of the IAEA in the field of the technology of gas-cooled reactors was formalized by formation of an International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (IWGCR). The gas cooled reactor program considered by the IWGCR includes carbon-dioxide-cooled thermal reactors, helium cooled thermal high temperature reactors for power generation and for process heat applications and gas-cooled fast breeder reactors. This report covers the papers dealing with operating experience, steam generators for next generation of gas-cooled reactors, material development and corrosion problems, and thermohydraulics

  8. Technology of steam generators for gas-cooled reactors. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    The activity of the IAEA in the field of the technology of gas-cooled reactors was formalized by formation of an International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (IWGCR). The gas cooled reactor program considered by the IWGCR includes carbon-dioxide-cooled thermal reactors, helium cooled thermal high temperature reactors for power generation and for process heat applications and gas-cooled fast breeder reactors. This report covers the papers dealing with operating experience, steam generators for next generation of gas-cooled reactors, material development and corrosion problems, and thermohydraulics.

  9. LCA of strippable coatings and of steam vacuum technology used for nuclear plants decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidi, Giambattista; Cumo, Fabrizio; Santoli, Livio de

    2010-01-01

    The application of strippable coatings is an innovative technology for decontamination of nuclear plants and for any decontamination project aiming at removing surface contamination. An adhesive plastic coating is applied on the contaminated surface. The strippable coating is allowed to cure for up to 24 h, after which it can be easily peeled. The coating traps the contaminants in the polymer matrix. Strippable coatings are non-toxic and do not contain volatile compounds or heavy metals. Since the coating constitutes a solid waste, disposal is easier than treating contaminated liquid wastes, produced by the baseline technology: steam vacuum cleaning, based upon superheated pressurized water in order to remove contaminants from floors and walls. A life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out with the purpose of comparing the strippable coating with the steam vacuum technology. The functional unit of the study is represented by a surface of 1 m 2 to be decontaminated. The results of LCA achieved using Sima Pro 5.0 registered software confirm the good environmental performances of strippable coatings. Taking into account both LCA and environmental costs for liquid wastes, the advantages of strippable coatings will be more and more evident. (orig.)

  10. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (12) Evaluations of Spatial Distributions of Flow and Heat Transfer in Steam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yutaka Abe; Yujiro Kawamoto; Chikako Iwaki; Tadashi Narabayashi; Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori

    2006-01-01

    Next-generation nuclear reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. One of the innovative technologies is the supersonic steam injector, which has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation nuclear reactor. The steam injector has functions of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery and a high efficiency heat exchanger. The performances of the supersonic steam injector as a pump and a heat exchanger are dependent on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. In previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about the operating characteristics of steam injector and about the direct contact condensation between static water pool and steam in atmosphere. However, there is a little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under the great shear stress. In order to examine the heat transfer and flow behavior in supersonic steam injector, it is necessary to measure the spatial temperature distribution and velocity in detail. The present study, visible transparent supersonic steam injector is used to obtain the axial pressure distributions in the supersonic steam injector, as well as high speed visual observation of water jet and steam interface. The experiments are conducted with and without non-condensable gas. The experimental results of the interfacial flow behavior between steam and water jet are obtained. It is experimentally clarified that an entrainment exists on the water jet surface. It is also clarified that discharge pressure is depended on the steam supply pressure, the inlet water flow rate, the throat diameter and non-condensable flow rate. Finally a heat flux is estimated about 19 MW/m 2 without non-condensable gas condition in steam. (authors)

  11. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at 6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment

  12. Heat transfer simulation in a furnace for steam reformer. Gas kaishitsu ronai no dennetsu simulation ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, K; Taniguchi, H; Guo, K [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Katayama, T; Nagata, T [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-01-10

    This paper discusses the heat transfer analysis in a furnace for LPG reforming to produce gas enriched hydrogen. The three-dimensional combined radiative and convective heat transfer processes in a furnace for LPG reforming is simulated by introducing the radiosity concept into the radiative heat ray method for an accurate radiative heat transfer analysis. Together with an analysis of the chemical reaction in the reactor tubes of the furnace, the heat transfer simulation gives the three-dimensional profile of the combustion gas temperature in the furnace, the tube-surface heat-flux distribution and the composition of the reformed gas. From the results of the analysis, it was clarified that increasing the jet angle of the heating burner raises the gas temperature and the tube surface heat flux near the burner entrance, and that the flame shape is the most important factor for deciding the heat flux distribution of the tube surface because the heat transfer effect by flame radiation is much more than that by convection of the combustion gas. 18 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Portfolios — a strategy for reform in information technology teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    teaching methodology for Information Technology (IT) students at the Vaal University of Technology ... tion and Communication Technology (ICT) sector is gaining crucial ... Constructivism has important implications for the use and assess-.

  14. Reforming of natural gas—hydrogen generation for small scale stationary fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, A.; Vogel, B.; Hübner, P.

    The reforming of natural gas to produce hydrogen for fuel cells is described, including the basic concepts (steam reforming or autothermal reforming) and the mechanisms of the chemical reactions. Experimental work has been done with a compact steam reformer, and a prototype of an experimental reactor for autothermal reforming was tested, both containing a Pt-catalyst on metallic substrate. Experimental results on the steam reforming system and a comparison of the steam reforming process with the autothermal process are given.

  15. Bridging the Gap: From Model Surfaces to Nanoparticle Analogs for Selective Oxidation and Steam Reforming of Methanol and Selective Hydrogenation Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Matthew B.

    Most industrial catalysts are very complex, comprising of non-uniform materials with varying structures, impurities, and interaction between the active metal and supporting substrate. A large portion of the ongoing research in heterogeneous catalysis focuses on understanding structure-function relationships in catalytic materials. In parallel, there is a large area of surface science research focused on studying model catalytic systems for which structural parameters can be tuned and measured with high precision. It is commonly argued, however, that these systems are oversimplified, and that observations made in model systems do not translate to robust catalysts operating in practical environments; this discontinuity is often referred to as a "gap." The focus of this thesis is to explore the mutual benefits of surface science and catalysis, or "bridge the gap," by studying two catalytic systems in both ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and near ambient-environments. The first reaction is the catalytic steam reforming of methanol (SRM) to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The SRM reaction is a promising route for on-demand hydrogen production. For this catalytic system, the central hypothesis in this thesis is that a balance between redox capability and weak binding of reaction intermediates is necessary for high SRM activity and selectivity to carbon dioxide. As such, a new catalyst for the SRM reaction is developed which incorporates very small amounts of gold (liquid-phase, stirred-tank batch reactor under a hydrogen head pressure of approximately 7 bar. Palladium alloyed into the surface of otherwise inactive copper nanoparticles shows a marked improvement in selectivity when compared to monometallic palladium catalysts with the same metal loading. This effect is attributed hydrogen spillover onto the copper surface. In summary, the development of new, highly active and selective catalysts for the methanol steam reforming reaction and for the partial hydrogenation of alkynes

  16. Hydrogen production with a solar steam–methanol reformer and colloid nanocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2010-01-01

    In the present study a small steam-methanol reformer with a colloid nanocatalyst is utilized to produce hydrogen. Radiation from a focused continuous green light laser (514 nm wavelength) is used to provide the energy for steam-methanol reforming. Nanocatalyst particles, fabricated by using pulsed laser ablation technology, result in a highly active catalyst with high surface to volume ratio. A small novel reformer fabricated with a borosilicate capillary is employed to increase the local temperature of the reformer and thereby increase hydrogen production. The hydrogen production output efficiency is determined and a value of 5% is achieved. Experiments using concentrated solar simulator light as the radiation source are also carried out. The results show that hydrogen production by solar steam-methanol colloid nanocatalyst reforming is both feasible and promising. © 2009 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu.

  17. Production of Renewable Hydrogen from Glycerol Steam Reforming over Bimetallic Ni-(Cu,Co,Cr Catalysts Supported on SBA-15 Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Carrero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol steam reforming (GSR is a promising alternative to obtain renewable hydrogen and help the economics of the biodiesel industry. Nickel-based catalysts are typically used in reforming reactions. However, the choice of the catalyst greatly influences the process, so the development of bimetallic catalysts is a research topic of relevant interest. In this work, the effect of adding Cu, Co, and Cr to the formulation of Ni/SBA-15 catalysts for hydrogen production by GSR has been studied, looking for an enhancement of its catalytic performance. Bimetallic Ni-M/SBA-15 (M: Co, Cu, Cr samples were prepared by incipient wetness co-impregnation to reach 15 wt % of Ni and 4 wt % of the second metal. Catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, N2-physisorption, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA, and tested in GSR at 600 °C and atmospheric pressure. The addition of Cu, Co, and Cr to the Ni/SBA-15 catalyst helped to form smaller crystallites of the Ni phase, this effect being more pronounced in the case of the Ni-Cr/SBA-15 sample. This catalyst also showed a reduction profile shifted towards higher temperatures, indicating stronger metal-support interaction. As a consequence, the Ni-Cr/SBA-15 catalyst exhibited the best performance in GSR in terms of glycerol conversion and hydrogen production. Additionally, Ni-Cr/SBA-15 achieved a drastic reduction in coke formation compared to the Ni/SBA-15 material.

  18. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105, Tank AN-103, And AZ-101/102) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-09-18

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is a robust technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes. Applications have been tested at the pilot scale for the high sodium, sulfate, halide, organic and nitrate wastes at the Hanford site, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Due to the moderate processing temperatures, halides, sulfates, and technetium are retained in mineral phases of the feldspathoid family (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite, etc). The feldspathoid minerals bind the contaminants such as Tc-99 in cage (sodalite, nosean) or ring (nepheline) structures to surrounding aluminosilicate tetrahedra in the feldspathoid structures. The granular FBSR mineral waste form that is produced has a comparable durability to LAW glass based on the short term PCT testing in this study, the INL studies, SPFT and PUF testing from previous studies as given in the columns in Table 1-3 that represent the various durability tests. Monolithing of the granular product was shown to be feasible in a separate study. Macro-encapsulating the granular product provides a decrease in leaching compared to the FBSR granular product when the geopolymer is correctly formulated.

  19. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst.

  20. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of Volume Reduction and Self-Disposal for Large Metal Wastes including the Steam Generator of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kune Woo; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    This report focuses on technologies of volume reduction and self-disposal for large metal wastes including the steam generator of nuclear power plants. This report consists of the cases of treatments and foreign and domestic technologies for steam generator replacement

  1. Steam Reforming of Ethylene Glycol over Ni/Al2O3 Catalysts: Effect of the Preparation Method and Reduction Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Hyuck; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Duck

    2015-01-01

    The effect of preparation method on the catalytic activities of the Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalysts on steam reforming of ethylene glycol was investigated. The catalysts were prepared with various preparation methods such as an incipient wetness impregnation, wet impregnation, and coprecipitation method. In the case of coprecipitation method, various precipitants such as KOH, K 2 CO 3 , and NH 4 OH were compared. The prepared catalysts were characterized by using N 2 physisorption, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction, pulsed H 2 chemisorption, temperature-programmed oxidation, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Among the catalysts reduced at 773 K, the Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalyst prepared by a coprecipitation with KOH or K 2 CO 3 as precipitants showed the best catalytic performance. The preparation method affected the particle size of Ni, reducibility of nickel oxides, catalytic performance (activity and stability), and types of coke formed during the reaction. The Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalyst prepared by a coprecipitation with KOH showed the increasing catalytic activity with an increase in the reduction temperature from 773 to 1173 K because of an increase in the reduction degree of Ni oxide species even though the particle size of Ni increased with increasing reduction temperature

  2. Design of Rh/Ce0.2Zr0.8O2-Al2O3 nanocomposite for ethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rogatis, Loredana; Montini, Tiziano; Casula, Maria F.; Fornasiero, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Rh(1 wt.%)/Ce 0.2 Zr 0.8 O 2 (10 wt.%)-Al 2 O 3 nanocomposite has been investigated as active and thermally stable catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Rh nanoparticles were synthesised by surfactant assisted route, using N-hexadecyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-dimethyl ammonium bromide (HEAC16Br). Metal particles with average diameter of 2.1 nm were obtained at 0.53 Rh/HEAC16Br molar ratio, while increasing the amount of surfactant lead to formation of larger particles. The preformed Rh nanoparticles have been effectively embedded into a porous layer of nanocomposite oxides. Low temperature H 2 chemisorption experiments and activity data confirm that most of the Rh atoms are accessible to the reaction mixture. The Ce 0.2 Zr 0.8 O 2 mixed oxide inhibits the dehydration of ethanol to ethylene and favours the water gas shift reaction. The alumina ensures good thermal stability and high surface area of the catalyst. No significant deactivation is observed after repeated run-up and run-down experiments

  3. Development of Fe-Ni/YSZ-GDC electro-catalysts for application as SOFC anodes. XRD and TPR characterization, and evaluation in ethanol steam reforming reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Fiuza, Raigenis da; Silva, Marcos Aurelio da; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Energy and Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    Electro-catalysts based on Fe-Ni alloys were prepared using physical mixture and modified Pechini methods; they were supported on a composite of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Gadolinia Doped Ceria (GDC). The composites had compositions of 35% metal load and 65% support (70% wt. YSZ and 30% wt. GDC mixture) (cermets). The samples were characterized by Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and evaluated in ethanol steam reforming at 650 C for six hours and in the temperature range 300 - 900 C. The XRD results showed that the bimetallic sample calcined at 800 C formed a mixed oxide (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in spinel structure; after reducing the sample in hydrogen, Ni-Fe alloys were formed. The presence of Ni decreased the final reduction temperature of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} species. The addition of Fe to Ni anchored to YSZ-GDC increased the hydrogen production and inhibits the carbon deposition. The bimetallic 30Fe5Ni samples reached an ethanol conversion of about 95%, and a hydrogen yield up to 48% at 750 C. In general, the ethanol conversion and hydrogen production were independent of the metal content in the electro-catalyst. However, the substitution of Ni for Fe significantly reduced the carbon deposition on the electro-catalyst: 74, 31 and 9 wt. % in the 35Ni, 20Fe15Ni, and 30Fe5Ni samples, respectively. (orig.)

  4. Influence of Ce-precursor and fuel on structure and catalytic activity of combustion synthesized Ni/CeO{sub 2} catalysts for biogas oxidative steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vita, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.vita@itae.cnr.it; Italiano, Cristina; Fabiano, Concetto; Laganà, Massimo; Pino, Lidia

    2015-08-01

    A series of nanosized Ni/CeO{sub 2} catalysts were prepared by Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) varying the fuel (oxalyldihydrazide, urea, carbohydrazide and glycerol), the cerium precursor (cerium nitrate and cerium ammonium nitrate) and the nickel loading (ranging between 3.1 and 15.6 wt%). The obtained powders were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2}-physisorption, CO-chemisorption, Temperature Programmed Reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The catalytic activity towards the Oxy Steam Reforming (OSR) of biogas was assessed. The selected operating variables have a strong influence on the nature of combustion and, in turn, on the morphological and structural properties of the synthesized catalysts. Particularly, the use of urea allows to improve nickel dispersion, surface area, particle size and reducibility of the catalysts, affecting positively the biogas OSR performances. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ni/CeO{sub 2} nanopowders by quick and easy solution combustion synthesis. • The fuel and precursor drive the structural and morphological properties of the catalysts. • The use of urea as fuel allows to improve nickel dispersion, surface area and particle size. • Ni/CeO{sub 2} (7.8 wt% of Ni loading) powders synthesized by urea route exhibits high performances for the biogas OSR process.

  5. Influence of Ce-precursor and fuel on structure and catalytic activity of combustion synthesized Ni/CeO2 catalysts for biogas oxidative steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vita, Antonio; Italiano, Cristina; Fabiano, Concetto; Laganà, Massimo; Pino, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    A series of nanosized Ni/CeO 2 catalysts were prepared by Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) varying the fuel (oxalyldihydrazide, urea, carbohydrazide and glycerol), the cerium precursor (cerium nitrate and cerium ammonium nitrate) and the nickel loading (ranging between 3.1 and 15.6 wt%). The obtained powders were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), N 2 -physisorption, CO-chemisorption, Temperature Programmed Reduction (H 2 -TPR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The catalytic activity towards the Oxy Steam Reforming (OSR) of biogas was assessed. The selected operating variables have a strong influence on the nature of combustion and, in turn, on the morphological and structural properties of the synthesized catalysts. Particularly, the use of urea allows to improve nickel dispersion, surface area, particle size and reducibility of the catalysts, affecting positively the biogas OSR performances. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ni/CeO 2 nanopowders by quick and easy solution combustion synthesis. • The fuel and precursor drive the structural and morphological properties of the catalysts. • The use of urea as fuel allows to improve nickel dispersion, surface area and particle size. • Ni/CeO 2 (7.8 wt% of Ni loading) powders synthesized by urea route exhibits high performances for the biogas OSR process

  6. Development of ecologically safety technology for steam-thermal treatment of organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juravskij, J [Centre for Science, Technology and Industrial Applications, ` ` Tokema` ` , Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-02-01

    The experience on mitigation of the consequences of the Chernobyl`s nuclear power station accident proves that the treatment of large amounts of organic and mixed wastes containing radionuclides is a very urgent scientific and technical problem. In this connection a search for new ideas and development of highly efficient and ecologically safety technologies for treatment of organic radioactive wastes has been undertaken. This study is based on use of physico-mechanical properties of various organic materials (wood, rubber-containing composites, plastics, biomass) subjected to thermal decomposition in the overheated water steam medium. Under such conditions, there is a possibility, under relatively low temperatures (400 - 500 deg. C), to realize thermal decomposition and considerably (in 8 - 50 times) to reduce the amount of wastes, to obtain the main concentration of radionuclides in the solid residue and to prevent releases of gaseous products containing radionuclides to the environment. (author). 5 figs, 1 tab.

  7. Development of ecologically safety technology for steam-thermal treatment of organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juravskij, J.

    1997-01-01

    The experience on mitigation of the consequences of the Chernobyl's nuclear power station accident proves that the treatment of large amounts of organic and mixed wastes containing radionuclides is a very urgent scientific and technical problem. In this connection a search for new ideas and development of highly efficient and ecologically safety technologies for treatment of organic radioactive wastes has been undertaken. This study is based on use of physico-mechanical properties of various organic materials (wood, rubber-containing composites, plastics, biomass) subjected to thermal decomposition in the overheated water steam medium. Under such conditions, there is a possibility, under relatively low temperatures (400 - 500 deg. C), to realize thermal decomposition and considerably (in 8 - 50 times) to reduce the amount of wastes, to obtain the main concentration of radionuclides in the solid residue and to prevent releases of gaseous products containing radionuclides to the environment. (author). 5 figs, 1 tab

  8. New frontiers of multidisciplinary research in STEAM-H (science, technology, engineering, agriculture, mathematics, and health)

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This highly multidisciplinary volume contains contributions from leading researchers in STEAM-H disciplines (Science, Technology, Engineering, Agriculture, Mathematics and Health). The volume explores new frontiers in multidisciplinary research, including: the mathematics of cardiac arrhythmia; brain research on working memory; penalized ordinal regression to classify melanoma skin samples; forecasting of time series data; dynamics of niche models; analysis of chemical moieties as anticancer agents; study of gene locus control regions; qualitative mathematical modelling; convex quadrics and group circle systems; remanufacturing planning and control; complexity reduction of functional differential equations; computation of viscous interfacial motion; and differentiation in human pluripotent stem cells. An extension of a seminar series at Virginia State University, the collection is intended to foster student interest and participation in interdisciplinary research, and to stimulate new research. The content wi...

  9. Results from integral tests of single reformer tubes under simulated nuclear reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decken, C.B. von der; Fedders, H.; Harth, R.; Hoehlein, B.; Riensche, E.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of supplying high temperature heat from a HTGR for process application is being investigated at some places in the world. In all programmes or projects existing with respect to this application, the endothermic steam reforming of methane is one main step in the transmission of heat produced by nuclear fission to different chemical processes. The KFA is involved in the two German projects PNP - Prototypanlage Nukleare Prozesswaerme (Prototype-plant Nuclear Process-heat), and NFE -Nukleare Fernenergie (Long Distance Energy Transport). In a HTGR, helium generally serves as reactor coolant. It transports the heat from the core to the different components which take over this heat for various purposes. In case of arranging a steam reformer in the helium circuit, it is necessary for economic reasons to reach very high temperatures. In the two German projects mentioned above, the helium temperature at HTGR core outlet is determined to 950 0 C. Thus the main design data for a steam reformer supplied by heat from a HTGR are maximum helium temperature 950 0 C, helium pressure 40 bar. By an extensive utilization of the available advanced conventional steam reforming technology, the helium heated steam reformer design is using normal steam reforming tubes arranged in compact bundles

  10. Transforming Dental Technology Education: Skills, Knowledge, and Curricular Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobich, Anita M; Mitchell, Betty L

    2017-09-01

    Dental technology is one of the core allied dental health professions supporting the practice of dentistry. By definition, it is the art, science, and technologies that enable the design and fabrication of dental prostheses and/or corrective devices to restore natural teeth and supporting structures to fulfill a patient's physiological and esthetic needs. Dental technology educational programs are faced with serious challenges, including rapid changes in technology, inadequate funding for educational programs, and the need to develop curricula that reflect current industry needs. Better communications between dental technologists and practitioners are needed to gain greater recognition of the contribution that technologists make to patient health. Amid these challenges, the technology workforce is dedicated to providing patients with the best possible restorative dental prostheses. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  11. Advances in ethanol reforming for the production of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guerrero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic steam reforming of ethanol (SRE is a promising route for the production of renewable hydrogen (H2. This article reviews the influence of doping supported-catalysts used in SRE on the conversion of ethanol, selectivity for H2, and stability during long reaction periods. In addition, promising new technologies such as membrane reactors and electrochemical reforming for performing SRE are presented.

  12. From hero to Newcomen: the critical scientific and technological developments that led to the invention of the steam engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsikopoulos, Harry

    2013-09-01

    This essay provides an analytical account of the history of various steam devices by tracing the key technological and scientific developments culminating in the Savery and Newcomen models. It begins in antiquity with the writings of Hero of Alexandria, which were rediscovered and translated in Italy fourteen centuries later, followed by the construction of simple steam devices. The most decisive development comes in the middle of the seventeenth century with the overturning, through the experimental work of Torricelli, Pascal, and Guericke, of the Aristotelian dogma that no vacuum exists. The final stretch of this discovery process amounted to an Anglo-French race, with English inventors being more successful in the end.

  13. A Decade of Reform: Science and Technology Policy in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The State Science and Technology Commission (People's Republic of China), IDRC ... In 1995, and at the request of the Chinese government, Canada's International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) assembled a ... Related content ...

  14. Reform of the National Security Science and Technology Enterprise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, William; Coffey, Timothy; DeYoung, Donald; Kadtke, James; Loeb, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    A strong science and technology (S&T) program has been vitally important to American national security since World War II and has to date given the United States a strategic advantage over competitors...

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell technology coupled with methane dry reforming: A viable option for high efficiency plant with reduced CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Ottaviano, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the control of greenhouse gas is probably the most challenging environmental policy issue. Since CO 2 is considered the major greenhouse gas (GHG) that contributes to the global warming, enforcing technological strategies aiming to avoid or reuse CO 2 emissions becomes crucial, in order to mitigate GHG environmental impact. Currently, solutions conventionally adopted to this purpose are carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. In this context, instead, the followed strategy aims to further improvements in energetic conversion efficiency with related reduced specific CO 2 emissions (per produced kWh e ). Therefore, with particular reference to the electric power generation, this paper proposes an innovative energy conversion system, based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), characterized by higher efficiency and reduced CO 2 emission factor respect to an analogous conventional energy plant. In particular, the innovative solution consists of combining SOFC to methane dry reforming technology, while the conventional system refers to steam methane reforming-SOFC coupling. The innovative system performance up to 65% electric efficiency as cited in the paper, was validated through simulations carried out in Aspen Plus environment. - Highlights: • An innovative high efficiency plant with low CO 2 emissions is presented. • The new solution combined SOFC to methane dry reforming technology (CDR–SOFC). • A comparison between CDR–SOFC and SMR–SOFC system was carried out in Aspen Plus. • CDR–SOFC efficiency is greater of 6.4% percentage points respect to SMR–SOFC. • A CO 2 emission factor reduction of about 10% was achieved by CDR–SOFC plant

  16. New media technologies and mass media reform processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Boban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and assesses the chances for survival and development of the media in Serbia and ib the region, from the perspective of new information and communication technologies (ICT applied in media business. In the paper theoretical method is used and harmonized with the needs of describing the problems and the observed processes and phenomena, as well as empirical method which is used for collecting and interpreting concrete facts and data on the observed processes and phenomena. The starting point lies in the fact that modern media is definitely, more and more, dependent on new technologies. A part of the new technologies is used in the process of collecting, selecting and editing media content, while the other part of the technology is used in the process of dissemination and propulsion of media content to the mass audience, and also in the feedback function as well. The technology revolution, which we describe, started with mp3, jpg and avi files, and continues with internet broadcasting, social networks, cloud technologies and new digital platforms which are used by today's media for distribution of media content. The particularity of the media in the region lies in the fact that they operating in the societes with delay of political and economic transition, so all the productive resources of society, due to this backlog, are slower adapted to the new conditions of business in the digital era. The consequences that have arisen from such dynamics of development make many media in Serbia and the region quite dysfunctional, especially those who were exposed during this transition to long-standing legal, economic and program crises. That is why most of the existing media in Serbia, especially small ones, are unprepared for modernization and they are not ready for re-modeling in accordance with the new technological circumstances.

  17. Highly purified water production technology. The influence of water purity on steam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, J.

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental question related to high-pressure steam generation, intended for powering steam turbines, concerns steam production conditions based on constant quality standards. The characteristics of water (salinity, silica concentration) are indicated for a given steam quality as a function of the pressure. Two processes for the purification of feedwater for high pressure boilers are described: a treatment using precoated cellulose or resin filters and a treatment using mixed-bed ion exchangers. When ultrapure water is required, the demineralized water is filtred using microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes [fr

  18. Effect of SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports prepared by a grafting method on hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas over Ni/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Song, In Kyu

    SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports with various zirconium contents are prepared by grafting a zirconium precursor onto the surface of commercial Carbosil silica. Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports on the performance of the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts is investigated. SiO 2-ZrO 2 prepared by a grafting method serves as an efficient support for the nickel catalyst in the steam reforming of LNG. Zirconia enhances the resistance of silica to steam significantly and increases the interaction between nickel and the support, and furthermore, prevents the growth of nickel oxide species during the calcination process through the formation of a ZrO 2-SiO 2 composite structure. The crystalline structures and catalytic activities of the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are strongly influenced by the amount of zirconium grafted. The conversion of LNG and the yield of hydrogen show volcano-shaped curves with respect to zirconium content. Among the catalysts tested, the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) sample shows the best catalytic performance in terms of both LNG conversion and hydrogen yield. The well-developed and pure tetragonal phase of ZrO 2-SiO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) appears to play an important role in the adsorption of steam and subsequent spillover of steam from the support to the active nickel. The small particle size of the metallic nickel in the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) catalyst is also responsible for its high performance.

  19. New Technology for Corrosion Mitigation of Steam Generator Tubesheet in Secondary Side Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Do Haeng; Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Han, Jung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Denting has been mitigated by a modification of the design and material of the tube support structures, it has been an inevitable problem in the crevice region of the top of the tubesheet(TTS). Denting at the TTS has been a significant concern regardless of the tube materials. This is because it is a mechanical process resulted from a volume expansion of corrosion products of the tubesheet materials. It should be noted that the corrosion rate of low alloy tubesheet materials is accelerated due to the presence of corrosion products accumulated at the top of the tubesheet. Therefore a reduction of the corrosion rate of the tubesheet material should be a key strategy to prevent tube denting at the TTS as well as an improvement of the secondary water chemistry. This paper provides a new technology to prevent denting by cladding the secondary side surface of the tubesheet with a corrosion resistant material. In this study, Alloy 690 material on the surface of the SA508 tubesheet was cladded to a thickness of about 9mm. The corrosion rates of the SA508 original tubesheet and Alloy 690 clad material were measured in acidic and caustic simulated environments. Denting has been a precursor of stress corrosion cracking in nuclear steam generator tubing, although it may be mitigated by a design and material modification of the tube support structures and secondary water chemistry control. Corrosion resistant Alloy 690 tubing is not an exception because denting at the TTS is due to corrosion of the tubesheet material. In this paper, a new technology was suggested to prevent denting at the TTS by cladding the secondary side surface of the tubesheet with a corrosion resistant material. It was verified that the corrosion rates of a tubesheet with an Alloy 690 clad layer drastically decreased in both acidic and alkaline environments, even inside the magnetite sludge pile. Because the cladding processes of Alloy 690 have already been applied to the primary side surface of a

  20. Investigation of sulfur interactions on a conventional nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anode during methane steam and dry reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Whitney S.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are an attractive energy source because they do not have undesirable emissions, are scalable, and are feedstock flexible, which means they can operate using a variety of fuel mixtures containing H2 and hydrocarbons. In terms of fuel flexibility, most potential fuel sources contain sulfur species, which severely poison the nickel-based anode. The main objective of this thesis is to systematically evaluate sulfur interactions on a conventional Ni/YSZ anode and compare sulfur poisoning during methane steam and dry reforming (SMR and DMR) to a conventional catalyst (Sud Chemie, Ni/K2O-CaAl2O4). Reforming experiments (SMR and DMR) were carried out in a packed bed reactor (PBR), and it was demonstrated that Ni/YSZ is much more sensitive to sulfur poisoning than Ni/K2O-CaAl2O4 as evidenced by the decline in activity to zero in under an hour for both SMR and DMR. Adsorption and desorption of H2S and SO2 on both catalysts was evaluated, and despite the low amount of accessible nickel on Ni/YSZ (14 times lower than Ni/K2O-CaAl2O4), it adsorbs 20 times more H2S and 50 times more SO2 than Ni/K 2O-CaAl2O4. A one-dimensional, steady state PBR model (DetchemPBED) was used to evaluate SMR and DMR under poisoning conditions using the Deutschmann mechanism and a recently published sulfur sub-mechanism. To fit the observed deactivation in the presence of 1 ppm H2S, the adsorption/desorption equilibrium constant was increased by a factor 16,000 for Ni/YSZ and 96 for Ni/K2O-CaAl2O4. A tubular SAE reactor was designed and fabricated for evaluating DMR in a reactor that mimics an SOFC. Evidence of hydrogen diffusion through a supposedly impermeable layer indicated that the tubular SAE reactor has a major flaw in which gases diffuse to unintended parts of the tube. It was also found to be extremely susceptible to coking which leads to cell failure even in operating regions that mimic real biogas. These problems made it impossible to validate the tubular SAE

  1. Techno-economic analysis of sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming in a fixed bed reactor network integrated with fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diglio, Giuseppe; Hanak, Dawid P.; Bareschino, Piero; Mancusi, Erasmo; Pepe, Francesco; Montagnaro, Fabio; Manovic, Vasilije

    2017-10-01

    Sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) is a promising alternative for H2 production with inherent CO2 capture. This study evaluates the techno-economic performance of SE-SMR in a network of fixed beds and its integration with a solid oxide fuel cell (SE-SMR-SOFC) for power generation. The analysis revealed that both proposed systems are characterised by better economic performance than the reference systems. In particular, for SE-SMR the levelised cost of hydrogen is 1.6 €ṡkg-1 and the cost of CO2 avoided is 29.9 €ṡtCO2-1 (2.4 €ṡkg-1 and 50 €ṡtCO2-1, respectively, for SMR with CO2 capture) while for SE-SMR-SOFC the levelised cost of electricity is 0.078 €ṡkWh-1 and the cost of CO2 avoided is 36.9 €ṡtCO2-1 (0.080 €ṡkWh-1 and 80 €ṡtCO2-1, respectively, for natural gas-fired power plant with carbon capture). The sensitivity analysis showed that the specific cost of fuel and the capital cost of fuel cell mainly affect the economic performance of SE-SMR and SE-SMR-SOFC, respectively. The daily revenue of the SE-SMR-SOFC system is higher than that of the natural gas-fired power plant if the difference between the carbon tax and the CO2 transport and storage cost is > 6 €ṡtCO2-1.

  2. Development of Fe-Ni/YSZ-GDC electrocatalysts for application as SOFC anodes: XRD and TPR characterization and evaluation in the ethanol steam reforming reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Paz Fiuza, Raigenis; Aurelio da Silva, Marcos; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [Energy and Materials Science Group - GECIM, Institute of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 41170290 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    Electrocatalysts based on Fe-Ni alloys were prepared by means of modified Pechini and physical mixture methods and using on a composite of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Gadolinia-Doped Ceria (GDC) as support. The former method was based on the formation a polymeric precursor that was subsequently calcined; the later method was based on the mixture of NiO and the support. The resulting composites had 35 wt.% metal load and 65 wt.% support (70 wt.% YSZ and 30 wt.% GDC mixture) (cermets). The samples were then characterized by Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and evaluated in the ethanol steam reforming at 650 C for 6 h in the temperature range of 300-900 C. The XRD results showed that the bimetallic sample calcined at 800 C formed a mixed oxide (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) with a spinel structure, which, after reduction in hydrogen, formed Ni-Fe alloys. The presence of Ni was observed to decrease the final reduction temperature of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} species. The addition of iron to the nickel anchored to YSZ-GDC increased the hydrogen production and inhibited carbon deposition. The resulting bimetallic 30Fe5Ni sample reached an ethanol conversion of about 95% and a hydrogen yield up to 48% at 750 C. In general, ethanol conversion and hydrogen production were independent of the metal content in the electrocatalyst. However, the substitution of nickel for iron significantly reduced carbon deposition on the electrocatalyst: 74, 31, and 9 wt.% in the 35Ni, 20Fe15Ni, and 30Fe5Ni samples, respectively. (author)

  3. Synthesis and Application of Cerium-Incorporated SBA-16 Supported Ni-Based Oxygen Carrier in Cyclic Chemical Looping Steam Methane Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Meshksar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen, as a clean energy carrier, could be produced aided by cyclic oxidation-reduction of oxygen carriers (OCs in contact with carbonaceous fuel in chemical looping steam methane reforming (CL-SMR process. In this study, the cerium was incorporated into the SBA-16 support structure to synthesize the Ni/Ce-SBA-16 OC. The supports were synthesized using hydrothermal method followed by impregnation of Ni and characterized via low and wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, and transmission electron micrograph (TEM techniques. In addition, the effect of various Si/Ce molar ratios (20–60 in the support structure, Ni loading (10–30 wt %, reaction temperature (500–750 °C, and life time of optimal oxygen carrier over 16 cycles were investigated. The results of wide angle XRD and SEM revealed that the incorporation of CeO2 in the channels of SBA-16 caused the formation of nickel metallic particles with smaller size and prevents the coke formation. The results showed that OC with 15 wt % Ni and Si/Ce molar ratio of 40 (15Ni/Ce-SBA-16(40 has the best performance when compared with other OCs in terms of catalytic activity and structural properties. The methane conversion of about 99.7% was achieved at 700 °C using 15Ni/Ce-SBA-16(40 OC. We anticipate that the strategy can be extended to investigate a variety of novel modified mesoporous silica as the supporting material for the Ni based OCs.

  4. Preparation and structural characterization of SnO2 and GeO2 methanol steam reforming thin film model catalysts by (HR)TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Harald; Zhao Qian; Turner, Stuart; Lebedev, Oleg I.; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Kloetzer, Bernhard; Rameshan, Christoph; Penner, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Structure, morphology and composition of different tin oxide and germanium oxide thin film catalysts for the methanol steam reforming (MSR) reaction have been studied by a combination of (high-resolution) transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, dark-field imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Deposition of the thin films on NaCl(0 0 1) cleavage faces has been carried out by thermal evaporation of the respective SnO 2 and GeO 2 powders in varying oxygen partial pressures and at different substrate temperatures. Preparation of tin oxide films in high oxygen pressures (10 -1 Pa) exclusively resulted in SnO phases, at and above 473 K substrate temperature epitaxial growth of SnO on NaCl(0 0 1) leads to well-ordered films. For lower oxygen partial pressures (10 -3 to 10 -2 Pa), mixtures of SnO and β-Sn are obtained. Well-ordered SnO 2 films, as verified by electron diffraction patterns and energy-loss spectra, are only obtained after post-oxidation of SnO films at temperatures T ≥ 673 K in 10 5 Pa O 2 . Preparation of GeO x films inevitably results in amorphous films with a composition close to GeO 2 , which cannot be crystallized by annealing treatments in oxygen or hydrogen at temperatures comparable to SnO/SnO 2 . Similarities and differences to neighbouring oxides relevant for selective MSR in the third group of the periodic system (In 2 O 3 and Ga 2 O 3 ) are also discussed with the aim of cross-correlation in formation of nanomaterials, and ultimately, also catalytic properties.

  5. Radioactive demonstration of final mineralized waste forms for Hanford waste treatment plant secondary waste (WTP-SW) by fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) using the bench scale reformer platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137Cs, 129I, 99Tc, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW.

  6. Mobile internet and technology for optical teaching reform in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Muchun; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Yanru

    2017-08-01

    There are some problems in optical education such as insufficient flexibility, individuality and adaptability to students who need information and education at present. The development of mobile internet and technology provides support to solve these problems. Basic characteristics, advantages and developments of these techniques used in education are presented in this paper. Mobile internet is introduced to reform the classroom teaching of optical courses. Mobile network tool selection, teaching resources construction and reform in teaching methods are discussed. Academic record and sampling surveys are used to assess intention to adopt mobile internet and learning effect of academic major of students, the results show that high quality optical education can be offered by adopting mobile internet and technologies in traditional instruction.

  7. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors (5) operating characteristics of center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Iwaki, C.; Narabayashi, T.; Mori, M.; Ohmori, S.

    2005-01-01

    Next-generation reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. A steam injector has a function of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery, and has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation reactor. Its performance as a pump depends on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. As previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about formulation of operating characteristic of steam injector and analysis of jet structure in steam injector by Narabayashi etc. And as previous studies of the direct contact condensation, there is the study about the direct contact condensation in steam atmosphere. However the study about the turbulent heat transfer under the great shear stress is not enough investigated. Therefore it is necessary to examine in detail about the operating characteristic of the steam injector. The present paper reports the observation results of the water jet behavior in the super sonic steam injector by using the video camera and the high-speed video camera. And the measuring results of the temperature and the pressure distribution in the steam injector are reported. From observation results by video camera, it is cleared that the water jet is established at the center of the steam injector right after steam supplied and the operation of the steam injector depends on the throat diameter. And from observation results by high-speed video camera, it is supposed that the columned water jet surface is established in the mixing nozzle and the water jet surface movement exists. And from temperature measuring results, it is supposed that the steam temperature at the mixing nozzle is changed between about 80 degree centigrade and about 60 degree centigrade. Then from the pressure measuring results, it is confirmed that the pressure at the diffuser depends on each the throat diameter and

  8. Solar central receiver reformer system for ammonia plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    An overview of a study to retrofit the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc., El Centro, California 600 ST/SD Ammonia Plant with Solar Central Receiver Technology is presented. The retrofit system consists of a solar central receiver reformer (SCRR) operating in parallel with the existing fossil fired reformer. Steam and hydrocarbon react in the catalyst filled tubes of the inner cavity receiver to form a hydrogen rich mixture which is the syngas feed for the ammonia production. The SCRR system will displace natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber.

  9. Analysis of Korean Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' Changing Attitudes about Integrated STEAM Pedagogy through Developing Lesson Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongryeul; Bolger, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Integrated curricula have become a major educational focus in Korea. Policy changes began in 2009 when the Korea Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology announced a new curriculum incorporating Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM). Various stages of educational reform have occurred since that time. This study…

  10. Steampunk: Full Steam Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Steam-powered machines, anachronistic technology, clockwork automatons, gas-filled airships, tentacled monsters, fob watches, and top hats--these are all elements of steampunk. Steampunk is both speculative fiction that imagines technology evolved from steam-powered cogs and gears--instead of from electricity and computers--and a movement that…

  11. Modelagem de um reator integral aplicado na reação de reforma a vapor de metano = Modeling of integral reactor applied methane steam reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giane Gonçalves

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Freqüentemente, a validação de modelos matemáticos aplicados a reatores industriais esbarra na dificuldade de obtenção de medidas experimentais confiáveis. Uma maneira de contornar esta limitação corresponde à implantação de uma unidade em escala de bancada devidamente instrumentada, na qual são obtidos dados experimentais emcondições controladas. Neste contexto, foram efetuados ensaios em um reator integral de reforma a vapor de metano em escala de bancada, em diversas condições experimentais. As medidas de temperatura no leito foram efetuadas por meio de um termopar multiponto em seis posições axiais distintas, enquanto a composição do efluente do reator foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa. Estes dados experimentais foram comparados com as previsões de um modelo pseudo-homogêneo, unidimensional e dinâmico. Os resultados indicam que o modelo é adequado, sendo que tanto a atividade catalítica como a conversão são sensíveis à temperatura operacional, enquanto a temperatura do leito é praticamente insensível à vazão nas condições experimentais exploradas.Frequently, the validation of applied mathematical models of industrial reactors dash into the difficulty of obtaining reliable experimental data. A way to overcome this limitation is the proper use and operation or a in bench scale, experimental setup from whichexperimental data can be obtained in controlled conditions. In this context, experiments were carried out in an integral reactor of steam reform, in different experimental conditions. Thermocouples were placed along the catalyst bed to allow for temperature monitoring in six equally spaced and distinct positions of the reactor, the composition of the effluent of the reactor was determined by gas chromatography. These experimental data were compared with the theoretical results of a pseudo-homogeneous one-dimensional,dynamic mathematical model. The results indicate that the model can successfully

  12. EPRI steam generator programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, L.J.; Passell, T.O.; Bryant, P.E.C.; Rentler, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the current overall EPRI steam generator program plan and some of the ongoing projects. Because of the recent occurrence of a corrosion phenomenon called ''denting,'' which has affected a number of operating utilities, an expanded program plan is being developed which addresses the broad and urgent needs required to achieve improved steam generator reliability. The goal of improved steam generator reliability will require advances in various technologies and also a management philosophy that encourages conscientious efforts to apply the improved technologies to the design, procurement, and operation of plant systems and components that affect the full life reliability of steam generators

  13. A Fundamental study of remedial technology development to prevent stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, In Gyu; Lee, Chang Soon [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    Most of the PWR Steam generators with tubes in Alloy 600 alloy are affected by Stress Corrosion Cracking, such as PWSCC(Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking) and ODSCC(Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking). This study was undertaken to establish the background for remedial technology development to prevent SCC. in the report are included the following topics: (1) General: (i) water chemistry related factors, (ii) Pourbaix(Potential-pH) Diagram, (iii) polarization plot, (iv) corrosion mode of Alloy 600, 690, and 800, (v) IGA/SCC growth rate, (vi) material suspetibility of IGA/SCC, (vii) carbon solubility of Alloy 600 (2) Microstructures of Alloy 600 MA, Alloy 600 TT, Alloy 600 SEN Alloy 690 TT(Optical, SEM, and TEM) (3) Influencing factors for PWSCC initiation rate of Alloy 600: (i) microstructure, (ii) water chemistry(B, Li), (iii) temperature, (iv) plastic deformation, (v) stress relief annealing (4) Influencing factors for PWSCC growth rate of Alloy 600: (i) water chemistry(B, Li), (ii) Scott Model, (iii) intergranular carbide, (iv) temperature, (v) hold time (5) Laboratory conditions for ODSCC initiation rate: 1% NaOH, 316 deg C; 1% NaOH, 343 deg C; 50% NaOH, 288 deg C; 10% NaOH, 302 deg C; 10% NaOH, 316 deg C; 50% NaOH, 343 deg C (6) Sludge effects for ODSCC initiation rate: CuO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (7) Influencing factors for PWSCC growth rate of Alloy 600: (i) Caustic concentration effect, (ii) carbonate addition effect (8) Sulfate corrosion: (i) sulfate ratio and pH effect, (ii) wastage rate of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 (9) Crevice corrosion: (i) experimental setup for crevice corrosion, (ii) organic effect, (iii) (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + NaOH) effect (10) Remedial measures for SCC: (i) Inhibitors, (ii) ZnO effect. (author). 30 refs., 174 figs., 51 tabs.

  14. DTS technology: evaluation in steam injection pilots in PETROBRAS; Tecnologias DTS: avaliacao em pilotos de injecao de vapor na PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triques, Adriana Lucia Cerri; Rodrigues, Renato Cunha; Souza, Carlos Francisco Sales de; Izetti, Ronaldo Goncalves [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In oil and gas industry, downhole pressure and temperature distributed sensors can provide strategic information for production optimization throughout the field. Upon the successful implementation of a pilot for optical fiber distributed temperature monitoring of observer wells in a steam injection field, two new pilots have been implemented to also monitor injectors and producers in both cyclic and continuous injection fields strongly influenced by H2S. The pilots demonstrated that this technology is suitable to monitor producers in onshore fields under the conditions above without risks to the production. The sensors did not prove to be suitable for long term monitoring of injectors under continuous steam injection if fiber is installed inside the injection tubing. For cyclic injection applications, the development of steam injection packers is needed to guarantee casing integrity during the injection cycle. The application of the technology in offshore wells is nowadays restricted to dry completion situation. The potential applicability in submarine wells is tightly linked to the development of downhole and wellhead wet mate optical fiber connectors. (author)

  15. Analysis on the Current Status of Chemical Decontamination Technology of Steam Generators in the Oversea Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Taebin; Kim, Sukhoon; Kim, Juyoul; Kim, Juyub; Lee, Seunghee [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The steam generators in Hanbit Unit 3 and 4 are scheduled to be replaced in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Nevertheless, the wastes from the dismantled steam generators are currently just on-site stored in the NPP because there are no disposal measures for the waste and lack of the decontamination techniques for large-sized metallic equipment. In contrast, in the oversea NPPs, there are many practical cases of chemical decontamination not only for oversized components in the NPPs such as reactor pressure vessel and steam generator, but also for major pipes. Chemical decontamination technique is more effective in decontaminating the components with complicated shape compared with mechanical one. Moreover, a high decontamination factor can be obtained by using strong solvent, and thereby most of radionuclides can be removed. Due to these advantages, the chemical decontamination has been used most frequently for operation of decontaminating the large-sized equipment. In this study, an analysis on the current status of chemical decontamination technique used for the steam generators of the foreign commercial NPPs was performed. In this study, the three major chemical decontamination processes were reviewed, which are applied to the decommissioning process of the steam generators in the commercial NPPs of the United States, Germany, and Belgium. The three processes have the different features in aspect of solvent, while those are based in common on the oxidation and reduction between the target metal surface and solvents. In addition, they have the same goals for improving the decontamination efficiency and decreasing the amount of the secondary waste generation. Based on the analysis results on component sub-processes and major advantages and disadvantages of each process, Table 2 shows the key fundamental technologies for decontamination of the steam generator in Korea and the major considerations in the development process of each technology. It is necessary to prepare

  16. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors. (6) Operating characteristics of center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yujiro; Abe, Yutaka; Iwaki, Chikako; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Ohmori, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    One of the most interesting devices for next generation reactor systems aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility is the steam injector which is a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery. One of the applications of the steam injector is the passive water injection system to inject the coolant water into the core. The system can be started up merely by injecting the steam without any outer power supply. Since the steam injector is a simple, compact and passive device for water injection, if the steam injector is applied to the actual reactor, it is expected to make the system simple and to reduce the construction cost. Although non-condensable gases are well known for reducing heat transfer between water and steam, the effect of the non-condensable gas on the condensation of supersonic steam on high-speed water jet has not been cleared. The present paper reports about the experimental apparatus, measurement instrument and experimental results of observing the phenomenon inside the test section supplying water and steam to the test by using both the high-speed camera and the video camera and measuring the temperature and the pressure distribution n the test section. (author)

  17. Development of Evaluation Technology for Detection of Axial Crack at Eggcrate Intersection of Steam Generator Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myung Sik; Hur, Do Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Han, Jung Ho; Lee, Deok Hyun; Song, Myung Ho

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of outer diameter (OD) axial stress corrosion crack at egg crate intersection of steam generator tube in operating power plant is inspected primarily by the eddy current test using bobbin coil probe. Therefore, the characteristics of the bobbin coil signal from the axial crack at egg crate intersection of steam generator tube should be understood for the accurate and earlier detection of the crack. In this study, the mockup assembly simulating the steam generator tube with OD axial stress corrosion crack and tube support egg crate was manufactured, and the characteristics of bobbin coil eddy current signal was examined in order to extract the improved evaluation technique for the detection of the crack

  18. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. High temperature technological heat exchangers and steam generators with helical coil assembly tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotaev, O.J.; Mizonov, N.V.; Nikolaevsky, V.B.; Nazarov, E.K.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of thermal hydraulics characteristics of nuclear steam generators with different tube bundle arrangements and waste heat boilers for ammonia production units was performed on the basis of operating experience results and research and development data. The present report involves the obtained information. The estimations of steam generator performances and repair-ability are given. The significant temperature profile of the primary and secondary coolant flows are attributed to all steam generator designs. The intermediate mixing is found to be an effective means of temperature profile overcoming. At present the only means to provide an effective mixing in heat exchangers of the following types: straight tubes, field tubes, platen tubes and multibank helical coil tubes (with complicated bend distribution along their length) are section arrangements in series in conjunction with forced and natural mixing in connecting lines. Development of the unificated system from mini helical coil assemblies allows to design and manufacture heat exchangers and steam generators within the wide range of operating conditions without additional expenses on the research and development work

  20. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  1. Health reform and technology--what does it mean for us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, J

    1995-01-01

    John Abele, Founder Chairman of Boston Scientific Corporation, spoke at AAMI's 30th Annual Meeting on 22 May in Anaheim, CA. His speech was part of AAMI's plenary session, "The Impact of a Reformed Health System on New Technology." After his speech, Abele joined three of AAMI's experts in a roundtable discussion on the topics he raised. See the BI&T Forum page 479 for their discussion. As a business entrepreneur and scientist, Abele is well versed in the topic of health reform and scientific advancements. He began his career with a degree in physics and philosophy, then moved into the health care field because of his fascination with medical devices and technologies. He has spent years working as an engineer, a salesperson, a general manager, and a partner in a research and development company. He was a cofounder of AAMI in 1965. Boston Scientific's roots trace back to 1969, when Abele joined with Itzhak Bentov to build a company around a steerable catheter. The associated technology became a platform for many types of tools that could be used as alternatives to surgery in most organs of the body. Today, with over 5,000 employees, 4,000 products, and a worldwide presence, the original objective of developing products and procedures that reduce risk, trauma, cost, and time still applies. Abele is the author of many papers and book chapters, and he has lectured extensively on the technology of various medical devices and technical, social, economic, and political trends affecting health care. His major interests are science education and the process by which new technology is invented, developed, and introduced to society. The following article is based on Abele's presentation.

  2. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Cloth dyeing by geothermal steam. An experiment in technology transfer from Japan to Hawaii, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumoto, A.S.

    1987-12-31

    This was an experiment to test whether cloth dyeing using geothermal steam (already proven in Japan) would be feasible in Hawaii. Results: Using a fabricated steam vat, cotton, silk, and synthetic can be dyed; the resulting material received high grades for steadfastness and permanency under dye testing. Techniques that were successful in Matsukawa, were replicated in Puna. However, attempts to embed leaf patterns on cloth using natural leaves and to extract natural dyes from Hawaiian plants were unsuccessful; the color of natural dyes deteriorated in hours. But chemical dyes gave brilliant hues or shades, in contrast to those in Japan where the steam there gave subdued tones. It is concluded that geothermal dyeing can be a viable cottage industry in Puna, Hawaii.

  3. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  4. STEAM by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Linda; Keane, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We live in a designed world. STEAM by Design presents a transdisciplinary approach to learning that challenges young minds with the task of making a better world. Learning today, like life, is dynamic, connected and engaging. STEAM (Science, Technology, Environment, Engineering, Art, and Math) teaching and learning integrates information in…

  5. Safety Picks up "STEAM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This column shares safety information for the classroom. STEAM subjects--science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics--are essential for fostering students' 21st-century skills. STEAM promotes critical-thinking skills, including analysis, assessment, categorization, classification, interpretation, justification, and prediction, and are…

  6. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (11) Visualization Study on the Start-Up of the Steam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koji Okamoto; Tadashi Narabayashi; Chikako Iwaki; Shuichi Ohmori; Michitsugu Mori

    2006-01-01

    The Steam Injector is the superior system to pump the fluid without rotating machine. Because the water column is surrounded by the saturated steam, very high heat transfer is also expected with direct condensation. The inside of the Steam Injector is very complicated. To improve the efficiency of the Steam Injector, the water column behavior inside the Injector is visualized using the Dynamic PIV system. Dynamic PIV system consists of the high-speed camera and lasers. In this study, 384 x 180 pixel resolution with 30,000 fps camera is used to visualize the flow. For the illumination CW green laser with 300 mW is applied. To view inside the Injector, relay lens system is set at the Injector wall. Very high speed water column during the starting up of Steam Injector had been clearly visualized with 30,000 fps. The wave velocity on the water column had been analyzed using PIV technique. The instability of the water column is also detected. (authors)

  7. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  8. Catalisadores Ni/Al2O3 promovidos com molibdênio para a reação de reforma a vapor de metano Mo-Ni/AL2O3 catalysts for the methane steam reforming reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sálua Maluf

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Mo-promoted Ni/Al2O3 catalysts for the methane steam reforming reaction were studied in this work. The Ni/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by precipitation and molibdenum was added by impregnation up to 2%wt. The solids were tested using a micro-reactor under two H2Ov/C conditions and were characterized by ICP-OES, XRD, N2 adsoption, H2 chemisorption and TPR. NiO and NiAl2O4 phases were observed and the metallic area decreased with the increase of the Mo content. From the catalytic tests high stability was verified for H2Ov/C=4.0. On the other hand, only the catalyst containing 0,05% Mo stayed stable during 30 hours of the test at H2Ov/C=2.0.

  9. Effect of technological deviation on aerodynamic efficiency of reaction blades of steam and gas turbines at high Mach nos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Z.

    1991-01-01

    During manufacture and assembly of steam and gas turbine blades there are always some technological deviation and is meant local increase or decrease in dimension at certain sections of the profile improper stagger angle of long blades during assembly etc. In this paper the effect of oversize in dimensions at certain important places along a reaction profile has been studied. The technological deviation has been made by sticking thin aluminium foils of 0.3 mm thickness and 15 mm width at inlet and exit tips of reactive profiles and its effect on aerodynamic efficiency at mach. nos ranging from 0.7 to 1.1. The object of performing these tests was to obtain comprehensive data based on which information suitable tolerances could be recommended during manufacture of these blades

  10. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  11. Thermal and chemical analysis of carbon dioxide reforming of methane using the out-of-pile test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ziyong; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2000-03-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, a hydrogen production system is being designed to produce hydrogen by means of steam reforming of natural gas (its main composition is methane(CH 4 )) using nuclear heat (10 MW, 1178 K) supplied by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile demonstration test was planned to confirm safety, controllability and performance of the steam reforming system under simulated operational conditions of the prototype. The out-of-pile test facility simulates key components downstream to an intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR hydrogen production system on a scale of 1 : 30 and has a hydrogen production capacity of 110 Nm 3 /h using an electric heater as a reactor substitute. The test facility is presently under construction. Reforming of natural gas with carbon dioxide CO 2 (CO 2 reforming) using the out-of-pile test facility is also being considered. In recent years, catalytic reforming of natural gas with CO 2 to synthesis gas (CO and H 2 ) has been proposed as one of the most promising technologies for utilization of those two greenhouse gases. Numerical analysis on heat and mass balance has practical significance in CO 2 reforming when the steam reforming process is adopted in the out-of-pile test. Numerical analysis of CO 2 reforming and reforming of natural gas with CO 2 and steam (CO 2 +H 2 O reforming) have been carried out using the mathematical model. Results such as the methane conversion rate, product gas composition, and the components temperature distribution considering the effects of helium gas temperature, reforming pressure, molar ratio of process gases and so on have been obtained in the numerical analysis. Heat and mass balance of the out-of-pile test facility considering chemical reactions are evaluated well. The methane conversation rates are about 0.36 and 0.35 which correspond to the equilibrium at 1085 and 1100 K for

  12. Thermal and chemical analysis of carbon dioxide reforming of methane using the out-of-pile test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Ziyong [Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University (China); Ohashi, Hirofumi; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki [Department of Advanced Nuclear Heat Technology, Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, a hydrogen production system is being designed to produce hydrogen by means of steam reforming of natural gas (its main composition is methane(CH{sub 4})) using nuclear heat (10 MW, 1178 K) supplied by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile demonstration test was planned to confirm safety, controllability and performance of the steam reforming system under simulated operational conditions of the prototype. The out-of-pile test facility simulates key components downstream to an intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR hydrogen production system on a scale of 1 : 30 and has a hydrogen production capacity of 110 Nm{sup 3}/h using an electric heater as a reactor substitute. The test facility is presently under construction. Reforming of natural gas with carbon dioxide CO{sub 2} (CO{sub 2} reforming) using the out-of-pile test facility is also being considered. In recent years, catalytic reforming of natural gas with CO{sub 2} to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) has been proposed as one of the most promising technologies for utilization of those two greenhouse gases. Numerical analysis on heat and mass balance has practical significance in CO{sub 2} reforming when the steam reforming process is adopted in the out-of-pile test. Numerical analysis of CO{sub 2} reforming and reforming of natural gas with CO{sub 2} and steam (CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O reforming) have been carried out using the mathematical model. Results such as the methane conversion rate, product gas composition, and the components temperature distribution considering the effects of helium gas temperature, reforming pressure, molar ratio of process gases and so on have been obtained in the numerical analysis. Heat and mass balance of the out-of-pile test facility considering chemical reactions are evaluated well. The methane conversation rates are about 0.36 and 0.35 which

  13. Research and engineering application of coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator on nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    The coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator (TG) usually is very significant and complicated for a new construction of nuclear power plant, because it carries the safety, economy and availability of nuclear power plant. Based on successful practice of a nuclear power plant, the experience on interface design and hardware architecture of coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator was abstracted and researched. In this paper, the key points and engineering experience were introduced to give the helpful instructions for the new project. (author)

  14. Study on Salting out-Steam Distillation Extraction Technology and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil from Cumin Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different factors on the yield of essential oil from were discussed, and the extraction conditions of essential oil from cumin seeds by salting out-steam distillation technology based on single-factor test and orthogonal experiment, as well as its antibacterial activities on several common food spoilage bacteria were studied in this paper. The results showed that, the impact order of the influence factors was liquid/solid ratio > distilling time > NaCl concentration, and optimized extraction conditions were as follows, liquid to material ratio 15:1, soaking time 1 h, 4% NaCl, steam distilling time 3 h. The yield of essential oil was up to 4.48% under these conditions. The results of antibacterial activity assays showed that the essential oil from cumin seeds exhibited the different antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens, especially it presented the best inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL respectively, followed by Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus aureus, the lowest for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae

  15. Small-scale reforming of diesel and jet fuels to make hydrogen and syngas for fuel cells: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xinhai; Li, Peiwen; Shen, Yuesong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Issues of reforming of heavy hydrocarbon fuels are reviewed. • The advantages of autothermal reforming over other types of reforming are discussed. • The causes and solutions of the major problems for reforming reactors are studied. • Designs and startup strategies for autothermal reforming reactors are proposed. - Abstract: This paper reviews the technological features and challenges of autothermal reforming (ATR) of heavy hydrocarbon fuels for producing hydrogen and syngas onboard to supply fuels to fuel cells for auxiliary power units. A brief introduction at the beginning enumerates the advantages of using heavy hydrocarbon fuels onboard to provide hydrogen or syngas for fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). A detailed review of the reforming and processing technologies of diesel and jet fuels is then presented. The advantages of ATR over steam reforming (SR) and partial oxidation reforming (POX) are summarized, and the ATR reaction is analyzed from a thermodynamic point of view. The causes and possible solutions to the major problems existing in ATR reactors, including hot spots, formation of coke, and inhomogeneous mixing of fuel, steam, and air, are reviewed and studied. Designs of ATR reactors are discussed, and three different reactors, one with a fixed bed, one with monoliths, and one with microchannels are investigated. Novel ideas for design and startup strategies for ATR reactors are proposed at the end of the review

  16. Steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Nickerson, J.; Spekkens, P.; Maruska, C.

    1998-01-01

    Steam generators are a critical component of a nuclear power reactor, and can contribute significantly to station unavailability, as has been amply demonstrated in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). CANDU steam generators are not immune to steam generator degradation, and the variety of CANDU steam generator designs and tube materials has led to some unexpected challenges. However, aggressive remedial actions, and careful proactive maintenance activities, have led to a decrease in steam generator-related station unavailability of Canadian CANDUs. AECL and the CANDU utilities have defined programs that will enable existing or new steam generators to operate effectively for 40 years. Research and development work covers corrosion and mechanical degradation of tube bundles and internals, chemistry, thermal hydraulics, fouling, inspection and cleaning, as well as provision for specially tool development for specific problem solving. A major driving force is development of CANDU-specific fitness-for-service guidelines, including appropriate inspection and monitoring technology to measure steam generator condition. Longer-range work focuses on development of intelligent on-line monitoring for the feedwater system and steam generator. New designs have reduced risk of corrosion and fouling, are more easily inspected and cleaned, and are less susceptible to mechanical damage. The Canadian CANDU utilities have developed programs for remedial actions to combat degradation of performance (Gentilly-2, Point Lepreau, Bruce A/B, Pickering A/B), and have developed strategic plans to ensure that good future operation is ensured. This report shows how recent advances in cleaning technology are integrated into a life management strategy, discusses downcomer flow measurement as a means of monitoring steam generator condition, and describes recent advances in hideout return as a life management tool. The research and development program, as well as operating experience, has identified

  17. Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-04-01

    The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Institute of Energy, Gebze, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel [Marmara University Faculty of Engineering, Goztepe, 81040 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-03-09

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies. (author)

  19. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati; Ozdogan, Sibel

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100 kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies.

  20. Effect study of the support in nickel and cobalt catalysts for obtaining hydrogen from ethanol steam reforming; Estudo do efeito do suporte em catalisadores de cobalto e niquel para obtencao de hidrogenio a partir da reforma a vapor do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sirlane Gomes da

    2013-09-01

    A range of oxide-supported metal catalysts have been investigated for the steam reforming of ethanol for the production of hydrogen and subsequent application in fuel cells. The catalysts were synthesized by the co-precipitation and internal gelification methods using cobalt and nickel as active metals supported on aluminum, zirconium, lanthanum and cerium oxides. After prepared and calcined at 550 C Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator the solids were fully characterized by different techniques such as X-rays diffraction(DRX), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption (B.E.T), temperature-programmed reduction in H2 (TPR-H2) and thermogravimetric analysis. The catalytic tests were performed in a monolithic quartz reactor and submitted to different thermodynamic conditions of steam reforming of ethanol at temperatures varying from 500 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator C to 800 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator C. The product gas streams from the reactor were analyzed by an on-line gas chromatograph. The cobalt/nickel catalyst supported on a ceria-lanthania mixture (Co{sub 10%} / Ni{sub 5%} - CeO{sub 2}La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) showed good catalytic performance in hydrogen selectivity reaching a concentration greater than 65%, when compared to other catalytic systems such as: Co{sub 10%} / Ni5% - CeO{sub 2}; Co{sub 10%} / Ni{sub 5%} - CeO{sub 2}ZrO{sub 2}; Co{sub 10%} / Ni{sub 5%} - ZrO{sub 2}; Co{sub 10%} / Ni{sub 5%} - La{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Co{sub 10%} / Ni{sub 5%} - CeO{sub 2}La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/K{sub 2%}; Co{sub 10}% / Ni{sub 5%} - CeO{sub 2}La{sub 2}O{sub 3} / Na{sub 2%}; Ni{sub 10%} / Co{sub 5%} - CeO{sub 2}La{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Co-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} e Co-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}CeO{sub 2}. (author)

  1. The role of various fuels on microwave-enhanced combustion synthesis of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 nanocatalyst used in hydrogen production via methanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajamein, Hossein; Haghighi, Mohammad; Alaei, Shervin

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 nanocatalysts were synthesized by the fast and simple microwave enhanced combustion method. Considering that the fuel type is one of the effective parameters on quality of the prepared nanocatalysts, different fuels such as sorbitol, propylene glycol, glycerol, diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol were used. XRD, FESEM, FTIR, EDX, and BET analyses were applied to determine the physicochemical properties of fabricated nanocatalysts. The catalytic experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range of 160–300 °C. The characteristic and reactivity properties of fabricated nanocatalysts proved that ethylene glycol is the suitable fuel for preparation of CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 nanocatalysts via microwave enhanced combustion method. - Highlights: • Microwave combustion synthesis of CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 nanocatalysts by different fuels. • Enhancement of methanol conversion at low temperatures by selecting proper fuel. • Providing a large number of combustion pores by application of ethylene glycol as fuel. • Increase of CO selectivity in steam methanol reforming by Zn(0 0 2) crystallite facet. - Abstract: A series of CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 nanocatalysts were synthesized by the microwave enhanced combustion method to evaluate the influence of fuel type. Sorbitol, propylene glycol, glycerol, diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol were used as fuel. XRD results revealed that application of ethylene glycol led to highly dispersed CuO and ZnO crystals. It was more highlighted about Cu(1 1 1) crystallite facet which known as the main active site of methanol steam reforming. Moreover, using ethylene glycol resulted homogeneous morphology and narrow particles size distribution (average surface particle size is about 265 nm). Due to the significant physicochemical properties, the catalytic experiments showed that the sample prepared by ethylene glycol achieved total conversion of methanol at 260 °C. Its carbon monoxide

  2. Leveraging health information technology to achieve the "triple aim" of healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aziz; Sood, Harpreet S; Bates, David W

    2015-07-01

    To investigate experiences with leveraging health information technology (HIT) to improve patient care and population health, and reduce healthcare expenditures. In-depth qualitative interviews with federal government employees, health policy, HIT and medico-legal experts, health providers, physicians, purchasers, payers, patient advocates, and vendors from across the United States. The authors undertook 47 interviews. There was a widely shared belief that Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) had catalyzed the creation of a digital infrastructure, which was being used in innovative ways to improve quality of care and curtail costs. There were however major concerns about the poor usability of electronic health records (EHRs), their limited ability to support multi-disciplinary care, and major difficulties with health information exchange, which undermined efforts to deliver integrated patient-centered care. Proposed strategies for enhancing the benefits of HIT included federal stimulation of competition by mandating vendors to open-up their application program interfaces, incenting development of low-cost consumer informatics tools, and promoting Congressional review of the The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) to optimize the balance between data privacy and reuse. Many underscored the need to "kick the legs from underneath the fee-for-service model" and replace it with a data-driven reimbursement system that rewards high quality care. The HITECH Act has stimulated unprecedented, multi-stakeholder interest in HIT. Early experiences indicate that the resulting digital infrastructure is being used to improve quality of care and curtail costs. Reform efforts are however severely limited by problems with usability, limited interoperability and the persistence of the fee-for-service paradigm-addressing these issues therefore needs to be the federal government's main policy target. © The Author 2015

  3. Steam drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1978-01-01

    Steam drums are described that are suitable for use in steam generating heavy water reactor power stations. They receive a steam/water mixture via riser headers from the reactor core and provide by means of separators and driers steam with typically 0.5% moisture content for driving turbines. The drums are constructed as prestressed concrete pressure vessels in which the failure of one or a few of the prestressing elements does not significantly affect the overall strength of the structure. The concrete also acts as a radiation shield. (U.K.)

  4. Catalytic steam methane reforming over Ir/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-x}: resistance to coke formation and sulfur poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postole, G.; Girona, K.; Kaddouri, A.; Gelin, P. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, F-69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Toyir, J. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, F-69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Universite Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah Fes, FP-Taza, B.P. 1223 Taza (Morocco)

    2012-04-15

    This work investigates the catalytic properties of Ir/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-x} (Ir/CGO) catalyst and CGO support in steam reforming of methane in the absence or presence of H{sub 2}S (50 ppm) for further application in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) working under methane at intermediate temperatures and integrating a gradual internal reforming concept. The catalytic activity was measured at 750 C by using a 50 mol.% CH{sub 4}/5 mol.% H{sub 2}O/45 mol.% N{sub 2} mixture and a 10 mol.% CH{sub 4}/90 mol.% N{sub 2} mixture. The addition of Ir to CGO improves the catalytic activity in hydrogen production by two orders of magnitude with respect to that of CGO alone. Temperature programmed oxidation experiments were performed after reaction in both types of mixtures to study the eventual formation of carbon deposits. Over Ir/CGO, carbon formed in little amounts (even in the absence of H{sub 2}O in the feed), being highly reactive toward O{sub 2}. Upon H{sub 2}S addition, the CGO support exhibited surprisingly an improved catalytic activity on the contrary to Ir/CGO which partly deactivated. Upon suppression of H{sub 2}S in the feed the initial catalytic activity was fully restored for both catalysts. The catalytic behavior of CGO in the presence of H{sub 2}S was discussed, based upon temperature programmed reaction of CH{sub 4}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Technological aspects of the NIRA steam generator design and experimental programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alesio, C.; Di Leo, S.; Fossati, M.; Urbani, A.

    1975-01-01

    In this report are described the technological works concerned with the developing of the tube to tube sheet connection either welded or brazed. Both give satisfactory results with regard to their application to the S. G. design. (author)

  6. Preparation and characterization of {alpha}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalytic supports. Application to methane steam reforming; Preparation et caracterisation de supports catalytiques d`Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {alpha}. Application au vaporeformange du methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marturano, M.A.; Ferretti, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Procesos Cataliticas (CINDECA), La Plata (Argentina); Aglietti, E.F. [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC, UNPL and CONICET), (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    {alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} preformed bodies are widely used as catalytic supports in many industrial processes as for instance steam reforming. In this work, is particularly studied the textural, structural, morphological and mechanical properties of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supports as a function of the characteristics of the starting alumina and of the bonding agents used. The performance of these supports in the final catalyst in methane steam reforming is also studies. It was found that textural and morphological properties are determined only by the starting alumina utilized in support preparation. When non-stabilized alumina powders are used (small grains), mechanical properties of the support are controlled by the sintering process, independently of the binder used. When stabilized alumina powders are used (large grains) the existence of ceramic and chemical bonds leads to better results (bentonite and mono-aluminium phosphate, BM supports). Materials with adequate catalytic properties in methane steam reforming can be obtained when using supports prepared from powders easily found (commercial raw alumina) 20 refs.

  7. Kids Inspire Kids for STEAM

    OpenAIRE

    Fenyvesi, Kristof; Houghton, Tony; Diego-Mantecón, José Manuel; Crilly, Elizabeth; Oldknow, Adrian; Lavicza, Zsolt; Blanco, Teresa F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The goal of the Kids Inspiring Kids in STEAM (KIKS) project was to raise students' awareness towards the multi- and transdisciplinary connections between the STEAM subjects (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts & Mathematics), and make the learning about topics and phenomena from these fields more enjoyable. In order to achieve these goals, KIKS project has popularized the STEAM-concept by projects based on the students inspiring other students-approach and by utilizing new tec...

  8. Assessing the Life-Cycle Performance of Hydrogen Production via Biofuel Reforming in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Susmozas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, hydrogen is mainly produced through steam reforming of natural gas. However, this conventional process involves environmental and energy security concerns. This has led to the development of alternative technologies for (potentially green hydrogen production. In this work, the environmental and energy performance of biohydrogen produced in Europe via steam reforming of glycerol and bio-oil is evaluated from a life-cycle perspective, and contrasted with that of conventional hydrogen from steam methane reforming. Glycerol as a by-product from the production of rapeseed biodiesel and bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of poplar biomass are considered. The processing plants are simulated in Aspen Plus® to provide inventory data for the life cycle assessment. The environmental impact potentials evaluated include abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, land competition, acidification and eutrophication. Furthermore, the cumulative (total and non-renewable energy demand is calculated, as well as the corresponding renewability scores and life-cycle energy balances and efficiencies of the biohydrogen products. In addition to quantitative evidence of the (expected relevance of the feedstock and impact categories considered, results show that poplar-derived bio-oil could be a suitable feedstock for steam reforming, in contrast to first-generation bioglycerol.

  9. Steam 80 steam generator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, W.H.; Harris, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes two special instrumentation packages in an integral economizer (preheater) steam generator of one of the first System 80 plants scheduled to go into commercial operation. The purpose of the instrumentation is to obtain accurate operating information from regions of the secondary side of the steam generator inaccessible to normal plant instrumentation. In addition to verification of the System 80 steam generator design predictions, the data obtained will assist in verification of steam generator thermal/hydraulic computer codes developed for generic use in the industry

  10. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Ethanol on Rh-Pt Catalysts: Influence of CeO2, ZrO2, and La2O3 as Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernay Cifuentes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CeO2-, ZrO2-, and La2O3-supported Rh-Pt catalysts were tested to assess their ability to catalyze the steam reforming of ethanol (SRE for H2 production. SRE activity tests were performed using EtOH:H2O:N2 (molar ratio 1:3:51 at a gaseous space velocity of 70,600 h−1 between 400 and 700 °C at atmospheric pressure. The SRE stability of the catalysts was tested at 700 °C for 27 h time on stream under the same conditions. RhPt/CeO2, which showed the best performance in the stability test, also produced the highest H2 yield above 600 °C, followed by RhPt/La2O3 and RhPt/ZrO2. The fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by TEM, XPS, and TGA. The higher H2 selectivity of RhPt/CeO2 was ascribed to the formation of small (~5 nm and stable particles probably consistent of Rh-Pt alloys with a Pt surface enrichment. Both metals were oxidized and acted as an almost constant active phase during the stability test owing to strong metal-support interactions, as well as the superior oxygen mobility of the support. The TGA results confirmed the absence of carbonaceous residues in all the aged catalysts.

  11. Selling steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, M.J.; Goodwin, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of steam sales contract is in financing cogeneration facilities. The topics of the article include the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act provisions and how they affect the marketing of steam from qualifying facilities, the independent power producers market shift, and qualifying facility's benefits

  12. Steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenet, J.-C.

    1980-01-01

    Steam generator particularly intended for use in the coolant system of a pressurized water reactor for vaporizing a secondary liquid, generally water, by the primary cooling liquid of the reactor and comprising special arrangements for drying the steam before it leaves the generator [fr

  13. Steam condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Fujio

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safe steam condensation by providing steam condensation blades at the end of a pipe. Constitution: When high temperature high pressure steam flows into a vent pipe having an opening under water in a pool or an exhaust pipe or the like for a main steam eacape safety valve, non-condensable gas filled beforehand in the steam exhaust pipe is compressed, and discharged into the water in the pool. The non-condensable gas thus discharged from the steam exhaust pipe is introduced into the interior of the hollow steam condensing blades, is then suitably expanded, and thereafter exhausted from a number of exhaust holes into the water in the pool. In this manner, the non-condensable gas thus discharged is not directly introduced into the water in the pool, but is suitable expanded in the space of the steam condensing blades to suppress extreme over-compression and over-expansion of the gas so as to prevent unstable pressure vibration. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Steam Man and Airships: Technology of the Future in the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Caroline C.; Carano, Kenneth T.; Berson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Frank Reade dime novels, published in 1882, that are now recognized as the beginnings of the modern science fiction novel in the United States. They illustrate the hope that Americans of the time held for the future that newly invented technology could offer. Although the Frank Reade stories highlighted the promise of…

  15. Electricity reforms, democracy and technological change. (Electricity systems, 'market liberalization' reforms, internationalisation, and the need for new democratic governance system - the Danish case)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, F.

    2001-07-01

    At the end of the 1990s, Danish energy policy reached a turning point because of technical challenges due to the high proportion of fluctuating wind power production and the increased cogeneration share, and because of new regulation regimes being introduced in Denmark and its neighbouring countries. In this specific historical situation, with the above background, the questions that will be analysed in this publication are as follows: 1) Which governance systems are most efficient, with regard to achieving optimal goal performance by means of the present typical uranium/fossil fuel electricity supply systems? 2) Which governance systems are the most efficient in the transformation process from the present uranium/fossil fuel electricity supply systems to renewable energy-/conservation based electricity system? 3) Which changes in goal performance of the Danish electricity supply system has the 1999 Danish electricity 'liberalization' reform induced? 4) Will the Danish electricity supply system be able to maintain its consumer ownership institutions and remain independent of the 'third party' shareholder ownership structure after the 1999 Danish 'liberalization' reform? a) Are the Danish electricity companies able to compete on the Danish electricity market with foreign suppliers? b) Will the Danish energy companies be able to compete on the market for energy capital goods, or will foreign companies, for instance German power companies, buy them? Will the Danish consumer ownership model survive? c) Will the Danish 'flat' price structure survive on the future electricity market? d) Will the 1975-2000 energy technology innovation process survive under the new market conditions? How will conditions on the German market influence this development? The relevance of these questions is particulary enhanced when seen in relation to the goals of international, and especially Danish, energy policy. The main question therefore, is: will the development outlined under 1

  16. Reform of investment policy in the function of sustainable development with special emphasis on investment in information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević-Radičević Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economy still records a decline in FDI. The main causes are increased economic instability and geopolitical risks. Given the continued negative trend, it is clear that it is necessary to reform the investment policies at the national, regional, bilateral, multilateral and international level, to ensure sustainable economic development. Key elements of the reforms are: to provide instruments to reduce risks, create mechanisms of responsible investment, improve the structural coherence and promote regional investments. Refer to the current dates of the sectors investments (according to the report of UNCTAD from 2015th shows that the services sector recorded double growth compared to the investment in the manufacturing sector in 2012. Also, if we take into consideration the fact that investment in IT sector investment involves three aspects: transactional (minimizing costs, strategic (innovation technologies, achieving competitiveness and information (improving access to information and communications, it may be assumed that the reforms in the investment policies should be directly correlated with investments in information technology.

  17. Steam generators: critical components in nuclear steam supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Guille, P D

    1974-02-28

    Steam generators are critical components in power reactors. Even small internal leaks result in costly shutdowns for repair. Surveys show that leaks have affected one half of all water-cooled reactors in the world with steam generators. CANDU reactors have demonstrated the highest reliability. However, AECL is actively evolving new technology in design, manufacture, inspection and operation to maintain reliability. (auth)

  18. Steam coal processing technology: handling, high-order processing, COM, meth-coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, H.; Onodera, J.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: various handling techologies (overland and marine transport, storage, water removal, drying, comminution and sizing); various coal processing technologies (gravity concentration, magnetic separation, multi-stage flotation, liquid-phase pelletizing, chemical processing); production methods for coal-oil mixtures (COM), their physical properties, stability, storage, transport, advantages, plus recent trends in research and development; production of coal-methanol slurry (meth-coal), its stability, storage, transport, utilization and environmental problems, plus latest trends in research and development. (In Japanese)

  19. Eddy current technology for heat exchanger and steam generator tube inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrutsky, L.; Lepine, B.; Lu, J.; Cassidy, R.; Carter, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A variety of degradation modes can affect the integrity of both heat exchanger (HX) and balance of plant tubing, resulting in expensive repairs, tube plugging or replacement of tube bundles. One key component for ensuring tube integrity is inspection and monitoring for detection and characterization of the degradation. In-service inspection of HX and balance of plant tubing is usually carried out using eddy current (EC) bobbin coils, which are adequate for the detection of volumetric degradations. However, detection and quantification of additional modes of degradation such as pitting, intergranular attack (IGA), axial cracking and circumferential cracking require specialized probes. The need for timely, reliable detection and characterization of these modes of degradation is especially critical in Nuclear Generating Stations. Transmit-receive single-pass array probes, developed by AECL, offer high defect detectability in conjunction with fast and reliable inspection capabilities. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection. Compared to impedance probes, they offer improved performance in the presence of variable lift-off. This EC technology can help resolve critical detection issues at susceptible areas, such as the rolled-joint transitions at the tubesheet, U-bends and tube-support intersections. This paper provides an overview of the operating principles and the capabilities of advanced ET inspection technology available for HX tube inspection. Examples of recent application of this technology in Nuclear Generating Stations (NGSs) are discussed. (author)

  20. Eddy current technology for heat exchanger and steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Lepine, B.; Lu, J.; Cassidy, R.; Carter, J.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of degradation modes can affect the integrity of both heat exchanger (HX) and balance of plant tubing, resulting in expensive repairs, tube plugging or replacement of tube bundles. One key component for ensuring tube integrity is inspection and monitoring for detection and characterization of the degradation. In-service inspection of HX and balance of plant tubing is usually carried out using eddy current (EC) bobbin coils, which are adequate for the detection of volumetric degradations. However, detection and quantification of additional modes of degradation such as pitting, intergranular attack (IGA), axial cracking and circumferential cracking require specialized probes. The need for timely, reliable detection and characterization of these modes of degradation is especially critical in Nuclear Generating Stations. Transmit-receive single-pass array probes, developed by AECL, offer high defect detectability in conjunction with fast and reliable inspection capabilities. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection. Compared to impedance probes, they offer improved performance in the presence of variable lift-off. This EC technology can help resolve critical detection issues at susceptible areas, such as the rolled-joint transitions at the tubesheet, U-bends and tube-support intersections. This paper provides an overview of the operating principles and the capabilities of advanced ET inspection technology available for HX tube inspection. Examples of recent application of this technology in Nuclear Generating Stations (NGSs) are discussed. (author)

  1. Pre elementary design of primary reformer for hydrogen plant coupled with HTGR type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedy Priambodo; Erlan Dewita; Sudi Ariyanto

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen has a high potent for new energy, because of it availability. Steam reforming is a fully developed commercial technology and is the most economical method for production of hydrogen. Steam reforming uses an external source of hot gas to heat tubes in which a catalytic reaction takes place that converts steam and lighter hydrocarbons such as natural gas (methane) or refinery feedstock into hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas) at high temperature on primary reformer (800-900°C). Utilization of helium from HTGR as heating medium for primary reformer has consequence to type and shape of its reactor. The main goal of this paper is to determine type/shape and pre elementary design of chemical reactor for the cogeneration system of Hydrogen Plant and HTGR The primary reformer for this system is Fixed Bed Multitube reactor with specification tube: NPS 3,5 Sch 40 ST 40S, 0.281 in thickness, number of tube 849 pieces and ASTM HH 30 for tube material. Tube arrangement is 'triangular pitch' on shell Split-Ring Floating Head from Steel Alloy SA 301 Grade B equipted with 8 baffles. (author)

  2. Technologies and Reformed-Based Science Instruction: The Examination of a Professional Development Model Focused on Supporting Science Teaching and Learning with Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Longhurst, Max L.; Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Hsu, Hui-Yin; Coster, Dan C.

    2015-10-01

    While access to computers, other technologies, and cyber-enabled resources that could be leveraged for enhancing student learning in science is increasing, generally it has been found that teachers use technology more for administrative purposes or to support traditional instruction. This use of technology, especially to support traditional instruction, sits in opposition to most recent standards documents in science education that call for student involvement in evidence-based sense-making activities. Many see technology as a potentially powerful resource that is reshaping society and has the potential to do the same in science classrooms. To consider the promise of technology in science classrooms, this research investigated the impact of a professional development project focused on enhancing teacher and student learning by using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for engaging students in reformed-based instruction. More specifically, these findings revealed positive teacher outcomes with respect to reformed-based and technology-supported instruction and increased ICT and new literacies skills. When considering students, the findings revealed positive outcomes with respect to ICT and new literacies skills and student achievement in science.

  3. Using the CAE technologies of engineering analysis for designing steam turbines at ZAO Ural Turbine Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloshumova, V. N.; Kortenko, V. V.; Pokhoriler, V. L.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Ivanovskii, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    We describe the experience ZAO Ural Turbine Works specialists gained from mastering the series of CAD/CAE/CAM/PDM technologies, which are modern software tools of computer-aided engineering. We also present the results obtained from mathematical simulation of the process through which high-and intermediate-pressure rotors are heated for revealing the most thermally stressed zones, as well as the results from mathematical simulation of a new design of turbine cylinder shells for improving the maneuverability of these turbines.

  4. Hydrogen generation from biogenic and fossil fuels by autothermal reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, Thomas; Heinzel, Angelika; Vogel, Bernhard

    Hydrogen generation for fuel cell systems by reforming technologies from various fuels is one of the main fields of investigation of the Fraunhofer ISE. Suitable fuels are, on the one hand, gaseous hydrocarbons like methane, propane but also, on the other hand, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline and alcohols, e.g., ethanol as biogenic fuel. The goal is to develop compact systems for generation of hydrogen from fuel being suitable for small-scale membrane fuel cells. The most recent work is related to reforming according to the autothermal principle — fuel, air and steam is supplied to the reactor. Possible applications of such small-scale autothermal reformers are mobile systems and also miniature fuel cell as co-generation plant for decentralised electricity and heat generation. For small stand-alone systems without a connection to the natural gas grid liquid gas, a mixture of propane and butane is an appropriate fuel.

  5. Teaching Reform of Course Group Regarding Theory and Design of Mechanisms Based on MATLAB Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Yuan, Mingxin; Wang, Mingqiang

    2013-01-01

    Considering that the course group regarding theory and design of mechanisms is characterized by strong engineering application background and the students generally feel very boring and tedious during the learning process, some teaching reforms for the theory and design of mechanisms are carried out to improve the teaching effectiveness in this…

  6. Dry reforming of methane with CO{sub 2} at elevated pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanov, A.; Schwab, E.; Wasserschaff, G. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Schunk, S. [hte AG, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The indirect conversion of natural gas into higher value chemicals and fuels via syngas is superior with regard to efficiency compared to the currently available direct conversion technologies and remains the industrially preferred route. Typically the syngas production route is generally dictated by the H{sub 2}/CO ratio requirements of the downstream synthesis process. Processes such as direct DME synthesis, high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch and acetic acid synthesis require CO rich syngas that is not readily accessible by established technologies like steam methane reforming (SMR) and autothermal reforming of methane (ATR). The CO{sub 2} reforming of methane, also known as dry reforming (DRM), is an attractive alternative technology for the production of CO-rich syngas. This paper gives an overview of the current joint research activities at BASF and hte AG aiming to develop suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} reforming of methane at elevated pressures with minimized input of process steam. The performance profiles of two newly developed base metal catalysts are presented and discussed. The catalysts exhibit high degrees of methane and CO{sub 2} conversion in combination with an extraordinary coking resistance under high severity process conditions. (orig.)

  7. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986 and be replaced in January 1987 by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue the emphasis on reliability and life extension that was carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems, such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and solve small problems before they become large problems

  8. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986, and be replaced in January 1987, by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue to emphasize reliability and life extension, which were carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation. These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and to solve small problems before they become large problems

  9. Economic assessment of combined cycle gas turbines in Australia Some effects of microeconomic reform and technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Australian electricity markets and natural gas markets are undergoing rapid reform. Choosing among electricity generation modes is a key issue. Such choices are affected by expectations about the future structure of these markets and future technologies, and how they affect costs and emissions. In the research reported in this paper, the MARKAL model of the Australian energy system is used to evaluate the competitive position of natural gas fired combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) in the energy sector as a whole. Competing in the sector are large-scale electricity generation technologies such as refurbished existing coal fired stations and advanced forms of coal fired generation. The modelling incorporates new data on electricity supply technologies and options

  10. Temperature and irradiation effects on the behaviour of 14C and its precursor 14N in nuclear graphite. Study of a decontamination process using steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbermann, Gwennaelle

    2013-01-01

    that accelerate the transport of nitrogen to the surface of the graphite. Nitrogen seems to migrate in the form of molecular species (C-N, C(double bond)N or C(triple bond)N). After eight hours of irradiation these species are, however, little or not released and blocked at the surface. The study of the thermal decontamination of graphite in presence of water vapor was performed with a thermogravimetric device coupled to a steam water generator device. The influence of temperature (700 C and 900 C) and of the relative humidity (50% RH and 90% RH) was tested with a wet gas fixed flow rate of 50 ml/min. Under these conditions, the selective oxidation of implanted carbon was confirmed. (author)

  11. A comparison of Rh/CeO2/SiO2 catalysts with steam reforming catalysts, dolomite and inert materials as bed materials in low throughput fluidized bed gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Miyazawa, Tomohisa; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Koyama, Shuntarou; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2004-01-01

    The gasification of cedar wood in the presence of Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 has been conducted in the laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor using air as a gasifying agent at low temperatures (823-973 K) in order to produce high-quality fuel gas for gas turbine for power generation. The performance of the Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 catalyst has been compared with conventional catalysts such as commercial steam reforming catalyst G-91, dolomite and noncatalyst systems by measurements of the cold gas efficiency, tar concentration, carbon conversion to gas and gas composition. The tar concentration was completely negligible in the Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 -catalyzed product gas whereas it was about 30, 113, and 139 g/m 3 in G-91, dolomite and noncatalyzed product gas, respectively. Since the carbon conversion to useful gas such as CO, H 2 , and CH 4 are much higher on Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 catalyst than others at 873 K, the cold gas efficiency is much higher (71%) in this case than others. The hydrogen content in the product gas is much higher (>24 vol%) than the specified level (>10 vol%) for efficient combustion in the gas turbine engine. The char and coke formation is also very low on Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 catalyst than on the conventional catalysts. Although the catalyst surface area was slightly decreased after using the same catalyst in at least 20 experiments, the deactivation problem was not severe

  12. Simulating and Optimizing Hydrogen Production by Low-pressure Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II

    OpenAIRE

    Azarhoosh, M. J.; Ale Ebrahim, H.; Pourtarah, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional hydrogen production plants consist of natural gas steam reforming to CO+3H2 on Ni catalysts in a furnace, water-gas shift reaction for converting CO into CO2 and CO2 absorption. A new alternative method for highly endothermic steam reforming is autothermal reforming (steam reforming with air input to the reactor) without the need for external heating. In this study, hydrogen production by autothermal reforming for fuel cells (base case) was simulated based on a heterogeneous and ...

  13. Technology Use in Science Instruction (TUSI): Aligning the Integration of Technology in Science Instruction in Ways Supportive of Science Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Abd-Hamid, Nor Hashidah

    2013-08-01

    This study describes the development of an instrument to investigate the extent to which technology is integrated in science instruction in ways aligned to science reform outlined in standards documents. The instrument was developed by: (a) creating items consistent with the five dimensions identified in science education literature, (b) establishing content validity with both national and international content experts, (c) refining the item pool based on content expert feedback, (d) piloting testing of the instrument, (e) checking statistical reliability and item analysis, and (f) subsequently refining and finalization of the instrument. The TUSI was administered in a field test across eleven classrooms by three observers, with a total of 33 TUSI ratings completed. The finalized instrument was found to have acceptable inter-rater intraclass correlation reliability estimates. After the final stage of development, the TUSI instrument consisted of 26-items separated into the original five categories, which aligned with the exploratory factor analysis clustering of the items. Additionally, concurrent validity of the TUSI was established with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol. Finally, a subsequent set of 17 different classrooms were observed during the spring of 2011, and for the 9 classrooms where technology integration was observed, an overall Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of 0.913 was found. Based on the analyses completed, the TUSI appears to be a useful instrument for measuring how technology is integrated into science classrooms and is seen as one mechanism for measuring the intersection of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge in science classrooms.

  14. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis).

  15. Membrane reforming in converting natural gas to hydrogen: Production costs, Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaquaniello, G; Cosenza, S [Technip-KTI S.p.A., via Castello della Magliana 75, Rome (Italy); Giacobbe, F; Morico, B; Farace, A [Processi Innovativi s.r.l., L' Aquila (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    This paper evaluates the production costs of a hybrid system based on a new membrane reforming MRR concept to convert natural gas to hydrogen and electricity. Membrane reforming with hydrogen-selective, palladium-silver membranes pushes the chemical equilibrium and allows higher methane conversions at lower temperature such as 650 C. The new MRR concept formed of a series of modules is put forward herein. Each module is made up of a reforming step and an external membrane separation unit. The estimates, based on utilities costs of a typical Italian refinery (end of 2006), show that the production costs for the hybrid system are 30% less than conventional tubular steam reforming technology, and 13% less than a gas-fired cogeneration plant coupled with a conventional H{sub 2} plant. (author)

  16. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  17. Advanced design of fast reactor-membrane reformer (FR-MR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimo, M.; Hori, I.; Yasuda, I.; Shirasaki, Y.; Kobaya